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1

Understanding the Basics of Gas Exploration and Production  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation from Eric K. Albert explains the basics of gas exploration and production, as well as some of the career opportunities created by the industry. Most of the presentation focuses on natural gas development, exploration and production. He also discusses where the jobs are in the natural gas industry.The presentation may be downloaded in Power Point file format.

Albert, Eric K.

2012-11-28

2

Environmental Compliance for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production  

SciTech Connect

The Appalachian/Illinois Basin Directors is a group devoted to increasing communication among the state oil and gas regulatory agencies within the Appalachian and Illinois Basin producing region. The group is comprised of representatives from the oil and gas regulatory agencies from states in the basin (Attachment A). The directors met to discuss regulatory issues common to the area, organize workshops and seminars to meet the training needs of agencies dealing with the uniqueness of their producing region and perform other business pertinent to this area of oil and gas producing states. The emphasis of the coordinated work was a wide range of topics related to environmental compliance for natural gas and oil exploration and production.

Hansen, Christine

1999-10-26

3

78 FR 41768 - Chemical Substances and Mixtures Used in Oil and Gas Exploration or Production; TSCA Section 21...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Substances and Mixtures Used in Oil and Gas Exploration or Production; TSCA...manufacturers and processors of oil and gas exploration and production (E...geologic formations, such as shale rock, allowing enhanced natural gas or oil recovery. Since...

2013-07-11

4

EPA's program for management of crude oil and natural gas exploration, development, and production wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1980, the US Congress exempted certain oil and gas wastes from the hazardous waste requirements of Subtitle C of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The scope of the exemption was defined to include drilling fluids, produced waters, and other wastes associated with the exploration, development, or production of crude oil or natural gas. The scope of the

1991-01-01

5

Exploration, development, and production of crude oil and natural gas (technical report). Appendix B. Sampling strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appendix presents the EPA strategy for sampling wastes from oil and gas exploration, development, and production. The document also presents the sampling project objectives, the sampling design, the development of a concept of geographical zones with common characteristics, and the details of selection of samples sites.

Hall

1987-01-01

6

Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed during the initial period of the project “Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems.” The specific region that is within the scope of this study is the Fayetteville Shale Play. This is an unconventional, tight formation, natural gas play that currently has approximately 1.5 million acres under lease, primarily to Southwestern Energy Incorporated and Chesapeake Energy Incorporated. The currently active play encompasses a region from approximately Fort Smith, AR east to Little Rock, AR approximately 50 miles wide (from North to South). The initial estimates for this field put it almost on par with the Barnett Shale play in Texas. It is anticipated that thousands of wells will be drilled during the next several years; this will entail installation of massive support infrastructure of roads and pipelines, as well as drilling fluid disposal pits and infrastructure to handle millions of gallons of fracturing fluids. This project focuses on gas production in Arkansas as the test bed for application of proactive risk management decision support system for natural gas exploration and production. The activities covered in this report include meetings with representative stakeholders, development of initial content and design for an educational web site, and development and preliminary testing of an interactive mapping utility designed to provide users with information that will allow avoidance of sensitive areas during the development of the Fayetteville Shale Play. These tools have been presented to both regulatory and industrial stakeholder groups, and their feedback has been incorporated into the project.

Thoma, Greg; Veil, John; Limp, Fred; Cothren, Jackson; Gorham, Bruce; Williamson, Malcolm; Smith, Peter; Sullivan, Bob

2009-10-27

7

Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed during the initial period of the project 'Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems.' The specific region that is within the scope of this study is the Fayetteville Shale Play. This is an unconventional, tight formation, natural gas play that currently has approximately 1.5 million acres under lease, primarily to Southwestern Energy Incorporated and Chesapeake Energy Incorporated. The currently active play encompasses a region from approximately Fort Smith, AR east to Little Rock, AR approximately 50 miles wide (from North to South). The initial estimates for this field put it almost on par with the Barnett Shale play in Texas. It is anticipated that thousands of wells will be drilled during the next several years; this will entail installation of massive support infrastructure of roads and pipelines, as well as drilling fluid disposal pits and infrastructure to handle millions of gallons of fracturing fluids. This project focuses on gas production in Arkansas as the test bed for application of proactive risk management decision support system for natural gas exploration and production. The activities covered in this report include meetings with representative stakeholders, development of initial content and design for an educational web site, and development and preliminary testing of an interactive mapping utility designed to provide users with information that will allow avoidance of sensitive areas during the development of the Fayetteville Shale Play. These tools have been presented to both regulatory and industrial stakeholder groups, and their feedback has been incorporated into the project.

Greg Thoma; John Veil; Fred Limp; Jackson Cothren; Bruce Gorham; Malcolm Williamson; Peter Smith; Bob Sullivan

2009-05-31

8

Offsite commercial disposal of oil and gas exploration and production waste :availability, options, and cost.  

SciTech Connect

A survey conducted in 1995 by the American Petroleum Institute (API) found that the U.S. exploration and production (E&P) segment of the oil and gas industry generated more than 149 million bbl of drilling wastes, almost 18 billion bbl of produced water, and 21 million bbl of associated wastes. The results of that survey, published in 2000, suggested that 3% of drilling wastes, less than 0.5% of produced water, and 15% of associated wastes are sent to offsite commercial facilities for disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) collected information on commercial E&P waste disposal companies in different states in 1997. While the information is nearly a decade old, the report has proved useful. In 2005, Argonne began collecting current information to update and expand the data. This report describes the new 2005-2006 database and focuses on the availability of offsite commercial disposal companies, the prevailing disposal methods, and estimated disposal costs. The data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, state oil and gas regulatory officials in 31 states were contacted to determine whether their agency maintained a list of permitted commercial disposal companies dedicated to oil. In the second stage, individual commercial disposal companies were interviewed to determine disposal methods and costs. The availability of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities falls into three categories. The states with high oil and gas production typically have a dedicated network of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities in place. In other states, such an infrastructure does not exist and very often, commercial disposal companies focus on produced water services. About half of the states do not have any industry-specific offsite commercial disposal infrastructure. In those states, operators take their wastes to local municipal landfills if permitted or haul the wastes to other states. This report provides state-by-state summaries of the types of offsite commercial disposal facilities that are found in each state. In later sections, data are presented by waste type and then by disposal method.

Puder, M. G.; Veil, J. A.

2006-09-05

9

Gas pipe explorer robot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas pipe explorer formed of a plurality of connecting elements, and an articulation element between the connected elements. The connected elements include drive capabilities, and the articulation element allows the connected elements to traverse gas pipes of arbitrary shapes and sizes. A sensor may sends the characteristics of the gas pipe, and the communication element may send back those sends characteristics. The communication can be wired, over a tether connecting the device to a remote end. Alternatively, the connection can be wireless, driven by either a generator or a battery.

Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

2004-01-01

10

Devonian shale gas exploration and production studies. Final report, November 1983-April 1986  

SciTech Connect

Ten wells in southwestern West Virginia were selected as potential candidates for in-depth study to identify Devonian-shale-gas production-controlling mechanisms. Wells were studied using geophysical logs, TV log, and flow measurements. Sidewall cores were retrieved for geochemical and geophysical analyses. The well studies were augmented with a seismic survey, production data analysis and data collection for approximately 1400 wells in the study area.

Wallace, J.L.; Koziar, G.; Lemon, J.P.; Akers, M.J.

1986-08-01

11

Devonian shale gas exploration and production studies. Final report, November 1983April 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten wells in southwestern West Virginia were selected as potential candidates for in-depth study to identify Devonian-shale-gas production-controlling mechanisms. Wells were studied using geophysical logs, TV log, and flow measurements. Sidewall cores were retrieved for geochemical and geophysical analyses. The well studies were augmented with a seismic survey, production data analysis and data collection for approximately 1400 wells in the

J. L. Wallace; G. Koziar; J. P. Lemon; M. J. Akers

1986-01-01

12

Oil and Gas Exploration Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise simulates the geologic, economic, and competitive business conditions usually encountered in oil and gas exploration. Each student is now a geologist with their own exploration and production corporation, and all corporations are competing to find oil and gas resources in the map area provided. Every section in this quadrangle has been drilled by oil companies in the past. Everyone agrees there must be oil and/or gas here, but no one has been successful in bringing in a producing well. Apparently none of the companies bothered to hire a geologist to analyze the data (weird!). They have gone bankrupt and the leases are all available for sale. Suddenly several corporations with geologists (you) appear on the scene, but with limited capital. The principal goal is to make as big a profit as possible for your corporation; therefore you must find the most oil and gas possible in a limited amount of time. To find oil and gas deposits, there are essentially 3 steps: 1) Gather information about the geology of the area and determine areas that are potential traps 2) Make bids on the land that you determine has high potential 3) Drill wells to see if you are correct

Goodliffe, Andrew M.

13

Reducing Onshore Natural Gas and Oil Exploration and Production Impacts Using a Broad-Based Stakeholder Approach  

SciTech Connect

Never before has the reduction of oil and gas exploration and production impacts been as important as it is today for operators, regulators, non-governmental organizations and individual landowners. Collectively, these stakeholders are keenly interested in the potential benefits from implementing effective environmental impact reducing technologies and practices. This research project strived to gain input and insight from such a broad array of stakeholders in order to identify approaches with the potential to satisfy their diverse objectives. The research team examined three of the most vital issue categories facing onshore domestic production today: (1) surface damages including development in urbanized areas, (2) impacts to wildlife (specifically greater sage grouse), and (3) air pollution, including its potential contribution to global climate change. The result of the research project is a LINGO (Low Impact Natural Gas and Oil) handbook outlining approaches aimed at avoiding, minimizing, or mitigating environmental impacts. The handbook identifies technical solutions and approaches which can be implemented in a practical and feasible manner to simultaneously achieve a legitimate balance between environmental protection and fluid mineral development. It is anticipated that the results of this research will facilitate informed planning and decision making by management agencies as well as producers of oil and natural gas. In 2008, a supplemental task was added for the researchers to undertake a 'Basin Initiative Study' that examines undeveloped and/or underdeveloped oil and natural gas resources on a regional or geologic basin scope to stimulate more widespread awareness and development of domestic resources. Researchers assessed multi-state basins (or plays), exploring state initiatives, state-industry partnerships and developing strategies to increase U.S. oil and gas supplies while accomplishing regional economic and environmental goals.

Amy Childers

2011-03-30

14

Exploring Products: Nano Fabrics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how the application of nano-sized "whiskers" can protect clothing from stains. Learners investigate the hydrophobic properties of pants made from nano fabric and ordinary fabric. Use this activity to talk about products that we can already buy that use nanotechnology, like treated fabrics, water filters, sunscreen and stuffed animals that have silver nanoparticles.

Network, Nanoscale I.; Sciencenter

2010-01-01

15

The German collaborative project SUGAR Utilization of a natural treasure - Developing innovative techniques for the exploration and production of natural gas from hydrate-bearing sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas hydrates occur in nature at all active and passive continental margins as well as in permafrost regions, and vast amounts of natural gas are bound in those deposits. Geologists estimate that twice as much carbon is bound in gas hydrates than in any other fossil fuel reservoir, such as gas, oil and coal. Hence, natural gas hydrates represent a huge potential energy resource that, in addition, could be utilized in a CO2-neutral and therefore environmentally friendly manner. However, the utilization of this natural treasure is not as easy as the conventional production of oil or natural gas and calls for new and innovative techniques. In the framework of the large-scale collaborative research project SUGAR (Submarine Deposits of Gas Hydrates - Exploration, Production and Transportation), we aim to produce gas from methane hydrates and to sequester carbon dioxide from power plants and other industrial sources as CO2 hydrates in the same host sediments. Thus, the SUGAR project addresses two of the most pressing and challenging topics of our time: development of alternative energy strategies and greenhouse gas mitigation techniques. The SUGAR project is funded by two federal German ministries and the German industry for an initial period of three years. In the framework of this project new technologies starting from gas hydrate exploration techniques over drilling technologies and innovative gas production methods to CO2 storage in gas hydrates and gas transportation technologies will be developed and tested. Beside the performance of experiments, numerical simulation studies will generate data regarding the methane production and CO2 sequestration in the natural environment. Reservoir modelling with respect to gas hydrate formation and development of migration pathways complete the project. This contribution will give detailed information about the planned project parts and first results with focus on the production methods.

Haeckel, M.; Bialas, J.; Wallmann, K. J.

2009-12-01

16

Exploration-Production Studies in Newly Drilled Devonian Shale Gas Wells. Annual Technical Report, February 1990-January 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cooperative program is a continuing field oriented effort whose objectives are to identify productive gas zones, to develop a comprehensive set of diagnostics, to determine the effectiveness of various stimulation techniques, and to effect improved re...

R. L. Graham J. M. Foster

1991-01-01

17

Exploration-Production Studies in Newly Drilled Devonian Shale Gas Wells. Annual Technical Report, February 1991-June 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research program is a continued field oriented effort whose primary objectives have been the identification of productive gas zones, the development of comprehensive sets of diagnostic tests and procedures, the improvement of reservoir characterizatio...

R. L. Graham

1992-01-01

18

Exploration-Production Studies in Newly Drilled Devonian Shale Gas Wells. Annual Report February 1989-January 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This cooperative program is a continuing field oriented effort whose objectives are to identify productive gas zones, to develop a comprehensive set of diagnostics, and to determine the effectiveness of various stimulation techniques. To date, the program...

R. L. Graham

1990-01-01

19

Exploration-Production Studies in Newly Drilled Devonian Shale Gas Wells. Annual Technical Report February 1, 1987-January 31, 1988,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cooperative program is a continuing field-oriented effort whose objectives are to identify productive gas zones, to develop a comprehensive set of diagnostics, and to determine the effectiveness of various stimulation techniques. To date, the program ...

R. L. Graham J. Foster K. Walbe J. Worthington

1988-01-01

20

Exploration-Production Studies in Newly Drilled Devonian Shale Gas Wells. Annual Report February-1988-January 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cooperative program is part of a continuing field oriented effort whose objectives are to identify productive gas zones, to develop a comprehensive set of diagnostics, and to determine the effectiveness of various stimulation techniques. To date, the ...

R. L. Graham J. Foster P. Amick J. Worthington

1989-01-01

21

Africa's Booming Oil and Natural Gas Exploration and Production: National Security Implications for the United States and China.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph on Africa's energy future describes how the frenetic search for hydrocarbons in Africa has become so intense and wide ranging that there is planned or ongoing oil and gas exploration in at least 51 of the continent's 54 countries. Knowledge...

D. E. Brown

2013-01-01

22

Exploration-production studies in newly drilled Devonian-Shale gas wells. Annual report, February 1, 1985-January 31, 1986  

SciTech Connect

The Devonian shale has been recognized as an important source of gas in the Appalachian Basin. The program aids producers in the collection of reservoir data not normally collected and assists in the evaluation of the effectiveness of zone selection and stimulation designs and methods. The study should provide a fuller understanding of the relationships that affect productivity in the Devonian shale. The relationships between gas flows and geological features that control the production characteristics in the Devonian shale are being developed.

Graham, R.L.

1986-02-01

23

Developing Terrestrial Trophic Models for Petroleum and Natural Gas Exploration and Production Sites: The Oklahoma Tallgrass Prairie Preserve Example  

SciTech Connect

This document details procedures to be used when constructing a conceptual terrestrial trophic model for natural gas and oil exploration and production sites. A site conceptual trophic model is intended for use in evaluating ecological impacts of oil and brine releases at E&P sites from a landscape or ecosystem perspective. The terrestrial trophic model protocol was developed using an example site, the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve (TPP) in Oklahoma. The procedure focuses on developing a terrestrial trophic model using information found in the primary literature, and augmented using site-specific research where available. Although the TPP has been the subject of considerable research and public interest since the high-profile reintroduction of bison (Bison bison) in 1993, little formal work has been done to develop a food web for the plant and animal communities found at the preserve. We describe how to divide species into guilds using explicit criteria on the basis of resource use and spatial distribution. For the TPP, sixteen guilds were developed for use in the trophic model, and the relationships among these guilds were analyzed. A brief discussion of the results of this model is provided, along with considerations for its use and areas for further study.

Stevenson, M; Coty, J; Stewart, J; Carlsen, T; Callaham, M

2001-01-26

24

Canadian Incentives for Oil and Gas Exploration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the 1970s a number of different exploration and production incentive programs were put in place in Canada, in particular in the Province of Alberta, Canada's principal oil- and gas-producing province. The DOE/RA is evaluating Canadian incentives fo...

1980-01-01

25

A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. (BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States))

1991-05-01

26

Exploration-production studies in newly drilled Devonian shale gas wells. Annual report, February1988January 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cooperative program is part of a continuing field-oriented effort whose objectives are to identify productive gas zones, to develop a comprehensive set of diagnostics, and to determine the effectiveness of various stimulation techniques. To date, the program has encompassed 71 cooperative wells and 15 participating producers with outside funding in excess of 10 million dollars. The program has progressed

R. L. Graham; J. Foster; P. Amick; J. Worthington

1989-01-01

27

CHARACTERIZING NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEP WATER GULF OF MEXICO: APPLICATIONS FOR SAFE EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES  

SciTech Connect

In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deep water Gulf of Mexico (GOM). These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to drilling and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. During April-September 2002, the JIP concentrated on: Reviewing the tasks and subtasks on the basis of the information generated during the three workshops held in March and May 2002; Writing Requests for Proposals (RFPs) and Cost, Time and Resource (CTRs) estimates to accomplish the tasks and subtasks; Reviewing proposals sent in by prospective contractors; Selecting four contractors; Selecting six sites for detailed review; and Talking to drill ship owners and operators about potential work with the JIP.

Steve Holditch; Emrys Jones

2003-01-01

28

CHARACTERIZING NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEP WATER GULF OF MEXICO: APPLICATIONS FOR SAFE EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES  

SciTech Connect

In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deep water Gulf of Mexico (GOM). These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to drilling and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. During the first six months of operation, the primary activities of the JIP were to conduct and plan Workshops, which were as follows: (1) Data Collection Workshop--March 2002 (2) Drilling, Coring and Core Analyses Workshop--May 2002 (3) Modeling, Measurement and Sensors Workshop--May 2002.

Steve Holditch; Emrys Jones

2003-01-01

29

Exploring Products: Nano Sand  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how water behaves differently when it comes in contact with "nano sand" and regular sand. Learners learn about the hydrophobic properties of "nano sand." Use this activity to talk about how many materials behave differently at the nanoscale.

Network, Nanoscale I.; Sciencenter

2010-01-01

30

Exploration-production studies in newly drilled Devonian shale gas wells. Annual report, February-1988-January 1989  

SciTech Connect

This cooperative program is part of a continuing field-oriented effort whose objectives are to identify productive gas zones, to develop a comprehensive set of diagnostics, and to determine the effectiveness of various stimulation techniques. To date, the program has encompassed 71 cooperative wells and 15 participating producers with outside funding in excess of 10 million dollars. The program has progressed from the identification of productive zones, through the development of more-effective diagnostics and evaluations, and into the improvement of various stimulation techniques.

Graham, R.L.; Foster, J.; Amick, P.; Worthington, J.

1989-02-01

31

Exploration-production studies in newly drilled Devonian Shale gas wells. Annual report, February 1, 1986-January 31, 1987  

SciTech Connect

The Devonian Shale has been recognized as an important source of gas in the Appalachian Basin. The program aids producers in the collection of reservoir data not normally collected and assists in the evaluation of the effectiveness of zone selection, stimulation designs, and methods. A detailed logging, coring, and well-testing program is being conducted on twenty-eight newly drilled wells in three areas of the Appalachian Basin. Production and borehole TV surveys are being conducted on certain existing and newly drilled wells. Zones of gas are being identified. The geology and reservoir characteristics of the wells are being determined through the analyses of geohpysical logs, borehole TV, and surface-well testing data. Perferred wells for study are those with single-zone well completions stimulated by hydraulic-fracturing techniques. Stimulation techniques, selected by the respective producers, are being evaluated using a prescribed well-test analysis procedure to determine their effectiveness.

Graham, R.L.

1987-02-01

32

Exploration-production studies in newly drilled Devonian shale gas wells. Annual technical report, February 1990-January 1991  

SciTech Connect

The cooperative program is a continuing field oriented effort whose objectives are to identify productive gas zones, to develop a comprehensive set of diagnostics, to determine the effectiveness of various stimulation techniques, and to effect improved reservoir characterization. To date, the program has encompassed 83 cooperative wells and 17 participating producers with outside funding in excess of 12.5 million dollars. The program has progressed from the identification of potential productive zones, through the development of more effective and comprehensive diagnostics and evaluations, and into the investigation, analysis and improvement of stimulation research and reservoir characterization. The report focuses on what was accomplished during the past contract year regarding field experiments in stimulation research, reservoir characterization, and development of diagnostic field procedures for specialized experiments. The report summarizes the work accomplished on two cooperative wells (Emma Preece No. 1 and the CSW No. 2), and presents in detail testing procedures developed by RLG.

Graham, R.L.; Foster, J.M.

1991-02-01

33

Exploration-production studies in newly drilled Devonian shale gas wells. Annual technical report, February 1991-June 1992  

SciTech Connect

The research program is a continued field oriented effort whose primary objectives have been the identification of productive gas zones, the development of comprehensive sets of diagnostic tests and procedures, the improvement of reservoir characterization, and the determination of the effectiveness of various stimulation techniques. To date, the program has encompassed 91 cooperative wells and 18 participating producers with outside funding in excess of 15.5 million dollars. The program has progressed from the identification of potential productive zones, through the development of more effective and comprehensive diagnostics and evaluations, and into the investigation, analysis and improvement of stimulation research and reservoir characterization. The report focuses on the field operations and specific research tasks accomplished during the past contract year.

Graham, R.L.

1992-06-01

34

Exploration-production studies in newly drilled Devonian shale gas wells. Annual report, February 1989-January 1990. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This cooperative program is a continuing field oriented effort whose objectives are to identify productive gas zones, to develop a comprehensive set of diagnostics, and to determine the effectiveness of various stimulation techniques. To date, the program has encompassed 78 cooperative wells and 16 participating producers with outside funding in excess of 11 million dollars. The program has progressed from the identification of productive zones, through the development of more effective diagnostics and evaluations, and into the investigation, analysis and improvement of various completion and stimulation techniques. The report focuses on what was accomplished during this period regarding field experiments in stimulation research, refinement of a stimulation monitoring system, and the participation in a highly deviated well through the Devonian shale interval. The report illustrate the diagnostic tools and procedures developed and summarizes the significance of the work accomplished in this period.

Graham, R.L.

1990-02-01

35

Oil and gas exploration in southeastern Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1965 discovery of commercial Mississippian oil on the Las Animas arch in SE. Colorado has rejuvenated exploration and drilling activity. Previous exploration dealt largely with Permo-Pennsylvanian objectives similar to the vast and numerous gas and oil reservoirs in SW. Kansas and the panhandles of Texas and Oklahoma. The pay zones in SE. Colorado's 20 oil and gas fields are

R. M. Matson; R. C. Schneider

1968-01-01

36

Geology for petroleum exploration, drilling and production  

SciTech Connect

This book provides a non-technical introduction to the subject of oil. The author guides the readers in logical sequence: How oil and gas form and accumulate; how to explore for oil; and how to drill and complete a well and produce the petroleum. The contents are: The earth's crust; identification of common rocks and minerals; weathering, erosion, and unconformities; deformation; geologic time; sandstone reservoirs; limestone reservoirs; subsurface fluids; sedimentary rock patterns; surface and subsurface maps; ocean environment - plate tectonics; hydrocarbons source rocks, generation, migration and accumulation; well logs, traps; petroleum exploration; drilling a well; completing a well; and petroleum production.

Hyne, N.J.

1984-01-01

37

Exploration-Production Studies in Newly Drilled Devonian Shale Gas Wells. Annual Report February 1, 1986-January 31, 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Devonian Shale has been recognized as an important source of gas in the Appalachian Basin. The program aids producers in the collection of reservoir data not normally collected and assists in the evaluation of the effectiveness of zone selection, stim...

R. L. Graham

1987-01-01

38

Exploration, development, and production of crude oil and natural gas. (technical report). Field sampling and analytical results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates or makes determinations as to whether to regulate the oil and gas extraction industry under several major environmental statutes. These statutes include the Clean Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, which uses information from the study under Section 8002(m). The purpose of this technical report

Hall

1987-01-01

39

Exploration basics led to Chalkley gas find  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a potential giant gas field discovered in 1989 in the very mature exploration province of South Louisiana by Transco Exploration Partners (TXP) and Exxon Co., U.S.A. The West Chalkley prospect is located in Cameron Parish, La., and is productive in Upper Oligocene Miogypsinoides sands. The discovery is in the same producing trend as prolific South Lake Arthur field, where Miogyp sands have reserves of about 1 tcf. The prospect was generated by a combination of trend analysis, subsurface well control, and reflection seismic data. The feature appears to be a faulted anticline separate from the nearest production in the area. Chalkley field, which is about 1 mile to the east and was discovered in 1938. TXP and Exxon, working independently, recognized the potential prospect and acquired leases. TXP started discussions with the landowner in February 1988 and acquired a 960 acre lease in June. Exxon leased approximately 2,100 acres surrounding the TXP lease about 1 month later. TXP subsequently sold the prospect to Exxon on Oct. 12, 1988.

Klefstad, G.E. (Transco Exploration Co., Houston, TX (US))

1991-09-30

40

Dictionary of petroleum exploration, drilling, and production  

SciTech Connect

This book contains more than 20,000 definitions of oil exploration, drilling, and production terms, making this dictionary mandatory for both the experienced industry professional and the nontechnical person. Completing this comprehensive reference are more than 500 detailed illustrations. Appendices include a rotary rig diagram, a cable tool drilling rig, a beam pumping unit, giant oil fields of the world, giant oil, and gas fields of the United States and Canada, a geological time chart, geological map symbols, conversion factors, the Greek alphabet atomic weights and numbers, charts of the geological features of the United States and Canada, plus much, much more.

Hyne, N.J.

1991-01-01

41

Gas production apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates generally to the production of gases, and more particularly to the production of tritium gas in a reliable long operating lifetime systems that employs solid lithium to overcome the heretofore known problems of material compatibility and corrosion, etc., with liquid metals. The solid lithium is irradiated by neutrons inside low activity means containing a positive (+) pressure

Warren E. Winsche; Francis T. Miles; James R. Powell

1976-01-01

42

A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1. Volume 2, Geology and engineering  

SciTech Connect

This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. [BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1991-05-01

43

Exploration and production in Papua New Guinea  

SciTech Connect

The prospectivity of the Papuan Basin has been appreciated, since oil seeps were first discovered in 1911. Initially, the mountainous terrain, a deeply karstified limestone surface covered with tropical rainforest, fed by 300 inches of rain each year, restricted access to the adventurous. Early exploration was focussed along the coastline and river systems, with only limited success. The development of helicopter transportable rigs during the 1970s was the technological advance that led to success, as the crests of anticlines became accessible to the drill. Even so, the lack of seismic due to severe terrain conditions and structural complexity, still constrains our ability to image trap. Despite these limitations, the oil discovery at Lagifu-2 in 1986, led to the development of the Kutubu Field by a Chevron led joint venture, with first oil in 1992. The Kutubu Field was developed at a cost of US$ 1 billion. Reserves are in excess of 250 mmbo with production currently at 1,00,000 bopd. PNG's second oil development will be the Gobe / SE Gobe Fields, also in the Papuan Thrust Belt, and thought to contain around 100 mmbo. Discovered in the late 1980s, the field is expected to produce 25 000 bopd from 1997. Significant volumes of gas have been discovered in the Highlands at Hides, where 3 wells have now confirmed a gas column in excess of 1 km. Additional large gas discoveries have been made in the Papuan Basin, highlighting the potential for PNG to become a long term LNG s producer.

Wulff, K.; Hobson, D. (Oil Search Limited, Port Morseby (Papua New Guinea))

1996-01-01

44

Exploration-production studies in newly drilled Devonian-shale gas wells. Annual technical report, February 1, 1987January 31, 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cooperative program is a continuing field-oriented effort whose objectives are to identify productive gas zones, to develop a comprehensive set of diagnostics, and to determine the effectiveness of various stimulation techniques. To date, the program has encompassed fifty cooperative wells and twelve participating producers, with outside funding in excess of 8 million dollars. The rapport established with these producers

R. L. Graham; J. Foster; K. Walbe; J. Worthington

1988-01-01

45

Exploring Careers. Industrial Production Occupations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Exploring Careers" is a career education resource program, presented in fifteen separate booklets, for junior high school-age students. It provides information about the world of work and offers its readers a way of learning about themselves and relating that information to career choices. The publications aim to build career awareness by means…

Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

46

Product Lifecycle Management and Sustainable Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the use of product lifecycle management (PLM) in the general aerospace industry, its use and development at NASA and at Marshall Space Flight Center, and how the use of PLM can lead to sustainable space exploration.

Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Grieves, Michael

2011-01-01

47

Exploration-production studies in newly drilled Devonian-shale gas wells. Annual technical report, February 1, 1987-January 31, 1988  

SciTech Connect

The cooperative program is a continuing field-oriented effort whose objectives are to identify productive gas zones, to develop a comprehensive set of diagnostics, and to determine the effectiveness of various stimulation techniques. To date, the program has encompassed fifty cooperative wells and twelve participating producers, with outside funding in excess of 8 million dollars. The rapport established with these producers resulted in an evolution of the program from one of passive data acquisition to one of active participation. The report focuses on what was accomplished during this period regarding the development of diagnostic tools and evaluation techniques, the acquisition of producer participation and support, and the expansion of data acquisition and use of newly developed evaluation techniques. The report also addresses what has been learned and how this knowledge led to the course corrections in the study to achieve a more effective level of technology. The report illustrates the methods and technology developed and provides the recommended direction for future research.

Graham, R.L.; Foster, J.; Walbe, K.; Worthington, J.

1988-02-01

48

Dictionary of petroleum exploration, drilling, and production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book contains more than 20,000 definitions of oil exploration, drilling, and production terms, making this dictionary mandatory for both the experienced industry professional and the nontechnical person. Completing this comprehensive reference are more than 500 detailed illustrations. Appendices include a rotary rig diagram, a cable tool drilling rig, a beam pumping unit, giant oil fields of the world, giant

Hyne

1991-01-01

49

Gas production apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates generally to the production of gases, and more particularly to the production of tritium gas in a reliable long operating lifetime systems that employs solid lithium to overcome the heretofore known problems of material compatibility and corrosion, etc., with liquid metals. The solid lithium is irradiated by neutrons inside low activity means containing a positive pressure gas

W. E. Winsche; F. T. Miles; J. R. Powell

2009-01-01

50

GAS-007: First step in a series of Explorer payloads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the NASA Get Away Special program for flying small, self-contained payloads onboard the Space Shuttle, the Alabama Space and Rocket Center (ASRC) in Huntsville has sponsored three such payloads for its Project Explorer. One of these is GAS-007, which was carried originally on STS mission 41-G in early October 1984. Due to an operational error it was not turned on and was, therefore, subsequently rescheduled and flown on mission 61-C. This paper will review Explorer's history, outline its experiments, present some preliminary experimental results, and describe future ASRC plans for Get Away Special activities, including follow-on Explorers GAS-105 and GAS-608.

Kitchens, Philip H.

1987-01-01

51

Petroleum production and exploration in Ouachita region of Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum production in the Ouachita region of southeastern Oklahoma occurs in three geographic areas parallel to regional structure. The frontal gas, central oil, and central gas belts are distinguished by differences in structural setting, reservoir strata, and types of hydrocarbons. In the frontal belt, nearly 1 trillion ft/sup 3/ of dry gas has been produced from thrusted and subthrust Morrowan and Atokan sandstone and carbonate reservoirs. Over 8000 bbl of oil have been produced in the central oil belt, southeast of the Ti Valley fault. Structures consist of imbricate thrusts and isoclinal to overturned folds. The fields are typically small, associated with asphaltite or tar sands, and produce from Carboniferous sandstone reservoirs. Farther southeast, small fields within the central gas belt have produced minor gas from Ordovician, Devonian, and Mississippian reservoirs. Six Ordovician through Mississippian Ouachita-facies shales are potential petroleum source rocks and occur in the middle to lower part of the oil window. However, Devonian and Mississippian strata are composed primarily of terrestrial organic matter and are probably gas prone. Oil in Carboniferous reservoirs probably migrated upward stratigraphically from older sources. Recent exploration has focused on extending production from Pennsylvanian reservoirs in the frontal gas belt. However, a significant Arbuckle discovery (ARCO 2 Yourman) and a Broken Bow uplift test (Sohio 1-22 Weyerhauser) in 1987 indicate that Cambrian-Ordovician Arbuckle Group carbonates may be prospective beneath all of the Oklahoma Ouachitas. Near-future rank-wildcat exploration will probably focus on subthrust, structurally and stratigraphically favorable Arbuckle plays.

Suneson, N.H.; Campbell, J.A.

1989-03-01

52

Natural gas production from Arctic gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural gas hydrates of the Messoyakha field in the West Siberian basin of Russia and those of the Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk River area on the North Slope of Alaska occur within a similar series of interbedded Cretaceous and Tertiary sandstone and siltstone reservoirs. Geochemical analyses of gaseous well-cuttings and production gases suggest that these two hydrate accumulations contain a mixture

1993-01-01

53

International Oil and Gas Exploration and Development  

EIA Publications

Presents country level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve to production ratios (R/P ratios) for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form.

Information Center

1993-11-01

54

Plan for Management of Mineral Assess on Native Tribal Lands and for Formation of a Fully Integrated Natural Gas and Oil Exploration and Production Company  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a plan for Native American tribes to assume responsibility for and operation of tribal mineral resources using the Osage Tribe as an example. Under this plan, the tribal council select and employ a qualified Director to assume responsibility for management of their mineral reservations. The procurement process should begin with an application for contracting to the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Under this plan, the Director will develop strategies to increase income by money management and increasing exploitation of natural gas, oil, and other minerals.

Blechner, Michael H.; Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

1999-04-27

55

Gas exploration beyond the shelf break: An oceanographic challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norway's second largest gas field, Ormen Lange, is located 140 km west off Kristiansund at an unprecedented depth when it comes to exploration. It will be the first Norwegian project beyond the shelf break. Exploration and development of the field is thus a challenge. An important issue during the planning stage is to understand the current conditions and hydrography of

Ø. Thiem; J. Berntsen; T. Eldevik; G. Alendal

2006-01-01

56

Exploring Increased Productivity Through Employee Engagement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disengaged employees cost U.S. companies billions of dollars annually in lowered productivity, a cost which has been compounded by the difficult economic situations in the country. The potential for increasing productivity through increased employee engagement was examined in this study. Using personal engagement theory and the theory of planned behavior, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore how the experiences of salaried aerospace employees affected productivity and the financial performance of an organization. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 20 aerospace employees whose responses were codified and analyzed to identify themes. The analysis indicated that (a) the lived experiences of employees influenced employee engagement, (b) employee engagement affects organizational commitment and performance, and (c) trust and respect and leadership are essential components to keep employees engaged. Eighty percent of the participants indicated that as employee engagement increases so too does organizational performance. The implications for positive social change include new insights for leaders seeking to increase productivity and financial performance, and to support employee engagement for maintaining sustainability, retaining talent, increasing profits, and improving the economy.

Richards, Wayne K., Jr.

57

The integration of biodiversity conservation with oil and gas exploration in sensitive tropical environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the approach of TOTAL Exploration & Production concerning the protection of biodiversity during oil and\\u000a gas exploration and production activities, particularly in sensitive environments such as tropical islands. This approach\\u000a was developed according to three stages: knowing biodiversity, protecting biodiversity and, going further, by contributing\\u000a to scientific research. This three step approach is embedded in an environment

Claude-Henri Chaîneau; Jacques Miné; Suripno

2010-01-01

58

Characterization and geographic location of sources of radioactivity lost downhole in the course of oil and gas exploration and production activities in Texas, 1956 to 2001.  

PubMed

Case reports describing sources of radioactivity lost downhole in Texas from 1956 to 2001 were obtained from the Texas Department of Health Bureau of Radiation Control and entered into a computerized database. The events of the 45-y period of analysis were characterized, examining aspects such as source type, amount of activity, location of loss, depth, and date of occurrence. Results of the study found that 316 downhole source incidents were reported to the agency during this period of time, representing a total of 426 distinct sources of radioactivity lost downhole within the boundaries of the State of Texas. The sources lost were predominantly AmBe, accounting for 74 TBq of radioactivity at the time of loss, and Cs, accounting for 16.3 TBq of radioactivity. A longitudinal analysis of the data showed the average loss per active oil and gas rig in Texas (known as "rig count") at approximately 24 losses per 1,000 rigs. Specific geographic information was largely missing from many of the records, which prevented the geolocation of wells described to contain lost radioactive sources. As a result, most wells could only be located to the county level, and no comprehensive geographical information system (GIS) map could be accurately created from the data. However, when available, source location information was standardized to permit the characterization of the sources reported as lost. This effort produced the first dedicated compendium of lost downhole sources for the State of Texas and provides an important source of information for regulatory agencies. The ability to provide prompt information about the fate and location of sources of radioactivity is important to regulatory officials, given the recent concerns about radiation source inventory control in the post 9/11 world as it relates to the possible creation of radiological dispersal devices. PMID:16224264

Patlovich, S; Emery, R J; Whitehead, L W

2005-11-01

59

Exploration & development: US Rockies gas focus points up need for access, risk takers, infrastructure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The last 20 yr of the Rocky Mountains oil and gas exploration and production business have been turbulent. Most of the major companies have left; they have been replaced with, independents and small to larger private and public companies. Natural gas become the primary focus of exploration. A discussion covers the shift of interest from drilling for oil to gas exploration and development in the Rockies since 1980; resource pyramid, showing relative volumes, reserves, resources, and undiscovered gas; the Wyoming fields that boost US gas supply, i.e., Jonah (6-12 tcf), Pinedale Anticline (10-20 tcf); Big Piney-LaBarge (15-25 tcf), Madden (3-5 tcf), and Powder river (24-27 tcf); and the future.

Thomasson, M. R.; Belanger, P. E.; Cook, L.

2004-01-01

60

Development of the first coal seam gas exploration program in Indonesia: Reservoir properties of the Muaraenim Formation, south Sumatra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Late Miocene Muaraenim Formation in southern Sumatra contains thick coal sequences, mostly of low rank ranging from lignite to sub-bituminous, and it is believed that these thick low rank coals are the most prospective for the production of coal seam gas (CSG), otherwise known as coalbed methane (CBM), in Indonesia.As part of a major CSG exploration project, gas exploration

I. B. Sosrowidjojo; A. Saghafi

2009-01-01

61

Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas  

SciTech Connect

The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD participants believe that the platform concept could have far-reaching applications in the Arctic as a drilling and production platform, as originally intended, and as a possible staging area. The overall objective of this project was to document various potential applications, locations, and conceptual designs for the inland platform serving oil and gas operations on the Alaska North Slope. The University of Alaska Fairbanks assisted the HARC/TerraPlatforms team with the characterization of potential resource areas, geotechnical conditions associated with continuous permafrost terrain, and the potential end-user evaluation process. The team discussed the various potential applications with industry, governmental agencies, and environmental organizations. The benefits and concerns associated with industry's use of the technology were identified. In this discussion process, meetings were held with five operating companies (22 people), including asset team leaders, drilling managers, HSE managers, and production and completion managers. Three other operating companies and two service companies were contacted by phone to discuss the project. A questionnaire was distributed and responses were provided, which will be included in the report. Meetings were also held with State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources officials and U.S. Bureau of Land Management regulators. The companies met with included ConcoPhillips, Chevron, Pioneer Natural Resources, Fairweather E&P, BP America, and the Alaska Oil and Gas Association.

Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

2008-12-31

62

EIA's Natural Gas Production Data  

EIA Publications

This special report examines the stages of natural gas processing from the wellhead to the pipeline network through which the raw product becomes ready for transportation and eventual consumption, and how this sequence is reflected in the data published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA).

Information Center

2009-04-09

63

Risk Analysis for Oil and Gas Exploration Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, based on the characteristics of the oil and gas exploration project, the risk analysis method is a systematically studied. Firstly we analyze the shortcomings of existing risk analysis methodologies, set forth the further research direction in this field. Then the influence diagram algorithms are presented based on fuzzy theory. At last, the risks of a certain oil

Jinlan Liu; Yin Bai; Ying Yu

2006-01-01

64

Oil and gas exploration in Egypt past, present, and future  

SciTech Connect

Egypt was among the early countries in which exploration for hydrocarbons took place. Back to 1886 when the first oil discovery was achieved and since then exploration operations were carried out covering almost every prospective area in Egypt. The history of oil exploration in Egypt passed through six stages, each of which is characterized by its own activities and reflects the impact of certain developments not only in the applied exploration techniques, but also in the work style and prevailing exploration concepts, in addition to the development in the agreement terms. Six areas could add new oil and gas reserves to Egypt, namely: N. Sinai (onshore and offshore); Nile Delta (onshore and offshore); Western Desert (onshore and offshore); Nile Valley; Red Sea; and the Gulf of Aqaba. Such areas have the prerequisites for commercial oil and/or gas accumulations including potential source rocks, good reservoirs and adequate traps in addition to effective seals. It is believed that the undiscovered oil and gas reserves of Egypt could be several times that which have been discovered so far.

Halim, M.A.

1995-08-01

65

ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to eliminate three closely inter-related barriers to oil production in Alaska through the use of a geographic information system (GIS) and other information technology strategies. These barriers involve identification of oil development potential from existing wells, planning projects to efficiently avoid conflicts with other interests, and gaining state approvals for exploration and development projects. Each barrier is the result of either current labor-intensive methods or poorly accessible information. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. This web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information online. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. The application will include an on-line diagnostic Coastal Project Questionnaire to determine the suite of permits required for a specific project. The application will also automatically create distribution lists based on the location and type of project, populate document templates for project review start-ups, public notices and findings, allow submission of e-comments, and post project status information on the Internet. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells. Currently, State of Alaska agencies use multiple, independent systems to identify, authenticate, and authorize customers for online transactions. Consumers of online state services may be required to manage multiple online ''profiles,'' and during a permit review process valuable time may be lost verifying identity or reconciling differences in applicant information when agency records disagree. The state's Information Technology Group is developing a shared applicant profile system that will provide an additional opportunity to demonstrate data sharing between agencies.

Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

2003-08-04

66

Exploring for natural gas using reflectance spectra of surface soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reflectance spectra in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths provide a rapid and inexpensive means for determining the mineralogy of samples and obtaining information on chemical composition. Hydrocarbon microseepage theory establishes a cause-and-effect relation between oil and gas reservoirs and some special surface anomalies, which mainly include surface hydrocarbon microseepage and related alterations. Therefore, we can explore for oil, gas by determining reflectance spectra of surface anomalies. This idea has been applied to the R&D project of exploring for natural gas in Qinghai province of China using NASA EO-1 satellite with the Hyperion sensor (June 2005 to June 2006). In this project, in order to improve the accuracy of exploration targets of natural gas mapped in the field studied, an integrated practical system of exploration of oil and gas was built by the analysis of not only hyperspectral remote sensing data but also data provided from field work. In this paper, our efforts were focused on the analysis of the 799 reflectance spectra provided from the field work. In order to properly define the typical form of hydrocarbon microseepage with spectroscopy and fulfill the data analysis, it was necessary to build a spectral model. In this spectral model the most important features of hydrocarbon microseepage in the surface of our study area, i.e., diagnostic spectral macroscopic features and diagnostic spectral absorption features, were proposed and extracted, respectively. The distribution of coexisting anomalies, which results from both alteration minerals and hydrocarbons, is estimated by the diagnostic macroscopic features mainly using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classifier. On the other hand, the diagnostic absorption features of two main absorption bands presented abundant local information, based on deep analysis of which, we are able to map the anomalies of alteration minerals and hydrocarbons, respectively. Additionally, a general framework of analysis and key classification algorithms applied to the Hyperion data have been introduced briefly. In our work, three exploration targets of natural gas were identified from the study area which covers 2100 km2. In the three exploration targets, three wildcats have been drilled by China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) since July 2006, and all the three wells have been proven some industrial reserves.

Xu, Da-Qi; Ni, Guo-Qiang; Jiang, Li-Li; Shen, Yuan-Ting; Li, Ting; Ge, Shu-Le; Shu, Xian-Biao

67

Exploring consumers' product-specific colour meanings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The impact of colour is acknowledged, yet empirical studies on colours with marketing implications are rare. The paper seeks to advance our understanding of the role of package colours in consumers' product experiences by studying the relationship between colour meanings and product. It also aims at offering insights into the meanings associated with colours in a product context.

Hannele Kauppinen-Räisänen; Harri T. Luomala

2010-01-01

68

Exploring Aura Data Products with Giovanni  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA GSFC Atmospheric Composition Data and Information Services Center (ACDISC) has developed Giovanni, a web-based tool for the visualization and analysis of its atmospheric composition data sets. Giovanni allows on-line interactive data exploration, analysis, and downloading of subsetted data from multiple sensors independent of the underlying file format. This presentation will focus on the Giovanni development efforts made in

J. E. Johnson; S. P. Ahmad; T. Zhu; I. V. Gerasimov; G. G. Leptoukh; S. J. Kempler

2005-01-01

69

ERP System Implementation: An Oil and Gas Exploration Sector Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems provide integration and optimization of various business processes which leads to improved planning and decision quality, smoother coordination between business units resulting in higher efficiency, and quicker response time to customer demands and inquiries. This paper reports challenges, opportunities and outcome of ERP implementation in Oil & Gas exploration sector. This study will facilitate in understanding transition, constraints and implementation of ERP in this sector and also provide guidelines from lessons learned in this regard.

Mishra, Alok; Mishra, Deepti

70

Risk analysis applied to petroleum exploration and production: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decades, there have been some significant improvements in risk analysis applied to petroleum exploration and production. This special issue is dedicated to show some contributions and developments of risk analysis applied to petroleum exploration, field appraisal and development, production forecast under uncertainty, decision-making process, portfolio management, and real options approach. A brief overview is presented in this

S. B. Suslick; D. J. Schiozer

2004-01-01

71

Surface geochemistry applications in oil and gas exploration  

SciTech Connect

Geochemical exploration presumes that oil or gas reservoirs leak petroleum to the surface, and that these seeping hydrocarbons can be related to possible reservoirs in the subsurface. As an exploration technique, surface geochemistry assumes neither that every reservoir actively leaks and will be expressed geochemically nor that every geochemical anomaly is associated with a commercial reservoir. In fact, these use of seeps in hydrocarbon exploration is widely accepted and practiced throughout the industry. Independents and majors all use a variety of techniques aimed at seep detection and characterization. Particular methods vary, but the general objectives of the various surveyors are about the same: locate hydrocarbon seeps, map the seeps to relate them to subsurface prospects, characterize the petroleum type seen in a play's seeps, refine economic evaluations before entering new plays, and aid explorationists in making lease relinquishments. The author illustrates geochemical applications to these problems.

Sundberg, K.R. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States))

1994-06-06

72

Study on Exploring for Oil, Gas Using Hyperion data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reflectance spectra in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths provide a rapid and inexpensive means for determining the mineralogy of samples and obtaining information on chemical composition Hydrocarbon microseepage theory setup a cause-and-effect relation between oil and gas reservoirs and some special surface alterations Therefore we can explore for oil gas by determining reflectance spectra of surface alterations This determination can be fulfilled by means of field work and hyperspectral remote sensing Our cooperative R D project which is sponsored by China National Petroleum Corporation CNPC and committing itself to exploration of oil gas in Qinghai area of China using NASA experimental Hyperion hyperspectral satellite documents a macroscopical feature of reflectance spectra of typical observation points in gas fields and then proposes a method in order to provide surface distribution information e g classification of alterations based on the reflectance spectra determined from the field and remote sensing and obtain anomaly zones of the special alterations This method mainly includes preprocessing of Hyperion images to improve the poor SNR Signal Noise Ratio of them principal component analysis PCA based on wavelet transform to reduce dimensionality and techniques providing surface distribution information using both absorption-band parameters such as the position depth width and asymmetry of the spectra and similarity of the entire shape between two spectra Finally several anomaly zones of alterations are obtained which are

Xu, D.-Q.; Ni, G.-Q.; Jiang, L.-L.; Ge, S.-L.

73

Petroleum production and exploration in Ouachita region of Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum production in the Ouachita region of southeastern Oklahoma occurs in three geographic areas parallel to regional structure. The frontal gas, central oil, and central gas belts are distinguished by differences in structural setting, reservoir strata, and types of hydrocarbons. In the frontal belt, nearly 1 trillion ft³ of dry gas has been produced from thrusted and subthrust Morrowan and

N. H. Suneson; J. A. Campbell

1989-01-01

74

Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface

Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

2008-01-01

75

Production of pipeline gas from coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is disclosed for producing pressurized pipeline gas wherein coal is gasified in oxygen at a relatively low pressure, typically less than 5 atmospheres, to produce a raw gas containing carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, gaseous sulfur compounds and particulates. A major portion of the raw gas is cooled, cleaned and methanated to produce a pipeline quality product gas

Blaskowski

1983-01-01

76

An exploration of energy-saving green products design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of the growing problem of global warming, resource depletion, air pollution and other environmental problems, by analyzing the excessive use of fossil fuels, and the drawbacks of product design without considering energy consumption, this paper points out the importance of green energy-saving products design and explores the types of energy-saving green products.

Xiaodan Yang; Wenhuan Liao

2010-01-01

77

A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide incentives for domestic oil and natural gas exploration and production, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, February 22, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This Act may be cited as the [open quotes]Energy Independence, Infrastructure, and Investment Act of 1993[close quotes]. The purpose of this Bill is to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide incentives for domestic oil and natural gas exploration and production, and for other purposes. Title I of this Bill is Energy Independence Incentives. Title II is Infrastructure Incentives. Title III is Investment Incentives.

Not Available

1993-01-01

78

Exploring Aura Data Products with Giovanni  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA GSFC Atmospheric Composition Data and Information Services Center (ACDISC) has developed Giovanni, a web-based tool for the visualization and analysis of its atmospheric composition data sets. Giovanni allows on-line interactive data exploration, analysis, and downloading of subsetted data from multiple sensors independent of the underlying file format. This presentation will focus on the Giovanni development efforts made in supporting Aura MLS and OMI data. In the future HIRDLS will also be supported. Several plot types are available within Giovanni depending on the parameter selected: time-series, spatial distribution, vertical profile, animation, or Hovmoller (latitude vs. time and longitude vs. time) plot along with simple statistics. The images generated during the Giovanni session can be saved. Data for the selected region, time period and parameter can also be downloaded in ASCII format. Additionally, several other Giovanni instances have been developed to support satellite data from: 1) UARS HALOE (profiles of ozone, trace gases, water vapor, temperature, and aerosol extinction); 2) TOMS (column ozone, aerosol index, effective surface reflectivity, erythemal UV); 3) AIRS (column ozone, and vertical profiles of water vapor, relative humidity, temperature, geopotential height, etc.); and 4) Aqua and Terra MODIS (aerosols, clouds, and water vapor). A future goal for Giovanni would allow users to do intercomparisons of data from Aura with these other atmospheric data sets. Giovanni is a simple, yet powerful tool enabling investigators to conduct regional or global long-term and short-term studies, as well as data validation.

Johnson, J. E.; Ahmad, S. P.; Zhu, T.; Gerasimov, I. V.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Kempler, S. J.

2005-12-01

79

Project Explorer GAS #007: Marshall Amateur Radio Club Experiment (MARCE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polls were taken at the Project Explorer meetings regarding flying without the radio experiment transmitting. The radio downlinks require extra coordination and are sensitive to certain payloads. The poll results were unanimous. The radio downlinks are vital in providing data on the health and status of the total experiments package, in real time, during the flight. The amateur radio operators, prepared to receive the downlinks and OSCAR-10 relays, revealed that there was enormous interest throughout the world, to participate. This sets the stage for the reflight opportunities which the GAS program has provided. Major activities, pertinent to the STS-41G flight preparations by the GAS #007 team and support group, are listed.

Stluka, E. F.

1986-01-01

80

49th Annual international outlook issue. [World oil gas exploration and development trends  

SciTech Connect

This article represents the World Oil's 49th annual outlook. It discusses oil and gas exploration information, pricing, drilling activity, production, and reserves. It discusses the various reasons for increases or decreases in drilling activity in the various production regions of the earth. The article is broken down into the various geo-political regions and each region is described individually. These regions are described as North America, South America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Africa, the Middle East, the Far East (China, Indonesia, Viet Nam, etc.), and the South Pacific (Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea). Information on production, pricing, and drilling is presented in tabular formats along with a narrative discussion.

Not Available

1994-08-01

81

Gas production in distant comets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular spectroscopy at radio wavelengths is a tool well suited for studying the composition and outgassing kinematics of cometary comae. This is particularly true for distant comets, i.e. comets at heliocentric distances greater than a few AU, where the excitation of molecules is inefficient other than for rotational energy levels. At these distances, water sublimation is inefficient, and cometary activity is dominated by outgassing of carbon monoxide. An observing campaign is presented, where the millimeter- wave emission from CO in comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 has been studied in detail using the Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST). Coma models have been used to analyse the spectra. The production of CO is found to have two separate sources, one releasing CO gas on the nuclear dayside, and one extended source, where CO is produced from coma material, proposed to be icy dust grains. Radio observations of many molecules in comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) have been carried out in a long-term international effort using several radio telescopes. An overview of the results is presented, describing the evolution of the gas production as the comet passed through the inner Solar system. Spectra recorded using the SEST, primarily of CO, for heliocentric distances from 3 to 11 AU are analysed in detail, also using coma models. The concept of icy grains constituting the extended source discovered in comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 is examined by theoretical modelling of micrometre-sized ice/dust particles at 6 AU from the Sun. It is shown that that such grains can release their content of volatiles on timescales similar to that found for the extended source.

Gunnarsson, Marcus

82

Novel Chemical Space Exploration via Natural Products  

PubMed Central

Natural products (NPs) are a rich source of novel compound classes and new drugs. In the present study we have used the chemical space navigation tool ChemGPS-NP to evaluate the chemical space occupancy by NPs and bioactive medicinal chemistry compounds from the database WOMBAT. The two sets differ notable in coverage of chemical space, and tangible lead-like NPs were found to cover regions of chemical space that lack representation in WOMBAT. Property based similarity calculations were performed to identify NP neighbours of approved drugs. Several of the NPs revealed by this method, were confirmed to exhibit the same activity as their drug neighbours. The identification of leads from a NP starting point may prove a useful strategy for drug discovery, in the search for novel leads with unique properties.

Rosen, Josefin; Gottfries, Johan; Muresan, Sorel; Backlund, Anders; Oprea, Tudor I.

2009-01-01

83

Novel chemical space exploration via natural products.  

PubMed

Natural products (NPs) are a rich source of novel compound classes and new drugs. In the present study we have used the chemical space navigation tool ChemGPS-NP to evaluate the chemical space occupancy by NPs and bioactive medicinal chemistry compounds from the database WOMBAT. The two sets differ notably in coverage of chemical space, and tangible leadlike NPs were found to cover regions of chemical space that lack representation in WOMBAT. Property based similarity calculations were performed to identify NP neighbors of approved drugs. Several of the NPs revealed by this method were confirmed to exhibit the same activity as their drug neighbors. The identification of leads from a NP starting point may prove a useful strategy for drug discovery in the search for novel leads with unique properties. PMID:19265440

Rosén, Josefin; Gottfries, Johan; Muresan, Sorel; Backlund, Anders; Oprea, Tudor I

2009-04-01

84

North America: A better second half for drilling--Maybe. [Oil and gas exploration and development in North America  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides data on the exploration, production, and drilling activity of the oil and gas industry in Canada, the US, and Central America. The section on the US discusses trends in drilling activity in both the first and second half of 1993. Statistical information on all oil and gas producing states if provided in a tabular format. Information on exploration and development expenditures is also discussed. Data is also provided drilling and production information for Canada, Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Nicaragua, and other minor production areas.

Not Available

1993-08-01

85

Exploring the consumption of charity-linked products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the motivations to consume charity-linked products. We consider charity-linked products as all the consumer\\u000a goods that may help a social cause or a nonprofit organization. The research was done in Portugal and used focus groups. We\\u000a find three types of charity-linked product consumers: the proactive consumers which look and buy products that help nonprofit\\u000a organizations, the reactive

João F. Proença; Inês V. Pereira

2008-01-01

86

A New Technology for the Exploration of Shale Gas Reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy consumption in the world increases 5.6% every year, and alternative resources like shale gas, coal-bed methane (CBM), tar sand, and so on are strongly needed. Shale gas is an unconventional natural gas of enormous potential. Abundant shale gas resides in the form of adsorption gas. Desorption of shale gas is an important mechanism and power source of shale gas

W. Jing; L. Huiqing; G. Rongna; K. Aihong; Z. Mi

2011-01-01

87

Natural Gas Production and Consumption: 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data are presented in tabular form on the salient statistics of natural gas in the United States (1972 to 1976); gross withdrawals and disposition of natural gas in the United States (1975 to 1976); quantity and value of marketed production of natural gas...

1978-01-01

88

Advancing New 3D Seismic Interpretation Methods for Exploration and Development of Fractured Tight Gas Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

In a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and GeoSpectrum, Inc., new P-wave 3D seismic interpretation methods to characterize fractured gas reservoirs are developed. A data driven exploratory approach is used to determine empirical relationships for reservoir properties. Fractures are predicted using seismic lineament mapping through a series of horizon and time slices in the reservoir zone. A seismic lineament is a linear feature seen in a slice through the seismic volume that has negligible vertical offset. We interpret that in regions of high seismic lineament density there is a greater likelihood of fractured reservoir. Seismic AVO attributes are developed to map brittle reservoir rock (low clay) and gas content. Brittle rocks are interpreted to be more fractured when seismic lineaments are present. The most important attribute developed in this study is the gas sensitive phase gradient (a new AVO attribute), as reservoir fractures may provide a plumbing system for both water and gas. Success is obtained when economic gas and oil discoveries are found. In a gas field previously plagued with poor drilling results, four new wells were spotted using the new methodology and recently drilled. The wells have estimated best of 12-months production indicators of 2106, 1652, 941, and 227 MCFGPD. The latter well was drilled in a region of swarming seismic lineaments but has poor gas sensitive phase gradient (AVO) and clay volume attributes. GeoSpectrum advised the unit operators that this location did not appear to have significant Lower Dakota gas before the well was drilled. The other three wells are considered good wells in this part of the basin and among the best wells in the area. These new drilling results have nearly doubled the gas production and the value of the field. The interpretation method is ready for commercialization and gas exploration and development. The new technology is adaptable to conventional lower cost 3D seismic surveys.

James Reeves

2005-01-31

89

Methane Hydrate Gas Production by Thermal Stimulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two models have been developed to bracket the expected gas production from a methane hydrate reservoir. The frontal-sweep model represents the upper bound on the gas production, and the fracture-flow model represents the lower bound. Parametric studies we...

P. L. McGuire

1981-01-01

90

How EIA Estimates Natural Gas Production  

EIA Publications

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes estimates monthly and annually of the production of natural gas in the United States. The estimates are based on data EIA collects from gas producing states and data collected by the U. S. Minerals Management Service (MMS) in the Department of Interior. The states and MMS collect this information from producers of natural gas for various reasons, most often for revenue purposes. Because the information is not sufficiently complete or timely for inclusion in EIA's Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), EIA has developed estimation methodologies to generate monthly production estimates that are described in this document.

Information Center

2004-02-01

91

Manufacturing Production: An Evaluation Report for the Occupational Exploration Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evaluation report is one of seven produced for the Occupational Exploration Program (OEP), a series of simulated occupational experiences designed for junior high school students. Describing the pilot testing of the simulation dealing with manufacturing production, the report contains sections describing the simulation context, evaluation…

Altschuld, James W.; And Others

92

Applied radon geochemistry in oil and gas exploration  

SciTech Connect

Surface geochemical halos are a well-documented phenomenon associated with oil and gas reservoirs. They are the consequence of upward-migrating fluids and geochemically redistributed components. Migration of these geochemical components is controlled primarily by microseepage, diffusion/effusion, and chemical dissolution and precipitation of variously soluble mineral and elemental species derived from hydrocarbons and brines. Radon comes directly from radioactive decay of radium, a daughter of uranium. In reservoir systems, uranium tends to remain in residual hydrocarbon fluids, whereas radium tends to associated with brines. Upward microseepage of brines transports and precipitates radium within reduced geochemical columns. Positive radon anomalies over reservoirs are associated with transported subsurface and near-surface radium. Extremely low detectability (10{sup 12} ppb) of radon, specific data acquisition methods, and compensation for background (equilibrium) soil radon produces quite specific radon anomalies. Comparison of radon data indicates that radon signatures are strikingly similar over known producing fields in several regions of the US. Radon anomalies have been detected over reservoirs at depths greater than 6,000 ft, and relatively high-resolution traverses appear to sharply define reservoir boundaries. Used alone, or (preferably) in conjunction with other geochemical and geophysical methods, radon appears to be an exploitable tool that can be used to prioritize prospect targeting and subsequent exploration drilling.

Mansker, W.L. (INEX, Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1989-09-01

93

ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrate Production Test  

SciTech Connect

Work began on the ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrates Production Test (DOE award number DE-NT0006553) on October 1, 2008. This final report summarizes the entire project from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2013.

Schoderbek, David; Farrell, Helen; Howard, James; Raterman, Kevin; Silpngarmlert, Suntichai; Martin, Kenneth; Smith, Bruce; Klein, Perry

2013-06-30

94

Determination of ²²?Ra, ²²?Ra and ²¹?Pb in NORM products from oil and gas exploration: problems in activity underestimation due to the presence of metals and self-absorption of photons.  

PubMed

Typical calibration of solid environmental samples for the determination of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb entails the use of standard reference materials which have a very similar matrix. However, TENORM samples from the oil and gas exploration contain unusually high amounts of calcium, strontium and barium which can severely attenuate the photons of (210)Pb and (226)Ra with their characteristic 46.1 keV and 186.2 keV gamma-rays, respectively and to some extent (228)Ra with the characteristic gamma-rays of 911.2 keV and 969.0 keV. We used neutron activation analysis to evaluate the content of TENORM for calcium, barium and strontium and then used a software program SELABS to determine the self-absorption. Our results confirm that even in Petrie containers with small dimensions the (210)Pb can be underestimated by almost by a factor of four while (226)Ra can be underestimated by 5%. The (228)Ra activities are virtually unaffected due to the higher energy gamma-rays. However, the implications for TENORM studies that employ large Marinelli containers having sample sizes between 0.25 and 1.0 L may be severely compromised by the presence of high Z elements in elevated concentrations. The usual spectral interferences on (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb coming from other radionuclides in the (234)U, (235)U and (238)U decay chains are virtually nonexistent due the very high activity levels of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb in the tens of thousands of Bq/kg. PMID:23514714

Landsberger, S; Brabec, C; Canion, B; Hashem, J; Lu, C; Millsap, D; George, G

2013-11-01

95

Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil and Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves...

G. Jahn J. Colvinl J. Goldman J. C. Farmer R. Haul

2010-01-01

96

Exploration soil gas methods that reduce site characterization costs  

SciTech Connect

Initial site characterization of impacted or suspected sites is the most important portion of an integrated environmental remediation program. By use of passive soil gas (PSG) characterization methods, the author has saved his clients significant sums of money by expediting the characterization phase of a project, thus eliminating unnecessary drilling and sampling. He has also been able to advance remedial response by allowing better design of the characterization program. Several commercial products are available which incorporate the principals of the PSG methodology described herein. Using a decidedly low tech approach, the PSG methodology described herein can be used to identify impacted areas on a given site prior to installation of soil borings and monitorings wells. The method is low impact and does not attract unwanted attention to a potentially impacted site. Given the passive nature of the method; it allows a more accurate evaluation of subsurface soil gas conditions, and allows placement of subsequent subsurface tests (whether soil borings or monitoring wells) in optium positions for accurate characterization. This approach minimizes the number of wells needed to characterize a site, eliminates over-characterization and unnecessary drilling, and provides lateral data which in turn allows a client to determine the extent of any liability on a select property. By identifying the extent of his problem, the client can more realistically evaluate his liability and project a budget for completion of remediation. It also allows him to more easily identify the most effective remediation approach. The PSG method allows rapid characterization and priortization of multiple sites, thus allowing a more effective use of environmental budgets.

Pyron, A.J. [Pyron Consulting, Pottstown, PA (United States)

1995-09-01

97

Riverton Dome Gas Exploration and Stimulation Technology Demonstration, Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This project will provide a full demonstration of an entirely new package of exploration technologies that will result in the discovery and development of significant new gas reserves now trapped in unconventional low-permeability reservoirs. This demonstration includes the field application of these technologies, prospect definition and well siting, and a test of this new strategy through wildcat drilling. In addition this project includes a demonstration of a new stimulation technology that will improve completion success in these unconventional low permeability reservoirs which are sensitive to drilling and completion damage. The work includes two test wells to be drilled by Snyder Oil Company on the Shoshone/Arapahoe Tribal Lands in the Wind River Basin. This basin is a foreland basin whose petroleum systems include Paleozoic and Cretaceous source beds and reservoirs which were buried, folded by Laramide compressional folding, and subsequently uplifted asymmetrically. The anomalous pressure boundary is also asymmetric, following differential uplift trends. The Institute for Energy Research has taken a unique approach to building a new exploration strategy for low-permeability gas accumulations in basins characterized by anomalously pressured, compartmentalized gas accumulations. Key to this approach is the determination and three-dimensional evaluation of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalous pressure regimes, and the detection and delineation of areas of enhanced storage capacity and deliverability below this boundary. This new exploration strategy will be demonstrated in the Riverton Dome? Emigrant Demonstration Project (RDEDP) by completing the following tasks: 1) detect and delineate the anomalous pressure boundaries, 2) delineate surface lineaments, fracture and fault distribution, spacing, and orientation through remote sensing investigations, 3) characterize the internal structure of the anomalous pressured volume in the RDEDP and determine the scale of compartmentalization using produced water chemistry, 4) define the prospects and well locations as a result on this new exploration technology, and 5) utilize new completion techniques that will minimize formation damage and optimize production.

Ronald C. Surdam

1998-11-15

98

RADIOLYTIC GAS PRODUCTION RATES OF POLYMERS EXPOSED TO TRITIUM GAS  

SciTech Connect

Data from previous reports on studies of polymers exposed to tritium gas is further analyzed to estimate rates of radiolytic gas production. Also, graphs of gas release during tritium exposure from ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, a trade name is Teflon®), and Vespel® polyimide are re-plotted as moles of gas as a function of time, which is consistent with a later study of tritium effects on various formulations of the elastomer ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM). These gas production rate estimates may be useful while considering using these polymers in tritium processing systems. These rates are valid at least for the longest exposure times for each material, two years for UHMW-PE, PTFE, and Vespel®, and fourteen months for filled and unfilled EPDM. Note that the production “rate” for Vespel® is a quantity of H{sub 2} produced during a single exposure to tritium, independent of length of time. The larger production rate per unit mass for unfilled EPDM results from the lack of filler- the carbon black in filled EPDM does not produce H{sub 2} or HT. This is one aspect of how inert fillers reduce the effects of ionizing radiation on polymers.

Clark, E.

2013-08-31

99

Survey of price elasticities from economic exploration models of US oil and gas supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploration for oil or gas reserves consists of searching for and finding new reserves. It begins with the study of the geology of an area followed by exploratory or wildcat drilling in promising areas. How much oil or gas is found or the supply of new reserves is a function of exploration, the geology of the area drilled along with

Carol Dahl; Thomas E. Duggan

1998-01-01

100

Antrim gas play, production expanding in Michigan  

SciTech Connect

Devonian Antrim shale gas, the Michigan basin's dominant hydrocarbon play in terms of number of wells drilled for several years, shows every sign of continuing at a busy pace. About 3,500 Antrim completions now yield 350 MMcfd, more than 60% of Michigan's gas production. The outlook is for Antrim production to climb in the next 2--3 years to 500--600 MMcfd, about 1% of US gas output. These delivery numbers, slow decline rates, and expected producing life of 20--30 years has snagged pipelines attention. The growing production overtaxed local gathering facilities last fall, and the play recently got its first interstate outlet. Completion and production technology advances are improving well performance and trimming costs. Several hundred wells a year are likely to be drilled during the next few years. Production increases are coming from new wells, deepenings, and workovers. Numerous pipeline/gathering projects are planned in the area to handle the growing Antrim volumes. The paper discusses the development of this resource, efforts to extend the play, geology and production, drilling programs, and gas transportation.

Not Available

1994-05-30

101

BUILDING MATERIALS MADE FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION BY-PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect

Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) materials are produced in abundant quantities by coal burning utilities. Due to environmental restrains, flue gases must be ''cleaned'' prior to release to the atmosphere. They are two general methods to ''scrub'' flue gas: wet and dry. The choice of scrubbing material is often defined by the type of coal being burned, i.e. its composition. Scrubbing is traditionally carried out using a slurry of calcium containing material (slaked lime or calcium carbonate) that is made to contact exiting flue gas as either a spay injected into the gas or in a bubble tower. The calcium combined with the SO{sub 2} in the gas to form insoluble precipitates. Some plants have been using dry injection of these same materials or their own Class C fly ash to scrub. In either case the end product contains primarily hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}O) with smaller amounts of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O). These materials have little commercial use. Experiments were carried out that were meant to explore the feasibility of using blends of hannebachite and fly ash mixed with concentrated sodium hydroxide to make masonry products. The results suggest that some of these mixtures could be used in place of conventional Portland cement based products such as retaining wall bricks and pavers.

Michael W. Grutzeck; Maria DiCola; Paul Brenner

2006-03-30

102

21 CFR 173.350 - Combustion product gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...173.350 Combustion product gas. The food additive combustion product gas may be safely used in the...purpose of removing and displacing oxygen in accordance with the following...butane, propane, or natural gas. The combustion...

2010-01-01

103

IRIS DMC products help explore the Tohoku earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within two hours after the great March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake the IRIS DMC started publishing automated data products through its Searchable Product Depository (SPUD), which provides quick viewing of many aspects of the data and preliminary analysis of this great earthquake. These products are part of the DMC's data product development effort intended to serve many purposes: stepping-stones for future research projects, data visualizations, data characterization, research result comparisons as well as outreach material. Our current and soon-to-be-released products that allow users to explore this and other global M>6.0 events include 1) Event Plots, which are a suite of maps, record sections, regional vespagrams and P-coda stacks 2) US Array Ground Motion Visualizations that show the vertical and horizontal global seismic wavefield sweeping across US Array including minor and major arc surface waves and their polarizations 3) back-projection movies that show the time history of short-period energy from the rupture 4) R1 source-time functions that show approximate duration and source directivity and 5) aftershock sequence maps and statistics movies based on NEIC alerts that self-update every hour in the first few days following the mainshock. Higher order information for the Tohoku event that can be inferred based on our products which will be highlighted include a rupture duration of order 150 sec (P-coda stacks, back-projections, R1 STFs) that ruptured approximately 400 km along strike primarily towards the south (back-projections, R1 STFs, aftershock animation) with a very low rupture velocity (back-projections, R1 STFs). All of our event-based products are automated and consistently produced shortly after the event so that they may serve as familiar baselines for the seismology research community. More details on these and other existing products are available at: http://www.iris.edu/dms/products/

Trabant, C.; Hutko, A. R.; Bahavar, M.; Ahern, T. K.; Benson, R. B.; Casey, R.

2011-12-01

104

Coral reef formation theory may apply to oil, gas exploration  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports a coral reef formation theory that has implications for hydrocarbon exploration. The theory states that many coral reefs and carbonate buildups from at and are dependent upon nutrient rich fluids seeping through the seabed.

Not Available

1990-12-10

105

Erosion prediction for exploration and production structures in the Arctic  

SciTech Connect

Exploration and production structures in the Southern Beaufort Sea will be subjected to wave and current action during the open water period of about 3 months each year. Two simulation models were developed to predict the severity of erosion problems associated with the structures. The first model predicts beach erosion caused by waves breaking on sand islands with gentle slopes. The second model predicts erosion and accretion patterns due to the wave and current action around large vertical bodies of revolution with steep slopes. Example computations for hypothetical sacrificial beach islands and fixed cones are performed using the wave and current characteristics associated with storms in the Beaufort Sea. 18 refs.

Kobayashi, N.; Vivatrat, V.; Madsen, O.S.; Boaz, I.B.

1981-01-01

106

76 FR 28776 - Re-Proposal of Effluent Limits Under the NPDES General Permit for Oil and Gas Exploration...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exploration, Development and Production Facilities in State and Federal...exploration, development, and production facilities that are included...Comments must be received or post-marked by no later than...Exploration, Development and Production Facilities in State and...

2011-05-18

107

Federal offshore statistics: 1992. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenues as of December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, enacted in 1953 and amended several times, charges the Secretary of the Interior with the responsibility for administering and managing mineral exploration and development of the outer continental shelf, as well as for conserving its natural resources. This report documents the following: Federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; Federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from Federal offshore leases; disbursement of Federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. 11 figs., 83 tabs.

Francois, D.K.

1993-12-31

108

Improving production from tight, geopressured gas zones  

SciTech Connect

Completion experience gained in southwest Texas' Lower Wilcox may have application to other deep, low-permeability, geopressured gas objectives. Core-sample permeabilities have been increased 40-fold, and carefully planned frac treatments have quadrupled production from 17 wells. Although high bottomhole temperatures, flow rates that can exceed 8 MMcfd, and mildly sour production would indicate serious corrosion problems, batch treatment, supplemented by nitrogen displacement, has controlled this potential problem effectively.

Weeks, S.G.

1984-05-01

109

Preliminary report on the commercial viability of gas production from natural gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic studies on simulated gas hydrate reservoirs have been compiled to estimate the price of natural gas that may lead to economically viable production from the most promising gas hydrate accumulations. As a first estimate, $CDN2005 12\\/Mscf is the lowest gas price that would allow economically viable production from gas hydrates in the absence of associated free gas, while an

Matthew R. Walsh; Steve H. Hancock; Scott J. Wilson; Shirish L. Patil; George J. Moridis; Ray Boswell; Timothy S. Collett; Carolyn A. Koh; E. Dendy Sloan

2009-01-01

110

Metal powder production by gas atomization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The confined liquid, gas-atomization process was investigated. Results from a two-dimensional water model showed the importance of atomization pressure, as well as delivery tube and atomizer design. The atomization process at the tip of the delivery tube was photographed. Results from the atomization of a modified 7075 aluminum alloy yielded up to 60 wt pct. powders that were finer than 45 microns in diameter. Two different atomizer designs were evaluated. The amount of fine powders produced was correlated to a calculated gas-power term. An optimal gas-power value existed for maximized fine powder production. Atomization at gas-power greater than or less than this optimal value produced coarser powders.

Ting, E. Y.; Grant, N. J.

1986-01-01

111

Method for the production of synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect

A method is claimed for the continuous production of synthesis gas comprising of carbon monoxide and hydrogen through the autothermal gasification of solid combustibles in a pressure reactor. The method involves the following: introducing into a screw machine containing two parallely ordered shafts, a finely divided solid combustible; moistening and intimately mixing the solid combustible with 2 to 30% by weight of water, degasing and compressing the moist solid combustible to a pressure higher than that of the reactor; adding the gas-tight compressed and moist solid combustible to a reaction chamber-through a burner where the combustible is brought into contact with the gasification medium; evaporating the water in the compressed and moist solid combustible and producing a comminuted dispersion of the solid combustible in the mixture of the gasification medium and water vapor; reacting the combustible dispersion to give a raw synthesis gas; and removing the raw synthesis gas from the reactor.

Escher, G.; Harjung, J.; Wenning, H.P.

1981-11-24

112

New Methodology for Natural Gas Production Estimates  

EIA Publications

A new methodology is implemented with the monthly natural gas production estimates from the EIA-914 survey this month. The estimates, to be released April 29, 2010, include revisions for all of 2009. The fundamental changes in the new process include the timeliness of the historical data used for estimation and the frequency of sample updates, both of which are improved.

Information Center

2010-04-26

113

Exploring the thermodynamics of a two-dimensional Bose gas.  

PubMed

Using in situ measurements on a quasi-two-dimensional, harmonically trapped (87)Rb gas, we infer various equations of state for the equivalent homogeneous fluid. From the dependence of the total atom number and the central density of our clouds with chemical potential and temperature, we obtain the equations of state for the pressure and the phase-space density. Then, using the approximate scale invariance of this 2D system, we determine the entropy per particle and find very low values (below 0.1k(B)) in the strongly degenerate regime. This shows that this gas can constitute an efficient coolant for other quantum fluids. We also explain how to disentangle the various contributions (kinetic, potential, interaction) to the energy of the trapped gas using a time-of-flight method, from which we infer the reduction of density fluctuations in a nonfully coherent cloud. PMID:22026829

Yefsah, Tarik; Desbuquois, Rémi; Chomaz, Lauriane; Günter, Kenneth J; Dalibard, Jean

2011-09-23

114

Exploring the Thermodynamics of a Two-Dimensional Bose Gas  

SciTech Connect

Using in situ measurements on a quasi-two-dimensional, harmonically trapped {sup 87}Rb gas, we infer various equations of state for the equivalent homogeneous fluid. From the dependence of the total atom number and the central density of our clouds with chemical potential and temperature, we obtain the equations of state for the pressure and the phase-space density. Then, using the approximate scale invariance of this 2D system, we determine the entropy per particle and find very low values (below 0.1k{sub B}) in the strongly degenerate regime. This shows that this gas can constitute an efficient coolant for other quantum fluids. We also explain how to disentangle the various contributions (kinetic, potential, interaction) to the energy of the trapped gas using a time-of-flight method, from which we infer the reduction of density fluctuations in a nonfully coherent cloud.

Yefsah, Tarik; Desbuquois, Remi; Chomaz, Lauriane; Guenter, Kenneth J.; Dalibard, Jean [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, CNRS, UPMC, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75005 Paris (France)

2011-09-23

115

Exploring the thermodynamics of a universal Fermi gas.  

PubMed

One of the greatest challenges in modern physics is to understand the behaviour of an ensemble of strongly interacting particles. A class of quantum many-body systems (such as neutron star matter and cold Fermi gases) share the same universal thermodynamic properties when interactions reach the maximum effective value allowed by quantum mechanics, the so-called unitary limit. This makes it possible in principle to simulate some astrophysical phenomena inside the highly controlled environment of an atomic physics laboratory. Previous work on the thermodynamics of a two-component Fermi gas led to thermodynamic quantities averaged over the trap, making comparisons with many-body theories developed for uniform gases difficult. Here we develop a general experimental method that yields the equation of state of a uniform gas, as well as enabling a detailed comparison with existing theories. The precision of our equation of state leads to new physical insights into the unitary gas. For the unpolarized gas, we show that the low-temperature thermodynamics of the strongly interacting normal phase is well described by Fermi liquid theory, and we localize the superfluid transition. For a spin-polarized system, our equation of state at zero temperature has a 2 per cent accuracy and extends work on the phase diagram to a new regime of precision. We show in particular that, despite strong interactions, the normal phase behaves as a mixture of two ideal gases: a Fermi gas of bare majority atoms and a non-interacting gas of dressed quasi-particles, the fermionic polarons. PMID:20182507

Nascimbène, S; Navon, N; Jiang, K J; Chevy, F; Salomon, C

2010-02-25

116

Eco-efficient environmental policy in oil and gas production in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the quantitative eco-efficiency method developed for prioritising environmental investments in NOGEPA, The Netherlands Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Association involving all major oil and gas producers in The Netherlands. They are committed to a high level of environmental improvement in a Covenant with Dutch central government. Quantitative assessment of eco-efficiency in terms of cost per unit

G. Huppes; M. D. Davidson; J. Kuyper; L. van Oers; H. A. Udo de Haes; G. Warringa

2007-01-01

117

Exploring Occupations for Electronics Technicians in the Natural Gas Industry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide presents a lesson on the electronics technician career path in the natural gas industry. Students will answer the question: "Is a career as an electronics technician in the natural gas industry a good choice for me?" The class will write a one-page paper on this topic. The unit is intended for grades 7-9 and would take three to four 45 minute class periods to complete in full. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft Word file format.

2012-10-16

118

Developing geochemical methods for marine exploration of oil and gas  

SciTech Connect

Experimental-methodological oil exploration geochemical investigations have been carried out in the Caspian and Black seas. The bottom deposits were selected according to a differential grid, the type of which depended on geologic structure and morphology of the bottom, Lithology, and other factors. Bottom sediments were collected by scientific-research vessels using coring devices. This paper reviews the results of this testing for hydrocarbon distribution, bituminous and organic matter composition; and methane content in marine sediments.

Bagirov, V.I.; Zor'kin, L.M.; Zubayrayev, S.L.; Lopatin, N.V.

1983-01-01

119

Exploring Remote Sensing Products Online with Giovanni for Studying Urbanization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently, a Large amount of MODIS land products at multi-spatial resolutions have been integrated into the online system, Giovanni, to support studies on land cover and land use changes focused on Northern Eurasia and Monsoon Asia regions. Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) is a Web-based application developed by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES-DISC) providing a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access Earth science remotely-sensed and modeled data. The customized Giovanni Web portals (Giovanni-NEESPI and Giovanni-MAIRS) are created to integrate land, atmospheric, cryospheric, and social products, that enable researchers to do quick exploration and basic analyses of land surface changes and their relationships to climate at global and regional scales. This presentation documents MODIS land surface products in Giovanni system. As examples, images and statistical analysis results on land surface and local climate changes associated with urbanization over Yangtze River Delta region, China, using data in Giovanni are shown.

Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina; Kempler, Steve

2012-01-01

120

Exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

Wilburn, D. R.; Porter, K. E.

1999-01-01

121

The life cycle of the Netherlands' natural gas exploration: 40 years after Groningen, where are we now?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of the giant Permian Groningen Field in 1959 triggered the main phase of gas exploration in NW Europe. This paper deals with the history and future of natural gas exploration in the Netherlands. The aim is to explain the historical exploration process and use the results to predict the remaining part of the exploration life cycle. Data from

J. BREUNESE; H. MIJNLIEFF; J. LUTGERT

122

Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is an outcome of lean thinking to eliminate waste and increase productivity. PLM is inextricably tied to the systems engineering business philosophy, coupled with a methodology by which personnel, processes and practices, and information technology combine to form an architecture platform for product design, development, manufacturing, operations, and decommissioning. In this model, which is being implemented by the Engineering Directorate at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center, total lifecycle costs are important variables for critical decision-making. With the ultimate goal to deliver quality products that meet or exceed requirements on time and within budget, PLM is a powerful concept to shape everything from engineering trade studies and testing goals, to integrated vehicle operations and retirement scenarios. This paper will demonstrate how the Engineering Directorate is implementing PLM as part of an overall strategy to deliver safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions. It has been 30 years since the United States fielded the Space Shuttle. The next generation space transportation system requires a paradigm shift such that digital tools and knowledge management, which are central elements of PLM, are used consistently to maximum effect. The outcome is a better use of scarce resources, along with more focus on stakeholder and customer requirements, as a new portfolio of enabling tools becomes second nature to the workforce. This paper will use the design and manufacturing processes, which have transitioned to digital-based activities, to show how PLM supports the comprehensive systems engineering and integration function. It also will go through a launch countdown scenario where an anomaly is detected to show how the virtual vehicle created from paperless processes will help solve technical challenges and improve the likelihood of launching on schedule, with less hands-on labor needed for processing and troubleshooting.

Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.

2010-01-01

123

Soil gas radon: a tool for exploring active fault zones.  

PubMed

The profile of soil gas radon was monitored in five active fault sites in northern and northwestern Greece. Measurements were carried out during summer months, using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The spatial distribution of radon along lines traversing the fault zones revealed anomalies, clearly connected to the local tectonic structure. Specifically, increased radon signals evolved on the radon background level, in the vicinity of the faults' axes and the signal-to-background ratio ranged from 2 to 13. The consistency of this pattern confirms that the radon technique is powerful in the detection and mapping of active fault zones. PMID:12941512

Ioannides, K; Papachristodoulou, C; Stamoulis, K; Karamanis, D; Pavlides, S; Chatzipetros, A; Karakala, E

2003-01-01

124

Principal geological results of oil and gas exploration in southern Sakhalin. [USSR  

SciTech Connect

The results of gas and oil exploration in southern Sakhalin, USSR are discussed in three aspects: 1) oil and gas fields revealed; 2) new data on geological cross sections, and 3) tectonic position of Upper Cretaceous and Cenozic deposits. Commercial oil deposits have been located in the lower and middle Miocene deposits of the Progranichnyy trough, and commercial gas presence has been discovered in the upper Miocene deposits of the Aniva Gulf trough. (JMT)

Tyutrin, I.I.; Dunichev, V.M.; Taboyakov, A.Y.

1982-09-01

125

City of North Bonneville, Washington: Geothermal Exploration production test well  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on discussions with the City of North Bonneville, the production test well was drilled to a depth that would also explore for ground water temperatures near 130 F (54.4 C). Depth projections to a 130 F bottom hole temperature were made by assuming a constant ground water temperature rise greater than 50 C per kilometer, and by assuming that essentially homogeneous or equivalent conductive rock units would be encountered. Minimum water production requirements were not set, although the City determined that about 800 gpm would be acceptable. Larger upper casing diameters of 16 and 12 inches were installed in order to provide the future use of either a vertical turbine or submersible pump, as desired by the city. The scope of work included interpretation of well characteristics, evaluation of ground water as a geothermal resource, geologic analysis of data from drilling and testing, drilling supervision, daily drilling cost accounting, and preparation of a final report. The report includes geologic evaluation of the drilling and test data, ground water and geothermal potential.

1982-06-01

126

Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore,

J C Farmer; R Haut; G Jahn; J Goldman; J Colvin; A Karpinski; A Dobley; J Halfinger; S Nagley; K Wolf; A Shapiro; P Doucette; P Hansen; A Oke; D Compton; M Cobb; R Kopps; J Chitwood; W Spence; P Remacle; C Noel; J Vicic; R Dee

2010-01-01

127

In-Situ Production of Solar Power Systems for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current proposals for developing an extended human presence, beyond space stations, on the Moon and Mars increasingly consider the processing of non-terrestrial materials essential for keeping the Earth launch burden reasonable. Utilization of in-situ resources for construction of lunar and Mars bases will initially require assessment of resource availability followed by the development of economically acceptable and technically feasible extractive processes. In regard to materials processing and fabrication the lower gravity level on the Moon (0.125 g) and Mars (0.367 g) will dramatically change the presently accepted hierarchy of materials in terms of specific properties, a factor which must be understood and exploited. Furthermore, significant changes are expected in the behavior of liquid materials during processing. In casting, for example, mold filling and associated solidification processes have to be reevaluated. Finally microstructural development and therefore material properties, presently being documented through on-going research in microgravity science and applications, needs to be understood and scaled to the reduced gravity environments. One of the most important elements of a human planetary base is power production. Lunar samples and geophysical measurements returned by the Apollo missions provide detailed data on the composition and physical characteristics of the lunar materials and environment. Based on this knowledge and extrapolations of terrestrial industrial experience it is clear that several types of solar-to-electric converters can be manufactured on the Moon. It is conceivable that well over 90% of a solar-to- electric power system could be made from lunar materials. Production and utilization of photovoltaic devices for solar energy production on Earth is primarily driven by the market economy. On Earth a production plant for photovoltaic devices is intimately linked to the planets massive industrial base. A selection of off the shelf refined materials are available as well as cheap fast transportation on demand. The processes takes place (except for the few seconds reprieve in shot towers etc.) under one gravity, with solar radiation significantly modulated by weather, and under conditions where one atmosphere is free and high vacuum is cumbersome and expensive. Off Earth, on lunar or Mars bases, the cost of photovoltaic power is driven by transport costs - Earth launch, deep space transport, landing on the planetary surface. Thus there is a premium for processes that are materials self-sufficient or for closed loop in-situ processes. The lack of differentiated ores on the Moon, and lack of explored minerals on Mars and interplanetary space give a premium to universal/non-ore-specific mineral extractive processes. Initially a semiconductor/photovoltaic production facility will build on no conveniently located industrial base, further increasing the premium on closed loop self sufficient processes.

Curreri, Peter A.; Criswell, David R.

1999-01-01

128

International oil and gas exploration and development: 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report starts where the previous quarterly publication ended. This first publication of a new annual series contains most of the same data as the quarterly report, plus some new material, through 1991. It also presents historical data covering a longer period of time than the previous quarterly report. Country-level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve-to-production rations (R/P ratios) are listed for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form. The most popular table in the previous quarterly report, a listing of new discoveries, continues in this annual report as Appendix A.

Not Available

1993-12-01

129

Influence of protein fermentation on gas production profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

With modern equipment, accurate gas-production profiles can be obtained reflecting the organic-matter fermentation in rumen fluid. Although the gas production caused by fermentation of carbohydrates is well understood and described, ignoring the influence of protein fermentation may lead to misinterpretation of the gas-production data. Gas-production profiles, from grass samples differing in growing days, and hence in protein content, showed an

John W Cone; Anthonie H van Gelder

1999-01-01

130

Exploring extrasolar worlds: from gas giants to terrestrial habitable planets.  

PubMed

Almost 500 extrasolar planets have been found since the discovery of 51 Peg b by Mayor and Queloz in 1995. The traditional field of planetology has thus expanded its frontiers to include planetary environments not represented in our Solar System. We expect that in the next five years space missions (Corot, Kepler and GAIA) or ground-based detection techniques will both increase exponentially the number of new planets discovered and lower the present limit of a approximately 1.9 Earth-mass object [e.g. Mayor et al., Astron. Astrophys., 2009, 507, 487]. While the search for an Earth-twin orbiting a Sun-twin has been one of the major goals pursued by the exoplanet community in the past years, the possibility of sounding the atmospheric composition and structure of an increasing sample of exoplanets with current telescopes has opened new opportunities, unthinkable just a few years ago. As a result, it is possible now not only to determine the orbital characteristics of the new bodies, but moreover to study the exotic environments that lie tens of parsecs away from us. The analysis of the starlight not intercepted by the thin atmospheric limb of its planetary companion (transit spectroscopy), or of the light emitted/reflected by the exoplanet itself, will guide our understanding of the atmospheres and the surfaces of these extrasolar worlds in the next few years. Preliminary results obtained by interpreting current atmospheric observations of transiting gas giants and Neptunes are presented. While the full characterisation of an Earth-twin might requires a technological leap, our understanding of large terrestrial planets (so called super-Earths) orbiting bright, later-type stars is within reach by current space and ground telescopes. PMID:21302557

Tinetti, Giovanna; Griffith, Caitlin A; Swain, Mark R; Deroo, Pieter; Beaulieu, Jean Philippe; Vasisht, Gautam; Kipping, David; Waldmann, Ingo; Tennyson, Jonathan; Barber, Robert J; Bouwman, Jeroen; Allard, Nicole; Brown, Linda R

2010-01-01

131

Bio gas oil production from waste lard.  

PubMed

Besides the second generations bio fuels, one of the most promising products is the bio gas oil, which is a high iso-paraffin containing fuel, which could be produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of different triglycerides. To broaden the feedstock of the bio gas oil the catalytic hydrogenation of waste lard over sulphided NiMo/Al(2)O(3) catalyst, and as the second step, the isomerization of the produced normal paraffin rich mixture (intermediate product) over Pt/SAPO-11 catalyst was investigated. It was found that both the hydrogenation and the decarboxylation/decarbonylation oxygen removing reactions took place but their ratio depended on the process parameters (T = 280-380°C, P = 20-80 bar, LHSV = 0.75-3.0? h(-1) and H(2)/lard ratio: 600 ?Nm(3)/m(3)). In case of the isomerization at the favourable process parameters (T = 360-370°C, P = 40-50 bar, LHSV = 1.0? h(-1) and H(2)/hydrocarbon ratio: 400? Nm(3)/m(3)) mainly mono-branching isoparaffins were obtained. The obtained products are excellent Diesel fuel blending components, which are practically free of heteroatoms. PMID:21403875

Hancsók, Jeno; Baladincz, Péter; Kasza, Tamás; Kovács, Sándor; Tóth, Csaba; Varga, Zoltán

2011-01-01

132

How technology and price affect US tight gas potential. Part 1. Technology of tight gas production  

SciTech Connect

The tight gas resource in the US currently is estimated at 900 tcf, of which 600 tcf is considered technically recoverable. This gas is found in basins that cover a prospective area of one million square miles (one million sections). Of these, ca 120,000 sections are potentially productive. The tight gas picture is composed of many different and often complex reservoirs, ranging from the shallow horizons of the Northern Great Plains to the deep formations of the Rocky Mountains. These reservoirs range from the blanket-like formations that cover wide geographical areas to the highly lenticular zones such as those common to the Mesa Verde. The one thing they have in common is microdarcy permeabilities. A good perspective of the challenge is obvious when such permeability values are realized to be similar to that of cement normally used for oil and gas well casing strings. The advanced technology presumes improved exploration knowledge, longer fractures, higher fracture conductivity, and a higher density of well development. Advanced technology is particularly necessary for lenticular reservoirs which contain ca 40% of the recoverable gas.

Veatch, R.W. Jr.; Baker, O.

1983-01-01

133

Comet Encke - Gas production and lightcurve  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive set of observations, both from the ground and with the IUE, was planned for the 1984 apparition of Comet Encke. The observations were intended to confirm the behavior seen in 1980 and to study the behavior of the comet after perihelion. The results of the observations indicate that all the measured trace species display an asymmetry around the perihelion that is consistent with the visual light curve (VLC). But the total gas production as monitored by OH (the dominant species) displays a behavior that has no relation to the VLC.

Ahearn, M. F.; Birch, P. V.; Feldman, P. D.; Millis, R. L.

1985-01-01

134

The Advancement of Geothermal Energy Production through Improved Exploration Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technologies Program invested $98 million in the geothermal exploration industry, and continues to encourage further research, development and demonstration in this field. The continued development of innovative exploration technologies is essential for wide adoption of geothermal resources. In 2008, the United States Geological Survey estimated that there are approximately 30,000 MW of undiscovered hydrothermal resources in the western United States alone. Improvements in exploration technologies are necessary to discover and define these hidden resources and to reduce up-front risk and cost through more accurate and efficient exploration. Currently, the surface and subsurface are characterized through combinations of ground-based and airborne geophysical surveys, geochemical surveys, satellite imaging and drilling. However, to increase geothermal exploration well success rates, development of improved and new exploration techniques is required.

Thorsteinsson, H.; Klein, K.

2010-12-01

135

Evaluation of long-term gas hydrate production testing locations on the Alaska north slope  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The results of short duration formation tests in northern Alaska and Canada have further documented the energy resource potential of gas hydrates and justified the need for long-term gas hydrate production testing. Additional data acquisition and long-term production testing could improve the understanding of the response of naturally-occurring gas hydrate to depressurization-induced or thermal-, chemical-, and/or mechanical-stimulated dissociation of gas hydrate into producible gas. The Eileen gas hydrate accumulation located in the Greater Prudhoe Bay area in northern Alaska has become a focal point for gas hydrate geologic and production studies. BP Exploration (Alaska) Incorporated and ConocoPhillips have each established research partnerships with U.S. Department of Energy to assess the production potential of gas hydrates in northern Alaska. A critical goal of these efforts is to identify the most suitable site for production testing. A total of seven potential locations in the Prudhoe Bay, Kuparuk, and Milne Point production units were identified and assessed relative to their suitability as a long-term gas hydrate production test site. The test site assessment criteria included the analysis of the geologic risk associated with encountering reservoirs for gas hydrate testing. The site selection process also dealt with the assessment of the operational/logistical risk associated with each of the potential test sites. From this review, a site in the Prudhoe Bay production unit was determined to be the best location for extended gas hydrate production testing. The work presented in this report identifies the key features of the potential test site in the Greater Prudhoe Bay area, and provides new information on the nature of gas hydrate occurrence and potential impact of production testing on existing infrastructure at the most favorable sites. These data were obtained from well log analysis, geological correlation and mapping, and numerical simulation. Copyright 2011, Offshore Technology Conference.

Collett, T. S.; Boswell, R.; Lee, M. W.; Anderson, B. J.; Rose, K.; Lewis, K. A.

2011-01-01

136

A field gas chromatograph using technology developed for solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trace gas analysis is an integral part of biospheric studies. Analytical instruments, primarily gas chromatographs (GC), are capable of measuring gases and volatiles to the ppb-level in real time. Trace gases significant in the study of biocycles include nitrous oxide, hydrogen sulfide, other nitrogen and sulfur species, as well as methane and ethylene. The concept of a field gas chromatograph is derived from technology being pursued in the design of ultra-compact instruments for solar system exploration. The instrument breadboard incorporates the specialized porous column packings and the highly sensitive metastable ionization detector developed by the Solar System Exploration Office. These parts ensure a broad capability for which the analysis of ambient N2O is one example. A commercial, portable gas chromatograph is currently being extensively modified to incorporate analytical concepts and components derived from flight GC technology. Data storage devices suitable for field use are presently being studied.

Woeller, F. H.; Lehwalt, M. E.; Carle, Glenn C.

1985-01-01

137

The Advancement of Geothermal Energy Production through Improved Exploration Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Program invested $98 million in the geothermal exploration industry, and continues to encourage further research, development and demonstration in this field. The continued development of innovative exploration technologies is essential for wide adoption of geothermal resources. In 2008, the United States Geological Survey estimated

H. Thorsteinsson; K. Klein

2010-01-01

138

Gas production of three brands of ceftazidime.  

PubMed

Two sodium carbonate formulations of ceftazidime (Tazidime and Tazicef) and a new arginine formulation (Ceptaz) were evaluated for gas production and bubble formation within the drug reservoir and extension tubing of a portable infusion pump during a 24-hour delivery cycle. Triplicate samples of each brand of ceftazidime were studied under identical conditions. All formulations were constituted and diluted with sterile water for injection to a concentration of approximately 33 mg/mL, drawn into syringes, and expelled into infusion-pump drug reservoirs. Triplicate samples of degassed Tazidime and Tazicef were evaluated in the same manner. In one set of triplicate experiments, reservoirs for each formulation were attached to portable infusion pumps immediately after filling at room (23 degrees C) temperature and were programmed to deliver 25 mL over one hour every eight hours for a 24-hour delivery cycle. In a second experiment, reservoirs containing triplicate samples of each product were refrigerated (3 degrees C) for 24 hours before they were attached to the pumps for dose delivery. Visual observations were made for all pumping devices. In addition, multiple vials of each formulation were constituted, and the headspace pressure of the various formulations was monitored to compare the pressure build-up due to carbon dioxide. The presence of carbon dioxide was confirmed by gas chromatography. Pressure build-up due to carbon dioxide formation occurred in the ceftazidime sodium carbonate vials only. The sodium carbonate formulations required degrassing to reduce gas and bubble formation to a manageable level after constitution. Additionally, drug was lost because of spewing of some samples during withdrawal from the vial.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1910261

Stiles, M L; Allen, L V; Fox, J L

1991-08-01

139

Study of gas production potential of New Albany Shale (group) in the Illinois basin  

SciTech Connect

The New Albany Shale (Devonian and Mississippian) is recognized as both a source rock and gas-producing reservoir in the Illinois basin. The first gas discovery was made in 1885, and was followed by the development of several small fields in Harrison County, Indiana, and Meade County, Kentucky. Recently, exploration for and production of New Albany gas has been encouraged by the IRS Section 29 tax credit. To identify technology gaps that have restricted the development of gas production form the shale gas resource in the basin, the Illinois Basin Consortium (IBC), composed of the Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky geological surveys, is conducting a cooperative research project with the Gas Research Institute (GRI). An earlier study of the geological and geochemical aspects of the New Albany was conducted during 1976-1978 as part of the Eastern Gas Shales Project (EGSP) sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The current IBC/GRI study is designed to update and reinterpret EGSP data and incorporate new data obtained since 1978. During the project, relationships between gas production and basement structures are being emphasized by constructing cross sections and maps showing thickness, structure, basement features, and thermal maturity. The results of the project will be published in a comprehensive final report in 1992. The information will provide a sound geological basis for ongoing shale-gas research, exploration, and development in the basin.

Hasenmueller, N.R.; Boberg, W.S.; Comer, J.; Smidchens, Z. (Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington (United States)); Frankie, W.T.; Lumm, D.K. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign (United States)); Hamilton-Smith, T.; Walker, J.D. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington (United States))

1991-08-01

140

Project Explorer takes its second step: GAS-608 in engineering development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An a continuation of its Project Explorer series, the Alabama Space and Rocket Center is sponsoring the development of two additional Get Away Special payloads. Details are given of GAS-608, including descriptions of its six experiments in organic crystal growth, roach eggs, yeast, radish seeds, bacterial morphology, and silicon crystals. A brief summary is also presented of GAS-105 and the Space Camp program for stimulating student first hand participation in space flight studies. GAS-608 will carry six student experiments, which will involve biology, crystal growth, and biochemistry in addition to a centralized package for electronics and power supply.

Kitchens, Philip H.

1988-01-01

141

A preliminary comparison of gas core fission and inertial fusion for the space exploration initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential utilization of fission and fusion-based propulsion systems for solar system exploration is examined using a Mars mission as basis. One system employs the open cycle gas core fission reactor (GCR) as the energy source, while the other uses the fusion energy produced in an inertial Confinement Fusion (MICF) concept, to convert thermal energy into thrust. It is shown that

Terry Kammash; David L. Galbraith

1992-01-01

142

New integrated scheme of the closed gas-turbine cycle with synthesis gas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

New integrated scheme of the closed gas-turbine cycle with synthesis gas production was proposed. A comparative exergy analysis of the traditional gas-fired power generation cycle and proposed integrated gas-turbine cycle with synthesis gas production was carried out. The exergy losses in compressors and turbines are evaluated by using intrinsic coefficients. It has been shown that the integration of power generation

Michael S Granovskii; Mikhail S Safonov

2003-01-01

143

Arrangement and method for the production of liquid natural gas  

SciTech Connect

An arrangement and a method for the increase in the production of liquid natural gas and the conservation of energy and reduction of flash gas in a liquid natural gas manufacturing installation and, more particularly, the reduction in the quantity of formed flash gas through the novel utilization of a hydraulic expander in the installation for extracting work from the flow of liquid natural gas prior to flashing thereof.

Brundige, V.L. Jr.

1984-06-26

144

Reservoir controls on the occurrence and production of gas hydrates in nature  

USGS Publications Warehouse

modeling has shown that concentrated gas hydrate occurrences in sand reservoirs are conducive to existing well-based production technologies. The resource potential of gas hydrate accumulations in sand-dominated reservoirs have been assessed for several polar terrestrial basins. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assigned an in-place resource of 16.7 trillion cubic meters of gas for hydrates in sand-dominated reservoirs on the Alaska North Slope. In a more recent assessment, the USGS indicated that there are about 2.42 trillion cubic meters of technically recoverable gas resources within concentrated, sand-dominated, gas hydrate accumulations in northern Alaska. Estimates of the amount of in-place gas in the sand dominated gas hydrate accumulations of the Mackenzie Delta Beaufort Sea region of the Canadian arctic range from 1.0 to 10 trillion cubic meters of gas. Another prospective gas hydrate resources are those of moderate-to-high concentrations within sandstone reservoirs in marine environments. In 2008, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management estimated that the Gulf of Mexico contains about 190 trillion cubic meters of gas in highly concentrated hydrate accumulations within sand reservoirs. In 2008, the Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation reported on a resource assessment of gas hydrates in which they estimated that the volume of gas within the hydrates of the eastern Nankai Trough at about 1.1 trillion cubic meters, with about half concentrated in sand reservoirs. Because conventional production technologies favor sand-dominated gas hydrate reservoirs, sand reservoirs are considered to be the most viable economic target for gas hydrate production and will be the prime focus of most future gas hydrate exploration and development projects.

Collett, Timothy S.

2014-01-01

145

Exploring Careers in Radio and Television Program Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The career exploration program for grades 9 through 10, as part of a comprehensive K through 10 career development program, attempts to develop an awareness of and appreciation for work, extend knowledge of the variety of career opportunities, and provide experiences in career areas of individual interest. The document, a collection of materials…

Cincinnati Public Schools, OH.

146

Evaluation of Hot-Brine Stimulation Technique for Gas Production From Natural Gas Hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermally efficient production of natural gas can be accomplished by the use of hot brine to dissociate solid gas hydrate deposits in the earth. The advantages of brine stimulation over steam or hot-water injection are lower energy requirements for reservoir heating and hydrate dissociation, reduced heat losses, higher gas production, and improved thermal efficiency. In addition, the problems of blockage

Vidyadhar Kamath; Sanjay Godbole

1987-01-01

147

Coal gasification process. [improvement by adding coal and clean recycle gas to the product gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improvement in the Koppers--Totzek coal gasification system comprises the step of adding cool and clean recycle gas to the product gas as it leaves the gasifier unit, thereby eliminating the use of water sprays to quench the product gas.

Hess

1976-01-01

148

RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING  

SciTech Connect

A primary objective of the Institute for Energy Research (IER)-Santa Fe Snyder Corporation DOE Riverton Dome project is to test the validity of a new conceptual model and resultant exploration paradigm for so-called ''basin center'' gas accumulations. This paradigm and derivative exploration strategy suggest that the two most important elements crucial to the development of prospects in the deep, gas-saturated portions of Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB) are (1) the determination and, if possible, three-dimensional evaluation of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalous pressure regimes (i.e., this boundary is typically expressed as a significant inversion in both sonic and seismic velocity-depth profiles) , and (2) the detection and delineation of porosity/permeability ''sweet spots'' (i.e., areas of enhanced storage capacity and deliverability) in potential reservoir targets below this boundary. There are other critical aspects in searching for basin center gas accumulations, but completion of these two tasks is essential to the successful exploration for the unconventional gas resources present in anomalously pressured rock/fluid systems in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins. The southern Wind River Basin, in particular the Riverton Dome and Emigrant areas, is a neat location for testing this exploration paradigm. Preliminary work within the Wind River Basin has demonstrated that there is a regionally prominent pressure surface boundary that can be detected by inversions in sonic velocity depth gradients in individual well log profiles and that can be seen as a velocity inversion on seismic lines. Also, the Wind River Basin in general--and the Riverton Dome area specially--is characterized by a significant number of anomalously pressured gas accumulations. Most importantly, Santa Fe Snyder Corporation has provided the study with sonic logs, two 3-D seismic studies (40 mi{sup 2} and 30 mi {sup 2}) and a variety of other necessary geological and geophysical information.

Dr. Ronald C. Surdam

1999-08-01

149

Thermal reactor. [liquid silicon production from silane gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal reactor apparatus and method of pyrolyticaly decomposing silane gas into liquid silicon product and hydrogen by-product gas is disclosed. The thermal reactor has a reaction chamber which is heated well above the decomposition temperature of silane. An injector probe introduces the silane gas tangentially into the reaction chamber to form a first, outer, forwardly moving vortex containing the liquid silicon product and a second, inner, rewardly moving vortex containing the by-product hydrogen gas. The liquid silicon in the first outer vortex deposits onto the interior walls of the reaction chamber to form an equilibrium skull layer which flows to the forward or bottom end of the reaction chamber where it is removed. The by-product hydrogen gas in the second inner vortex is removed from the top or rear of the reaction chamber by a vortex finder. The injector probe which introduces the silane gas into the reaction chamber is continually cooled by a cooling jacket.

Levin, H.; Ford, L. B. (inventors)

1982-01-01

150

Gas production from thermal decomposition of explosives: Assessing the thermal stabilities of energetic materials from gas production data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gas formation associated with the thermal decompositions of nineteen energetic materials was determined at three temperatures (120°C, 220°C and 320°C). Although there was considerable variability within classes, among the largest producers of gas were the nitrate esters. PETN (pentaerythritol nitrate) generated about 6.3mole gas per mole, while nitrocellulose, produced almost no gas. Second in gas production were the nitramines,

J. C. Oxley; J. L. Smith; E. Rogers; X. X. Dong

2000-01-01

151

Exploring Uranium Resource Constraints on Fissile Material Production in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates possible scenarios for Pakistan's uranium enrichment and plutonium production programs since the late 1970s by using Pakistan's supply of natural uranium as a constraint. Since international sanctions have prevented Pakistan from importing uranium for decades, it has had to rely on domestic uranium production—currently estimated as approximately 40 tons a year. The paper divides the development of

ZIA MIAN; A. H. NAYYAR; R. RAJARAMAN

2009-01-01

152

Air quality concerns of unconventional oil and natural gas production.  

PubMed

Increased use of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") in unconventional oil and natural gas (O & NG) development from coal, sandstone, and shale deposits in the United States (US) has created environmental concerns over water and air quality impacts. In this perspective we focus on how the production of unconventional O & NG affects air quality. We pay particular attention to shale gas as this type of development has transformed natural gas production in the US and is set to become important in the rest of the world. A variety of potential emission sources can be spread over tens of thousands of acres of a production area and this complicates assessment of local and regional air quality impacts. We outline upstream activities including drilling, completion and production. After contrasting the context for development activities in the US and Europe we explore the use of inventories for determining air emissions. Location and scale of analysis is important, as O & NG production emissions in some US basins account for nearly 100% of the pollution burden, whereas in other basins these activities make up less than 10% of total air emissions. While emission inventories are beneficial to quantifying air emissions from a particular source category, they do have limitations when determining air quality impacts from a large area. Air monitoring is essential, not only to validate inventories, but also to measure impacts. We describe the use of measurements, including ground-based mobile monitoring, network stations, airborne, and satellite platforms for measuring air quality impacts. We identify nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), ozone, hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and methane as pollutants of concern related to O & NG activities. These pollutants can contribute to air quality concerns and they may be regulated in ambient air, due to human health or climate forcing concerns. Close to well pads, emissions are concentrated and exposure to a wide range of pollutants is possible. Public health protection is improved when emissions are controlled and facilities are located away from where people live. Based on lessons learned in the US we outline an approach for future unconventional O & NG development that includes regulation, assessment and monitoring. PMID:24699994

Field, R A; Soltis, J; Murphy, S

2014-05-01

153

GASCAP: Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model documentation, June 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model (GASCAP) has been developed by EIA to provide a historical analysis of the monthly productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead and a projection of monthly capacity for 2 years into the future. The impact of drilling, oil and gas price assumptions, and demand on gas productive capacity are examined. Both gas-well gas and oil-well gas are included. Oil-well gas productive capacity is estimated separately and then combined with the gas-well gas productive capacity. This documentation report provides a general overview of the GASCAP Model, describes the underlying data base, provides technical descriptions of the component models, diagrams the system and subsystem flow, describes the equations, and provides definitions and sources of all variables used in the system. This documentation report is provided to enable users of EIA projections generated by GASCAP to understand the underlying procedures used and to replicate the models and solutions. This report should be of particular interest to those in the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas.

Not Available

1993-07-01

154

Gas Hearth Products Market Fact Base. Topical Report, January 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Gas Hearth Products Market Fact Base is an analysis of the U.S. gas log and fireplace markets. The study was undertaken to: determine current usage of and attitudes about fireplaces; identify barriers to acceptance of gas logs and fireplaces; determin...

1996-01-01

155

Modeling landfill gas production and movement: Principal landfill gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A landfill gas generation and movement model is presented in this dissertation. The model is based on solution of a Darcy's law formulation of single component fluid flow in porous media in three dimensions, using a finite element technique. The effects of varying gas production rates, material porosities, and landfill covers, liners, and gas extraction wells are incorporated in the

1991-01-01

156

17 years of gas production from coal. [SASOL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant of South African Coal Oil and Gas Corp., Ltd., at Sasolburg was expanded to produce gas for ammonia synthesis and a 500 Btu industrial gas in addition to synthetic liquid hydrocarbons. The plant uses Lurgi coal gasification, Lurgi Rectisol, and Lurgi Phenosolvan processes. Present production of 219 million cu ft\\/day is provided by 11 of the 13 installed

Hoogendom

1972-01-01

157

Gulf of Mexico operations bolster U.S. oil and gas production  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the development and exploration activities currently going on in the Gulf of Mexico and attempts to show that this will the prime source of oil and gas development in the US for the foreseeable future. It provides numbers on the drilling and production statistics of the Gulf as compared to the other major oil and gas regions. It then compares the development costs of the various fields to show why the offshore Gulf Coast is a favorite target during the current market conditions. It provides information on the estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources by region to further demonstrate the need to explore in this area. It goes on to provide specifics on oil and gas leasing activities, technology gains, and current research going on in the Gulf area.

Koen, A.D.

1996-01-22

158

In situ propellant production: Alternatives for Mars exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current planning for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) recognizes the need for extraterrestrial resources to sustain long-term human presence and to attain some degree of self-sufficiency. As a practical matter, reducing the need to carry large supplies of propellant from Earth will make space exploration more economical. For nearly every round trip planned with conventional propulsion, the actual payload is only a small fraction - perhaps 10-15 percent - of the mass launched from Earth. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential application for SEI missions of propellants made exclusively from lunar or martian resources. Using such propellants could minimize or eliminate the cost of carrying propellant for surface excursion vehicles and return transfers through two high-energy maneuvers: Earth launch and trans-Mars injection. Certain chemical mono- and bipropellants are candidates for this approach; they could be recovered entirely from in situ resources on the Moon and Mars, without requiring a continuing Earth-based resupply of propellant constituents (e.g., fuel to mix with a locally obtained oxidizer) and, perhaps, with minimal need to resupply consumables (e.g., reagents or catalyst for process reactions). A complete assessment of the performance potential of these propellants must include the requirements for installation, operations, maintenance, and resupply of the chemical processing facility.

Stancati, Michael L.; Jacobs, Mark K.; Cole, Kevin J.; Collins, John T.

1991-01-01

159

Hydraulic Fracturing and Shale Gas Production: Technology, Impacts, and Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hydraulic fracturing is a key technique that has enabled the economic production of natural gas from shale deposits, or plays. The development of large-scale shale gas production is changing the U.S. energy market, generating expanded interest in the usag...

A. Burnham C. Clark C. Harto R. Horner

2012-01-01

160

Gas Production from Hydrate-Bearing Sediments - Emergent Phenomena -  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even a small fraction of fine particles can have a significant effect on gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments and sediment stability. Experiments were conducted to investigate the role of fine particles on gas production using a soil chamber that allows for the application of an effective stress to the sediment. This chamber was instrumented to monitor shear-wave velocity, temperature, pressure,

J. W. Jung; J. W. Jang; Costas Tsouris; Tommy Joe Phelps; Claudia J Rawn; Carlos Santamarina

2012-01-01

161

Gas production and migration in landfills and geological materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landfill gas, originating from the anaerobic biodegradation of the organic content of waste, consists mainly of methane and carbon dioxide, with traces of volatile organic compounds. Pressure, concentration and temperature gradients that develop within the landfill result in gas emissions to the atmosphere and in lateral migration through the surrounding soils. Environmental and safety issues associated with the landfill gas require control of off-site gas migration. The numerical model TOUGH2-LGM (Transport of Unsaturated Groundwater and Heat-Landfill Gas Migration) has been developed to simulate landfill gas production and migration processes within and beyond landfill boundaries. The model is derived from the general non-isothermal multiphase flow simulator TOUGH2, to which a new equation of state module is added. It simulates the migration of five components in partially saturated media: four fluid components (water, atmospheric air, methane and carbon dioxide) and one energy component (heat). The four fluid components are present in both the gas and liquid phases. The model incorporates gas-liquid partitioning of all fluid components by means of dissolution and volatilization. In addition to advection in the gas and liquid phase, multi-component diffusion is simulated in the gas phase. The landfill gas production rate is proportional to the organic substrate and is modeled as an exponentially decreasing function of time. The model is applied to the Montreal's CESM landfill site, which is located in a former limestone rock quarry. Existing data were used to characterize hydraulic properties of the waste and the limestone. Gas recovery data at the site were used to define the gas production model. Simulations in one and two dimensions are presented to investigate gas production and migration in the landfill, and in the surrounding limestone. The effects of a gas recovery well and landfill cover on gas migration are also discussed.

Nastev, Miroslav; Therrien, René; Lefebvre, René; Gélinas, Pierre

2001-11-01

162

Lunar Thermal Wadis and Exploration Rovers: Outpost Productivity and Participatory Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation introduces the concept of a thermal wadi, an engineered source of thermal energy that can be created using native material on the moon or elsewhere to store solar energy for use by various lunar surface assets to survive the extremely cold environment of the lunar night. A principal benefit of this approach to energy storage is the low mass requirement for transportation from Earth derived from the use of the lunar soil, or regolith, as the energy storage medium. The presentation includes a summary of the results of a feasibility study involving the numerical modeling of the performance of a thermal wadi including a manufactured thermal mass, a solar energy reflector, a nighttime thermal energy reflector and a lunar surface rover. The feasibility study shows that sufficient thermal energy can be stored using unconcentrated solar flux to keep a lunar surface rover sufficiently warm throughout a 354 hour lunar night at the lunar equator, and that similar approaches can be used to sustain surface assets during shorter dark periods that occur at the lunar poles. The presentation includes descriptions of a compact lunar rover concept that could be used to manufacture a thermal wadi and could alternatively be used to conduct a variety of high-value tasks on the lunar surface. Such rovers can be produced more easily because the capability for surviving the lunar night is offloaded to the thermal wadi infrastructure. The presentation also includes several concepts for operational scenarios that could be implemented on the moon using the thermal wadi and compact rover concepts in which multiple affordable rovers, operated by multiple terrestrial organizations, can conduct resource prospecting and human exploration site preparation tasks.

Sacksteder, Kurt; Wegeng, Robert; Suzuki, Nantel

2009-01-01

163

Modeling of Gas Production from Unconfined Hydrate Reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Description of material: Large quantities of natural gas hydrates are present in marine sediments along the coastlines of many countries as well as in the arctic region. The production of gas from these naturally occurring gas hydrates is difficult due to complexity of thermodynamics and fluid flow involved in the process. This research is aimed at assessing production of natural gas from unconfined marine deposits of methane gas hydrates. An implicit, multiphase, multi-component, thermal, 3D simulator is used which can simulate formation and dissociation of hydrates in porous media in both equilibrium and kinetic modes. Three components (hydrate, methane and water) and four phases (hydrate, gas, aqueous-phase and ice) are considered. In this work we simulate depressurization and warm water flooding for gas production from hydrates in reservoirs underlain by an unconfined aquifer layer. Water flooding has been studied as a function of injection temperature, injection pressure, production pressure and degree of un-confinement. Application: In order to produce gas from hydrates economically, efficient production techniques must be developed. Experiments on hydrates are difficult to perform; feasibility of production can be found from simulations. Hydrate reservoirs associated with unconfined aquifer beneath are not uncommon. The determination of injection and production conditions for these reservoirs through simulation will help in designing the effective production techniques. Results and discussion: For the unconfined reservoirs associated with large aquifers the production by depressurization is inefficient. Water from the aquifer maintains the pressure in the reservoir except in the near-well regions. Warm water flooding is very effective in hydrate dissociation. Sensitivity of gas production to injection and production well conditions and degree of un-confinement has been studied. Significant new contribution: Production strategy for unconfined hydrate reservoirs.

Phirani, J.; Mohanty, K.; Hirasaki, G.

2008-12-01

164

Exploring better product design with Topology Optimization and Manufacturing Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the design synthesis process, it has become a prime focus of all modern enterprises to optimal design an initial layout of the component that fulfill aesthetics, quality, and manufacturing constraints. Topology optimization is used to design an optimal initial layout of the component and computer simulations in CAE environment have also become vital tools to shorter product development time

W. Saleem; Dai LiPing; Fan YuQing

2008-01-01

165

Derivational Morphophonology: Exploring Errors in Third Graders' Productions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study describes a post hoc analysis of segmental, stress, and syllabification errors in third graders' productions of derived English words with the stress-changing suffixes "-ity" and "-ic." We investigated whether (a) derived word frequency influences error patterns, (b) stress and syllabification errors always co-occur, and (c)…

Jarmulowicz, Linda; Hay, Sarah E.

2009-01-01

166

Mercury in soil gas and air--A potential tool in mineral exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mercury content in soil gas and in the atmosphere was measured in several mining districts to test the possibility that the mercury content in the atmosphere is higher over ore deposits than over barren ground. At Cortez, Nev., the distribution of anorhalous amounts of mercury in the air collected at ground level (soil gas) correlates well with the distribution of gold-bearing rocks that are covered by as much as 100 feet of gravel. The mercury content in the atmosphere collected at an altitude of 200 feet by an aircraft was 20 times background over a mercury posit and 10 times background over two porphyry copper deposits. Measurement of mercury in soil gas and air may prove to be a valuable exploration tool.

McCarthy, Joseph Howard; Vaughn, W. W.; Learned, R. E.; Meuschke, J. L.

1969-01-01

167

Heat Production as a Tool in Geothermal Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat flow data (together with knowledge, or assumptions, of stratigraphy, thermal conductivity and heat production) provide the prime parameter for estimating the potential of geothermal resources. Unfortunately this information is expensive to obtain as it requires deep boreholes. Consequently it is sparse or lacking in areas not traditionally considered as having geothermal potential. New England (and most of the northeastern U.S.A.) is one such area. However, in the absence of volcano-derived hydrothermal activity with its attendant high heat flow, granitic plutons provide an alternative geothermal resource. Compared with other crustal rocks, granites contain higher concentrations of heat-producing elements (K, U, Th). Additionally, they are relatively homogeneous, compared to surrounding country rock, allowing for stimulation through hydro-fracking of large (>1 km3) geothermal reservoirs. Consequently we have adopted a different approach, obtaining heat production data rather then relying on the very sparse heat flow data. Birch and colleagues long since recognized the relationship between heat flow and heat production as an integral part of their concept of Heat Flow Provinces. Heat production is readily determined in the laboratory by measuring the density of a sample and the concentrations of its heat-producing elements potassium, uranium and thorium. We have determined the heat production for 570 samples from most of the major granitic and gneissic bodies in Massachusetts and Connecticut. We have also measured these parameters for 70 sedimentary rocks that cover granites and gneiss in the Connecticut and Narragansett Basins. This data is being used to calculate inferred heat flow data for these localities. Comparison of these inferred heat flow values with the sparse number of those measured directly in boreholes in the two States is encouraging, indicating that this approach has merit. We have also measured thermal conductivity on all of these samples. This, together with the measured heat production and the inferred heat flow allow the calculation of inferred temperature - depth profiles for these localities, from which we have produced maps showing the distribution of heat production, thermal conductivity, inferred heat flow and inferred temperatures at depths of 2, 4 and 6 km in the two States. We believe that this is a rapid and relatively cheap approach for evaluating the geothermal potential of a region lacking in heat flow data allowing identification of areas that warrant more detailed investigation which would include geophysical surveys and drilling. In Massachusetts and Connecticut such areas include the Fitchburg pluton, Permian granites and the Narragansett and Hartford Basins, where gneiss and granites are buried beneath Carboniferous and Triassic sediments respectively. This project is funded by the Department of Energy through an award to the Association of American State Geologists.

Rhodes, J. M.; Koteas, C.; Mabee, S. B.; Thomas, M.; Gagnon, T.

2012-12-01

168

Biomass pyrolysis\\/gasification for product gas production: the overall investigation of parametric effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional biomass pyrolysis\\/gasification process for production of medium heating value gas for industrial or civil applications faces two disadvantages, i.e. low gas productivity and the accompanying corrosion of downstream equipment caused by the high content of tar vapour contained in the gas phase. The objective of this paper is to overcome these disadvantages, and therefore, the effects of the

G Chen; J Andries; Z Luo; H Spliethoff

2003-01-01

169

Measuring micro-organism gas production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transducer, which senses pressure buildup, is easy to assemble and use, and rate of gas produced can be measured automatically and accurately. Method can be used in research, in clinical laboratories, and for environmental pollution studies because of its ability to detect and quantify rapidly the number of gas-producing microorganisms in water, beverages, and clinical samples.

Wilkins, J. R.; Pearson, A. O.; Mills, S. M.

1973-01-01

170

Theoretical assessment of 3-D magnetotelluric method for oil and gas exploration: Synthetic examples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In petroleum explorations, seismic reflection technique has been almost always the preferred method for its high exploration depth and resolution. However, with the development of three dimensional (3D) inversion and interpretation schemes, much potential has been shown in MT method dealing with complex geological structures as in oil and gas exploration. In this study, synthetic geophysical models of petroleum reservoir structures are modeled and utilized to demonstrate that feasibility of 3-D MT technique for hydrocarbon exploration. A series of typical reservoir structure models are constructed and used to generate synthetic MT and seismic data to test the capabilities of 2-D/3-D MT and 2-D seismic inversion techniques. According to the inversion comparison, in addition to correctly retrieve the original forward model, the 3-D MT method also has some advantages over the reflective seismology method, which suffered from the lack of reflection wave and multiple wave problems. With the presented 3-D high resolution MT inversion method, MT techniques should be employed as one of the first choices for petroleum explorations.

Zhang, Kun; Wei, Wenbo; Lu, Qingtian; Dong, Hao; Li, Yanqing

2014-07-01

171

Personalizing to Product Category Knowledge: Exploring the Mediating Effect of Shopping Tools on Decision Confidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior efforts in personalization have focused primarily on modeling individual consumer's preferences so that products for which they have a higher likelihood of purchasing are presented. In this study we explore the potential of an approach to personalization focusing on customizing shopping tools based on a consumer's Product Category Knowledge. The low Product Category Knowledge user may not be able

Arnold Kamis; Michael J. Davern

2004-01-01

172

How technology and price affect US tight gas potential. Part 1. Technology of tight gas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tight gas resource in the US currently is estimated at 900 tcf, of which 600 tcf is considered technically recoverable. This gas is found in basins that cover a prospective area of one million square miles (one million sections). Of these, ca 120,000 sections are potentially productive. The tight gas picture is composed of many different and often complex

R. W. Jr. Veatch; O. Baker

1983-01-01

173

Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas hydrate petroleum system, to discuss advances, requirement and suggested practices in gas hydrate (GH) prospecting and GH deposit characterization, and to review the associated technical, economic and environmental challenges

G. J. Moridis; T. S. Collett; M. Pooladi-Darvish; S. Hancock; C. Santamarina; R. Boswell; T. Kneafsey; J. Rutqvist; M. Kowalsky; M. T. Reagan; E. D. Sloan; A. K. Sum; C. Koh

2010-01-01

174

Compartmentation in the Anadarko basin: Implications for exploration and production  

SciTech Connect

Integrated pressure, potentiometric, and geologic data demonstrate the existence of a basin-wide, completely sealed overpressured compartment in the Anadarko basin. All reservoirs within this complex exhibit pressure gradients ranging from 0.6 to 0.98 pst/ft, which exceed the normal gradient of 0.465 psi/ft. These reservoirs have produced large quantities of natural gas, particularly from the Pennsylvanian Red Fork and Morrowan sandstones. This mega compartment complex is enclosed by top, bottom, and lateral seals. The top seal, which is located between 8500 and 11,000 ft below the surface, is relatively horizontal, dips slightly to the southwest, and appears to cut across stratigraphy. However, the basal seal is stratigraphically controlled and seems to coincide with the Devonian Woodford Shale. The complex is laterally sealed to the south by an intense cementation zone associated with the Wichita uplift frontal fault zone and by the convergence of the top and basal seals along the eastern, northern, and western boundaries. Nested within this complex is a myriad of smaller compartments with their own distinct pressure gradients. In addition, local overpressured compartments are present outside the mega compartment complex in normal and near-normal pressured regions. Due to their hydraulically isolated nature, nested pressure compartments may provide drilling prospects that are not constrained by structural position or proximity to existing reservoirs. Predicting the compartment and seal geometries and internal reservoir quality should improve drilling success ratios and diminish hazards associated with drilling abnormally pressured rock sequences.

Al-Shaieb, Z. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

1995-09-01

175

THE EFFECTS OF SLACK RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL THREAT ON PRODUCT EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a U.S. sample of nonprofit professional theaters, we examine how slack resources interact with environmental threat appraisal to influence product exploration and exploitation. We find systematic variation depending on the extent to which a resource is rare and absorbed in operations, and the extent of perceived environmental threats. Absorbed, generic resources are associated with increased exploitation and decreased exploration.

Glenn B. Voss; Deepak Sirdeshmukh; ZANNIE GIRAUD VOSS

2008-01-01

176

Integrated production of fuel gas and oxygenated organic compounds from synthesis gas  

DOEpatents

An oxygenated organic liquid product and a fuel gas are produced from a portion of synthesis gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur-containing compounds in a integrated feed treatment and catalytic reaction system. To prevent catalyst poisoning, the sulfur-containing compounds in the reactor feed are absorbed in a liquid comprising the reactor product, and the resulting sulfur-containing liquid is regenerated by stripping with untreated synthesis gas from the reactor. Stripping offgas is combined with the remaining synthesis gas to provide a fuel gas product. A portion of the regenerated liquid is used as makeup to the absorber and the remainder is withdrawn as a liquid product. The method is particularly useful for integration with a combined cycle coal gasification system utilizing a gas turbine for electric power generation.

Moore, Robert B. (Allentown, PA); Hegarty, William P. (State College, PA); Studer, David W. (Wescosville, PA); Tirados, Edward J. (Easton, PA)

1995-01-01

177

Exploring Exploring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners will investigate, discuss, and determine why humans have always explored the world (and now space) around them. Students determine these reasons for exploration through a class discussion. In the first activity, students use the Internet to examine the characteristics of past explorers and why they conducted their exploration. The students then examine why current explorers - including the students themselves - want to explore other worlds in the Solar System. By the end of the lesson, the students can conclude that no matter what or when we explore - past, present, or future - the reasons for exploration are the same; the motivation for exploration is universal.

178

Methanol production with elemental phosphorus byproduct gas: technical and economic feasibility  

SciTech Connect

The technical and economic feasibility of using a typical, elemental, phosphorus byproduct gas stream in methanol production is assessed. The purpose of the study is to explore the potential of a substitute for natural gas. The first part of the study establishes economic tradeoffs between several alternative methods of supplying the hydrogen which is needed in the methanol synthesis process to react with CO from the off gas. The preferred alternative is the Battelle Process, which uses natural gas in combination with the off gas in an economically sized methanol plant. The second part of the study presents a preliminary basic design of a plant to (1) clean and compress the off gas, (2) return recovered phosphorus to the phosphorus plant, and (3) produce methanol by the Battelle Process. Use of elemental phosphorus byproduct gas in methanol production appears to be technically feasible. The Battelle Process shows a definite but relatively small economic advantage over conventional methanol manufacture based on natural gas alone. The process would be economically feasible only where natural gas supply and methanol market conditions at a phosphorus plant are not significantly less favorable than at competing methanol plants. If off-gas streams from two or more phosphorus plants could be combined, production of methanol using only offgas might also be economically feasible. The North American methanol market, however, does not seem likely to require another new methanol project until after 1990. The off-gas cleanup, compression, and phosphorus-recovery system could be used to produce a CO-rich stream that could be economically attractive for production of several other chemicals besides methanol.

Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

1981-01-01

179

Improving production efficiency as a strategy to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions on pastoral dairy farms in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Zealand's commitment to the Kyoto Protocol requires agriculture, including dairy farming, to reduce current greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 20% by 2012. A modeling exercise to explore the cumulative impact of dairy management decisions on GHG emissions and profitability is reported. The objective was to maintain production, but reduce GHG emissions per unit of land and product by

P. C. Beukes; P. Gregorini; A. J. Romera; G. Levy; G. C. Waghorn

2010-01-01

180

Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer observations of high-velocity gas associated with the Monoceros Loop SNR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) observations of high-velocity gas (VLSR = +65 km s-1) seen towards the star HD 47240 which lies just behind the Monoceros Loop Supernova Remnant at a distance of ~ 1800 pc. This high-velocity absorption feature is detected in the far ultraviolet lines of O I, Ar I, N I, C I, Fe II and P II, in addition to being detected at visible wavelengths in Na I and Ca II and at near ultraviolet wavelengths in Mg II, Mg I, S II, O I, Si II, C II*, Al II and Fe II. High-velocity interstellar gas has not been detected in the high-ionization (high-temperature) species of O VI, C IV and Si IV. Gas phase abundances relative to that of sulphur for this high velocity feature have been derived. The refractory elements of Fe, Si and Al are all less depleted than that normally found for cold disk gas in the interstellar medium, with a pattern of relative abundance more similar to that of warm interstellar disk gas. However, the elements of N, O, and Ar show an opposite pattern of relative depletion in which their apparent elemental deficiency may be attributed to ionization effects, as also found for high-velocity gas associated with the Vela SNR by Jenkins et al. (\\cite{jenkins98}). The lack of detection of high-ionization gas at high velocity suggests that the Monoceros Loop remnant is more evolved than other remnants such as the Vela SNR or Cygnus Loop, and that an age of 30 000-150 000 years seems appropriate.

Welsh, B. Y.; Sfeir, D. M.; Sallmen, S.; Lallement, R.

2001-06-01

181

Arctic Offshore Technology Assessment of Exploration and Production Options for Cold Regions of the US Outer Continental Shelf. (IMV Projects Atlantic Project No. C-0506-15).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study is to deliver an assessment of oil and gas technology that may be applied to cold regions of the United States Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). Advances in harsh environment offshore exploration and production technology have mad...

2008-01-01

182

The Effect of Oral ?-Galactosidase on Intestinal Gas Production and Gas-Related Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bloating, abdominal distention, and flatulence represent very frequent complaints in functional disorders but their pathophysiology\\u000a and treatment are largely unknown. Patients frequently associate these symptoms with excessive intestinal gas and the reduction\\u000a of gas production may represent an effective strategy. The aim was to evaluate the effect of ?-galactosidase administration,\\u000a in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled protocol, on intestinal gas production

Michele Di Stefano; Emanuela Miceli; Samantha Gotti; Antonio Missanelli; Samanta Mazzocchi; Gino Roberto Corazza

2007-01-01

183

Structure and shale gas production patterns from eastern Kentucky field  

SciTech Connect

Computer-derived subsurface structure, isopach, and gas-flow maps, based on 4000 drillers logs, have been generated for eastern Kentucky under a project sponsored by the Gas Research Institute. Structure maps show low-relief flextures related to basement structure. Some structures have been mapped at the surface, others have not. Highest final open-flow (fof) of shale gas from wells in Martin County follow a structural low between (basement) anticlines. From there, elevated gas flows (fof) extend westward along the Warfield monocline to Floyd County where the high flow (fof) trend extends southward along the Floyd County channel. In Knott County, the number of wells with high gas flow (fof) decreases abruptly. The center of highest gas flow (fof) in Floyd County spreads eastward to Pike County, forming a triangular shaped area of high production (fof). The center of highest gas flow (fof) is in an area where possible (basement) structure trends intersect and where low-relief surface folds (probably detached structure) were mapped and shown on the 1922 version of the Floyd County structure map. Modern regional maps, based on geophysical logs from widely spaced wells, do not define the low-relief structures that have been useful in predicting gas flow trends. Detailed maps based on drillers logs can be misleading unless carefully edited. Comparative analysis of high gas flows (fof) and 10-year cumulative production figures in a small area confirms that there is a relationship between gas flow (fof) values and long-term cumulative production.

Shumaker, R.C.

1987-09-01

184

Gas hearth products market fact base. Topical report, January 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Gas Hearth Products Market Fact Base is an analysis of the U.S. gas log and fireplace markets. The study was undertaken to: determine current usage of and attitudes about fireplaces; identify barriers to acceptance of gas logs and fireplaces; determine the influence of service providers, and; identify important trends that can affect the markets for gas hearth products. The market fact base is based on four studies: a market analysis synthesizing primary and secondary research reports; in-depth interviews with market influencers from across the country (architects, contractors, interior designers, fireplace retailers and installers) and industry experts from gas utilities and trade associations; focus group meetings with consumers who own or intend to buy fireplaces, gas fireplace industry professionals, and editors of fireplace-related trade magazines, and; quantitative interviews with consumers in six U.S. cities.

NONE

1996-02-01

185

Strategies for gas production from oceanic Class 3 hydrateaccumulations  

SciTech Connect

Gas hydrates are solid crystalline compounds in which gasmolecules are lodged within the lattices of ice crystals. Vast amounts ofCH4 are trapped in gas hydrates, and a significant effort has recentlybegun to evaluate hydrate deposits as a potential energy source. Class 3hydrate deposits are characterized by an isolated Hydrate-Bearing Layer(HBL) that is not in contact with any hydrate-free zone of mobile fluids.The base of the HBL in Class 3 deposits may occur within or at the edgeof the zone of thermodynamic hydrate stability.In this numerical study oflong-term gas production from typical representatives of unfracturedClass 3 deposits, we determine that simple thermal stimulation appears tobe a slow and inefficient production method. Electrical heating and warmwater injection result in very low production rates (4 and 12 MSCFD,respectively) that are orders of magnitude lower than generallyacceptable standards of commercial viability of gas production fromoceanic reservoirs. However, production from depressurization-baseddissociation based on a constant well pressure appears to be a promisingapproach even in deposits characterized by high hydrate saturations. Thisapproach allows the production of very large volumes ofhydrate-originating gas at high rates (>15 MMSCFD, with a long-termaverage of about 8.1 MMSCFD for the reference case) for long times usingconventional technology. Gas production from hydrates is accompanied by asignificant production of water. However, unlike conventional gasreservoirs, the water production rate declines with time. The lowsalinity of the produced water may require care in its disposal. Becauseof the overwhelming advantage of depressurization-based methods, thesensitivity analysis was not extendedto thermal stimulation methods. Thesimulation results indicate that depressurization-induced gas productionfrom oceanic Class 3 deposits increases (and the corresponding waterto-gas ratio decreases) with increasing hydrate temperature (whichdefines the hydrate stability), increasing intrinsic permeability of theHBL, and decreasing hydrate saturation although depletion of the hydratemay complicate the picture in the latter case.

Moridis, George J.; Reagan, Matthew T.

2007-05-01

186

Federal offshore statistics: 1995 - leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides data on federal offshore operations for 1995. Information is included for leasing activities, development, petroleum and natural gas production, sales and royalties, revenue from federal offshore leasing, disbursement of federal reven...

R. A. Gaechter

1997-01-01

187

Process for production desulfurized of synthesis gas  

DOEpatents

A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1900.degree.-2600.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises a calcium-containing compound portion, a sodium-containing compound portion, and a fluoride-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (1) a sulfur-containing sodium-calcium-fluoride silicate phase; and (2) a sodium-calcium sulfide phase.

Wolfenbarger, James K. (Torrance, CA) [Torrance, CA; Najjar, Mitri S. (Wappingers Falls, NY) [Wappingers Falls, NY

1993-01-01

188

US offshore oil and gas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the introduction, contents of this report includes background information, which covers chemical composition of hydrocarbons, geology and ocean environment, and process of field development. Process field development include: overview of the process; federal and state leasing policies; geological and geophysical exploration; drilling (drill bit and drill string, hoisting system, circulating system, power plant, blowout prevention systems, riser system); exploratory

Kroon

1986-01-01

189

Cathodic H2 gas production through Pd alloy membrane electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rechargeable H2-NiOOH cell with hydrogen-permeable membrane electrode was tested, and its cathodic hydrogen gas production through the membrane electrode investigated. When a Pd-Pt, catalyzed electrolyte-facing surface was cathodically polarized in a concentrated KOH solution, it was found that hydrogen gas was evolved in the chamber through dissolved hydrogen atoms' penetrating of the membrane to exit at the other, palladized surface as free gas.

Shirogami, T.; Murata, K.

190

Verification of capillary functions and relative permeability equations for gas production from hydrate bearing sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several studies of numerical simulation on predicting long-term behavior of hydrate-bearing sediments during gas production. Numerical simulators explore coupled processes that require numerous equations and parameters. Important equations for the estimation of gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments are soil-water characteristic curves and relative permeability equations. These equations require empirical parameters, laboratory and in-situ experiments which are very difficult and expensive. In this research, pore-network model simulation is performed to obtain the fitting parameters for capillary pressure functions and relative permeability equations. First, several sediment packings similar to in-situ sediment are generated by discrete element method. Then, the pore-network model is extracted from the pore space of sediment packing as a system of pores connected at throats. Numerical algorithm to simulate gas hydrate dissociation and gas expansion, and calculate gas and water relative permeability at every saturation is developed for the pore-network model. The assessment of water pore connectivity and the identification of gas clusters are performed using Hoshen-Kopelman algorithm. Finally, reliable fitting parameters for capillary pressure functions and relative permeability equations during gas production will be suggested for further use.

Mahabadi Mahabad, N.; Jang, J.

2013-12-01

191

Exploring Potential U.S. Switchgrass Production for Lignocellulosic Ethanol  

SciTech Connect

In response to concerns about oil dependency and the contributions of fossil fuel use to climatic change, the U.S. Department of Energy has begun a research initiative to make 20% of motor fuels biofuel based in 10 years, and make 30% of fuels bio-based by 2030. Fundamental to this objective is developing an understanding of feedstock dynamics of crops suitable for cellulosic ethanol production. This report focuses on switchgrass, reviewing the existing literature from field trials across the United States, and compiling it for the first time into a single database. Data available from the literature included cultivar and crop management information, and location of the field trial. For each location we determined latitude and longitude, and used this information to add temperature and precipitation records from the nearest weather station. Within this broad database we were able to identify the major sources of variation in biomass yield, and to characterize yield as a function of some of the more influential factors, e.g., stand age, ecotype, precipitation and temperature in the year of harvest, site latitude, and fertilization regime. We then used a modeling approach, based chiefly on climatic factors and ecotype, to predict potential yields for a given temperature and weather pattern (based on 95th percentile response curves), assuming the choice of optimal cultivars and harvest schedules. For upland ecotype varieties, potential yields were as high as 18 to 20 Mg/ha, given ideal growing conditions, whereas yields in lowland ecotype varieties could reach 23 to 27 Mg/ha. The predictive equations were used to produce maps of potential yield across the continental United States, based on precipitation and temperature in the long term climate record, using the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) in a Geographic Information System (GIS). Potential yields calculated via this characterization were subsequently compared to the Oak Ridge Energy Crop County Level data base (ORECCL), which was created at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Graham et al. 1996) to predict biofuel crop yields at the county level within a limited geographic area. Mapped output using the model was relatively consistent with known switchgrass distribution. It correctly showed higher yields for lowland switchgrass when compared with upland varieties at most locations. Projections for the most northern parts of the range suggest comparable yields for the two ecotypes, but inadequate data for lowland ecotypes grown at high latitudes make it difficult to fully assess this projection. The final model is a predictor of optimal yields for a given climate scenario, but does not attempt to identify or account for other limiting or interacting factors. The statistical model is nevertheless an improvement over historical efforts, in that it is based on quantifiable climatic differences, and it can be used to extrapolate beyond the historic range of switchgrass. Additional refinement of the current statistical model, or the use of different empirical or process-based models, might improve the prediction of switchgrass yields with respect to climate and interactions with cultivar and management practices, assisting growers in choosing high-yielding cultivars within the context of local environmental growing conditions.

Gunderson, Carla A [ORNL; Davis, Ethan [ORNL; Jager, Yetta [ORNL; West, Tristram O. [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Baskaran, Latha Malar [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL

2008-08-01

192

30 CFR 250.1102 - Oil and gas production rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1102 Oil and gas production rates. (a) MER. (1) The lessee shall submit a proposed MER for each producing sensitive reservoir on... (2) The lessee may propose to revise an MER by submitting Form MMS-127 with...

2009-07-01

193

Combustible gas production from sewage sludge with a downdraft gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, sewage sludge has particularly become an important problem all over the world because of its harmful impacts on the environment and living beings. It should be converted to combustible gas or useful energy in order to remove all its negative effects and to contribute to a significant portion of the power generation. In this study, combustible gas production from

Adnan Midilli; Murat Dogru; Colin R. Howarth; Mike J. Ling; Teoman Ayhan

2001-01-01

194

Natural gas production from hydrate decomposition by depressurization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a parametric study of natural gas production from the decomposition of methane hydrate in a confined reservoir by a depressurizing well. The one-dimensional linearized model suggested by Makogon is used in the analysis. For different well pressures and reservoir temperatures, distributions of temperature and pressure in the porous layer of methane hydrate and in the gas region

Chuang Ji; Goodarz Ahmadi; Duane H. Smith

2001-01-01

195

Production of Clean Fuel Gas From Bituminous Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process for the production of low-Btu gas from bituminous coals via fluid bed gasification is described. Coal processing consists of pretreatment, gasification, and final burnup. Hot fuel gas is desulfurized with half-calcined dolomite and cleaned of pa...

G. Curran J. Clancey B. Pasek M. Pell

1973-01-01

196

Eastern Europe: Former Soviet Union, Humpty Dumpty still on its fall. [Petroleum and natural gas exploration and development in the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the oil and gas exploration and development activities in the former Soviet Union on a republic by republic basis. It gives figures on new well drilling activities (footage and numbers of new wells), locations of this activity, and production. The paper concentrates on the effects of the Soviet Union break-up on the availability of supplies and markets and the associated logistical headaches which resulted. The paper also briefly discusses activities in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, and Slovenia.

Khartukov, E.M. (International Business School, Moscow (Russian Federation)); Vinogradova, O.V.

1993-08-01

197

Mitigating Accidents In Oil And Gas Production Facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated operations are increasingly used in oil and gas production facilities to improve yields, reduce costs and maximize profits. They leverage information and communications technology (ICT) to facilitate collaboration between experts at widely dispersed locations. This paper discusses the safety and security consequences of implementing integrated operations for oil and gas production. It examines the increased accident risk arising from the tight coupling of complex ICT and SCADA systems, and proposes technological, organizational and human factors based strategies for mitigating the risk.

Johnsen, Stig

198

Methane Oxyforming for Synthesis Gas Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is concerned with the reforming of methane to synthesis gas; a review of the steam reforming Rxn is presented, and the dry reforming and partial oxidation Rxns introduced. Collectively, these processes are known as “oxyforming.” A background to oxyforming, industrial practice, and some of the most important latest developments will be presented, along with a section on the

Andrew P. E. York; Malcolm L. H. Green; John B. Claridge

2007-01-01

199

From Paper to Production to Test: An Update on NASA's J-2X Engine for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/industry team responsible for developing the J-2X upper stage engine for the Space Launch System (SLS) Program has made significant progress toward moving beyond the design phase and into production, assembly, and test of development hardware. The J-2X engine exemplifies the SLS Program goal of using proven technology and experience from more than 50 years of United States spaceflight experience combined with modern manufacturing processes and approaches. It will power the second stage of the fully evolved SLS Program launch vehicle that will enable a return to human exploration of space beyond low earth orbit. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is under contract to develop and produce the engine, leveraging its flight-proven LH2/LOX, gas generator cycle J-2 and RS-68 engine capabilities, recent experience with the X-33 aerospike XRS-2200 engine, and development knowledge of the J-2S tap-off cycle engine. The J- 2X employs a gas generator operating cycle designed to produce 294,000 pounds of vacuum thrust in primary operating mode with its full nozzle extension. With a truncated nozzle extension suitable to support engine clustering on the stage, the nominal vacuum thrust level in primary mode is 285,000 pounds. It also has a secondary mode, during which it operates at 80 percent thrust by altering its mixture ratio. The J-2X development philosophy is based on proven hardware, an aggressive development schedule, and early risk reduction. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and PWR began development of the J-2X in June 2006. The government/industry team of more than 600 people within NASA and PWR successfully completed the Critical Design Review (CDR) in November 2008, following extensive risk mitigation testing. Assembly of the first development engine was completed in May 2011 and the first engine test was conducted at the NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC), test stand A2, on 14 July 2011. Testing of the first development engine will continue through the autumn of 2011, be paused for test stand modifications to the passive diffuser, and then restart in the spring of 2012. This testing will be followed by specialized powerpack testing intended to examine the design and operating margins of the engine turbomachinery. The development plan beyond this point leads through more system-level, engine testing of several samples, analytical model validation activities, functional and performance verification, and then ultimate certification to support human spaceflight. This paper will discuss the J-2X development background, provide top-level information on design and development planning, and will explore some of the development challenges and mitigation activities pursued to date.

Kynard, Michael

2011-01-01

200

30 CFR 560.116 - How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease... § 560.116 How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease? You must measure natural gas production on your eligible...

2013-07-01

201

21 CFR 886.5918 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. 886.5918... § 886.5918 Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens care product is a device...

2013-04-01

202

21 CFR 886.5918 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products.  

...false Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. 886.5918 Section 886...5918 Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens care product is a device intended...

2014-04-01

203

Advanced Exploration Systems Logistics Reduction and Repurposing Trash-to-Gas and Heat Melt Compactor KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics covered: 1. Project Structure 2. "Trash to Gas" 3. "Smashing Trash! The Heat Melt Compactor" 4. "Heat Melt Compaction as an Effective Treatment for Eliminating Microorganisms from Solid Waste" Thermal degradation of trash reduces volume while creating water, carbon dioxide and ash. CO2 can be fed to Sabatier reactor for CH4 production to fuel LOX/LCH4 ascent vehicle. Optimal performance: HFWS, full temperature ramp to 500-600 C. Tar challenges exist. Catalysis: Dolomag did eliminate allene byproducts from the product stream. 2nd Gen Reactor Studies. Targeting power, mass, time efficiency. Gas separation, Catalysis to reduce tar formation. Microgravity effects. Downselect in August will determine where we should spend time optimizing the technology.

Caraccio, Anne J.; Layne, Andrew; Hummerick, Mary

2013-01-01

204

Patterns of partner selection within a network of joint ventures in oil and gas exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaders of companies exploring for oil and gas had no means of characterizing the multitude of intercompany associations common to the industry. This study examined the patterns of intercompany associations, based on exploration lease joint ventures, for leases active on December 31, 2005 in the U.S. waters of the Gulf of Mexico. The company attributes examined in this study included company status, company size, lease joint venture network centrality, longevity of company lease ownership, and the extent of company operations. The joint count, network and spatial autocorrelation tests detected the significant patterning of intercompany associations by company status, but no patterning by company attributes including size, centrality, longevity, or extent. This study identified the strong tendency to homophily for major companies and heterophily for nonmajor companies. The overall tendency to heterophily by status remained across all the companies included in the study. Oil and gas company leaders and lease resource administrators can use insights from the observed patterns to inform partner selection decisions or lease administration practices.

Cooke, Jeffrey Emmet

205

Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits  

SciTech Connect

The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas hydrate petroleum system, to discuss advances, requirement and suggested practices in gas hydrate (GH) prospecting and GH deposit characterization, and to review the associated technical, economic and environmental challenges and uncertainties, including: the accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource, the development of methodologies for identifying suitable production targets, the sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments and sample analysis, the analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs, well testing methods and interpretation of the results, geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns, well design, operation and installation, field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs, monitoring production and geomechanical stability, laboratory investigations, fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior, the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates, and the associated environmental concerns.

Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswell, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Sloan, E.D.; Sum, A.K.; Koh, C.

2010-11-01

206

Explorative Particle Swarm Optimization method for gas\\/odor source localization in an indoor environment with no strong airflow  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an algorithm to localize a gas source by using a swarm of robots in a large indoor environment without the presence of a relevant wind. The algorithm is composed of two different phases: an exploration phase aiming at finding a clue of the presence of a gas source and a localization phase to detect the emitting source.

Gabriele Ferri; Emanuele Caselli; Virgilio Mattoli; Alessio Mondini; Barbara Mazzolai; Paolo Dario

2007-01-01

207

Preliminary report on the commercial viability of gas production from natural gas hydrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Economic studies on simulated gas hydrate reservoirs have been compiled to estimate the price of natural gas that may lead to economically viable production from the most promising gas hydrate accumulations. As a first estimate, $CDN2005 12/Mscf is the lowest gas price that would allow economically viable production from gas hydrates in the absence of associated free gas, while an underlying gas deposit will reduce the viability price estimate to $CDN2005 7.50/Mscf. Results from a recent analysis of the simulated production of natural gas from marine hydrate deposits are also considered in this report; on an IROR basis, it is $US2008 3.50-4.00/Mscf more expensive to produce marine hydrates than conventional marine gas assuming the existence of sufficiently large marine hydrate accumulations. While these prices represent the best available estimates, the economic evaluation of a specific project is highly dependent on the producibility of the target zone, the amount of gas in place, the associated geologic and depositional environment, existing pipeline infrastructure, and local tariffs and taxes. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Walsh, M. R.; Hancock, S. H.; Wilson, S. J.; Patil, S. L.; Moridis, G. J.; Boswell, R.; Collett, T. S.; Koh, C. A.; Sloan, E. D.

2009-01-01

208

Helium production in natural gas reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 11,000 published natural gas analyses of helium are used in the estimation of the average global scale accumulation and concentration of radiogenic helium in sediments. Simple lognormal statistics is employed to derive a net accumulation rate between 1†105 to 6.7†105 helium atoms per cubic meter of reservoir rock per second. This acccumulation rate permitted to infer an average helium

E. B. Pereira; J. A. S. Adams

1982-01-01

209

Helium production in natural gas reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 11,000 published natural gas analyses of helium are used in the estimation of the average global scale accumulation and concentration of radiogenic helium in sediments. Simple lognormal statistics is employed to derive a net accumulation rate between 1dagger10⁵ to 6.7dagger10⁵ helium atoms per cubic meter of reservoir rock per second. This acccumulation rate permitted to infer an average helium

E. B. Pereira; J. A. S. Adams

1982-01-01

210

Gas production and transport in artificial sludge depots.  

PubMed

This paper presents a study to determine the impact of gas production in dredging sludge on the storage capacity of artificial sludge depots. Gas is produced as a result of the decomposition of organic material present in dredging spoil. This process, in which methane and carbon dioxide are formed, may lead to expansion of sludge layers, partly or even completely counterbalancing consolidation. The study shows that, even with a very conservative estimation of the rate of gas production, accumulation of gas occurs as convective and diffusive transport proceed very slowly. Nucleation of gas bubbles occurs already at a limited oversaturation of pore water. During their growth, bubbles push aside the surrounding grain matrix. Resulting stresses may initiate cracks around bubbles. If these cracks join, they may form channels stretching out to the depot surface and along which gas may escape. However, channels are only stable to a limited depth below which bubble accumulation may continue. The gas content at which sufficient cracks and channels are formed to balance the rate of gas production with the rate of outflow strongly depends on the constitutive properties of the dredging sludge considered. In sludge with a high shear strength (> 10 kPa), stable channels are created already at low deformations. However, a large expansion may occur in sludge with a low strength. The present study shows that accumulation of gas may continue until a bulk density less than that of water is attained. This is equivalent to a gas fraction of about 25-37%, depending on the initial water content of the sludge. Only then can gas escape as a result of instabilities in the sediment matrix. This should be well taken into account during the design and management of artificial depots. PMID:11942701

van Kessel, T; van Kesteren, W G M

2002-01-01

211

US production of natural gas from tight reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

For the purposes of this report, tight gas reservoirs are defined as those that meet the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC) definition of tight. They are generally characterized by an average reservoir rock permeability to gas of 0.1 millidarcy or less and, absent artificial stimulation of production, by production rates that do not exceed 5 barrels of oil per day and certain specified daily volumes of gas which increase with the depth of the reservoir. All of the statistics presented in this report pertain to wells that have been classified, from 1978 through 1991, as tight according to the FERC; i.e., they are ``legally tight`` reservoirs. Additional production from ``geologically tight`` reservoirs that have not been classified tight according to the FERC rules has been excluded. This category includes all producing wells drilled into legally designated tight gas reservoirs prior to 1978 and all producing wells drilled into physically tight gas reservoirs that have not been designated legally tight. Therefore, all gas production referenced herein is eligible for the Section 29 tax credit. Although the qualification period for the credit expired at the end of 1992, wells that were spudded (began to be drilled) between 1978 and May 1988, and from November 5, 1990, through year end 1992, are eligible for the tax credit for a subsequent period of 10 years. This report updates the EIA`s tight gas production information through 1991 and considers further the history and effect on tight gas production of the Federal Government`s regulatory and tax policy actions. It also provides some high points of the geologic background needed to understand the nature and location of low-permeability reservoirs.

Not Available

1993-10-18

212

Chemical and Physical Properties of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

be out of compliance without remedial action. This prob- lemhasspurredthedevelopmentofvarioustypesofscrub- Beneficial and environmentally safe recycling of flue gas desulfur- bing processes to convert SO2 from flue gases into solid ization (FGD) products requires detailed knowledge of their chemical and physical properties. We analyzed 59 dry FGD samples collected products for disposal or beneficial reuse. These FGD from 13 locations representing

David A. Kost; Jerry M. Bigham; Richard C. Stehouwer; Joel H. Beeghly; Randy Fowler; Samuel J. Traina; William E. Wolfe; Warren A. Dick

2005-01-01

213

Condensate production optimization in the Arun gas field  

SciTech Connect

In the Arum Field, Mobil Oil Indonesia Inc. (MOI) has implemented a condensate production optimization program on its Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system. This program has been proven successful in improving stabilized condensate production by up to 3% or 3200 BPD at 2,270 MMSCF daily average separator gas flowrate. It is detailed in this paper.

Risan, R.M.; Abdullah, S.; Hidayat, Z. (Mobil Oil Indonesia (ID))

1988-01-01

214

Effects of gas composition in headspace and bicarbonate concentrations in media on gas and methane production, degradability, and rumen fermentation using in vitro gas production techniques.  

PubMed

Headspace gas composition and bicarbonate concentrations in media can affect methane production and other characteristics of rumen fermentation in in vitro gas production systems, but these 2 important factors have not been evaluated systematically. In this study, these 2 factors were investigated with respect to gas and methane production, in vitro digestibility of feed substrate, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile using in vitro gas production techniques. Three headspace gas compositions (N2+ CO2+ H2 in the ratio of 90:5:5, CO2, and N2) with 2 substrate types (alfalfa hay only, and alfalfa hay and a concentrate mixture in a 50:50 ratio) in a 3×2 factorial design (experiment 1) and 3 headspace compositions (N2, N2 + CO2 in a 50:50 ratio, and CO2) with 3 bicarbonate concentrations (80, 100, and 120 mM) in a 3×3 factorial design (experiment 2) were evaluated. In experiment 1, total gas production (TGP) and net gas production (NGP) was the lowest for CO2, followed by N2, and then the gas mixture. Methane concentration in headspace gas after fermentation was greater for CO2 than for N2 and the gas mixture, whereas total methane production (TMP) and net methane production (NMP) were the greatest for CO2, followed by the gas mixture, and then N2. Headspace composition did not affect in vitro digestibility or the VFA profile, except molar percentages of propionate, which were greater for CO2 and N2 than for the gas mixture. Methane concentration in headspace gas, TGP, and NGP were affected by the interaction of headspace gas composition and substrate type. In experiment 2, increasing concentrations of CO2 in the headspace decreased TGP and NGP quadratically, but increased the concentrations of methane, NMP, and in vitro fiber digestibility linearly, and TMP quadratically. Fiber digestibility, TGP, and NGP increased linearly with increasing bicarbonate concentrations in the medium. Concentrations of methane and NMP were unaffected by bicarbonate concentration, but TMP tended to increase due to increasing bicarbonate concentration. Although total VFA concentration and molar percentage of butyrate were unchanged, the molar percentage of acetate, and acetate-to-propionate ratio decreased, whereas the molar percentage of propionate increased quadratically with increasing bicarbonate concentration. This study demonstrated for the first time that headspace composition, especially CO2 content, and bicarbonate concentration in media could significantly influence gas and methane production, and rumen fermentation in gas production techniques. PMID:23684023

Patra, Amlan Kumar; Yu, Zhongtang

2013-07-01

215

Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

Andrew Lucero

2009-01-31

216

Historical trends and current production of gas from tight formations  

SciTech Connect

Low-permeability (tight) formations are an acknowledged major source of future U.S. natural gas supplies. The unproven recoverable resource potential, as estimated by the Natl. Petroleum Council (NPC), is on the order of 500 Tcf (14.2X10/sup 12/ m/sup 3/) at prices and technologies current at the time of the study. The NPC study and other analyses have pointed to the significance of tight gas in future supplies, but the role it plays in current reserves and production has not been so clearly defined. The authors have estimated the volume of gas produced from tight sands in recent years, calculated ultimate recovery and proved reserves associated with this production, and compiled quantitative descriptions of 663 fields currently producing tight gas. Data limitations constrained the study to the western and southwestern states, which account for about 85% of U.S. tight-gas production. To provide national tight-gas production volumes, however, estimates based on aggregate data were also made for Appalachia.

Haas, M.R.; Brashear, J.P.; Morra, F. Jr.

1987-01-01

217

On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines  

DOEpatents

A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed. A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed.

Johansson, Lennart N. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2004-06-29

218

Gas Production from Hydrate-Bearing Sediments - Emergent Phenomena -  

SciTech Connect

Even a small fraction of fine particles can have a significant effect on gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments and sediment stability. Experiments were conducted to investigate the role of fine particles on gas production using a soil chamber that allows for the application of an effective stress to the sediment. This chamber was instrumented to monitor shear-wave velocity, temperature, pressure, and volume change during CO{sub 2} hydrate formation and gas production. The instrumented chamber was placed inside the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Seafloor Process Simulator (SPS), which was used to control the fluid pressure and temperature. Experiments were conducted with different sediment types and pressure-temperature histories. Fines migrated within the sediment in the direction of fluid flow. A vuggy structure formed in the sand; these small cavities or vuggs were precursors to the development of gas-driven fractures during depressurization under a constant effective stress boundary condition. We define the critical fines fraction as the clay-to-sand mass ratio when clays fill the pore space in the sand. Fines migration, clogging, vugs, and gas-driven fracture formation developed even when the fines content was significantly lower than the critical fines fraction. These results show the importance of fines in gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments, even when the fines content is relatively low.

Jung, J.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Jang, J.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Rawn, Claudia J [ORNL; Santamarina, Carlos [Georgia Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

219

Use of computer-generated maps of oil and gas development and exploration intensity for delineating producing trends, Denver basin, Colorado, Nebraska, and Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Exploration intensity maps were used in conjunction with existing or generated maps of depositional environment, structure, thermal maturity, core porosity, and production data to delineate trends and assess oil and gas resources for the Denver basin as part of the US Geological Survey's Federal Lands Assessment Program. Maps illustrating oil and gas production, shows, and dry holes were constructed for the Denver basin using the Petroleum Information WHCS data base, with mapping and statistical software developed by the US Geological Survey. Data from more than 36,000 drill hoes in the Denver basin were entered into a program that divides the basin into 1/2 mi/sup 2/ grid cells and analyzes show and production data for drill holes within each grid cell.

Higley, D.K.; Mast, R.F.; Gautier, D.L.

1986-05-01

220

Pumps, refracturing hike production from tight shale gas wells  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that downhole pumps and refracturing are two ways to significantly improve production rates from the Antrim shale, a tight formation in the Michigan basin (U.S.) and the objective of a major natural gas play. Candidate wells for restimulation can be identified by pressure build-up tests and specifically productivity index-vs.-permeability plots based on these tests. The work in the Bagley East B4-10 well illustrates the possible production improvement.

Reeves, S.R. (Advanced Resources International Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)); Morrisson, W.K. (Nomeco Oil and Gas Co., Jackson, CO (United States)); Hill, D.G. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States))

1993-02-01

221

Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 states 1985 through 1997  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents information on wellhead productive capacity and a projection of gas production requirements. A history of natural gas production and productive capacity at the wellhead, along with a projection of the same, is illustrated.

NONE

1996-12-01

222

Exploring Hot Gas in the Galactic Halo and High Velocity Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the five years since its launch, the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer has given the astronomical community a marvelous glimpse into the realm of previously unexplored regions of the Milky Way and its surroundings. Absorption lines produced by gas along entire paths through the nearby universe have now been recorded in the spectra of distant QSOs and active galactic nuclei. Of the lines recorded, the O VI ?? 1031.926, 1037.617 doublet is the best tracer of highly ionized regions. Exciting discoveries include a definitive confirmation of the hot Galactic halo postulated by Lyman Spitzer nearly 50 years ago, the discovery of a hot, highly extended Galactic corona enveloping the Milky Way out to distances of several tens of kiloparsecs, and the discovery of an extensive network of highly ionized, high velocity clouds surrounding the Galaxy.

Sembach, K. R.; Wakker, B. P.; Savage, B. D.; Richter, P.

2006-06-01

223

Harsh-Environment Solid-State Gamma Detector for Down-hole Gas and Oil Exploration  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this program was to develop a revolutionary solid-state gamma-ray detector suitable for use in down-hole gas and oil exploration. This advanced detector would employ wide-bandgap semiconductor technology to extend the gamma sensor's temperature capability up to 200 C as well as extended reliability, which significantly exceeds current designs based on photomultiplier tubes. In Phase II, project tasks were focused on optimization of the final APD design, growing and characterizing the full scintillator crystals of the selected composition, arranging the APD device packaging, developing the needed optical coupling between scintillator and APD, and characterizing the combined elements as a full detector system preparing for commercialization. What follows is a summary report from the second 18-month phase of this program.

Peter Sandvik; Stanislav Soloviev; Emad Andarawis; Ho-Young Cha; Jim Rose; Kevin Durocher; Robert Lyons; Bob Pieciuk; Jim Williams; David O'Connor

2007-08-10

224

RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING  

SciTech Connect

This project will provide a full demonstration of an entirely new package of exploration technologies that will result in the discovery and development of significant new gas reserves now trapped in unconventional low-permeability reservoirs. This demonstration includes the field application of these technologies, prospect definition and well siting, and a test of this new strategy through wildcat drilling. In addition this project includes a demonstration of a new stimulation technology that will improve completion success in these unconventional low permeability reservoirs which are sensitive to drilling and completion damage. The work includes two test wells to be drilled by Snyder Oil Company on the Shoshone/Arapahoe Tribal Lands in the Wind River Basin. This basin is a foreland basin whose petroleum systems include Paleozoic and Cretaceous source beds and reservoirs which were buried, folded by Laramide compressional folding, and subsequently uplifted asymmetrically. The anomalous pressure boundary is also asymmetric, following differential uplift trends.

Dr. Ronald C. Surdam

1999-02-01

225

RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING  

SciTech Connect

This project will provide a full demonstration of an entirely new package of exploration technologies that will result in the discovery and development of significant new gas reserves now trapped in unconventional low-permeability reservoirs. This demonstration includes the field application of these technologies, prospect definition and well siting, and a test of this new strategy through wildcat drilling. In addition this project includes a demonstration of a new stimulation technology that will improve completion success in these unconventional low permeability reservoirs which are sensitive to drilling and completion damage. The work includes two test wells to be drilled by Snyder Oil Company on the Shoshone/Arapahoe Tribal Lands in the Wind River Basin. This basin is a foreland basin whose petroleum systems include Paleozoic and Cretaceous source beds and reservoirs which were buried, folded by Laramide compressional folding, and subsequently uplifted asymmetrically. The anomalous pressure boundary is also asymmetric, following differential uplift trends.

NONE

1998-08-28

226

FRP linepipe for oil and gas production  

SciTech Connect

In the past decade, fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) has emerged as a significant linepipe material and the production industry is beginning to harness the technology and know-how for its successful use. FRP can be the answer to the need for low cost corrosion resistant linepipe materials due to the increasing corrosivity of produced fluids from existing fields, and newly developed aggressive reservoirs. Opportunities for FRP linepipe are described.

Chiu, A.S. (Esso Resources Canada Ltd., 339 50th Avenue S.E., Calgary, Alberta (CA)); Franco, F.J. (Exxon Co. U.S.A., Houston, TX (US))

1989-01-01

227

Clay mineralogy of the malmian source rock of the Vienna Basin: Effects on shale gas exploration?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an unique opportunity the diagenetic changes of clay minerals of a marlstone formation with only minor differences in provenance and depositional environment was studied from shallow (1400 m) to very deep (8550 m) burial. The clay mineralogy of 46 core samples from ten wells was quantified with X-ray diffraction in applying the mineral intensity factor (MIF)-method of Moore and Reynolds (1997). The clay fraction of the marlstone contains a prominent illite/smectite (I/S) mixed-layer mineral (20 to 70 wt%), illite (20 to 70 wt%), chlorite (0.5 to 12 wt%) and kaolinite (2 to 17 wt%). The amounts of I/S and kaolinite decrease with depth, whereas illite and chlorite increase. A gradual transformation of smectite to illite through mixed-layer I/S intermediates is recognized. With increasing depth the illite content in I/S intermediates increases from 25% to 90% in parallel the ordering of the mixed layer I/S changes from R0 (25% illite in I/S) to R1 (60-80% illite in I/S) to R3 (90% illite in I/S). R3 ordering prevails at depths greater than 4000 m and implies that the effect of the expandable mineral smectite is negligible. This paper covers a part of a shale gas feasibility study on the main Vienna Basin hydrocarbon source rock (Mikulov Formation, a Malmian marlstone) recently performed by OMV. Shale gas production usually is enabled by pumping fluids (mainly water) into a gas-mature source rock in order to generate fracture permeability. Expandable clays within the source rock can dramatically reduce stimulation effectiveness and gas production. Moore and Reynolds (1997) X-ray diffraction and the identification and analysis of clay minerals. Oxford University Press, New York, 378 p.

Schicker, Andrea; Gier, Susanne; Herzog, Ulrich

2010-05-01

228

Initiation of a Porous Explosive by Overdriven Gas Detonation Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports results of experiments on initiation and development of detonation in cylindrical charges of a porous explosive by overdriven detonation products of a gas mixture C2H2 + 2.5 O2. Explosive charges with a bulk density of about 1 g\\/cm3 in fragile shells were studied. For PETN and RDX charges, the critical initial pressure of the gas mixture at

V. V. Grigor'ev; L. A. Luk'yanchikov; É. R. Pruuél; A. A. Vasil'ev

2001-01-01

229

Hydrogeology of a coal-seam gas exploration area, southeastern British Columbia, Canada: Part 1. Groundwater flow systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovery of high contents of methane gas in coals of the Mist Mountain Formation in the Elk River valley, southeastern British Columbia, Canada, has led to increased exploration activity for coal-seam gas (CSG). CSG production requires groundwater abstraction to depressurize the coal beds and to facilitate methane flow to the production wells. Groundwater abstraction will have hydrodynamic effects on the flow system, and an understanding of the groundwater flow system is needed to evaluate these effects. The purpose of this paper is to describe the groundwater flow system in the area by means of a groundwater flow model and interpretation of hydrochemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater and surface water. Groundwater flow for the Weary Creek exploration area is modeled in two vertical sections. The model domains, based on classic upland-lowland conceptual flow models, are approximately 10,000 m long and 4,000 m deep. Each consists of a fixed water-table boundary and no-flow boundaries along the traces of major faults. Steady-state groundwater flow is calibrated to hydraulic-head, streamflow, and groundwater-recharge data. Simulated steady-state velocity fields define regional and local flow components consistent with the conceptual model. The results are consistent with regional trends in ?2H, ?18O, tritium, and TDS, which define two distinct groundwater groups (A and B) and a third of intermediate composition. An active, shallow, local flow component (group A) is recharged in beds cropping out along subdued ridges; this component discharges as seeps along lower and mid-slope positions in the southern part of the study area. The waters are tritiated, relatively enriched in ?2H and ?18O, and have low TDS. A deeper regional flow component (group B), which originates at a higher altitude and which discharges to the Elk River valley bottom, is characterized by non-tritiated groundwater with relatively depleted ?2H and ?18O, and higher TDS. Groundwater contributes less than 10% of the total direct flow to the Elk River, as indicated by flow measurements and by the absence of group A and group B characteristics in the river water. Thus it is hypothesized that groundwater extraction during CSG production will have little impact on the river. The groundwater flow model developed in this work is used in a companion paper to further test this hypothesis.

Harrison, S.; Molson, J.; Abercrombie, H.; Barker, J.; Rudolph, D.; Aravena, R.

2000-12-01

230

Effects of disturbance associated with seismic exploration for oil and gas reserves in coastal marshes.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic disturbances in wetland ecosystems can alter the composition and structure of plant assemblages and affect system functions. Extensive oil and gas extraction has occurred in wetland habitats along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast since the early 1900s. Activities involved with three-dimensional (3D) seismic exploration for these resources cause various disturbances to vegetation and soils. We documented the impact of a 3D seismic survey in coastal marshes in Louisiana, USA, along transects established before exploration began. Two semi-impounded marshes dominated by Spartina patens were in the area surveyed. Vegetation, soil, and water physicochemical data were collected before the survey, about 6 weeks following its completion, and every 3 months thereafter for 2 years. Soil cores for seed bank emergence experiments were also collected. Maximum vegetation height at impact sites was reduced in both marshes 6 weeks following the survey. In one marsh, total vegetation cover was also reduced, and dead vegetation cover increased, at impact sites 6 weeks after the survey. These effects, however, did not persist 3 months later. No effects on soil or water properties were identified. The total number of seeds that germinated during greenhouse studies increased at impact sites 5 months following the survey in both marshes. Although some seed bank effects persisted 1 year, these effects were not reflected in standing vegetation. The marshes studied were therefore resilient to the impacts resulting from 3D seismic exploration because vegetation responses were short term in that they could not be identified a few months following survey completion. PMID:24788940

Howard, Rebecca J; Wells, Christopher J; Michot, Thomas C; Johnson, Darren J

2014-07-01

231

Effects of Disturbance Associated With Seismic Exploration for Oil and Gas Reserves in Coastal Marshes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic disturbances in wetland ecosystems can alter the composition and structure of plant assemblages and affect system functions. Extensive oil and gas extraction has occurred in wetland habitats along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast since the early 1900s. Activities involved with three-dimensional (3D) seismic exploration for these resources cause various disturbances to vegetation and soils. We documented the impact of a 3D seismic survey in coastal marshes in Louisiana, USA, along transects established before exploration began. Two semi-impounded marshes dominated by Spartina patens were in the area surveyed. Vegetation, soil, and water physicochemical data were collected before the survey, about 6 weeks following its completion, and every 3 months thereafter for 2 years. Soil cores for seed bank emergence experiments were also collected. Maximum vegetation height at impact sites was reduced in both marshes 6 weeks following the survey. In one marsh, total vegetation cover was also reduced, and dead vegetation cover increased, at impact sites 6 weeks after the survey. These effects, however, did not persist 3 months later. No effects on soil or water properties were identified. The total number of seeds that germinated during greenhouse studies increased at impact sites 5 months following the survey in both marshes. Although some seed bank effects persisted 1 year, these effects were not reflected in standing vegetation. The marshes studied were therefore resilient to the impacts resulting from 3D seismic exploration because vegetation responses were short term in that they could not be identified a few months following survey completion.

Howard, Rebecca J.; Wells, Christopher J.; Michot, Thomas C.; Johnson, Darren J.

2014-07-01

232

Synthesis gas production by mixed conducting membranes with integrated conversion into liquid products  

DOEpatents

Natural gas or other methane-containing feed gas is converted to a C.sub.5 -C.sub.19 hydrocarbon liquid in an integrated system comprising an oxygenative synthesis gas generator, a non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator, and a hydrocarbon synthesis process such as the Fischer-Tropsch process. The oxygenative synthesis gas generator is a mixed conducting membrane reactor system and the non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator is preferably a heat exchange reformer wherein heat is provided by hot synthesis gas product from the mixed conducting membrane reactor system. Offgas and water from the Fischer-Tropsch process can be recycled to the synthesis gas generation system individually or in combination.

Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Russek, Steven Lee (Allentown, PA); Dyer, Paul Nigel (Allentown, PA)

2000-01-01

233

Maps showing petroleum exploration intensity and production in major Cambrian to Ordovician reservoir rocks in the Anadarko Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Anadarko basin is a large, deep, two-stage Paleozoic basin (Feinstein, 1981) that is petroleum rich and generally well explored. The Anadarko basin province, a geogrphic area used here mostly for the convenience of mapping and data management, is defined by political boundaries that include the Anadarko basin proper. The boundaries of the province are identical to those used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the 1995 National Assessment of United Stated Oil and Gas Resources. The data in this report, also identical to those used in the national assessment, are from several computerized data bases including Nehring Research Group (NRG) Associates Inc., Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States (1992); Petroleum Information (PI), Inc., Well History Control System (1991); and Petroleum Information (PI), Inc., Petro-ROM: Production data on CD-ROM (1993). Although generated mostly in response to the national assessment, the data presented here arc grouped differently and arc displayed and described in greater detail. In addition, the stratigraphic sequences discussed may not necessarily correlate with the "plays" of the 1995 national assessment. This report uses computer-generated maps to show drilling intensity, producing wells, major fields, and other geologic information relevant to petroleum exploration and production in the lower Paleozoic part of the Anadarko basin province as defined for the U.S. Geological Survey's 1995 national petroleum assessment. Hydrocarbon accumulations must meet a minimum standard of 1 million barrels of oil (MMBO) or 6 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG) estimated ultimate recovery to be included in this report as a major field or revoir. Mapped strata in this report include the Upper Cambrian to Lower Ordovician Arbuckle and Low Ordovician Ellenburger Groups, the Middle Ordovician Simpson Group, and the Middle to Upper Ordovician Viola Group.

Henry, Mitch; Hester, Tim

1996-01-01

234

Natural gas production from hydrate dissociation: An axisymmetric model  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an axisymmetric model for natural gas production from the dissociation of methane hydrate in a confined reservoir by a depressurizing well. During the hydrate dissociation, heat and mass transfer in the reservoir are analyzed. The system of governing equations is solved by a finite difference scheme. For different well pressures and reservoir temperatures, distributions of temperature and pressure in the reservoir, as well as the natural gas production from the well are evaluated. The numerical results are compared with those obtained by a linearization method. It is shown that the gas production rate is a sensitive function of well pressure. The simulation results are compared with the linearization approach and the shortcomings of the earlier approach are discussed.

Ahmadi, G. (Clarkson Univ., Pottsdam, NY); Ji, Chuang (Clarkson Univ., Pottsdam, NY); Smith, D.H.

2007-08-01

235

Production waters associated with the production, processing, transmission, and storage of natural gas: a literature survey. Topical report, July 1985-March 1987  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a review of the available public literature on the sources, characteristics, and management of production waters from natural gas industry operations. Gas exploration, production, processing, transmission, and storage operations generate production waters that must be discharged or disposed in accordance with applicable environmental regulations. Disposal practices and regulations are coming under increased scrutiny by EPA for all industry, and regulatory changes are anticipated in the foreseeable future. Natural gas industry operations will be affected to some degree by potential changes in regulations governing management of production waters under RCRA, the UIC program of the SDWA, and biomonitoring requirements for NPDES discharges under the CWA. The availability of data on production-water composition, biomonitoring, treatment, and disposal practices varies widely in the public literature. While chemical composition data are available for drilling fluids and produced waters, comprehensive detailed chemical analyses generally are not. Biomonitoring data are available only for drilling fluids, with few exceptions.

Fillo, J.P.; Hamacker, T.A.; Koraido, S.M.; Stefanacci, R.G.; Tallon, J.T.

1987-07-01

236

An evaluation of accounting-based finding costs as efficiency measures for oil and gas exploration  

SciTech Connect

The authors have operationalized firm-specific exploration efficiency as the difference between a firm-specific intercept estimated in a fixed-effects panel data Cobb-Douglas production frontier model and the maximum firm-specific intercept estimated in that model. The production model was estimated during two different time periods, 1982--1985 and 1989--1992, allowing efficiency to vary intertemporally. This efficiency estimate served as a benchmark against which they compared various measures of inverse finding costs. They assumed that the degree of association with an efficiency benchmark is an important attribute of any finding cost measure and that, further, the degree of association may be used as a metric for choosing between alternative finding cost measures. Accordingly, they evaluated the cross-sectional statistical association between estimated efficiency and alternative inverse finding cost measures. They discovered that the inverse finding cost measure that exhibited the strongest association with efficiency during the two time periods was a three-year moving-average finding cost which included exploration plus development expenditures as costs and reserve extensions and additions plus revisions as the units added.

Boynton, C.E. IV; Boone, J.P.

1994-08-01

237

78 FR 59650 - Subzone 9F, Authorization of Production Activity, The Gas Company, LLC dba Hawai'i Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zones Board [B-53-2013] Subzone 9F, Authorization of Production Activity, The Gas Company, LLC dba Hawai'i Gas, (Synthetic Natural Gas), Kapolei, Hawaii On May 22, 2013, The Gas Company, LLC dba Hawai'i Gas submitted a notification of...

2013-09-27

238

AN ANALYTICAL MODEL OF INTERSTELLAR GAS IN THE HELIOSPHERE TAILORED TO INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The stationary distribution of interstellar neutral gas in the heliosphere subject to solar gravity, solar radiation pressure, photoionization, and charge exchange is investigated analytically assuming ionization rates and radiation pressure that are proportional to R{sup -2}, where R is the heliocentric radius. The collisionless hyperbolic trajectories of the individual atoms including ionization losses are combined with Liouville's Theorem to construct the heliospheric phase-space distribution function of an interstellar gas species in the solar reference frame under the assumption that the distribution is a drifting Maxwellian at large distances from the Sun. The distribution is transformed to the Earth (essentially Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX)) frame as a function of solar longitude. The expression is then tailored to the latitudinal scan of IBEX as a function of longitude using the fact that IBEX detects each atom close to perihelion in its hyperbolic orbit. The distribution is further adapted to IBEX by integrating the differential intensity over the entrance aperture solid angle of the IBEX-Lo collimator, and over energy to predict the IBEX count rate of helium. The major features of the predicted count rate are described, including a peak in longitude, a peak in latitude at each longitude, and the widths of the major peak in both latitude and longitude. Analytical formulae for these features are derived for comparison with IBEX observations in order to determine the temperature and bulk velocity of the gas in interstellar space. Based in part on these formulae, the results for helium are presented in the companion paper by Moebius et al.

Lee, Martin A.; Kucharek, Harald; Moebius, Eberhard; Wu Xian [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Bzowski, Maciej [Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); McComas, David, E-mail: marty.lee@unh.edu [Engineering and Space Science Division, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States)

2012-02-01

239

Potential for diversifying oil imports by accelerating worldwide oil exploration and production  

SciTech Connect

Diversifying US imported oil sources to reduce US dependency on unstable countries in the Middle East and North Africa is not a viable short-range solution due to the lack of alternative suppliers with sufficient excess production capacity in the world. Mid- to long-range potential (5 to 15 years from now) is uncertain but more promising, partly because of increasing production from Mexico and partly because of the concentration of current oil company exploration efforts outside the Middle East and North Africa. There is still considerable petroleum potential throughout the world, but realization of this potential depends upon accelerated exploration, especially in less developed countries. Governments' actions, such as expropriation and high rates of taxation, have discouraged private investment in oil exploration in many of the more promising areas.

Staats, E.B.

1980-11-25

240

30 CFR 250.1629 - Additional production and fuel gas system requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Additional production and fuel gas system requirements. 250.1629 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL...1629 Additional production and fuel gas system requirements. (a)...

2013-07-01

241

Common In-Situ Consumable Production Plant for Robotic Mars Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilization of extraterrestrial resources, or In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), is viewed by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise as an enabling technology for the exploration and commercial development of space. A key subset of ISRU which has significant cost, mass, and risk reduction benefits for robotic and human exploration, and which requires a minimum of infrastructure, is In-Situ Consumable Production (ISCP). ISCP involves acquiring, manufacturing, and storing mission consumables from in situ resources, such as propellants, fuel cell reagents, and gases for crew and life support, inflation, science and pneumatic equipment. One of the four long-term goals for the Space Science Enterprise (SSE) is to 'pursue space science programs that enable and are enabled by future human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - a goal exploiting the synergy with the human exploration of space'. Adequate power and propulsion capabilities are critical for both robotic and human exploration missions. Minimizing the mass and volume of these systems can reduce mission cost or enhance the mission by enabling the incorporation of new science or mission-relevant equipment. Studies have shown that in-situ production of oxygen and methane propellants can enhance sample return missions by enabling larger samples to be returned to Earth or by performing Direct Earth Return (DER) sample return missions instead of requiring a Mars Orbit Rendezvous (MOR). Recent NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) work on oxygen and hydrocarbon-based fuel cell power systems shows the potential of using fuel cell power systems instead of solar arrays and batteries for future rovers and science equipment. The development and use of a common oxygen/methane ISCP plant for propulsion and power generation can extend and enhance the scientific exploration of Mars while supporting the development and demonstration of critical technologies and systems for the human exploration of Mars.

Sanders, G. B.; Trevathan, J. R.; Peters, T. A.; Baird, R. S.

2000-07-01

242

Common In-Situ Consumable Production Plant for Robotic Mars Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Utilization of extraterrestrial resources, or In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), is viewed by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise as an enabling technology for the exploration and commercial development of space. A key subset of ISRU which has significant cost, mass, and risk reduction benefits for robotic and human exploration, and which requires a minimum of infrastructure, is In-Situ Consumable Production (ISCP). ISCP involves acquiring, manufacturing, and storing mission consumables from in situ resources, such as propellants, fuel cell reagents, and gases for crew and life support, inflation, science and pneumatic equipment. One of the four long-term goals for the Space Science Enterprise (SSE) is to 'pursue space science programs that enable and are enabled by future human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - a goal exploiting the synergy with the human exploration of space'. Adequate power and propulsion capabilities are critical for both robotic and human exploration missions. Minimizing the mass and volume of these systems can reduce mission cost or enhance the mission by enabling the incorporation of new science or mission-relevant equipment. Studies have shown that in-situ production of oxygen and methane propellants can enhance sample return missions by enabling larger samples to be returned to Earth or by performing Direct Earth Return (DER) sample return missions instead of requiring a Mars Orbit Rendezvous (MOR). Recent NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) work on oxygen and hydrocarbon-based fuel cell power systems shows the potential of using fuel cell power systems instead of solar arrays and batteries for future rovers and science equipment. The development and use of a common oxygen/methane ISCP plant for propulsion and power generation can extend and enhance the scientific exploration of Mars while supporting the development and demonstration of critical technologies and systems for the human exploration of Mars.

Sanders, G. B.; Trevathan, J. R.; Peters, T. A.; Baird, R. S.

2000-01-01

243

Exploring Long-Term Productive Vocabulary Development in an EFL Context: The Role of Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reports on a longitudinal multiple-case study that probed into four advanced university-level Chinese EFL learners' situated vocabulary learning experiences and explored the role of L2 motivation in their productive vocabulary development. In the study, Lexical Frequency Profile analysis and semi-structured interviews were conducted with…

Zheng, Yongyan

2012-01-01

244

Exploring land use changes and the role of palm oil production in Indonesia and Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compiles and analyses national-level data on land use change (LUC) and its causes in Indonesia and Malaysia over the past 30 years. The study also explores the role that palm oil has played in past LUC and that projected growth in palm oil production may play in LUC until 2020 and suggests strategies to minimize negative effects. Data

Birka Wicke; Richard Sikkema; Veronika Dornburg

2011-01-01

245

Twisting tongues and memories: Explorations of the relationship between language production and verbal working memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many accounts of working memory posit specialized storage mechanisms for the maintenance of serial order. We explore an alternative, that maintenance is achieved through temporary activation in the language production architecture. Four experiments examined the extent to which the phonological similarity effect can be explained as a sublexical speech error. Phonologically similar nonword stimuli were ordered to create tongue twister

Daniel J. Acheson; Maryellen C. MacDonald

2009-01-01

246

Twisting Tongues and Memories: Explorations of the Relationship between Language Production and Verbal Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many accounts of working memory posit specialized storage mechanisms for the maintenance of serial order. We explore an alternative, that maintenance is achieved through temporary activation in the language production architecture. Four experiments examined the extent to which the phonological similarity effect can be explained as a sublexical…

Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

2009-01-01

247

Description of gas production profiles with a three-phasic model  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the introduction of new gas production equipment, using sensitive pressure transducers, producing highly accurate gas production profiles, new mathematical models were developed to describe the gas production profiles accurately as existing models did not fit the profiles satisfactorily. It has been shown previously that gas production profiles can be described mathematically by a three-phasic model. This paper shows that

John W. Cone; Antonie H. van Gelder; Frank Driehuis

1997-01-01

248

Gas production from oceanic Class 2 hydrate accumulations  

SciTech Connect

Gas hydrates are solid crystalline compounds in which gasmolecules are lodged within the lattices of ice crystals. The vastamounts of hydrocarbon gases that are trapped in hydrate deposits in thepermafrost and in deep ocean sediments may constitute a promising energysource. Class 2 hydrate deposits are characterized by a Hydrate-BearingLayer (HBL) that is underlain by a saturated zone of mobile water. Inthis study we investigated three methods of gas production via verticalwell designs. A long perforated interval (covering the hydrate layer andextending into the underlying water zone) yields the highest gasproduction rates (up to 20 MMSCFD), but is not recommended for long-termproduction because of severe flow blockage caused by secondary hydrateand ice. A short perforated interval entirely within the water zoneallows long-term production, but only at rates of 4.5 7 MMSCFD. A newwell design involving localized heating appears to be the most promising,alleviating possible blockage by secondary hydrate and/or ice near thewellbore) and delivering sustainably large, long-term rates (10-15MMSCFD).The production strategy involves a cyclical process. During eachcycle, gas production continuously increases, while the correspondingwater production continuously decreases. Each cycle is concluded by acavitation event (marked by a precipitous pressure drop at the well),brought about by the inability of thesystem to satisfy the constant massproduction rate QM imposed at the well. This is caused by the increasinggas contribution to the production stream, and/or flow inhibition causedby secondary hydrate and/or ice. In the latter case, short-term thermalstimulation removes the blockage. The results show that gas productionincreases (and the corresponding water-to-gas ratio RWGC decreases) withan increasing(a) QM, (b) hydrate temperature (which defines its stabilityfor a given pressure), and (c) intrinsic permeability. Lower initialhydrate saturations lead initially to higher gas production and a lowerRWGC, but the effect is later reversed as the hydrate is depleted. Thedisposal of the large amounts of produced water does not appear to pose asignificant environmental problem. Production from Class 2 hydrates ischaracterized by (a) the need for confining boundaries, (b) thecontinuously improving RWGC over time (opposite to conventional gasreservoirs), and (c) the development of a free gas zone at the top of thehydrate layer (necessitating the existence of a gas cap forproduction).

Moridis, G.J.; Reagan, M.T.

2007-02-01

249

Natural gas production problems : solutions, methodologies, and modeling.  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas is a clean fuel that will be the most important domestic energy resource for the first half the 21st centtuy. Ensuring a stable supply is essential for our national energy security. The research we have undertaken will maximize the extractable volume of gas while minimizing the environmental impact of surface disturbances associated with drilling and production. This report describes a methodology for comprehensive evaluation and modeling of the total gas system within a basin focusing on problematic horizontal fluid flow variability. This has been accomplished through extensive use of geophysical, core (rock sample) and outcrop data to interpret and predict directional flow and production trends. Side benefits include reduced environmental impact of drilling due to reduced number of required wells for resource extraction. These results have been accomplished through a cooperative and integrated systems approach involving industry, government, academia and a multi-organizational team within Sandia National Laboratories. Industry has provided essential in-kind support to this project in the forms of extensive core data, production data, maps, seismic data, production analyses, engineering studies, plus equipment and staff for obtaining geophysical data. This approach provides innovative ideas and technologies to bring new resources to market and to reduce the overall environmental impact of drilling. More importantly, the products of this research are not be location specific but can be extended to other areas of gas production throughout the Rocky Mountain area. Thus this project is designed to solve problems associated with natural gas production at developing sites, or at old sites under redevelopment.

Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Herrin, James M.; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Basinski, Paul M. (El Paso Production Company, Houston, TX); Olsson, William Arthur; Arnold, Bill Walter; Broadhead, Ronald F. (New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM); Knight, Connie D. (Consulting Geologist, Golden, CO); Keefe, Russell G.; McKinney, Curt (Devon Energy Corporation, Oklahoma City, OK); Holm, Gus (Vermejo Park Ranch, Raton, NM); Holland, John F.; Larson, Rich (Vermejo Park Ranch, Raton, NM); Engler, Thomas W. (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM); Lorenz, John Clay

2004-10-01

250

Pumps, refracturing hike production from tight shale gas wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that downhole pumps and refracturing are two ways to significantly improve production rates from the Antrim shale, a tight formation in the Michigan basin (U.S.) and the objective of a major natural gas play. Candidate wells for restimulation can be identified by pressure build-up tests and specifically productivity index-vs.-permeability plots based on these tests. The work in

S. R. Reeves; W. K. Morrisson; D. G. Hill

1993-01-01

251

Contribution of milk production to global greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  Studies on the contribution of milk production to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are rare (FAO 2010) and often based\\u000a on crude data which do not appropriately reflect the heterogeneity of farming systems. This article estimates GHG emissions\\u000a from milk production in different dairy regions of the world based on a harmonised farm data and assesses the

Martin Hagemann; Asaah Ndambi; Torsten Hemme; Uwe Latacz-Lohmann

252

Production of bio-synthetic natural gas in Canada.  

PubMed

Large-scale production of renewable synthetic natural gas from biomass (bioSNG) in Canada was assessed for its ability to mitigate energy security and climate change risks. The land area within 100 km of Canada's network of natural gas pipelines was estimated to be capable of producing 67-210 Mt of dry lignocellulosic biomass per year with minimal adverse impacts on food and fiber production. Biomass gasification and subsequent methanation and upgrading were estimated to yield 16,000-61,000 Mm(3) of pipeline-quality gas (equivalent to 16-63% of Canada's current gas use). Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of bioSNG-based electricity were calculated to be only 8.2-10% of the emissions from coal-fired power. Although predicted production costs ($17-21 GJ(-1)) were much higher than current energy prices, a value for low-carbon energy would narrow the price differential. A bioSNG sector could infuse Canada's rural economy with $41-130 billion of investments and create 410,000-1,300,000 jobs while developing a nation-wide low-carbon energy system. PMID:20175525

Hacatoglu, Kevork; McLellan, P James; Layzell, David B

2010-03-15

253

Depressurization-induced gas production from Class 1 hydratedeposits  

SciTech Connect

Class 1 hydrate deposits are characterized by ahydratebearing layer underlain by a two-phase zone involving mobile gas.Two kinds of deposits are investigated. The first involves water andhydrate in the hydrate zone (Class 1W), while the second involves gas andhydrate (Class 1G). We introduce new models to describe the effect of thepresence of hydrates on the wettability properties of porous media. Wedetermine that large volumes of gas can be readily produced at high ratesfor long times from Class 1 gas hydrate accumulations by means ofdepressurization-induced dissociation using conventional technology.Dissociation in Class 1W deposits proceeds in distinct stages, while itis continuous in Class 1G deposits. To avoid blockage caused by hydrateformation in the vicinity of the well, wellbore heating is a necessity inproduction from Class 1 hydrates. Class 1W hydrates are shown tocontribute up to 65 percent of the production rate and up to 45 percentof the cumulative volume of produced gas; the corresponding numbers forClass 1G hydrates are 75 percent and 54 percent. Production from bothClass 1W and Class 1G deposits leads to the emergence of a seconddissociation front (in addition to the original ascending hydrateinterface) that forms at the top of the hydrate interval and advancesdownward. Inboth kinds of deposits, capillary pressure effects lead tohydrate lensing, i.e., the emergence of distinct banded structures ofalternating high-low hydrate saturation, which form channels and shellsand have a significant effect on production.

Moridis, George J.; Kowalsky, Michael B.; Pruess, Karsten

2005-11-01

254

Devonian shale gas production; Mechanisms and simple models  

SciTech Connect

This paper shows that, even without consideration of their special storage and flow properties, Devonian shales are special cases of dual porosity. The authors show that wile neglecting these properties in the short term is appropriate, such neglect in the long term will result in an under-estimation of shale gas production.

Carlson, E.S. (Univ. of Alabama (US)); Mercer, J.C. (Dept. of Energy (US))

1991-04-01

255

Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of

Eduardo Barretto de Figueiredo; Alan Rodrigo Panosso; Rangel Romão; Newton La Scala Jr

2010-01-01

256

Basal production of pentane in expired gas from healthy humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Pentane in exhaled gas is often used as an index of lipoperoxidation, but today, there is no standardization for its measurement. In this study, with our technical experience, we determined basal production of pentane in healthy subjects, and we evaluated variability of pentane flow 1 month later. Methods: 18 subjects inhaled hydrocarbon-free air (HCFA) in order to realize a

Marie-Nadia Loiseaux-Meunier; Mario Bedu; Claude Gentou; Denise Pepin; Jean Coudert; Denis Caillaud

2001-01-01

257

77 FR 68144 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Production Measurement, Surface Commingling, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Subpart L, Oil and Gas Production Measurement, Surface...materials. We will post all comments. Email...subpart L, Oil and Gas Production Measurement, Surface...Provide state 6 production volumetric and/or...Post signs at royalty...

2012-11-15

258

Catalytic steam gasification of pig compost for hydrogen-rich gas production in a fixed bed reactor.  

PubMed

The catalytic steam gasification of pig compost (PC) for hydrogen-rich gas production was experimentally investigated in a fixed bed reactor using the developed NiO on modified dolomite (NiO/MD) catalyst. A series of experiments have been performed to explore the effects of catalyst, catalytic temperature, steam to PC ratio and PC particle size on the gas quality and yield. The results indicate that the NiO/MD catalyst could significantly eliminate the tar in the gas production and increase the hydrogen yield, and the catalyst lives a long lifetime in the PC steam gasification. Moreover, the higher catalytic temperature and smaller PC particle size can contribute to more hydrogen production and gas yield. Meanwhile, the optimal ratio of steam to PC (S/P) is found to be 1.24. PMID:23422306

Wang, Jingbo; Xiao, Bo; Liu, Shiming; Hu, Zhiquan; He, Piwen; Guo, Dabin; Hu, Mian; Qi, Fangjie; Luo, Siyi

2013-04-01

259

Process and apparatus for separating hydrocarbon gas into a residue gas fraction and a product fraction  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for the separation of a feed gas obtaining methane, ethane and less volatile components into a volatile residue gas fraction containing a major portion of methane and a relatively less volatile product fraction containing a major portion of ethane and less volatile components, comprising: forming a first stream containing methane, ethane and less volatile components; compressing the first stream; cooling the compressed first stream to a phase separating temperature and pressure; phase separating the cooled first stream into a residue gas fraction containing a major portion of methane and a liquid fraction; expanding a first portion of the liquid fraction through a Joule-Thompson valve to form an expansion-cooled second stream; exchanging heat between the second stream and the first stream achieving at least a portion of the cooling the compressed first stream; recycling at least a portion of the second stream into the first stream upstream of the compressing step; removing a second portion of the liquid fraction as a relatively less volatile product fraction containing a major portion of ethane and less volatile components; and controlling flow through the Joule-Thompson valve responsive to the temperature of the residue gas fraction and product fraction as they are phase separated so as to regulate expansion-cooling to provide a desired composition of the residue gas and the product fraction.

Wilson, R.A.

1986-09-02

260

Alaska North Slope regional gas hydrate production modeling forecasts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A series of gas hydrate development scenarios were created to assess the range of outcomes predicted for the possible development of the "Eileen" gas hydrate accumulation, North Slope, Alaska. Production forecasts for the "reference case" were built using the 2002 Mallik production tests, mechanistic simulation, and geologic studies conducted by the US Geological Survey. Three additional scenarios were considered: A "downside-scenario" which fails to identify viable production, an "upside-scenario" describes results that are better than expected. To capture the full range of possible outcomes and balance the downside case, an "extreme upside scenario" assumes each well is exceptionally productive.Starting with a representative type-well simulation forecasts, field development timing is applied and the sum of individual well forecasts creating the field-wide production forecast. This technique is commonly used to schedule large-scale resource plays where drilling schedules are complex and production forecasts must account for many changing parameters. The complementary forecasts of rig count, capital investment, and cash flow can be used in a pre-appraisal assessment of potential commercial viability.Since no significant gas sales are currently possible on the North Slope of Alaska, typical parameters were used to create downside, reference, and upside case forecasts that predict from 0 to 71??BM3 (2.5??tcf) of gas may be produced in 20 years and nearly 283??BM3 (10??tcf) ultimate recovery after 100 years.Outlining a range of possible outcomes enables decision makers to visualize the pace and milestones that will be required to evaluate gas hydrate resource development in the Eileen accumulation. Critical values of peak production rate, time to meaningful production volumes, and investments required to rule out a downside case are provided. Upside cases identify potential if both depressurization and thermal stimulation yield positive results. An "extreme upside" case captures the full potential of unconstrained development with widely spaced wells. The results of this study indicate that recoverable gas hydrate resources may exist in the Eileen accumulation and that it represents a good opportunity for continued research. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Wilson, S. J.; Hunter, R. B.; Collett, T. S.; Hancock, S.; Boswell, R.; Anderson, B. J.

2011-01-01

261

The Importance of Chemosynthetic Communities and 'Seep-Hunting' to Deepwater Oil and Gas Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seafloor surveying techniques have often evolved as the industry's needs have evolved. Oil and gas exploration costs have escalated over the last several years, both as a result of increasing offshore overhead costs as well as the increased demand being met by offshore service-related companies. Consequently, more companies are prospecting using inexpensive techniques that rely on scientific expertise, such as seep-hunting, as a means of identifying reservoirs, and the past few years have seen several large-scale industrial deepwater surveys with locating hydrocarbon seeps as a primary goal. The identification of seeps is also a necessity for many pre-drilling operations, as many potential developers must conform to local regulations protecting chemosynthetic communities (eg MMS NTL 2000-G20 for Gulf of Mexico development). In addition to identifying chemosynthetic communities for permitting issues, as prospecting has moved into deeper water the ability to identify seep-related drilling hazards, such as hardgrounds or shallow gas (and hydrates) has also increased in importance. The specialized field of identifying seeps, and related chemosynthetics, hardgrounds, etc., is rapidly growing, aided by advances in mapping technology, such as multibeam backscatter and interferometry, among others. Today all of the geophysical data can be brought into a common interpretation environment providing multiple perspectives, different data overlays, and/or 3D visualizations. Using these techniques, high resolution multibeam and/or side-scan surveys rapidly cover large swaths of seafloor and identify potential seeps in real- time. These targets can then be examined geochemically with a coring program, potentially working simultaneously with the multibeam program. Modern USBL navigation can position a deepwater core in <10m diameter targets. Much of the geochemistry can be analyzed in near-real time at sea (eg headspace/interstitial gas, trace/minor/major ions in porefluids, etc; only isotopic analyses are restricted to better equipped research vessels). The advantages of integrating these data are considerable, and they can be obtained for a fraction of the cost of exploratory drilling or submersible operations. This presentation intends to outline the recent history of the industry's approach to seep-hunting, its increasing importance to oil prospectivity, and future trends in industrial applications and how this might affect academic study in this field (especially related to the advances in seep-hunting technology and software that are becoming industry-standards).

McConnell, D.; Gharib, J. J.; Orange, D.; Henderson, J.; Danque, H.; Digby, A.

2007-12-01

262

Chemical variability of groundwater samples collected from a coal seam gas exploration well, Maramarua, New Zealand.  

PubMed

A pilot study has produced 31 groundwater samples from a coal seam gas (CSG) exploration well located in Maramarua, New Zealand. This paper describes sources of CSG water chemistry variations, and makes sampling and analytical recommendations to minimize these variations. The hydrochemical character of these samples is studied using factor analysis, geochemical modelling, and a sparging experiment. Factor analysis unveils carbon dioxide (CO(2)) degassing as the principal cause of sample variation (about 33%). Geochemical modelling corroborates these results and identifies minor precipitation of carbonate minerals with degassing. The sparging experiment confirms the effect of CO(2) degassing by showing a steady rise in pH while maintaining constant alkalinity. Factor analysis correlates variations in the major ion composition (about 17%) to changes in the pumping regime and to aquifer chemistry variations due to cation exchange reactions with argillaceous minerals. An effective CSG water sampling program can be put into practice by measuring pH at the wellhead and alkalinity at the laboratory; these data can later be used to calculate the carbonate speciation at the time the sample was collected. In addition, TDS variations can be reduced considerably if a correct drying temperature of 180 °C is consistently implemented. PMID:23199455

Taulis, Mauricio; Milke, Mark

2013-03-01

263

Development of an Electrostatic Precipitator to Remove Martian Atmospheric Dust from ISRU Gas Intakes During Planetary Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Manned exploration missions to Mars will need dependable in situ resource utilization (ISRU) for the production of oxygen and other commodities. One of these resources is the Martian atmosphere itself, which is composed of carbon dioxide (95.3%), nitrogen (2.7%), argon (1.6%), oxygen (0.13%), carbon monoxide (0.07%), and water vapor (0.03%), as well as other trace gases. However, the Martian atmosphere also contains relatively large amounts of dust, uploaded by frequent dust devils and high Winds. To make this gas usable for oxygen extraction in specialized chambers requires the removal of most of the dust. An electrostatic precipitator (ESP) system is an obvious choice. But with an atmospheric pressure just one-hundredth of Earth's, electrical breakdown at low voltages makes the implementation of the electrostatic precipitator technology very challenging. Ion mobility, drag forces, dust particle charging, and migration velocity are also affected because the low gas pressure results in molecular mean free paths that are approximately one hundred times longer than those at Earth .atmospheric pressure. We report here on our efforts to develop this technology at the Kennedy Space Center, using gases with approximately the same composition as the Martian atmosphere in a vacuum chamber at 9 mbars, the atmospheric pressure on Mars. We also present I-V curves and large particle charging data for various versions of wire-cylinder and rod-cylinder geometry ESPs. Preliminary results suggest that use of an ESP for dust collection on Mars may be feasible, but further testing with Martian dust simulant is required.

Clements, J. Sidney; Thompson, Samuel M.; Cox, Nathan D.; Johansen, Michael R.; Williams, Blakeley S.; Hogue, Michael D.; Lowder, M. Loraine; Calle, Carlos I.

2011-01-01

264

Hydrogen and Oxygen Gas Production in the UT TRIGA Reflector  

SciTech Connect

In December 1999, The University of Texas at Austin (UT) reported an unusual condition associated with the annular graphite reflector surrounding the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL) TRIGA reactor. The aluminum container encapsulating the graphite showed signs of bulging or swelling. Further, during an investigation of this occurrence, bubbles were detected coming from a weld in the aluminum. The gas composition was approximately 2:1 hydrogen to oxygen. After safety review and equipment fabrication, the reflector was successfully vented and flooded. The ratio of the gases produced is unusual, and the gas production mechanism has not yet been explained.

D. S. O'Kelly

2000-11-12

265

Production Rates for Noble-Gas Isotopes in Eucrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To get cosmic-ray exposure ages of meteorites from measured concentrations of cosmic-ray-produced ("cosmogenic") noble-gas isotopes, production rates for those isotopes are needed. The best production rates take into consideration the composition of the meteorite and the "shielding" of the sample (the pre-atmospheric size and shape of the meteoroid and the sample s location in the meteoroid). For ordinary chondrites, there have been many sets of measurements to establish production systematics. The Ne-22/Ne-21 is often used to help to get shielding-dependent production rates. We report here numerical simulations for the production of isotopes of the light noble gases He, Ne, and Ar in both basaltic and cumulate eucrites for several sizes.

Reedy, R. C.; Kim, K. J.

2004-01-01

266

Atomic hydrogen production rates for comet P/Halley from observations with Dynamics Explorer I  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Newly analyzed observations of the Dynamics Explorer I (DE1), launched on August 3, 1981, were used to determine the hydrogen production rate for Comet Halley at heliocentric distances, r, less than about 1.5 AU from measurements of the total Lyman-alpha flux at earth due to the cometary neutral hydrogen distribution. The production rates, determined as a function of r, were found to be consistent with in situ measurements from the Giotto and Vega spacecraft. The calculated rates are also consistent with remote observations using two sounding rockets and with the Pioneer-Venus and IUE spacecraft.

Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.

1987-01-01

267

Pilot study of gas production analysis methods applied to Cottageville field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas production data from 63 wells in the Cottageville Gas Field, producing from Devonian shales, are studied in relationship to structure above and below producing horizons, isopach data and dip of producing shales, and basement structure trends. Gas production data are studied from several aspects including highest accumulated production, mean annual production, initial well pressure, and calculated loss ratio values

J. Negus de Wys; R. C. Shumaker

1978-01-01

268

Oil and gas exploration system and method for detecting trace amounts of hydrocarbon gases in the atmosphere  

DOEpatents

An oil and gas exploration system and method for land and airborne operations, the system and method used for locating subsurface hydrocarbon deposits based upon a remote detection of trace amounts of gases in the atmosphere. The detection of one or more target gases in the atmosphere is used to indicate a possible subsurface oil and gas deposit. By mapping a plurality of gas targets over a selected survey area, the survey area can be analyzed for measurable concentration anomalies. The anomalies are interpreted along with other exploration data to evaluate the value of an underground deposit. The system includes a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system with a spectroscopic grade laser light and a light detector. The laser light is continuously tunable in a mid-infrared range, 2 to 5 micrometers, for choosing appropriate wavelengths to measure different gases and avoid absorption bands of interference gases. The laser light has sufficient optical energy to measure atmospheric concentrations of a gas over a path as long as a mile and greater. The detection of the gas is based on optical absorption measurements at specific wavelengths in the open atmosphere. Light that is detected using the light detector contains an absorption signature acquired as the light travels through the atmosphere from the laser source and back to the light detector. The absorption signature of each gas is processed and then analyzed to determine if a potential anomaly exists.

Wamsley, Paula R. (Littleton, CO); Weimer, Carl S. (Littleton, CO); Nelson, Loren D. (Evergreen, CO); O'Brien, Martin J. (Pine, CO)

2003-01-01

269

Gas production by accelerated in situ bioleaching of landfills  

SciTech Connect

A process for improved gas production and accelerated stabilization of landfills by accelerated in situ bioleaching of organic wastes by acid forming bacteria in substantially sealed landfills, passing the leachate of hydrolysis and liquefaction products of microbial action of the microorganisms with the organic material to an acid phase digester to regenerate the activated culture of acid forming microorganisms for recirculation to the landfill, passing the supernatant from the acid phase digester to a methane phase digester operated under conditions to produce methane rich gas. The supernatant from the methane phase digester containing nutrients for the acid forming microorganisms and added sewage sludge or other desired nutrient materials are circulated through the landfill. Low Btu gas is withdrawn from the acid phase digester while high Btu gas is withdrawn from the methane phase digester and may be upgraded for use as SNG. The process of this invention is applicable to small as well as large organic waste landfills, provides simultaneous disposal of municipal solid waste and sewage sludge or other aqueous organic waste in a landfill which may be stabilized much more quickly than an uncontrolled landfill as presently utilized.

Ghosh, S.

1982-04-06

270

Recent MARS15 developments: nuclide inventory, DPA and gas production  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments in the MARS15 code are described for the critical modules related to demands of hadron and lepton colliders and Megawatt proton and heavy-ion beam facilities. Details of advanced models for particle production and nuclide distributions in nuclear interactions at low and medium energies, energy loss, atomic displacements and gas production are presented along with benchmarking against data. Recent developments in the MARS15 physics models, such as nuclide production, decay and transmutation and all-component DPA modelling for arbitrary projectiles in the 1 keV to 10 TeV energy range, add new capabilities to the code crucial in numerous applications with high-intensity high-power beams. Some discrepancies in DPA rate predictions by several codes, relation of DPA and H/He production rates to changes in material properties, as well as corresponding experimental studies at energies above a hundred of MeV are the areas requiring further efforts.

Mokhov, N.V.; /Fermilab

2010-12-01

271

Mineralogical and engineering characteristics of dry flue gas desulfurization products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-nine coal combustion products were collected from coal-fired power plants using various dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes to remove SO2. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed duct injection and spray dryer processes created products that primarily contained Ca(OH)2 (portlandite) and CaSO3·0.5H2O (hannebachite). Most samples from the lime injection multistage burners process contained significant amounts of CaO (lime), CaSO4 (anhydrite), and CaCO3

Jerry M. Bigham; David A. Kost; Richard C. Stehouwer; Joel H. Beeghly; Randy Fowler; Samuel J. Traina; William E. Wolfe; Warren A. Dick

2005-01-01

272

Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Exploration Solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is an outcome of lean thinking to eliminate waste and increase productivity. PLM is inextricably tied to the systems engineering business philosophy, coupled with a methodology by which personnel, processes and practices, and information technology combine to form an architecture platform for product design, development, manufacturing, operations, and decommissioning. In this model, which is being implemented by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Engineering Directorate, total lifecycle costs are important variables for critical decision-making. With the ultimate goal to deliver quality products that meet or exceed requirements on time and within budget, PLM is a powerful concept to shape everything from engineering trade studies and testing goals, to integrated vehicle operations and retirement scenarios. This briefing will demonstrate how the MSFC Engineering Directorate is implementing PLM as part of an overall strategy to deliver safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions and how that strategy aligns with the Agency and Center systems engineering policies and processes. Sustainable space exploration solutions demand that all lifecycle phases be optimized, and engineering the next generation space transportation system requires a paradigm shift such that digital tools and knowledge management, which are central elements of PLM, are used consistently to maximum effect. Adopting PLM, which has been used by the aerospace and automotive industry for many years, for spacecraft applications provides a foundation for strong, disciplined systems engineering and accountable return on investment. PLM enables better solutions using fewer resources by making lifecycle considerations in an integrative decision-making process.

Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Grieves, Michael

2011-01-01

273

Challenges, uncertainties, and issues facing gas production from gas-hydrate deposits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas-hydrate (GH) petroleum system; to discuss advances, requirements, and suggested practices in GH prospecting and GH deposit characterization; and to review the associated technical, economic, and environmental challenges and uncertainties, which include the following: accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource; development of methods for identifying suitable production targets; sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments (HBS) and sample analysis; analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs; well-testing methods; interpretation of well-testing results; geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns; well design, operation, and installation; field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs; monitoring production and geomechanical stability; laboratory investigations; fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior; the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates; and associated environmental concerns. ?? 2011 Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Moridis, G. J.; Collett, T. S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswel, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M. B.; Reagan, M. T.; Sloan, E. D.; Sum, A. K.; Koh, C. A.

2011-01-01

274

Use of land-fill gas to stimulate crude oil production and to recover methane-rich gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-fill gas containing principally methane and carbon dioxide is injected into a partially depleted oil reservoir to stimulate crude oil production. Solution of injected gas, especially carbon dioxide, in the crude oil materially reduces its viscosity which together with pressurization increases oil flow. Gas separated from produced oil is fractionated into valuable methane-rich gas and carbon dioxide-rich gas which is

Garbo

1982-01-01

275

A GLOBAL DATASET OF ONSHORE GAS AND OIL SEEPS: A NEW TOOL FOR HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum seeps have historically been important drivers of global petroleum explora- tion. Still today they can serve as direct indicators of gas and\\/or oil subsurface accumulations. In particular the assessment of the origin of seeping gas is a key task for understanding, without drilling, the subsurface hydrocarbon potential, genesis and quality, e.g. the presence of shallow microbial gas, deeper thermogenic

Giuseppe Etiope

2009-01-01

276

Interstellar neutral gas flow measurements with the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) - implications on heliospheric boundary diagnostic (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interstellar neutral gas flow distribution in the inner heliosphere carries information on the surrounding interstellar gas and the heliospheric interface. The interstellar neutral gas flow trajectories are observed very close to their perihelion by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) in Earth's orbit every year from December through late March, when the Earth moves into the oncoming flow. Over the past five years and into the future, a database with increasing solar activity and varying viewing strategies is becoming available. This allows tracking of variations in the flow at 1 AU as it may arise from solar cycle related changes in ionization (also radiation pressure for H) and exploration of other changes of the neutral gas flow distribution. The IBEX interstellar gas flow observations suggest a different flow vector than previously deduced, with lower speed and different direction. These differences have led to a reevaluation of the heliospheric boundary in the sense that there is no strong bow shock, but rather a bow wave. Based on angular distributions in latitude and longitude, most interstellar gas species have a secondary population in addition to the primary interstellar gas population. This secondary population very likely stems from charge exchange of the primary population with ions in the outer heliosheath. Although long-term observations are becoming available and analysis tools for calculating the gas trajectories into the inner heliosphere are being refined, observational results and heliospheric modeling of the boundary interaction still await closure. We will review the observations and discuss implications for the interaction of the local interstellar cloud with the heliosphere in the light of a growing data set and improving analysis techniques.

Bzowski, M.; Moebius, E.; Fuselier, S.; Heirtzler, D.; Kubiak, M. A.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; McComas, D. J.; Park, J.; Schwadron, N.; Sokol, J. M.; Wurz, P.

2013-12-01

277

Gas Sensor Evaluations in Polymer Combustion Product Atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Toxic gases produced by the combustion or thermo-oxidative degradation of materials such as wire insulation, foam, plastics, or electronic circuit boards in space shuttle or space station crew cabins may pose a significant hazard to the flight crew. Toxic gas sensors are routinely evaluated in pure gas standard mixtures, but the possible interferences from polymer combustion products are not routinely evaluated. The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) has developed a test system that provides atmospheres containing predetermined quantities of target gases combined with the coincidental combustion products of common spacecraft materials. The target gases are quantitated in real time by infrared (IR) spectroscopy and verified by grab samples. The sensor responses are recorded in real time and are compared to the IR and validation analyses. Target gases such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride can be generated by the combustion of poly(vinyl chloride), polyimide-fluoropolymer wire insulation, polyurethane foam, or electronic circuit board materials. The kinetics and product identifications for the combustion of the various materials were determined by thermogravimetric-IR spectroscopic studies. These data were then scaled to provide the required levels of target gases in the sensor evaluation system. Multisensor toxic gas monitors from two manufacturers were evaluated using this system. In general, the sensor responses satisfactorily tracked the real-time concentrations of toxic gases in a dynamic mixture. Interferences from a number of organic combustion products including acetaldehyde and bisphenol-A were minimal. Hydrogen bromide in the products of circuit board combustion registered as hydrogen chloride. The use of actual polymer combustion atmospheres for the evaluation of sensors can provide additional confidence in the reliability of the sensor response.

Delgado, Rafael H.; Davis, Dennis D.; Beeson, Harold D.

1999-01-01

278

Probabilistic reliability modeling for oil exploration & production (E&P) facilities in the tallgrass prairie preserve.  

PubMed

The aging domestic oil production infrastructure represents a high risk to the environment because of the type of fluids being handled (oil and brine) and the potential for accidental release of these fluids into sensitive ecosystems. Currently, there is not a quantitative risk model directly applicable to onshore oil exploration and production (E&P) facilities. We report on a probabilistic reliability model created for onshore exploration and production (E&P) facilities. Reliability theory, failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), and event trees were used to develop the model estimates of the failure probability of typical oil production equipment. Monte Carlo simulation was used to translate uncertainty in input parameter values to uncertainty in the model output. The predicted failure rates were calibrated to available failure rate information by adjusting probability density function parameters used as random variates in the Monte Carlo simulations. The mean and standard deviation of normal variate distributions from which the Weibull distribution characteristic life was chosen were used as adjustable parameters in the model calibration. The model was applied to oil production leases in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve, Oklahoma. We present the estimated failure probability due to the combination of the most significant failure modes associated with each type of equipment (pumps, tanks, and pipes). The results show that the estimated probability of failure for tanks is about the same as that for pipes, but that pumps have much lower failure probability. The model can provide necessary equipment reliability information for proactive risk management at the lease level by providing quantitative information to base allocation of maintenance resources to high-risk equipment that will minimize both lost production and ecosystem damage. PMID:18076499

Zambrano, Lyda; Sublette, Kerry; Duncan, Kathleen; Thoma, Greg

2007-10-01

279

Simulation of natural gas production from submarine gas hydrate deposits combined with carbon dioxide storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recovery of methane from gas hydrate layers that have been detected in several submarine sediments and permafrost regions around the world so far is considered to be a promising measure to overcome future shortages in natural gas as fuel or raw material for chemical syntheses. Being aware that natural gas resources that can be exploited with conventional technologies are limited, research is going on to open up new sources and develop technologies to produce methane and other energy carriers. Thus various research programs have started since the early 1990s in Japan, USA, Canada, South Korea, India, China and Germany to investigate hydrate deposits and develop technologies to destabilize the hydrates and obtain the pure gas. In recent years, intensive research has focussed on the capture and storage of carbon dioxide from combustion processes to reduce climate change. While different natural or manmade reservoirs like deep aquifers, exhausted oil and gas deposits or other geological formations are considered to store gaseous or liquid carbon dioxide, the storage of carbon dioxide as hydrate in former methane hydrate fields is another promising alternative. Due to beneficial stability conditions, methane recovery may be well combined with CO2 storage in form of hydrates. This has been shown in several laboratory tests and simulations - technical field tests are still in preparation. Within the scope of the German research project »SUGAR«, different technological approaches are evaluated and compared by means of dynamic system simulations and analysis. Detailed mathematical models for the most relevant chemical and physical effects are developed. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into simulation programs like CMG STARS and COMSOL Multiphysics. New simulations based on field data have been carried out. The studies focus on the evaluation of the gas production potential from turbidites and their ability for carbon dioxide storage. The effects occurring during gas production and CO2 storage within a hydrate deposit are identified and described for various scenarios. The behaviour of relevant process parameters such as pressure, temperature and phase saturations is discussed and compared for different production strategies: depressurization, CO2 injection after depressurization and simultaneous methane production and CO2 injection.

Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

2013-04-01

280

Using noble gases to constrain gas exchange and biological productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The five noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) are biologically and chemically inert, making them useful oceanographic tracers. Moreover, the noble gases have a wide range of solubilities and diffusivities, and thus respond differently to physical forcing. We present here a one year time-series of the five noble gases and the isotope 3He, measured in the upper 400 m of the Sargasso Sea with monthly resolution at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Site (BATS). Two profiles of the noble gases in the entire water column down to 4200 m are presented as well. We combine the upper ocean noble gas time-series data, nutrient, oxygen, and hydrographic data from BATS, and a one-dimensional vertical mixed layer model (a modified Price-Weller-Pinkel model) in order to quantify air-sea gas exchange processes. We use inverse modeling to quantify the magnitude of both diffusive gas exchange and air injection processes. The estimates obtained constrain the seasonal time-scale gas exchange rate to a precision of 6% and the bubble injection fluxes to 15%, valid for wind speeds up to 15 m/sec. The overall results suggest that the Wanninkhof quadratic formulation needs to be adjusted downward by approximately 20%. Additionally, 3He is used as a tracer of upwelling nutrients in order to constrain new production. Nutrients in the upper thermocline are well correlated with 3He, and thus 3He and nitrate measurements, combined with estimates of gas exchange, are used to quantify the input of new nutrients into the mixed layer. 3He measurement are also used in conjunction with tritium and oxygen data in order to calculate apparent oxygen utilization rates (AOUR) and thus to estimate export production.

Stanley, R.; Jenkins, W. J.; Lott, D. E.; Doney, S. C.

2007-12-01

281

Production of bioplastics and hydrogen gas by photosynthetic microorganisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our efforts have been aimed at the technological basis of photosynthetic-microbial production of materials and an energy carrier. We report here accumulation of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a raw material of biodegradable plastics and for production of hydrogen gas, and a renewable energy carrier by photosynthetic microorganisms (tentatively defined as cyanobacteria plus photosynthetic bateria, in this report). A thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. MA19 that accumulates PHB at more than 20% of cell dry wt under nitrogen-starved conditions was isolated and microbiologically identified. The mechanism of PHB accumulation was studied. A mesophilic Synechococcus PCC7942 was transformed with the genes encoding PHB-synthesizing enzymes from Alcaligenes eutrophus. The transformant accumulated PHB under nitrogen-starved conditions. The optimal conditions for PHB accumulation by a photosynthetic bacterium grown on acetate were studied. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms was studied. Cyanobacteria can produce hydrogen gas by nitrogenase or hydrogenase. Hydrogen production mediated by native hydrogenase in cyanobacteria was revealed to be in the dark anaerobic degradation of intracellular glycogen. A new system for light-dependent hydrogen production was targeted. In vitro and in vivo coupling of cyanobacterial ferredoxin with a heterologous hydrogenase was shown to produce hydrogen under light conditions. A trial for genetic trasformation of Synechococcus PCC7942 with the hydrogenase gene from Clostridium pasteurianum is going on. The strong hydrogen producers among photosynthetic bacteria were isolated and characterized. Co-culture of Rhodobacter and Clostriumdium was applied to produce hydrogen from glucose. Conversely in the case of cyanobacteria, genetic regulation of photosynthetic proteins was intended to improve conversion efficiency in hydrogen production by the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV. A mutant acquired by UV irradiation will be characterized for the mutation and for hydrogen productivity in comparison with the wild type strain. Some basic studies to develop photobioreactors are also introduced.

Yasuo, Asada; Masato, Miyake; Jun, Miyake

1998-03-01

282

30 CFR 1202.550 - How do I determine the royalty due on gas production?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...do I determine the royalty due on gas production? 1202.550 Section... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Gas Production From Indian Leases...

2013-07-01

283

Exploring Sequence Characteristics Related to High-Level Production of Secreted Proteins in Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Protein sequence features are explored in relation to the production of over-expressed extracellular proteins by fungi. Knowledge on features influencing protein production and secretion could be employed to improve enzyme production levels in industrial bioprocesses via protein engineering. A large set, over 600 homologous and nearly 2,000 heterologous fungal genes, were overexpressed in Aspergillus niger using a standardized expression cassette and scored for high versus no production. Subsequently, sequence-based machine learning techniques were applied for identifying relevant DNA and protein sequence features. The amino-acid composition of the protein sequence was found to be most predictive and interpretation revealed that, for both homologous and heterologous gene expression, the same features are important: tyrosine and asparagine composition was found to have a positive correlation with high-level production, whereas for unsuccessful production, contributions were found for methionine and lysine composition. The predictor is available online at http://bioinformatics.tudelft.nl/hipsec. Subsequent work aims at validating these findings by protein engineering as a method for increasing expression levels per gene copy.

van den Berg, Bastiaan A.; Reinders, Marcel J. T.; Hulsman, Marc; Wu, Liang; Pel, Herman J.; Roubos, Johannes A.; de Ridder, Dick

2012-01-01

284

Production of Onshore Lower-48 Oil and Gas-model methodology and data description. [PROLOG  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the methodology and data used in the Production of Onshore Lower-48 Oil and Gas (PROLOG) model. The model forecasts annual oil and natural gas production on a regional basis. A linear program is used to select drilling activities for conventional oil and gas on the basis of their economic merit, subject to constraints on available rotary rigs and constraints based on historical drilling patterns. Using an exogenously specified price path, net present values are computed for fixed amounts of drilling activity for oil and gas, and for exploration and development in each of six onshore regions. Forecasts of drilling for enhanced gas recovery (EGR) are exogenously determined, and this drilling is included when considering the constraints on drilling rigs. The report is organized as follows. Chapter 2 is a general overview of the model, describing the major characteristics of the methodology and the logical interaction of the various modules. Chapter 3 specifies the structure of the linear program including the equations for the objective function and the constraints. The details of the methodology used to model exploratory, developmental, and deep gas drilling are presented in Chapters 4-6, respectively. Chapter 7 presents a discussion of the economic evaluation which takes place in each discounted cash flow calculation performed by the model. Cost equations are presented, and various user-specified options as to how to incorporate these costs are discussed. Methodological details and equations used to model finding rates and revisions are given in Chapter 8. Possible areas of future enhancements to the PROLOG model are presented in Chapter 9.

Carlson, M.; Kurator, W.; Mariner-Volpe, B.; O'Neill, R.; Trapmann, W.

1982-06-01

285

Process for the production of fuel gas from coal  

DOEpatents

An improved apparatus and process for the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous materials, such as coal, to more valuable gaseous products in a fluidized bed gasification reaction and efficient withdrawal of agglomerated ash from the fluidized bed is disclosed. The improvements are obtained by introducing an oxygen containing gas into the bottom of the fluidized bed through a separate conduit positioned within the center of a nozzle adapted to agglomerate and withdraw the ash from the bottom of the fluidized bed. The conduit extends above the constricted center portion of the nozzle and preferably terminates within and does not extend from the nozzle. In addition to improving ash agglomeration and withdrawal, the present invention prevents sintering and clinkering of the ash in the fluidized bed and permits the efficient recycle of fine material recovered from the product gases by contacting the fines in the fluidized bed with the oxygen as it emanates from the conduit positioned within the withdrawal nozzle. Finally, the present method of oxygen introduction permits the efficient recycle of a portion of the product gases to the reaction zone to increase the reducing properties of the hot product gas.

Patel, Jitendra G. (Bolingbrook, IL); Sandstrom, William A. (Chicago, IL); Tarman, Paul B. (Elmhurst, IL)

1982-01-01

286

Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations  

SciTech Connect

The project is titled 'Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations'. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is the principal investigator and the IOGCC has partnered with ALL Consulting, Inc., headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in this project. State agencies that also have partnered in the project are the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, the Montana Board of Oil and Gas Conservation, the Kansas Oil and Gas Conservation Division, the Oklahoma Oil and Gas Conservation Division and the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. The objective is to characterize produced water quality and management practices for the handling, treating, and disposing of produced water from conventional oil and gas operations throughout the industry nationwide. Water produced from these operations varies greatly in quality and quantity and is often the single largest barrier to the economic viability of wells. The lack of data, coupled with renewed emphasis on domestic oil and gas development, has prompted many experts to speculate that the number of wells drilled over the next 20 years will approach 3 million, or near the number of current wells. This level of exploration and development undoubtedly will draw the attention of environmental communities, focusing their concerns on produced water management based on perceived potential impacts to fresh water resources. Therefore, it is imperative that produced water management practices be performed in a manner that best minimizes environmental impacts. This is being accomplished by compiling current best management practices for produced water from conventional oil and gas operations and to develop an analysis tool based on a geographic information system (GIS) to assist in the understanding of watershed-issued permits. That would allow management costs to be kept in line with the specific projects and regions, which increases the productive life of wells and increases the ultimate recoverable reserves in the ground. A case study was conducted in Wyoming to validate the applicability of the GIS analysis tool for watershed evaluations under real world conditions. Results of the partnered research will continue to be shared utilizing proven methods, such as on the IGOCC Web site, preparing hard copies of the results, distribution of documented case studies, and development of reference and handbook components to accompany the interactive internet-based GIS watershed analysis tool. Additionally, there have been several technology transfer seminars and presentations. The goal is to maximize the recovery of our nation's energy reserves and to promote water conservation.

Rachel Henderson

2007-09-30

287

Reaction of atomic fluorine with silicon: The gas phase products  

SciTech Connect

SiF/sub 2/ and SiF/sub 4/ have been identified as gas phase products of the reaction between atomic fluorine and silicon. Atomic fluorine is supplied by a low density molecular beam hitting a silicon target in a high vacuum. Reaction products were detected by mass spectrometric measurements. Activation energies for the production of SiF/sub 2/ and SiF/sub 4/ were found to be 0.09 +- 0.02 and 0.15 +- 0.02 eV//sup 0/K, respectively, in good agreement with the values measured by flowing afterglow techniques. The reaction probability for the reaction 4F+Si..-->..SiF/sub 4/ was found to be 0.016 at 100 /sup 0/C.

Vasile, M.J.; Stevie, F.A.

1982-05-01

288

Production of biofuels from synthesis gas using microbial catalysts.  

PubMed

World energy consumption is expected to increase 44% in the next 20 years. Today, the main sources of energy are oil, coal, and natural gas, all fossil fuels. These fuels are unsustainable and contribute to environmental pollution. Biofuels are a promising source of sustainable energy. Feedstocks for biofuels used today such as grain starch are expensive and compete with food markets. Lignocellulosic biomass is abundant and readily available from a variety of sources, for example, energy crops and agricultural/industrial waste. Conversion of these materials to biofuels by microorganisms through direct hydrolysis and fermentation can be challenging. Alternatively, biomass can be converted to synthesis gas through gasification and transformed to fuels using chemical catalysts. Chemical conversion of synthesis gas components can be expensive and highly susceptible to catalyst poisoning, limiting biofuel yields. However, there are microorganisms that can convert the CO, H(2), and CO(2) in synthesis gas to fuels such as ethanol, butanol, and hydrogen. Biomass gasification-biosynthesis processing systems have shown promise as some companies have already been exploiting capable organisms for commercial purposes. The discovery of novel organisms capable of higher product yield, as well as metabolic engineering of existing microbial catalysts, makes this technology a viable option for reducing our dependency on fossil fuels. PMID:20359454

Tirado-Acevedo, Oscar; Chinn, Mari S; Grunden, Amy M

2010-01-01

289

Changes in Natural Gas Prices and Supplies Since Passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Through the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978, the Congress intended to stimulate production and exploration for reserves by permitting producers higher prices for gas from areas where production was previously not economic and for gas produced from new well...

1981-01-01

290

A review of in situ propellant production techniques for solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Representative studies done in the area of extraterrestrial chemical production as it applies to solar system exploration are presented. A description of the In Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) system is presented. Various propellant combinations and direct applications along with the previously mentioned benefits and liens are discussed. A series of mission scenarios is presented which is studied in the greatest detail. A general description of the method(s) of analysis used to study each mission is provided. Each section will be closed by an assessment of the performance advantage, if any, that can be provided by ISPP. A final section briefly summarizes those missions which, as a result of the studies completed thus far, should see a sizable benefit from the use of ISPP.

Hoffman, S. J.

1983-01-01

291

Development of temporary subtropical wetlands induces higher gas production.  

PubMed

Temporary wetlands are short-term alternative ecosystems formed by flooding for irrigation of areas used for rice farming. The goal of this study is to describe the development cycle of rice fields as temporary wetlands in southern Brazil, evaluating how this process affect the gas production (CH4 and CO2) in soil with difference % carbon and organic matter content. Two areas adjacent to Lake Mangueira in southern Brazil were used during a rice-farming cycle. One area had soil containing 1.1% carbon and 2.4% organic matter, and the second area had soil with 2.4% carbon and 4.4% organic matter. The mean rates of gas production were 0.04 ± 0.02 mg CH4 m(-2) d(-1) and 1.18 ± 0.30 mg CO2 m(-2) d(-1) in the soil area with the lower carbon content, and 0.02 ± 0.03 mg CH4 m(-2) d(-1) and 1.38 ± 0.41 mg CO2 m(-2) d(-1) in the soil area with higher carbon content. Our results showed that mean rates of CO2 production were higher than those of CH4 in both areas. No statistically significant difference was observed for production of CH4 considering different periods and sites. For carbon dioxide (CO2), however, a Two-Way ANOVA showed statistically significant difference (p = 0.05) considering sampling time, but no difference between areas. The results obtained suggest that the carbon and organic matter contents in the soil of irrigated rice cultivation areas may have been used in different ways by soil microorganisms, leading to variations in CH4 and CO2 production. PMID:23508352

Canterle, Eliete B; da Motta Marques, David; Rodrigues, Lúcia R

2013-01-01

292

Characterizing tight-gas systems with production data: Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The study of produced fluids allows comparisons among tight-gas systems. This paper examines gas, oil, and water production data from vertical wells in 23 fields in five Rocky Mountain basins of the United States, mostly from wells completed before the year 2000. Average daily rates of gas, oil, and water production are determined two years and seven years after production begins in order to represent the interval in which gas production declines exponentially. In addition to the daily rates, results are also presented in terms of oil-to-gas and water-to-gas ratios, and in terms of the five-year decline in gas production rates and water-to-gas ratios. No attempt has been made to estimate the ultimate productivity of wells or fields. The ratio of gas production rates after seven years to gas production rates at two years is about one-half, with median ratios falling within a range of 0.4 to 0.6 in 16 fields. Oil-gas ratios show substantial variation among fields, ranging from dry gas (no oil) to wet gas to retrograde conditions. Among wells within fields, the oil-gas ratios vary by a factor of three to thirty, with the exception of the Lance Formation in Jonah and Pinedale fields, where the oil-gas ratios vary by less than a factor of two. One field produces water-free gas and a large fraction of wells in two other fields produce water-free gas, but most fields have water-gas ratios greater than 1 bbl/mmcf—greater than can be attributed to water dissolved in gas in the reservoir— and as high as 100 bbl/mmcf. The median water-gas ratio for fields increases moderately with time, but in individual wells water influx relative to gas is erratic, increasing greatly with time in many wells while remaining constant or decreasing in others.

Nelson, Philip H.; Santus, Stephen L.

2013-01-01

293

A model of crude oil production: The roles of physics, exploration, and site development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I propose an integrated model of the behavior of a profit-maximizing crude oil producer. I show that the producer's optimization program can be decomposed into an extraction program, which is subject to physical constraints, an investment level program, a development timing program, and an exploration program for new prospects. In the extraction program, I find that it is optimal to extract oil at the maximal feasible rate, unless prices are expected to rise steeply. I also show that such a price process can arise in equilibrium and that prices in such an equilibrium grow at a rate determined by the decrease rate of the maximal feasible extraction rate. In the investment level program, I find that optimal investment is always increasing in the size of the field and, if the current price of oil net of extraction costs is positively related to future net prices, the investment level is also increasing in the net price. In addition, investment increases in the current technology level, unless technological improvements carry very bad news about future prices. Optimal development timing generally has an ambiguous relation to current shock values, and fields are not necessarily developed in a monotonic order by size. However, I establish conditions on the shock process under which development is more likely to occur in higher-price, lower-cost, and higher-technology states and show that the same conditions also ensure that larger fields are developed first. Under the same conditions that ensure monotonic development time dynamics, I show that it is optimal to explore fields in stochastically decreasing order of size and that the total number of prospects explored in a play in a given period responds positively to prices and technology, but is generally declining over the lifetime of the play. The model replicates a number of industry facts. First, crude oil producers respond to price and cost shocks primarily at the extensive margin, by adjusting exploration and development levels. Second, production paths at all levels of aggregation have an inverted-U shape (Hubbert's peak). Third, within each petroleum play the larger deposits tend to be discovered first. Finally, both exploration effort and new discoveries decrease over the lifetime of each exploration region.

Goldmanis, Maris

294

Impact of Recent Discoveries on Petroleum and Natural Gas Exploration: Emphasis on India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two discoveries have greatly impacted understanding relevant to the origination and emplacement of petroleum and natural gas deposits. One discovery, pertaining to hydrocarbon formation from methane broadens significantly potential regions where abiotic petroleum and natural gas deposits might be found. The other, discovery of the physical impossibility of Earth-mantle convection, restricts the range and domain of geodynamic behavior, and leads

J. Marvin Herndon

2010-01-01

295

Shallow seismic investigations of Devonian-shale gas production  

SciTech Connect

The foremost conclusion of this study is that fractured Devonian shale gas reservoirs, as exemplified by the Cottageville field, are detectable by seismic reflection methods. Further, the target is not particularly difficult, once the nature of the seismic anomaly is understood. The preferred exploration rationale is based on travel time anomalies related to lowered acoustic velocity within the gas-bearing zone. In the simplest case the travel time anomaly causes an apparent down-warp or sag in a flat-lying reflector. This conclusion is developed in Parts B and C of this report. Concerning the high-resolution extension of the seismic method, which is the subject of Part A, there are essentially two separate conclusions which can be drawn. One is that additional, valuable subsurface information can be obtained by recording seismic data at frequenies higher than those in common use by the petroleum industry at the time of this writing. The other is that it is feasible to obtain seismic reflection data on a smaller scale, using less costly instrumentation, than is typically employed in the petroleum industry. However, it is not yet possible to say whether such small scale surveying will be practical from an industry point of view.

Williams, R.T.; Ruotsala, J.E.; Kudla, J.J.; Dunne, W.E.

1982-06-01

296

Exploring the energy/beam current parameter space for the isotope production facility (IPF) at LANSCE  

SciTech Connect

IPF has recently investigated isotope production with proton beams at energies other than the 100-MeV currently available to the IPF beam line. To maximize the yield of a particular isotope, it is necessary to measure the production rate and cross section versus proton beam energy. Studies were conducted at 800 MeV and 197 MeV to determine the cross section of Tb-159. Also, the ability to irradiate targets at different proton beam energies opens up the possibility of producing other radioisotopes. A proof-of-principle test was conducted to develop a 40-MeV tune in the 100-MeV beam line. Another parameter explored was the beam current, which was raised from the normal limit of 250 {mu}A up to 356 {mu}A via both power and repetition rate increase. This proof-of-principle test demonstrated the capability of the IPF beam line for high current operation with potential for higher isotope yields. For the full production mode, system upgrades will need to be in place to operate at high current and high duty factor. These activities are expected to provide the data needed for the development of a new and unique isotope production capability complementing the existing 100-MeV IPF facility.

Gulley, Mark S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bach, Hong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nortier, Francis M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bitteker, Leo J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; John, Kevin D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdez, Frank O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seifter, Achim [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-07

297

30 CFR 550.202 - What criteria must the Exploration Plan (EP), Development and Production Plan (DPP), or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...must the Exploration Plan (EP), Development and Production Plan (DPP), or Development...Operations Coordination Document (DOCD) meet? ...BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE...CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information...

2013-07-01

298

Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Exploration Solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is an outcome of lean thinking to eliminate waste and increase productivity. PLM is inextricably tied to the systems engineering business philosophy, coupled with a methodology by which personnel, processes and practices, and information technology combine to form an architecture platform for product design, development, manufacturing, operations, and decommissioning. In this model, which is being implemented by the Engineering Directorate at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center, total lifecycle costs are important variables for critical decisionmaking. With the ultimate goal to deliver quality products that meet or exceed requirements on time and within budget, PLM is a powerful tool to shape everything from engineering trade studies and testing goals, to integrated vehicle operations and retirement scenarios. This paper will demonstrate how the Engineering Directorate is implementing PLM as part of an overall strategy to deliver safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions. It has been 30 years since the United States fielded the Space Shuttle. The next generation space transportation system requires a paradigm shift such that digital tools and knowledge management, which are central elements of PLM, are used consistently to maximum effect. The outcome is a better use of scarce resources, along with more focus on stakeholder and customer requirements, as a new portfolio of enabling tools becomes second nature to the workforce. This paper will use the design and manufacturing processes, which have transitioned to digital-based activities, to show how PLM supports the comprehensive systems engineering and integration function. It also will go through a launch countdown scenario where an anomaly is detected to show how the virtual vehicle created from paperless processes will help solve technical challenges and improve the likelihood of launching on schedule, with less hands-on labor needed for processing and troubleshooting. Sustainable space exploration solutions demand that all lifecycle phases be optimized. Adopting PLM, which has been used by the automotive industry for many years, for aerospace applications provides a foundation for strong, disciplined systems engineering and accountable return on investment by making lifecycle considerations variables in an iterative decision-making process. This paper combines the perspectives of the founding father of PLM, along with the experience of Engineering leaders who are implementing these processes and practices real-time. As the nation moves from an industrial-based society to one where information is a valued commodity, future NASA programs and projects will benefit from the experience being gained today for the exploration missions of tomorrow.

Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.

2010-01-01

299

Exploring the potential contribution of irrigation to global agricultural primary productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential contribution of irrigation to global agricultural net primary productivity (NPP) was explored using the Carnegie Stanford Ames Approach (CASA) model, modified for irrigation inputs. Excluding the effects from cultivar choice, fertilizer application, and water availability, removing climatic constraints to productivity through irrigation has the potential to increase carbon uptake by global cropland areas (which already have an average carbon uptake rate in excess of 175 gC/m2/yr) by an average of 25 gC/m2/yr with a maximum of 627 gC/m2/yr, especially in heavily irrigated semiarid areas such as northern India, the Indus River Valley, northeast China, the western United States, and the Nile River Valley. When accumulated across all irrigated areas and years, the total contribution of irrigation could exceed 0.40 Pg C per year, a value equivalent to the total NPP of U.S. croplands (0.41 PgC). The results also reveal that the relationship between cropland productivity affected by irrigation and climatic moisture availability is nonlinear: in locations that receive less than 1500 mm/yr rainfall, cropland productivity has a strong response to moisture; as humidity increases, additional moisture has very little impact on the productivity of crop areas. Moreover, the relationship between irrigation amount and productivity increase is also nonlinear: in humid locations, NPP response to irrigation is small but persistent; as aridity increases, irrigation has a substantial impact but its effect quickly saturates for irrigation input above 800 mm/yr, which may point to the efficiency of irrigation for different precipitation regions.

Ozdogan, Mutlu

2011-09-01

300

The Economic Impact of Shale Gas Production in the U.S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy is important to our daily lives. A price change of one energy type may influence our consumption choices, commodities prices and industry production. For the United States, shale gas is becoming a promising source of natural gas because of the rapid increase in its reserve and production capacity. Shale gas production is projected to be a large proportion of U.S. gas production, as predicted by Energy Information Administration (EIA). However, besides knowing the big picture, more details are needed before characterizing shale gas as a "game changer." It is interesting to address questions like to what extent the production of shale gas could affect other industries' production, stabilize commodities' prices, and what are the impacts on factor payments, capital returns, labor payments and household consumption. In this study, I use a CGE model to measure the impact on industry and the change in social welfare associated with shale gas production.

Yang, Yang

301

Exploring Cloudy Gas Accretion as a Source of Interstellar Turbulence in the Outskirts of Disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution two-dimensional MHD numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the effects of the continuing infall of clumpy gas in extended H I galactic disks. Given a certain accretion rate, the response of the disk depends on its surface gas density and temperature. For Galactic conditions at a galactocentric distance of ~20 kpc, and for mass accretion rates consistent with current empirical and theoretical determinations in the Milky Way, the rain of compact high-velocity clouds onto the disk can maintain transonic turbulent motions in the warm phase (~2500 K) of H I. Hence, the H I line width is expected to be ~6.5 km s-1 for a gas layer at 2500 K, if infall is the only mechanism driving the turbulence. Some statistical properties of the resulting force flow are shown in this Letter. The radial dependence of the gas velocity dispersion is also discussed.

Santillán, A.; Sánchez-Salcedo, F. J.; Franco, J.

2007-06-01

302

Application of Coal Petrographic Methods in Petroleum and Natural Gas Exploration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relationship that exists between coalification and the formation of liquid petroleum and natural gas depends entirely upon the temperature in the earth's crust and the duration of heating. The degree of coalification can be determined by reflectivity ...

M. Teichmueller

1971-01-01

303

Increased olefins production via recovery of refinery gas hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

In the process of catalytically cracking heavy petroleum fractions to make gasoline and light fuel oil, by-product waste gases are also generated. The waste gases, normally used as fuel, are themselves rich sources of ethylene, propylene and other light hydrocarbons which can be recovered inexpensively via a cryogenic dephlegmator process. This gas separation technique is exploited in a system, in operation since spring of 1987, which reclaims C/sub 2/+ hydrocarbons from a refinery gas. The reclamation process bolsters production in a nearby ethylene plant. Causing no disruption of ethylene plant operations, the cryogenic hydrocarbon recovery system functions smoothly with existing systems. The dephlegmation unit operation melds distillation and heat transfer processes in a single easily-controlled step which boosts the hydrocarbon purity and recovery above the levels profitably achievable with conventional cryogenic separation techniques. Very attractive operating economics follow from high purity, high recovery, and high energy efficiency. This paper discusses process concepts, economic benefits, plant operation, and early performance results.

Bernhard, D.P.; Rowles, H.C.; Moss, J.A.; Pickering, J.L. Jr.

1988-01-01

304

Exploration of economical sizing of gas engine and thermal store for combined heat and power plants in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been discussion about the extent to which combined heat and power (CHP) plants with thermal stores are suitable for sustainable energy production. At the moment, in the UK the development of this type of plant is limited. This paper analyses the economics and optimum size of CHP operating with gas engines and thermal stores in British market conditions.

Aikaterini Fragaki; Anders N. Andersen; David Toke

2008-01-01

305

Impact of Recent Discoveries on Petroleum and Natural Gas Exploration: Emphasis on India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two discoveries have greatly impacted understanding relevant to the\\u000aorigination and emplacement of petroleum and natural gas deposits. One\\u000adiscovery, pertaining to hydrocarbon formation from methane broadens\\u000asignificantly potential regions where abiotic petroleum and natural gas\\u000adeposits might be found. The other, discovery of the physical impossibility of\\u000aEarth-mantle convection, restricts the range and domain of geodynamic behavior,\\u000aand leads

J. Marvin Herndon

2010-01-01

306

Optimization of protein production by Micrococcus luteus for exploring pollutant-degrading uncultured bacteria.  

PubMed

The screening of pollutant-degrading bacteria are limited due to most of bacteria in the natural environment cannot be cultivated. For the purpose of resuscitating and stimulating "viable but non-culturable" (VBNC) or uncultured bacteria, Micrococcus luteus proteins are more convenient and cost-effective than purified resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf) protein. In this study, medium composition and culture conditions were optimized by using statistical experimental design and analysis to enhance protein production by M. luteus. The most important variables influencing protein production were determined using the Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and then central composite design (CCD) was adopted to optimize medium composition and culture conditions to achieve maximum protein yield. Results showed that the maximum protein yield of 25.13 mg/L (vs. 25.66 mg/L predicted) was obtained when the mineral solution, Lithium L-lactate, initial pH and incubation time were set at 1.5 ml/L, 8.75 g/L, 7.5 and 48 h, respectively. The predicated values calculated with the model were very close to the experimental values. Protein production was obviously increased with optimization fitting well with the observed fluorescence intensity. These results verified the feasibility and accuracy of this optimization strategy. This study provides promising information for exploring highly desirable pollutant-degrading microorganisms. PMID:24616844

Su, Xiaomei; Liu, Yindong; Hu, Jinxing; Ding, Linxian; Shen, Chaofeng

2014-01-01

307

Prototype Vent Gas Heat Exchanger for Exploration EVA - Performance and Manufacturing Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is developing new portable life support system (PLSS) technologies, which it is demonstrating in an unmanned ground based prototype unit called PLSS 2.0. One set of technologies within the PLSS provides suitable ventilation to an astronaut while on an EVA. A new component within the ventilation gas loop is a liquid-to-gas heat exchanger to transfer excess heat from the gas to the thermal control system s liquid coolant loop. A unique bench top prototype heat exchanger was built and tested for use in PLSS 2.0. The heat exchanger was designed as a counter-flow, compact plate fin type using stainless steel. Its design was based on previous compact heat exchangers manufactured by United Technologies Aerospace Systems (UTAS), but was half the size of any previous heat exchanger model and one third the size of previous liquid-to-gas heat exchangers. The prototype heat exchanger was less than 40 cubic inches and weighed 2.57 lb. Performance of the heat exchanger met the requirements and the model predictions. The water side and gas side pressure drops were less 0.8 psid and 0.5 inches of water, respectively, and an effectiveness of 94% was measured at the nominal air side pressure of 4.1 psia.

Quinn, Gregory J.; Strange, Jeremy; Jennings, Mallory

2013-01-01

308

Estimating methane releases from natural gas production and transmission in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane releases from the RAO Gazprom gas production and transmission facilities in Russia were determined in an extensive measurement program carried out in 1996 and 1997. Subsequently, the measurements were extrapolated to the Russian scale. The results show that methane releases from gas transmission are less than 1% of throughput. Methane loss from gas production in northwestern Siberia appears to

J. V. Dedikov; H. Kaesler; A. Ramm; A. Müller von Blumencron; J. Lelieveld

1999-01-01

309

Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 states 1984 through 1996, February 1996  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourth wellhead productive capacity report. The three previous ones were published in 1991, 1993, and 1994. This report should be of particular interest to those in Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas. The EIA Dallas Field Office has prepared five earlier reports regarding natural gas productive capacity. These reports, Gas Deliverability and Flow Capacity of Surveillance Fields, reported deliverability and capacity data for selected gas fields in major gas producing areas. The data in the reports were based on gas-well back-pressure tests and estimates of gas-in-place for each field or reservoir. These reports use proven well testing theory, most of which has been employed by industry since 1936 when the Bureau of Mines first published Monograph 7. Demand for natural gas in the United States is met by a combination of natural gas production, underground gas storage, imported gas, and supplemental gaseous fuels. Natural gas production requirements in the lower 48 States have been increasing during the last few years while drilling has remained at low levels. This has raised some concern about the adequacy of future gas supplies, especially in periods of peak heating or cooling demand. The purpose of this report is to address these concerns by presenting a 3-year projection of the total productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead for the lower 48 States. Alaska is excluded because Alaskan gas does not enter the lower-48 States pipeline system. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) generates this 3-year projection based on historical gas-well drilling and production data from State, Federal, and private sources. In addition to conventional gas-well gas, coalbed gas and oil-well gas are also included.

NONE

1996-02-09

310

Exploring the limits of crop productivity: beyond the limits of tipburn in lettuce  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The productivity of lettuce in a combination of high light, high temperature, and elevated CO2 has not been commonly studied because rapid growth usually causes a calcium deficiency in meristems called tipburn, which greatly reduces quality and marketability. We eliminated tipburn by blowing air directly onto the meristem, which allowed us to increase the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) to 1000 micromoles m-2 s-1 (57.6 mol m-2 d-1); two to three times higher than normally used for lettuce. Eliminating tipburn doubled edible yield at the highest PPF level. In addition to high PPF, CO2 was elevated to 1200 micromoles m-2 mol-1, which increased the temperature optimum from 25 to 30 degrees C. The higher temperature increased leaf expansion rate, which improved radiation capture and more than doubled yield. Photosynthetic efficiency, measured as canopy quantum yield in a whole-plant gas exchange system, steadily increased up to the highest temperature of 32 degrees C in high CO2. The highest productivity was 19 g m-2 d-1 of dry biomass (380 g d-1 fresh mass) averaged over the 23 days the plants received light. Without the limitation of tipburn, the combination of high PPF, high temperature, and elevated CO2 resulted in a 4-fold increase in growth rate over productivity in conventional environments.

Frantz, Jonathan M.; Ritchie, Glen; Cometti, Nilton N.; Robinson, Justin; Bugbee, Bruce

2004-01-01

311

Prototype Vent Gas Heat Exchanger for Exploration EVA - Performance and Manufacturing Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is developing new portable life support system (PLSS) technologies, which it is demonstrating in an unmanned ground based prototype unit called PLSS 2.0. One set of technologies within the PLSS provides suitable ventilation to an astronaut while on an EVA. A new component within the ventilation gas loop is a liquid-to-gas heat exchanger to transfer excess heat from the gas to the thermal control system's liquid coolant loop. A unique bench top prototype heat exchanger was built and tested for use in PLSS 2.0. The heat exchanger was designed as a counter-flow, compact plate fin type using stainless steel. Its design was based on previous compact heat exchangers manufactured by United Technologies Aerospace Systems, but was half the size of any previous heat exchanger model and one third the size of previous liquid-to-gas heat exchangers. The prototype heat exchanger was less than 40 cubic inches and weighed 2.6 lb. The water side and gas side pressure drops were 0.8 psid and 0.5 inches of water, respectively. Performance of the heat exchanger at the nominal pressure of 4.1 psia was measured at 94%, while a gas inlet pressure of 25 psia resulted in an effectiveness of 84%. These results compared well with the model, which was scaled for the small size. Modeling of certain phenomena that affect performance, such as flow distribution in the headers was particularly difficult due to the small size of the heat exchanger. Data from the tests has confirmed the correction factors that were used in these parts of the model.

Jennings, Mallory; Quinn, Gregory; Strange, Jeremy

2012-01-01

312

Exploring the Impact of Marcellus Shale Gas on Welding and Related Occupations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide presents lessons on Marcellus Shale, which is sedimentary rock containing natural gas reserves. Students will look at how changes in the world affect their career options and choices; in this case looking at the welding occupations that are related to extracting gas from Marcellus Shale deposits. The unit is intended for grade 11 and would take seven to eight 45 minute class periods to complete in full. The material is specifically designed for students in Pennsylvania, but could be adapted for schools in other areas. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft Word file format.

2012-10-16

313

Synthesis gas production by biomass pyrolysis: Effect of reactor temperature on product distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes mass, C, H, and O balances for wood chips pyrolysis experiments performed in a tubular reactor under conditions of rich H2 gas production (700–1000°C) and for determined solid heating rates (20–40°Cs?1). Permanent gases (H2, CO, CH4, CO2, C2H4, C2H6), water, aromatic tar (10 compounds from benzene to phenanthrene and phenols), and char were considered in the balance

A. Dufour; P. Girods; E. Masson; Y. Rogaume; A. Zoulalian

2009-01-01

314

Magnetic surveys: An {open_quotes}unconventional{close_quotes} approach to oil and gas exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil and gas accumulations that leak may be detectable via magnetic surveys because the escaping hydrocarbons commonly induce the formation of magnetic contrasts, inorganically or microbially. In diagenetic settings at depths of zero to about 5 km, magnetite and pyrrhotite are the most important magnetic minerals formed, whereas hematite is the most abundant magnetic mineral destroyed. Pyrite and siderite are

Machel

1995-01-01

315

Prediction of Gas Leak Tightness of Superplastically Formed Products  

SciTech Connect

In some applications, in this case an aluminium box in a subatomic particle detector containing highly sensitive detecting devices, it is important that a formed sheet should show no gas leak from one side to the other. In order to prevent a trial-and-error procedure to make this leak tight box, a method is set up to predict if a formed sheet conforms to the maximum leak constraint. The technique of superplastic forming (SPF) is used in order to attain very high plastic strains before failure. Since only a few of these boxes are needed, this makes, this generally slow, process an attractive production method. To predict the gas leak of a superplastically formed aluminium sheet in an accurate way, finite element simulations are used in combination with a user-defined material model. This constitutive model couples the leak rate with the void volume fraction. This void volume fraction is then dependent on both the equivalent plastic strain and the applied hydrostatic pressure during the bulge process (backpressure).

Snippe, Corijn H. C. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef) PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meinders, T. [University of Twente, Faculty of Engineering Technology PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

2010-06-15

316

City of North Bonneville, Washington: Geothermal Exploration Project, production test well, Phase II. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Based on discussions with the City of North Bonneville, the production test well was drilled to a depth that would also explore for ground water temperatures near 130/sup 0/F (54.4/sup 0/C). Depth projections to a 130/sup 0/F bottom hole temperature were made by assuming a constant ground water temperature rise greater than 50/sup 0/C per kilometer, and by assuming that essentially homogeneous or equivalent conductive rock units would be encountered. Minimum water production requirements were not set, although the City determined that about 800 gpm would be acceptable. Large upper casing diameters of 16 and 12 inches were installed in order to provide the future use of either a vertical turbine or submersible pump, as desired by the city. The scope of work included interpretation of well characteristics, evaluation of ground water as a geothermal resource, geologic analysis of data from drilling and testing, drilling supervision, daily drilling cost accounting, and preparation of a final report. The report includes geologic evaluation of the drilling and test data, ground water and geothermal potential.

Not Available

1982-06-01

317

Atmospheric emissions and air quality impacts from natural gas production and use.  

PubMed

The US Energy Information Administration projects that hydraulic fracturing of shale formations will become a dominant source of domestic natural gas supply over the next several decades, transforming the energy landscape in the United States. However, the environmental impacts associated with fracking for shale gas have made it controversial. This review examines emissions and impacts of air pollutants associated with shale gas production and use. Emissions and impacts of greenhouse gases, photochemically active air pollutants, and toxic air pollutants are described. In addition to the direct atmospheric impacts of expanded natural gas production, indirect effects are also described. Widespread availability of shale gas can drive down natural gas prices, which, in turn, can impact the use patterns for natural gas. Natural gas production and use in electricity generation are used as a case study for examining these indirect consequences of expanded natural gas availability. PMID:24498952

Allen, David T

2014-01-01

318

Gas geochemistry of the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: implications for gas hydrate exploration in the Arctic  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gases were analyzed from well cuttings, core, gas hydrate, and formation tests at the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, drilled within the Milne Point Unit, Alaska North Slope. The well penetrated a portion of the Eileen gas hydrate deposit, which overlies the more deeply buried Prudhoe Bay, Milne Point, West Sak, and Kuparuk River oil fields. Gas sources in the upper 200 m are predominantly from microbial sources (C1 isotopic compositions ranging from ?86.4 to ?80.6‰). The C1 isotopic composition becomes progressively enriched from 200 m to the top of the gas hydrate-bearing sands at 600 m. The tested gas hydrates occur in two primary intervals, units D and C, between 614.0 m and 664.7 m, containing a total of 29.3 m of gas hydrate-bearing sands. The hydrocarbon gases in cuttings and core samples from 604 to 914 m are composed of methane with very little ethane. The isotopic composition of the methane carbon ranges from ?50.1 to ?43.9‰ with several outliers, generally decreasing with depth. Gas samples collected by the Modular Formation Dynamics Testing (MDT) tool in the hydrate-bearing units were similarly composed mainly of methane, with up to 284 ppm ethane. The methane isotopic composition ranged from ?48.2 to ?48.0‰ in the C sand and from ?48.4 to ?46.6‰ in the D sand. Methane hydrogen isotopic composition ranged from ?238 to ?230‰, with slightly more depleted values in the deeper C sand. These results are consistent with the concept that the Eileen gas hydrates contain a mixture of deep-sourced, microbially biodegraded thermogenic gas, with lesser amounts of thermogenic oil-associated gas, and coal gas. Thermal gases are likely sourced from existing oil and gas accumulations that have migrated up-dip and/or up-fault and formed gas hydrate in response to climate cooling with permafrost formation.

Lorenson, T. D.; Collett, T. S.; Hunter, R. B.

2011-01-01

319

World mineral exploration trends and economic issues  

SciTech Connect

The subjects and methodologies presented in this book vary from the presentation of a heretofore unavailable collection of data on worldwide mineral exploration to case studies of mineral exploration in the developing countries of Botswana and Papua New Guinea to a study of the economic productivity of base metal exploration in Australia and Canada. Some authors concentrate on particular actors or participants in the exploration process, such as major mining companies, while other focus on a particular country such as the Soviet Union, France, or South Africa. Most chapters deal with exploration for nonfuel minerals, and particularly metals, although some take in uranium and coal exploration; oil and gas exploration is specifically excluded.

Tilton, J.E.; Eggert, R.G. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (USA). Dept. of Mineral Economics); Landsberg, H.H. (Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC (USA))

1988-01-01

320

Atomic hydrogen production rates for comet P/Halley from observations with Dynamics Explorer I  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of atomic hydrogen surrounding comet Halley is observed in resonantly scattered solar Lyman-alpha radiation with the imaging photometer for vacuum-ultraviolet wavelengths on the Earth-orbiting spacecraft Dynamics Explorer I. Measurements are made of the total Lyman-alpha flux at Earth due to the cometary neutral-hydrogen distribution and the hydrogen production rate determined as a function of heliocentric distance, r. Corrections are made for the finite field-of-view of the photometer and for the approx 700-R background at the spacecraft arising from the presence of geocoronal, interplanetary, and galactic hydrogen. The distribution of hydrogen surrounding the comet nucleus at time t is dominated by atoms released from the comet in parent molecules at about time t - tau, where the hydrogen lifetime is tau. Corrections are made for this time difference. For distances 1.5 to 0.68 AU before perihelion passage, the hydrogen production rate varies as Q/sub o/r//sup 8/, where n = 2.30 and Q sub 0 = 0.1 x 10/sup 29/ atoms/s. Using the same functional dependence in the post-perihelion period at distances 0.63 to 1.2 AU, preliminary values based on a limited data set are n = 1.62 and Q sub 0 = 1.1 x 10/sup 30/ atoms/s. These production rates are consistent with in-situ measurements from the Giotto and Vega spacecraft, and with the Pioneer-Venus and IUE spacecraft.

Craven, J.D.; Frank, L.A.

1987-01-01

321

Modified Carbon Products, Their Use in Fluid/gas Diffusion Layers and Similar Devices and Methods Relating to the Same.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gas/Fluid diffusion layers incorporating modified carbon products. The modified carbon products advantageously enhance the properties of gas/fluid diffusion layers, leading to more efficiency within a fuel cell or similar device incorporating the gas/flui...

G. L. Rice J. Brewster J. Caruso M. J. Hampden-Smith P. Atanassova

2005-01-01

322

A BIMA SONG Exploration of Interarm Molecular Gas in M51  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present recent imaging of M51, taken as part of the BIMA CO Survey of Nearby spiral Galaxies (BIMA SONG). We address the properties of arm and interarm molecular gas in this grand design spiral, and the degree to which molecular gas is concentrated in the main spiral arms. Our 26-field mosaic, mapped over only three 8-hour tracks, highlights the imaging capabilities of the BIMA interferometer. The resulting map provides information over a 15 square arcminute field, at a resolution of 7" (325 pc) and 5 km s(-1) , and we detect CO over most of the region where CO has been detected by single-dish telescopes. Our map combines interferometer and single-dish CO data to account for the large-scale structure generally missed by interferometers, and we discuss the importance of this technique. Furthermore, we compare our map with optical-infrared colors in the same region. The optical-IR colors effectively represent the dust distribution over the bright stellar disk and show the accuracy of the BIMA map as a tracer of gas and dust.

Thornley, M. D.; Vogel, S. N.; Helfer, T. T.; Blitz, L.; Bock, D. C.-J.; Harris, A.; Regan, M. W.; Sheth, K.; Wong, T.

1998-12-01

323

Interstellar Neutral Gas Flow Measurements with the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) - Implications on Interstellar Medium and Heliosphere Diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observes the interstellar neutral gas flow tra-jectories at their perihelion in Earth's orbit every year from December through late March, when the Earth moves into the oncoming flow. Surprisingly, the initial quantita-tive analysis resulted in a somewhat different interstellar flow vector with noticeably lower speed than obtained previously. In comparison with astronomical observations of the flow vectors of neighboring interstellar clouds, this result locates the solar system within the Local Interstellar Cloud (LIC), contrary to the previous determination, which indicated values between the LIC and the G-Cloud. This year, the fifth season is being accumulated, providing a database over increasing solar activity and with varying view-ing strategies. These recurring observations of the interstellar flow pattern and its spatial distribution allow us to consolidate the derived physical conditions of the surrounding interstellar medium. We can also track variations in the flow at 1 AU that may arise from solar cycle related changes in ionization and radiation pressure for H and explore any other variations of the neutral gas flow. Based on the angular distributions in latitude and longitude, the neutral flow observations also indicate the presence of a secondary compo-nent for most of the species, which most probably stems from charge exchange with ions in the outer heliosheath. We will review our observations and discuss implications for the LIC and its interaction with the heliosphere in the light of a growing data set and improv-ing analysis techniques.

Moebius, E.; Bochsler, P. A.; Bzowski, M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Heirtzler, D.; Hlond, M.; Kubiak, M.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; Leonard, T.; McComas, D. J.; Saul, L. A.; Schwadron, N. A.; Sokol, J.; Wurz, P.

2013-05-01

324

Gas chromatography: Possible application of advanced instrumentation developed for solar system exploration to space station cabin atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gas chromatography (GC) technology was developed for flight experiments in solar system exploration. The GC is a powerful analytical technique with simple devices separating individual components from complex mixtures to make very sensitive quantitative and qualitative measurements. It monitors samples containing mixtures of fixed gases and volatile organic molecules. The GC was used on the Viking mission in support of life detection experiments and on the Pioneer Venus Large Probe to determine the composition of the venusian atmosphere. A flight GC is under development to study the progress and extent of STS astronaut denitrogenation prior to extravehicular activity. Advanced flight GC concepts and systems for future solar system exploration are also studied. Studies include miniature ionization detectors and associated control systems capable of detecting from ppb up to 100% concentration levels. Further miniaturization is investigated using photolithography and controlled chemical etching in silicon wafers. Novel concepts such as ion mobility drift spectroscopy and multiplex gas chromatography are also developed for future flight experiments. These powerful analytical concepts and associated hardware are ideal for the monitoring of cabin atmospheres containing potentially dangerous volatile compounds.

Carle, G. C.

1985-01-01

325

Exploring post-Kyoto climate regimes for differentiation of commitments to stabilise greenhouse gas concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report aims at exploring the implications of various international\\u000aclimate regimes for differentiating future commitments compatible with\\u000aArticle 2 of Climate Change Convention, i.e. stabilising the greenhouse\\u000agas concentration at a 'non-dangerous' level. Three climate regimes are\\u000aexplored: (1) Multi-stage approach, gradual increase in the number of\\u000aParties involved and their level of commitment according to participation\\u000aand differentiation

Elzen MGJ den

2007-01-01

326

Chemical and physical properties of dry flue gas desulfurization products.  

PubMed

Beneficial and environmentally safe recycling of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products requires detailed knowledge of their chemical and physical properties. We analyzed 59 dry FGD samples collected from 13 locations representing four major FGD scrubbing technologies. The chemistry of all samples was dominated by Ca, S, Al, Fe, and Si and strong preferential partitioning into the acid insoluble residue (i.e., coal ash residue) was observed for Al, Ba, Be, Cr, Fe, Li, K, Pb, Si, and V. Sulfur, Ca, and Mg occurred primarily in water- or acid-soluble forms associated with the sorbents or scrubber reaction products. Deionized water leachates (American Society for Testing and Materials [ASTM] method) and dilute acetic acid leachates (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure [TCLP] method) had mean pH values of >11.2 and high mean concentrations of S primarily as SO(2-)4 and Ca. Concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se (except for ASTM Se in two samples) were below drinking water standards in both ASTM and TCLP leachates. Total toxicity equivalents (TEQ) of dioxins, for two FGD products used for mine reclamation, were 0.48 and 0.53 ng kg(-1). This was similar to the background level of the mine spoil (0.57 ng kg(-1)). The FGD materials were mostly uniform in particle size. Specific surface area (m2 g(-1)) was related to particle size and varied from 1.3 for bed ash to 9.5 for spray dryer material. Many of the chemical and physical properties of these FGD samples were associated with the quality of the coal rather than the combustion and SO2 scrubbing processes used. PMID:15758120

Kost, David A; Bigham, Jerry M; Stehouwer, Richard C; Beeghly, Joel H; Fowler, Randy; Traina, Samuel J; Wolfe, William E; Dick, Warren A

2005-01-01

327

Global exploration and production capacity for platinum-group metals from 1995 through 2015  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Platinum-group metals (PGMs) are required in a variety of commercial, industrial, and military applications for many existing and emerging technologies, yet the United States is highly dependent on foreign sources of PGMs. Information on global exploration for PGMs since 1995 has been used in this study as a basis for identifying locations where the industry has determined that exploration has provided data sufficient to warrant development of a new mine or expansion of an existing operation or where a significant increase in capacity for PGMs is anticipated by 2015. Discussions include an overview of the industry and the selected sites, factors affecting mineral supply, and circumstances leading to the development of mineral properties with the potential to affect mineral supply. Of the 52 sites or regional operations that were considered in this analysis, 16 sites were producing before 1995, 28 sites commenced production from 1995 through 2010, and 8 sites were expected to begin production from 2011 through 2015 if development plans came to fruition. The United States imports PGMs primarily from Canada, Russia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe to meet increasing demand for these materials in a variety of specialized and high-tech applications. Feed sources of PGMs are changing in South Africa and Russia, which together accounted for about 89 percent of platinum production and 82 percent of palladium production in 2009. A greater amount of South African PGM capacity is likely to come from deeper, higher cost Upper Group Reef seam 2 deposits and deposits in the Eastern Bushveld area. Future Russian PGM capacity is likely to come from ore zones with generally lower PGM content and different platinum-to-palladium ratios than the nickel-rich ore that dominated PGM supply in the 1990s. Because PGM supply from Canada and Russia is derived as a byproduct of copper and nickel mining, the PGM supply from these countries is influenced by economic, environmental, political, and technological factors affecting exploration for and development of copper and nickel, as well as factors affecting the PGM industry. The recovery of PGMs from mill tailings since 2004 and the recycling of PGMs from catalytic converters, electrical components, and jewelry has increased since 1995 so that recycled PGMs recovered from these products accounted for about 30 percent of the supply of platinum worldwide and 29 percent of the supply of palladium worldwide in 2010. Economic and geopolitical conditions have influenced PGM supply and demand. The global recession of 2008 and 2009 temporarily decreased demand for PGMs and constrained PGM mine exploration and development, at least through 2010. Legislation regulating the structure of the mining sector has affected mining in Russia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. Stricter vehicle emissions standards in established markets since the 1980s have led to mandatory use of pollution control devices, such as catalytic converters, that contain PGMs and are required on vehicles in expanding markets, such as China and India. It is expected that South Africa, Russia, Canada, and Zimbabwe will continue to be the principal sources of PGM at least for the next decade. Based on this review of the PGM industry, the world’s platinum capacity, expressed in terms of recoverable platinum metal, increased from 1995 through 2010 by 77,000 kilograms (kg) in South Africa, 9,000 kg in Zimbabwe, 6,000 kg in Russia, 2,000 kg in Botswana, and 2,000 kg in Canada. For the same period, palladium capacity worldwide increased by 44,000 kg in South Africa, 22,000 kg in Russia, 8,000 kg in Canada, 8,000 kg in the United States, 7,000 kg in Zimbabwe, and 3,000 kg in Botswana. Platinum capacity worldwide is expected to further increase by 24,000 kg in South Africa, 9,000 kg in Russia, 3,000 kg in Canada, and 2,000 kg in Zimbabwe from 2011 through 2015. Palladium capacity worldwide is likewise expected to increase an additional 16,000 kg in Russia, 14,000 kg in South Africa, 4,000 kg in Zimbabwe, and 1,000 kg in Canada if new or expanded mine and asso

Wilburn, David R.

2012-01-01

328

From Paper to Production: An Update on NASA's Upper Stage Engine for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/industry team responsible for developing the J-2X Upper Stage Engine for the Constellation Program's Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles has made significant progress toward moving the design from paper to production during the past year. The J-2X exemplifies the Constellation goal of using proven technology and experience from more than 50 years of United States spaceflight experience and seeking where possible to employ common hardware in the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The J-2X will power the Ares I upper stage to place the Orion crew vehicle in orbit. For the Ares V, the J-2X will place the Earth departure stage (EDS) and lunar lander in orbit and later re-start to send the Orion and lander to the Moon. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is under contract to develop and produce the engine, leveraging its flight-proven LH2/LOX, gas generator cycle J-2 and RS-68 engine capabilities, recent experience with the X-33 aerospike XRS-2200 engine, and development knowledge of the J-2S tap-off cycle engine. The J-2X employs a gas generator operating cycle designed to produce 294,000 pounds of thrust in primary operating mode for the Ares I and Ares V ascent phases. It also has a secondary mode, during which it operates at 80 percent thrust by altering its mixture ratio to perform the TLI burn for the Ares V lunar sortie and lunar cargo missions. The J-2X development philosophy is based on proven hardware, an aggressive development schedule, and early risk reduction. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and PWR began development of the J-2X in June 2006. The government/industry team of more than 600 people within NASA and PWR successfully completed the Critical Design Review (CDR) in November 2008, following extensive risk mitigation testing. The team is working toward a first flight of the J-2X on the Orion 1 mission in 2014. This paper will discuss the J-2X development background and provide top-level information on design and testing to date. Details will be provided on overcoming challenges such as gas generator instability, turbine blade life, and nozzle extension selection and materials.

Kynard, Mike

2010-01-01

329

Modeling the relative GHG emissions of conventional and shale gas production.  

PubMed

Recent reports show growing reserves of unconventional gas are available and that there is an appetite from policy makers, industry, and others to better understand the GHG impact of exploiting reserves such as shale gas. There is little publicly available data comparing unconventional and conventional gas production. Existing studies rely on national inventories, but it is not generally possible to separate emissions from unconventional and conventional sources within these totals. Even if unconventional and conventional sites had been listed separately, it would not be possible to eliminate site-specific factors to compare gas production methods on an equal footing. To address this difficulty, the emissions of gas production have instead been modeled. In this way, parameters common to both methods of production can be held constant, while allowing those parameters which differentiate unconventional gas and conventional gas production to vary. The results are placed into the context of power generation, to give a ?well-to-wire? (WtW) intensity. It was estimated that shale gas typically has a WtW emissions intensity about 1.8-2.4% higher than conventional gas, arising mainly from higher methane releases in well completion. Even using extreme assumptions, it was found that WtW emissions from shale gas need be no more than 15% higher than conventional gas if flaring or recovery measures are used. In all cases considered, the WtW emissions of shale gas powergen are significantly lower than those of coal. PMID:22085088

Stephenson, Trevor; Valle, Jose Eduardo; Riera-Palou, Xavier

2011-12-15

330

Modeling the Relative GHG Emissions of Conventional and Shale Gas Production  

PubMed Central

Recent reports show growing reserves of unconventional gas are available and that there is an appetite from policy makers, industry, and others to better understand the GHG impact of exploiting reserves such as shale gas. There is little publicly available data comparing unconventional and conventional gas production. Existing studies rely on national inventories, but it is not generally possible to separate emissions from unconventional and conventional sources within these totals. Even if unconventional and conventional sites had been listed separately, it would not be possible to eliminate site-specific factors to compare gas production methods on an equal footing. To address this difficulty, the emissions of gas production have instead been modeled. In this way, parameters common to both methods of production can be held constant, while allowing those parameters which differentiate unconventional gas and conventional gas production to vary. The results are placed into the context of power generation, to give a ?well-to-wire? (WtW) intensity. It was estimated that shale gas typically has a WtW emissions intensity about 1.8–2.4% higher than conventional gas, arising mainly from higher methane releases in well completion. Even using extreme assumptions, it was found that WtW emissions from shale gas need be no more than 15% higher than conventional gas if flaring or recovery measures are used. In all cases considered, the WtW emissions of shale gas powergen are significantly lower than those of coal.

2011-01-01

331

Coalbed natural gas exploration, drilling activities, and geologic test results, 2007-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in partnership with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, the North Slope Borough, and the Arctic Slope Regional Corporation conducted a four-year study designed to identify, define, and delineate a shallow coalbed natural gas (CBNG) resource with the potential to provide locally produced, affordable power to the community of Wainwright, Alaska. From 2007 through 2010, drilling and testing activities conducted at three sites in or near Wainwright, identified and evaluated an approximately 7.5-ft-thick, laterally continuous coalbed that contained significant quantities of CBNG. This coalbed, subsequently named the Wainwright coalbed, was penetrated at depths ranging from 1,167 ft to 1,300 ft below land surface. Core samples were collected from the Wainwright coalbed at all three drill locations and desorbed-gas measurements were taken from seventeen 1-ft-thick sections of the core. These measurements indicate that the Wainwright coalbed contains enough CBNG to serve as a long-term energy supply for the community. Although attempts to produce viable quantities of CBNG from the Wainwright coalbed proved unsuccessful, it seems likely that with proper well-field design and by utilizing currently available drilling and reservoir stimulation techniques, this CBNG resource could be developed as a long-term economically viable energy source for Wainwright.

Clark, Arthur C.

2014-01-01

332

Fuel Gas Production from Animal and Agricultural Residues and Biomass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress was reported by all contractors. Topics presented include: solid waste to methane gas; pipeline fuel gas from an environmental cattle feed lot; heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability; promoting faster anaerobic diges...

D. L. Wise R. L. Wentworth

1978-01-01

333

Production of manufactured aggregates from flue gas desulfurization by-products  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL R and D has developed a disk pelletization process to produce manufactured aggregates from the by-products of various technologies designed to reduce sulfur emissions produced from coal utilization. Aggregates have been produced from the by-products of the Coolside and LIMB sorbent injection, the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), spray dryer absorption (SDA), and lime and limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. The aggregates produced meet the general specifications for use as road aggregate in road construction and for use as lightweight aggregate in concrete masonry units. Small field demonstrations with 1200 lb to 5000 lb of manufactured aggregates were conducted using aggregates produced from FBC ash and lime wet FGD sludge in road construction and using aggregates made from SDA ash and lime wet FGD sludge to manufacture concrete blocks. The aggregates for this work were produced with a bench-scale (200--400 lb batch) unit. In 1999, CONSOL R and D constructed and operated a 500 lb/hr integrated, continuous pilot plant. A variety of aggregate products were produced from lime wet FGD sludge. The pilot plant test successfully demonstrated the continuous, integrated operation of the process. The pilot plant demonstration was a major step toward commercialization of manufactured aggregate production from FGD by-products. In this paper, progress made in the production of aggregates from dry FGD (Coolside, LIMB, SDA) and FBC by-products, and lime wet FGD sludge is discussed. The discussion covers bench-scale and pilot plant aggregate production and aggregate field demonstrations.

Wu, M.M.; McCoy, D.C.; Fenger, M.L.; Scandrol, R.O.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Statnick, R.M.

1999-07-01

334

Exploring the gas-phase spectroscopy of interstellar PAH and dust analogs: Astrophysical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present and discuss the gas-phase electronic absorption spectra of selected ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) measured in the UV-Visible-NIR range in an astrophysically relevant environment. This type of measurements provides data on PAHs and nanometer-sized particles that can now be directly compared to astronomical spectra of the UV interstellar (IS) extinction curve and of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). The harsh physical conditions of the IS medium - characterized by a low temperature, an absence of collisions and strong VUV radiation fields - are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. This source combines a pulsed slit supersonic free jet expansion of argon seeded with PAHs (< 1%) and an ionizing pulsed electronic discharge. PAH ions are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature (˜100 K). The spectra of PAH ions are measured using the complementary high sensitivity methods of Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (ICOS). We have first applied this instrument to the measurement of the electronic spectrum of the cold Naphthalene (C10H8+) and Acenaphthene cations (C12H10+) (Biennier, L., Salama, F., Allamandola, L. J. & Scherer, J. J., `Pulsed discharge nozzle cavity ringdown spectroscopy of cold PAH ions', J. Chem Phys.;in press) that have been pre-selected from Matrix Isolation Spectroscopy (MIS) studies. The absorption spectrum of the Pyrene cation (C16H10+) has also been measured. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of free, large carbon-containing molecules and ions in the gas phase. The electronic bands measured for this selection of PAH ions are all found to be intrinsically broad (>˜20 cm-1). The laboratory data are compared with recent astronomical spectra of large DIBs. Preliminary results also show that carbon nanoparticles (˜2 nm size) are formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma. This finding holds great potential for the spectroscopy of nanoparticles isolated in the gas-phase in an interstellar-like environment and for understanding the formation process of interstellar grains.

Biennier, Ludovic; Salama, Farid; Allamandola, Lou; Gupta, Manish; O'Keefe, Anthony; Scherer, James J.

335

75 FR 28052 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0051, Oil and Gas Production Measurement, Extension of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...L, ``Oil and Gas Production Measurement,'' and...2010. The MMS will post all comments. Mail...subpart L, Oil and Gas Production Measurement. OMB Control...6 production volumetric and/or...Post signs at royalty...

2010-05-19

336

DETERMINATION OF INTERFERING TRIAZINE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Deethyl atrazine (DEA), along with other triazine degradation products, has been added to the US Environmental Protection Agency's Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). In its gas chromatographic (GC) analysis, deethyl atrazine, a degradation product of atrazine, can ...

337

Gas, water, and oil production from Wattenberg field in the Denver Basin, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from selected wells in two tight gas reservoirs-the Codell-Niobrara interval, comprised of the Codell Sandstone Member of the Carlile Shale and the Niobrara Formation; and the Dakota J interval, comprised mostly of the Muddy (J) Sandstone of the Dakota Group; both intervals are of Cretaceous age-in the Wattenberg field in the Denver Basin of Colorado. Production from each well is represented by two samples spaced five years apart, the first sample typically taken two years after production commenced, which generally was in the 1990s. For each producing interval, summary diagrams and tables of oil-versus-gas production and water-versus-gas production are shown with fluid-production rates, the change in production over five years, the water-gas and oil-gas ratios, and the fluid type. These diagrams and tables permit well-to-well and field-to-field comparisons. Fields producing water at low rates (water dissolved in gas in the reservoir) can be distinguished from fields producing water at moderate or high rates, and the water-gas ratios are quantified. The Dakota J interval produces gas on a per-well basis at roughly three times the rate of the Codell-Niobrara interval. After five years of production, gas data from the second samples show that both intervals produce gas, on average, at about one-half the rate as the first sample. Oil-gas ratios in the Codell-Niobrara interval are characteristic of a retrograde gas and are considerably higher than oil-gas ratios in the Dakota J interval, which are characteristic of a wet gas. Water production from both intervals is low, and records in many wells are discontinuous, particularly in the Codell-Niobrara interval. Water-gas ratios are broadly variable, with some of the variability possibly due to the difficulty of measuring small production rates. Most wells for which water is reported have water-gas ratios exceeding the amount that could exist dissolved in gas at reservoir pressure and temperature. The Codell-Niobrara interval is reported to be overpressured (that is, pressure greater than hydrostatic) whereas the underlying Dakota J interval is underpressured (less than hydrostatic), demonstrating a lack of hydraulic communication between the two intervals despite their proximity over a broad geographical area. The underpressuring in the Dakota J interval has been attributed by others to outcropping strata east of the basin. We agree with this interpretation and postulate that the gas accumulation also may contribute to hydraulic isolation from outcrops immediately west of the basin.

Nelson, Philip H.; Santus, Stephen L.

2011-01-01

338

76 FR 53086 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the field of gas exploration and production, such as shale gas, indicate that the existing framework for regulating...Gathering lines are being constructed to transport ``shale'' gas that range from 12 to 36 inches in diameter with an...

2011-08-25

339

Radioxenon production through neutron irradiation of stable xenon gas  

SciTech Connect

The Spectral Deconvolution Analysis Tool (SDAT) software was developed to improve counting statistics and detection limits for nuclear explosion radionuclide measurements. SDAT utilizes spectral deconvolution spectroscopy techniques and can analyze both ?-? coincidence spectra for radioxenon isotopes and high-resolution HPGe spectra from aerosol monitors. The deconvolution algorithm of the SDAT requires a library of ?-? coincidence spectra of individual radioxenon isotopes to determine isotopic ratios in a sample. In order to get experimentally produced spectra of the individual isotopes we have irradiated enriched samples of 130Xe, 132Xe, and 134Xe gas with a neutron beam from the TRIGA reactor at The University of Texas. The samples produced were counted in an Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) style ?-? coincidence detector. The spectra produced show that this method of radioxenon production yields samples with very high purity of the individual isotopes for 131mXe and 135Xe and a sample with a substantial 133mXe to 133Xe ratio.

Haas, Derek A.; Biegalski, Steven R.; Foltz Biegalski, Kendra M.

2009-12-01

340

Seals for use in oil and gas well production tubing  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes seals for use in couplings, and joints, as used in the formation of production tubing for use in sour gas containing hydrogen sulfide environments. A tubular member containing an inwardly tapered threaded section is provided with a seal inclusive of an annular groove and ring-shaped extrudable generally non-resilient sealing member seated in the groove. The ring-member is extrudable into and confinable within the groove when the couplings, or joints, are made up by threadably connecting therewith a threaded end of pipe, and make-up of the couplings, or joints, produces hoop stresses in the outer walls of the couplings, or joints, adjacent the non-resilient sealing member against which force is applied during make-up The improvement described here is wherein the bottom face of the annular groove component of the seal is contoured to provide a radius ranging from about 1/8 inch to about 1/4 inch, the annular groove is provided with side walls, and the side walls of the annular groove are straight and are adjoined to angular sides ranging from about 20/sup 0/ to about 45/sup 0/, such that the ring-shaped extrudable generally resilient sealing member is extruded into the contour within the bottom face of the annular groove component.

Albrecht, N.M.; Blanchard, R.J.

1987-04-07

341

Volumetric strain associated with methane desorption and its impact on coalbed gas production from deep coal seams  

SciTech Connect

For deep coal seams, significant reservoir pressure drawdown is required to promote gas desorption because of the Langmuir-type isotherm that typifies coals. Hence, a large permeability decline may occur because of pressure drawdown and the resulting increase in effective stress, depending on coal properties and the stress field during production. However, the permeability decline can potentially be offset by the permeability enhancement caused by the matrix shrinkage associated with methane desorption. The predictability of varying permeability is critical for coalbed gas exploration and production-well management. We have investigated quantitatively the effects of reservoir pressure and sorption-induced volumetric strain on coal-seam permeability with constraints from the adsorption isotherm and associated volumetric strain measured on a Cretaceous Mesaverde Group coal (Piceance basin) and derived a stress-dependent permeability model. Our results suggest that the favorable coal properties that can result in less permeability reduction during earlier production and an earlier strong permeability rebound (increase in permeability caused by coal shrinkage) with methane desorption include (1) large bulk or Young's modulus; (2) large adsorption or Langmuir volume; (3) high Langmuir pressure; (4) high initial permeability and dense cleat spacing; and (5) low initial reservoir pressure and high in-situ gas content. Permeability variation with gas production is further dependent on the orientation of the coal seam, the reservoir stress field, and the cleat structure. Well completion with injection of N2 and displacement of CH{sub 4} only results in short-term enhancement of permeability and does not promote the overall gas production for the coal studied.

Cui, X.J.; Bustin, R.M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Earth & Ocean Science

2005-09-01

342

Reactive greenhouse gas scenarios: Systematic exploration of uncertainties and the role of atmospheric chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the atmospheric chemistry of reactive greenhouse gases is needed to accurately quantify the relationship between human activities and climate, and to incorporate uncertainty in our projections of greenhouse gas abundances. We present a method for estimating the fraction of greenhouse gases attributable to human activities, both currently and for future scenarios. Key variables used to calculate the atmospheric chemistry and budgets of major non-CO2 greenhouse gases are codified along with their uncertainties, and then used to project budgets and abundances under the new climate-change scenarios. This new approach uses our knowledge of changing abundances and lifetimes to estimate current total anthropogenic emissions, independently and possibly more accurately than inventory-based scenarios. We derive a present-day atmospheric lifetime for methane (CH4) of 9.1 ± 0.9 y and anthropogenic emissions of 352 ± 45 Tg/y (64% of total emissions). For N2O, corresponding values are 131 ± 10 y and 6.5 ± 1.3 TgN/y (41% of total); and for HFC-134a, the lifetime is 14.2 ± 1.5 y.

Prather, Michael J.; Holmes, Christopher D.; Hsu, Juno

2012-05-01

343

A new AODV-based routing protocol adequate for monitoring applications in oil & gas production environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring applications in onshore oil and gas production environments are usually based on wireless solutions. Most part of nowadays applications rely upon outdated technologies, based on the use of analog radios and inefficient master-slave communication topologies. In this paper, we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technologies to monitor oil and gas production environments. More specifically, we consider

Ivanovitch Silva; Luiz Affonso Guedes; Francisco Vasques

2010-01-01

344

Metering separator for determining the liquid mass flow rate in a gas liquid oilfield production stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separator accepts both the casing annulus and tubing production streams issuing from an in situ combustion project production well. Most of the gas in the flow is first separated from the liquid and solids, by centrifugal action. This gas is removed from the separator. The remaining mixture is accumulated until a pre-determined weight is in hand, at which point

L. Bland; C. J. Anderson

1985-01-01

345

Methane production from commercial dairy rations estimated using an in vitro gas technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in vitro gas production technique was used to measure total gas and methane (CH4) production from commercial total mixed rations (TMR) for lactating dairy cows. The TMR were collected from six commercial dairy farms in the San Joaquin Valley of California (USA), and the campus dairy at the University of California in Davis, for evaluation using an in vitro

G. Getachew; P. H. Robinson; E. J. DePeters; S. J. Taylor; D. D. Gisi; G. E. Higginbotham; T. J. Riordan

2005-01-01

346

ETHYLENE PRODUCTION BY NATURAL GAS PARTIAL OXIDATION OVER MgO-BASED CATALYSTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylene industrial production is carried out by steam cracking of naphtha. This process, besides using an oil fraction, requires high energy because it is an endothermal process and takes place at high temperatures. An alternative is the obtainment of this product by partial oxidation of the natural gas. This route, moreover using natural gas as raw material, can be carried

Oscar W. Perez-Lopez; Thais M. Farias; Clarissa P. Correa

347

Transport time of volatile and nonvolatile fission products in a gas jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport times for volatile and nonvolatile fission products in a gas jet were determined using the facility at the Ford Nuclear Reactor of the University of Michigan. A mixture of ethylene and nitrogen was used to sweep the fission products from the target chamber in the gas jet. Activated charcoal traps [C] and quartz wool traps [QW] were used to

N. Davis; E. T. Contis; K. Rengan; H. C. Griffin

1994-01-01

348

Gas production potential of disperse low-saturation hydrateaccumulations in oceanic sediments  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we evaluate the gas production potential ofdisperse, low-saturation (SH<0.1) hydrate accumulations in oceanicsediments. Such hydrate-bearing sediments constitute a significantportion of the global hydrate inventory. Using numerical simulation, weestimate (a) the rates of gas production and gas release from hydratedissociation, (b) the corresponding cumulative volumes of released andproduced gas, as well as (c) the water production rate and the mass ofproduced water from disperse, low-SH hydrate-bearing sediments subject todepressurization-induced dissociation over a 10-year production period.We investigate the sensitivity of items (a) to (c) to the followinghydraulic properties, reservoir conditions, and operational parameters:intrinsic permeability, porosity, pressure, temperature, hydratesaturation, and constant pressure at which the production well is kept.The results of this study indicate that, despite wide variations in theaforementioned parameters (covering the entire spectrum of suchdeposits), gas production is very limited, never exceeding a few thousandcubic meters of gas during the 10-year production period. Such lowproduction volumes are orders of magnitude below commonly acceptedstandards of economic viability, and are further burdened with veryunfavorable gas-to-water ratios. The unequivocal conclusion from thisstudy is that disperse, low-SH hydrate accumulations in oceanic sedimentsare not promising targets for gas production by means ofdepressurization-induced dissociation, and resources for early hydrateexploitation should be focused elsewhere.

Moridis, George J.; Sloan, E. Dendy

2006-07-19

349

Field-Scale, Massively Parallel Simulation of Production from Oceanic Gas Hydrate Deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantity of hydrocarbon gases trapped in natural hydrate accumulations is enormous, leading to significant interest in the evaluation of their potential as an energy source. It has been shown that large volumes of gas can be readily produced at high rates for long times from some types of methane hydrate accumulations by means of depressurization-induced dissociation, and using conventional technologies with horizontal or vertical well configurations. However, these systems are currently assessed using simplified or reduced-scale 3D or even 2D production simulations. In this study, we use the massively parallel TOUGH+HYDRATE code (pT+H) to assess the production potential of a large, deep-ocean hydrate reservoir and develop strategies for effective production. The simulations model a full 3D system of over 24 km2 extent, examining the productivity of vertical and horizontal wells, single or multiple wells, and explore variations in reservoir properties. Systems of up to 2.5M gridblocks, running on thousands of supercomputing nodes, are required to simulate such large systems at the highest level of detail. The simulations reveal the challenges inherent in producing from deep, relatively cold systems with extensive water-bearing channels and connectivity to large aquifers, including the difficulty of achieving depressurizing, the challenges of high water removal rates, and the complexity of production design. Also highlighted are new frontiers in large-scale reservoir simulation of coupled flow, transport, thermodynamics, and phase behavior, including the construction of large meshes, the use parallel numerical solvers and MPI, and large-scale, parallel 3D visualization of results.

Reagan, M. T.; Moridis, G. J.; Freeman, C. M.; Pan, L.; Boyle, K. L.; Johnson, J. N.; Husebo, J. A.

2012-12-01

350

Principal decomposition by-products generated at various abnormalities in gas-insulated transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas analysis provides a promising means for a diagnosis of gas-insulated equipment. Although many studies have been concentrated on SF[sub 6] gas decomposition, they were mostly related to the faults in GIS systems and not directly applicable to gas-insulated transformers, who have much complicated material structure. An experimental survey over decomposition by-products at various abnormal conditions was carried out by

Y. Mukaiyama; I. Takagi; H. Ishihara; A. Kudo; Y. Makino; N. Hosokawa

1994-01-01

351

Gas, Water, and Oil Production from the Wasatch Formation, Greater Natural Buttes Field, Uinta Basin, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from 38 wells with production commencing during the 1980s from the Wasatch Formation in the Greater Natural Buttes field, Uinta Basin, Utah. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid production from tight gas reservoirs, which are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. The general ranges of production rates after 2 years are 100-1,000 mscf/day for gas, 0.35-3.4 barrel per day for oil, and less than 1 barrel per day for water. The water:gas ratio ranges from 0.1 to10 barrel per million standard cubic feet, indicating that free water is produced along with water dissolved in gas in the reservoir. The oil:gas ratios are typical of a wet gas system. Neither gas nor water rates show dependence upon the number of perforations, although for low gas-flow rates there is some dependence upon the number of sandstone intervals that were perforated. Over a 5-year time span, gas and water may either increase or decrease in a given well, but the changes in production rate do not exhibit any dependence upon well proximity or well location.

Nelson, Philip H.; Hoffman, Eric L.

2009-01-01

352

Evaluation of in vitro gas production and rumen bacterial populations fermenting corn milling (co)products.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the fermentation dynamics of 2 commonly fed corn (co)products in their intact and defatted forms, using the in vitro gas production (IVGP) technique, and to investigate the shifts of the predominant rumen bacterial populations using the 16S rDNA bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) technique. The bTEFAP technique was used to determine the bacterial profile of each fermentation time at 24 and 48 h. Bacterial populations were identified at the species level. Species were grouped by substrate affinities (guilds) for cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, starch, sugars, protein, lipids, and lactate. The 2 (co)products were a dried distillers grain (DDG) plus solubles produced from a low-heat drying process (BPX) and a high-protein DDG without solubles (HP). Chemical analysis revealed that BPX contained about 11.4% ether extract, whereas HP contained only 3.88%. Previous studies have indicated that processing methods, as well as fat content, of corn (co)products directly affect fermentation rate and substrate availability, but little information is available regarding changes in rumen bacterial populations. Fermentation profiles of intact and defatted BPX and HP were compared with alfalfa hay as a standard profile. Defatting before incubation had no effect on total gas production in BPX or HP, but reduced lag time and the fractional rate of fermentation of BPX by at least half, whereas there was no effect for HP. The HP feed supported a greater percentage of fibrolytic and proteolytic bacteria than did BPX. Defatting both DDG increased the fibrolytic (26.8 to 38.7%) and proteolytic (26.1 to 37.2%) bacterial guild populations and decreased the lactate-utilizing bacterial guild (3.06 to 1.44%). Information regarding the fermentation kinetics and bacterial population shifts when feeding corn (co)products may lead to more innovative processing methods that improve feed quality (e.g., deoiling) and consequently allow greater inclusion rates in dairy cow rations. PMID:20855008

Williams, W L; Tedeschi, L O; Kononoff, P J; Callaway, T R; Dowd, S E; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

2010-10-01

353

Gas, Oil, and Water Production in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas, oil, and water production data were collected from the Fuller Reservoir, Cooper Reservoir, Frenchie Draw, Cave Gulch, and Madden fields in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming. These fields produce from the Mississippian Madison Limestone, the Upper Cretaceous Cody Shale and Mesaverde Formation, and the Paleocene lower unnamed member and Shotgun Member of the Fort Union Formation. Diagrams of water and gas production from tight gas accumulations in three formations in the Madden field show that (1) water production either increased or decreased with time in all three formations, (2) increases and decreases in water production were greater in the Cody Shale than in either the Mesaverde Formation or the lower unnamed member of the Fort Union Formation, (3) the gas production rate declined more slowly in the lower part of the Fort Union Formation than in the Cody Shale or the Mesaverde Formation, (4) changes in gas and water production were not related to their initial production rates, and (5) there appears to be no relation between well location and the magnitudes or trends of gas and water production. To explain the apparent independence of gas and water production in the Cody Shale and Mesaverde Formation, a two-step scenario is proposed: gas was generated and emplaced under the compressive stress regime resulting from Laramide tectonism; then, fractures formed during a subsequent period of stress relaxation and extension. Gas is produced from the pore and fracture system near the wellbore, whereas water is produced from a larger scale system of extension fractures. The distribution of gas and water in the lower Fort Union resulted from a similar scenario, but continued generation of gas during post-Laramide extension may have allowed its more widespread distribution.

Nelson, Philip H.; Trainor, Patrick K.; Finn, Thomas M.

2009-01-01

354

Using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography to explore the geochemistry of the Santa Barbara oil seeps  

SciTech Connect

The development of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) has expanded the analytical window for studying complex mixtures like oil. Compared to traditional gas chromatography, this technology separates and resolves at least an order of magnitude more compounds, has a much larger signal to noise ratio, and sorts compounds based on their chemical class; hence, providing highly refined inventories of petroleum hydrocarbons in geochemical samples that was previously unattainable. In addition to the increased resolution afforded by GC x GC, the resulting chromatograms have been used to estimate the liquid vapor pressures, aqueous solubilities, octanol-water partition coefficients, and vaporization enthalpies of petroleum hydrocarbons. With these relationships, powerful and incisive analyses of phase-transfer processes affecting petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in the environment are available. For example, GC x GC retention data has been used to quantitatively deconvolve the effects of phase transfer processes such as water washing and evaporation. In short, the positive attributes of GC x GC-analysis have led to a methodology that has revolutionized the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons. Overall, this research has opened numerous fields of study on the biogeochemical "?genetics" (referred to as petroleomics) of petroleum samples in both subsurface and surface environments. Furthermore, these new findings have already been applied to the behavior of oil at other seeps as well, for petroleum exploration and oil spill studies.

Reddy, Christopher; Nelson, Robert

2013-03-27

355

Process development of hydrogenous gas production for PEFC from biogas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory-scale gas processor that integrates four successive catalytic reactions: steam reforming of methane, high- and low-temperature water gas shifts and selective oxidation of carbon monoxide, was designed and tested in this study to produce hydrogen-rich gas with CO<10 ppm from a clean model biogas having a constant molar ratio of CH4\\/CO2=1.5:1.0 for a 50-W class polymer electrolyte fuel cell

Zhan-Guo Zhang; Guangwen Xu; Xin Chen; Kazunori Honda; Tadashi Yoshida

2004-01-01

356

Production of a Gas: Controlling a Chemical Reaction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners mix vinegar and baking soda to produce a gas. With the addition of a bit of liquid soap, the gas becomes trapped in measurable bubbles. This way, learners can alter the amount of ingredients and evaluate the amount of gas produced based on the height the foam rises in the graduated cylinder. Learners have the opportunity to design their own experiment, control variables, and test their ideas.

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.

2007-01-01

357

The aftermath of silurian faulting in southeast Michigan, and its effect on oil and gas exploration  

SciTech Connect

In Macomb Township of Macomb County, southeast Michigan, is found a sinuous normal fault extending along a N82[degrees]W strike, from end to end only 6 mi long, but with more than 260 ft of maximum displacement at the Trenton level. Through about 3 mi of its midsection extent, the main fault is paired with another normal fault with opposite displacement sense, forming a very narrow graben. The timing of development of this divergent wrench feature coincides with Caledonian tectonic activity, a period of intense structural disturbance and regional subsidence throughout the Michigan basin. The fault appears to cut no higher than A[sub 1] Carbonate, although relationships are obscured by subsequent dissolution of more than 500 ft of Salina A[sub 1], A[sub 2], B, D, and F salts along and beyond the trace of the fault. Collapse of interbedded carbonates and shales is evident, although the apparent lack of brecciation indicates salt removal was not rapid. Further, salt removal proceeded throughout the Devonian, producing dramatic compensatory thickening in overlying units. The development of this large feature in prime Niagaran reef territory may have prevented the discovery of reefs by obscuring what is otherwise well-known stratigraphy and seismic signature. The presence of oil production in dolomitized fracture zones in the Trenton/Black River rocks of nearby Ontario may point to similar potential yet remaining along the Macomb faulted trend.

Fowler, J.H. (Polaris Energy, Jackson, MI (United States))

1994-08-01

358

Analysis of production from tight-gas formations. Volume 2. PGC Region summaries. Final report, March 1984February 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volume is divided into sections for each Potential Gas Committee Region (H, I, Jn, Js, D-Texas portion, D-Louisiana portion, and G). For each region, the annual production of each product is displayed by each of three levels of analysis: tight-gas production alone, total production from exclusively tight-gas fields, and total production from fields producing at least some tight gas

M. Haas; J. P. Brashear; F. Morra

1985-01-01

359

Experimental study of synthesis gas production by coal and natural gas co-conversion process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A moving bed was used as the reactor in experiments to produce synthesis gas by coal and natural gas co-conversion process. The effects of coal types on the temperature in the flame zone, the ingredients and the H2\\/CO ratio of synthesis gas, together with the methane and steam conversions were investigated by using coke, anthracite, lean and fat coals as

Zhaobin Ouyang; Zhancheng Guo; Dongping Duan; Xueping Song; Zhi Wang

2006-01-01

360

Analysis of Improved Government Geological Map Information for Mineral Exploration: Incorporating Efficiency, Productivity, Effectiveness, and Risk Considerations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This bulletin/professional paper focuses on the value of geoscientific information and knowledge, as provided in published government bedrock geological maps, to the mineral exploration sector. An economic model is developed that uses an attribute- ranking approach to convert geological maps into domains of mineral favourability. Information about known deposits in these (or analogous) favourability domains allow the calculation of exploration search statistics that provide input into measures of exploration efficiency, productivity, effectiveness, risk, and cost stemming from the use of the published geological maps. Two case studies, the Flin Flon Belt (Manitoba and Saskatchewan) and the south Baffin Island area (Nunavut), demonstrate that updated, finer resolution maps can be used to identify more exploration campaign options, and campaigns thats are more efficient, more effective, and less risky than old, coarser resolution maps when used as a guide for mineral exploration. The Flin Flon Belt study illustrates that an updated, coarser resolution bedrock map enables improved mineral exploration efficiency, productivity, and effectiveness by locating 60% more targets and supporting an exploration campaign that is 44% more efficient. Refining the map resolution provides an additional 17% reduction in search effort across all favourable domains and a 55% reduction in search effort in the most favourable domain. The south Baffin Island case study projects a 40% increase in expected targets and a 27% reduction in search effort when the updated, finer resolution map is used in lieu of the old, coarser resolution map. On southern Baffin Island, the economic value of the up dated map ranges from CAN$2.28 million to CAN$15.21 million, which can be compared to the CAN$1.86 million that it cost to produce the map (a multiplier effect of up to eight).

Bernknopf, R. L.; Wein, A. M.; St-Onge, M. R.; Lucas, S. B.

2007-01-01

361

Review on biofuel oil and gas production processes from microalgae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microalgae, as biomass, are a potential source of renewable energy, and they can be converted into energy such as biofuel oil and gas. This paper presents a brief review on the main conversion processes of microalgae becoming energy. Since microalgae have high water content, not all biomass energy conversion processes can be applied. By using thermochemical processes, oil and gas

Sarmidi Amin

2009-01-01

362

Lifecycle greenhouse gas implications of US national scenarios for cellulosic ethanol production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 set an annual US national production goal of 39.7 billion l of cellulosic ethanol by 2020. This paper explores the possibility of meeting that target by growing and processing Miscanthus × giganteus. We define and assess six production scenarios in which active cropland and/or Conservation Reserve Program land are used to grow to Miscanthus. The crop and biorefinery locations are chosen with consideration of economic, land-use, water management and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction objectives. Using lifecycle assessment, the net GHG footprint of each scenario is evaluated, providing insight into the climate costs and benefits associated with each scenario’s objectives. Assuming that indirect land-use change is successfully minimized or mitigated, the results suggest two major drivers for overall GHG impact of cellulosic ethanol from Miscanthus: (a) net soil carbon sequestration or emissions during Miscanthus cultivation and (b) GHG offset credits for electricity exported by biorefineries to the grid. Without these factors, the GHG intensity of bioethanol from Miscanthus is calculated to be 11-13 g CO2-equivalent per MJ of fuel, which is 80-90% lower than gasoline. Including soil carbon sequestration and the power-offset credit results in net GHG sequestration up to 26 g CO2-equivalent per MJ of fuel.

Scown, Corinne D.; Nazaroff, William W.; Mishra, Umakant; Strogen, Bret; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Masanet, Eric; Santero, Nicholas J.; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E.

2012-03-01

363

Spatial resolution of gas hydrate and permeability changes from ERT data in LARS simulating the Mallik gas hydrate production test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German gas hydrate project SUGAR studies innovative methods and approaches to be applied in the production of methane from hydrate-bearing reservoirs. To enable laboratory studies in pilot scale, a large reservoir simulator (LARS) was realized allowing for the formation and dissociation of gas hydrates under simulated in-situ conditions. LARS is equipped with a series of sensors. This includes a cylindrical electrical resistance tomography (ERT) array composed of 25 electrode rings featuring 15 electrodes each. The high-resolution ERT array is used to monitor the spatial distribution of the electrical resistivity during hydrate formation and dissociation experiments over time. As the present phases of poorly conducting sediment, well conducting pore fluid, non-conducting hydrates, and isolating free gas cover a wide range of electrical properties, ERT measurements enable us to monitor the spatial distribution of these phases during the experiments. In order to investigate the hydrate dissociation and the resulting fluid flow, we simulated a hydrate production test in LARS that was based on the Mallik gas hydrate production test (see abstract Heeschen et al., this volume). At first, a hydrate phase was produced from methane saturated saline water. During the two months of gas hydrate production we measured the electrical properties within the sediment sample every four hours. These data were used to establish a routine estimating both the local degrees of hydrate saturation and the resulting local permeabilities in the sediment's pore space from the measured resistivity data. The final gas hydrate saturation filled 89.5% of the total pore space. During hydrate dissociation, ERT data do not allow for a quantitative determination of free gas and remaining gas hydrates since both phases are electrically isolating. However, changes are resolved in the spatial distribution of the conducting liquid and the isolating phase with gas being the only mobile isolating phase. Hence, it is possible to detect areas in the sediment sample where free gas is released due to hydrate dissociation and displaces the liquid phase. Combined with measurements and numerical simulation of the total two-phase fluxes from the sediment sample (see abstract Abendroth et al., this volume), the LARS experiments allow for detailed information on the dissociation process during hydrate production. Here we present the workflow and first results estimating local hydrate saturations and permeabilities during hydrate formation and the movement of liquid and gas phases during hydrate dissociation, respectively.

Priegnitz, Mike; Thaler, Jan; Spangenberg, Erik; Schicks, Judith M.; Abendroth, Sven

2014-05-01

364

Numerical, Laboratory And Field Studiesof Gas Production FromNatural Hydrate Accumulations in Geologic Media  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the range of activities at Lawrence BerkeleyNational Laboratory in support of gas production from natural hydrates.Investigations of production from the various classes of hydrate depositsby numerical simulation indicate their significant promise as potentialenergy sources. Laboratory studies are coordinated with the numericalstudies and are designed to address knowledge gaps that are important tothe prediction of gas production. Our involvement in field tests is alsobriefly discussed.

Moridis, George J.; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Kowalsky, Michael; Reagan, Matthew

2006-10-17

365

Worldwide gas processing: Capacities as of January 1, 1996, and average production  

SciTech Connect

Data are presented for gas plant capacities and production by country, by companies within each country, and by state or province within larger countries. Data are presented for total capacity as well as for average production of ethane, propane, isobutane, butane, LP-gas mixtures, raw NGL mixtures, natural gasoline, and other products. Processes are absorption, refrigerated absorption, refrigeration, compression, adsorption, cryogenic-Joule-Thomson, cryogenic-expander, and H{sub 2}S removal.

NONE

1996-07-01

366

Drilling and Production Testing the Methane Hydrate Resource Potential Associated with the Barrow Gas Fields  

SciTech Connect

In November of 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Slope Borough (NSB) committed funding to develop a drilling plan to test the presence of hydrates in the producing formation of at least one of the Barrow Gas Fields, and to develop a production surveillance plan to monitor the behavior of hydrates as dissociation occurs. This drilling and surveillance plan was supported by earlier studies in Phase 1 of the project, including hydrate stability zone modeling, material balance modeling, and full-field history-matched reservoir simulation, all of which support the presence of methane hydrate in association with the Barrow Gas Fields. This Phase 2 of the project, conducted over the past twelve months focused on selecting an optimal location for a hydrate test well; design of a logistics, drilling, completion and testing plan; and estimating costs for the activities. As originally proposed, the project was anticipated to benefit from industry activity in northwest Alaska, with opportunities to share equipment, personnel, services and mobilization and demobilization costs with one of the then-active exploration operators. The activity level dropped off, and this benefit evaporated, although plans for drilling of development wells in the BGF's matured, offering significant synergies and cost savings over a remote stand-alone drilling project. An optimal well location was chosen at the East Barrow No.18 well pad, and a vertical pilot/monitoring well and horizontal production test/surveillance well were engineered for drilling from this location. Both wells were designed with Distributed Temperature Survey (DTS) apparatus for monitoring of the hydrate-free gas interface. Once project scope was developed, a procurement process was implemented to engage the necessary service and equipment providers, and finalize project cost estimates. Based on cost proposals from vendors, total project estimated cost is $17.88 million dollars, inclusive of design work, permitting, barging, ice road/pad construction, drilling, completion, tie-in, long-term production testing and surveillance, data analysis and technology transfer. The PRA project team and North Slope have recommended moving forward to the execution phase of this project.

Steve McRae; Thomas Walsh; Michael Dunn; Michael Cook

2010-02-22

367

Analysis of the product gas from biomass gasification by means of laser spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of biomass and waste for decentralised combined heat and power production (CHP) requires highly efficient gasification processes. In the Technische Universität München (TUM), an innovative gasification technology has been developed. This allothermal gasifier is producing a hydrogen- rich, high-calorific gas, that can be further used in a microturbine or a fuel cell producing energy. For the operation of such a system, the online analysis of the composition of the product gas is of high importance, since the efficient working of the machines is linked with the gas quality. For this purpose an optical measurement system based on laser spectroscopy has been applied. This system can measure not only the basic components of the product gas (H 2, CH 4, CO, CO 2, H 2O), but it also gives information concerning the content of high hydrocarbons, the so-called tars, in the product gas.

Karellas, S.; Karl, J.

2007-09-01

368

Medical Grade Water Generation for Intravenous Fluid Production on Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document describes the intravenous (IV) fluids requirements for medical care during NASA s future Exploration class missions. It further discusses potential methods for generating such fluids and the challenges associated with different fluid generation technologies. The current Exploration baseline mission profiles are introduced, potential medical conditions described and evaluated for fluidic needs, and operational issues assessed. Conclusions on the fluid volume requirements are presented, and the feasibility of various fluid generation options are discussed. A separate report will document a more complete trade study on the options to provide the required fluids.At the time this document was developed, NASA had not yet determined requirements for medical care during Exploration missions. As a result, this study was based on the current requirements for care onboard the International Space Station (ISS). While we expect that medical requirements will be different for Exploration missions, this document will provide a useful baseline for not only developing hardware to generate medical water for injection (WFI), but as a foundation for meeting future requirements. As a final note, we expect WFI requirements for Exploration will be higher than for ISS care, and system capacity may well need to be higher than currently specified.

Niederhaus, Charles E.; Barlow, Karen L.; Griffin, DeVon W.; Miller, Fletcher J.

2008-01-01

369

Oolite shoals of the St. Louis Formation, Gray County, Kansas: A guide for oil and gas exploration  

SciTech Connect

Geologists familiar with the Mississippian St. Louis formation in southeastern Kansas have interpreted the productive oolite shoals of the St. Louis in the region as representing linear ramp barrier-type deposits which developed southwest of, and parallel to, a southwesterly trending shoreline. However, examination of available cores and interpretation of electric-log data from the Ingalls field in Gray County suggest that production is from an oolite shoal that is situated leeward of small island developed on a carbonate mud flat. Positive magnetic and gravity anomalies associated with the Ingalls field imply deep structures which might have resulted in subtle perturbations on the Mississippian seafloor that in turn provided loci for ooid shoal formation. Classified lithologically as an oolitic grainstone, the most productive facies of the shoal exhibits primary intergranular porosity with evidence of only minor diagenetic porosity enhancement. An important implication for future exploration in that St. Louis formation oolitic buildups in this area could be present in pairs, occurring on both the leeward and basinward side of coastal plain islands that might have formed an archipelago extending into the Hugoton embayment of the Anadarko basin.

Sutterllin, P.G. (Wichita State Univ., KS (United States)); Parham, K.D. (Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence (United States))

1991-08-01

370

Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 States, 1980 through 1995  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to analyze monthly natural gas wellhead productive capacity in the lower 48 States from 1980 through 1992 and project this capacity from 1993 through 1995. For decades, natural gas supplies and productive capacity have been adequate to meet demand. In the 1970`s the capacity surplus was small because of market structure (split between interstate and intrastate), increasing demand, and insufficient drilling. In the early 1980`s, lower demand, together with increased drilling, led to a large surplus capacity as new productive capacity came on line. After 1986, this large surplus began to decline as demand for gas increased, gas prices fell, and gas well completions dropped sharply. In late December 1989, the decline in this surplus, accompanied by exceptionally high demand and temporary weather-related production losses, led to concerns about the adequacy of monthly productive capacity for natural gas. These concerns should have been moderated by the gas system`s performance during the unusually severe winter weather in March 1993 and January 1994. The declining trend in wellhead productive capacity is expected to be reversed in 1994 if natural gas prices and drilling meet or exceed the base case assumption. This study indicates that in the low, base, and high drilling cases, monthly productive capacity should be able to meet normal production demands through 1995 in the lower 48 States (Figure ES1). Exceptionally high peak-day or peak-week production demand might not be met because of physical limitations such as pipeline capacity. Beyond 1995, as the capacity of currently producing wells declines, a sufficient number of wells and/or imports must be added each year in order to ensure an adequate gas supply.

Not Available

1994-07-14

371

Comparative Assessment of Advanced Gas Hydrate Production Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Displacing natural gas and petroleum with carbon dioxide is a proven technology for producing conventional geologic hydrocarbon reservoirs, and producing additional yields from abandoned or partially produced petroleum reservoirs. Extending this concept t...

B. P. McGrail M. D. White S. K. Wurstner

2009-01-01

372

Production of Renewable Natural Gas from Waste Biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass energy is expected to make a major contribution to the replacement of fossil fuels. Methane produced from biomass is referred to as bio-methane, green gas, bio-substitute natural gas or renewable natural gas (RNG) when it is used as a transport fuel. Research on upgrading of the cleaned producer gas to RNG is still ongoing. The present study deals with the conversion of woody biomass into fuels, RNG using gasifier. The various effects of parameters like temperature, pressure, and tar formation on conversion were also studied. The complete carbon conversion was observed at 480 °C and tar yield was significantly less. When biomass was gasified with and without catalyst at about 28 s residence time, ~75 % (w/w) and 88 % (w/w) carbon conversion for without and with catalyst was observed. The interest in RNG is growing; several initiatives to demonstrate the thermal-chemical conversion of biomass into methane and/or RNG are under development.

Kumar, Sachin; Suresh, S.; Arisutha, S.

2013-03-01

373

Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer Observations of Interstellar Gas toward the Large Magellanic Cloud Star SK -67°05  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on measurements of interstellar O VI, H2, P II, Si II, Ar I, and Fe II absorption along the line of sight to Sk -67°05, a B0 Ia star in a diffuse H II region in the western edge of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We find logN(O VI)=14.40+/-0.04 in the Milky Way component and, using the C IV column density from previous IUE observations, N(C IV)/N(O VI)=1.00+/-0.16, a value similar to other halo measurements made with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. In the LMC component, logN(O VI)=13.89+/-0.05 and N(C IV)/N(O VI)<0.4 (3 ?), since only an upper limit on N(C IV) is available. Along this sight line, the LMC is rich in molecular hydrogen [logN(H2)=19.50+/-0.08] in the Milky Way, logN(H2)=14.95+/-0.08. A two-component fit for the excitation temperature of the molecular gas in the LMC gives T01=59+/-5 K for J=0, 1 and Tex=800+/-330 K for J=3, 4, 5. For the Milky Way, T01=99+30-20 K; no excitation temperature could be determined for the higher rotational states. The Milky Way and LMC gas-phase [Fe/P] abundances are ~0.6 and ~0.7 dex lower, respectively, than solar system abundances. These values are similar to [Fe/Zn] measurements for the Milky Way and LMC toward SN 1987A.

Friedman, S. D.; Howk, J. C.; Andersson, B.-G.; Sembach, K. R.; Ake, T. B.; Roth, K.; Sahnow, D. J.; Savage, B. D.; York, D. G.; Sonneborn, G.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Wilkinson, E.

2000-07-01

374

The simulation of nature gas production from ocean gas hydrate reservoir by depressurization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vast amount of hydrocarbon gas encaged in gas hydrates is regarded as a kind of future potential energy supply due to\\u000a its wide deposition and cleanness. How to exploit gas hydrate with safe, effective and economical methods is being pursued.\\u000a In this paper, a mathematical model is developed to simulate the hydrate dissociation by depressurization in hydrate-bearing\\u000a porous medium.

YuHu Bai; QingPing Li; XiangFang Li; Yan Du

2008-01-01

375

Integrated Solar System Exploration Education and Public Outreach: Theme, Products and Activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Solar System Exploration Program is entering an unprecedented period of exploration and discovery. Its goal is to understand the origin and evolution of the solar system and life within it. SSE missions are operating or in development to study the far reaches of our solar system and beyond. These missions proceed in sequence for each body from reconnaissance flybys through orbiters and landers or rovers to sample returns. SSE research programs develop new instruments, analyze mission data or returned samples, and provide experimental or theoretical models to aid in interpretation.

Lowes, Leslie; Lindstrom, Marilyn; Stockman, Stephanie; Scalice, Daniela; Allen, Jaclyn; Tobola, Kay; Klug, Sheri; Harmon, Art

2004-01-01

376

OBPR Product Lines, Human Research Initiative, and Physics Roadmap for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The pace of change has increased at NASA. OBPR s focus is now on the Human interface as it relates to the new Exploration vision. The fundamental physics community must demonstrate how we can contribute. Many opportunities exist for physicists to participate in addressing NASA's cross-disciplinary exploration challenges: a) Physicists can contribute to elucidating basic operating principles for complex biological systems; b) Physics technologies can contribute to developing miniature sensors and systems required for manned missions to Mars. NASA Codes other than OBPR may be viable sources of funding for physics research.

Israelsson, Ulf

2004-01-01

377

Depressurization-induced gas production from Class 1 and Class 2hydrate deposits  

SciTech Connect

Class 1 hydrate deposits are characterized by a Hydrate-Bearing Layer (HBL) underlain by a two-phase zone involving mobile gas. Such deposits are further divided to Class 1W (involving water and hydrate in the HBL) and Class 1G (involving gas and hydrate in the HBL). In Class 2 deposits, a mobile water zone underlies the hydrate zone. Methane is the main hydrate-forming gas in natural accumulations. Using TOUGH-FX/HYDRATE to study the depressurization-induced gas production from such deposits, we determine that large volumes of gas could be readily produced at high rates for long times using conventional technology. Dissociation in Class 1W deposits proceeds in distinct stages, but is continuous in Class 1G deposits. Hydrates are shown to contribute significantly to the production rate (up to 65 percent and 75 percent in Class 1W and 1G, respectively) and to the cumulative volume of produced gas (up to 45 percent and 54 percent in Class 1W and 1G, respectively). Large volumes of hydrate-originating CH4 could be produced from Class 2 hydrates, but a relatively long lead time would be needed before gas production (which continuously increases over time) attains a substantial level. The permeability of the confining boundaries plays a significant role in gas production from Class 2 deposits. In general, long-term production is needed to realize the full potential of the very promising Class 1 and Class 2 hydrate deposits.

Moridis, George J.; Kowalsky, Michael

2006-05-12

378

Meeting the demand: An estimation of potential future greenhouse gas emissions from meat production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current production processes for meat products have been shown to have a significant impact on the environment, accounting for between 15% and 24% of current greenhouse gas emissions. Meat consumption has been increasing at a fantastic rate and is likely to continue to do so into the future. If this demand is to be met, technology used in production in

Nathan Fiala

2008-01-01

379

History of hydrocarbon exploration by Shell in East Malaysia  

SciTech Connect

Shell's east Malaysia hydrocarbon exploration history can be viewed in four phases commencing in 1909. Between 1910 and 1954, 40 onshore exploration wells were drilled, resulting in the Miri discovery. In 1956, Shell started offshore exploration by acquiring seismic and gravity data in the Baram Delta. The first offshore exploration well was drilled from a fixed platform in 1957. Availability of mobile drilling rigs, modern seismic technology, and exploration success in the 1960s led to increased exploration such that between 1955 and 1975, 167 exploration wells were drilled by Shell, resulting in 19 oil discoveries and 14 gas discoveries. Petronas changed existing concession and royalties arrangements in 1976 to production sharing contracts (PSC). Under those 1976 PSCs, between 1976 and 1988, Shell drilled 94 exploration wells, resulting in 18 oil discoveries and 12 gas discoveries. In 1985, PSC terms were again changed and Shell subsequently drilled 18 exploration wells, resulting in 2 oil discoveries and 5 gas discoveries.

Seng, T.B. (Sarawak Shell Berhad, Lutong (Malaysia))

1994-07-01

380

Exploring Ovulation & Pregnancy Using Over-the-Counter Products: A Novel Guided Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this guided inquiry, students explore the complex hormonal regulation of the female reproductive cycle using inexpensive ovulation and pregnancy detection kits that are readily available over the counter. This hands-on activity engages students in the practice of doing science as highlighted by the "National Science Education Standards." The…

Venditti, Jennifer J.; Surmacz, Cynthia A.

2012-01-01

381

Does technological performance gap drive product performance?: An explorative study of personal computer gaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we firstly develop a means to measure the technological performance disparity between evolving technological sub-systems of the PC (personal computer) system and subsequently employ this measure in the study of the GPU (graphics processing unit) and PC game sub-systems¿ evolutions. Secondly, the paper explores the connection between the observed temporal behavior of technological performance gap and the

O. Dedehayir; S. J. Makinen

2008-01-01

382

H. R. 5593: A Bill to maintain the viability of the domestic oil industry by enhancing capital investment and ensuring future oil and gas exploration, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, September 12, 1990  

SciTech Connect

This bill would maintain the viability of the domestic oil industry by enhancing capital investment and ensuring future oil and gas exploration by amending certain sections of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986. The bill describes the following provisions under the title, Percentage depletion and intangible drilling costs: increase in percentage depletion; percentage depletion permitted after transfer of proven property; percentage depletion allowed for stripper well production of integrated producers; net income limitation not to apply to oil or gas wells; and definitions of intangible drilling costs. Under Title II, Domestic energy improvement tax credits, the following tax credits are described: marginal production; exploring for oil or gas; vehicles fueled by clean-burning fuels, property converting vehicles to be so fueled, and facilities for the retail delivery of such fuels; conversion to natural gas equipment; clean fuel alternatives research; and tertiary recovery methods research.

Not Available

1990-01-01

383

Methane hydrate gas production: an assessment of conventional production technology as applied to hydrate gas recovery. [Thermal stimulation; hydraulic frac; salt-frac  

SciTech Connect

Two fairly straightforward thermal-stimulation models have been developed to bracket the expected gas production from a methane hydrate reservoir. The frontal-sweep model represents the upper bound on hydrate gas production and the fracture-flow model represents the lower bound. Parametric studies were made with these two models to determine the importance of a number of variables, including porosity, bed thickness, injection temperature, and fracture length. A one-dimensional porous flow model was developed to approximate the hydrate gas production by pressure reduction from a hydraulically fractured well. Parametric studies were made with this decompression model to determine the importance of a number of variables, including porosity, initial formation temperature, bottomhole producing pressure, and the permeability in both the hydrated sediment and in the region in which the hydrate has been dissociated. Because the decompression model gave very encouraging results, a fracture-stimulation technique suitable for this production method was developed. The salt-frac described should make the production of hydrate gas feasible even at temperatures well below 32/sup 0/F.

McGuire, P.L.

1981-11-01

384

40 CFR Table W-1b to Subpart W of... - Default Average Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment W Table...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Pt. 98, Subpt. W...Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment Major...

2013-07-01

385

An exploration of inter-relationships between contact angle, inverse phase gas chromatography and triboelectric charging data.  

PubMed

Surfaces of pharmaceutical powders have been assessed using contact angle, inverse phase gas chromatography (IGC) and triboelectric (electrostatic) charging techniques. The suitability of the Dynamic Angle Tester (DAT), an instrument based on the sessile drop technique, in determining contact angles and then the surface energy of pharmaceutical powders was assessed. The dispersive components of the surface energy of powders determined from the DAT and IGC method ranked the powders in the same order. The dispersive component values obtained by IGC were, as expected, higher than those from the DAT, due to IGC probing the highest energy sites on the powder surface. IGC and triboelectric studies allow materials to be characterised in terms of their electron donating-accepting tendencies, so inter-relationships between the data from the two techniques were explored. Although the data set was limited, there appeared to be a correlation between the charges developed by the powders on contact with stainless steel and the ratio of the electron-donating to electron-accepting tendencies of the materials as obtained from IGC. PMID:10594384

Ahfat, N M; Buckton, G; Burrows, R; Ticehurst, M D

2000-01-01

386

Help for declining natural gas production seen in the unconventional sources of natural gas. [Eastern shales, tight sands, coal beds, geopressured zones  

SciTech Connect

Oil imports could be reduced and domestic gas production increased if additional gas production is obtained from four unconventional resources-eastern Devonian shales, tight sands, coal beds, and geopressured zones. Gas produced from these resources can help maintain overall production levels as supplies from conventional gas sources gradually decline. The eastern shales and western sands are the chief potential contributors in the near term. Further demonstrations of coal bed methane's recovery feasibility could improve the prospects for its production while future geopressured methane production remains speculative at this time.

Staats, E.B.

1980-01-10

387

30 CFR 206.174 - How do I value gas production when an index-based method cannot be used?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false How do I value gas production when an index-based method cannot be...MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas § 206.174 How do I value gas production when an index-based method cannot...

2009-07-01

388

30 CFR 206.174 - How do I value gas production when an index-based method cannot be used?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I value gas production when an index-based method cannot be...MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas § 206.174 How do I value gas production when an index-based method cannot...

2010-07-01

389

40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table...MM of Part 98âDefault Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1...

2013-07-01

390

Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content  

DOEpatents

A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

Najjar, Mitri S. (Hopewell Junction, NY); Corbeels, Roger J. (Wappingers Falls, NY); Kokturk, Uygur (Wappingers Falls, NY)

1989-01-01

391

UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS RESOURCES: AN OVERVIEW COVERING THE RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This report covers natural gas from the following unconventional sources: western tight sands, Devonian shale, coal deposits, geopressured aquifers, and landfills. This report covers the resource base, potential production levels, and associated environmental aspects. Over the pa...

392

Estimating Reserves for High-Rate Devonian Shale Oil and Gas Completions With Limited Production Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the activity in West Virginia in recent years has focused on the development of high-rate oil and gas completions in the naturally fractured Devonian shale. With a limited understanding of the reservoir production mechanisms, realistic estimates of oil and gas reserves early in the life of a high-rate well appeared unattainable. Early reserve estimates are necessary because typical

R. A. Mason

1987-01-01

393

Feasibility Study for Vinccler Gas Production and Processing Facility Project, East Falcon, Venezuela.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a study to determine the feasibility of developing a gas production and processing facility project by Vinccler Oil and Gas, C.A. (Vinccler) for the La Vela Field Onshore Reserves located in the state of Falcon (East). In order to be viable, the p...

2003-01-01

394

Geologic model for identification of higher Devonian shale gas-production potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Areas of higher gas production within the Devonian shales of the Appalachian basin may be identified with the aid of an integrated geologic model. Lithology and fractures combine to form complex reservoir systems. The search for these reservoirs is aided by integration of log lithofacies analysis and interpretations of seismic data. Gas Research Institute - sponsored research has shown that

P. H. Lowry; R. W. Brown; A. Olszewski; J. W. Hobson

1991-01-01

395

Costs and Indexes for Domestic Oil and Gas Field Equipment and Production Operations, 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the fifth annual report in a series that presents the costs and indexes for domestic oil and gas field equipmnt and production operations for 1981. Equipping and operating costs for oil leases producing by primary means and for gas leases have bee...

V. T. Funk T. C. Anderson

1982-01-01

396

Natural-Gas Catalytic Reduction of Nitric Oxide Tail Gases from Nitric Acid Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests were conducted on natural-gas catalytic reduction of tail-gas nitric oxides from nitric acid production; they took place at atmospheric pressure in a combined installation. In operation over 710 hrs the nickel-chromium foil showed sufficient thermal...

A. D. Tikhonenko M. N. Nabiev

1968-01-01

397

METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY: PRODUCTION AND TRANSMISSION EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a co-funded, Gas Research Institute/EPA project to quantify methane emissions to the atmosphere resulting from operations in the natural gas industry. tudy results will measure or calculate all methane emissions, from production at the well and up to, but not ...

398

The production of gas from coal through a commercially proven process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of gas from coal using the Koppers-Totzek process is discussed. The process is based on the partial oxidation of pulverized coal in suspension with oxygen and steam. There are no tars, condensable hydrocarbons or phenols formed; carbon conversion is dependent on the reactivity of the coal, approaching 100% for lignites. Depending on the treatment of the raw gas,

J. F. Farnsworth; H. F. Leonard; D. M. Mitsak; R. Wintrell

1975-01-01

399

Chemical and bacterial treatment of Devonian shale for gas recovery and production: characterization and matrix modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through extraction and subsequent reaction of the organic components of Black Shale, one can expect to obtain high and low Btu gases. Also, trapped beneath thick layers of shale are enormous amounts of methane. But unless a method is found to interconnect these tightly trapped, isolated pockets of gas, it would be economically unfeasible at the present time to explore

Yen

1979-01-01

400

Regional air quality impacts of increased natural gas production and use in Texas.  

PubMed

Natural gas use in electricity generation in Texas was estimated, for gas prices ranging from $1.89 to $7.74 per MMBTU, using an optimal power flow model. Hourly estimates of electricity generation, for individual electricity generation units, from the model were used to estimate spatially resolved hourly emissions from electricity generation. Emissions from natural gas production activities in the Barnett Shale region were also estimated, with emissions scaled up or down to match demand in electricity generation as natural gas prices changed. As natural gas use increased, emissions decreased from electricity generation and increased from natural gas production. Overall, NOx and SO2 emissions decreased, while VOC emissions increased as natural gas use increased. To assess the effects of these changes in emissions on ozone and particulate matter concentrations, spatially and temporally resolved emissions were used in a month-long photochemical modeling episode. Over the month-long photochemical modeling episode, decreases in natural gas prices typical of those experienced from 2006 to 2012 led to net regional decreases in ozone (0.2-0.7 ppb) and fine particulate matter (PM) (0.1-0.7 ?g/m(3)). Changes in PM were predominantly due to changes in regional PM sulfate formation. Changes in regional PM and ozone formation are primarily due to decreases in emissions from electricity generation. Increases in emissions from increased natural gas production were offset by decreasing emissions from electricity generation for all the scenarios considered. PMID:23441728

Pacsi, Adam P; Alhajeri, Nawaf S; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Webster, Mort D; Allen, David T

2013-04-01

401

Numerical modeling of the simulated gas hydrate production test at Mallik 2L-38 in the pilot scale pressure reservoir LARS - Applying the "foamy oil" model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of the German joint project SUGAR (Submarine Gas Hydrate Reservoirs: exploration, extraction and transport) we conducted a series of experiments in the LArge Reservoir Simulator (LARS) at the German Research Centre of Geosciences Potsdam. These experiments allow us to investigate the formation and dissociation of hydrates at large scale laboratory conditions. We performed an experiment similar to the field-test conditions of the production test in the Mallik gas hydrate field (Mallik 2L-38) in the Beaufort Mackenzie Delta of the Canadian Arctic. The aim of this experiment was to study the transport behavior of fluids in gas hydrate reservoirs during depressurization (see also Heeschen et al. and Priegnitz et al., this volume). The experimental results from LARS are used to provide details about processes inside the pressure vessel, to validate the models through history matching, and to feed back into the design of future experiments. In experiments in LARS the amount of methane produced from gas hydrates was much lower than expected. Previously published models predict a methane production rate higher than the one observed in experiments and field studies (Uddin et al. 2010; Wright et al. 2011). The authors of the aforementioned studies point out that the current modeling approach overestimates the gas production rate when modeling gas production by depressurization. They suggest that trapping of gas bubbles inside the porous medium is responsible for the reduced gas production rate. They point out that this behavior of multi-phase flow is not well explained by a "residual oil" model, but rather resembles a "foamy oil" model. Our study applies Uddin's (2010) "foamy oil" model and combines it with history matches of our experiments in LARS. Our results indicate a better agreement between experimental and model results when using the "foamy oil" model instead of conventional models of gas flow in water. References Uddin M., Wright J.F. and Coombe D. (2010) - Numerical Study of gas evolution and transport behaviors in natural gas hydrate reservoirs; CSUG/SPE 137439. Wright J.F., Uddin M., Dallimore S.R. and Coombe D. (2011) - Mechanisms of gas evolution and transport in a producing gas hydrate reservoir: an unconventional basis for successful history matching of observed production flow data; International Conference on Gas Hydrates (ICGH 2011).

Abendroth, Sven; Thaler, Jan; Klump, Jens; Schicks, Judith; Uddin, Mafiz

2014-05-01

402

Fragment production and the liquid-gas phase transition  

SciTech Connect

An inclusive experiment in which isotopically resolved fragments, 3less than or equal toZless than or equal to13, were produced in high energy proton-nucleus collisions has provided evidence for a liquid-gas phase transition in nuclei. We review briefly the data and its description in terms of a critical phenomenon.

Hirsch, A.S.

1984-11-15

403

Pulsed Power Production of Ozone Using Nonthermal Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

zone is increasingly being used in a large number of diverse applications as an alternative to other oxi- dants such as chlorine, peroxides, permanganates and dichromates, due to its better environmental compati- bility. Generally, ozone is generated with high voltage ac in a corona gas discharge. A dielectric barrier made of a glass tube is usually placed adjacent either to

W. J. M. Samaranayake; T. Namihira; S. Katsuki; Y. Miyahara; T. Sakugawa

2001-01-01

404

Hydrogen gas production in a microbial electrolysis cell by electrohydrogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrohydrogenesis is a bio-electrochemical process where organic material is microbially oxidized to protons and electrons, which in turn are reduced to form hydrogen gas (H2). The reactor in which these reactions occur is termed a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). The microorganisms that colonize the anode are known as electricigens and behave as biological catalysts, significantly reducing the energy required to

Nathan Wrana; Richard Sparling; Nazim Cicek; David B. Levin

2010-01-01

405

The production of substitute natural gas by oil gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the author describes the use of the whole range of petroleum fractions for the manufacture of substitute natural gas (SNG). The principal process steps are catalytic steam gasification and hydroconversion, and non-catalytic hydrogenation and steam-oxygen gasification. The integration of these steps into complete processes is presented in terms of the types of oil that each process can

H. J. F. Stroud

1978-01-01

406

Exploration of the possibilities for production of Fischer Tropsch liquids and power via biomass gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the technical feasibility and economics of biomass integrated gasification–Fischer Tropsch (BIG-FT) processes in general, identifies most promising system configurations and identifies key R&D issues essential for the commercialisation of BIG-FT technology. The FT synthesis produces hydrocarbons of different length from a gas mixture of H2 and CO. The large hydrocarbons can be hydrocracked to form mainly diesel

Michiel J. A. Tijmensen; Andre Faaij; Carlo N. Hamelinck; Martijn R. M. van Hardeveld

2002-01-01

407

Atmospheric hydrocarbon emissions and concentrations in the barnett shale natural gas production region.  

PubMed

Hourly ambient hydrocarbon concentration data were collected, in the Barnett Shale Natural Gas Production Region, using automated gas chromatography (auto-GC), for the period from April 2010 to December 2011. Data for three sites were compared: a site in the geographical center of the natural gas production region (Eagle Mountain Lake (EML)); a rural/suburban site at the periphery of the production region (Flower Mound Shiloh), and an urban site (Hinton). The dominant hydrocarbon species observed in the Barnett Shale region were light alkanes. Analyses of daily, monthly, and hourly patterns showed little variation in relative composition. Observed concentrations were compared to concentrations predicted using a dispersion model (AERMOD) and a spatially resolved inventory of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from natural gas production (Barnett Shale Special Emissions Inventory) prepared by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), and other emissions information. The predicted concentrations of VOC due to natural gas production were 0-40% lower than background corrected measurements, after accounting for potential under-estimation of certain emission categories. Hourly and daily variations in observed, background corrected concentrations were primarily explained by variability in meteorology, suggesting that episodic emission events had little impact on hourly averaged concentrations. Total emissions for VOC from natural gas production sources are estimated to be approximately 25,300 tons/yr, when accounting for potential under-estimation of certain emission categories. This region produced, in 2011, approximately 5 bcf/d of natural gas (100 Gg/d) for a VOC to natural gas production ratio (mass basis) of 0.0006. PMID:24712292

Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Sullivan, David W; Allen, David T

2014-05-01

408

Western Gas Sands Project: production histories of the Piceance and Uinta basins of Colorado and Utah  

SciTech Connect

Current United States geological tight sand designations in the Piceance and Uinta Basins' Western Gas Sands Project include the Mesaverde Group, Fort Union and Wasatch Formations. Others, such as the Dakota, Cedar Mountain, Morrison and Mancos may eventually be included. Future production from these formations will probably be closely associated with existing trends. Cumulative gas production through December 1979, of the Mesaverde Group, Fort Union and Wasatch Formations in the Piceance and Uinta Basins is less than 275 billion cubic feet. This contrasts dramatically with potential gas in place estimates of 360 trillion cubic feet. If the geology can be fully understood and engineering problems surmounted, significant potential reserves can be exploited.

Anderson, S.; Kohout, J. (comp.)

1980-11-20

409

Prediction of Coke Strength and Carbonization Product Yields from Exploration Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prediction equations are presented for 12 variables that are indicative of metallurgical coal quality. The variables include six for coke strength and six for carbonization product yields. All variables were predicted for coking coals having volatile matt...

M. Gomez K. Hazen

1970-01-01

410

Integrated Approach To Explore the Potential of Marine Microorganisms for the Production of Bioactive Metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 10 years marine organisms have provided a large number of new natural products. Interesting compounds have\\u000a mainly been derived from macroorganisms such as sponges, ascidians, corals and bryozoans. The number of secondary metabolites\\u000a from marine microorganisms is smaller, but rapidly increasing. Because of the enormous difficulties involved in harvesting\\u000a products from marine animals, and the fact that

Irene Wagner-Döbler; Winfried Beil; Siegmund Lang; Marinus Meiners; Hartmut Laatsch

411

Deepwater exploration in the Gulf of Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Gulf of Mexico is at the moment the most intensely developed region in the world for offshore oil and gas production. About 4,000 offshore oil and gas platforms and about 175 drilling rigs dot the shelf, slope, and deepwater regions of the Gulf and account for about 90% of America`s offshore production. The development of 3-D seismic imaging has sparked a race for acreage ownership in the Gulf and for pushing exploration technology to the limits.

Riahi, M.L.

1998-04-01

412

[The exploration and practice of production of transgenic zebrafish into undergraduate student gene engineering experimental teaching].  

PubMed

The preparation of transgenic animals is one of the core technology and critical achievement of gene engineering. However, it has not been reported that the gene engineering experimental course of undergraduate students in universities of mainland China has carried out the preparation of transgenic animals. In this paper, the authors took the advantage of scientific research platform, introduced the transgenic zebrafish technology to gene engineering experimental course of undergraduate students, and explored and practiced related teaching model, which had achieved good results and had great value to popularize. PMID:24579316

Yuan, Wu-Zhou; Deng, Yun

2013-11-01

413

Educating students and stakeholders about shale gas production using a physical model of hydraulic fracturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural gas from shale gas deposits in the United States can potentially help reduce the dependency on foreign energy sources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and improve economic development in currently depressed regions of the country. However, the hydraulic fracturing process (';fracking') employed to release natural gas from formation such as the Marcellus Shale in New York State and Pennsylvania carries significant environmental risks, in particular for local and regional water resources. The current polarized discussion of the topic needs to be informed by sound data and a better understanding of the technical, scientific, social, and economic aspects of hydrofracking. We developed, built and tested an interactive portable physical model of the gas production by hydrofracking that can be used in class rooms and at public events to visualize the procedures and associated risks including the dynamics of water, gas and fracking fluids. Dyes are used to identify shale, fracking fluids and backflow and can be traced in the adjacent groundwater system. Gas production is visualized by a CO2 producing acid/bicarbonate solution reaction. The tank was shown to considerably improve knowledge of environmental issues related to unconventional gas production by hydrofracking in an advanced undergraduate course.

Stute, M.; Garten, L.

2013-12-01

414

Enterprise, Shell scheduled to explore Romanian acreage  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the pace of exploration is packing up in Romania's offshore and onshore sectors. Enterprise Oil Exploration Ltd., London, signed an exploration and production sharing agreement with state owned Rompetrol SA for two Black Sea blocks, Nos. XIII and XV, covering 3,000 sq km and 4,000 sq km, respectively. Shell Romania Exploration BV agreed with Rompetrol on an exploration and production sharing agreement for onshore Block 10. This covers 6,150 sq km in northern Transylvania. Shell's target will be deep formations underlying producing gas zones. Enterprise has a 65% share as operator of Blocks XIII and XV, while partner CanadianOxy (Romania) Ltd. holds the remaining 35%. Exploration and development costs will be borne by the license partners, while Rompetrol will take a share of any production.

Not Available

1992-08-17

415

Gas Production From a Class 3 Hydrate Deposit at the Mount Elbert Site, North Slope, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amounts of hydrocarbon gases trapped in natural hydrate accumulations are enormous, leading to a recent interest in the evaluation of their potential as an energy source. Recent studies have provided strong indications that it is possible to produce large volumes of gas from natural hydrate deposits at high rates for long times from gas hydrate accumulations by means of depressurization-induced dissociation using conventional technology. In this study we investigate by means of numerical simulation the gas production potential from Unit D, a Class 3 permafrost hydrate deposit at the Mount Elbert Site in North Slope, Alaska. Class 3 deposits are characterized by the absence of hydrate-free zones of mobile reservoir fluids. The hydrate-bearing formation in Unit D begins at a depth of 616 m, is about 11 m thick, is bounded by nearly impermeable shale layers, and has a high porosity, permeability and hydrate saturation. Because of its proximity to the permafrost, its temperature is low, i.e., 2.3 - 2.6 °C. Our numerical simulation studies indicate that gas production using vertical wells is seriously inhibited by the low temperature and the limited thickness of the deposit, resulting in low production rates and very long times (several years) before production rates reach levels of commercial viability. Conversely, the use of appropriately placed horizontal wells leads to dramatic increases in gas production from this deposit, and appears to be the only practical alternative for viable gas production from this hydrate accumulation. The sensitivity of gas production to various properties and parameters is also analyzed. These include the magnitude of the hydraulic properties (permeability and porosity), the anisotropy and heterogeneity in their spatial distribution, the heterogeneity in the distribution of the hydrate saturation, the effect of nonzero permeability is the shale boundaries, and operational parameters defining the production strategy.

Moridis, G. J.; Reagan, M. T.; Silpngarmlert, S.; Zhang, K.

2008-12-01

416

A Tropical Marine Microbial Natural Products Geobibliography as an Example of Desktop Exploration of Current Research Using Web Visualisation Tools  

PubMed Central

Microbial marine biodiscovery is a recent scientific endeavour developing at a time when information and other technologies are also undergoing great technical strides. Global visualisation of datasets is now becoming available to the world through powerful and readily available software such as Worldwind™, ArcGIS Explorer™ and Google Earth™. Overlaying custom information upon these tools is within the hands of every scientist and more and more scientific organisations are making data available that can also be integrated into these global visualisation tools. The integrated global view that these tools enable provides a powerful desktop exploration tool. Here we demonstrate the value of this approach to marine microbial biodiscovery by developing a geobibliography that incorporates citations on tropical and near-tropical marine microbial natural products research with Google Earth™ and additional ancillary global data sets. The tools and software used are all readily available and the reader is able to use and install the material described in this article.

Mukherjee, Joydeep; Llewellyn, Lyndon E; Evans-Illidge, Elizabeth A

2008-01-01

417

Arachidonic acid-rich oil production by Mortierella alpina with different gas distributors.  

PubMed

Arachidonic acid (ARA)-rich oil production by Mortierella alpina is a high oxygen demand and shear-sensitive process. In the aerobic fermentation process, oxygen supply is usually a limiting factor owing to the low solubility of oxygen in the fermentation broth. Two kinds of perforated ring gas distributors and a novel microporous ceramic membrane gas distributor were designed and applied to improve oxygen supply. With the decrease of the orifice diameter of perforated ring gas distributors, dry cell weight (DCW), lipids concentration, and ARA content in total fatty acid increased from 17.86 g/L, 7.08 g/L, and 28.08 % to 25.67 g/L, 11.94 g/L, and 36.99 %, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of different dissolved oxygen (DO) on ARA-rich oil production with membrane gas distributor was also studied. The maximum DCW, lipid concentration, and ARA content using membrane gas distributor with DO controlled at 40 % reached 29.67 g/L, 16.74 g/L, and 49.53 %, respectively. The ARA titer increased from 1.99 to 8.29 g/L using the membrane gas distributor to substitute the perforated ring gas distributor. In the further experiment, a novel tubular titanium metal membrane gas distributor was successfully applied in a 7,000 L bioreactor and the results demonstrated that membrane gas distributor was industrially practical. PMID:24374968

Nie, Zhi-Kui; Ji, Xiao-Jun; Shang, Jing-Sheng; Zhang, Ai-Hui; Ren, Lu-Jing; Huang, He

2014-06-01

418

Production of natural gas from methane hydrate by a constant downhole pressure well  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas production from the dissociation of methane hydrate in a confined reservoir by a depressurizing downhole well was studied. The case that the well pressure was kept constant was treated, and two different linearization schemes in an axisymmetric configuration were used in the analysis. For different fixed well pressures and reservoir temperatures, approximate self similar solutions were obtained. Distributions of temperature, pressure and gas velocity field across the reservoir were evaluated. The distance of the decomposition front from the well and the natural gas production rate as functions of time were also computed. Time evolutions of the resulting profiles were presented in graphical forms, and their differences with the constant well output results were studied. It was shown that the gas production rate was a sensitive function of well pressure and reservoir temperature. The sensitivity of the results to the linearization scheme used was also studied.

Ahmadi, G. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY); Ji, C. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY); Smith, D.H.

2007-07-01

419

Rapid exploration of curing process design space for production of controlled-release pellets.  

PubMed

Time and cost are among the most often cited hurdles limiting the rate and extent of adoption of Quality by Design (QbD) and Process Analytical Technology. In this article, we demonstrate that, with appropriate techniques, a key QbD element can be achieved with amount of resources comparable to classical development approach. To control the dissolution rate of a highly soluble drug substance from latex polymer coated pellets, we have examined the effect of key variables affecting the curing process step by an experimental design study. To explore and characterize the Design Space, we have produced and tested 62 distinct pellet samples. To achieve this in a reasonable amount of time, we have developed a scaled-down automated dissolution method that demonstrated excellent correlation to the classical method. By careful planning of experimentation, we were able to obtain all samples from just two batches of pellet cores. The curing process Design Space was explored by statistical modeling of samples obtained from the first batch. Robustness and repeatability of the Design Space at the edge of failure was preliminarily investigated by analysis of selected samples from the second batch with encouraging results. PMID:22833184

Kristan, Katja; Horvat, Matej

2012-10-01

420

Applied reaction dynamics: efficient synthesis gas production via single collision partial oxidation of methane to CO on Rh111.  

PubMed

Supersonic molecular beams have been used to determine the yield of CO from the partial oxidation of CH4 on a Rh111 catalytic substrate, CH4+12O2-->CO+2H2, as a function of beam kinetic energy. These experiments were done under ultrahigh vacuum conditions with concurrent molecular beams of O2 and CH4, ensuring that there was only a single collision for the CH4 to react with the surface. The fraction of CH4 converted is strongly dependent on the normal component of the incident beam's translational energy, and approaches unity for energies greater than approximately 1.3 eV. Comparison with a simplified model of the methane-Rh111 reactive potential gives insight into the barrier for methane dissociation. These results demonstrate the efficient conversion of methane to synthesis gas, CO+2H2, are of interest in hydrogen generation, and have the optimal stoichiometry for subsequent utilization in synthetic fuel production (Fischer-Tropsch or methanol synthesis). Moreover, under the reaction conditions explored, no CO2 was detected, i.e., the reaction proceeded with the production of very little, if any, unwanted greenhouse gas by-products. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of overcoming the limitations of purely thermal reaction mechanisms by coupling nonthermal mechanistic steps, leading to efficient C-H bond activation with subsequent thermal heterogeneous reactions. PMID:17029475

Gibson, K D; Viste, M; Sibener, S J

2006-10-01