Sample records for gas exploration production

  1. Understanding the Basics of Gas Exploration and Production

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Albert, Eric K.

    This presentation from Eric K. Albert explains the basics of gas exploration and production, as well as some of the career opportunities created by the industry. Most of the presentation focuses on natural gas development, exploration and production. He also discusses where the jobs are in the natural gas industry.The presentation may be downloaded in Power Point file format.

  2. Environmental Compliance for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Christine

    1999-10-26

    The Appalachian/Illinois Basin Directors is a group devoted to increasing communication among the state oil and gas regulatory agencies within the Appalachian and Illinois Basin producing region. The group is comprised of representatives from the oil and gas regulatory agencies from states in the basin (Attachment A). The directors met to discuss regulatory issues common to the area, organize workshops and seminars to meet the training needs of agencies dealing with the uniqueness of their producing region and perform other business pertinent to this area of oil and gas producing states. The emphasis of the coordinated work was a wide range of topics related to environmental compliance for natural gas and oil exploration and production.

  3. Oil and gas taxation in Algeria: exploration and production activities

    SciTech Connect

    Frilet, M.

    1982-09-01

    The Algerian taxation scheme for foreign companies involved in the petroleum sector is profoundly different depending on whether the company is directly involved in exploration and production or is merely acting as a service company or contractor. This article discusses Algerian taxation of foreign companies directly involved in production and exploration.

  4. Environmental benefits of advanced oil and gas exploration and production technology

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1999-10-01

    THROUGHOUT THE OIL AND GAS LIFE CYCLE, THE INDUSTRY HAS APPLIED AN ARRAY OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES TO IMPROVE EFFICIENCY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE. THIS REPORT FOCUSES SPECIFICALLY ON ADVANCES IN EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION (E&P) OPERATIONS.

  5. Options and costs for offsite disposal of oil and gas exploration and production wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Puder; J. A. Veil

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, most of the exploration and production (E&P) wastes generated at onshore oil and gas wells are disposed of or otherwise managed at the well site. Certain types of wastes are not suitable for onsite management, and some well locations in sensitive environments cannot be used for onsite management. In these situations, operators must transport the wastes

  6. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: Areas of Historical Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biewick, Laura R.H.

    2008-01-01

    This report contains maps and associated spatial data showing historical oil and gas exploration and production in the United States. Because of the proprietary nature of many oil and gas well databases, the United States was divided into cells one-quarter square mile and the production status of all wells in a given cell was aggregated. Base-map reference data are included, using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Map, the USGS and American Geological Institute (AGI) Global GIS, and a World Shaded Relief map service from the ESRI Geography Network. A hardcopy map was created to synthesize recorded exploration data from 1859, when the first oil well was drilled in the U.S., to 2005. In addition to the hardcopy map product, the data have been refined and made more accessible through the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. The cell data are included in a GIS database constructed for spatial analysis via the USGS Internet Map Service or by importing the data into GIS software such as ArcGIS. The USGS internet map service provides a number of useful and sophisticated geoprocessing and cartographic functions via an internet browser. Also included is a video clip of U.S. oil and gas exploration and production through time.

  7. Gas pipe explorer robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A gas pipe explorer formed of a plurality of connecting elements, and an articulation element between the connected elements. The connected elements include drive capabilities, and the articulation element allows the connected elements to traverse gas pipes of arbitrary shapes and sizes. A sensor may sends the characteristics of the gas pipe, and the communication element may send back those sends characteristics. The communication can be wired, over a tether connecting the device to a remote end. Alternatively, the connection can be wireless, driven by either a generator or a battery.

  8. Oil and Gas Exploration

    E-print Network

    Tingley, Joseph V.

    , Currant, Duckwater Creek, and Sans Spring fields) 4. Three Bar field 5. Tomera Ranch field Geothermal Power Plants 1. Beowawe 2. Bradys Hot Springs 3. Desert Peak 4. Dixie Valley 5. Empire Major mines, oilMetals Industrial Minerals Oil and Gas Geothermal Exploration Development Mining Processing Nevada

  9. Devonian shale gas exploration and production studies. Final report, November 1983-April 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, J.L.; Koziar, G.; Lemon, J.P.; Akers, M.J.

    1986-08-01

    Ten wells in southwestern West Virginia were selected as potential candidates for in-depth study to identify Devonian-shale-gas production-controlling mechanisms. Wells were studied using geophysical logs, TV log, and flow measurements. Sidewall cores were retrieved for geochemical and geophysical analyses. The well studies were augmented with a seismic survey, production data analysis and data collection for approximately 1400 wells in the study area.

  10. Measurement of atmospheric pollutants associated with oil and natural gas exploration and production activity in Pennsylvania's Allegheny National Forest.

    PubMed

    Pekney, Natalie J; Veloski, Garret; Reeder, Matthew; Tamilia, Joseph; Rupp, Erik; Wetzel, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Oil and natural gas exploration and production (E&P) activities generate emissions from diesel engines, compressor stations, condensate tanks, leaks and venting of natural gas, construction of well pads, and well access roads that can negatively impact air quality on both local and regional scales. A mobile, autonomous air quality monitoring laboratory was constructed to collect measurements of ambient concentrations of pollutants associated with oil and natural gas E&P activities. This air-monitoring laboratory was deployed to the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) in northwestern Pennsylvania for a campaign that resulted in the collection of approximately 7 months of data split between three monitoring locations between July 2010 and June 2011. The three monitoring locations were the Kane Experimental Forest (KEF) area in Elk County, which is downwind of the Sackett oilfield; the Bradford Ranger Station (BRS) in McKean County, which is downwind of a large area of historic oil and gas productivity; and the U.S. Forest Service Hearts Content campground (HC) in Warren County, which is in an area relatively unimpacted by oil and gas development and which therefore yielded background pollutant concentrations in the ANF. Concentrations of criteria pollutants ozone and NO2 did not vary significantly from site to site; averages were below National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas (ethane, propane, butane, pentane) were highly correlated. Applying the conditional probability function (CPF) to the ethane data yielded most probable directions of the sources that were coincident with known location of existing wells and activity. Differences between the two impacted and one background site were difficult to discern, suggesting the that the monitoring laboratory was a great enough distance downwind of active areas to allow for sufficient dispersion with background air such that the localized plumes were not detected. Implications: Monitoring of pollutants associated with oil and natural gas exploration and production activity at three sites within the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) showed only slight site-to-site differences even with one site far removed from these activities. However, the impact was evident not in detection of localized plumes but in regional elevated ethane concentrations, as ethane can be considered a tracer species for oil and natural gas activity. The data presented serve as baseline conditions for evaluation of impacts from future development of Marcellus or Utica shale gas reserves. PMID:25283004

  11. Reducing Onshore Natural Gas and Oil Exploration and Production Impacts Using a Broad-Based Stakeholder Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Amy Childers

    2011-03-30

    Never before has the reduction of oil and gas exploration and production impacts been as important as it is today for operators, regulators, non-governmental organizations and individual landowners. Collectively, these stakeholders are keenly interested in the potential benefits from implementing effective environmental impact reducing technologies and practices. This research project strived to gain input and insight from such a broad array of stakeholders in order to identify approaches with the potential to satisfy their diverse objectives. The research team examined three of the most vital issue categories facing onshore domestic production today: (1) surface damages including development in urbanized areas, (2) impacts to wildlife (specifically greater sage grouse), and (3) air pollution, including its potential contribution to global climate change. The result of the research project is a LINGO (Low Impact Natural Gas and Oil) handbook outlining approaches aimed at avoiding, minimizing, or mitigating environmental impacts. The handbook identifies technical solutions and approaches which can be implemented in a practical and feasible manner to simultaneously achieve a legitimate balance between environmental protection and fluid mineral development. It is anticipated that the results of this research will facilitate informed planning and decision making by management agencies as well as producers of oil and natural gas. In 2008, a supplemental task was added for the researchers to undertake a 'Basin Initiative Study' that examines undeveloped and/or underdeveloped oil and natural gas resources on a regional or geologic basin scope to stimulate more widespread awareness and development of domestic resources. Researchers assessed multi-state basins (or plays), exploring state initiatives, state-industry partnerships and developing strategies to increase U.S. oil and gas supplies while accomplishing regional economic and environmental goals.

  12. Exploring Products: Nano Fabrics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners explore how the application of nano-sized "whiskers" can protect clothing from stains. Learners investigate the hydrophobic properties of pants made from nano fabric and ordinary fabric. Use this activity to talk about products that we can already buy that use nanotechnology, like treated fabrics, water filters, sunscreen and stuffed animals that have silver nanoparticles.

  13. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata. Quarterly report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This document contains the Quarterly Report of a Novel Geotechnical/Geostatistical Approach for Exploration and Production of Natural Gas from Multiple Geologic Strata for October 1 - December 31, 1996. This report is presented to the US DOE, Office of Fossil Energy by the College of West Virginia. A brief summary update of the following ongoing projects is presented: production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata (including coal deposits), dewatering of producing wells, and descriptions of cold weather production problems. A brief update of the project in Poland where brine wastewater is converted into potable water is also mentioned.

  14. Proceedings of the first international conference on health, safety and environment in oil and gas exploration and production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The papers in this book were prepared for the First International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Production. Included are the following papers: Management of occupational health worldwide; Implementation of traffic safety standards; The modeling of gas explosions and the response of topside structures.

  15. Characterizing Natural Gas Hydrates in the Deep Water Gulf of Mexico: Applications for Safe Exploration and Production Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Jimmy

    2014-05-31

    In 2000 Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deep water portion of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Chevron is an active explorer and operator in the Gulf of Mexico and is aware that natural gas hydrates need to be understood to operate safely in deep water. In August 2000 Chevron worked closely with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and held a workshop in Houston, Texas to define issues concerning the characterization of natural gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, the workshop was meant to clearly show where research, the development of new technologies, and new information sources would be of benefit to the DOE and to the oil and gas industry in defining issues and solving gas hydrate problems in deep water.

  16. Beyond SHARP-- Primary Formaldehyde from Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olaguer, E. P.

    2010-12-01

    Formaldehyde has been named by the EPA as a hazardous air pollutant that may be carcinogenic and also cause irritation to the eyes, nose, throat and lung. Moreover, it is a powerful radical and ozone precursor. The 2009 Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors (SHARP) was conceived by the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) on behalf of the Texas Environmental Research Consortium (TERC) to examine the relative importance of primary and secondary formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrous acid (HONO) in ozone formation. SHARP confirmed that primary combustion sources of HCHO, such as flares end engines, may be underestimated (by an order of magnitude or more) in official emission inventories used for the purpose of air quality modeling in highly industrialized areas such as Houston. This presentation provides recently generated modeling and observational evidence that the same may be true in both rural and urban areas with oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) activities, such as the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming and the Barnett Shale of Texas. Oil and gas E&P is increasing in the Gulf of Mexico region, particularly in the Barnett, Haynesville, Eagle Ford, Cana-Woodford, and Fayetteville shale basins. In the Barnett Shale, E&P activities are moving into urban neighborhoods, and may affect the ability to bring the Dallas-Ft. Worth region into attainment of the federal ozone standard. Data concerning formaldehyde emissions from drill rig and pipeline compressor engines, flares, and glycol or amine reboilers, should be obtained in order to more accurately model air quality in the Gulf of Mexico region.

  17. Utah coalbed gas exploration poised for growth

    SciTech Connect

    Petzet, G.A.

    1996-08-05

    Coalbed methane production in eastern Utah is growing despite a relaxed pace of exploratory drilling. Leasing has been active the past 2 years, but a delay in issuance of a federal environmental impact statement could retard drilling. Only 19 new wells began producing coalbed gas during 1995, but gas production increased from existing wells as dewatering progressed. The US Bureau of Land Management will allow limited exploration but no field development on federal lands until the EIS is completed, possibly as early as this month. The paper discusses production of coalbed methane in Utah.

  18. Developing Terrestrial Trophic Models for Petroleum and Natural Gas Exploration and Production Sites: The Oklahoma Tallgrass Prairie Preserve Example

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, M; Coty, J; Stewart, J; Carlsen, T; Callaham, M

    2001-01-26

    This document details procedures to be used when constructing a conceptual terrestrial trophic model for natural gas and oil exploration and production sites. A site conceptual trophic model is intended for use in evaluating ecological impacts of oil and brine releases at E&P sites from a landscape or ecosystem perspective. The terrestrial trophic model protocol was developed using an example site, the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve (TPP) in Oklahoma. The procedure focuses on developing a terrestrial trophic model using information found in the primary literature, and augmented using site-specific research where available. Although the TPP has been the subject of considerable research and public interest since the high-profile reintroduction of bison (Bison bison) in 1993, little formal work has been done to develop a food web for the plant and animal communities found at the preserve. We describe how to divide species into guilds using explicit criteria on the basis of resource use and spatial distribution. For the TPP, sixteen guilds were developed for use in the trophic model, and the relationships among these guilds were analyzed. A brief discussion of the results of this model is provided, along with considerations for its use and areas for further study.

  19. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. (BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States))

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The research has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc. (Beckley) and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Phase 1 of the project consisted of compiling and analyzing relevant geological and gas production information in selected areas of Raleigh County, West Virginia, ultimately narrowed to the Eccles, West Virginia, 7 {1/2} minute Quadrangle. The Phase 1 analysis identified key parameters contributing to the accumulation and production of natural gas in Raleigh County, developed analog models relating geological factors to gas production, and identified specific sites to test and verify the analysis methodologies by drilling. Based on the Phase 1 analysis, five sites have been identified with high potential for economic gas production. Phase 2 will consist of drilling, completing, and producing one or more wells at the sites identified in the Phase 1 analyses. The initial well is schedules to the drilled in April 1991. This report summarizes the results of the Phase 1 investigations. For clarity, the report has been prepared in two volumes. Volume 1 presents the Phase 1 overview; Volume 2 contains the detailed geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study.

  20. Shale gas exploration potential in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, N.

    2009-04-01

    Shale gas exploration is one of the main new ‘unconventional' hydrocarbon plays and production is now a major contribution to USA's indigenous supply. BGS has begun a study of hydrocarbon exploration and other data to assess the potential in the UK. Key shale characteristics have been identified in the USA, including gas window maturity and high total organic carbon (TOC) content. Existing gasfields and discoveries containing migrated gas in conventional reservoirs are the obvious starting points. These prove gas has been generated. Discovering the nearby source rocks, which charged them, involves analysing the gas compositions and their carbon isotope characteristics, as well as delving into past exploration and well completion reports. Also used are parameters more widely available which act as surrogates (e.g. radioactivity for TOC). The main targets are Namurian and Dinantian black shales in northern England, source rocks for the small East Midlands oilfields. Lesser targets occur in southern England near small gasfields and discoveries, probably in Lower Jurassic shales, and possibly Kimmeridge Clay (Upper Jurassic). Their advantage is that natural permeabilities are probably higher than the older formations. Early Palaeozoic shales between the Caledonian and Variscan fold belts may also retain some potential but, unlike the association with the Alum Shale source rock in the Baltic, no gasfields have been discovered. Can shale gas production occur where there are no conventional fields?

  1. CHARACTERIZING NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEP WATER GULF OF MEXICO: APPLICATIONS FOR SAFE EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Holditch; Emrys Jones

    2003-01-01

    In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deep water Gulf of Mexico (GOM). These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to drilling and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. During the first six months of operation, the primary activities of the JIP were to conduct and plan Workshops, which were as follows: (1) Data Collection Workshop--March 2002 (2) Drilling, Coring and Core Analyses Workshop--May 2002 (3) Modeling, Measurement and Sensors Workshop--May 2002.

  2. Conference on the topic: {open_quotes}Exploration and production of petroleum and gas from chalk reservoirs worldwide{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, V.G.

    1995-07-01

    More than 170 delegates from 14 countries in Europe, North America, Africa, and Asia took part in a conference on the topic: Exploration and Production of Petroleum and Gas from Chalk Reservoirs Worldwide. The conference was held in Copenhagen, Denmark in September,1994, and was a joint meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the European Association of Petroleum Geoscientists and Engineers (EAPG). In addition to the opening remarks, 25 oral and nine poster reports were presented. The topics included chalk deposits as reservoir rocks, the occurrence of chalk deposits worldwide, the North Sea oil and gas fields, and other related topics.

  3. Analysis of selected energy security issues related to US crude oil and natural gas exploration, development, production, transportation and processing. Final report, Task 13

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    In July 1989, President Bush directed the Secretary of Energy to initiate the development of a comprehensive National Energy Strategy (NES) built upon a national consensus. The overall principle for the NES, as defined by the President and articulated by the Economic Policy Council (EPC), is the continuation of the successful policy of market reliance, consistent with the following goals: Balancing of energy, economic, and environmental concerns; and reduced dependence by the US and its friends and allies on potentially unreliable energy suppliers. The analyses presented in this report draw upon a large body of work previously conducted for DOE/Office of Fossil Energy, the US Department of Interior/Minerals Management Service (DOI/MMS), and the Gas Research Institute (GRI), referenced throughout the text of this report. This work includes assessments in the following areas: the potential of advanced oil and gas extraction technologies as improved through R&D, along with the successful transfer of these technologies to the domestic petroleum industry; the economic and energy impacts of environmental regulations on domestic oil and gas exploration, production, and transportation; the potential of tax incentives to stimulate domestic oil and gas development and production; the potential environmental costs associated with various options for leasing for US oil and gas resources in the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS); and the economic impacts of environmental regulations affecting domestic crude oil refining.

  4. Exploring Nanotechnology through Consumer Products

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, covers nanotechnology in consumer products. First, the instructor presents an introductory PowerPoint and then "students are given a chance in groups to explore consumer products through an information sheet provided over available consumer products." A Teacher Preparation Guide, Student Guide, PowerPoint presentation, Nano Products Resource Guide, as well as a wide variety of product information sheets are included. 

  5. CHARACTERIZING NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEP WATER GULF OF MEXICO: APPLICATIONS FOR SAFE EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Holditch; Emrys Jones

    2003-01-01

    In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop

  6. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata. [Quarterly] technical progress report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Brunk, R.G.

    1995-04-01

    The project objective is to verify a development strategy for high grading areas of multistrata (shallow gas sand and coalbeds) potential in southern West Virginia and test it in up to five wells. Accomplishments for the quarter are presented briefly for the following tasks: Alaskan energy development;dewatering/production extension test period; and demonstrate newly developed technologies for multi strata gas and water production to enhance commercial application.

  7. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1. Volume 1, Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. [BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The research has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc. (Beckley) and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Phase 1 of the project consisted of compiling and analyzing relevant geological and gas production information in selected areas of Raleigh County, West Virginia, ultimately narrowed to the Eccles, West Virginia, 7 {1/2} minute Quadrangle. The Phase 1 analysis identified key parameters contributing to the accumulation and production of natural gas in Raleigh County, developed analog models relating geological factors to gas production, and identified specific sites to test and verify the analysis methodologies by drilling. Based on the Phase 1 analysis, five sites have been identified with high potential for economic gas production. Phase 2 will consist of drilling, completing, and producing one or more wells at the sites identified in the Phase 1 analyses. The initial well is schedules to the drilled in April 1991. This report summarizes the results of the Phase 1 investigations. For clarity, the report has been prepared in two volumes. Volume 1 presents the Phase 1 overview; Volume 2 contains the detailed geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study.

  8. Effects of Oil and Gas Production on Groundwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John James Tintera; Leslie Savage

    Section 91.101 of the Texas Natural Resources Code provides the RRC with jurisdiction over the full scope of oil and gas exploration, development, and production operations and activities, including the drilling of wells associated with oil and gas activities, gas plants, natural gas or natural gas liquids processing plants, pressure maintenance plants, underground hydrocarbon storage facilities, and activities associated with

  9. Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration. [Applicability to USA

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    During the 1970s a number of different exploration and production incentive programs were put in place in Canada, in particular in the Province of Alberta, Canada's principal oil- and gas-producing province. The DOE/RA is evaluating Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration, and this study is intended to provide information that will help guide DOE/RA in determining the applicability of Canadian incentive programs in US energy policy. The study describes and documents the fiscal structure in which the Canadian oil industry operates. The incentive features of pricing policy, taxation policy, and provincial royalty systems are discussed. A principal focus of the study is on one of the most important of Canada's specific incentive programs, the Alberta Exploratory Drilling Incentive Credit Program (EDICP). The study describes and evaluates the effect of the EDICP on increased oil and gas exploration activity. Similarly, the study also reviews and evaluates other specific incentive programs such as the Alberta Geophysical Incentive Program, Frontier Exploration Allowances, and various tar sand and heavy oil development incentives. Finally the study evaluates the applicability of Canadian incentives to US energy policy.

  10. Gas production during refuse decomposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Farquhar; F. A. Rovers

    1973-01-01

    Gas production in sanitary landfills is a subject of much concern because of the potential hazards of CH4 combustion and of groundwater contamination by CO2. This study investigated the pattern of sanitary landfill gas production and the factors which affect it.

  11. Exploration-production studies in newly drilled Devonian-shale gas wells. Annual technical report, February 1, 1987-January 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Foster, J.; Walbe, K.; Worthington, J.

    1988-02-01

    The cooperative program is a continuing field-oriented effort whose objectives are to identify productive gas zones, to develop a comprehensive set of diagnostics, and to determine the effectiveness of various stimulation techniques. To date, the program has encompassed fifty cooperative wells and twelve participating producers, with outside funding in excess of 8 million dollars. The rapport established with these producers resulted in an evolution of the program from one of passive data acquisition to one of active participation. The report focuses on what was accomplished during this period regarding the development of diagnostic tools and evaluation techniques, the acquisition of producer participation and support, and the expansion of data acquisition and use of newly developed evaluation techniques. The report also addresses what has been learned and how this knowledge led to the course corrections in the study to achieve a more effective level of technology. The report illustrates the methods and technology developed and provides the recommended direction for future research.

  12. Interconnecting compressors control coalbed gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Payton, R.; Niederhofer, J. (Taurus Exploration Inc., Tuscaloosa, AL (United States))

    1992-10-05

    This paper reports that centralized compressors afford Taurus Exploration Inc.'s coalbed gas operations optimum control of gas production. Unlike satellite stations, the centralized system allows methane gas to e shifted from station to station via the interconnecting low-pressure pipeline network. The operations area encompasses approximately 40,000 acres, about 40 miles southwest of Birmingham, Ala. The project includes about 250-miles of low-pressure gas flow lines to almost 400 wells. The centralized system is less costly than a satellite station to build and operate. Unlike a satellite station that requires each compressor to have a complete set of ancillary equipment, the centralized system requires only one suction manifold, one dehydration setup, and one metering facility for every five compressor sets.

  13. Improving oil and gas production with the Beam-Mounted Gas Compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Khatib, A.M.

    1984-02-01

    This paper explores parameters involved in and advantages obtained by use of the Beam-Mounted Gas Compressor (BMGC), a single-acting gas compressor operated by the walking beam of a rod pumping unit. Its main function is to draw gas from the casing side of an oil well and to discharge the gas into the flow line. By doing so, the BMGC operation actually reduces the backpressure on the formation face, thus allowing additional oil to enter the wellbore for production.

  14. Industry requested exploration\\/production environmental regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blanck

    1994-01-01

    California State Review by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission recommends state and regional water boards issue requirements to all pits subject to basin plans and chapter 15. Resources shortfalls have kept production pits from being Water Board priorities. Threat of United States EPA designation of crude oil as hazardous waste and subsequent land use conflicts of buried pits

  15. Exploration & development: US Rockies gas focus points up need for access, risk takers, infrastructure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomasson, M.R.; Belanger, P.E.; Cook, L.

    2004-01-01

    The last 20 yr of the Rocky Mountains oil and gas exploration and production business have been turbulent. Most of the major companies have left; they have been replaced with, independents and small to larger private and public companies. Natural gas become the primary focus of exploration. A discussion covers the shift of interest from drilling for oil to gas exploration and development in the Rockies since 1980; resource pyramid, showing relative volumes, reserves, resources, and undiscovered gas; the Wyoming fields that boost US gas supply, i.e., Jonah (6-12 tcf), Pinedale Anticline (10-20 tcf); Big Piney-LaBarge (15-25 tcf), Madden (3-5 tcf), and Powder river (24-27 tcf); and the future.

  16. VSAT: opening new horizons to oil and gas explorations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad I. Al-Dhamen

    2002-01-01

    Whether exploring in the Empty Quarter, drilling offshore in the Gulf of Mexico, or monitoring gas pipelines or oil wells in the deserts, communications is a key element to the success of oil and gas operations. Secure, efficient communications is required between remote, isolated locations and head offices to report on work status, dispatch supplies and repairs, report on-site emergencies,

  17. Oil and gas exploration, offshore southern California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wallis

    1981-01-01

    Four local Tertiary basins comprise the regional Pacific Basin south of Point Conception: the San Diego trough and the offshore Los Angeles, Outer Banks, and Ventura-Santa Barbara Channel Basins. The San Diego trough has not been tested by deep wells. The offshore Los Angeles Basin produces oil and gas from Neogene sandstones in giant oil fields which extend on shore.

  18. Plan for Management of Mineral Assess on Native Tribal Lands and for Formation of a Fully Integrated Natural Gas and Oil Exploration and Production Company

    SciTech Connect

    Blechner, Michael H.; Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    This report describes a plan for Native American tribes to assume responsibility for and operation of tribal mineral resources using the Osage Tribe as an example. Under this plan, the tribal council select and employ a qualified Director to assume responsibility for management of their mineral reservations. The procurement process should begin with an application for contracting to the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Under this plan, the Director will develop strategies to increase income by money management and increasing exploitation of natural gas, oil, and other minerals.

  19. Characterization and geographic location of sources of radioactivity lost downhole in the course of oil and gas exploration and production activities in Texas, 1956 to 2001.

    PubMed

    Patlovich, S; Emery, R J; Whitehead, L W

    2005-11-01

    Case reports describing sources of radioactivity lost downhole in Texas from 1956 to 2001 were obtained from the Texas Department of Health Bureau of Radiation Control and entered into a computerized database. The events of the 45-y period of analysis were characterized, examining aspects such as source type, amount of activity, location of loss, depth, and date of occurrence. Results of the study found that 316 downhole source incidents were reported to the agency during this period of time, representing a total of 426 distinct sources of radioactivity lost downhole within the boundaries of the State of Texas. The sources lost were predominantly AmBe, accounting for 74 TBq of radioactivity at the time of loss, and Cs, accounting for 16.3 TBq of radioactivity. A longitudinal analysis of the data showed the average loss per active oil and gas rig in Texas (known as "rig count") at approximately 24 losses per 1,000 rigs. Specific geographic information was largely missing from many of the records, which prevented the geolocation of wells described to contain lost radioactive sources. As a result, most wells could only be located to the county level, and no comprehensive geographical information system (GIS) map could be accurately created from the data. However, when available, source location information was standardized to permit the characterization of the sources reported as lost. This effort produced the first dedicated compendium of lost downhole sources for the State of Texas and provides an important source of information for regulatory agencies. The ability to provide prompt information about the fate and location of sources of radioactivity is important to regulatory officials, given the recent concerns about radiation source inventory control in the post 9/11 world as it relates to the possible creation of radiological dispersal devices. PMID:16224264

  20. Alaska Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, and Permitting Project

    SciTech Connect

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall

    2006-03-31

    This is the final technical report for Project 15446, covering the grant period of October 2002 through March 2006. This project connects three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for an advanced information technology infrastructure to better support resource development and resource conservation. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells. The broad goal of this grant is to increase domestic production from Alaska's known producing fields through the implementation of preferred upstream management practices. (PUMP). Internet publication of extensive and detailed geotechnical data is the first task, improving the permitting process is the second task, and building an advanced geographical information system to offer continuing support and public access of the first two goals is the third task. Excellent progress has been made on all three tasks; the technical objectives as defined by the approved grant sub-tasks have been met. The end date for the grant was March 31, 2006.

  1. 43 CFR 3152.1 - Application for oil and gas geophysical exploration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Application for oil and gas geophysical exploration permit. 3152.1 Section 3152.1 Public...MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION Exploration in Alaska § 3152.1 Application for oil...

  2. 43 CFR 3152.1 - Application for oil and gas geophysical exploration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Application for oil and gas geophysical exploration permit. 3152.1 Section 3152.1 Public...MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION Exploration in Alaska § 3152.1 Application for oil...

  3. 43 CFR 3151.1 - Notice of intent to conduct oil and gas geophysical exploration operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Notice of intent to conduct oil and gas geophysical exploration operations. 3151.1 Section 3151.1 Public...MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION Exploration Outside of Alaska § 3151.1 Notice of...

  4. 43 CFR 3152.1 - Application for oil and gas geophysical exploration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Application for oil and gas geophysical exploration permit. 3152.1 Section 3152.1 Public...MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION Exploration in Alaska § 3152.1 Application for oil...

  5. 43 CFR 3151.1 - Notice of intent to conduct oil and gas geophysical exploration operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Notice of intent to conduct oil and gas geophysical exploration operations. 3151.1 Section 3151.1 Public...MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION Exploration Outside of Alaska § 3151.1 Notice of...

  6. 43 CFR 3151.1 - Notice of intent to conduct oil and gas geophysical exploration operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Notice of intent to conduct oil and gas geophysical exploration operations. 3151.1 Section 3151.1 Public...MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION Exploration Outside of Alaska § 3151.1 Notice of...

  7. 43 CFR 3152.1 - Application for oil and gas geophysical exploration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Application for oil and gas geophysical exploration permit. 3152.1 Section 3152.1 Public...MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION Exploration in Alaska § 3152.1 Application for oil...

  8. 43 CFR 3151.1 - Notice of intent to conduct oil and gas geophysical exploration operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Notice of intent to conduct oil and gas geophysical exploration operations. 3151.1 Section 3151.1 Public...MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION Exploration Outside of Alaska § 3151.1 Notice of...

  9. Exploring Increased Productivity Through Employee Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Wayne K., Jr.

    Disengaged employees cost U.S. companies billions of dollars annually in lowered productivity, a cost which has been compounded by the difficult economic situations in the country. The potential for increasing productivity through increased employee engagement was examined in this study. Using personal engagement theory and the theory of planned behavior, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore how the experiences of salaried aerospace employees affected productivity and the financial performance of an organization. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 20 aerospace employees whose responses were codified and analyzed to identify themes. The analysis indicated that (a) the lived experiences of employees influenced employee engagement, (b) employee engagement affects organizational commitment and performance, and (c) trust and respect and leadership are essential components to keep employees engaged. Eighty percent of the participants indicated that as employee engagement increases so too does organizational performance. The implications for positive social change include new insights for leaders seeking to increase productivity and financial performance, and to support employee engagement for maintaining sustainability, retaining talent, increasing profits, and improving the economy.

  10. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-11-19

    This is the second technical report, covering the period from April 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. The geo-technical component is a shared effort between the State Department of Administration and the US Department of Energy. The Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission is rapidly converting high volumes of paper documents and geo-technical information to formats suitable for search and retrieval over the Internet. The permitting component is under the lead of the DNR Office of Project Management and Permitting. A web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information on-line. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. Structural changes are taking place in terms of organization, statutory authority, and regulatory requirements. Geographic Information Systems are a central component to the organization of information, and the delivery of on-line services. Progress has been made to deploy the foundation system for the shared GIS based on open GIS protocols to the extent feasible. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells.

  11. Niobrara gas play: exploration and development of a low pressure, low permeability gas reservoir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Brown; J. W. Crafton; J. G. Golson

    1981-01-01

    The Niobrara Gas Play in eastern Colorado, northwestern Kansas and western Nebraska is an exemplary model for developing an integrated interdisciplinary exploration and exploitation strategy. This paper demonstrates a method to incorporate all types of analyses including geology and gas origin, petrology, drilling and completion, log interpretation, fracture stimulation and producing methods. Together these analyses are integrated into a rigorous

  12. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-08-04

    The objective of this project is to eliminate three closely inter-related barriers to oil production in Alaska through the use of a geographic information system (GIS) and other information technology strategies. These barriers involve identification of oil development potential from existing wells, planning projects to efficiently avoid conflicts with other interests, and gaining state approvals for exploration and development projects. Each barrier is the result of either current labor-intensive methods or poorly accessible information. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. This web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information online. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. The application will include an on-line diagnostic Coastal Project Questionnaire to determine the suite of permits required for a specific project. The application will also automatically create distribution lists based on the location and type of project, populate document templates for project review start-ups, public notices and findings, allow submission of e-comments, and post project status information on the Internet. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells. Currently, State of Alaska agencies use multiple, independent systems to identify, authenticate, and authorize customers for online transactions. Consumers of online state services may be required to manage multiple online ''profiles,'' and during a permit review process valuable time may be lost verifying identity or reconciling differences in applicant information when agency records disagree. The state's Information Technology Group is developing a shared applicant profile system that will provide an additional opportunity to demonstrate data sharing between agencies.

  13. Improving oil and gas production with the Beam Mounted Gas Compressor

    SciTech Connect

    AL-Khatib, A.M.

    1983-02-01

    This paper explores the parameters involved and the advantages obtained in the use of the BEAM MOUNTED GAS COMPRESSOR (B.M.G.C.). The B.M.G.C. is a single acting gas compressor operated by the walking beam of a rod pumping unit. The main function of the B.M.G.C. is to draw gas from the casing side of an oil well and discharge the gas into the flow line. By doing so, the B.M.G.C. operation actually reduces the back pressure on the formation face, thus allowing additional oil to enter the wellbore for production.

  14. VSAT: opening new horizons to oil and gas explorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dhamen, Muhammad I.

    2002-08-01

    Whether exploring in the Empty Quarter, drilling offshore in the Gulf of Mexico, or monitoring gas pipelines or oil wells in the deserts, communications is a key element to the success of oil and gas operations. Secure, efficient communications is required between remote, isolated locations and head offices to report on work status, dispatch supplies and repairs, report on-site emergencies, transfer geophysical surveys and real-time drilling data. Drilling and exploration firms have traditionally used land-based terrestrial networks that rely on radio transmissions for voice and data communications to offshore platforms and remote deep desert drilling rigs. But these systems are inefficient and have proven inflexible with today's drilling and exploration communications demands, which include high-speed data access, telephone and video conferencing. In response, numerous oil and gas exploration entities working in deep waters and remote deep deserts have all tapped into what is an ideal solution for these needs: Very Small Aperture Terminal Systems (VSAT) for broadband access services. This led to the use of Satellite Communication Systems for a wide range of applications that were difficult to achieve in the past, such as real-time applications transmission of drilling data and seismic information. This paper provides a thorough analysis of opportunities for satellite technology solutions in support of oil and gas operations. Technologies, architecture, service, networking and application developments are discussed based upon real field experience. More specifically, the report addresses: VSAT Opportunities for the Oil and Gas Operations, Corporate Satellite Business Model Findings, Satellite Market Forecasts

  15. Edinburgh Research Explorer Effective sourcing strategies for perishable product supply

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Effective sourcing strategies for perishable product supply chains strategies for perishable product supply chains' International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics product supply chains. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management , 44

  16. ERP System Implementation: An Oil and Gas Exploration Sector Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Alok; Mishra, Deepti

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems provide integration and optimization of various business processes which leads to improved planning and decision quality, smoother coordination between business units resulting in higher efficiency, and quicker response time to customer demands and inquiries. This paper reports challenges, opportunities and outcome of ERP implementation in Oil & Gas exploration sector. This study will facilitate in understanding transition, constraints and implementation of ERP in this sector and also provide guidelines from lessons learned in this regard.

  17. An Economic Exploration of Biofuel basedAn Economic Exploration of Biofuel based Greenhouse Gas Emission MitigationGreenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation

    E-print Network

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Emission MitigationGreenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Bruce A. McCarl Regents Professor of Agricultural emitters of the most prevalent greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide - CO2), Other emissions important UAn Economic Exploration of Biofuel basedAn Economic Exploration of Biofuel based Greenhouse Gas

  18. Study on Exploring for Oil, Gas Using Hyperion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, D.-Q.; Ni, G.-Q.; Jiang, L.-L.; Ge, S.-L.

    Reflectance spectra in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths provide a rapid and inexpensive means for determining the mineralogy of samples and obtaining information on chemical composition Hydrocarbon microseepage theory setup a cause-and-effect relation between oil and gas reservoirs and some special surface alterations Therefore we can explore for oil gas by determining reflectance spectra of surface alterations This determination can be fulfilled by means of field work and hyperspectral remote sensing Our cooperative R D project which is sponsored by China National Petroleum Corporation CNPC and committing itself to exploration of oil gas in Qinghai area of China using NASA experimental Hyperion hyperspectral satellite documents a macroscopical feature of reflectance spectra of typical observation points in gas fields and then proposes a method in order to provide surface distribution information e g classification of alterations based on the reflectance spectra determined from the field and remote sensing and obtain anomaly zones of the special alterations This method mainly includes preprocessing of Hyperion images to improve the poor SNR Signal Noise Ratio of them principal component analysis PCA based on wavelet transform to reduce dimensionality and techniques providing surface distribution information using both absorption-band parameters such as the position depth width and asymmetry of the spectra and similarity of the entire shape between two spectra Finally several anomaly zones of alterations are obtained which are

  19. Gas Mixtures and Ozone Production in an Electrical Discharge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Manning; Jerry Hedden

    2001-01-01

    The quantitative production of ozone (O3) with N2, O2, and Ar gas mixtures in an atmospheric pressure corona discharge (CD) is investigated. A five-part model is presented that explores the discharge conditions needed for optimum ozone production. One part of the model is the well-known relationship that correlates the discharge's voltage, frequency, gap, dielectric material, etc with the generator's yield.

  20. Industry requested exploration/production environmental regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Blanck, L. (California Regional Water Quality Control Board, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States))

    1994-04-01

    California State Review by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission recommends state and regional water boards issue requirements to all pits subject to basin plans and chapter 15. Resources shortfalls have kept production pits from being Water Board priorities. Threat of United States EPA designation of crude oil as hazardous waste and subsequent land use conflicts of buried pits in developing areas have led to the call for full implementation of State regulations. Recommended state improvements include (1) interagency communication, cross training, computer database, and inspections; (2) development of guidance documents and consistency in pit closure policy, permitting, water quality in DOG pit rules, land spreading, road spreading, and minimum construction and operation requirements and; (3) administratively finding additional resources to fully implement requirements, increase records retention time, consider compliance history, revise Water Board/DOG Memorandum of Understanding and adjust DOG financial assurance program to provide incentive for proper and timely well plugging and site reclamation. Industry/Regulatory Agency cooperation can significantly reduce the burden of regulation implementation, Industry willingness to pay appropriate regulatory fees can facilitate regulation execution. Field drilling crew education can minimize regulatory implementation costs. Mud pit Resource Conservation and Recovery Act exemption can be maintained if hazardous substances (e.g., pipe dope and solvents) are kept out of the pit.

  1. North America: A better second half for drilling--Maybe. [Oil and gas exploration and development in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This paper provides data on the exploration, production, and drilling activity of the oil and gas industry in Canada, the US, and Central America. The section on the US discusses trends in drilling activity in both the first and second half of 1993. Statistical information on all oil and gas producing states if provided in a tabular format. Information on exploration and development expenditures is also discussed. Data is also provided drilling and production information for Canada, Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Nicaragua, and other minor production areas.

  2. From scenarios to aspects: exploring product lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingolf H. Krüger; Reena Mathew; Michael Meisinger

    2005-01-01

    Software product lines are gaining importance because they allow improvements in time to market, cost, productivity and quality of software products. Architecture evaluation is one important aspect in the development of product lines for large-scale distributed systems. It is desirable to evaluate and compare architectures for functionality and quality attributes before implementing or changing the whole system. Often, the effort

  3. Risk analysis applied to petroleum exploration and production: an overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Suslick; D. J. Schiozer

    2004-01-01

    During the past decades, there have been some significant improvements in risk analysis applied to petroleum exploration and production. This special issue is dedicated to show some contributions and developments of risk analysis applied to petroleum exploration, field appraisal and development, production forecast under uncertainty, decision-making process, portfolio management, and real options approach. A brief overview is presented in this

  4. Advancing New 3D Seismic Interpretation Methods for Exploration and Development of Fractured Tight Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    James Reeves

    2005-01-31

    In a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and GeoSpectrum, Inc., new P-wave 3D seismic interpretation methods to characterize fractured gas reservoirs are developed. A data driven exploratory approach is used to determine empirical relationships for reservoir properties. Fractures are predicted using seismic lineament mapping through a series of horizon and time slices in the reservoir zone. A seismic lineament is a linear feature seen in a slice through the seismic volume that has negligible vertical offset. We interpret that in regions of high seismic lineament density there is a greater likelihood of fractured reservoir. Seismic AVO attributes are developed to map brittle reservoir rock (low clay) and gas content. Brittle rocks are interpreted to be more fractured when seismic lineaments are present. The most important attribute developed in this study is the gas sensitive phase gradient (a new AVO attribute), as reservoir fractures may provide a plumbing system for both water and gas. Success is obtained when economic gas and oil discoveries are found. In a gas field previously plagued with poor drilling results, four new wells were spotted using the new methodology and recently drilled. The wells have estimated best of 12-months production indicators of 2106, 1652, 941, and 227 MCFGPD. The latter well was drilled in a region of swarming seismic lineaments but has poor gas sensitive phase gradient (AVO) and clay volume attributes. GeoSpectrum advised the unit operators that this location did not appear to have significant Lower Dakota gas before the well was drilled. The other three wells are considered good wells in this part of the basin and among the best wells in the area. These new drilling results have nearly doubled the gas production and the value of the field. The interpretation method is ready for commercialization and gas exploration and development. The new technology is adaptable to conventional lower cost 3D seismic surveys.

  5. Production Trends of Shale Gas Wells 

    E-print Network

    Khan, Waqar A.

    2010-01-14

    Station, TX, May (1998). 3. El-Banbi, A.H. and Wattenbarger, R.A.: ?Analysis of Linear Flow in Gas Well Production,? paper SPE 39972 presented at the 1998 SPE Gas Technology Symposium, Calgary, 15-18 March. 4. Ar?valo-Villagr?n, J...

  6. ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrate Production Test

    SciTech Connect

    Schoderbek, David; Farrell, Helen; Howard, James; Raterman, Kevin; Silpngarmlert, Suntichai; Martin, Kenneth; Smith, Bruce; Klein, Perry

    2013-06-30

    Work began on the ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrates Production Test (DOE award number DE-NT0006553) on October 1, 2008. This final report summarizes the entire project from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2013.

  7. RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald C. Surdam; Zunsheng Jiao; Nicholas K. Boyd

    1999-11-01

    The new exploration technology for basin center gas accumulations developed by R.C. Surdam and Associates at the Institute for Energy Research, University of Wyoming, was applied to the Riverton Dome 3-D seismic area. Application of the technology resulted in the development of important new exploration leads in the Frontier, Muddy, and Nugget formations. The new leads are adjacent to a major north-south trending fault, which is downdip from the crest of the major structure in the area. In a blind test, the drilling results from six new Muddy test wells were accurately predicted. The initial production values, IP, for the six test wells ranged from < one mmcf/day to four mmcf/day. The three wells with the highest IP values (i.e., three to four mmcf/day) were drilled into an intense velocity anomaly (i.e., anomalously slow velocities). The well drilled at the end of the velocity anomaly had an IP value of one mmcf/day, and the two wells drilled outside of the velocity anomaly had IP values of < one mmcf/day and are presently shut in. Based on these test results, it is concluded that the new IER exploration strategy for detecting and delineating commercial, anomalously pressured gas accumulation is valid in the southwestern portions of the Wind River Basin, and can be utilized to significantly reduce exploration risk and to increase profitability of so-called basin center gas accumulations.

  8. Analysis of gas production methods for methane gas hydrate reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivakhnenko, Aleksandr; Baluanov, Bakhytzhan; Shopenova, Aigerim; Gulnur, Asan; Agzomova, Bagdagul

    2015-04-01

    In methane gas hydrate reservoir (MH), pressure and temperature conditions are in the MH stability region in the initial stage. To dissociate MH and produce gas from a MH reservoir, pressure and temperature conditions should be moved to the dissociation region. Therefore, three methods of depressurization, thermal and inhibitor injection have been modeled and analyzed as a basic methods for different conditions that might occur in nature. Furthermore, several methods such as injection of gas other than methane and irradiation of ultrasonic wave were also investigated especially for the MH dissociation and possible gas production. The simulation results allowed to select optimal screening approach for the appropriate production method that can be employed in specific MH conditions.

  9. RADIOLYTIC GAS PRODUCTION RATES OF POLYMERS EXPOSED TO TRITIUM GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.

    2013-08-31

    Data from previous reports on studies of polymers exposed to tritium gas is further analyzed to estimate rates of radiolytic gas production. Also, graphs of gas release during tritium exposure from ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, a trade name is Teflon®), and Vespel® polyimide are re-plotted as moles of gas as a function of time, which is consistent with a later study of tritium effects on various formulations of the elastomer ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM). These gas production rate estimates may be useful while considering using these polymers in tritium processing systems. These rates are valid at least for the longest exposure times for each material, two years for UHMW-PE, PTFE, and Vespel®, and fourteen months for filled and unfilled EPDM. Note that the production “rate” for Vespel® is a quantity of H{sub 2} produced during a single exposure to tritium, independent of length of time. The larger production rate per unit mass for unfilled EPDM results from the lack of filler- the carbon black in filled EPDM does not produce H{sub 2} or HT. This is one aspect of how inert fillers reduce the effects of ionizing radiation on polymers.

  10. Exploring the Potential Business Case for Synergies Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.; Arent, D.

    2014-02-01

    Natural gas and renewable energy each contribute to economic growth, energy independence, and carbon mitigation, sometimes independently and sometimes collectively. Often, natural gas and renewables are considered competitors in markets, such as those for bulk electricity. This paper attempts to address the question, 'Given near- and long-term needs for abundant, cleaner energy sources and decarbonization, how can more compelling business models be created so that these two domestic forms of energy work in greater concert?' This paper explores revenue opportunities that emerge from systems-level perspectives in 'bulk energy' (large-scale electricity and natural gas production, transmission, and trade) and four 'distribution edge' subsectors: industrial, residential, commercial, and transportation end uses.

  11. Petroleum exploration and production in Europe in 1975

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1976-01-01

    Large-scale oil production from North Sea fields started late in 1975, but production elsewhere in western and southern Europe changed little from the 1974 rate. A large gas field in the Dutch North Sea area went on production and other fields were being developed actively. A major oil discovery was made at Brae in the Viking graben near the center

  12. SkyHunter: A Multi-Surface Environment for Supporting Oil and Gas Exploration

    E-print Network

    Maurer, Frank

    SkyHunter: A Multi-Surface Environment for Supporting Oil and Gas Exploration Teddy Seyed, Mario}@ucalgary.ca ABSTRACT The process of oil and gas exploration and its result, the decision to drill for oil in a specific exploration process overlook fundamental user issues such as collaboration, interaction and visualization

  13. Canada`s commercially oriented Radarsat returns SAR data for oil, gas exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Tack, R.E. [Radarsat International, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    1996-07-15

    Canada in November 1995 launched the world`s first commercially oriented remote sensing satellite to carry a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging system. Radarsat provides the oil and gas industry with a unique variety of exploration and mapping capabilities not previously offered by an operational imaging satellite. Radarsat`s SAR data became commercially available in March 1996 at a cost ranging between 2{cents} to $1.60/sq km for most products--a fraction of the cost of airborne SAR imagery. The paper discusses the exploration and production benefits of SAR (all-weather imaging, varied orbits, and sensitivity to terrain) and Radarsat advantages variable incidence angle, multiple beam modes, onboard tape recorders, processing and delivery, and cost effectiveness.

  14. Lunar lander propellant production for a multiple site exploration mission

    E-print Network

    Neubert, Joshua, 1981-

    2004-01-01

    A model has been developed to analyze the benefit of utilizing a processing plant architecture so that a lunar oxygen production demonstration mission can also provide a significant exploration and scientific return. This ...

  15. BUILDING MATERIALS MADE FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael W. Grutzeck; Maria DiCola; Paul Brenner

    2006-03-30

    Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) materials are produced in abundant quantities by coal burning utilities. Due to environmental restrains, flue gases must be ''cleaned'' prior to release to the atmosphere. They are two general methods to ''scrub'' flue gas: wet and dry. The choice of scrubbing material is often defined by the type of coal being burned, i.e. its composition. Scrubbing is traditionally carried out using a slurry of calcium containing material (slaked lime or calcium carbonate) that is made to contact exiting flue gas as either a spay injected into the gas or in a bubble tower. The calcium combined with the SO{sub 2} in the gas to form insoluble precipitates. Some plants have been using dry injection of these same materials or their own Class C fly ash to scrub. In either case the end product contains primarily hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}O) with smaller amounts of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O). These materials have little commercial use. Experiments were carried out that were meant to explore the feasibility of using blends of hannebachite and fly ash mixed with concentrated sodium hydroxide to make masonry products. The results suggest that some of these mixtures could be used in place of conventional Portland cement based products such as retaining wall bricks and pavers.

  16. Methane hydrate gas production by thermal stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, P.L.

    1981-01-01

    Two models have been developed to bracket the expected gas production from a methane hydrate reservoir. The frontal-sweep model represents the upper bound on the gas production, and the fracture-flow model represents the lower bound. Parametric studies were made to determine the importance of a number of variables, including porosity, bed thickness, injection temperature, and fracture length. These studies indicate that the hydrate-filled porosity should be at least 15%, reservoir thickness should be about 25 ft or more, and well spacing should be fairly large (maybe 40 acres/well), if possible. Injection temperatures should probably be between 150 and 250/sup 0/F to achieve an acceptable balance between high heat losses and unrealistically high injection rates. Numerous important questions about hydrate gas production remain unanswered.

  17. Theoretical approach to explore the production routes of astatine radionuclides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moumita Maiti; Susanta Lahiri

    2009-01-01

    To fulfill the recent thrust of astatine radionuclides in the field of nuclear medicine, various production routes have been explored in the present work. The possible production routes of At209-211 comprise both light- and heavy-ion-induced reactions at the bombarding energy range starting from threshold to a maximum of 100 MeV. Excitation functions of those radionuclides, produced through various production routes,

  18. Bio-gas production from alligator weeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latif, A.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of temperature, sample preparation, reducing agents, light intensity and pH of the media, on bio-gas and methane production from the microbial anaerobic decomposition of alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides. Efforts were also made for the isolation and characterization of the methanogenic bacteria.

  19. New Thematic Solar System Exploration Products for Scientists and Educators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowes, Lesile; Wessen, Alice; Davis, Phil; Lindstrom, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    The next several years are an exciting time in the exploration of the solar system. NASA and its international partners have a veritable armada of spaceships heading out to the far reaches of the solar system. We'll send the first spacecraft beyond our solar system into interstellar space. We'll launch our first mission to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt and just our second to Mercury (the first in 30 years). We'll continue our intensive exploration of Mars and begin our detailed study of Saturn and its moons. We'll visit asteroids and comets and bring home pieces of the Sun and a comet. This is truly an unprecedented period of exploration and discovery! To facilitate access to information and to provide the thematic context for these missions NASA s Solar System Exploration Program and Solar System Exploration Education Forum have developed several products.

  20. Determination of ²²?Ra, ²²?Ra and ²¹?Pb in NORM products from oil and gas exploration: problems in activity underestimation due to the presence of metals and self-absorption of photons.

    PubMed

    Landsberger, S; Brabec, C; Canion, B; Hashem, J; Lu, C; Millsap, D; George, G

    2013-11-01

    Typical calibration of solid environmental samples for the determination of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb entails the use of standard reference materials which have a very similar matrix. However, TENORM samples from the oil and gas exploration contain unusually high amounts of calcium, strontium and barium which can severely attenuate the photons of (210)Pb and (226)Ra with their characteristic 46.1 keV and 186.2 keV gamma-rays, respectively and to some extent (228)Ra with the characteristic gamma-rays of 911.2 keV and 969.0 keV. We used neutron activation analysis to evaluate the content of TENORM for calcium, barium and strontium and then used a software program SELABS to determine the self-absorption. Our results confirm that even in Petrie containers with small dimensions the (210)Pb can be underestimated by almost by a factor of four while (226)Ra can be underestimated by 5%. The (228)Ra activities are virtually unaffected due to the higher energy gamma-rays. However, the implications for TENORM studies that employ large Marinelli containers having sample sizes between 0.25 and 1.0 L may be severely compromised by the presence of high Z elements in elevated concentrations. The usual spectral interferences on (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb coming from other radionuclides in the (234)U, (235)U and (238)U decay chains are virtually nonexistent due the very high activity levels of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb in the tens of thousands of Bq/kg. PMID:23514714

  1. Synthesis Gas Production from Partial Oxidation of Methane with Air in AC Electric Gas Discharge

    E-print Network

    Mallinson, Richard

    Synthesis Gas Production from Partial Oxidation of Methane with Air in AC Electric Gas Discharge K 73019 Received October 11, 2002 In this study, synthesis gas production in an AC electric gas discharge power used in each condition, since the maximum methane and oxygen conversions and synthesis gas

  2. Metal Production in Quasars Through Jet-Gas Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandegriff, Jon D.

    Emission lines studies of the gas surrounding many high redshift quasars indicate a high concentration of CNO nuclides. Relative abundance ratios may even exceed solar levels in some objects with redshifts near 5.0, indicating a rapid buildup of metals within one billion years after the big bang. Models explaining these high concentrations through standard stellar processing are pressed by the short time requirement. We explore a non-stellar nucleosynthesis mechanism in quasars based on the interaction of a high energy particle jet with hot, relatively dense gas. Although temperatures in the hot gas are high enough to support (thermalized) thermonuclear reactions, this mechanism alone is too slow to allow a rapid buildup of CNO nuclides. The collision of (non-thermal) jet particles with gas particles allows creation of unique nuclides which can boost the nucleosynthesis over traditional mass gaps at A = 5 and A = 8. The temperature and initial particle density range from T9=0.2 to T9=5.0, and 1011 to 1018 particles/cm3, respectively, while the jet intensity varies from 0.1 to 10 solar masses per year. The maximum final density allowed is 1023 particles/cm3. Substantial metal production in just 100 days can occur for temperatures near T9=0.6 and final densities of 1021 particles/cm3. Production at other temperatures and densities varies greatly. If the temperature is much above or below T9=0.6, or if the density cannot reach 1021 particles/cm3, then metal production is limited. Although the simple jet-clump model by itself does not seem capable of fully explaining the solar abundances in quasar gas, the low level production occurs on sufficiently short time scales so that it is still interesting. Also, a simplistic exploration of the production resulting from gas which evolves from high to low temperatures seems to indicate that at least 1/100th of solar levels can be obtained if the density can climb to 1021 particles/cm3 in a single processing episode of about 200 days. Multiple processing episodes and more complicated cooling scenarios may indicate larger nucleosynthesis possibilities. Therefore, the jet-clump model offers an exciting possibility for generating metals in quasars.

  3. Exploring enzymes on cotton and their product targets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzyme-active cotton is a functional biocompatible material, and has potential applications as a sustainable material. With this in mind we have explored development of enzyme-active cotton with product potential as a disposable or reusable textile material. Lysozyme, which historically has been a w...

  4. Polish permian basin: Lithofacies traps for gas within the Rotliegende deposits as a new exploration potential

    SciTech Connect

    Karnkowski, P.H. (Warsaw Univ., Warsaw (Poland))

    1993-09-01

    Rotliegende deposits are the most prospective reservoir gas rocks in the Polish Permian basin. Thirty years of their exploration have led to location of numerous gas fields in the upper-most part of these series, particularly in the area of the Fore-Sudetic monocline. Up to this time, exploration studies concentrated mainly on structural objects, and most of the structures were positive gas traps. Well and seismic data also indicate an occurrence of lithofacies gas traps; they occur mainly in the sandstone zones within the fanglomerates surrounding the Wolsztyn Ridge. When comparing the facies regularities in the known gas fields in the German Permian basin (interfingering sandstones and claystones) to the facies patterns of the Polish Permian basin, one may suspect similar exploration possibilities. These are the first promising results. Advances in analysis of the Rotliegende depositional systems will enable us to create a new exploration potential.

  5. Feasibility of a digester gas fuel production facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dakes, G.; Greene, D.S.; Sheehan, J.F.

    1982-03-01

    Results of studies on the feasibility of using digester gas produced from wastewater sludge to fuel vehicles are reported. Availability and suitability of digester gas as well as digester gas production records and test analyses on digester gas were reviewed. The feasibility of the project based on economic and environmental considerations is reported and compared to possible alternative uses of the digester gas.

  6. 75 FR 29996 - Review of MMS NEPA Policies, Practices, and Procedures for OCS Oil and Gas Exploration and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ...for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas exploration and development...being conducted as a result of the oil spill from the Deepwater Horizon well and...management of Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas exploration and...

  7. Federal Environmental Regulations Impacting Hydrocarbon Exploration, Drilling, and Production Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Waste handling and disposal from hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through federal and state regulations and/or through implementation of federal regulations. Some wastes generated in these operations are exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) but are not exempt under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and other federal environmental laws. Exempt wastes remain exempt only if they are not mixed with hazardous wastes or hazardous substances. Once mixture occurs, the waste must be disposed as a hazardous material in an approved hazardous waste disposal facility. Before the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, air emissions from production, storage, steam generation, and compression facilities associated with hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production industry were not regulated. A critical proposed regulatory change which will significantly effect Class II injection wells for disposal of produced brine and injection for enhanced oil recovery is imminent. Federal regulations affecting hydrocarbon exploration, drilling and production, proposed EPA regulatory changes, and a recent significant US Court of Appeals decision are covered in this report. It appears that this industry will, in the future, fall under more stringent environmental regulations leading to increased costs for operators.

  8. Natural gas hydrates - issues for gas production and geomechanical stability 

    E-print Network

    Grover, Tarun

    2008-10-10

    Natural gas hydrates are solid crystalline substances found in the subsurface. Since gas hydrates are stable at low temperatures and moderate pressures, gas hydrates are found either near the surface in arctic regions or in deep water marine...

  9. Corrosion update: Oil and gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Treseder, R.S.; Tuttle, R.N.

    1995-12-31

    This 4 volume revised edition includes the chemical compositions and trade names for corrosion resistant alloys. This is the corrosion resource for designers, builders, and operators of oil and gas facilities. The book provides a comprehensive review of the available corrosion literature in oil and gas production. More than 1,200 papers are included, presented at various meetings and conferences, both US and international. In addition to listing the article titles and sources, the editors go beyond a typical abstract listing by providing the scope, conclusions, and method for ordering each paper. The computer disk is TextWare-based, permitting suers to conduct more extensive searches quickly, as well as providing the ability to print the search results. Includes four volumes and one computer floppy disk.

  10. 78 FR 17661 - Proposed Reissuance of a General NPDES Permit for Oil and Gas Exploration Facilities in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ...General NPDES Permit for Oil and Gas Exploration Facilities in the Federal Waters of...Elimination System (NPDES) for Oil and Gas Exploration Facilities in Federal Waters of Cook...Inlet Federal Waters from oil and gas exploration facilities subject to limits and...

  11. Bio gas oil production from waste lard.

    PubMed

    Hancsók, Jeno; Baladincz, Péter; Kasza, Tamás; Kovács, Sándor; Tóth, Csaba; Varga, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Besides the second generations bio fuels, one of the most promising products is the bio gas oil, which is a high iso-paraffin containing fuel, which could be produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of different triglycerides. To broaden the feedstock of the bio gas oil the catalytic hydrogenation of waste lard over sulphided NiMo/Al(2)O(3) catalyst, and as the second step, the isomerization of the produced normal paraffin rich mixture (intermediate product) over Pt/SAPO-11 catalyst was investigated. It was found that both the hydrogenation and the decarboxylation/decarbonylation oxygen removing reactions took place but their ratio depended on the process parameters (T = 280-380°C, P = 20-80 bar, LHSV = 0.75-3.0? h(-1) and H(2)/lard ratio: 600 ?Nm(3)/m(3)). In case of the isomerization at the favourable process parameters (T = 360-370°C, P = 40-50 bar, LHSV = 1.0? h(-1) and H(2)/hydrocarbon ratio: 400? Nm(3)/m(3)) mainly mono-branching isoparaffins were obtained. The obtained products are excellent Diesel fuel blending components, which are practically free of heteroatoms. PMID:21403875

  12. Bio Gas Oil Production from Waste Lard

    PubMed Central

    Hancsók, Jen?; Baladincz, Péter; Kasza, Tamás; Kovács, Sándor; Tóth, Csaba; Varga, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Besides the second generations bio fuels, one of the most promising products is the bio gas oil, which is a high iso-paraffin containing fuel, which could be produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of different triglycerides. To broaden the feedstock of the bio gas oil the catalytic hydrogenation of waste lard over sulphided NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst, and as the second step, the isomerization of the produced normal paraffin rich mixture (intermediate product) over Pt/SAPO-11 catalyst was investigated. It was found that both the hydrogenation and the decarboxylation/decarbonylation oxygen removing reactions took place but their ratio depended on the process parameters (T = 280–380°C, P = 20–80 bar, LHSV = 0.75–3.0?h?1 and H2/lard ratio: 600?Nm3/m3). In case of the isomerization at the favourable process parameters (T = 360–370°C, P = 40 –50 bar, LHSV = 1.0?h?1 and H2/hydrocarbon ratio: 400?Nm3/m3) mainly mono-branching isoparaffins were obtained. The obtained products are excellent Diesel fuel blending components, which are practically free of heteroatoms. PMID:21403875

  13. Federal offshore statistics: 1992. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenues as of December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Francois, D.K.

    1993-12-31

    The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, enacted in 1953 and amended several times, charges the Secretary of the Interior with the responsibility for administering and managing mineral exploration and development of the outer continental shelf, as well as for conserving its natural resources. This report documents the following: Federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; Federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from Federal offshore leases; disbursement of Federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. 11 figs., 83 tabs.

  14. Exploring Occupations for Electronics Technicians in the Natural Gas Industry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This teacher's guide presents a lesson on the electronics technician career path in the natural gas industry. Students will answer the question: "Is a career as an electronics technician in the natural gas industry a good choice for me?" The class will write a one-page paper on this topic. The unit is intended for grades 7-9 and would take three to four 45 minute class periods to complete in full. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft Word file format.

  15. New gas geothermometers for geothermal exploration—calibration and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnórsson, Stefán; Gunnlaugsson, Einar

    1985-06-01

    Calibration of five gas geothermometers is presented, three of which used CO 2, H 2S and H 2 concentrations in fumarole steam, respectively. The remaining two use CO 2/H 2 and H 2S /H 2 ratios. The calibration is based on the relation between gas content of drillhole discharges and measured aquifer temperatures. After establishing the gas content in the aquifer, gas concentrations were calculated in steam formed by adiabatic boiling of this water to atmospheric pressure to obtain the gas geothermometry functions. It is shown that the concentrations of CO 2, H 2S and H 2 in geothermal reservoir waters are fixed through equilibria with mineral buffers. At temperatures above 230°C epidote + prehnite + calcite + quartz are considered to buffer CO 2. Two buffers are involved for H 2S and H 2 and two functions are, therefore, presented for the geothermometers involving these gases. For waters containing less than about 500 ppm chloride and in the range 230-300°C pyrite + pyrrholite + epidote + prehnite seem to be involved, but pyrite + epidote + prehnite + magnetite or chlorite for waters above 300°C and waters in the range 230-300°C, if containing over about 500 ppm. The gas geothermometers are useful for predicting subsurface temperatures in high-temperature geothermal systems. They are applicable to systems in basaltic to acidic rocks and in sediments with similar composition, but should be used with reservation for systems located in rocks which differ much in composition from the basaltic to acidic ones. The geothermometry results may be used to obtain information on steam condensation in upflow zones, or phase separation at elevated pressures. Measured aquifer temperatures in drillholes and gas geothermometry temperatures, based on data from nearby fumaroles, compare well in the five fields in Iceland considered specifically for the present study as well as in several fields in other countries for which data were inspected. The results of the gas geothermometers also compare well with the results of solute geothermometers and mixing models in three undrilled Icelandic fields.

  16. Crew Exploration Vehicle Environmental Control and Life Support Emergency Gas Consumable Sizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.; Peterso, Laurie

    2007-01-01

    As part of preparing for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) worked on developing the requirements that drive the emergency gas consumables. Emergency gas is required to support Extravehicular Activities (EVA), maintain the cabin pressure during a cabin leak for the crew to don their suits, and to recover the cabin following a toxic even or a fire.

  17. Measurements of Methane Emissions at Natural Gas Production Sites

    E-print Network

    Lightsey, Glenn

    Measurements of Methane Emissions at Natural Gas Production Sites in the United States #12;Why = 21 #12;Need for Study · Estimates of methane emissions from natural gas production , from academic in assumptions in estimating emissions · Measured data for some sources of methane emissions during natural gas

  18. The gas mask: a probe for exploring fearsome interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe Marshall; Brendan Walker; Steve Benford; George Tomlinson; Stefan Rennick Egglestone; Stuart Reeves; Patrick Brundell; Paul Tennent; Jo Cranwell; Paul Harter; Jo Longhurst

    2011-01-01

    We introduce an interface for horror-themed entertainment experiences based on integrating breath sensors and WiFi into gas masks. Beyond enabling the practical breath control of entertainment systems, our design aims to heighten the intensity of the experience by amplifying the user's awareness of their breathing, as well as their feelings of isolation, claustrophobia and fear. More generally, this interface is

  19. Principal geological results of oil and gas exploration in southern Sakhalin. [USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Tyutrin, I.I.; Dunichev, V.M.; Taboyakov, A.Y.

    1982-09-01

    The results of gas and oil exploration in southern Sakhalin, USSR are discussed in three aspects: 1) oil and gas fields revealed; 2) new data on geological cross sections, and 3) tectonic position of Upper Cretaceous and Cenozic deposits. Commercial oil deposits have been located in the lower and middle Miocene deposits of the Progranichnyy trough, and commercial gas presence has been discovered in the upper Miocene deposits of the Aniva Gulf trough. (JMT)

  20. Theoretical approach to explore the production routes of astatine radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Moumita; Lahiri, Susanta

    2009-02-01

    To fulfill the recent thrust of astatine radionuclides in the field of nuclear medicine, various production routes have been explored in the present work. The possible production routes of At209-211 comprise both light- and heavy-ion-induced reactions at the bombarding energy range starting from threshold to a maximum of 100 MeV. Excitation functions of those radionuclides, produced through various production routes, have been calculated by using nuclear reaction model codes TALYS, ALICE91, and PACE-II and are compared with the available measured data. Contributions of various reaction mechanisms, such as direct, pre-equilibrium, and equilibrium reactions, to the total reaction cross section have been studied using the codes. Results show that the equilibrium reaction dominates in all cases over other reaction mechanisms.

  1. Theoretical approach to explore the production routes of astatine radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, Moumita; Lahiri, Susanta [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2009-02-15

    To fulfill the recent thrust of astatine radionuclides in the field of nuclear medicine, various production routes have been explored in the present work. The possible production routes of {sup 209-211}At comprise both light- and heavy-ion-induced reactions at the bombarding energy range starting from threshold to a maximum of 100 MeV. Excitation functions of those radionuclides, produced through various production routes, have been calculated by using nuclear reaction model codes TALYS, ALICE91, and PACE-II and are compared with the available measured data. Contributions of various reaction mechanisms, such as direct, pre-equilibrium, and equilibrium reactions, to the total reaction cross section have been studied using the codes. Results show that the equilibrium reaction dominates in all cases over other reaction mechanisms.

  2. Exploring cyanobacterial genomes for natural product biosynthesis pathways.

    PubMed

    Micallef, Melinda L; D'Agostino, Paul M; Al-Sinawi, Bakir; Neilan, Brett A; Moffitt, Michelle C

    2015-06-01

    Cyanobacteria produce a vast array of natural products, some of which are toxic to human health, while others possess potential pharmaceutical activities. Genome mining enables the identification and characterisation of natural product gene clusters; however, the current number of cyanobacterial genomes remains low compared to other phyla. There has been a recent effort to rectify this issue by increasing the number of sequenced cyanobacterial genomes. This has enabled the identification of biosynthetic gene clusters for structurally diverse metabolites, including non-ribosomal peptides, polyketides, ribosomal peptides, UV-absorbing compounds, alkaloids, terpenes and fatty acids. While some of the identified biosynthetic gene clusters correlate with known metabolites, genome mining also highlights the number and diversity of clusters for which the product is unknown (referred to as orphan gene clusters). A number of bioinformatic tools have recently been developed in order to predict the products of orphan gene clusters; however, in some cases the complexity of the cyanobacterial pathways makes the prediction problematic. This can be overcome by the use of mass spectrometry-guided natural product genome mining, or heterologous expression. Application of these techniques to cyanobacterial natural product gene clusters will be explored. PMID:25482899

  3. Integrated exploration strategy for locating areas capable of high gas rate cavity completion in coalbed methane reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Klawitter, A.L.; Hoak, T.E.; Decker, A.D.

    1995-10-01

    In 1993, the San Juan Basin accounted for approximately 605 Bcf of the 740 Bcf of all coalbed gas produced in the United States. The San Juan {open_quotes}cavitation fairway{close_quotes} in which production occurs in open-hole cavity completions, is responsible for over 60% of all U.S. coalbed methane production. Perhaps most striking is the fact that over 17,000 wells had penetrated the Fruitland formation in the San Juan Basin prior to recognition of the coalbed methan potential. To understand the dynamic cavity fairway reservoir in the San Juan Basin, an exploration rationale for coalbed methan was developed that permits a sequential reduction in total basin exploration area based on four primary exploration criteria. One of the most significant criterion is the existence of thick, thermally mature, friable coals. A second criterion is the existence of fully gas-charged coals. Evaluation of this criterion requires reservoir geochemical data to delineate zones of meteoric influx where breaching has occurred. A third criterion is the presence of adequate reservoir permeability. Natural fracturing in coals is due to cleating and tectonic processes. Because of the general relationship between coal cleating and coal rank, coal cleating intensity can be estimated by analysis of regional coal rank maps. The final criterion is determining whether natural fractures are open or closed. To make this determination, remote sensing imagery interpretation is supported by ancillary data compiled from regional tectonic studies. Application of these four criteria to the San Juan Basin in a heuristic, stepwise process resulted in an overall 94% reduction in total basin exploration area. Application of the first criterion reduced the total basin exploration area by 80%. Application of the second criterion further winnows this area by an addition 9%. Application of the third criterion reduces the exploration area to 6% of the total original exploration area.

  4. Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, H.J.

    1992-10-01

    The mechanics of ground movements during hydrate production can be more closely simulated by considering similarities with ground movements associated with subsidence in permafrost regions than with gob compaction in a longwall mine. The purpose of this research work is to investigate the potential strata movements associated with hydrate production by considering similarities with ground movements in permafrost regions. The work primarily involves numerical modeling of subsidence caused by hydrate dissociation. The investigation is based on the theories of continuum mechanics , thermomechanical behavior of frozen geo-materials, and principles of rock mechanics and geomechanics. It is expected that some phases of the investigation will involve the use of finite element method, which is a powerful computer-based method which has been widely used in many areas of science and engineering. Parametric studies will be performed to predict expected strata movements and surface subsidence for different reservoir conditions and properties of geological materials. The results from this investigation will be useful in predicting the magnitude of the subsidence problem associated with gas hydrate production. The analogy of subsidence in permafrost regions may provide lower bounds for subsidence expected in hydrate reservoirs. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the results will provide insight into planning of hydrate recovery operations.

  5. Gas Production Strategy of Underground Coal Gasification Based on Multiple Gas Sources

    PubMed Central

    Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

    2014-01-01

    To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method. PMID:25114953

  6. Gas production strategy of underground coal gasification based on multiple gas sources.

    PubMed

    Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

    2014-01-01

    To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method. PMID:25114953

  7. Recent developments in environmental regulation impacting oil and gas production and refining

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, D.E. [Washburn Univ. School of Law, Topeka, KS (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the recent major legal and regulatory developments impacting oil and gas exploration, production, and refining activities. The focus is upon the federal laws governing air, water, and land pollution for the period 1994 to the present.

  8. Thermal reactor. [liquid silicon production from silane gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, H.; Ford, L. B. (inventors)

    1982-01-01

    A thermal reactor apparatus and method of pyrolyticaly decomposing silane gas into liquid silicon product and hydrogen by-product gas is disclosed. The thermal reactor has a reaction chamber which is heated well above the decomposition temperature of silane. An injector probe introduces the silane gas tangentially into the reaction chamber to form a first, outer, forwardly moving vortex containing the liquid silicon product and a second, inner, rewardly moving vortex containing the by-product hydrogen gas. The liquid silicon in the first outer vortex deposits onto the interior walls of the reaction chamber to form an equilibrium skull layer which flows to the forward or bottom end of the reaction chamber where it is removed. The by-product hydrogen gas in the second inner vortex is removed from the top or rear of the reaction chamber by a vortex finder. The injector probe which introduces the silane gas into the reaction chamber is continually cooled by a cooling jacket.

  9. 30 CFR 202.550 - How do I determine the royalty due on gas production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...determine the royalty due on gas production? 202.550 Section 202...REVENUE MANAGEMENT ROYALTIES Gas Production From Indian Leases § 202.550...determine the royalty due on gas production? If you produce gas...

  10. International oil and gas exploration and development: 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This report starts where the previous quarterly publication ended. This first publication of a new annual series contains most of the same data as the quarterly report, plus some new material, through 1991. It also presents historical data covering a longer period of time than the previous quarterly report. Country-level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve-to-production rations (R/P ratios) are listed for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form. The most popular table in the previous quarterly report, a listing of new discoveries, continues in this annual report as Appendix A.

  11. GASCAP: Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model documentation, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model (GASCAP) has been developed by EIA to provide a historical analysis of the monthly productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead and a projection of monthly capacity for 2 years into the future. The impact of drilling, oil and gas price assumptions, and demand on gas productive capacity are examined. Both gas-well gas and oil-well gas are included. Oil-well gas productive capacity is estimated separately and then combined with the gas-well gas productive capacity. This documentation report provides a general overview of the GASCAP Model, describes the underlying data base, provides technical descriptions of the component models, diagrams the system and subsystem flow, describes the equations, and provides definitions and sources of all variables used in the system. This documentation report is provided to enable users of EIA projections generated by GASCAP to understand the underlying procedures used and to replicate the models and solutions. This report should be of particular interest to those in the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas.

  12. Remote sensing applications to the development of an integrated data base for oil and gas exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.J.

    1982-06-01

    Techniques employed in oil and gas exploration and the utility of satellite data to the exploration process are discussed. The application of satellite information to geologic analysis, planimetric mapping and other data collection efforts associated with the search for oil and gas are considered. Geographic information and image processing features that were utilized in three projects are outlined and the potential of data sources such as LANDSAT-D is assessed. Experience shows that satellite imagery is of greatest benefit when it is integrated into a comprehensive data base with conventional data.

  13. Air quality concerns of unconventional oil and natural gas production.

    PubMed

    Field, R A; Soltis, J; Murphy, S

    2014-05-01

    Increased use of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") in unconventional oil and natural gas (O & NG) development from coal, sandstone, and shale deposits in the United States (US) has created environmental concerns over water and air quality impacts. In this perspective we focus on how the production of unconventional O & NG affects air quality. We pay particular attention to shale gas as this type of development has transformed natural gas production in the US and is set to become important in the rest of the world. A variety of potential emission sources can be spread over tens of thousands of acres of a production area and this complicates assessment of local and regional air quality impacts. We outline upstream activities including drilling, completion and production. After contrasting the context for development activities in the US and Europe we explore the use of inventories for determining air emissions. Location and scale of analysis is important, as O & NG production emissions in some US basins account for nearly 100% of the pollution burden, whereas in other basins these activities make up less than 10% of total air emissions. While emission inventories are beneficial to quantifying air emissions from a particular source category, they do have limitations when determining air quality impacts from a large area. Air monitoring is essential, not only to validate inventories, but also to measure impacts. We describe the use of measurements, including ground-based mobile monitoring, network stations, airborne, and satellite platforms for measuring air quality impacts. We identify nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), ozone, hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and methane as pollutants of concern related to O & NG activities. These pollutants can contribute to air quality concerns and they may be regulated in ambient air, due to human health or climate forcing concerns. Close to well pads, emissions are concentrated and exposure to a wide range of pollutants is possible. Public health protection is improved when emissions are controlled and facilities are located away from where people live. Based on lessons learned in the US we outline an approach for future unconventional O & NG development that includes regulation, assessment and monitoring. PMID:24699994

  14. Exploring extrasolar worlds: from gas giants to terrestrial habitable planets.

    PubMed

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Griffith, Caitlin A; Swain, Mark R; Deroo, Pieter; Beaulieu, Jean Philippe; Vasisht, Gautam; Kipping, David; Waldmann, Ingo; Tennyson, Jonathan; Barber, Robert J; Bouwman, Jeroen; Allard, Nicole; Brown, Linda R

    2010-01-01

    Almost 500 extrasolar planets have been found since the discovery of 51 Peg b by Mayor and Queloz in 1995. The traditional field of planetology has thus expanded its frontiers to include planetary environments not represented in our Solar System. We expect that in the next five years space missions (Corot, Kepler and GAIA) or ground-based detection techniques will both increase exponentially the number of new planets discovered and lower the present limit of a approximately 1.9 Earth-mass object [e.g. Mayor et al., Astron. Astrophys., 2009, 507, 487]. While the search for an Earth-twin orbiting a Sun-twin has been one of the major goals pursued by the exoplanet community in the past years, the possibility of sounding the atmospheric composition and structure of an increasing sample of exoplanets with current telescopes has opened new opportunities, unthinkable just a few years ago. As a result, it is possible now not only to determine the orbital characteristics of the new bodies, but moreover to study the exotic environments that lie tens of parsecs away from us. The analysis of the starlight not intercepted by the thin atmospheric limb of its planetary companion (transit spectroscopy), or of the light emitted/reflected by the exoplanet itself, will guide our understanding of the atmospheres and the surfaces of these extrasolar worlds in the next few years. Preliminary results obtained by interpreting current atmospheric observations of transiting gas giants and Neptunes are presented. While the full characterisation of an Earth-twin might requires a technological leap, our understanding of large terrestrial planets (so called super-Earths) orbiting bright, later-type stars is within reach by current space and ground telescopes. PMID:21302557

  15. Monthly Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production Report

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    Natural gas production (gross withdrawals) from data collected on Form EIA-914 (Monthly Crude Oil, Lease Condensate, and Natural Gas Production Report) for Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico, Texas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Wyoming, other states and lower 48 states. Alaska data are from the Alaska state government and included to obtain a U.S. total.

  16. Senate Forum on Shale Gas Development Explores Environmental and Industry Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources brought together industry and environmental leaders for a 23 May forum that focused on industry best practices and environmental concerns related to the current shale gas boom. The boom in shale gas development has been brought about in large part through advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") to increase shale oil and gas production.

  17. Production of biodiesel using expanded gas solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID; Fox, Robert V [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-04-07

    A method of producing an alkyl ester. The method comprises providing an alcohol and a triglyceride or fatty acid. An expanding gas is dissolved into the alcohol to form a gas expanded solvent. The alcohol is reacted with the triglyceride or fatty acid in a single phase to produce the alkyl ester. The expanding gas may be a nonpolar expanding gas, such as carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, ethylene, propylene, butylene, pentene, isomers thereof, and mixtures thereof, which is dissolved into the alcohol. The gas expanded solvent may be maintained at a temperature below, at, or above a critical temperature of the expanding gas and at a pressure below, at, or above a critical pressure of the expanding gas.

  18. Harsh-Environment Packaging for Downhole Gas and Oil Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Shubhra Bansal; Junghyun Cho; Kevin Durocher; Chris Kapusta; Aaron Knobloch; David Shaddock; Harry Schoeller; Hua Xia

    2007-08-31

    This research into new packaging materials and methods for elevated temperatures and harsh environment electronics focused on gaining a basic understanding of current state-of-the-art in electronics packaging used in industry today, formulating the thermal-mechanical models of the material interactions and developing test structures to confirm these models. Discussions were initiated with the major General Electric (GE) businesses that currently sell into markets requiring high temperature electronics and packaging. They related the major modes of failure they encounter routinely and the hurdles needed to be overcome in order to improve the temperature specifications of these products. We consulted with our GE business partners about the reliability specifications and investigated specifications and guidelines that from IPC and the SAE body that is currently developing guidelines for electronics package reliability. Following this, a risk analysis was conducted for the program to identify the critical risks which need to be mitigated in order to demonstrate a flex-based packaging approach under these conditions. This process identified metal/polyimide adhesion, via reliability for flex substrates and high temperature interconnect as important technical areas for reliability improvement.

  19. Project Explorer takes its second step: GAS-608 in engineering development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, Philip H.

    1988-01-01

    An a continuation of its Project Explorer series, the Alabama Space and Rocket Center is sponsoring the development of two additional Get Away Special payloads. Details are given of GAS-608, including descriptions of its six experiments in organic crystal growth, roach eggs, yeast, radish seeds, bacterial morphology, and silicon crystals. A brief summary is also presented of GAS-105 and the Space Camp program for stimulating student first hand participation in space flight studies. GAS-608 will carry six student experiments, which will involve biology, crystal growth, and biochemistry in addition to a centralized package for electronics and power supply.

  20. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1996 uses available data from literature, industry, and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on minerals industry direction are drawn from these data.

  1. Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J C; Haut, R; Jahn, G; Goldman, J; Colvin, J; Karpinski, A; Dobley, A; Halfinger, J; Nagley, S; Wolf, K; Shapiro, A; Doucette, P; Hansen, P; Oke, A; Compton, D; Cobb, M; Kopps, R; Chitwood, J; Spence, W; Remacle, P; Noel, C; Vicic, J; Dee, R

    2010-02-19

    An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore, enhances the energy security of the United States in a green and environmentally friendly manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate alternatives and recommend equipment to develop into hybrid energy conversion and storage systems for deep ocean operations. Such power systems will be located on the ocean floor and will be used to power offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations. Such power systems will be located on the oceans floor, and will be used to supply oil and gas exploration activities, as well as drilling operations required to harvest petroleum reserves. The following conceptual hybrid systems have been identified as candidates for powering sub-surface oil and gas production operations: (1) PWR = Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor + Lead-Acid Battery; (2) FC1 = Line for Surface O{sub 2} + Well Head Gas + Reformer + PEMFC + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (3) FC2 = Stored O2 + Well Head Gas + Reformer + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (4) SV1 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (5) SV2 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Engine or Turbine + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (6) SV3 = Submersible Vehicle + Charge at Docking Station + ZEBRA & Li-Ion Batteries; (7) PWR TEG = PWR + Thermoelectric Generator + Lead-Acid Battery; (8) WELL TEG = Thermoelectric Generator + Well Head Waste Heat + Lead-Acid Battery; (9) GRID = Ocean Floor Electrical Grid + Lead-Acid Battery; and (10) DOC = Deep Ocean Current + Lead-Acid Battery.

  2. Possible role of some new drilling and production technology in maximizing future productive capacity of oil and gas and improving recovery efficiency--drilling and completion practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elkins

    1967-01-01

    Drilling and production technology has significantly increased reserves and productivity of crude oil and natural gas by developing new well completion and recovery methods. Drilling technology has contributed significantly to holding down the cost even though labor and material cost has steadily increased, and it will have the greatest impact as drilling depths increased to explore and develop deeper formations,

  3. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Part of an annual review of mines and mineral resources in the U.S. An overview of nonfuel-mineral exploration in 2000 is presented. Principal exploration target was gold exploration in Latin America, Australia, and the U.S. There was a decrease of 18 percent in the exploration budget for gold as compared with the budget for 1999. Statistical information on nonfuel-mineral exploration worldwide is presented, analyzed, and interpreted.

  4. Integrated production of fuel gas and oxygenated organic compounds from synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert B. (Allentown, PA); Hegarty, William P. (State College, PA); Studer, David W. (Wescosville, PA); Tirados, Edward J. (Easton, PA)

    1995-01-01

    An oxygenated organic liquid product and a fuel gas are produced from a portion of synthesis gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur-containing compounds in a integrated feed treatment and catalytic reaction system. To prevent catalyst poisoning, the sulfur-containing compounds in the reactor feed are absorbed in a liquid comprising the reactor product, and the resulting sulfur-containing liquid is regenerated by stripping with untreated synthesis gas from the reactor. Stripping offgas is combined with the remaining synthesis gas to provide a fuel gas product. A portion of the regenerated liquid is used as makeup to the absorber and the remainder is withdrawn as a liquid product. The method is particularly useful for integration with a combined cycle coal gasification system utilizing a gas turbine for electric power generation.

  5. Methane hydrate gas production: evaluating and exploiting the solid gas resource

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, P.L.

    1981-01-01

    Methane hydrate gas could be a tremendous energy resource if methods can be devised to produce this gas economically. This paper examines two methods of producing gas from hydrate deposits by the injection of hot water or steam, and also examines the feasibility of hydraulic fracturing and pressure reduction as a hydrate gas production technique. A hydraulic fracturing technique suitable for hydrate reservoirs and a system for coring hydrate reservoirs are also described.

  6. Natural gas hydrates - issues for gas production and geomechanical stability

    E-print Network

    Grover, Tarun

    2008-10-10

    bearing sediments in offshore environments, I divided these data into different sections. The data included water depths, pore water salinity, gas compositions, geothermal gradients, and sedimentary properties such as sediment type, sediment mineralogy... .................................................................. 9 2.2 Hydrate patterns in sediments .................................................................... 24 3.1 Water depths and penetration for the Blake Ridge..................................... 31 3.2 Geothermal gradients measured...

  7. Scientific Visualization Applications in Oil & Gas Exploration and Production

    E-print Network

    Lewiner, Thomas (Thomas Lewiner)

    ;Construction and interpretation of 3D geological models SIBGRAPI 2009 Surface and fault interpretation from seismic data using neural networks SIBGRAPI 2009 #12;SIBGRAPI 2009 #12;SIBGRAPI 2009 #12;3D Visualization #12;Seismic interpretation support SIBGRAPI 2009 Geobodies Geobodies Manual tracking Wells and well

  8. In-Situ Production of Solar Power Systems for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, Peter A.; Criswell, David R.

    1999-01-01

    Current proposals for developing an extended human presence, beyond space stations, on the Moon and Mars increasingly consider the processing of non-terrestrial materials essential for keeping the Earth launch burden reasonable. Utilization of in-situ resources for construction of lunar and Mars bases will initially require assessment of resource availability followed by the development of economically acceptable and technically feasible extractive processes. In regard to materials processing and fabrication the lower gravity level on the Moon (0.125 g) and Mars (0.367 g) will dramatically change the presently accepted hierarchy of materials in terms of specific properties, a factor which must be understood and exploited. Furthermore, significant changes are expected in the behavior of liquid materials during processing. In casting, for example, mold filling and associated solidification processes have to be reevaluated. Finally microstructural development and therefore material properties, presently being documented through on-going research in microgravity science and applications, needs to be understood and scaled to the reduced gravity environments. One of the most important elements of a human planetary base is power production. Lunar samples and geophysical measurements returned by the Apollo missions provide detailed data on the composition and physical characteristics of the lunar materials and environment. Based on this knowledge and extrapolations of terrestrial industrial experience it is clear that several types of solar-to-electric converters can be manufactured on the Moon. It is conceivable that well over 90% of a solar-to- electric power system could be made from lunar materials. Production and utilization of photovoltaic devices for solar energy production on Earth is primarily driven by the market economy. On Earth a production plant for photovoltaic devices is intimately linked to the planets massive industrial base. A selection of off the shelf refined materials are available as well as cheap fast transportation on demand. The processes takes place (except for the few seconds reprieve in shot towers etc.) under one gravity, with solar radiation significantly modulated by weather, and under conditions where one atmosphere is free and high vacuum is cumbersome and expensive. Off Earth, on lunar or Mars bases, the cost of photovoltaic power is driven by transport costs - Earth launch, deep space transport, landing on the planetary surface. Thus there is a premium for processes that are materials self-sufficient or for closed loop in-situ processes. The lack of differentiated ores on the Moon, and lack of explored minerals on Mars and interplanetary space give a premium to universal/non-ore-specific mineral extractive processes. Initially a semiconductor/photovoltaic production facility will build on no conveniently located industrial base, further increasing the premium on closed loop self sufficient processes.

  9. Research on the methods of splitting and prediction point by point in tight sandstone gas reservoir productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng-fu, Wen; Bao-zhi, Pan; Bi-ci, Jiang; Li-hua, Zhang; Dan, Liu; Wen-bin, Liu; Yu-hang, Guo

    2015-06-01

    Single-point productivity evaluation and prediction are of important significance for the exploration and development in a tight sandstone gas field. The method of production splitting, multiple linear regression (MLR), and support vector machine regression (SVR) was used to establish the relationship between logging data and the gas production split point-to-point in tight sandstone gas reservoirs. In this study, the western region of the Sulige area in the Ordos Basin was the object of our research. Compared with the traditional KH splitting, the KHK splitting method was better.

  10. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1997 draws upon available data from literature, industry and US Geological Sulvey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  11. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1999 draws upon available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The report documents data on exploration budgets by region and commodity and identifies significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas. It also discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry. And it presents inferences and observations on mineral industry direction based on these data and discussions.

  12. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Porter, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  13. Gas-phase terpene oxidation products: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Calogirou; B. R. Larsen; D. Kotzias

    1999-01-01

    Terpenes are emitted in large quantities from vegetation into the troposphere, where they react readily with ozone, OH and NO3 radicals leading to a number of oxidation products. The current knowledge about gas-phase terpene oxidation products is reviewed. Their formation and decomposition pathways, their products and their relevance for the troposphere, and their chemical analysis are discussed. Data on oxidation

  14. Explorers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Laz

    2007-11-07

    WEbsites to use for 5th grade Explorers study. Explorers of the Americas - Enchanted Learning'); Explorers of the Americas - Enchanted Learning Lewis Clark - The Journey of the Corps of Discovery Lewis and Clark - The Journey of the Corps of Discovery Gale Group Biography Resources Center Gale Group - Biography Resource Center Discoverer s Web Discoverer's Web The Conquistadors The Conquistadors ...

  15. Impact of Recent Discoveries on Petroleum and Natural Gas Exploration: Emphasis on India

    E-print Network

    Herndon, J Marvin

    2010-01-01

    Two discoveries have greatly impacted understanding relevant to the origination and emplacement of petroleum and natural gas deposits. One discovery, pertaining to hydrocarbon formation from methane broadens significantly potential regions where abiotic petroleum and natural gas deposits might be found. The other, discovery of the physical impossibility of Earth-mantle convection, restricts the range and domain of geodynamic behavior, and leads to new insights on the formation of petroleum and natural gas deposits. This article highlights the impact and implications of those discoveries, especially as they relate to petroleum and natural gas exploration in India and throughout the world. From the reasoning developed here, the generality of the considerations involved, the understanding developed with respect to the East African Rift System, and the experience garnered from the larger and older Siberian Traps, the prognosis and potential for the region beneath the Deccan Traps of India to eventually become a m...

  16. Gas hearth products market fact base. Topical report, January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Gas Hearth Products Market Fact Base is an analysis of the U.S. gas log and fireplace markets. The study was undertaken to: determine current usage of and attitudes about fireplaces; identify barriers to acceptance of gas logs and fireplaces; determine the influence of service providers, and; identify important trends that can affect the markets for gas hearth products. The market fact base is based on four studies: a market analysis synthesizing primary and secondary research reports; in-depth interviews with market influencers from across the country (architects, contractors, interior designers, fireplace retailers and installers) and industry experts from gas utilities and trade associations; focus group meetings with consumers who own or intend to buy fireplaces, gas fireplace industry professionals, and editors of fireplace-related trade magazines, and; quantitative interviews with consumers in six U.S. cities.

  17. Exploring Age-Related Environmental Attitudes in the Context of Wood Product Certification

    E-print Network

    Wu, Qinglin

    1 Exploring Age-Related Environmental Attitudes in the Context of Wood Product Certification Denese Ashbaugh Vlosky Richard P. Vlosky Working Paper #51 Louisiana Forest Products Laboratory Louisiana State. The context is environmental issues and "green certification" in the forest product industry. Explored

  18. Exploration and Exploitation Alliances in Biotechnology: A System of New Product Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank T. Rothaermel; David L. Deeds

    2004-01-01

    We link the exploration--exploitation framework of organizational learning to a technology venture's strategic alliances and argue that the causal relationship between the venture's alliances and its new product development depends on the type of the alliance. In particular, we propose a product development path beginning with exploration alliances predicting products in development, which in turn predict exploitation alliances, and that

  19. Production Trends of Shale Gas Wells

    E-print Network

    Khan, Waqar A.

    2010-01-14

    different flow regions in shale gas wells that include linear and bilinear flow. Important field parameters can be calculated from those observations to help improve future performance. The detailed plots of several wells in this study show some good numbers...

  20. 30 CFR 560.116 - How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease... § 560.116 How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease? You must measure natural gas production on your eligible...

  1. 30 CFR 560.116 - How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease... § 560.116 How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease? You must measure natural gas production on your eligible...

  2. 30 CFR 1202.550 - How do I determine the royalty due on gas production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...I determine the royalty due on gas production? 1202.550 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue ROYALTIES Gas Production From Indian Leases...I determine the royalty due on gas production? If you...

  3. 30 CFR 260.116 - How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease... § 260.116 How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease? You must measure natural gas production on your eligible...

  4. 30 CFR 560.116 - How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease... § 560.116 How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease? You must measure natural gas production on your eligible...

  5. 76 FR 67201 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems; Submitted for Office of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ...Activities: Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems; Submitted for Office of...Subpart H, ``Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems.'' This notice also provides...Subpart H, Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems. Abstract: The...

  6. Process for production desulfurized of synthesis gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James K. Wolfenbarger; Mitri S. Najjar

    1993-01-01

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1900.degree.-2600.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises a calcium-containing compound portion, a sodium-containing

  7. RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Ronald C. Surdam

    1999-08-01

    A primary objective of the Institute for Energy Research (IER)-Santa Fe Snyder Corporation DOE Riverton Dome project is to test the validity of a new conceptual model and resultant exploration paradigm for so-called ''basin center'' gas accumulations. This paradigm and derivative exploration strategy suggest that the two most important elements crucial to the development of prospects in the deep, gas-saturated portions of Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB) are (1) the determination and, if possible, three-dimensional evaluation of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalous pressure regimes (i.e., this boundary is typically expressed as a significant inversion in both sonic and seismic velocity-depth profiles) , and (2) the detection and delineation of porosity/permeability ''sweet spots'' (i.e., areas of enhanced storage capacity and deliverability) in potential reservoir targets below this boundary. There are other critical aspects in searching for basin center gas accumulations, but completion of these two tasks is essential to the successful exploration for the unconventional gas resources present in anomalously pressured rock/fluid systems in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins. The southern Wind River Basin, in particular the Riverton Dome and Emigrant areas, is a neat location for testing this exploration paradigm. Preliminary work within the Wind River Basin has demonstrated that there is a regionally prominent pressure surface boundary that can be detected by inversions in sonic velocity depth gradients in individual well log profiles and that can be seen as a velocity inversion on seismic lines. Also, the Wind River Basin in general--and the Riverton Dome area specially--is characterized by a significant number of anomalously pressured gas accumulations. Most importantly, Santa Fe Snyder Corporation has provided the study with sonic logs, two 3-D seismic studies (40 mi{sup 2} and 30 mi {sup 2}) and a variety of other necessary geological and geophysical information.

  8. Thermodynamic limits to the quality of UCG product gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Creighton

    1982-01-01

    The goal of this work was to find the limits placed on the quality of UCG product gas by the energy and mass balances, including atom balances. If the outlet gas contains no Oâ, there are only two independent variables. If these are chosen to be the mass fractions, X\\/sub CO\\/ and X\\/sub Hâ\\/, both the temperature of the outlet

  9. Gas-to-electric furnace conversion hikes production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Pare; G. Eklund

    1978-01-01

    The natural gas shortage in 1974 caused a manufacturer of motor gear trains to convert its carburizing furnace from gas to electric heating elements. The results of this retrofitting included a 40% increase in plant production, more variability in the use of the furnace for both low and high temperature applications, greater furnace loading capacity, reduced overall-operating costs, and elimination

  10. Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswell, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Sloan, E.D.; Sum, A.K.; Koh, C.

    2010-11-01

    The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas hydrate petroleum system, to discuss advances, requirement and suggested practices in gas hydrate (GH) prospecting and GH deposit characterization, and to review the associated technical, economic and environmental challenges and uncertainties, including: the accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource, the development of methodologies for identifying suitable production targets, the sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments and sample analysis, the analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs, well testing methods and interpretation of the results, geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns, well design, operation and installation, field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs, monitoring production and geomechanical stability, laboratory investigations, fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior, the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates, and the associated environmental concerns.

  11. Preliminary report on the commercial viability of gas production from natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, M.R.; Hancock, S.H.; Wilson, S.J.; Patil, S.L.; Moridis, G.J.; Boswell, R.; Collett, T.S.; Koh, C.A.; Sloan, E.D.

    2009-01-01

    Economic studies on simulated gas hydrate reservoirs have been compiled to estimate the price of natural gas that may lead to economically viable production from the most promising gas hydrate accumulations. As a first estimate, $CDN2005 12/Mscf is the lowest gas price that would allow economically viable production from gas hydrates in the absence of associated free gas, while an underlying gas deposit will reduce the viability price estimate to $CDN2005 7.50/Mscf. Results from a recent analysis of the simulated production of natural gas from marine hydrate deposits are also considered in this report; on an IROR basis, it is $US2008 3.50-4.00/Mscf more expensive to produce marine hydrates than conventional marine gas assuming the existence of sufficiently large marine hydrate accumulations. While these prices represent the best available estimates, the economic evaluation of a specific project is highly dependent on the producibility of the target zone, the amount of gas in place, the associated geologic and depositional environment, existing pipeline infrastructure, and local tariffs and taxes. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    The worldwide budget for nonferrous, nonfuel mineral exploration was expected to increase by 58 percent in 2004 from the 2003 budget, according to Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia. The increase comes two years after a five-year period of declining spending for mineral exploration (1998 to 2002). Figures suggest a subsequent 27 percent increase in budgeted expenditures from 2002 to 2003. For the second consecutive year, all regional exploration budget estimates were anticipated to increase.

  13. Process for production desulfurized of synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Wolfenbarger, James K. (Torrance, CA); Najjar, Mitri S. (Wappingers Falls, NY)

    1993-01-01

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1900.degree.-2600.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises a calcium-containing compound portion, a sodium-containing compound portion, and a fluoride-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (1) a sulfur-containing sodium-calcium-fluoride silicate phase; and (2) a sodium-calcium sulfide phase.

  14. 30 CFR 550.303 - Facilities described in a new or revised Exploration Plan or Development and Production Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Facilities described in a new or revised Exploration Plan or Development and Production...Facilities described in a new or revised Exploration Plan or Development and Production Plan. (a) New plans. All Exploration Plans and Development and...

  15. 30 CFR 550.303 - Facilities described in a new or revised Exploration Plan or Development and Production Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Facilities described in a new or revised Exploration Plan or Development and Production...Facilities described in a new or revised Exploration Plan or Development and Production Plan. (a) New plans. All Exploration Plans and Development and...

  16. 30 CFR 550.303 - Facilities described in a new or revised Exploration Plan or Development and Production Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Facilities described in a new or revised Exploration Plan or Development and Production...Facilities described in a new or revised Exploration Plan or Development and Production Plan. (a) New plans. All Exploration Plans and Development and...

  17. Exploration and development of oil and gas field on the shelf of Sakhalin

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanchikov, S.M.; Astafiev, V.N.; Bojarshin, E.K. [JSC Sakhalinmorneftegas, Okha (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The paper describes the level of investigation of Sakhalin shelf for 17 years of prospecting and exploration. 8 oil and gas fields have been discovered with the total recoverable reserves ca. 272 million tons of crude oil and 819 billion m{sup 3} of gas. In the nearest 5--7 years the intensive exploration of these sectors by the companies-winners of tenders is expected. The volumes of drilling can reach 45,000-50,000 m/year. The deterrents are severe environmental conditions on the Sakhalin shelf, which are characterized by a short summer season and complicated ice conditions in winter. Offshore fields of Sakhalin can become one of the most promising sources of import of crude oil and LNG to the countries of Asia Pacific region.

  18. Tempest gas turbine extends EGT product line

    SciTech Connect

    Chellini, R.

    1995-07-01

    With the introduction of the 7.8 MW (mechanical output) Tempest gas turbine, ECT has extended the company`s line of its small industrial turbines. The new Tempest machine, featuring a 7.5 MW electric output and a 33% thermal efficiency, ranks above the company`s single-shaft Typhoon gas turbine, rated 3.2 and 4.9 MW, and the 6.3 MW Tornado gas turbine. All three machines are well-suited for use in combined heat and power (CHP) plants, as demonstrated by the fact that close to 50% of the 150 Typhoon units sold are for CHP applications. This experience has induced EGT, of Lincoln, England, to announce the introduction of the new gas turbine prior to completion of the testing program. The present single-shaft machine is expected to be used mainly for industrial trial cogeneration. This market segment, covering the needs of paper mills, hospitals, chemical plants, ceramic industry, etc., is a typical local market. Cogeneration plants are engineered according to local needs and have to be assisted by local organizations. For this reason, to efficiently cover the world market, EGT has selected a number of associates that will receive from Lincoln completely engineered machine packages and will engineer the cogeneration system according to custom requirements. These partners will also assist the customer and dispose locally of the spares required for maintenance operations.

  19. Elemental Fluorine-18 Gas: Enhanced Production and Availability

    SciTech Connect

    VanBrocklin, Henry F. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging

    2011-12-01

    The overall objective of this project was to develop an efficient, reproducible and reliable process for the preparation of fluorine-18 labeled fluorine gas ([¹?F]F?) from readily available cyclotron-produced [¹?F]fluoride ion. The two step process entailed the production of [¹?F]fluoromethane with subsequent conversion to [¹?F]F? by electric discharge of [¹?F]fluoromethane in the presence of carrier nonradioactive F? gas. The specific goals of this project were i) to optimize the preparation of [¹?F]fluoromethane from [¹?F]fluoride ion; ii) to develop a prototype automated system for the production of [¹?F]F? from [¹?F]fluoride ion and iii) develop a compact user friendly automated system for the preparation of [¹?F]F? with initial synthesis of fluorine-18 labeled radiotracers. Over the last decade there has been an increased interest in the production of "non-standard" positron-emitting isotopes for the preparation of new radiotracers for a variety of applications including medical imaging and therapy. The increased availability of these isotopes from small biomedical cyclotrons has prompted their use in labeling radiotracers. In much the same way the production of [¹?F]F? gas has been known for several decades. However, access to [¹?F]F? gas has been limited to those laboratories with the means (e.g. F? targetry for the cyclotron) and the project-based need to work with [¹?F]F? gas. Relatively few laboratories, compared to those that produce [¹?F]fluoride ion on a daily basis, possess the capability to produce and use [¹?F]F? gas. A simplified, reliable system employing [¹?F]fluoride ion from cyclotron targetry systems that are already in place coupled with on-demand production of the [¹?F]F? gas would greatly enhance its availability. This would improve the availability of [¹?F]F? gas and promote further work with a valuable precursor. The major goals of the project were accomplished over the funding period. The preparation of ¹?F]fluoromethane has been automated with reproducible yields greater than 90% conversion from [¹?F]fluoride ion. A trap and release system was established for the [¹?F]fluoride ion concentration and direct elution of the [¹?F]fluoride ion into the reaction vial with the appropriate base and precursor in DMSO. Other solvents were also investigated. The production time for [¹?F]fluoromethane is less than 10 minutes. An automated system for the [¹?F]F? gas production from the [18F]fluoromethane has been developed. The unit coupled to the [¹?F]fluoromethane system permits the on demand production of [¹?F]F? gas. In less than 30 minutes, mCi quantities of [¹?F]F? gas were produced. Several variables for the [¹?F]F? gas production were investigated and a set of parameters for reproducible operation were determined. These parameters included discharge chamber size, carrier gas (He, Ne, Ar), discharge time, discharge current, mass of F? gas added to the chamber. FDOPA and EF5 were used to test the reactivity of the [¹?F]F? gas. Both products were produced in low to modest yield. The ready availability of [¹?F]F? gas has potential impact to advance both DOE mission-driven initiatives and nuclear medicine initiatives through other federally funded agencies such as NIH and DoD. New reactions involving the use of [¹?F]F? gas will lead to direct labeling of new radiotracers and intermediates as well as new fluorine-18 labeled synthons that may be further reacted with other reagents to provide useful fluorine-18 labeled compounds. New tracers to understand and follow plant and microbial metabolism as well as new tracers for nuclear medicine applications, that have been either difficult to obtain or never produced due to the limited availability of [¹?F]F? gas, may be prepared using the techniques developed .

  20. Evaluation of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model

    SciTech Connect

    Kuuskraa, V.A.; Hammersheimb, E.; Sawyer, W.

    1985-05-01

    The objective of the work performed under this directive is to assess whether gas hydrates could potentially be technically and economically recoverable. The technical potential and economics of recovering gas from a representative hydrate reservoir will be established using the cyclic thermal injection model, HYDMOD, appropriately modified for this effort, integrated with economics model for gas production on the North Slope of Alaska, and in the deep offshore Atlantic. The results from this effort are presented in this document. In Section 1, the engineering cost and financial analysis model used in performing the economic analysis of gas production from hydrates -- the Hydrates Gas Economics Model (HGEM) -- is described. Section 2 contains a users guide for HGEM. In Section 3, a preliminary economic assessment of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model is presented. Section 4 contains a summary critique of existing hydrate gas recovery models. Finally, Section 5 summarizes the model modification made to HYDMOD, the cyclic thermal injection model for hydrate gas recovery, in order to perform this analysis.

  1. Gas production by accelerated in situ bioleaching of landfills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1982-01-01

    A process for improved gas production and accelerated stabilization of landfills by accelerated in situ bioleaching of organic wastes by acid forming bacteria in substantially sealed landfills, passing the leachate of hydrolysis and liquefaction products of microbial action of the microorganisms with the organic material to an acid phase digester to regenerate the activated culture of acid forming microorganisms for

  2. Methanol production from biomass and natural gas as transportation fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert H. Borgwardt

    1998-01-01

    Two processes are examined for production of methanol. They are assessed against the essential requirements of a future alternative fuel for road transport: that it (1) is producible in amounts comparable to the 19 EJ of motor fuel annually consumed in the US, (2) minimizes emissions of criteria pollutants, (3) reduces greenhouse gas emissions from production and use, (4) is

  3. Chemical and Physical Properties of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Kost; Jerry M. Bigham; Richard C. Stehouwer; Joel H. Beeghly; Randy Fowler; Samuel J. Traina; William E. Wolfe; Warren A. Dick

    2005-01-01

    be out of compliance without remedial action. This prob- lemhasspurredthedevelopmentofvarioustypesofscrub- Beneficial and environmentally safe recycling of flue gas desulfur- bing processes to convert SO2 from flue gases into solid ization (FGD) products requires detailed knowledge of their chemical and physical properties. We analyzed 59 dry FGD samples collected products for disposal or beneficial reuse. These FGD from 13 locations representing

  4. Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 states 1985 through 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This publication presents information on wellhead productive capacity and a projection of gas production requirements. A history of natural gas production and productive capacity at the wellhead, along with a projection of the same, is illustrated.

  5. Helium production in natural gas reservoirs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. B. Pereira; J. A. S. Adams

    1982-01-01

    About 11,000 published natural gas analyses of helium are used in the estimation of the average global scale accumulation and concentration of radiogenic helium in sediments. Simple lognormal statistics is employed to derive a net accumulation rate between 1†105 to 6.7†105 helium atoms per cubic meter of reservoir rock per second. This acccumulation rate permitted to infer an average helium

  6. Helium production in natural gas reservoirs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. B. Pereira; J. A. S. Adams

    1982-01-01

    About 11,000 published natural gas analyses of helium are used in the estimation of the average global scale accumulation and concentration of radiogenic helium in sediments. Simple lognormal statistics is employed to derive a net accumulation rate between 1dagger10⁵ to 6.7dagger10⁵ helium atoms per cubic meter of reservoir rock per second. This acccumulation rate permitted to infer an average helium

  7. Canadian offshore oil production solution gas utilization alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.V.

    1999-07-01

    Oil and gas development in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador is in its early stage and the offshore industry emphasis is almost exclusively on oil production. At the Hibernia field, the Gravity Base Structure (GBS) is installed and the first wells are in production. The Terra Nova project, based on a Floating Production Storage Offloading (FPSO) ship shaped concept, is in its engineering and construction stage and first oil is expected by late 2000. Several other projects, such as Husky's White Rose and Chevron's Hebron, have significant potential for future development in the same area. It is highly probably that these projects will employ the FPSO concept. It is also expected that the solution gas disposal issues of such second generation projects will be of more significance in their regulatory approval process and of such second generation projects will be of more significance in their regulatory approval process and the operators may be forced to look for alternatives to gas reinjection. Three gas utilization alternatives for a FPSO concept based project have been considered and evaluated in this paper: liquefied natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG), and gas-to-liquids conversion (GTL). The evaluation and the relative ranking of these alternatives is based on a first pass screening type of study which considers the technical and economical merits of each alternative. Publicly available information and in-house data, compiled within Fluor Daniel's various offices, was used to establish the basic parameters.

  8. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration budgets fell for a fourth successive year in 2001. These decreases reflected low mineral commodity prices, mineral-market investment reluctance, company failures and a continued trend of company mergers and takeovers.

  9. Pumps, refracturing hike production from tight shale gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, S.R. (Advanced Resources International Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)); Morrisson, W.K. (Nomeco Oil and Gas Co., Jackson, CO (United States)); Hill, D.G. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States))

    1993-02-01

    This paper reports that downhole pumps and refracturing are two ways to significantly improve production rates from the Antrim shale, a tight formation in the Michigan basin (U.S.) and the objective of a major natural gas play. Candidate wells for restimulation can be identified by pressure build-up tests and specifically productivity index-vs.-permeability plots based on these tests. The work in the Bagley East B4-10 well illustrates the possible production improvement.

  10. Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-01-31

    The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

  11. Automated production control in Arun gas Field

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz, W.; Aspoor, S.P.

    1984-02-01

    This paper describes the objectives, equipment and functions of the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system installed by Mobil Oil Indonesia (MOI) during the first half of 1983. The SCADA system provides operations, management, and engineering personnel with various applications of automatic production control such as production reports, field and cluster status, and flow calculations. This paper concludes with a discussion of the particular benefits gained by MOI in the Arun Field as well as the features of the SCADA system which make it a potential model for similar systems throughout the petroleum industry.

  12. Application of magnetic amplitude inversion in exploration for natural gas in volcanics Yaoguo Li, Center for Gravity, Electrical, and Magnetic Studies, Colorado School of Mines

    E-print Network

    Application of magnetic amplitude inversion in exploration for natural gas in volcanics Yaoguo Li basins and have strong remanent magnetization. The appli- cation arises in exploration of natural gas identify the volcanic units at large depths. INTRODUCTION Exploration for natural gas hosted in volcanics

  13. Gas chromatographic determination of the composition of coal pyridine products

    SciTech Connect

    Nabivach, V.M.; Berlizov, Yu.S.; Degtyareva, L.V.; Mariich, L.I.; Markus, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    The coking industry produces a wide range of products of the pyridine group from the crude light pyridine bases extracted from the coke oven gas. They include pure pyridine, pyridine solvent, ..cap alpha..-picoline, and the ..beta..-picoline and 2,4-lutidine fractions. The specifications for quality of these products are becoming increasingly stringent. The present methods of determining the quality indices are complex and laborious and do not always reflect the true component composition of the pyridine products. This paper describes the testing of a capillary gas chromatograph for the monitoring and analysis of pyridine products at all stages of their refining. The proposed method permits quantitative identification and adequately accurate determination of the concentraton of pyridine products. 15 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  14. Synthesis gas production by mixed conducting membranes with integrated conversion into liquid products

    DOEpatents

    Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Russek, Steven Lee (Allentown, PA); Dyer, Paul Nigel (Allentown, PA)

    2000-01-01

    Natural gas or other methane-containing feed gas is converted to a C.sub.5 -C.sub.19 hydrocarbon liquid in an integrated system comprising an oxygenative synthesis gas generator, a non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator, and a hydrocarbon synthesis process such as the Fischer-Tropsch process. The oxygenative synthesis gas generator is a mixed conducting membrane reactor system and the non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator is preferably a heat exchange reformer wherein heat is provided by hot synthesis gas product from the mixed conducting membrane reactor system. Offgas and water from the Fischer-Tropsch process can be recycled to the synthesis gas generation system individually or in combination.

  15. Environmental issues of petroleum exploration and production: Introduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yousif K. Kharaka; Nancy S. Dorsey

    2005-01-01

    Energy is the lifeblood of our planet Earth, an essential commod- ity that powers the expanding global economy. Starting in the 1950s, oil and natural gas became the main sources of primary energy for the increasing world population, and this dominance is expected to continue for several more decades (Edwards, 1997; Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2004). In the United States,

  16. Some modern notions on oil and gas reservoir production regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lohrenz, J.; Monash, E.A.

    1980-05-21

    The historic rhetoric of oil and gas reservoir production regulations has been burdened with misconceptions. One was that most reservoirs are rate insensitive. Another was that a reservoir's decline is primarily a function of reservoir mechaism rather than a choice unconstrained by the laws of physics. Relieved of old notions like these, we introduce some modern notions, the most basic being that production regulation should have the purpose of obtaining the highest value from production per irreversible diminution of thermodynamically available energy. The laws of thermodynamics determine the available energy. What then is value. Value may include contributions other than production per se and purely monetary economic outcomes.

  17. 40 CFR Table W - 1A of Subpart W-Default Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production W Table W Protection...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt...Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production Onshore...

  18. Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production

    DOEpatents

    Brown, W.R.; Cassano, A.A.; Dunbobbin, B.R.; Rao, P.; Erickson, D.C.

    1986-10-14

    A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange. 4 figs.

  19. Gas seepage as an indicator of deeper prospective reservoirs. A study based on exploration 3D seismic data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roar Heggland

    1998-01-01

    Three periods of sustained gas seepage in geological time have been revealed in Danish block 5604\\/26 in the North Sea by the use of exploration 3D seismic data. The most recent period is indicated by a cluster of seismic chimneys which ties in to buried craters near the seabed, and possible present gas escape through the seabed, along with amplitude

  20. Explorative Particle Swarm Optimization method for gas\\/odor source localization in an indoor environment with no strong airflow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriele Ferri; Emanuele Caselli; Virgilio Mattoli; Alessio Mondini; Barbara Mazzolai; Paolo Dario

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm to localize a gas source by using a swarm of robots in a large indoor environment without the presence of a relevant wind. The algorithm is composed of two different phases: an exploration phase aiming at finding a clue of the presence of a gas source and a localization phase to detect the emitting source.

  1. Reactive oxygen species production and discontinuous gas exchange in insects.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S; Hetz, Stefan K; Marais, Elrike; Chown, Steven L

    2012-03-01

    While biochemical mechanisms are typically used by animals to reduce oxidative damage, insects are suspected to employ a higher organizational level, discontinuous gas exchange mechanism to do so. Using a combination of real-time, flow-through respirometry and live-cell fluorescence microscopy, we show that spiracular control associated with the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) in Samia cynthia pupae is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hyperoxia fails to increase mean ROS production, although minima are elevated above normoxic levels. Furthermore, a negative relationship between mean and mean ROS production indicates that higher ROS production is generally associated with lower . Our results, therefore, suggest a possible signalling role for ROS in DGC, rather than supporting the idea that DGC acts to reduce oxidative damage by regulating ROS production. PMID:21865257

  2. Advanced Exploration Systems Logistics Reduction and Repurposing Trash-to-Gas and Heat Melt Compactor KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccio, Anne J.; Layne, Andrew; Hummerick, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered: 1. Project Structure 2. "Trash to Gas" 3. "Smashing Trash! The Heat Melt Compactor" 4. "Heat Melt Compaction as an Effective Treatment for Eliminating Microorganisms from Solid Waste" Thermal degradation of trash reduces volume while creating water, carbon dioxide and ash. CO2 can be fed to Sabatier reactor for CH4 production to fuel LOX/LCH4 ascent vehicle. Optimal performance: HFWS, full temperature ramp to 500-600 C. Tar challenges exist. Catalysis: Dolomag did eliminate allene byproducts from the product stream. 2nd Gen Reactor Studies. Targeting power, mass, time efficiency. Gas separation, Catalysis to reduce tar formation. Microgravity effects. Downselect in August will determine where we should spend time optimizing the technology.

  3. Ecological Production Functions: A Theoretical and Practical Exploration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological production functions characterize relationships between ecosystem condition, management practices, and the delivery of economically valuable ecosystem services. Many in the ecosystem service research community view ecological research directed toward developing ecolog...

  4. Optimal exploration and production of a nonrenewable resource

    E-print Network

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    Earlier studies of exhaustible resource production and pricing usually assume that there is a fixed reserve base that can be exploited over time. In reality there is no "fixed" reserve base (in an economically meaningful ...

  5. NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE Exploration of the MODIS Cloud-Top Property Products for the Investigation

    E-print Network

    Baum, Bryan A.

    NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE Exploration of the MODIS Cloud-Top Property Products for the Investigation) ABSTRACT The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations provide an unprecedented these MODIS products have been available, it is found that the cloud products can provide a wealth

  6. Low permeability gas reservoir production using large hydraulic fractures 

    E-print Network

    Holditch, Stephen A

    1970-01-01

    , eatending two hundred feet past the cavity. The situation simulated was for production with a con- stant well bore pressure. Production rate and cumulative gas produced were monitored as functions of time. From these par- ameters an economic evaluation... TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES INT ROD UC T ION PROCEDURE . THEORY RESULTS Effect of Stimulation on Flow Rate Effect of Well Bore Pressure Effect of Formation Permeability Effect of Stimulation...

  7. Entropy Production and Thermal Conductivity of A Dilute Gas

    E-print Network

    Yong-Jun Zhang

    2011-02-16

    It is known that the thermal conductivity of a dilute gas can be derived by using kinetic theory. We present here a new derivation by starting with two known entropy production principles: the steepest entropy ascent (SEA) principle and the maximum entropy production (MEP) principle. A remarkable feature of the new derivation is that it does not require the specification of the existence of the temperature gradient. The known result is reproduced in a similar form.

  8. Multidisciplinary investigations exploring indicators of gas hydrate occurrence in the Krishna–Godavari Basin offshore, east coast of India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. V. Ramana; T. Ramprasad; A. L. Paropkari; D. V. Borole; B. Ramalingeswara Rao; S. M. Karisiddaiah; M. Desa; M. Kocherla; H. M. Joao; P. Lokabharati; Maria-Judith Gonsalves; J. N. Pattan; N. H. Khadge; C. Prakash Babu; A. V. Sathe; P. Kumar; A. K. Sethi

    2009-01-01

    We report some main results of multidisciplinary investigations carried out within the framework of the Indian National Gas\\u000a Hydrate Program in 2002–2003 in the Krishna–Godavari Basin offshore sector, east coast of India, to explore indicators of\\u000a likely gas hydrate occurrence suggested by preliminary multi-channel seismic reflection data and estimates of gas hydrate\\u000a stability zone thickness. Swath bathymetry data reveal new

  9. Dust and gas discharges in refractory production plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. M. Svekrov; B. N. Maksimov; E. A. Orlova; A. M. Kasimov

    1983-01-01

    Conclusions The qualitative and quantitative characteristics of dust and gas discharges of the exhaust systems of production facilities in typical large plants of the refractory industry were determined and the values of the gross and specific discharges of harmful substances established.

  10. Production of synthesis gas and hydrogen from solid fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Y. Gamburg; V. P. Semenov

    1983-01-01

    Conversion of the synthetic ammonia, methanol and hydrogen industry to solid fuel as a source of raw materials and energy will expand the raw material and energy base more than ten times compared to the use of natural hydrocarbon raw materials. This conversion assures stable future development in the production of synthetic liquid fuel (SLF) and synthetic natural gas (SNG).

  11. Devonian shale gas production; Mechanisms and simple models

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, E.S. (Univ. of Alabama (US)); Mercer, J.C. (Dept. of Energy (US))

    1991-04-01

    This paper shows that, even without consideration of their special storage and flow properties, Devonian shales are special cases of dual porosity. The authors show that wile neglecting these properties in the short term is appropriate, such neglect in the long term will result in an under-estimation of shale gas production.

  12. Insights Into Natural Gas Production From Low-Permeability Reservoirs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Northrop

    1988-01-01

    Insights have been gained into natural gas production from low permeability sandstone reservoirs in the western United States as a result of the US Department of Energy's Multiwell Experiment (MWX). Three wells, between 110 and 215 ft (34-66 m) apart at depth have been drilled at a site southwest of Rifle, Colorado, in the Piceance Basin, where the Cretaceous-age Mesaverde

  13. 78 FR 59632 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...Continental Shelf--Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems AGENCY: Bureau of Safety...public comment period on the production safety systems proposed rule, which was...dry tree and subsea tree production systems on the Outer...

  14. Federal Offshore Statistics, 1993. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Francois, D.K.

    1994-12-31

    This document contains statistical data on the following: federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from federal offshore leases; disbursement of federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. A glossary is included.

  15. Switzerland exploration may resume

    SciTech Connect

    Lahusen, P.H. [SEAG, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1997-06-23

    Since 1912, 35 wells have been drilled for oil and gas, 19 of them in the last 38 years. Eighty percent of these 19 wells had oil and/or gas shows, but only one was placed on production. The only gas discovery, Entlebuch-1, produced about 2.6 bcf of a high quality gas in 10 years. It was abandoned in 1994. This paper discusses why exploration waned. A second look at the data suggests Switzerland has a high potential for gas production.

  16. NASA EG-2000-03-002-GSFC Exploring the Aurora and the Ionosphere 1 Educational Product

    E-print Network

    NASA EG-2000-03-002-GSFC Exploring the Aurora and the Ionosphere 1 Educational Product Educators#DQG#Ionosphere An Educator Guide with Activities in Space Science #12;NASA EG-2000-03-002-GSFC Exploring the Aurora and the Ionosphere 2 Solar Storms and You! is available in electronic for

  17. One for you, three for me, or, optimal production sharing rules for a petroleum exploration venture

    E-print Network

    Hampson, Philip Robert Osler

    1990-01-01

    This is a case study in the design of the production sharing rule used in an oil exploration partnership contract. The contract was negotiated in mid-1986 when a state-owned oil resources authority hired a ...

  18. Analytical Modeling of Shale Hydraulic Fracturing and Gas Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.

    2012-12-01

    Shale gas is abundant all over the world. Due to its extremely low permeability, extensive stimulation of a shale reservoir is always required for its economic production. Hydraulic fracturing has been the primary method of shale reservoir stimulation. Consequently the design and optimization of a hydraulic fracturing treatment plays a vital role insuring job success and economic production. Due to the many variables involved and the lack of a simple yet robust tool based on fundamental physics, horizontal well placement and fracturing job designs have to certain degree been a guessing game built on previous trial and error experience. This paper presents a method for hydraulic fracturing design and optimization in these environments. The growth of a complex hydraulic fracture network (HFN) during a fracturing job is equivalently represented by a wiremesh fracturing model (WFM) constructed on the basis of fracture mechanics and mass balance. The model also simulates proppant transport and placement during HFN growth. Results of WFM simulations can then be used as the input into a wiremesh production model (WPM) constructed based on WFM. WPM represents gas flow through the wiremesh HFN by an elliptic flow and the flow of gas in shale matrix by a novel analytical solution accounting for contributions from both free and adsorbed gases stored in the pore space. WPM simulation is validated by testing against numerical simulations using a commercially available reservoir production simulator. Due to the analytical nature of WFM and WPM, both hydraulic fracturing and gas production simulations run very fast on a regular personal computer and are suitable for hydraulic fracturing job design and optimization. A case study is presented to demonstrate how a non-optimized hydraulic fracturing job might have been optimized using WFM and WPM simulations.Fig. 1. Ellipsoidal representation of (a) stimulated reservoir and (b) hydraulic fracture network created by hydraulic fracturing treatment. Fig. 2. Gas flow represented by (a) elliptical flow through fracture network and (b) linear flow within reservoir matrix.

  19. 30 CFR 250.202 - What criteria must the Exploration Plan (EP), Development and Production Plan (DPP), or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What criteria must the Exploration Plan (EP), Development and Production Plan (DPP...General Information § 250.202 What criteria must the Exploration Plan (EP), Development and Production Plan...

  20. Exploring the contributions of human and social capital to productivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arent Greve; Mario Benassi; Arne Dag Sti

    2010-01-01

    In this article we investigate how human and social capital contribute to individual productivity. We study three firms that complete all their tasks as projects. The employees in all firms initiate and organise their projects. We collected archival data from the firms on performance, human capital, tenure, gender and their project activities. Social network data are generated from interviews and

  1. Explorations of an artificially boosted sub-sea production system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bill Hopson

    1999-01-01

    Statoil has successfully managed to operate the first commercial application of multi-purpose shuttle tanker technology, along with the first use of Framo's subsea booster pumps and submerged turret production swivel. Five of Framo's subsea booster pumps have been integrated with the trees on the subsea template at 330 m depth, and have been in successful operation for over a year.

  2. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 MM Table MM-1...Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 Products Column... Other Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids Aviation Gasoline...

  3. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 MM Table MM-1...Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 Products Column... Other Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids Aviation Gasoline...

  4. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 MM Table MM-1...Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 Products Column... Other Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids Aviation Gasoline...

  5. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 MM Table MM-1...Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 Products Column... Other Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids Aviation Gasoline...

  6. Explore

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created "to champion the selfless acts of others" and "to create a portal into the soul of humanity" the Explore website was created in part with support from the Annenberg Foundation. On this website, visitors can view films that cover themes such as animal rights, poverty, the environment, and spirituality. Clicking on the "Films" tab brings up a grid of recently added films, complete with another section that divides them up by "Places" and Causes". The films range in length from a two to thirty minutes, and visitors can also create their own playlist of films for their own use. Some of the more recently added films of note include "Fish Out of Water" and "Gorillas 98.6% Human". Also, visitors can connect with other parties by using the "Discussions" section to talk about travel, philanthropy, or filmmaking. The "Minds" area features profiles of the filmmakers and others profiled throughout the site, and visitors can filter them by countries and causes.

  7. Gas plant economic optimization is more than meeting product specification

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, P.N.; Colwell, L.W. [Continental Controls, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Gamez, J.P. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Gas plants require a higher level of process control to optimize the process to maximize operating profits. Automation alone does not achieve this objective whereas, on-line dynamic optimization of the control variables based on product pricing, the cost to process the gas and the contracts for gas and liquids is solvable by new control techniques. Daily operations are affected by a paradigm shift in the method of control for the facility. This newly developed and site proven technique has demonstrated how to improve benefits when net processing margins are positive and minimize operating cost when liquids margins are negative. Because ethane recovery versus its rejection is not a binary decision, a better means to operate can be shown to benefit the gas plant operator. Each specification has a cost to meet it or a penalty to exceed it. However, if allowed, exceeding specification may prove beneficial to the net profitability of the operations. With the decision being made on-line every few minutes, the results are more dramatic than previously understood. Gas Research Institute and Continental Controls, Inc. have installed more than 10 such systems in US gas processing plants. Project payout from the use of the MVC{reg_sign} technology has on average been less than six months. Processing savings have ranged from $.0075 to $.024 per Mcf. The authors paper last year showed where the benefits can be derived. This year the results of those facilities are shared along with the methodology to achieve them.

  8. NOBLE GAS PRODUCTION FROM MERCURY SPALLATION AT SNS

    SciTech Connect

    DeVore, Joe R [ORNL; Lu, Wei [ORNL; Schwahn, Scott O [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Calculations for predicting the distribution of the products of spallation reactions between high energy protons and target materials are well developed and are used for design and operational applications in many projects both within DOE and in other arenas. These calculations are based on theory and limited experimental data that verifies rates of production of some spallation products exist. At the Spallation Neutron Source, a helium stream from the mercury target flows through a system to remove radioactivity from this mercury target offgas. The operation of this system offers a window through which the production of noble gases from mercury spallation by protons may be observed. This paper describes studies designed to measure the production rates of twelve noble gas isotopes within the Spallation Neutron Source mercury target.

  9. Trash-to-Gas: Converting Space Trash into Useful Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccio, Anne J.; Hintze, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Logistical Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project is a collaborative effort in which NASA is determined to reduce total logistical mass through reduction, reuse and recycling of various wastes and components of long duration space missions and habitats. LRR is focusing on four distinct advanced areas of study: Advanced Clothing System, Logistics-to-Living, Heat Melt Compactor and Trash to Supply Gas (TtSG). The objective of TtSG is to develop technologies that convert material waste, human waste and food waste into high-value products. High-value products include life support oxygen and water, rocket fuels, raw material production feedstocks, and other energy sources. There are multiple pathways for converting waste to products involving single or multi-step processes. This paper discusses thermal oxidation methods of converting waste to methane. Different wastes, including food, food packaging, Maximum Absorbent Garments (MAGs), human waste simulants, and cotton washcloths have been evaluated in a thermal degradation reactor under conditions promoting pyrolysis, gasification or incineration. The goal was to evaluate the degradation processes at varying temperatures and ramp cycles and to maximize production of desirable products and minimize high molecular weight hydrocarbon (tar) production. Catalytic cracking was also evaluated to minimize tar production. The quantities of CO2, CO, CH4, and H2O were measured under the different thermal degradation conditions. The conversion efficiencies of these products were used to determine the best methods for producing desired products.

  10. Halogens in oil and gas production-associated wastewater.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, J.; Warner, N. R.; Dwyer, G. S.; Mitch, W.; Vengosh, A.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated chloride and bromide in oil and gas wastewaters that are released to the environment are one of the major environmental risks in areas impacted by shale gas development [Olmstead et al.,2013]. In addition to direct contamination of streams, the potential for formation of highly toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water in utilities located downstream from disposal sites poses a serious risk to human health. Here we report on the occurrence of iodide in oil and gas wastewater. We conducted systematic measurements of chloride, bromide, and iodide in (1) produced waters from conventional oil and gas wells from the Appalachian Basin; (2) hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids from unconventional Marcellus and Fayetteville shale gas, (3) effluents from a shale gas spill site in West Virginia; (4) effluents of oil and gas wastewater disposed to surface water from three brine treatment facilities in western Pennsylvania; and (5) surface waters downstream from the brine treatment facilities. Iodide concentration was measured by isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, which allowed for a more accurate measurement of iodide in a salt-rich matrix. Iodide in both conventional and unconventional oil and gas produced and flowback waters varied from 1 mg/L to 55 mg/L, with no systematic enrichment in hydraulic fracturing fluids. The similarity in iodide content between the unconventional Marcellus flowback waters and the conventional Appalachian produced waters clearly indicate that the hydraulic fracturing process does not induce additional iodide and the iodide content is related to natural variations in the host formations. Our data show that effluents from the brine treatment facilities have elevated iodide (mean = 20.9±1 mg/L) compared to local surface waters (0.03± 0.1 mg/L). These results indicate that iodide, in addition to chloride and bromide in wastewater from oil and gas production, poses an additional risk to downstream surface water quality and drinking water utilities given the potential of formation of iodate-DBPs in drinking water. Olmstead, S.M. et al. (2013). Shale gas development impacts on surface water quality in Pennsylvania, PNAS, 110, 4962-4967.

  11. Hydrogeology of a coal-seam gas exploration area, southeastern British Columbia, Canada: Part 1. Groundwater flow systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, S.; Molson, J.; Abercrombie, H.; Barker, J.; Rudolph, D.; Aravena, R.

    2000-12-01

    Discovery of high contents of methane gas in coals of the Mist Mountain Formation in the Elk River valley, southeastern British Columbia, Canada, has led to increased exploration activity for coal-seam gas (CSG). CSG production requires groundwater abstraction to depressurize the coal beds and to facilitate methane flow to the production wells. Groundwater abstraction will have hydrodynamic effects on the flow system, and an understanding of the groundwater flow system is needed to evaluate these effects. The purpose of this paper is to describe the groundwater flow system in the area by means of a groundwater flow model and interpretation of hydrochemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater and surface water. Groundwater flow for the Weary Creek exploration area is modeled in two vertical sections. The model domains, based on classic upland-lowland conceptual flow models, are approximately 10,000 m long and 4,000 m deep. Each consists of a fixed water-table boundary and no-flow boundaries along the traces of major faults. Steady-state groundwater flow is calibrated to hydraulic-head, streamflow, and groundwater-recharge data. Simulated steady-state velocity fields define regional and local flow components consistent with the conceptual model. The results are consistent with regional trends in ?2H, ?18O, tritium, and TDS, which define two distinct groundwater groups (A and B) and a third of intermediate composition. An active, shallow, local flow component (group A) is recharged in beds cropping out along subdued ridges; this component discharges as seeps along lower and mid-slope positions in the southern part of the study area. The waters are tritiated, relatively enriched in ?2H and ?18O, and have low TDS. A deeper regional flow component (group B), which originates at a higher altitude and which discharges to the Elk River valley bottom, is characterized by non-tritiated groundwater with relatively depleted ?2H and ?18O, and higher TDS. Groundwater contributes less than 10% of the total direct flow to the Elk River, as indicated by flow measurements and by the absence of group A and group B characteristics in the river water. Thus it is hypothesized that groundwater extraction during CSG production will have little impact on the river. The groundwater flow model developed in this work is used in a companion paper to further test this hypothesis.

  12. From Paper to Production to Test: An Update on NASA's J-2X Engine for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kynard, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The NASA/industry team responsible for developing the J-2X upper stage engine for the Space Launch System (SLS) Program has made significant progress toward moving beyond the design phase and into production, assembly, and test of development hardware. The J-2X engine exemplifies the SLS Program goal of using proven technology and experience from more than 50 years of United States spaceflight experience combined with modern manufacturing processes and approaches. It will power the second stage of the fully evolved SLS Program launch vehicle that will enable a return to human exploration of space beyond low earth orbit. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is under contract to develop and produce the engine, leveraging its flight-proven LH2/LOX, gas generator cycle J-2 and RS-68 engine capabilities, recent experience with the X-33 aerospike XRS-2200 engine, and development knowledge of the J-2S tap-off cycle engine. The J- 2X employs a gas generator operating cycle designed to produce 294,000 pounds of vacuum thrust in primary operating mode with its full nozzle extension. With a truncated nozzle extension suitable to support engine clustering on the stage, the nominal vacuum thrust level in primary mode is 285,000 pounds. It also has a secondary mode, during which it operates at 80 percent thrust by altering its mixture ratio. The J-2X development philosophy is based on proven hardware, an aggressive development schedule, and early risk reduction. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and PWR began development of the J-2X in June 2006. The government/industry team of more than 600 people within NASA and PWR successfully completed the Critical Design Review (CDR) in November 2008, following extensive risk mitigation testing. Assembly of the first development engine was completed in May 2011 and the first engine test was conducted at the NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC), test stand A2, on 14 July 2011. Testing of the first development engine will continue through the autumn of 2011, be paused for test stand modifications to the passive diffuser, and then restart in the spring of 2012. This testing will be followed by specialized powerpack testing intended to examine the design and operating margins of the engine turbomachinery. The development plan beyond this point leads through more system-level, engine testing of several samples, analytical model validation activities, functional and performance verification, and then ultimate certification to support human spaceflight. This paper will discuss the J-2X development background, provide top-level information on design and development planning, and will explore some of the development challenges and mitigation activities pursued to date.

  13. Exploring Advanced Technology Gas Turbine Engine Design and Performance for the Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    A Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR) conceptual design was developed as part of the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation in order to establish a consistent basis for evaluating the benefits of advanced technology for large tiltrotors. The concept has since evolved into the second-generation LCTR2, designed to carry 90 passengers for 1,000 nautical miles at 300 knots, with vertical takeoff and landing capability. This paper explores gas turbine component performance and cycle parameters to quantify performance gains possible for additional improvements in component and material performance beyond those identified in previous LCTR2 propulsion studies and to identify additional research areas. The vehicle-level characteristics from this advanced technology generation 2 propulsion architecture will help set performance levels as additional propulsion and power systems are conceived to meet ever-increasing requirements for mobility and comfort, while reducing energy use, cost, noise and emissions. The Large Civil Tiltrotor vehicle and mission will be discussed as a starting point for this effort. A few, relevant engine and component technology studies, including previous LCTR2 engine study results will be summarized to help orient the reader on gas turbine engine architecture, performance and limitations. Study assumptions and methodology used to explore engine design and performance, as well as assess vehicle sizing and mission performance will then be discussed. Individual performance for present and advanced engines, as well as engine performance effects on overall vehicle size and mission fuel usage, will be given. All results will be summarized to facilitate understanding the importance and interaction of various component and system performance on overall vehicle characteristics.

  14. Exploring regional irrigation water demand using typologies of farms and production units: an example from Tunisia.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Exploring regional irrigation water demand using typologies of farms and production units. BENMIHOUB, IRD Tunis (Tunisie), Abstract Most methods used to predict irrigation water consumption of irrigation water and of other inputs, as well as the production of outputs. The framework can also be used

  15. A Robust Concept Exploration Method for Enhancing Productivity in Concurrent Systems Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Chen; Janet K. Allen; Farrokh Mistree

    1997-01-01

    Productivity is of major economic significance in the current competitive global market. Due to growing costs and globalization of the marketplace, improvements in productivity require the creation of a reliable design through concurrent systems analysis in the shortest possible time. This is particularly important for designing complex engineering systems such as aircraft, automobiles and ships. The Robust Concept Exploration Method

  16. Gas production by accelerated in situ bioleaching of landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.

    1982-04-06

    A process for improved gas production and accelerated stabilization of landfills by accelerated in situ bioleaching of organic wastes by acid forming bacteria in substantially sealed landfills, passing the leachate of hydrolysis and liquefaction products of microbial action of the microorganisms with the organic material to an acid phase digester to regenerate the activated culture of acid forming microorganisms for recirculation to the landfill, passing the supernatant from the acid phase digester to a methane phase digester operated under conditions to produce methane rich gas. The supernatant from the methane phase digester containing nutrients for the acid forming microorganisms and added sewage sludge or other desired nutrient materials are circulated through the landfill. Low Btu gas is withdrawn from the acid phase digester while high Btu gas is withdrawn from the methane phase digester and may be upgraded for use as SNG. The process of this invention is applicable to small as well as large organic waste landfills, provides simultaneous disposal of municipal solid waste and sewage sludge or other aqueous organic waste in a landfill which may be stabilized much more quickly than an uncontrolled landfill as presently utilized.

  17. Production of synthesis gas in a solid electrolyte cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kungolos; P. Tsiakaras; M. Stoukides

    1995-01-01

    The production of synthesis gas from methane was studied at 800-950C in an yttria-stabilized zirconia cell, using iron as\\u000a a catalyst-anode and platinum as cathodic electrode. The effect of gaseous O2 vs that of ionically transported O2- on CO selectivity and yield was studied. In general, O2- gave higher CO yields with maximum of 73%. The side reaction of hydrogen

  18. 30 CFR 1202.550 - How do I determine the royalty due on gas production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...do I determine the royalty due on gas production? 1202.550 Section... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Gas Production From Indian Leases...

  19. 30 CFR 1202.550 - How do I determine the royalty due on gas production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...do I determine the royalty due on gas production? 1202.550 Section... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Gas Production From Indian Leases...

  20. 30 CFR 1202.550 - How do I determine the royalty due on gas production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...do I determine the royalty due on gas production? 1202.550 Section... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Gas Production From Indian Leases...

  1. Production of bioplastics and hydrogen gas by photosynthetic microorganisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asada Yasuo; Miyake Masato; Miyake Jun

    1998-01-01

    Our efforts have been aimed at the technological basis of photosynthetic-microbial production of materials and an energy carrier.\\u000a We report here accumulation of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a raw material of biodegradable plastics and for production\\u000a of hydrogen gas, and a renewable energy carrier by photosynthetic microorganisms (tentatively defined as cyanobacteria plus\\u000a photosynthetic bateria, in this report).\\u000a \\u000a A thermophilic cyanobacterium,Synechococcus sp. MA19

  2. Radiolytic gas production in the alpha particle degradation of plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.T.; Hoh, J.; Emery, J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Hobbs, D. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Net gas generation due to alpha particle irradiation of polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride was investigated. Experiments were performed in an air environment at 30, 60, and 100{degree}C. The predominant radiolytic degradation products of polyethylene were hydrogen and carbon dioxide with a wide variety of trace organic species noted. Irradiation of polyvinyl chloride resulted in the formation of HCl in addition to the products observed for polyethylene. For both plastic materials, a strong enhancement of net yields was noted at 100{degree}C.

  3. Radiolytic gas production in the alpha particle degradation of plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.T.; Hoh, J.; Emery, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hobbs, D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Net gas generation due to alpha particle irradiation of polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride was investigated. Experiments were performed in an air environment at 30, 60, and 100{degree}C. The predominant radiolytic degradation products of polyethylene were hydrogen and carbon dioxide with a wide variety of trace organic species noted. Irradiation of polyvinyl chloride resulted in the formation of HCl in addition to the products observed for polyethylene. For both plastic materials, a strong enhancement of net yields was noted at 100{degree}C.

  4. Effects of disturbance associated with seismic exploration for oil and gas reserves in coastal marshes.

    PubMed

    Howard, Rebecca J; Wells, Christopher J; Michot, Thomas C; Johnson, Darren J

    2014-07-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances in wetland ecosystems can alter the composition and structure of plant assemblages and affect system functions. Extensive oil and gas extraction has occurred in wetland habitats along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast since the early 1900s. Activities involved with three-dimensional (3D) seismic exploration for these resources cause various disturbances to vegetation and soils. We documented the impact of a 3D seismic survey in coastal marshes in Louisiana, USA, along transects established before exploration began. Two semi-impounded marshes dominated by Spartina patens were in the area surveyed. Vegetation, soil, and water physicochemical data were collected before the survey, about 6 weeks following its completion, and every 3 months thereafter for 2 years. Soil cores for seed bank emergence experiments were also collected. Maximum vegetation height at impact sites was reduced in both marshes 6 weeks following the survey. In one marsh, total vegetation cover was also reduced, and dead vegetation cover increased, at impact sites 6 weeks after the survey. These effects, however, did not persist 3 months later. No effects on soil or water properties were identified. The total number of seeds that germinated during greenhouse studies increased at impact sites 5 months following the survey in both marshes. Although some seed bank effects persisted 1 year, these effects were not reflected in standing vegetation. The marshes studied were therefore resilient to the impacts resulting from 3D seismic exploration because vegetation responses were short term in that they could not be identified a few months following survey completion. PMID:24788940

  5. Central Africa Energy: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Explore Flared Gas as an Energy Source Alternative to Biomass in Central Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Amber; White, Charles; Castillo, Christopher; Hitimana, Emmanuel; Nguyen, Kenny; Mishra, Shikher; Clark, Walt

    2014-01-01

    Much of Central Africa's economy is centered on oil production. Oil deposits lie below vast amounts of compressed natural gas. The latter is often flared off during oil extraction due to a lack of the infrastructure needed to utilize it for productive energy generation. Though gas flaring is discouraged by many due to its contributions to greenhouse emissions, it represents a waste process and is rarely tracked or recorded in this region. In contrast to this energy waste, roughly 80% of Africa's population lacks access to electricity and in turn uses biomass such as wood for heat and light. In addition to the dangers incurred from collecting and using biomass, the practice commonly leads to ecological change through the acquisition of wood from forests surrounding urban areas. The objective of this project was to gain insight on domestic energy usage in Central Africa, specifically Angola, Gabon, and the Republic of Congo. This was done through an analysis of deforestation, an estimation of gas flared, and a suitability study for the infrastructure needed to realize the natural gas resources. The energy from potential natural gas production was compared to the energy equivalent of the biomass being harvested. A site suitability study for natural gas pipeline routes from flare sites to populous locations was conducted to assess the feasibility of utilizing natural gas for domestic energy needs. Analyses and results were shared with project partners, as well as this project's open source approach to assessing the energy sector. Ultimately, Africa's growth demands energy for its people, and natural gas is already being produced by the flourishing petroleum industry in numerous African countries. By utilizing this gas, Africa could reduce flaring, recuperate the financial and environmental loss that flaring accounts for, and unlock a plentiful domestic energy source for its people. II. Introduction Background Africa is home to numerous burgeoning economies; a significant number rely on oil production as their primary source of revenue. Relative to its size and population density, the continent has a wealth of natural resources, including oil and natural gas deposits. The exploration of these resources is not a new endeavor, but rather one that spans decades, up to a century in some places. Their resources, if realized, could provide a great means of economic and social mobility for the people of Africa. Currently, Africa represents about 12 % of the energy market, yet at the same time, consumes only 3 % of the world's energy (Kasekende 2009). The higher

  6. Exploring the control of land-atmospheric oscillations over terrestrial vegetation productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depoorter, Mathieu; Green, Julia; Gentine, Pierre; Liu, Yi; van Eck, Christel; Regnier, Pierre; Dorigo, Wouter; Verhoest, Niko; Miralles, Diego

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation dynamics play an important role in the climate system due to their control on the carbon, energy and water cycles. The spatiotemporal variability of vegetation is regulated by internal climate variability as well as natural and anthropogenic forcing mechanisms, including fires, land use, volcano eruptions or greenhouse gas emissions. Ocean-atmospheric oscillations, affect the fluxes of heat and water over continents, leading to anomalies in radiation, precipitation or temperature at widely separated locations (i.e. teleconnections); an effect of ocean-atmospheric oscillations on terrestrial primary productivity can therefore be expected. While different studies have shown the general importance of internal climate variability for global vegetation dynamics, the control by particular teleconnections over the regional growth and decay of vegetation is still poorly understood. At continental to global scales, satellite remote sensing offers a feasible approach to enhance our understanding of the main drivers of vegetation variability. Traditional studies of the multi-decadal variability of global vegetation have been usually based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), which extends back to the early '80s. There are, however, some limitations to NDVI observations; arguably the most important of these limitations is that from the plant physiology perspective the index does not have a well-defined meaning, appearing poorly correlated to vegetation productivity. On the other hand, recently developed records from other remotely-sensed properties of vegetation, like fluorescence or microwave vegetation optical depth, have proven a significantly better correspondence to above-ground biomass. To enhance our understanding of the controls of ocean-atmosphere oscillations over vegetation, we propose to explore the link between climate oscillation extremes and net primary productivity over the last two decades. The co-variability of a range of climate oscillation indices and newly-derived records of fluorescence and vegetation optical depth is analyzed using a statistical framework based on correlations, bootstrapping and Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs). Results will enable us to characterize regional hotspots where particular climatic oscillations control vegetation productivity, as well as allowing us to underpin the climatic variables behind this control.

  7. Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Henderson

    2007-09-30

    The project is titled 'Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations'. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is the principal investigator and the IOGCC has partnered with ALL Consulting, Inc., headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in this project. State agencies that also have partnered in the project are the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, the Montana Board of Oil and Gas Conservation, the Kansas Oil and Gas Conservation Division, the Oklahoma Oil and Gas Conservation Division and the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. The objective is to characterize produced water quality and management practices for the handling, treating, and disposing of produced water from conventional oil and gas operations throughout the industry nationwide. Water produced from these operations varies greatly in quality and quantity and is often the single largest barrier to the economic viability of wells. The lack of data, coupled with renewed emphasis on domestic oil and gas development, has prompted many experts to speculate that the number of wells drilled over the next 20 years will approach 3 million, or near the number of current wells. This level of exploration and development undoubtedly will draw the attention of environmental communities, focusing their concerns on produced water management based on perceived potential impacts to fresh water resources. Therefore, it is imperative that produced water management practices be performed in a manner that best minimizes environmental impacts. This is being accomplished by compiling current best management practices for produced water from conventional oil and gas operations and to develop an analysis tool based on a geographic information system (GIS) to assist in the understanding of watershed-issued permits. That would allow management costs to be kept in line with the specific projects and regions, which increases the productive life of wells and increases the ultimate recoverable reserves in the ground. A case study was conducted in Wyoming to validate the applicability of the GIS analysis tool for watershed evaluations under real world conditions. Results of the partnered research will continue to be shared utilizing proven methods, such as on the IGOCC Web site, preparing hard copies of the results, distribution of documented case studies, and development of reference and handbook components to accompany the interactive internet-based GIS watershed analysis tool. Additionally, there have been several technology transfer seminars and presentations. The goal is to maximize the recovery of our nation's energy reserves and to promote water conservation.

  8. 30 CFR 260.116 - How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease...Leases § 260.116 How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease? You must measure natural gas production on your eligible...

  9. Multiphasic analysis of gas production kinetics for in vitro fermentation of ruminant feeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeroen C. J. Groot; John W. Cone; Barbara A. Williams; Filip M. A. Debersaques; Egbert A. Lantinga

    1996-01-01

    Recently developed time-related gas production techniques to quantify the kinetics of ruminant feed fermentation have a high resolution. Consequently, fermentation processes with clearly contrasting gas production kinetics can be identified. Parameterization of the separate processes is possible with a suitable multiphasic model and modelling method. A flexible, empirical, multiphasic model was proposed for parameterization of gas production profiles. This equation

  10. Production of bioplastics and hydrogen gas by photosynthetic microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuo, Asada; Masato, Miyake; Jun, Miyake

    1998-03-01

    Our efforts have been aimed at the technological basis of photosynthetic-microbial production of materials and an energy carrier. We report here accumulation of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a raw material of biodegradable plastics and for production of hydrogen gas, and a renewable energy carrier by photosynthetic microorganisms (tentatively defined as cyanobacteria plus photosynthetic bateria, in this report). A thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. MA19 that accumulates PHB at more than 20% of cell dry wt under nitrogen-starved conditions was isolated and microbiologically identified. The mechanism of PHB accumulation was studied. A mesophilic Synechococcus PCC7942 was transformed with the genes encoding PHB-synthesizing enzymes from Alcaligenes eutrophus. The transformant accumulated PHB under nitrogen-starved conditions. The optimal conditions for PHB accumulation by a photosynthetic bacterium grown on acetate were studied. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms was studied. Cyanobacteria can produce hydrogen gas by nitrogenase or hydrogenase. Hydrogen production mediated by native hydrogenase in cyanobacteria was revealed to be in the dark anaerobic degradation of intracellular glycogen. A new system for light-dependent hydrogen production was targeted. In vitro and in vivo coupling of cyanobacterial ferredoxin with a heterologous hydrogenase was shown to produce hydrogen under light conditions. A trial for genetic trasformation of Synechococcus PCC7942 with the hydrogenase gene from Clostridium pasteurianum is going on. The strong hydrogen producers among photosynthetic bacteria were isolated and characterized. Co-culture of Rhodobacter and Clostriumdium was applied to produce hydrogen from glucose. Conversely in the case of cyanobacteria, genetic regulation of photosynthetic proteins was intended to improve conversion efficiency in hydrogen production by the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV. A mutant acquired by UV irradiation will be characterized for the mutation and for hydrogen productivity in comparison with the wild type strain. Some basic studies to develop photobioreactors are also introduced.

  11. Calculation of CO2 column heights in depleted gas fields from known pre-production gas column heights

    E-print Network

    Calculation of CO2 column heights in depleted gas fields from known pre-production gas column heights M. Naylor*, M. Wilkinson, R.S. Haszeldine School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, EH9 3JW fields Column height a b s t r a c t Depleted gas fields have been identified as potential targets for CO

  12. Process for the production of fuel gas from coal

    DOEpatents

    Patel, Jitendra G. (Bolingbrook, IL); Sandstrom, William A. (Chicago, IL); Tarman, Paul B. (Elmhurst, IL)

    1982-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous materials, such as coal, to more valuable gaseous products in a fluidized bed gasification reaction and efficient withdrawal of agglomerated ash from the fluidized bed is disclosed. The improvements are obtained by introducing an oxygen containing gas into the bottom of the fluidized bed through a separate conduit positioned within the center of a nozzle adapted to agglomerate and withdraw the ash from the bottom of the fluidized bed. The conduit extends above the constricted center portion of the nozzle and preferably terminates within and does not extend from the nozzle. In addition to improving ash agglomeration and withdrawal, the present invention prevents sintering and clinkering of the ash in the fluidized bed and permits the efficient recycle of fine material recovered from the product gases by contacting the fines in the fluidized bed with the oxygen as it emanates from the conduit positioned within the withdrawal nozzle. Finally, the present method of oxygen introduction permits the efficient recycle of a portion of the product gases to the reaction zone to increase the reducing properties of the hot product gas.

  13. Characterizing tight-gas systems with production data: Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.; Santus, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    The study of produced fluids allows comparisons among tight-gas systems. This paper examines gas, oil, and water production data from vertical wells in 23 fields in five Rocky Mountain basins of the United States, mostly from wells completed before the year 2000. Average daily rates of gas, oil, and water production are determined two years and seven years after production begins in order to represent the interval in which gas production declines exponentially. In addition to the daily rates, results are also presented in terms of oil-to-gas and water-to-gas ratios, and in terms of the five-year decline in gas production rates and water-to-gas ratios. No attempt has been made to estimate the ultimate productivity of wells or fields. The ratio of gas production rates after seven years to gas production rates at two years is about one-half, with median ratios falling within a range of 0.4 to 0.6 in 16 fields. Oil-gas ratios show substantial variation among fields, ranging from dry gas (no oil) to wet gas to retrograde conditions. Among wells within fields, the oil-gas ratios vary by a factor of three to thirty, with the exception of the Lance Formation in Jonah and Pinedale fields, where the oil-gas ratios vary by less than a factor of two. One field produces water-free gas and a large fraction of wells in two other fields produce water-free gas, but most fields have water-gas ratios greater than 1 bbl/mmcf—greater than can be attributed to water dissolved in gas in the reservoir— and as high as 100 bbl/mmcf. The median water-gas ratio for fields increases moderately with time, but in individual wells water influx relative to gas is erratic, increasing greatly with time in many wells while remaining constant or decreasing in others.

  14. Assessing environmental impact from gas and oil exploration in the SW Barents Sea using benthic foraminiferal assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, N.; Junttila, J.; Husum, K.; Carroll, J.; Hald, M.

    2012-04-01

    During the last decades petroleum industry and shipping activities have increased in the SW Barents Sea. Oil exploration wells were drilled in the 1980s with production starting in 2007. These activities are projected to expand in the coming years. As part of the Northern Environmental Waste Management (EWMA) project, a competence cluster for petroleum industry related waste handling, we investigate the impacts of enhanced anthropogenic activities on benthic foraminiferal assemblages in the SW Barents Sea. Sediment cores (0-20 cm) from sites in proximity to two oil- and gas fields are under investigation. These sediment cores, dated with the 210Pb method, represent the last 90 to 150 years. Both dead and living benthic foraminifera (100 µm-1 mm) were counted to elucidate differences in foraminiferal assemblages between pre-impact and recent conditions. In addition, the heavy metal concentrations, persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, grain size and total organic content (TOC) of the sediment cores have been analyzed. Pollution levels of the surface sediments (0-1 cm) are of background to good level (level I-II) according to the definitions of the Water Framework Directorate (WFD). Patterns in living benthic foraminiferal assemblages identified in the sea floor surface sediments, are the result of natural environmental changes such as depth, water mass and sediment composition. Further downcore (1-20 cm) pollution levels are in general of background environmental status (WFD level I). However, at some depth intervals, especially in sediment cores from the near proximity of the oil- and gas- fields, pollution levels are slightly enhanced (WFD level II). Further work will include statistical comparison of dead and living foraminiferal assemblages with sediment pollution levels, sediment properties, and oceanographic conditions. This research contributes to the development of foraminifera as a useful bio-monitoring technique for the Arctic region as industrial activities increase in the coming years.

  15. Development of an Electrostatic Precipitator to Remove Martian Atmospheric Dust from ISRU Gas Intakes During Planetary Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, J. Sidney; Thompson, Samuel M.; Cox, Nathan D.; Johansen, Michael R.; Williams, Blakeley S.; Hogue, Michael D.; Lowder, M. Loraine; Calle, Carlos I.

    2011-01-01

    Manned exploration missions to Mars will need dependable in situ resource utilization (ISRU) for the production of oxygen and other commodities. One of these resources is the Martian atmosphere itself, which is composed of carbon dioxide (95.3%), nitrogen (2.7%), argon (1.6%), oxygen (0.13%), carbon monoxide (0.07%), and water vapor (0.03%), as well as other trace gases. However, the Martian atmosphere also contains relatively large amounts of dust, uploaded by frequent dust devils and high Winds. To make this gas usable for oxygen extraction in specialized chambers requires the removal of most of the dust. An electrostatic precipitator (ESP) system is an obvious choice. But with an atmospheric pressure just one-hundredth of Earth's, electrical breakdown at low voltages makes the implementation of the electrostatic precipitator technology very challenging. Ion mobility, drag forces, dust particle charging, and migration velocity are also affected because the low gas pressure results in molecular mean free paths that are approximately one hundred times longer than those at Earth .atmospheric pressure. We report here on our efforts to develop this technology at the Kennedy Space Center, using gases with approximately the same composition as the Martian atmosphere in a vacuum chamber at 9 mbars, the atmospheric pressure on Mars. We also present I-V curves and large particle charging data for various versions of wire-cylinder and rod-cylinder geometry ESPs. Preliminary results suggest that use of an ESP for dust collection on Mars may be feasible, but further testing with Martian dust simulant is required.

  16. Exploration of Novel Fuels for Gas Turbine (ENV-406) Modeling of T60 Test Rig with Diesel & Biodiesel Fuels

    E-print Network

    Exploration of Novel Fuels for Gas Turbine (ENV-406) Modeling of T60 Test Rig with Diesel de biodiesel B20. La matrice de test numérique constitue de quatre cas d'écoulement réactifs c20 biodiesel blend. The numerical test matrix consists of four reacting flow cases, and one non

  17. A comparison of Solar Mesosphere Explorer and Stratosphere Aerosol and Gas Experiment II ozone densities near the stratopause

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Rusch; R. T. Clancy; M. P. McCormick; J. M. Zawodny

    1990-01-01

    Ozone measurements made by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer on the Solar Mesosphere Explorer and those from the Stratosphere Aerosol and Gas Experiment 2 are compared at 1.0 mbar for the time period from October 1984, to December 1986. A model of the diurnal variation of ozone is used to correct for the difference in local times of the two measurements. The

  18. A comparison of Solar Mesosphere Explorer and stratosphere aerosol and gas experiment II ozone densities near the stratopause

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Rusch; R. T. Clancy; M. P. McCormick; J. M. Zawodny

    1990-01-01

    Ozone measurements made by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer on the Solar Mesosphere Explorer and those from the Stratosphere Aerosol and Gas Experiment II are compared at 1.0 mbar for the time period from October 1984, to December 1986. A model of the diurnal variation of ozone is used to correct for the difference in local times of the two measurements. The

  19. The Importance of Chemosynthetic Communities and 'Seep-Hunting' to Deepwater Oil and Gas Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, D.; Gharib, J. J.; Orange, D.; Henderson, J.; Danque, H.; Digby, A.

    2007-12-01

    Seafloor surveying techniques have often evolved as the industry's needs have evolved. Oil and gas exploration costs have escalated over the last several years, both as a result of increasing offshore overhead costs as well as the increased demand being met by offshore service-related companies. Consequently, more companies are prospecting using inexpensive techniques that rely on scientific expertise, such as seep-hunting, as a means of identifying reservoirs, and the past few years have seen several large-scale industrial deepwater surveys with locating hydrocarbon seeps as a primary goal. The identification of seeps is also a necessity for many pre-drilling operations, as many potential developers must conform to local regulations protecting chemosynthetic communities (eg MMS NTL 2000-G20 for Gulf of Mexico development). In addition to identifying chemosynthetic communities for permitting issues, as prospecting has moved into deeper water the ability to identify seep-related drilling hazards, such as hardgrounds or shallow gas (and hydrates) has also increased in importance. The specialized field of identifying seeps, and related chemosynthetics, hardgrounds, etc., is rapidly growing, aided by advances in mapping technology, such as multibeam backscatter and interferometry, among others. Today all of the geophysical data can be brought into a common interpretation environment providing multiple perspectives, different data overlays, and/or 3D visualizations. Using these techniques, high resolution multibeam and/or side-scan surveys rapidly cover large swaths of seafloor and identify potential seeps in real- time. These targets can then be examined geochemically with a coring program, potentially working simultaneously with the multibeam program. Modern USBL navigation can position a deepwater core in <10m diameter targets. Much of the geochemistry can be analyzed in near-real time at sea (eg headspace/interstitial gas, trace/minor/major ions in porefluids, etc; only isotopic analyses are restricted to better equipped research vessels). The advantages of integrating these data are considerable, and they can be obtained for a fraction of the cost of exploratory drilling or submersible operations. This presentation intends to outline the recent history of the industry's approach to seep-hunting, its increasing importance to oil prospectivity, and future trends in industrial applications and how this might affect academic study in this field (especially related to the advances in seep-hunting technology and software that are becoming industry-standards).

  20. Development of temporary subtropical wetlands induces higher gas production

    PubMed Central

    Canterle, Eliete B.; da Motta Marques, David; Rodrigues, Lúcia R.

    2013-01-01

    Temporary wetlands are short-term alternative ecosystems formed by flooding for irrigation of areas used for rice farming. The goal of this study is to describe the development cycle of rice fields as temporary wetlands in southern Brazil, evaluating how this process affect the gas production (CH4 and CO2) in soil with difference % carbon and organic matter content. Two areas adjacent to Lake Mangueira in southern Brazil were used during a rice-farming cycle. One area had soil containing 1.1% carbon and 2.4% organic matter, and the second area had soil with 2.4% carbon and 4.4% organic matter. The mean rates of gas production were 0.04 ± 0.02 mg CH4 m?2 d?1 and 1.18 ± 0.30 mg CO2 m?2 d?1 in the soil area with the lower carbon content, and 0.02 ± 0.03 mg CH4 m?2 d?1 and 1.38 ± 0.41 mg CO2 m?2 d?1 in the soil area with higher carbon content. Our results showed that mean rates of CO2 production were higher than those of CH4 in both areas. No statistically significant difference was observed for production of CH4 considering different periods and sites. For carbon dioxide (CO2), however, a Two-Way ANOVA showed statistically significant difference (p = 0.05) considering sampling time, but no difference between areas. The results obtained suggest that the carbon and organic matter contents in the soil of irrigated rice cultivation areas may have been used in different ways by soil microorganisms, leading to variations in CH4 and CO2 production. PMID:23508352

  1. Trash to Gas: Converting Space Waste into Useful Supply Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsoras, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The cost of sending mass into space with current propulsion technology is very expensive, making every item a crucial element of the space mission. It is essential that all materials be used to their fullest potential. Items like food, packaging, clothing, paper towels, gloves, etc., normally become trash and take up space after use. These waste materials are currently either burned up upon reentry in earth's atmosphere or sent on cargo return vehicles back to earth: a very wasteful method. The purpose of this project was to utilize these materials and create useful products like water and methane gas, which is used for rocket fuel, to further supply a deep space mission. The system used was a thermal degradation reactor with the configuration of a down-draft gasifier. The reactor was loaded with approximately 100g of trash simulant and heated with two external ceramic heaters with separate temperature control in order to create pyrolysis and gasification in one zone and incineration iri a second zone simultaneously. Trash was loaded into the top half of the reactor to undergo pyrolysis while the downdraft gas experienced gasification or incineration to treat tars and maximize the production of carbon dioxide. Minor products included carbon monoxide, methane, and other hydrocarbons. The carbon dioxide produced can be sent to a Sabatier reactor to convert the gas into methane, which can be used as rocket propellant. In order to maximize the carbon dioxide and useful gases produced, and minimize the unwanted tars and leftover ashen material, multiple experiments were performed with altered parameters such as differing temperatures, flow rates, and location of inlet air flow. According to the data received from these experiments, the process will be further scaled up and optimized to ultimately create a system that reduces trash buildup while at the same time providing enough useful gases to potentially fill a methane tank that could fuel a lunar ascent vehicle or other deep space mission.

  2. Chemical simulator for scale problems in oil and gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Morgnthaler, L.N.; Khatib, Z.I.; French, R.N.; Cox, K.R. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States))

    1991-04-01

    This paper reports that a chemical simulator incorporating state-of-the-art thermodynamics has been used to identify potential scale problems and design remedial treatments. In a West Texas waterflood, the success rate for gypsum removal treatments has more than doubled. Inhibitor squeezes are scheduled to prevent productivity losses from barium sulfate scale in an offshore waterflood. A freshwater injection program has been designed to prevent salt deposition in gas wells. In each case, the simulator played a key role in identifying potential scale problems and optimizing remedial measures.

  3. Oil and gas exploration system and method for detecting trace amounts of hydrocarbon gases in the atmosphere

    DOEpatents

    Wamsley, Paula R. (Littleton, CO); Weimer, Carl S. (Littleton, CO); Nelson, Loren D. (Evergreen, CO); O'Brien, Martin J. (Pine, CO)

    2003-01-01

    An oil and gas exploration system and method for land and airborne operations, the system and method used for locating subsurface hydrocarbon deposits based upon a remote detection of trace amounts of gases in the atmosphere. The detection of one or more target gases in the atmosphere is used to indicate a possible subsurface oil and gas deposit. By mapping a plurality of gas targets over a selected survey area, the survey area can be analyzed for measurable concentration anomalies. The anomalies are interpreted along with other exploration data to evaluate the value of an underground deposit. The system includes a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system with a spectroscopic grade laser light and a light detector. The laser light is continuously tunable in a mid-infrared range, 2 to 5 micrometers, for choosing appropriate wavelengths to measure different gases and avoid absorption bands of interference gases. The laser light has sufficient optical energy to measure atmospheric concentrations of a gas over a path as long as a mile and greater. The detection of the gas is based on optical absorption measurements at specific wavelengths in the open atmosphere. Light that is detected using the light detector contains an absorption signature acquired as the light travels through the atmosphere from the laser source and back to the light detector. The absorption signature of each gas is processed and then analyzed to determine if a potential anomaly exists.

  4. Shallow seismic investigations of Devonian-shale gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.T.; Ruotsala, J.E.; Kudla, J.J.; Dunne, W.E.

    1982-06-01

    The foremost conclusion of this study is that fractured Devonian shale gas reservoirs, as exemplified by the Cottageville field, are detectable by seismic reflection methods. Further, the target is not particularly difficult, once the nature of the seismic anomaly is understood. The preferred exploration rationale is based on travel time anomalies related to lowered acoustic velocity within the gas-bearing zone. In the simplest case the travel time anomaly causes an apparent down-warp or sag in a flat-lying reflector. This conclusion is developed in Parts B and C of this report. Concerning the high-resolution extension of the seismic method, which is the subject of Part A, there are essentially two separate conclusions which can be drawn. One is that additional, valuable subsurface information can be obtained by recording seismic data at frequenies higher than those in common use by the petroleum industry at the time of this writing. The other is that it is feasible to obtain seismic reflection data on a smaller scale, using less costly instrumentation, than is typically employed in the petroleum industry. However, it is not yet possible to say whether such small scale surveying will be practical from an industry point of view.

  5. Exploring Long-Term Productive Vocabulary Development in an EFL Context: The Role of Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yongyan

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports on a longitudinal multiple-case study that probed into four advanced university-level Chinese EFL learners' situated vocabulary learning experiences and explored the role of L2 motivation in their productive vocabulary development. In the study, Lexical Frequency Profile analysis and semi-structured interviews were conducted with…

  6. Exploring a Financial Product Model with a Two-Population Genetic Algorithm

    E-print Network

    Kimbrough, Steven Orla

    Exploring a Financial Product Model with a Two-Population Genetic Algorithm Steven O. Kimbrough two-population genetic algorithm (GA) has been remarkably successful in finding good, feasible is motivated by the fact that, while evolution programs (EPs) in general and genetic algorithms in particular

  7. Exploration of Food Management, Production and Services Occupations. Performance Objectives. Criterion Measures. Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of four terminal objectives for a course in exploration of food management, production, and service occupations for 8th and 9th grade students. The materials were developed for a 12- to 18-week course designed to include awareness of the operation…

  8. Operationalizing sustainability: exploring options for environmentally friendly flower bulb production systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter A. H. Rossing; Jan Eelco Jansma; Frank J. De Ruijter; Jan Schans

    1997-01-01

    Current production systems for flower bulbs in the Netherlands employ considerable quantities of pesticides and nutrients per unit area. In 1993, an association of growers and environmentalists set out to design new farming systems that meet environmental objectives in addition to economic objectives. To support the design process, an explorative study was carried out to bring together the fragmented agronomic

  9. Agricultural use of a flue gas desulfurization by-product

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S. Jr.; Dick, W.; Chen, L.

    1998-07-01

    Few, if any, economical alternatives exist for operators of small coal-fired boilers that require a flue-gas desulfurization system which does not generate wastes. A new duct-injection technology called Fluesorbent has been developed to help fill this gap. Fluesorbent FGD was intentionally designed so that the saturated SO{sub 2}-sorbent materials would be valuable solid amendments for agricultural or turf-grass land. Agricultural and turf grass studies recently commenced using spent Fluesorbent materials from an FGD pilot program at an Ohio power plant. In the first year of testing, alfalfa yields on field plots with the FGS by-products were approximately 250% greater than on plots with no treatment, and about 40% greater than on plots treated with an equivalent amount of agricultural lime. Because the FGD by-products contained trace elements from included fly ash, the chemical composition of the alfalfa was significantly improved.

  10. Agricultural use of a flue gas desulfurization by-product

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S. Jr.; Dick, W.; Chen, L.

    1998-04-01

    Few, if any, economical alternatives exist for operators of small coal-fired boilers that require a flue-gas desulfurization system which does not generate wastes. A new duct-injection technology called {open_quotes}Fluesorbent{close_quotes} has been developed to help fill this gap. Fluesorbent FGD was intentionally designed so that the saturated SO{sub 2}-sorbent materials would be valuable soil amendments for agricultural or turf-grass land. Agricultural and turf grass studies recently commenced using spent Fluesorbent materials from an FGD pilot program at an Ohio power plant. In the first year of testing, alfalfa yields on field plots with the FGD by-products were approximately 250% greater than on plots with no treatment, and about 40% greater than on plots treated with an equivalent amount of agricultural lime. Because the FGD by-products contained trace elements from included fly ash, the chemical composition of the alfalfa was significantly improved.

  11. Federal offshore statistics: 1995 - leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Gaechter, R.A.

    1997-07-01

    This report provides data on federal offshore operations for 1995. Information is included for leasing activities, development, petroleum and natural gas production, sales and royalties, revenue from federal offshore leasing, disbursement of federal revenues, reserves and resource estimates, and oil pollution in U.S. and international waters.

  12. Common In-Situ Consumable Production Plant for Robotic Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, G. B.; Trevathan, J. R.; Peters, T. A.; Baird, R. S.

    2000-07-01

    Utilization of extraterrestrial resources, or In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), is viewed by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise as an enabling technology for the exploration and commercial development of space. A key subset of ISRU which has significant cost, mass, and risk reduction benefits for robotic and human exploration, and which requires a minimum of infrastructure, is In-Situ Consumable Production (ISCP). ISCP involves acquiring, manufacturing, and storing mission consumables from in situ resources, such as propellants, fuel cell reagents, and gases for crew and life support, inflation, science and pneumatic equipment. One of the four long-term goals for the Space Science Enterprise (SSE) is to 'pursue space science programs that enable and are enabled by future human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - a goal exploiting the synergy with the human exploration of space'. Adequate power and propulsion capabilities are critical for both robotic and human exploration missions. Minimizing the mass and volume of these systems can reduce mission cost or enhance the mission by enabling the incorporation of new science or mission-relevant equipment. Studies have shown that in-situ production of oxygen and methane propellants can enhance sample return missions by enabling larger samples to be returned to Earth or by performing Direct Earth Return (DER) sample return missions instead of requiring a Mars Orbit Rendezvous (MOR). Recent NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) work on oxygen and hydrocarbon-based fuel cell power systems shows the potential of using fuel cell power systems instead of solar arrays and batteries for future rovers and science equipment. The development and use of a common oxygen/methane ISCP plant for propulsion and power generation can extend and enhance the scientific exploration of Mars while supporting the development and demonstration of critical technologies and systems for the human exploration of Mars.

  13. 79 FR 32502 - Managing Emissions From Oil and Natural Gas Production in Indian Country

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-06-05

    ...FRL-9910-71-OAR] RIN 2060-AS27 Managing Emissions From Oil and Natural Gas Production in Indian Country AGENCY...Minor New Source Review program for sources in the oil and natural gas production segment of the oil and natural gas sector. In particular,...

  14. Microbiology of synthesis gas fermentation for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Henstra, Anne M; Sipma, Jan; Rinzema, Arjen; Stams, Alfons J M

    2007-06-01

    A significant portion of biomass sources like straw and wood is poorly degradable and cannot be converted to biofuels by microorganisms. The gasification of this waste material to produce synthesis gas (or syngas) could offer a solution to this problem, as microorganisms that convert CO and H2) (the essential components of syngas) to multicarbon compounds are available. These are predominantly mesophilic microorganisms that produce short-chain fatty acids and alcohols from CO and H2. Additionally, hydrogen can be produced by carboxydotrophic hydrogenogenic bacteria that convert CO and H2O to H2 and CO2. The production of ethanol through syngas fermentation is already available as a commercial process. The use of thermophilic microorganisms for these processes could offer some advantages; however, to date, few thermophiles are known that grow well on syngas and produce organic compounds. The identification of new isolates that would broaden the product range of syngas fermentations is desirable. Metabolic engineering could be employed to broaden the variety of available products, although genetic tools for such engineering are currently unavailable. Nevertheless, syngas fermenting microorganisms possess advantageous characteristics for biofuel production and hold potential for future engineering efforts. PMID:17399976

  15. Orbital remote sensing for geological mapping in southern Tunisia: Implication for oil and gas exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Sherrie A.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.

    2006-02-01

    Southern Tunisia is dominated by early to middle Triassic continental sandstones inter-bedded with shales and conglomerates followed by late Triassic shallow marine carbonates, lower Jurassic evaporates, and upper Jurassic to lower Cretaceous clastic sedimentary rocks. These constitute the Dahar Plateau (which is part of the Ghadames Basin and it is the focus of this study) that was developed in association with regional uplift of the Saharan Platform. Efforts in mapping the details of surface geology in southern Tunisia are hindered by the lack of continuous bedrock outcrops, where some of the formations are buried under the sand of the Sahara Desert. Remote sensing data including multi-spectral optical (Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)), radar (RADARSAT), and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) extracted from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data are used to trace along strike continuity of different lithological units as well as mapping morphologically defined structures in southern Tunisia. Landsat ETM+ and ASTER Red-Green-Blue (RGB) color combination images (both band and band-ratio images) have been used for the identification of various lithological units when they are exposed on the surface. On the other hand, RADARSAT images have been utilized for tracing geological formations and geological structures that are buried under thin (˜1 m) sand. Fusion of optical and radar remote sensing data using Color Normalization Transformation (CNT) has been effectively implemented to further identify lithological units and geological structures. Hill-shading techniques are applied to SRTM DEMs to enhance terrain perspective views and to extract geomorphological features and morphologically defined structures through the means of lineament analysis. Results from remote sensing analysis are in good agreement with results obtained from in situ investigations including geological mapping and seismic exploration. Identifying lithological and structural features using remote sensing studies incorporated with surface and sub-surface geological investigations in southern Tunisia can aid exploration for new oil and gas fields. Such an approach of integrating remote sensing and in situ geological studies can be successfully adopted in other parts of North Africa and arid regions in general.

  16. Corrosion inhibitor testing and selection for exploration and production: A user's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Kapusta, S.D.

    1999-06-01

    Inhibitor users need simple, reliable, and representative tests to select the best product from a number of candidates. This article describes a procedure that can help users test and select inhibitors for carbon dioxide/hydrogen sulfide (CO[sub 2]/H[sub 2]S) corrosion in oil and gas production, in a fast and cost-effective manner. The selection is based on two criteria: performance (effectiveness) against corrosion, and compatibility with other chemicals. The compatibility of the inhibitor with the injection and production systems must be confirmed.

  17. Potential energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of hydrogen production from coke oven gas in U.S. steel mills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred Joseck; Michael Wang; Ye Wu

    2008-01-01

    For this study, we examined the energy and emission effects of hydrogen production from coke oven gas (COG) on a well-to-wheels basis and compared these effects with those of other hydrogen production options, as well as with those of conventional gasoline and diesel options. We then estimated the magnitude of hydrogen production from COG in the United States and the

  18. Atmospheric emissions and air quality impacts from natural gas production and use.

    PubMed

    Allen, David T

    2014-01-01

    The US Energy Information Administration projects that hydraulic fracturing of shale formations will become a dominant source of domestic natural gas supply over the next several decades, transforming the energy landscape in the United States. However, the environmental impacts associated with fracking for shale gas have made it controversial. This review examines emissions and impacts of air pollutants associated with shale gas production and use. Emissions and impacts of greenhouse gases, photochemically active air pollutants, and toxic air pollutants are described. In addition to the direct atmospheric impacts of expanded natural gas production, indirect effects are also described. Widespread availability of shale gas can drive down natural gas prices, which, in turn, can impact the use patterns for natural gas. Natural gas production and use in electricity generation are used as a case study for examining these indirect consequences of expanded natural gas availability. PMID:24498952

  19. An evaluation of hydrogen production from the perspective of using blast furnace gas and coke oven gas as feedstocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Hsin Chen; Mu-Rong Lin; Tzong-Shyng Leu; Shan-Wen Du

    2011-01-01

    Blast furnace (BF) is a large-scale reactor for producing hot metal where coke and coal are consumed as reducing agent and fuel, respectively. As a result, a large amount of CO2 is liberated into the atmosphere. The blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke oven gas (COG) from the ironmaking process can be used for H2 production in association with carbon

  20. Evaluation of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model. [Cyclic thermal injection

    SciTech Connect

    Kuuskraa, V.A.; Hammersheimb, E.; Sawyer, W.

    1985-05-01

    The objective of the work performed under this directive is to assess whether gas hydrates could potentially be technically and economically recoverable. The technical potential and economics of recovering gas from a representative hydrate reservoir will be established using the cyclic thermal injection model, HYDMOD, appropriately modified for this effort, integrated with economics model for gas production on the North Slope of Alaska, and in the deep offshore Atlantic. The results from this effort are presented in this document. In Section 1, the engineering cost and financial analysis model used in performing the economic analysis of gas production from hydrates -- the Hydrates Gas Economics Model (HGEM) -- is described. Section 2 contains a users guide for HGEM. In Section 3, a preliminary economic assessment of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model is presented. Section 4 contains a summary critique of existing hydrate gas recovery models. Finally, Section 5 summarizes the model modification made to HYDMOD, the cyclic thermal injection model for hydrate gas recovery, in order to perform this analysis.

  1. Gas chromatographic determination of fenvalerate insecticide residues in processed tomato products and by-products.

    PubMed

    Spittler, T D; Argauer, R J; Lisk, D J; Mumma, R O; Winnett, G; Ferro, D N; Bogus, E; Greco, E; Gutenmann, W; Miles, E

    1984-01-01

    The results of a 5-laboratory collaborative determination of residues of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide fenvalerate in tomato products are presented. Tomatoes from plants treated in the field at 2-4 day intervals (13 foliar applications) were processed into chopped fresh tomatoes, canned quarters, juice, paste, and the by-product skins plus seeds. Gas chromatographic analysis of the commodities for fenvalerate showed the fresh produce to contain 0.26 ppm, and the skins plus seeds contained 1.9 ppm. Residues were barely detectable in canned peeled quarters and juice, but averaged 0.12 ppm for paste, the concentration product of juice. High residues were associated with the skin content of the product. Five laboratories using modifications of the same analytical technique obtained good collaborative agreement. PMID:6469916

  2. Process improvement exploration: mapping multimedia production process to CMMI-DEV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, ChienWin; Kamaruddin, Noraida; Daud, Nor Izyani; Zainal Osman, Zosipha

    2013-03-01

    Multimedia takes improvement of multiple computing technologies to incorporate data from a wide variety of resources, without involving users to know how and where the data is encoded and stored. By reason of Multimedia applications interact with users with numerous diverse techniques and incorporate into strong applications that greatly extend the range and strength of applications, the production process are often complicated and complex. Production of such applications requires both process- and product-based quality assurance. Apparently, there are no universally accepted technical production standards. Consequently, Multimedia applications have sometimes diminished the quality of the end product, increased costs, delayed completion and failure. The focus is on the mapping between the current practices of multimedia production process and one of universal process improvement framework, Capability Maturity Model Integration for Development (CMMI-DEV). It shows that how current practices of multimedia production process address the Engineering Process Areas of CMMI-DEV. For each of the relevant process areas, it then explores how current practices can contribute to achieve the specific goals of that process area. This is practical for organizations that have their plan-driven process based on the CMMI-DEV model and are planning to improve the current practices of multimedia production process or to assist organization to define an innovative multimedia production process cycle based on CMMI-DEV practices.

  3. Oil production by gas drive from adjacent strata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelius

    1969-01-01

    Oil is produced from an oil stratum lying adjacent but separated from a gas formation by an impermeable barrier by injecting an aqueous flood, such as water free of or containing additives, into the gas formation to force gas into a well communicating with the oil stratum, so as to force the gas into the oil stratum and drive oil

  4. Atomic hydrogen production rates for comet P/Halley from observations with Dynamics Explorer I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.

    1987-01-01

    Newly analyzed observations of the Dynamics Explorer I (DE1), launched on August 3, 1981, were used to determine the hydrogen production rate for Comet Halley at heliocentric distances, r, less than about 1.5 AU from measurements of the total Lyman-alpha flux at earth due to the cometary neutral hydrogen distribution. The production rates, determined as a function of r, were found to be consistent with in situ measurements from the Giotto and Vega spacecraft. The calculated rates are also consistent with remote observations using two sounding rockets and with the Pioneer-Venus and IUE spacecraft.

  5. Modeling the Relative GHG Emissions of Conventional and Shale Gas Production

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Recent reports show growing reserves of unconventional gas are available and that there is an appetite from policy makers, industry, and others to better understand the GHG impact of exploiting reserves such as shale gas. There is little publicly available data comparing unconventional and conventional gas production. Existing studies rely on national inventories, but it is not generally possible to separate emissions from unconventional and conventional sources within these totals. Even if unconventional and conventional sites had been listed separately, it would not be possible to eliminate site-specific factors to compare gas production methods on an equal footing. To address this difficulty, the emissions of gas production have instead been modeled. In this way, parameters common to both methods of production can be held constant, while allowing those parameters which differentiate unconventional gas and conventional gas production to vary. The results are placed into the context of power generation, to give a ?well-to-wire? (WtW) intensity. It was estimated that shale gas typically has a WtW emissions intensity about 1.8–2.4% higher than conventional gas, arising mainly from higher methane releases in well completion. Even using extreme assumptions, it was found that WtW emissions from shale gas need be no more than 15% higher than conventional gas if flaring or recovery measures are used. In all cases considered, the WtW emissions of shale gas powergen are significantly lower than those of coal. PMID:22085088

  6. Modeling the relative GHG emissions of conventional and shale gas production.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Trevor; Valle, Jose Eduardo; Riera-Palou, Xavier

    2011-12-15

    Recent reports show growing reserves of unconventional gas are available and that there is an appetite from policy makers, industry, and others to better understand the GHG impact of exploiting reserves such as shale gas. There is little publicly available data comparing unconventional and conventional gas production. Existing studies rely on national inventories, but it is not generally possible to separate emissions from unconventional and conventional sources within these totals. Even if unconventional and conventional sites had been listed separately, it would not be possible to eliminate site-specific factors to compare gas production methods on an equal footing. To address this difficulty, the emissions of gas production have instead been modeled. In this way, parameters common to both methods of production can be held constant, while allowing those parameters which differentiate unconventional gas and conventional gas production to vary. The results are placed into the context of power generation, to give a ?well-to-wire? (WtW) intensity. It was estimated that shale gas typically has a WtW emissions intensity about 1.8-2.4% higher than conventional gas, arising mainly from higher methane releases in well completion. Even using extreme assumptions, it was found that WtW emissions from shale gas need be no more than 15% higher than conventional gas if flaring or recovery measures are used. In all cases considered, the WtW emissions of shale gas powergen are significantly lower than those of coal. PMID:22085088

  7. Industrial emergy evaluation for hydrogen production systems from biomass and natural gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao Feng; Li Wang; Shuling Min

    2009-01-01

    Fossil fuel resources are the main source for hydrogen production, and hydrogen production by renewable energy, such as biomass, is under development. To compare the performance in natural resource utilization for different hydrogen production systems, in this paper, two laboratorial hydrogen production systems from biomass and one industrial hydrogen production system from natural gas are analyzed by using industrial emergy

  8. World oil and gas resources-future production realities

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D. (U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA (US))

    1990-01-01

    Welcome to uncertainty was the phrase Jack Schanz used to introduce both layman and professionals to the maze of petroleum energy data that must be comprehended to achieve understanding of this critical commodity. Schanz was referring to the variables as he and his colleagues with Resources for the Future saw them in those years soon after the energy-awakening oil embargo of 1973. In some respects, the authors have made progress in removing uncertainty from energy data, but in general, we simply must accept that there are many points of view and many ways for the blindman to describe the elephant. There can be definitive listing of all uncertainties, but for this paper the authors try to underscore those traits of petroleum occurrence and supply that the author's believe bear most heavily on the understanding of production and resource availability. Because oil and gas exist in nature under such variable conditions and because the products themselves are variable in their properties, the authors must first recognize classification divisions of the resource substances, so that the reader might always have a clear perception of just what we are talking about and how it relates to other components of the commodity in question.

  9. Natural Gas and Cellulosic Biomass: A Clean Fuel Combination? Determining the Natural Gas Blending Wall in Biofuel Production.

    PubMed

    M Wright, Mark; Seifkar, Navid; Green, William H; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2015-07-01

    Natural gas has the potential to increase the biofuel production output by combining gas- and biomass-to-liquids (GBTL) processes followed by naphtha and diesel fuel synthesis via Fischer-Tropsch (FT). This study reflects on the use of commercial-ready configurations of GBTL technologies and the environmental impact of enhancing biofuels with natural gas. The autothermal and steam-methane reforming processes for natural gas conversion and the gasification of biomass for FT fuel synthesis are modeled to estimate system well-to-wheel emissions and compare them to limits established by U.S. renewable fuel mandates. We show that natural gas can enhance FT biofuel production by reducing the need for water-gas shift (WGS) of biomass-derived syngas to achieve appropriate H2/CO ratios. Specifically, fuel yields are increased from less than 60 gallons per ton to over 100 gallons per ton with increasing natural gas input. However, GBTL facilities would need to limit natural gas use to less than 19.1% on a LHV energy basis (7.83 wt %) to avoid exceeding the emissions limits established by the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2) for clean, advanced biofuels. This effectively constitutes a blending limit that constrains the use of natural gas for enhancing the biomass-to-liquids (BTL) process. PMID:26010031

  10. Methods for exploring management options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from tropical grazing systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mark Howden; David H. White; Greg M. Mckeon; Joe C. Scanlan; John O. Carter

    1994-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric concentrations of ‘greenhouse gases’ are expected to result in global climatic changes over the next decades. Means of evaluating and reducing greenhouse gas emissions are being sought. In this study an existing simulation model of a tropical savanna woodland grazing system was adapted to account for greenhouse gas emissions. This approach may be able to be used in

  11. Distinction of nontronite from palagonite by thermal analysis and evolved-gas analysis: Application to Mars surface exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenny L. Heidbrink; Jigui Li; Wei-Ping Pan; James L. Gooding; Steve Aubuchon; Jonathon Foreman; C. Jay Lundgren

    1996-01-01

    Alternative models for the soils of Mars have invoked either the mineral nontronite (an iron-rich smectite clay) or the mineraliod palagonite (an oxidized, hydrated alteration product of basalt glass) as the major silicate component. Laboratory tests on representative terrestrial minerals demonstrate that nontronite is distinguishable from palagonite by their respective responses to combined thermal and evolved-gas analysis. When subjected to

  12. Gas, water, and oil production from Wattenberg field in the Denver Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.; Santus, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from selected wells in two tight gas reservoirs-the Codell-Niobrara interval, comprised of the Codell Sandstone Member of the Carlile Shale and the Niobrara Formation; and the Dakota J interval, comprised mostly of the Muddy (J) Sandstone of the Dakota Group; both intervals are of Cretaceous age-in the Wattenberg field in the Denver Basin of Colorado. Production from each well is represented by two samples spaced five years apart, the first sample typically taken two years after production commenced, which generally was in the 1990s. For each producing interval, summary diagrams and tables of oil-versus-gas production and water-versus-gas production are shown with fluid-production rates, the change in production over five years, the water-gas and oil-gas ratios, and the fluid type. These diagrams and tables permit well-to-well and field-to-field comparisons. Fields producing water at low rates (water dissolved in gas in the reservoir) can be distinguished from fields producing water at moderate or high rates, and the water-gas ratios are quantified. The Dakota J interval produces gas on a per-well basis at roughly three times the rate of the Codell-Niobrara interval. After five years of production, gas data from the second samples show that both intervals produce gas, on average, at about one-half the rate as the first sample. Oil-gas ratios in the Codell-Niobrara interval are characteristic of a retrograde gas and are considerably higher than oil-gas ratios in the Dakota J interval, which are characteristic of a wet gas. Water production from both intervals is low, and records in many wells are discontinuous, particularly in the Codell-Niobrara interval. Water-gas ratios are broadly variable, with some of the variability possibly due to the difficulty of measuring small production rates. Most wells for which water is reported have water-gas ratios exceeding the amount that could exist dissolved in gas at reservoir pressure and temperature. The Codell-Niobrara interval is reported to be overpressured (that is, pressure greater than hydrostatic) whereas the underlying Dakota J interval is underpressured (less than hydrostatic), demonstrating a lack of hydraulic communication between the two intervals despite their proximity over a broad geographical area. The underpressuring in the Dakota J interval has been attributed by others to outcropping strata east of the basin. We agree with this interpretation and postulate that the gas accumulation also may contribute to hydraulic isolation from outcrops immediately west of the basin.

  13. Multiple season, field scale exploration of biogenic gas dynamics in two peat soils of the Florida Everglades using hydrogeophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, W. J.; Comas, X.; Mount, G. J.; McClellan, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Peatlands are known to release significant amounts of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. However, uncertainties still remain regarding the spatio-temporal distribution and triggering mechanisms of gas releasing events from peat soils. Furthermore, most research regarding peatland gas dynamics has historically been focused on high latitude peatlands, while recent works have suggested gas production rates from low-latitude peat soils may be higher than those from colder climates. Varying temporal and spatial scales have also shown marked differences in flux rates, thus questioning the appropriate scale for gas flux quantification. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical tool that has successfully been used in the past to non-invasively investigate the release of biogenic gasses from northern peat soils, and has only recently been used in the subtropical Florida Everglades. This study is based on an array of measurements at four field sites, spanning two different peat types (Loxahatchee and Everglades peats) of the Florida Everglades over a period of two years. At each site, gas contents within the soil are monitored using the GPR method, which is supported by direct gas flux measurements using flux chambers and time-lapse photography, and surface deformation is monitored using differential leveling. Resulting data highlight the variability of gas dynamics based on spatial, temporal, and soil compositional differences.

  14. DETERMINATION OF INTERFERING TRIAZINE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Deethyl atrazine (DEA), along with other triazine degradation products, has been added to the US Environmental Protection Agency's Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). In its gas chromatographic (GC) analysis, deethyl atrazine, a degradation product of atrazine, can ...

  15. An attempt to explore the production routes of Astatine radionuclides: Theoretical approach

    E-print Network

    Maiti, Moumita

    2008-01-01

    In order to fulfil the recent thrust of Astatine radionuclides in the field of nuclear medicine various production routes have been explored in the present work. The possible production routes of $^{209-211}$At comprise both light and heavy ion induced reactions at the bombarding energy range starting from threshold to maximum 100 MeV energy. For this purpose, we have used the nuclear reaction model codes TALYS, ALICE91 and PACE-II. Excitation functions of those radionuclides, produced through various production routes, have been calculated using nuclear reaction model codes and compared with the available measured data. Contribution of various reaction mechanisms, like, direct, preequilibrium and equilibrium reactions, to the total reaction cross section has been studied using the codes. Result shows that equilibrium reaction mechanism dominates in all cases over other reaction mechanisms.

  16. An attempt to explore the production routes of Astatine radionuclides: Theoretical approach

    E-print Network

    Moumita Maiti; Susanta Lahiri

    2008-12-16

    In order to fulfil the recent thrust of Astatine radionuclides in the field of nuclear medicine various production routes have been explored in the present work. The possible production routes of $^{209-211}$At comprise both light and heavy ion induced reactions at the bombarding energy range starting from threshold to maximum 100 MeV energy. For this purpose, we have used the nuclear reaction model codes TALYS, ALICE91 and PACE-II. Excitation functions of those radionuclides, produced through various production routes, have been calculated using nuclear reaction model codes and compared with the available measured data. Contribution of various reaction mechanisms, like, direct, preequilibrium and equilibrium reactions, to the total reaction cross section has been studied using the codes. Result shows that equilibrium reaction mechanism dominates in all cases over other reaction mechanisms.

  17. Volumetric strain associated with methane desorption and its impact on coalbed gas production from deep coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, X.J.; Bustin, R.M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Earth & Ocean Science

    2005-09-01

    For deep coal seams, significant reservoir pressure drawdown is required to promote gas desorption because of the Langmuir-type isotherm that typifies coals. Hence, a large permeability decline may occur because of pressure drawdown and the resulting increase in effective stress, depending on coal properties and the stress field during production. However, the permeability decline can potentially be offset by the permeability enhancement caused by the matrix shrinkage associated with methane desorption. The predictability of varying permeability is critical for coalbed gas exploration and production-well management. We have investigated quantitatively the effects of reservoir pressure and sorption-induced volumetric strain on coal-seam permeability with constraints from the adsorption isotherm and associated volumetric strain measured on a Cretaceous Mesaverde Group coal (Piceance basin) and derived a stress-dependent permeability model. Our results suggest that the favorable coal properties that can result in less permeability reduction during earlier production and an earlier strong permeability rebound (increase in permeability caused by coal shrinkage) with methane desorption include (1) large bulk or Young's modulus; (2) large adsorption or Langmuir volume; (3) high Langmuir pressure; (4) high initial permeability and dense cleat spacing; and (5) low initial reservoir pressure and high in-situ gas content. Permeability variation with gas production is further dependent on the orientation of the coal seam, the reservoir stress field, and the cleat structure. Well completion with injection of N2 and displacement of CH{sub 4} only results in short-term enhancement of permeability and does not promote the overall gas production for the coal studied.

  18. Incineration of biomass and utilization of product gas as a CO_2 source for crop production in closed systems: gas quality and phytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.; Patterson, M.; Wignarajah, K.; Flynn, M.

    1997-01-01

    This study addressed the recycle of carbon from inedible biomass to CO_2 for utilization in crop production. Earlier work identified incineration as an attractive approach to resource recovery from solid wastes because the products are well segregated. Given the effective separation of carbon into the gaseous product stream from the incinerator in the form of CO_2 we captured the gaseous stream produced during incineration of wheat inedible biomass and utilized it as the CO_2 source for crop production. Injection rate was based on maintenance of CO_2 concentration in the growing environment. The crop grown in the closed system was lettuce. Carbon was primarily in the form of CO_2 in the incinerator product gas with less than 8% of carbon compounds appearing as CO. Nitrogen oxides and organic compounds such as toluene, xylene, and benzene were present in the product gas at lower concentrations (<4 mumol mol^-1) sulfur containing compounds were below the detection limits. Direct utilization of the gaseous product of the incinerator as the CO_2 source was toxic to lettuce grown in a closed chamber. Net photosynthetic rates of the crop was suppressed more than 50% and visual injury symptoms were visible within 3 days of the introduction of the incinerator gas. Even the removal of the incinerator gas after two days of crop exposure and replacement with pure CO_2 did not eliminate the toxic effects. Both organic and inorganic components of the incinerator gas are candidates for the toxin.

  19. Incineration of biomass and utilization of product gas as a CO2 source for crop production in closed systems: gas quality and phytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    This study addressed the recycle of carbon from inedible biomass to CO2 for utilization in crop production. Earlier work identified incineration as an attractive approach to resource recovery from solid wastes because the products are well segregated. Given the effective separation of carbon into the gaseous product stream from the incinerator in the form of CO2 we captured the gaseous stream produced during incineration of wheat inedible biomass and utilized it as the CO2 source for crop production. Injection rate was based on maintenance of CO2 concentration in the growing environment. The crop grown in the closed system was lettuce. Carbon was primarily in the form of CO2 in the incinerator product gas with less than 8% of carbon compounds appearing as CO. Nitrogen oxides and organic compounds such as toluene, xylene, and benzene were present in the product gas at lower concentrations (<4 ?mol mol-1) sulfur containing compounds were below the detection limits. Direct utilization of the gaseous product of the incinerator as the CO2 source was toxic to lettuce grown in a closed chamber. Net photosynthetic rates of the crop was suppressed more than 50% and visual injury symptoms were visible within 3 days of the introduction of the incinerator gas. Even the removal of the incinerator gas after two days of crop exposure and replacement with pure CO2 did not eliminate the toxic effects. Both organic and inorganic components of the incinerator gas are candidates for the toxin.

  20. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-01-01

    Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced

  1. Use of an In Vitro Gas Production Technique to Evaluate Some Nigerian Feedstuffs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Akinfemi; Adu O. Adesanya; V. E. Ay

    3 Abstract: In vitro gas production techniques stimulate the rumen fermentation process and they have been used to evaluate the potential of feedstuffs to supply nutrients to ruminants. Thus, five agricultural wastes: cassava peels (CPS), maize cobs (MCB), orange pulps (OPL), guinea corn threshed tops (GTH) and yam peels (YPS) were evaluated using an in vitro gas production technique. The

  2. Geographically-Distributed Databases: A Big Data Technology for Production Analysis in the Oil & Gas Industry

    E-print Network

    SPE 167844 Geographically-Distributed Databases: A Big Data Technology for Production Analysis advances in the scientific field of "big-data" to the world of Oil & Gas upstream industry. These off-of-the-start IT technologies currently employed in the data management of Oil & Gas production operations. Most current

  3. Principal decomposition by-products generated at various abnormalities in gas-insulated transformers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Mukaiyama; I. Takagi; H. Ishihara; A. Kudo; Y. Makino; N. Hosokawa

    1994-01-01

    Gas analysis provides a promising means for a diagnosis of gas-insulated equipment. Although many studies have been concentrated on SF[sub 6] gas decomposition, they were mostly related to the faults in GIS systems and not directly applicable to gas-insulated transformers, who have much complicated material structure. An experimental survey over decomposition by-products at various abnormal conditions was carried out by

  4. Recovery of gas from hydrate deposits using conventional production technology. [Salt-frac technique

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    Methane hydrate gas could be a sizeable energy resource if methods can be devised to produce this gas economically. This paper examines two methods of producing gas from hydrate deposits by the injection of hot water or steam, and also examines the feasibility of hydraulic fracturing and pressure reduction as a hydrate gas production technique. A hydraulic fracturing technique suitable for hydrate reservoirs is also described.

  5. Radioxenon production through neutron irradiation of stable xenon gas

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Derek A.; Biegalski, Steven R.; Foltz Biegalski, Kendra M.

    2009-12-01

    The Spectral Deconvolution Analysis Tool (SDAT) software was developed to improve counting statistics and detection limits for nuclear explosion radionuclide measurements. SDAT utilizes spectral deconvolution spectroscopy techniques and can analyze both ?-? coincidence spectra for radioxenon isotopes and high-resolution HPGe spectra from aerosol monitors. The deconvolution algorithm of the SDAT requires a library of ?-? coincidence spectra of individual radioxenon isotopes to determine isotopic ratios in a sample. In order to get experimentally produced spectra of the individual isotopes we have irradiated enriched samples of 130Xe, 132Xe, and 134Xe gas with a neutron beam from the TRIGA reactor at The University of Texas. The samples produced were counted in an Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) style ?-? coincidence detector. The spectra produced show that this method of radioxenon production yields samples with very high purity of the individual isotopes for 131mXe and 135Xe and a sample with a substantial 133mXe to 133Xe ratio.

  6. Separation of Flue-Gas Scrubber Sludge into Marketable Products

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-02-28

    The reduction of sulfur oxides from high sulfur coal burning utility companies has resulted in the production of huge quantities of wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge. A typical 400 MW power station burning a coal containing 3.5% sulfur by weight and using a limestone absorbent would produce approximately 177,000 tons (dry weight) of scrubber sludge per year. This brownish colored, finely divided material contains calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2 H{sub 2}O), calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O), unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), and various other impurities such as fly-ash and iron oxide particles. The physical separation of the components of scrubber sludge would result in the re-use of this material. The primary use would be conversion to a highly pure synthetic gypsum. This technical report concentrates on the effect of baffle configuration on the separation of calcium sulfite/sulfate from limestone. The position of the baffles as they related to the feed inlet, and the quantity of the baffles were examined. A clean calcium sulfite/sulfate (less than 2.0% limestone by weight) was achieved with the combination of water-only cyclone and horizontally baffled column.

  7. Which Complementary Product Do You Like? Exploring the Effects of Complementary Products on the Patronage of Main Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seong-Yeon Park; Ku Yun Chung

    2011-01-01

    The market of complementary products, also known as third-party products, is becoming a type of industry and economy. According to The Fiscal Times (Oct 18, 2011), the global market for mobile phone accessories is expected to rake in an estimated $34 billion in revenue in 2011 and is predicted to hit an estimated $50.2 billion by 2015. Beyond being simply

  8. KIGAM Seafloor Observation System (KISOS) for the baseline study in monitoring of gas hydrate test production in the Ulleung Basin, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-rock; Chun, Jong-hwa

    2013-04-01

    For the baseline study in the monitoring gas hydrate test production in the Ulleung Basin, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) has developed the KIGAM Seafloor Observation System (KISOS) for seafloor exploration using unmanned remotely operated vehicle connected with a ship by a cable. The KISOS consists of a transponder of an acoustic positioning system (USBL), a bottom finding pinger, still camera, video camera, water sampler, and measuring devices (methane, oxygen, CTD, and turbidity sensors) mounted on the unmanned ROV, and a sediment collecting device collecting sediment on the seafloor. It is very important to monitoring the environmental risks (gas leakage and production water/drilling mud discharge) which may be occurred during the gas hydrate test production drilling. The KISOS will be applied to solely conduct baseline study with the KIGAM seafloor monitoring system (KIMOS) of the Korean gas hydrate program in the future. The large scale of environmental monitoring program includes the environmental impact assessment such as seafloor disturbance and subsidence, detection of methane gas leakage around well and cold seep, methane bubbles and dissolved methane, change of marine environments, chemical factor variation of water column and seabed, diffusion of drilling mud and production water, and biological factors of biodiversity and marine habitats before and after drilling test well and nearby areas. The design of the baseline survey will be determined based on the result of SIMAP simulation in 2013. The baseline survey will be performed to provide the gas leakage and production water/drilling mud discharge before and after gas hydrate test production. The field data of the baseline study will be evaluated by the simulation and verification of SIMAP simulator in 2014. In the presentation, the authors would like introduce the configuration of KISOS and applicability to the seafloor observation for the gas hydrate test production in the Ulleung Basin. This work was financially supported by the the Ministry of Knowledge Economy(MKE) and Gas Hydrate R/D Organization(GHDO)

  9. Application of industrial hygiene techniques for work-place exposure assessment protocols related to petro-chemical exploration and production field activities

    SciTech Connect

    Koehn, J. [CIH, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Standard industrial hygiene techniques for recognition, evaluation, and control can be directly applied to development of technical protocols for workplace exposure assessment activities for a variety of field site locations. Categories of occupational hazards include chemical and physical agents. Examples of these types of hazards directly related to oil and gas exploration and production workplaces include hydrocarbons, benzene, oil mist, hydrogen sulfide, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), asbestos-containing materials, and noise. Specific components of well process chemicals include potential hazardous chemical substances such as methanol, acrolein, chlorine dioxide, and hydrochloric acid. Other types of exposure hazards may result from non-routine conduct of sandblasting and painting operations.

  10. Identifying potential conflict associated with oil and gas exploration in Texas state coastal waters: A multicriteria spatial analysis.

    PubMed

    Brody, Samuel D; Grover, Himanshu; Bernhardt, Sarah; Tang, Zhenghong; Whitaker, Bianca; Spence, Colin

    2006-10-01

    Recent interest in expanding offshore oil production within waters of the United States has been met with opposition by groups concerned with recreational, environmental, and aesthetic values associated with the coastal zone. Although the proposition of new oil platforms off the coast has generated conflict over how coastal resources should be utilized, little research has been conducted on where these user conflicts might be most intense and which sites might be most suitable for locating oil production facilities in light of the multiple, and often times, competing interests. In this article, we develop a multiple-criteria spatial decision support tool that identifies the potential degree of conflict associated with oil and gas production activities for existing lease tracts in the coastal margin of Texas. We use geographic information systems to measure and map a range of potentially competing representative values impacted by establishing energy extraction infrastructure and then spatially identify which leased tracts are the least contentious sites for oil and gas production in Texas state waters. Visual and statistical results indicate that oil and gas lease blocks within the study area vary in their potential to generate conflict among multiple stakeholders. PMID:16933080

  11. Enhanced methane emissions from oil and gas exploration areas to the atmosphere--the central Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Hua-de; Zhai, Wei-dong; Zang, Kun-peng; Wang, Ju-ying

    2014-04-15

    The distributions of dissolved methane in the central Bohai Sea were investigated in November 2011, May 2012, July 2012, and August 2012. Methane concentration in surface seawater, determined using an underway measurement system combined with wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy, showed marked spatiotemporal variations with saturation ratio from 107% to 1193%. The central Bohai Sea was thus a source of atmospheric methane during the survey periods. Several episodic oil and gas spill events increased surface methane concentration by up to 4.7 times and raised the local methane outgassing rate by up to 14.6 times. This study demonstrated a method to detect seafloor CH4 leakages at the sea surface, which may have applicability in many shallow sea areas with oil and gas exploration activities around the world. PMID:24602676

  12. Exploring Evolution Through the Effects of Galaxy-Galaxy and Group Interactions on Gas Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fertig, Derek; Rosenberg, J. L.; Patton, D. R.; Ellison, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy-galaxy interactions are a driving force in galaxy evolution, producing changes in color, morphology, metallicity and enhancing star formation. Many factors contributing to these changes have been well studied such as environment and orientation of the interaction, however studies of the gas content have been limited. To address the question of how interactions affect the gas content of galaxy pairs, we present results from two studies taking different approaches to the question. We present results from a combined optical and HI 21 cm study of 102 galaxy pairs with projected separations up to 120 kpc and velocity differences less than 500 km/s. These pairs were selected from the SDSS spectroscopic survey and were also observed by the ALFALFA HI 21 cm survey. We use these data to study how interactions effect the SFE and HI gas content of these systems. From the second study we present initial results from VLA D-array observations of a galaxy group in which interactions appear to be removing much of the cold gas from the galaxies creating a large reservoir in the inter-group medium. We investigate how this removal of gas and subsequent reservoir impact the evolution of the galaxies within the group, particularly two systems which are transitioning through the green valley. This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-000167932 and a George Mason University Presidential Fellowship.

  13. Exploration the quantum and transport lifetimes of electron gas in partially alloyed AlGaAs quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Amir; Sadeghzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Khordad, Reza

    2015-07-01

    Low temperature transport and quantum lifetimes (?T,?Q) of two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) confined in the partially alloyed AlxGa1-xAs (with 0 < x < 0.01) quantum well have been explored. Scattering angle ? , 2DEG density ns , and alloy content x dependence of electron lifetimes due to screened short range (alloy disorder) and long range Coulomb interaction (remote and background charged impurities) scattering mechanisms have been evaluated. We explain how different components limit the total transport and quantum electron lifetimes. Finally, the theoretical lifetimes versus alloy content x has been exemplified with experimental results.

  14. Exploring the Impact of Marcellus Shale Gas on Welding and Related Occupations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This teacher's guide presents lessons on Marcellus Shale, which is sedimentary rock containing natural gas reserves. Students will look at how changes in the world affect their career options and choices; in this case looking at the welding occupations that are related to extracting gas from Marcellus Shale deposits. The unit is intended for grade 11 and would take seven to eight 45 minute class periods to complete in full. The material is specifically designed for students in Pennsylvania, but could be adapted for schools in other areas. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft Word file format.

  15. A new catalyst system for endothermic gas production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideaki Muraki; Shinichi Matunaga; Yoshiyasu Fujitani; Masayoshi Taki; Mineo Ogino

    1988-01-01

    Research has been conducted on a gas carburizing atmosphere system for better quality control and energy savings. In this\\u000a paper a new and excellent catalyst for producing endothermic gas at low temperatures is introduced.\\u000a \\u000a The conventional endothermic gas catalysts, such as a nickel catalyst, are used in a space velocity (SV) of 400–600\\/hr at\\u000a a high temperature (about 1100° C).

  16. Criteria for successful exploration for Miocene reef production in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Downey, M.W. (Roxanna Oil Co., Katy, TX (USA))

    1990-06-01

    An abundance of modern geologic, geophysical, and geochemical data has been provided to interested members of the petroleum industry by the Philippine government, in cooperation with the World Bank. These data have been analyzed to assess whether more, and larger, Miocene reef fields should be expected in the Philippines. In the past decade, exploration by Cities Service (OXY), Amoco, Alcorn, and others has resulted in the discovery of several small Miocene reef and Miocene sandstone oil fields in offshore Palawan. Phillips/Shell also made a significant gas discovery of about 750 bcf in a Palawan Miocene reef that is currently uneconomic to develop given the water depth (1,090 ft) and distance from users. Miocene reefs are commonly buried within Miocene clastics, and, where these impinging clastics are porous, they allow pathways for hydrocarbons to leak from the Miocene reefs. Drape closure is an important positive factor in assessing seal risk for Philippine Miocene reefs. Source rocks to charge middle and upper Miocene reefs are typically restricted to lower Miocene horizons. Geothermal gradients are modest in much of the Philippine offshore, and only select areas provide sufficient burial to mature and expel significant hydrocarbons. It is predicted by the author that additional, larger, and highly profitable Miocene reef fields will be found by future explorers in areas where Miocene reefs have drape closure top seals and are adjacent to deeply buried Miocene source rocks.

  17. Join Shell and Purdue for a series of discussions that will explore preventative measures to minimize risk of oil spills, the future of natural gas infrastructure, and

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    to minimize risk of oil spills, the future of natural gas infrastructure, and the challenges we face in our (refreshments served) 8:00am ­ 8:15am Opening 8:15am ­ 9:15am Panel Discussion: "Offshore Oil Spill Containment ENERGY DAY A Symposium on the New Frontiers in Oil and Natural Gas Exploration #12;

  18. A forecast of undiscovered oil and gas in the Frio strand plain trend: The unfolding of a very large exploration play

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Schuenemeyer; L. J. Drew

    1991-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the rate at which oil and gas fields were discovered in the Frio strand plain exploration play, which is located in the central coastal plain of Texas, and estimated the size distribution of the oil and gas fields remaining to be discovered. The analysis of past rates of discovery in this play provides insight

  19. Worldwide gas processing: Capacities as of January 1, 1996, and average production

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Data are presented for gas plant capacities and production by country, by companies within each country, and by state or province within larger countries. Data are presented for total capacity as well as for average production of ethane, propane, isobutane, butane, LP-gas mixtures, raw NGL mixtures, natural gasoline, and other products. Processes are absorption, refrigerated absorption, refrigeration, compression, adsorption, cryogenic-Joule-Thomson, cryogenic-expander, and H{sub 2}S removal.

  20. Analysis of the product gas from biomass gasification by means of laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karellas, S.; Karl, J.

    2007-09-01

    The use of biomass and waste for decentralised combined heat and power production (CHP) requires highly efficient gasification processes. In the Technische Universität München (TUM), an innovative gasification technology has been developed. This allothermal gasifier is producing a hydrogen- rich, high-calorific gas, that can be further used in a microturbine or a fuel cell producing energy. For the operation of such a system, the online analysis of the composition of the product gas is of high importance, since the efficient working of the machines is linked with the gas quality. For this purpose an optical measurement system based on laser spectroscopy has been applied. This system can measure not only the basic components of the product gas (H 2, CH 4, CO, CO 2, H 2O), but it also gives information concerning the content of high hydrocarbons, the so-called tars, in the product gas.

  1. Evaluation of in vitro gas production and rumen bacterial populations fermenting corn milling (co)products.

    PubMed

    Williams, W L; Tedeschi, L O; Kononoff, P J; Callaway, T R; Dowd, S E; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fermentation dynamics of 2 commonly fed corn (co)products in their intact and defatted forms, using the in vitro gas production (IVGP) technique, and to investigate the shifts of the predominant rumen bacterial populations using the 16S rDNA bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) technique. The bTEFAP technique was used to determine the bacterial profile of each fermentation time at 24 and 48 h. Bacterial populations were identified at the species level. Species were grouped by substrate affinities (guilds) for cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, starch, sugars, protein, lipids, and lactate. The 2 (co)products were a dried distillers grain (DDG) plus solubles produced from a low-heat drying process (BPX) and a high-protein DDG without solubles (HP). Chemical analysis revealed that BPX contained about 11.4% ether extract, whereas HP contained only 3.88%. Previous studies have indicated that processing methods, as well as fat content, of corn (co)products directly affect fermentation rate and substrate availability, but little information is available regarding changes in rumen bacterial populations. Fermentation profiles of intact and defatted BPX and HP were compared with alfalfa hay as a standard profile. Defatting before incubation had no effect on total gas production in BPX or HP, but reduced lag time and the fractional rate of fermentation of BPX by at least half, whereas there was no effect for HP. The HP feed supported a greater percentage of fibrolytic and proteolytic bacteria than did BPX. Defatting both DDG increased the fibrolytic (26.8 to 38.7%) and proteolytic (26.1 to 37.2%) bacterial guild populations and decreased the lactate-utilizing bacterial guild (3.06 to 1.44%). Information regarding the fermentation kinetics and bacterial population shifts when feeding corn (co)products may lead to more innovative processing methods that improve feed quality (e.g., deoiling) and consequently allow greater inclusion rates in dairy cow rations. PMID:20855008

  2. Study explores space weather risk to natural gas pipeline in Finland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Risto Pirjola; Antti Pulkkinen; Ari Viljanen; Heikki Nevanlinna; Kari Pajunpää

    1999-01-01

    Data being collected on the Finnish natural gas pipeline are providing a basis for estimating the space weather risk for the pipeline and for designing possible countermeasures. Finland's high latitude location makes such systems prone to problems caused by geomagnetically induced currents (GICs),but so far no harm has been detected. The statistical GIC risk in the Finnish high-voltage power system

  3. Ocean Exploration: Exploring Explorations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson serves as an introduction to the discoveries and benefits that have resulted from exploration of the Earth's deep oceans. Students will be able to describe at least three human benefits from and identify separate examples of deep ocean exploration. All of the lessons emphasize hands-on activities using online data resources, and each inquiry-based activity includes focus questions, learning objectives, teaching time, background information, evaluations and extensions, as well as resources and student handouts.

  4. ANALYSIS OF THERMAL DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS OF FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of reactions of several flue gas conditioning agents in a laboratory-scale facility simulating conditions in the flue gas train of a coal-burning power plant. Primary purposes of the study were to characterize the chemical species resulting fro...

  5. 30 CFR 1206.174 - How do I value gas production when an index-based method cannot be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false How do I value gas production when an index-based...Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas § 1206.174 How do I...

  6. 30 CFR 1206.174 - How do I value gas production when an index-based method cannot be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false How do I value gas production when an index-based...Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas § 1206.174 How do I...

  7. 30 CFR 1206.174 - How do I value gas production when an index-based method cannot be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false How do I value gas production when an index-based...Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas § 1206.174 How do I...

  8. Applied reaction dynamics: Efficient synthesis gas production via single collision partial oxidation of methane to CO on Rh,,111...

    E-print Network

    Sibener, Steven

    Applied reaction dynamics: Efficient synthesis gas production via single collision partial dissociation. These results demonstrate the efficient conversion of methane to synthesis gas, CO+2H2 fuel production Fischer-Tropsch or methanol synthesis . Moreover, under the reaction conditions

  9. Drilling and Production Testing the Methane Hydrate Resource Potential Associated with the Barrow Gas Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Steve McRae; Thomas Walsh; Michael Dunn; Michael Cook

    2010-02-22

    In November of 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Slope Borough (NSB) committed funding to develop a drilling plan to test the presence of hydrates in the producing formation of at least one of the Barrow Gas Fields, and to develop a production surveillance plan to monitor the behavior of hydrates as dissociation occurs. This drilling and surveillance plan was supported by earlier studies in Phase 1 of the project, including hydrate stability zone modeling, material balance modeling, and full-field history-matched reservoir simulation, all of which support the presence of methane hydrate in association with the Barrow Gas Fields. This Phase 2 of the project, conducted over the past twelve months focused on selecting an optimal location for a hydrate test well; design of a logistics, drilling, completion and testing plan; and estimating costs for the activities. As originally proposed, the project was anticipated to benefit from industry activity in northwest Alaska, with opportunities to share equipment, personnel, services and mobilization and demobilization costs with one of the then-active exploration operators. The activity level dropped off, and this benefit evaporated, although plans for drilling of development wells in the BGF's matured, offering significant synergies and cost savings over a remote stand-alone drilling project. An optimal well location was chosen at the East Barrow No.18 well pad, and a vertical pilot/monitoring well and horizontal production test/surveillance well were engineered for drilling from this location. Both wells were designed with Distributed Temperature Survey (DTS) apparatus for monitoring of the hydrate-free gas interface. Once project scope was developed, a procurement process was implemented to engage the necessary service and equipment providers, and finalize project cost estimates. Based on cost proposals from vendors, total project estimated cost is $17.88 million dollars, inclusive of design work, permitting, barging, ice road/pad construction, drilling, completion, tie-in, long-term production testing and surveillance, data analysis and technology transfer. The PRA project team and North Slope have recommended moving forward to the execution phase of this project.

  10. 40 CFR Table W-1b to Subpart W of... - Default Average Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment W Table...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Pt. 98, Subpt. W...Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment Major...

  11. 40 CFR Table W-1b to Subpart W of... - Default Average Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment W Table...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Pt. 98, Subpt. W...Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment Major...

  12. Corrosion inhibitor testing and selection for exploration and production: A user`s perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Kapusta, S.D. [Shell Global Solutions, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-11-01

    The selection of corrosion inhibitors for field use is often based on laboratory and field testing of candidate products. At present, there are no universally accepted tests to compare the performance and other properties of candidate products. This paper describes a test protocol that can help inhibitor users with the testing and selection of inhibitors for use against CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S corrosion in oil and gas production, and that allows the screening of a large number of candidates, in a relatively cost-effective manner. The selection is based on two criteria: performance (effectiveness) against corrosion at the expected conditions, and compatibility with the injection and production systems, and with other chemicals. Performance is mostly affected by two factors: temperature, and to a lesser extent flow velocity. On that basis, three levels of increasing testing requirements have been defined: conditions green, yellow, and red. Under mild or well-established conditions (low pressure and temperature, existing operations) performance testing may not be required; however, compatibility testing is always recommended.

  13. Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 States, 1980 through 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to analyze monthly natural gas wellhead productive capacity in the lower 48 States from 1980 through 1992 and project this capacity from 1993 through 1995. For decades, natural gas supplies and productive capacity have been adequate to meet demand. In the 1970`s the capacity surplus was small because of market structure (split between interstate and intrastate), increasing demand, and insufficient drilling. In the early 1980`s, lower demand, together with increased drilling, led to a large surplus capacity as new productive capacity came on line. After 1986, this large surplus began to decline as demand for gas increased, gas prices fell, and gas well completions dropped sharply. In late December 1989, the decline in this surplus, accompanied by exceptionally high demand and temporary weather-related production losses, led to concerns about the adequacy of monthly productive capacity for natural gas. These concerns should have been moderated by the gas system`s performance during the unusually severe winter weather in March 1993 and January 1994. The declining trend in wellhead productive capacity is expected to be reversed in 1994 if natural gas prices and drilling meet or exceed the base case assumption. This study indicates that in the low, base, and high drilling cases, monthly productive capacity should be able to meet normal production demands through 1995 in the lower 48 States (Figure ES1). Exceptionally high peak-day or peak-week production demand might not be met because of physical limitations such as pipeline capacity. Beyond 1995, as the capacity of currently producing wells declines, a sufficient number of wells and/or imports must be added each year in order to ensure an adequate gas supply.

  14. Advancing New 3D Seismic Interpretation Methods for Exploration and Development of Fractured Tight Gas Reservoirs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Reeves

    2005-01-01

    In a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and GeoSpectrum, Inc., new P-wave 3D seismic interpretation methods to characterize fractured gas reservoirs are developed. A data driven exploratory approach is used to determine empirical relationships for reservoir properties. Fractures are predicted using seismic lineament mapping through a series of horizon and time slices in the reservoir zone. A

  15. Potential biodefense model applications for portable chlorine dioxide gas production.

    PubMed

    Stubblefield, Jeannie M; Newsome, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    Development of decontamination methods and strategies to address potential infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorism events are pertinent to this nation's biodefense strategies and general biosecurity. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas has a history of use as a decontamination agent in response to an act of bioterrorism. However, the more widespread use of ClO2 gas to meet current and unforeseen decontamination needs has been hampered because the gas is too unstable for shipment and must be prepared at the application site. Newer technology allows for easy, onsite gas generation without the need for dedicated equipment, electricity, water, or personnel with advanced training. In a laboratory model system, 2 unique applications (personal protective equipment [PPE] and animal skin) were investigated in the context of potential development of decontamination protocols. Such protocols could serve to reduce human exposure to bacteria in a decontamination response effort. Chlorine dioxide gas was capable of reducing (2-7 logs of vegetative and spore-forming bacteria), and in some instances eliminating, culturable bacteria from difficult to clean areas on PPE facepieces. The gas was effective in eliminating naturally occurring bacteria on animal skin and also on skin inoculated with Bacillus spores. The culturable bacteria, including Bacillus spores, were eliminated in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Results of these studies suggested portable, easily used ClO2 gas generation systems have excellent potential for protocol development to contribute to biodefense strategies and decontamination responses to infectious disease outbreaks or other biothreat events. PMID:25812425

  16. Worldwide gas processing: Capacities as of January 1, 1997, and average production

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-06-02

    Tables are presented on the capacity for and average production of ethane, propane, isobutane, butane, liquid petroleum gases, natural gas liquids, and natural gasoline. Data are presented by country and by company within each country, state, or province. Another table presents data on sulfur production by company within each country, state, or province. Design capacity, production, desulfurization process, and sulfur source are listed.

  17. 30 CFR 1206.174 - How do I value gas production when an index-based method cannot be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false How do I value gas production when an index-based method...ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas § 1206.174 How do I value gas production when an index-based...

  18. Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant

    SciTech Connect

    Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

  19. Hydrogeology of a coal-seam gas exploration area, southeastern British Columbia, Canada: Part 2. Modeling potential hydrogeological impacts associated with depressurizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, S.; Molson, J.; Abercrombie, H.; Barker, J.

    2000-12-01

    A three-dimensional, finite-element flow model was used to assess the hydrogeological effects of depressurizing coalbeds lying in the Weary Creek exploration block, Elk River valley, southeastern British Columbia, Canada. The simulation results permit, at an early stage, assessment of the environmental and economic implications of how the flow system may respond to depressurization. Estimated reservoir conditions for the coal-seam gas targets lying within the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Mist Mountain Formation indicate that the coalbeds must be depressurized by up to 350 m to attain the critical gas desorption pressure. The simulations suggest that depressurizing has little effect on groundwater flux to the Elk River. Simulated water production for three depressurizing wells operating under steady-state, single-phase flow for initial reservoir conditions of 13 and 16.5 cm3/g is 645 m3/d (4,057 barrels/d) and 355 m3/d (2,233 barrels/d), respectively. Groundwaters collected from monitoring wells have relatively low salinity, ranging from about 250-1,300 mg/L. The groundwater is supersaturated with respect to Ca-Mg-Fe carbonates (calcite, dolomite, and siderite) and Al-bearing silicates, including kaolinite and illite. Dissolved trace-metal concentrations are low; only Fe, Cd, Cr, and Zn exceed Canadian water-quality guidelines for aquatic life. Groundwaters were devoid of the more soluble monocyclic aromatic organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and polycyclic aromatic compounds, including naphthalene.

  20. Geomechanical Development of Fractured Reservoirs During Gas Production 

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jian

    2013-04-05

    Within fractured reservoirs, such as tight gas reservoir, coupled processes between matrix deformation and fluid flow are very important for predicting reservoir behavior, pore pressure evolution and fracture closure. To study the coupling between...

  1. Measurement of product alignment in beam-gas chemiluminescent reactions

    E-print Network

    Zare, Richard N.

    development of molecular beam scat- tering studies. What experimental information that is available has been chemiluminescence method as applied to beam-gas scat- tering experiments. Conservation of angular momentum states

  2. Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content

    SciTech Connect

    Najjar, M.S.; Corbeels, R.J.; Kokturk, U.

    1989-07-25

    This patent describes a process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content. It comprises partial oxidizing fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800{sup 0}-2200{sup 0}F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H/sub 2/ and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and a sodium-iron sulfide phase. This patent describes a process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content. It comprises partially oxidizing a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800{sup 0}-2200{sup 0}F in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound, a sodium-containing compound portion, and a copper-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H/sub 2/ and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and a sodium-copper-iron sulfide phase.

  3. SynGas Production from Organic Waste Using Non-Thermal-Pulsed Discharge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young N. Chun; Si W. Kim; Hyoung O. Song; Jae O. Chae

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a technology that can convert biogas to synthesis gas (SynGas), a low-emission substituted energy, using a non-thermal-pulsed plasma method. To investigate the characteristics of Syn-Gas production from simulated biogas, the reforming characteristics in relation to variations in pulse frequency, biogas component ratio (C3H8\\/CO2), vapor flow ratio (H2O\\/total flow rate [TFR]), biogas velocity,

  4. Exploring the limits of crop productivity: beyond the limits of tipburn in lettuce

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frantz, Jonathan M.; Ritchie, Glen; Cometti, Nilton N.; Robinson, Justin; Bugbee, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    The productivity of lettuce in a combination of high light, high temperature, and elevated CO2 has not been commonly studied because rapid growth usually causes a calcium deficiency in meristems called tipburn, which greatly reduces quality and marketability. We eliminated tipburn by blowing air directly onto the meristem, which allowed us to increase the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) to 1000 micromoles m-2 s-1 (57.6 mol m-2 d-1); two to three times higher than normally used for lettuce. Eliminating tipburn doubled edible yield at the highest PPF level. In addition to high PPF, CO2 was elevated to 1200 micromoles m-2 mol-1, which increased the temperature optimum from 25 to 30 degrees C. The higher temperature increased leaf expansion rate, which improved radiation capture and more than doubled yield. Photosynthetic efficiency, measured as canopy quantum yield in a whole-plant gas exchange system, steadily increased up to the highest temperature of 32 degrees C in high CO2. The highest productivity was 19 g m-2 d-1 of dry biomass (380 g d-1 fresh mass) averaged over the 23 days the plants received light. Without the limitation of tipburn, the combination of high PPF, high temperature, and elevated CO2 resulted in a 4-fold increase in growth rate over productivity in conventional environments.

  5. Accounting for Adsorbed gas and its effect on production bahavior of Shale Gas Reservoirs 

    E-print Network

    Mengal, Salman Akram

    2010-10-12

    in previous literature are reviewed to include adsorbed gas in them. More over end of the transient time data can also be used to estimate OGIP. Kings modified z* and Bumb and McKee’s adsorption compressibility factor for adsorbed gas are used in this work...

  6. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY: PRODUCTION AND TRANSMISSION EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a co-funded, Gas Research Institute/EPA project to quantify methane emissions to the atmosphere resulting from operations in the natural gas industry. tudy results will measure or calculate all methane emissions, from production at the well and up to, but not ...

  7. Workshop in environmental issues associated with western hemisphere oil and gas production

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Representatives from several U.S. and Latin American oil and gas companies, and government representatives, met in Montevideo, Uruguay, on May 4-6, 1994, to discuss regulation, cooperation, and management of environmental issues associated with oil and gas production. This report presents a brief summary of the topics discussed at the meeting.

  8. Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas and Energy Analyses of Algae Biofuels Production

    E-print Network

    Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas and Energy Analyses of Algae Biofuels Production Transportation Energy The Issue Algae biofuels directly address the Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research fuels more carbonintensive than conventional biofuels. Critics of this study argue that alternative

  9. Evidence of Pressure Dependent Permeability in Long-Term Shale Gas Production and Pressure Transient Responses 

    E-print Network

    Vera Rosales, Fabian 1986-

    2012-12-11

    The current state of shale gas reservoir dynamics demands understanding long-term production, and existing models that address important parameters like fracture half-length, permeability, and stimulated shale volume assume constant permeability...

  10. Oil and gas leasing/production program: Annual report/FY 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-31

    As the Congress declares in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA), the oil and gas production from the outer Continental Shelf (OCS) constitutes an important part of the Nation's domestic energy supply. (See Introduction, page 1.) The OCS is administered within the Department of the Interior, by the Minerals Management Service (MMS), which provides access to potential new sources of oil and gas offshore by conducting lease sales. (See MMS Organizational Chart.) Each year, on or before March 31, the MMS as mandated by OCSLA, presents to Congress a fiscal year annual report on the OCS oil and gas leasing and production program. In FY 1989, the MMS with its OCS oil and gas leasing and production program was the fourth largest producer of revenue for the US treasury at more than $2.9 billion. This report summarizes the leasing and production activities on the OCS during FY 1989. 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Regional air quality impacts of increased natural gas production and use in Texas.

    PubMed

    Pacsi, Adam P; Alhajeri, Nawaf S; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Webster, Mort D; Allen, David T

    2013-04-01

    Natural gas use in electricity generation in Texas was estimated, for gas prices ranging from $1.89 to $7.74 per MMBTU, using an optimal power flow model. Hourly estimates of electricity generation, for individual electricity generation units, from the model were used to estimate spatially resolved hourly emissions from electricity generation. Emissions from natural gas production activities in the Barnett Shale region were also estimated, with emissions scaled up or down to match demand in electricity generation as natural gas prices changed. As natural gas use increased, emissions decreased from electricity generation and increased from natural gas production. Overall, NOx and SO2 emissions decreased, while VOC emissions increased as natural gas use increased. To assess the effects of these changes in emissions on ozone and particulate matter concentrations, spatially and temporally resolved emissions were used in a month-long photochemical modeling episode. Over the month-long photochemical modeling episode, decreases in natural gas prices typical of those experienced from 2006 to 2012 led to net regional decreases in ozone (0.2-0.7 ppb) and fine particulate matter (PM) (0.1-0.7 ?g/m(3)). Changes in PM were predominantly due to changes in regional PM sulfate formation. Changes in regional PM and ozone formation are primarily due to decreases in emissions from electricity generation. Increases in emissions from increased natural gas production were offset by decreasing emissions from electricity generation for all the scenarios considered. PMID:23441728

  12. Lemont B. Kier: a bibliometric exploration of his scientific production and its use.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Guillermo; Llanos, Eugenio J; Silva, Adriana E

    2013-12-01

    We thought an appropriate way to celebrate the seminal contribution of Kier is to explore his influence on science, looking for the impact of his research through the citation of his scientific production. From a bibliometric approach the impact of Kier's work is addressed as an individual within a community. Reviewing data from his curriculum vitae, as well as from the ISI Web of Knowledge (ISI), his role within the scientific community is established and the way his scientific results circulate is studied. His curriculum vitae is explored emphasising the approaches he used in his research activities and the social ties with other actors of the community. The circulation of Kier's publications in the ISI is studied as a means for spreading and installing his discourse within the community. The citation patterns found not only show the usage of Kier's scientific results, but also open the possibility to identify some characteristics of this discursive community, such as a common vocabulary and common research goals. The results show an interdisciplinary research work that consolidates a scientific community on the topic of drug discovery. PMID:24138421

  13. Multihadron production dynamics exploring energy balance in hadronic to nuclear collisions

    E-print Network

    Sarkisyan, Edward K G; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sakharov, Alexander S

    2015-01-01

    The multihadron production in nucleus-nucleus collisions and its interrelation with that in (anti)proton-proton interactions are studied by exploring the charged particle mean multiplicity collision-energy and centrality dependencies in the measurements to date. The study is performed in the framework of the recently proposed effective-energy approach which, under the proper scaling of the collision energy, combines the constituent quark picture with Landau relativistic hydrodynamics counting for the centrality-defined effective energy of participants and relating different types of collisions. Within this approach, the multiplicity energy dependence and the pseudorapidity spectra from the most central nuclear collisions are well reproduced. The study of the multiplicity centrality dependence reveals a new scaling between the measured pseudorapidity spectra and the calculations. By means of this scaling, called the energy balanced limiting fragmentation scaling, one reproduces the pseudorapidity spectra for a...

  14. Changes in Gas Production and Retention in Non-Prefermented Frozen Wheat Doughs1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. EL-HADY; S. K. EL-SAMAHY; W. SEIBEL; J.-M. BRUMMER

    Cereal Chem. 73(4):472-477 The effect of freezing conditions, flour protein content, yeast type, -20'C for the same period. The risograph total gas production was water amount, and freeze-thaw cycles during storage on rheological decreased by 33.4% for frozen dough after four weeks storage. More- properties and gas production in non-prefermented frozen wheat doughs over, the reduction was 49.7% as a

  15. Fuel NOx pollution production during the combustion of a low caloric value fuel gas

    E-print Network

    Caraway, John Phillip

    1995-01-01

    FUEL NO, POLLUTION PRODUCTION DURING THE COMBUSTION OF A LOW CALORIC VALUE FUEL GAS A Thesis by JOHN PHILLIP CARAWAY Submitted to the Otftce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1995 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering FUEL NO, POLLUTION PRODUCTION DURING THE COMBUSTION OF A LOW CALORIC VALUE FUEL GAS A Thesis by JOHN PHILLIP CARAWAY Submitted to Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment...

  16. Water alternating enriched gas injection to enhance oil production and recovery from San Francisco Field, Colombia

    E-print Network

    Rueda Silva, Carlos Fernando

    2003-01-01

    ) using Kulin oil (21 'API oil Irom Indonesia). ' The same effect of production acceleration was observed in these experiments and steam injectivity was improved with the addition of propane to the steam. Rivero and Mamora (2002) conducted several steam... studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil. ' With steam-propane injection no improvement on production and oil recovery was obtained. Enriched gas injection increase the oil recovery in 13'/o, (74'/o OOIP with 5...

  17. Water alternating enriched gas injection to enhance oil production and recovery from San Francisco Field, Colombia 

    E-print Network

    Rueda Silva, Carlos Fernando

    2003-01-01

    ) using Kulin oil (21 'API oil Irom Indonesia). ' The same effect of production acceleration was observed in these experiments and steam injectivity was improved with the addition of propane to the steam. Rivero and Mamora (2002) conducted several steam... studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil. ' With steam-propane injection no improvement on production and oil recovery was obtained. Enriched gas injection increase the oil recovery in 13'/o, (74'/o OOIP with 5...

  18. Increasing Well Productivity in Gas Condensate Wells in Qatar's North Field 

    E-print Network

    Miller, Nathan

    2010-07-14

    INCREASING WELL PRODUCTIVITY IN GAS CONDENSATE WELLS IN QATAR?S NORTH FIELD A Thesis by NATHAN MILLER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2009 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering INCREASING WELL PRODUCTIVITY IN GAS CONDENSATE WELLS IN QATAR?S NORTH FIELD A Thesis by NATHAN MILLER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies...

  19. General screening criteria for shale gas reservoirs and production data analysis of Barnett shale 

    E-print Network

    Deshpande, Vaibhav Prakashrao

    2009-05-15

    group is found in Tarrant and Parker counties and acts as a frac barrier between the Barnett and the Ellenburger formation. The Ellenburger formation is a very porous, karsted aquifer 22 that if fractured will produce copious amounts of highly saline... Basin 23 The three most important production related structures in the basin include both major and minor faulting, fracturing, and karst-related collapse features 25 . Fracturing is important to gas production because it provides a conduit for gas...

  20. Gas production and transport during bench-scale electrical resistance heating of water and trichloroethene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegele, P. R.; Mumford, K. G.

    2014-09-01

    The effective remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones using in situ thermal treatment requires successful capture of gas that is produced. Replicate electrical resistance heating experiments were performed in a thin bench-scale apparatus, where water was boiled and pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) trichloroethene (TCE) and water were co-boiled in unconsolidated silica sand. Quantitative light transmission visualization was used to assess gas production and transport mechanisms. In the water boiling experiments, nucleation, growth and coalescence of the gas phase into connected channels were observed at critical gas saturations of Sgc = 0.233 ± 0.017, which allowed for continuous gas transport out of the sand. In experiments containing a colder region above a target heated zone, condensation prevented the formation of steam channels and discrete gas clusters that mobilized into colder regions were trapped soon after discontinuous transport began. In the TCE-water experiments, co-boiling at immiscible fluid interfaces resulted in discontinuous gas transport above the DNAPL pool. Redistribution of DNAPL was also observed above the pool and at the edge of the vapor front that propagated upwards through colder regions. These results suggest that the subsurface should be heated to water boiling temperatures to facilitate gas transport from specific locations of DNAPL to extraction points and reduce the potential for DNAPL redistribution. Decreases in electric current were observed at the onset of gas phase production, which suggests that coupled electrical current and temperature measurements may provide a reliable metric to assess gas phase development.

  1. Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content

    DOEpatents

    Najjar, Mitri S. (Hopewell Junction, NY); Corbeels, Roger J. (Wappingers Falls, NY); Kokturk, Uygur (Wappingers Falls, NY)

    1989-01-01

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

  2. A new production logging method for fullbore gas holdup measurements in cased wells

    SciTech Connect

    Waid, M.C.; Madigan, W.P.; Smith, H.D. Jr. [and others

    1996-12-31

    The measurement of the gas holdup in a flowing cased-hole environment is a fundamentally difficult problem. Gas holdup, the estimate percent of gas in a volume of wellbore, has traditionally been computed from fluid density measurements. These estimates are inadequate for determining gas holdup in deviated or horizontal wells since the fluid density was not a fullbore measurement. A new Gas Holdup Tool (GHT{trademark}) has been developed which provides a more accurate technique for obtaining gas holdup measurements directly. This 1 11/16-inch production logging tool is used to determine the volumetric fraction of gas in horizontal, deviated, and vertical cased wells, and provides a log of the gas holdup fraction (from 0% to 100%) in all flow regimes. Examples are presented for comparing homogeneous and stratified flows. The tool uses a low-energy Co-57 source and NaI detectors with a new backscatter technique to accurately measure density differences of the total fluid and gas in the borehole around the tool. This new measurement provides the gas fraction (holdup) in all flow regimes, and is not affected by the materials outside the casing. Monte Carlo modeling and experimental data over a wide range of cased-hole conditions validate empirical relationships between detector count rates and gas holdup for various casing diameters. The sensitivity of the measurement to other factors, such as pressure, salinity, and fluid type, are also investigated. The new production logging method may be used in determining points of gas and oil entry into deviated or horizontal wells and for quantitative production logging in deviated or horizontal wells with variable or unknown flow regimes.

  3. Outsourcing of common industry data within a major oil and gas exploration company

    SciTech Connect

    Hude, C.G. (Amoco Production Company, Houston, TX (United States)); Glover, S. (Petroleum Information Corp., Denver, CO (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Enhancing user productivity while reducing internal costs through improved accessibility and virtual elimination of data and software maintenance were the initial goals of this project. We achieved these objectives through the outsourcing of common well and production data with a major vendor. In this paper, we outline the changing internal business operations of a major oil company and its associated vendor relationship. The goals of this project were multifold: provide our users with real-time access to nationwide well and production data, eliminate data and system software maintenance and support, redeploy computer system resources and personnel for use elsewhere within the organization, and continue to provide users with the same level of service at less cost. We established a satisfactory interface between the users and the vendor database by employing existing technology. A mainframe-to-mainframe connection was established by installing a leased line between the two host sites. This allowed both companies to use existing network facilities with minimal modifications to each operating environment. This project was begun successfully in a relatively short time. Due to the success of this project, we are evaluating adding company proprietary data. However, because technology and requirements change, relational delivery of the data within a workstation/server environment can be addressed within this framework.

  4. Educating students and stakeholders about shale gas production using a physical model of hydraulic fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stute, M.; Garten, L.

    2013-12-01

    Natural gas from shale gas deposits in the United States can potentially help reduce the dependency on foreign energy sources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and improve economic development in currently depressed regions of the country. However, the hydraulic fracturing process (';fracking') employed to release natural gas from formation such as the Marcellus Shale in New York State and Pennsylvania carries significant environmental risks, in particular for local and regional water resources. The current polarized discussion of the topic needs to be informed by sound data and a better understanding of the technical, scientific, social, and economic aspects of hydrofracking. We developed, built and tested an interactive portable physical model of the gas production by hydrofracking that can be used in class rooms and at public events to visualize the procedures and associated risks including the dynamics of water, gas and fracking fluids. Dyes are used to identify shale, fracking fluids and backflow and can be traced in the adjacent groundwater system. Gas production is visualized by a CO2 producing acid/bicarbonate solution reaction. The tank was shown to considerably improve knowledge of environmental issues related to unconventional gas production by hydrofracking in an advanced undergraduate course.

  5. Coupling Hydraulic Fracturing Propagation and Gas Well Performance for Simulation of Production in Unconventional Shale Gas Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Winterfeld, P. H.; Wu, Y. S.; Wang, Y.; Chen, D.; Yin, C.; Pan, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing combined with horizontal drilling has made it possible to economically produce natural gas from unconventional shale gas reservoirs. An efficient methodology for evaluating hydraulic fracturing operation parameters, such as fluid and proppant properties, injection rates, and wellhead pressure, is essential for the evaluation and efficient design of these processes. Traditional numerical evaluation and optimization approaches are usually based on simulated fracture properties such as the fracture area. In our opinion, a methodology based on simulated production data is better, because production is the goal of hydraulic fracturing and we can calibrate this approach with production data that is already known. This numerical methodology requires a fully-coupled hydraulic fracture propagation and multi-phase flow model. In this paper, we present a general fully-coupled numerical framework to simulate hydraulic fracturing and post-fracture gas well performance. This three-dimensional, multi-phase simulator focuses on: (1) fracture width increase and fracture propagation that occurs as slurry is injected into the fracture, (2) erosion caused by fracture fluids and leakoff, (3) proppant subsidence and flowback, and (4) multi-phase fluid flow through various-scaled anisotropic natural and man-made fractures. Mathematical and numerical details on how to fully couple the fracture propagation and fluid flow parts are discussed. Hydraulic fracturing and production operation parameters, and properties of the reservoir, fluids, and proppants, are taken into account. The well may be horizontal, vertical, or deviated, as well as open-hole or cemented. The simulator is verified based on benchmarks from the literature and we show its application by simulating fracture network (hydraulic and natural fractures) propagation and production data history matching of a field in China. We also conduct a series of real-data modeling studies with different combinations of hydraulic fracturing parameters and present the methodology to design these operations with feedback of simulated production data. The unified model aids in the optimization of hydraulic fracturing design, operations, and production.

  6. Using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography to explore the geochemistry of the Santa Barbara oil seeps

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Christopher; Nelson, Robert

    2013-03-27

    The development of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) has expanded the analytical window for studying complex mixtures like oil. Compared to traditional gas chromatography, this technology separates and resolves at least an order of magnitude more compounds, has a much larger signal to noise ratio, and sorts compounds based on their chemical class; hence, providing highly refined inventories of petroleum hydrocarbons in geochemical samples that was previously unattainable. In addition to the increased resolution afforded by GC x GC, the resulting chromatograms have been used to estimate the liquid vapor pressures, aqueous solubilities, octanol-water partition coefficients, and vaporization enthalpies of petroleum hydrocarbons. With these relationships, powerful and incisive analyses of phase-transfer processes affecting petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in the environment are available. For example, GC x GC retention data has been used to quantitatively deconvolve the effects of phase transfer processes such as water washing and evaporation. In short, the positive attributes of GC x GC-analysis have led to a methodology that has revolutionized the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons. Overall, this research has opened numerous fields of study on the biogeochemical "?genetics" (referred to as petroleomics) of petroleum samples in both subsurface and surface environments. Furthermore, these new findings have already been applied to the behavior of oil at other seeps as well, for petroleum exploration and oil spill studies.

  7. Arachidonic acid-rich oil production by Mortierella alpina with different gas distributors.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhi-Kui; Ji, Xiao-Jun; Shang, Jing-Sheng; Zhang, Ai-Hui; Ren, Lu-Jing; Huang, He

    2014-06-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA)-rich oil production by Mortierella alpina is a high oxygen demand and shear-sensitive process. In the aerobic fermentation process, oxygen supply is usually a limiting factor owing to the low solubility of oxygen in the fermentation broth. Two kinds of perforated ring gas distributors and a novel microporous ceramic membrane gas distributor were designed and applied to improve oxygen supply. With the decrease of the orifice diameter of perforated ring gas distributors, dry cell weight (DCW), lipids concentration, and ARA content in total fatty acid increased from 17.86 g/L, 7.08 g/L, and 28.08 % to 25.67 g/L, 11.94 g/L, and 36.99 %, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of different dissolved oxygen (DO) on ARA-rich oil production with membrane gas distributor was also studied. The maximum DCW, lipid concentration, and ARA content using membrane gas distributor with DO controlled at 40 % reached 29.67 g/L, 16.74 g/L, and 49.53 %, respectively. The ARA titer increased from 1.99 to 8.29 g/L using the membrane gas distributor to substitute the perforated ring gas distributor. In the further experiment, a novel tubular titanium metal membrane gas distributor was successfully applied in a 7,000 L bioreactor and the results demonstrated that membrane gas distributor was industrially practical. PMID:24374968

  8. Monotoring of mangrove ecosystem in relation with exploration and production activities

    SciTech Connect

    Alamsyah, C.; Dwistiadi, D.

    1996-11-01

    From Indonesia`s initial 13 million hectares of mangrove forests, presently only 2.6 million hectares remains which must be certainly protected. Mangrove swamps are of considerable ecological importance not only because of their use as spawning and feeding grounds for a many variety of fish and shrimps but also of economical importance and last but not least as coastal protection. In such a sensitive ecosystem, i.e. in the mangrove swamp area of Mahakam Delta in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, TOTAL Indonesie, an affiliate of the French oil company {open_quotes}TOTAL{close_quotes} and one of the production sharing contractors of PERTAMINA, the Indonesian owned state oil company, has undertaken its E&P operations since 1974. Realizing the sensitivity of the mangrove area, TOTAL Indonesie has undertaken continuous monitoring of the environment as part of its Environmental Management System. This monitoring is very important not only to measure the impact to the mangrove ecosystem in particular due to TOTAL Indonesie activities but also as a feed back for the environmental management. Physicochemical and biological aspects of the environment are monitored and various measurements are taken covering: (1) Hydrology and hydrodynamics of the water streams i.e. the water quality, productivity and flow characteristic of the region (2) Sedimentation and biodegradation (3) The influence of accidental and chronic pollution mangrove ecosystem (3) Sensitivity of the mangroves. The above monitoring has led to the conclusion that after more than 20 years of operation, there has significant adverse impact to the mangrove ecosystem by the exploration and production activities of Indonesie.

  9. Production of natural gas from methane hydrate by a constant downhole pressure well

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadi, G. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY); Ji, C. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY); Smith, D.H.

    2007-07-01

    Natural gas production from the dissociation of methane hydrate in a confined reservoir by a depressurizing downhole well was studied. The case that the well pressure was kept constant was treated, and two different linearization schemes in an axisymmetric configuration were used in the analysis. For different fixed well pressures and reservoir temperatures, approximate self similar solutions were obtained. Distributions of temperature, pressure and gas velocity field across the reservoir were evaluated. The distance of the decomposition front from the well and the natural gas production rate as functions of time were also computed. Time evolutions of the resulting profiles were presented in graphical forms, and their differences with the constant well output results were studied. It was shown that the gas production rate was a sensitive function of well pressure and reservoir temperature. The sensitivity of the results to the linearization scheme used was also studied.

  10. Variability of oil and gas well productivities for continuous (unconventional) petroleum accumulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, oil and gas well productivities were estimated using decline-curve analysis for thousands of wells as part of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources in the United States. The estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs) of these wells show great variability that was analyzed at three scales: within an assessment unit (AU), among AUs of similar reservoir type, and among groups of AUs with different reservoir types. Within a particular oil or gas AU (such as the Barnett Shale), EURs vary by about two orders of magnitude between the most productive wells and the least productive ones (excluding those that are dry and abandoned). The distributions of EURs are highly skewed, with most of the wells in the lower part of the range. Continuous AUs were divided into four categories based on reservoir type and major commodity (oil or gas): coalbed gas, shale gas, other low-permeability gas AUs (such as tight sands), and low-permeability oil AUs. Within each of these categories, there is great variability from AU to AU, as shown by plots of multiple EUR distributions. Comparing the means of each distribution within a category shows that the means themselves have a skewed distribution, with a range of approximately one to two orders of magnitude. A comparison of the three gas categories (coalbed gas, shale gas, and other low-permeability gas AUs) shows large overlap in the ranges of EUR distributions. Generally, coalbed gas AUs have lower EUR distributions, shale gas AUs have intermediate sizes, and the other low-permeability gas AUs have higher EUR distributions. The plot of EUR distributions for each category shows the range of variation among developed AUs in an appropriate context for viewing the historical development within a particular AU. The Barnett Shale is used as an example to demonstrate that dividing wells into groups by time allows one to see the changes in EUR distribution. Subdivision into groups can also be done by vertical versus horizontal wells, by length of horizontal completion, by distance to closest previously drilled well, by thickness of reservoir interval, or by any other variable for which one has or can calculate values for each well. The resulting plots show how one can subdivide the total range of productivity in shale-gas wells into smaller subsets that are more appropriate for use as analogs.

  11. Geochemical Monitoring Of The Gas Hydrate Production By CO2/CH4 Exchange In The Ignik Sikumi Gas Hydrate Production Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenson, T. D.; Collett, T. S.; Ignik Sikumi, S.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrocarbon gases, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water were collected from production streams at the Ignik Sikumi gas hydrate production test well (TD, 791.6 m), drilled on the Alaska North Slope. The well was drilled to test the feasibility of producing methane by carbon dioxide injection that replaces methane in the solid gas hydrate. The Ignik Sikumi well penetrated a stratigraphically-bounded prospect within the Eileen gas hydrate accumulation. Regionally, the Eileen gas hydrate accumulation overlies the more deeply buried Prudhoe Bay, Milne Point, and Kuparuk River oil fields and is restricted to the up-dip portion of a series of nearshore deltaic sandstone reservoirs in the Sagavanirktok Formation. Hydrate-bearing sandstones penetrated by Ignik Sikumi well occur in three primary horizons; an upper zone, ("E" sand, 579.7 - 597.4 m) containing 17.7 meters of gas hydrate-bearing sands, a middle zone ("D" sand, 628.2 - 648.6 m) with 20.4 m of gas hydrate-bearing sands and a lower zone ("C" sand, 678.8 - 710.8 m), containing 32 m of gas hydrate-bearing sands with neutron porosity log-interpreted average gas hydrate saturations of 58, 76 and 81% respectively. A known volume mixture of 77% nitrogen and 23% carbon dioxide was injected into an isolated section of the upper part of the "C" sand to start the test. Production flow-back part of the test occurred in three stages each followed by a period of shut-in: (1) unassisted flowback; (2) pumping above native methane gas hydrate stability conditions; and (3) pumping below the native methane gas hydrate stability conditions. Methane production occurred immediately after commencing unassisted flowback. Methane concentration increased from 0 to 40% while nitrogen and carbon dioxide concentrations decreased to 48 and 12% respectively. Pumping above the hydrate stability phase boundary produced gas with a methane concentration climbing above 80% while the carbon dioxide and nitrogen concentrations fell to 2 and 18% respectively. Pumping below the gas hydrate stability phase boundary occurred in two periods with the composition of the produced gases continually increasing in methane reaching an excess of 96%, along with carbon dioxide decreasing to <1% and nitrogen to ~3%. The isotopic composition of all the gases was monitored. Methane carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions remained stable throughout the test, while the carbon dioxide carbon became isotopically heavier. Nitrogen isotopic composition remained stable or became slightly isotopically depleted at the later phase of the test. These results imply that the produced methane was not isotopically fractionated, whereas carbon dioxide was fractionated becoming isotopically heavier at the end of each production phase. In addition, water samples were analyzed during the production phase documenting an increase in salinity.

  12. Production of liquid fuels with a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Quade; D. L. Vrable; L. Green Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An exploration is made of the technical, economic and environmental impact feasibility of integrating coal liquefaction methods directly and indirectly with a nuclear reactor source of process heat, with stress on the production of synthetic jet fuel. Production figures and operating costs are compared for indirect conventional and nuclear processes using Lurgi-Fischer-Tropsch technology with direct conventional and nuclear techniques employing

  13. Impact of biochar field aging on laboratory greenhouse gas production potentials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent observations of decreased greenhouse gas (GHG) production from biochar amended soils have been used to further substantiate the environmental benefit of biochar production and soil incorporation strategies. However, the mechanisms behind the “biochar effect” have not been fully elucidated. In...

  14. CO2 gas production understanding above a partly flooded coal post-mining area

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CO2 gas production understanding above a partly flooded coal post-mining area Candice Lagnya, a former coal mining area. To understand the origin of this production, a borehole of 90 meters deep located above a former coal mine associated with a rising water table. These variations are characterized

  15. NITROGEN AND OTHER TRACE-GAS EMISSIONS FROM SWINE PRODUCTION IN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current storage, processing/recycling, and disposal techniques for wastes in animal production systems present a challenge to minimize negative impacts on air-quality and global change trace-gas losses to the environment. The use of animal wastes for biofuels production represents a potential to co...

  16. Simple and rapid analysis of methyldibromo glutaronitrile in cosmetic products by gas chromatography mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuela Pellegrini; Elena Bossù; Maria Concetta Rotolo; Roberta Pacifici; Simona Pichini

    2011-01-01

    A simple and rapid gas chromatography (GC) method with mass spectrometry (MS) detection has been developed for the determination of methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN) in cosmetic products. The presence of this preservative in commercial cosmetic samples is prohibited since 2007 because of its allergenic properties. The analyzed products were opportunely diluted in methanol and MDBGN was separated by fused silica capillary

  17. Coalbed gas production, Big Run and Pine Grove fields, Wetzel County, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Patchen, D.G.; Schwietering, J.F.; Avary, K.L.; Repine, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    The West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey (WVGES) conducted a Geologic Evaluation of Critical Production Parameters for Coalbed Methane Resources in the Northern Appalachian Coal Basin.'' During the initial phase of the project, the authors examined thousands of old drillers' logs in a search for gas production and gas shows from coalbeds between the Sewickley coal (Monongahela Group) and the base of the Pottsville Group. In this regional approach to this project, they attempted to correlate these coals throughout a narrow elliptical area extending from the Pennsylvania border to Calhoun County using cable tool drillers' records and wire-line log character. In their field-scale task, they attempted to relate gas production to geologic parameters in Wetzel County where gas has been produced from the Pittsburgh and Sewickley coals in a half-dozen small areas. This report focuses on geologic parameters and production data gathered from the two largest productive areas, the Big Run and Pine Grove fields. The report describes field histories, geologic structures, stratigraphy, and gas occurrence and production.

  18. EFFECTS ON CHP PLANT EFFICIENCY OF H2 PRODUCTION THROUGH PARTIAL OXYDATION OF NATURAL GAS OVER TWO GROUP VIII METAL

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EFFECTS ON CHP PLANT EFFICIENCY OF H2 PRODUCTION THROUGH PARTIAL OXYDATION OF NATURAL GAS OVER TWO with natural gas in spark ignition engines can increase for electric efficiency. In-situ H23 production for spark ignition engines fuelled by natural gas has therefore been investigated recently, and4 reformed

  19. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction of iron oxides in blast

    E-print Network

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    Hydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction (syngas) can be produced from steam reforming (SR) of coke oven gas (COG). When the reforming gas is used 2012 Available online 18 June 2012 Keywords: Steam reforming Hydrogen and syngas production Coke oven

  20. From Paper to Production: An Update on NASA's Upper Stage Engine for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kynard, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The NASA/industry team responsible for developing the J-2X Upper Stage Engine for the Constellation Program's Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles has made significant progress toward moving the design from paper to production during the past year. The J-2X exemplifies the Constellation goal of using proven technology and experience from more than 50 years of United States spaceflight experience and seeking where possible to employ common hardware in the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The J-2X will power the Ares I upper stage to place the Orion crew vehicle in orbit. For the Ares V, the J-2X will place the Earth departure stage (EDS) and lunar lander in orbit and later re-start to send the Orion and lander to the Moon. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is under contract to develop and produce the engine, leveraging its flight-proven LH2/LOX, gas generator cycle J-2 and RS-68 engine capabilities, recent experience with the X-33 aerospike XRS-2200 engine, and development knowledge of the J-2S tap-off cycle engine. The J-2X employs a gas generator operating cycle designed to produce 294,000 pounds of thrust in primary operating mode for the Ares I and Ares V ascent phases. It also has a secondary mode, during which it operates at 80 percent thrust by altering its mixture ratio to perform the TLI burn for the Ares V lunar sortie and lunar cargo missions. The J-2X development philosophy is based on proven hardware, an aggressive development schedule, and early risk reduction. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and PWR began development of the J-2X in June 2006. The government/industry team of more than 600 people within NASA and PWR successfully completed the Critical Design Review (CDR) in November 2008, following extensive risk mitigation testing. The team is working toward a first flight of the J-2X on the Orion 1 mission in 2014. This paper will discuss the J-2X development background and provide top-level information on design and testing to date. Details will be provided on overcoming challenges such as gas generator instability, turbine blade life, and nozzle extension selection and materials.

  1. Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Shikoku Industry and Technology Promotion Center, 2-5 Marunouchi, Takamatsu, Kagawa 760-0033 (Japan)

    2006-06-05

    We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid.

  2. Production of durene and gasoline from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Fowles, P. E.; Yan, T. Y.

    1985-06-18

    Synthesis gas is catalytically converted to a feedstock comprising durene and gasoline. Durene is recovered from the feedstock by cooling it to a point where crystallization occurs and separating the crystallized durene. The durene subsequently is washed with a wash fluid. The wash fluid which can be methanol, is returned to a process wherein it is converted to gasoline and durene. The separated mother liquor is added to the gasoline fraction.

  3. Production of sulfur from sulfur dioxide obtained from flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.

    1989-06-06

    This patent describes a regenerable process for recovery of elemental sulfur from a gas containing sulfur dioxide comprising the steps of: contacting the gas with an aqueous, alkaline reaction medium containing sodium sulfite in concentration sufficient so that a slurry containing solid sodium sulfide is formed to react sulfur dioxide with sodium sulfite to form a solution containing dissolved sodium pyrosulfite and sodium sulfite; separating sulfur dioxide from the solution produced to leave a residual mixture containing water, sodium sulfite and a sodium pyrosulfite, the amount of sulfur dioxide separated being equal to about one-third the amount of sulfur dioxide which reacted with sodium sulfite; adding, in substantial absence of air, sufficient water and sodium bicarbonate to the residual mixture to react with the dissolved sodium pyrsulfide and form a slurry of solid sodium sulfite suspended in the resulting aqueous, alkaline reaction medium and gaseous carbon dioxide; separating the gaseous carbon dioxide; separating the solid sodium sulfite from the aqueous alkaline reaction medium and recycling the separated reaction medium; reducing the separated sodium sulfite to sodium sulfide; adding the sodium sulfide to an aqueous reaction medium containing sodium bicarbonate and, in the substantial absence of air, carbonating the resulting mixture with the gaseous carbon dioxide to form a slurry of solid particles of sodium bicarbonate dispersed in an aqueous reactor medium containing sodium bicarbonate, along with a gas composed primarily of hydrogen sulfide.

  4. Fast-quench reactor for hydrogen and elemental carbon production from natural gas and other hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Kong, Peter C.

    2006-08-29

    A fast-quench reactor for production of diatomic hydrogen and unsaturated carbons is provided. During the fast quench in the downstream diverging section of the nozzle, such as in a free expansion chamber, the unsaturated hydrocarbons are further decomposed by reheating the reactor gases. More diatomic hydrogen is produced, along with elemental carbon. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The product is a substantially clean-burning hydrogen fuel that leaves no greenhouse gas emissions, and elemental carbon that may be used in powder form as a commodity for several processes.

  5. Stress-dependence of Porosity and Permeability of Upper Jurassic Bossier Shale: Implications for Gas in Place Calculations and Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Reinhard; Merkel, Alexej; Krooss, Bernhard; Amann-Hildenbrand, Alexandra; Gensterblum, Yves

    2015-04-01

    Information on porosity and permeability at realistic sub-surface (in situ) stress conditions is a prerequisite for successful exploration and production of shale gas. In order to study the effects of elastic pore compressibility on these parameters, porosity and permeability coefficients of three Upper Jurassic Bossier Shale samples were determined at stress levels up to 40 MPa. Pore volume compressibility ? was measured using a gas expansion technique by helium (He) expansion from a calibrated volume into the pore system of the confined sample. The recorded decrease in specific pore volume (Vp) with increasing effective stress was fitted by an exponential function: Vp = Vp,0 e (-? ?') Unstressed specific pore volume Vp,0 of the samples corresponds to an unstressed porosity (?0) between 3 - 7 %. At the in situ effective stress value (?') of ~60 MPa, Vp had decreased between 8 - 13 %. Steady-state permeability tests were performed with six different gases and external stress levels up to 40 MPa. Apparent gas permeability coefficients (kgas) increase with decreasing mean pore pressure (pm) due to slip flow (Klinkenberg-effect): kgas = k? (1 + b/pm) Klinkenberg-corrected (intrinsic) permeability coefficients (k?) decrease with increasing effective stress while slip factors (b) increase. The experimental results were fitted by exponential expressions: k? = k?,0 e (-?k ?') b = b0 e (-?b ?') Increasing slip factors indicate that the average effective pore diameters of the shale sample are significantly reduced with increasing effective stress. During production of a shale gas reservoir the pore pressure is reduced. Apparent permeability coefficients will increase due to slip flow whereas poro-elastic deformation will lead to a decrease in permeability during production. Based on the parameters derived from the experimental data the permeability coefficients for CH4 were tentatively modelled for a hypothetical production history of a Bossier shale reservoir. Reduction of pore pressure results in a decrease of permeability throughout most stages of production following the exponential poro-elastic relationship. At pore pressures between 2.5 and 6.5 MPa, apparent permeability reaches a minimum and then, with further decrease of pore pressure, the (apparent) gas permeability coefficient increases due to slip flow.

  6. Analysis of eastern Devonian gas shales production data. Final report, July 1984-May 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, D.E.; Lee, W.J.; Gatens, J.M.

    1987-05-01

    This report summarizes the final results, conclusions, and recommendations from a study of well-test and production data from over 1600 Devonian Shale gas wells. The key accomplishment of the study was the development of a number of new analytical tools for well test and production data analysis including (1) an analytical production data analysis model, (2) an analytical well test analysis model, (3) an automatic history matching algorithm, (4) a set of production data anlysis type curves, and (5) the SUGARIII reservoir simulator. Although developed primarily for analyzing data from Devonian Shale gas wells, these tools are generally applicable to the analysis of well test and production data from a variety of reservoirs. From a systematic analysis of long-term production data, the permeability-thickness product was found to be the only reservoir property which can be accurately and uniquely determined from history-matching production data. Gas in place can also be determined provided that sufficient production data are available. Empirical equations were developed for predicting well performance from kh and GIP and from past production data when available.

  7. Potential energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of hydrogen production from coke oven gas in U.S. Steel Mills.

    SciTech Connect

    Joseck, F.; Wang, M.; Wu, Y.; Energy Systems; DOE

    2008-02-01

    For this study, we examined the energy and emission effects of hydrogen production from coke oven gas (COG) on a well-to-wheels basis and compared these effects with those of other hydrogen production options, as well as with those of conventional gasoline and diesel options. We then estimated the magnitude of hydrogen production from COG in the United States and the number of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) that could potentially be fueled with the hydrogen produced from COG. Our analysis shows that this production pathway can achieve energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction benefits. This pathway is especially worth considering because first, the sources of COG are concentrated in the upper Midwest and in the Northeast United States, which would facilitate relatively cost-effective collection, transportation, and distribution of the produced hydrogen to refueling stations in these regions. Second, the amount of hydrogen that could be produced may fuel about 1.7 million cars, thus providing a vital near-term hydrogen production option for FCV applications.

  8. Facing Today's Exploration Challenges in the Gulf of Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Detomo

    2005-01-01

    The Gulf of Mexico represents one of the most intensively explored basins in the world, and yet it still delivers significant new material oil and gas discoveries every year. Because of it high productivity, geologic complexity, competitive acreage access and large profitability margins, the Gulf of Mexico presents many industry-leading challenges to Exploration today. For major companies exploring for oil

  9. Overview of the 2006-2008 JOGMEC/NRCan/Aurora Mallik Gas Hydrate Production Test Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Dallimore, S. R.

    2008-12-01

    During the winters of 2007 and 2008 the Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC) and Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), with Aurora Research Institute as the operator, carried out an on-shore gas hydrate production test program at the Mallik site, Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada. The prime objective of the program was to verify the feasibility of depressurization technique by drawing down the formation pressure across a 12m perforated gas hydrate bearing section. This project was the second full scale production test at this site following the 2002 Japex/JNOC/GSC et al Mallik research program in which seven participants organizatinos from five countries undertook a thermal test using hot water circulation Field work in 2007 was devoted to establishing a production test well, installing monitoring devices outside of casing, conducting base line geophysical studies and undertaking a short test to gain practical experience prior to longer term testing planned for 2008 . Hydrate-dissociated gas was produced to surface by depressurization achieved by lowering the fluid level with a dowhole pump. However, the operation was terminated 60 hours after the start of the pumping mainly due to sand production problems. In spite of the short period (12.5 hours of ellapsed pumping time), at least 830m3 of the gas was produced and accumulated in the borehole. Sand screens were installed across the perforated interval at the bottom hole for the 2008 program to overcome operational problems encountered in 2007 and achieve sustainable gas production. Stable bottom hole flowing pressures were successfully achieved during a 6 day test with continuous pump operation. Sustained gas production was achieved with rates between 2000- 4000m3/day and cummulative gas volume in the surface of approximately 13,000m3. Temperature and pressure data measured at the bottom hole and gas and water production rates gave positive evidence for the high efficiency of gas production through depressurization method. Pre and post produciton testing geophysical logging program, geochemical analyses and monitoring tools outside of the casing also derived the supporting data for the formation responses to the depressurization. Acknowledgements: METI, MH21, JOGMEC and NRCan, Government of NWT, 2002 partners, IPM, R&D team members.

  10. Batch and continuous butanol fermentations with free cells: integration with product recovery by gas-stripping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Groot; R. G. J. M. van der Lans; K. Ch. A. M. Luyben

    1989-01-01

    In a butanol batch fermentation the substrate consumption was increased threefold using in-situ product recovery by gas-stripping, in comparison with a control fermentation without product recovery. In a continuous fermentation in-situ recovery led to an increase in the biomass concentration, resulting in a threefold increase in productivity. The substrate consumption was increased by 10%. An external stripper was used as

  11. Computerized system to optimize daily oil and gas production in Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, G.M.; Shehata, M.T.

    1982-03-01

    A description is given of an integrated computer system, the Selective Production Scheduling (SPS) system, that is used by the management of Kuwait Oil Co. (KOC) for scheduling oil and gas production in daily operations. The system is able to draw together management objectives by determining operational variables to produce an optimal schedule of production. The mathematical techniques of linear programming are used in selecting the optimal schedule. 2 refs.

  12. The production of activated silica with carbon dioxide gas

    E-print Network

    Hayes, William Bell

    1956-01-01

    Silicate Feed System. Page III. Main Orifice Mixer and Phase Separator. . . . 22 IV. Exploded View of Main Mixing Orifice. . . , . 26 V. Phase Separator Construction VI. Gel Time of Activated Silica Sols. VII. Sulfur Dioxide Content of Flue Gas versus...- tion of an acldf. c material or other activant. It is usually wrf. t ten as $102 2. Sol, This I. s a general term applied to colloi- dal disperslons as distinguished from true solutions. S. Gel, A silf. ca gel ls a heavf. ly hvdrated, in- terlaced...

  13. The production of activated silica with carbon dioxide gas 

    E-print Network

    Hayes, William Bell

    1956-01-01

    . Descri. ption of Equipment Operation of Equi. pment aly t i cal Procedure Discussion of Results, , 18 , 32 . 35 Conclusions, , 51 He fe rences Appendiw . 54 , 56 LIST OF FIGVRES I. Synthetic Flue Gas Feed Svstem II. Water and Sodium... as a conventional coagulant aid. Activated silica is prepared by the total or par- tial neutralization of the sodium oxide of sodium sili- cate. It is a member of a class of chemicals which must be prepared at the point of use, Prior preparation...

  14. Design and Analysis of a Scalable In-situ Cryogen Production Facility for Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrick, D. E.; Nieczkoski, S. J.; Duke, M. B.; Gardner, T. Q.

    2006-04-01

    A system demonstration of a scalable cryogen production facility will be necessary to establish the feasibility of in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) as part of NASA's Space Exploration Initiative. Cryogenic fluids such as liquid oxygen, hydrogen, and methane will be required for propellants for return vehicle propulsion, life support consumables, power generation, and precursors for the refinement of structural materials. A key technology necessary for the realization of a cryogenic ISRU system is high-efficiency cryocoolers that can enable low-temperature thermal processing of extracted volatile materials for separation, liquefaction, and zero boiloff (ZBO) storage. This paper addresses the design and analysis of the following pertinent technologies: (1) producing a concentrated feedstock from low partial-pressure volatile constituents to drive chemical and thermal reaction operations, (2) balancing unit feed and effluent flows and molecular species to derive system efficiency and capture of high-purity cryogenic fluids, (3) thermal isolation of cryogenically cooled stages from ambient and elevated temperature subsystems to achieve power efficiency and thermal stability, and (4) developing a reverse-Brayton cycle cryocooler that provides cooling at 20 K for liquefying and sustaining hydrogen storage.

  15. Impacts of Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Production on Regional Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarthout, R.; Russo, R. S.; Zhou, Y.; Mitchell, B.; Miller, B.; Lipsky, E. M.; Sive, B. C.

    2012-12-01

    Natural gas is a clean burning alternative to other fossil fuels, producing lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions during combustion. Gas deposits located within shale rock or tight sand formations are difficult to access using conventional drilling techniques. However, horizontal drilling coupled with hydraulic fracturing is now widely used to enhance natural gas extraction. Potential environmental impacts of these practices are currently being assessed because of the rapid expansion of natural gas production in the U.S. Natural gas production has contributed to the deterioration of air quality in several regions, such as in Wyoming and Utah, that were near or downwind of natural gas basins. We conducted a field campaign in southwestern Pennsylvania on 16-18 June 2012 to investigate the impact of gas production operations in the Marcellus Shale on regional air quality. A total of 235 whole air samples were collected in 2-liter electropolished stainless- steel canisters throughout southwestern Pennsylvania in a regular grid pattern that covered an area of approximately 8500 square km. Day and night samples were collected at each grid point and additional samples were collected near active wells, flaring wells, fluid retention reservoirs, transmission pipelines, and a processing plant to assess the influence of different stages of the gas production operation on emissions. The samples were analyzed at Appalachian State University for methane (CH4), CO2, C2-C10 nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), C1-C2 halocarbons, C1-C5 alkyl nitrates and selected reduced sulfur compounds. In-situ measurements of ozone (O3), CH4, CO2, nitric oxide (NO), total reactive nitrogen (NOy), formaldehyde (HCHO), and a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were carried out at an upwind site and a site near active gas wells using a mobile lab. Emissions associated with gas production were observed throughout the study region. Elevated mixing ratios of CH4 and CO2 were observed in the southwest and northeast portions of the study area indicating multiple emission sources. We also present comparisons of VOC fingerprints observed in the Marcellus Shale to our previous observations of natural gas emissions from the Denver-Julesburg Basin in northeast Colorado to identify tracers for these different natural gas sources.

  16. Processes affecting greenhouse gas production in experimental boreal reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkiteswaran, Jason J.; Schiff, Sherry L.; St. Louis, Vincent L.; Matthews, Cory J. D.; Boudreau, Natalie M.; Joyce, Elizabeth M.; Beaty, Kenneth G.; Bodaly, R. Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Flooding land for water reservoir creation has many environmental impacts including the production of the greenhouse gases (GHG) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). To assess processes governing GHG emissions from the flooding of terrestrial carbon, three experimental reservoirs were constructed in upland boreal forest areas of differing carbon stores as part of the Flooded Upland Dynamics Experiment (FLUDEX). We calculated process-based GHG budgets for these reservoirs over 5 years following the onset of flooding. Stable isotopic budgets of carbon were necessary to separate community respiration (CR), which produces CO2, from net primary production (NPP), which consumes CO2, and to separate CH4 production from CH4 consumption via oxidation. NPP removed up to 44% of the CO2 produced from CR. CR and NPP exhibited different year-after-year trends. CH4 flux to the atmosphere increased about twofold over 3 years, yet isotopic budgets showed CH4 production in flooded soils increased nearly tenfold. CH4 oxidation near the flooded soil-water interface greatly decreased the CH4 flux from the water column to the atmosphere. Ebullition was the most important conduit of CH4 to the atmosphere after 3 years. Although CH4 production increased with time, the total GHG flux, in CO2 equivalents, declined. Contrary to expectations, neither CR nor total GHG fluxes were directly related to the quantity of organic carbon flooded. Instead, these reservoirs produced a strikingly similar amount of CO2 equivalents over 5 years.

  17. Exploration of kinetic and multiple-ion-fluids effects in D3He and T3He gas-filled ICF implosions using multiple nuclear reaction histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sio, Hong; Rinderknecht, Hans; Rosenberg, Michael; Zylstra, Alex; Séguin, Fredrick; Gatu Johnson, Maria; Li, Chikang; Petrasso, Richard; Hoffman, Nelson; Kagan, Krigory; Molvig, Kim; Amendt, Peter; Bellei, Claudio; Wilks, Scott; Stoeckl, Christian; Glebov, Vladimir; Betti, Riccardo; Sangster, Thomas; Katz, Joseph

    2014-10-01

    To explore kinetic and multi-ion-fluid effects in D3He and T3He gas-filled shock-driven implosions, multiple nuclear reaction histories were measured using the upgraded Particle Temporal Diagnostic (PTD) on OMEGA. For D3He gas-filled implosions, the relative timing of the DD and D3He reaction histories were measured with 20 ps precision. For T3He gas-filled implosions (with 1-2% deuterium), the relative timing of the DT and D3He reaction histories were measured with 10 ps precision. The observed differences between the reaction histories on these two OMEGA experiments are contrasted to 1-D single-ion hydro simulations for different gas-fill pressure and gas mixture. This work is supported in part by the U.S. DOE, LLNL, LLE, and NNSA SSGF.

  18. Atomic iodine production in a gas flow by decomposing methyl iodide in a dc glow discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Mikheyev, P A; Shepelenko, A A; Voronov, A I; Kupryaev, Nikolai V [Samara Branch of the P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Samara (Russian Federation)

    2002-01-31

    The production of atomic iodine for an oxygen - iodine laser is studied by decomposing methyl iodide in a dc glow discharge in a vortex gas flow. The concentration of iodine atoms in discharge products was measured from the atomic iodine absorption of the radiation of a single-frequency tunable diode laser at a wavelength of 1.315 {mu}m. Atomic iodine concentrations sufficient for the operation of an oxygen - iodine laser were obtained. The concentration of atomic iodine amounted to 3.6 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} for a pressure of the carrying argon gas of 15 Torr. The discharge stabilisation by a vortex gas flow allowed the glow discharge to be sustained in a strongly electronegative halogen-containing gas mixture for pressures up to 20 Torr. (active media)

  19. INTERSTELLAR GAS FLOW PARAMETERS DERIVED FROM INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER-Lo OBSERVATIONS IN 2009 AND 2010: ANALYTICAL ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Moebius, E.; Bochsler, P.; Heirtzler, D.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; Leonard, T.; Schwadron, N. A.; Wu, X.; Petersen, L.; Valovcin, D.; Wurz, P. [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Bzowski, M.; Kubiak, M. A. [Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Fuselier, S. A. [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Crew, G.; Vanderspek, R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Saul, L. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bern, Bern (Switzerland)

    2012-02-01

    Neutral atom imaging of the interstellar gas flow in the inner heliosphere provides the most detailed information on physical conditions of the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) and its interaction with the heliosphere. The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) measured neutral H, He, O, and Ne for three years. We compare the He and combined O+Ne flow distributions for two interstellar flow passages in 2009 and 2010 with an analytical calculation, which is simplified because the IBEX orientation provides observations at almost exactly the perihelion of the gas trajectories. This method allows separate determination of the key ISM parameters: inflow speed, longitude, and latitude, as well as temperature. A combined optimization, as in complementary approaches, is thus not necessary. Based on the observed peak position and width in longitude and latitude, inflow speed, latitude, and temperature are found as a function of inflow longitude. The latter is then constrained by the variation of the observed flow latitude as a function of observer longitude and by the ratio of the widths of the distribution in longitude and latitude. Identical results are found for 2009 and 2010: an He flow vector somewhat outside previous determinations ({lambda}{sub ISM{infinity}} = 79.{sup 0}0+3.{sup 0}0(-3.{sup 0}5), {beta}{sub ISM{infinity}} = -4.{sup 0}9 {+-} 0.{sup 0}2, V{sub ISM{infinity}} 23.5 + 3.0(-2.0) km s{sup -1}, T{sub He} = 5000-8200 K), suggesting a larger inflow longitude and lower speed. The O+Ne temperature range, T{sub O+Ne} = 5300-9000 K, is found to be close to the upper range for He and consistent with an isothermal medium for all species within current uncertainties.

  20. Exploring the Collective Spin--Isospin Longitudinal Response of Nuclei with Coherent Pion Production in (3He, t? +).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyard, J. L.; Farhi, L.; Hennino, T.; Jourdain, J. C.; Kunne, R.; Radvanyi, P.; Ramstein, B.; Roy-Stephan, M.; Dahl, R.; Drews, M.; Ellegaard, C.; Gaarde, C.; Jensen, J.; Larsen, J.; Skousen, M.; Kagarlis, M. A.; Augustyniak, W.; Zupranski, P.

    2000-10-01

    The SATURNE charge-exchange program explored the spin-isospin response of nuclei in the ? region. New results on coherent pion production are presented. They give a precise measure of the spin longitudinal component of this response. This component is particularly interesting since theoretical models predict that attractive residual ? -hole correlations in the longitudinal channel (pion exchange) softens the response.

  1. Shale Tectonics in the Continental Slope and Rise Regions of Krishna-Godavari Basin, Bay of Bengal: Implication in Gas-Hydrate Exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Dewangan; T. Ramprasad; M. V. Ramana; A. Mazumdar; M. Desa; F. Badasab

    2008-01-01

    Increased oil and gas exploration activity has led to a detailed investigation of the deep offshore and adjacent slope regions of Mahanadi, Krishna-Godavari (KG) and Cauvery basins, which are categorized as promising petroliferous basins along the eastern continental margin of India. The high sedimentation rate, thick sedimentary prism, and deeply buried mobile shale strata favor shale tectonics in KG basin

  2. Reexamination of wholesale prices for coke oven gas and the chemical products of coking of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Barannik, A.G.; Tolochko, A.A.; Vecherova, V.V.; Kozachenko, F.P.

    1983-01-01

    The new wholesale prices for coke oven gas, as well as the previous prices, were established in accord with the calorific value as compared with the prices for natural gas in the corresponding regions and, consequently, are not directly related to the level of change in the prices for coking coal types and costs in the coking industry. The wholesale prices for coking chemical products are reexamined.

  3. Product gas combustion in fluidized bed for N2O reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changqing Dong; Xiaoying Hu; Yongsheng Li; Junjiao Zhang; Dalong Jiang; Hanfei Zhang; Yongping Yang

    2009-01-01

    The experimental research on removing N2O with biomass gas was carried out in a small-fluidized bed reactor tube. The decomposition rate of N2O and the production rate of NO impacted by reaction temperature, residence time, reburning position, rate of fuel, initial oxygen content of flue gas and the height of material bed were researched. The results showed that the decomposition

  4. 77 FR 14041 - Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ...Major Portion Prices and Due Date...Indian Gas Production in Designated...Associated With an Index Zone AGENCY...to all gas production from Indian...major portion prices for each designated...associated with an index zone for each production month...

  5. 78 FR 14834 - Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ...Major Portion Prices and Due Date...Indian Gas Production in Designated...Associated With an Index Zone AGENCY...to all gas production from Indian...major portion prices for each designated...associated with an index zone for each production month...

  6. An air quality emission inventory of offshore operations for the exploration and production of petroleum by the Mexican oil industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villasenor, R.; Magdaleno, M.; Quintanar, A.; Gallardo, J. C.; López, M. T.; Jurado, R.; Miranda, A.; Aguilar, M.; Melgarejo, L. A.; Palmerín, E.; Vallejo, C. J.; Barchet, W. R.

    An air quality screening study was performed to assess the impacts of emissions from the offshore operations of the oil and gas exploration and production by Mexican industry in the Campeche Sound, which includes the states of Tabasco and Campeche in southeast Mexico. The major goal of this study was the compilation of an emission inventory (EI) for elevated, boom and ground level flares, processes, internal combustion engines and fugitive emissions. This inventory is so far the most comprehensive emission register that has ever been developed for the Mexican petroleum industry in this area. The EI considered 174 offshore platforms, the compression station at Atasta, and the Maritime Ports at Dos Bocas and Cayo Arcas. The offshore facilities identified as potential emitters in the area were the following: (1) trans-shipment stations, (2) a maritime floating port terminal, (3) drilling platforms, (4) crude oil recovering platforms, (5) crude oil production platforms, (6) linking platforms, (7) water injection platforms, (8) pumping platforms, (9) shelter platforms, (10) telecommunication platforms, (11) crude oil measurement platforms, and (12) flaring platforms. Crude oil storage tanks, helicopters and marine ship tankers were also considered to have an EI accurate enough for air quality regulations and mesoscale modeling of atmospheric pollutants. Historical ambient data measure at two onshore petroleum facilities were analyzed to measure air quality impacts on nearby inhabited coastal areas, and a source-receptor relationship for flares at the Ixtoc marine complex was performed to investigate health-based standards for offshore workers. A preliminary air quality model simulation was performed to observe the transport and dispersion patterns of SO 2, which is the main pollutant emitted from the offshore platforms. The meteorological wind and temperature fields were generated with CALMET, a diagnostic meteorological model that used surface observations and upper air soundings from a 4-day field campaign conducted in February of 1999. The CALMET meteorological output and the generated EI drove the transport and dispersion model, CALPUFF. Model results were compared with SO 2 measurements taken from the monitoring network at Dos Bocas.

  7. METHANOL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS AND NATURAL GAS AS TRANSPORTATION FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two processes are examined for production of methanol. They are assessed against the essential requirements of a future alternative fuel for road transport: that it (i) is producible in amounts comparable to the 19 EJ of motor fuel annually consumed in the U.S., (ii) minimizes em...

  8. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products use on agricultural land

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over half of the electricity used in the U.S. is presently produced by burning coal. Currently 114 m mt/year of coal combustion by products (CCP) are produced when coal is burned for generation of electricity. Only about 43% of CCPs currently produced in the U.S. are utilized. Opportunities should b...

  9. Demand projections of petroleum products and natural gas in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jyoti Parikh; Pallav Purohit; Pallavi Maitra

    2007-01-01

    Indian economy has moved into a dynamic phase. It is necessary to see how energy demand will grow in this phase. In this paper, econometric models are developed for the various petroleum products separately with the aim of capturing variables that are specific to the individual fuel. This study projects the demand of fuels up to 2011–2012, end period for

  10. Analysis of Devonian Shale gas-production mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-22

    Work was concentrated on the Devonian shales in 3 Ohio counties: Licking, Lawrence, and Meigs. The Devonian shale was determined to be a multi-porosity system, with a 1% matrix porosity and 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -6/ md. There is a qualitative relation between the stress-ratio ang the intensity of fracture spacing. Five well stimulation techniques were evaluated: conventional well-bore shooting (r/sub w/ = 1.8 ft), an extensive radial stimulation (k/sub w/ = 30 ft), a small hydraulic fracture of 300 ft half-length, a large hydraulic fracture of 1000 ft half-length, and a combined radial stimulation and hydraulic fracture. Three of the six partitioned areas could contain up to 3.6 TcF of Devonian shale gas reserves. 43 figures, 11 tables.

  11. Radiation protection and radioactive scales in oil and gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Testa, C.; Desideri, D.; Meli, M.A.; Roselli, C. [Urbino Univ. (Italy); Bassignani, A.; Colombo, G.; Fantoni, R.F. [National Radiation Protection Institute, Milan (Italy)

    1994-07-01

    Low specific-activity scales consisting of alkaline earth metal carbonates and sulfates are often present in some gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon plants. These scales contain a certain concentration of radium, uranium, and thorium which can cause a risk of gamma irradiation and internal radiocontamination when they must be mechanically removed. The gamma dose rates and the {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra concentrations were determined in sludges, scales, and waters of some gas and oil hydrocarbon plants located in Italy, Congo, and Tunisia. {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th concentrations were very low. The isotopes {sup 238}U and {sup 234}U resulted in radioactive equilibrium, while {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}Th were not always in equilibrium. A rough correlation was found between the gamma dose rate and the {sup 226}Ra concentration. Some considerations and conclusions about radiation protection problems are pointed out. 16 refs., 6 tabs.

  12. Well-Production Data and Gas-Reservoir Heterogeneity -- Reserve Growth Applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyman, Thaddeus S.; Schmoker, James W.

    2003-01-01

    Oil and gas well production parameters, including peakmonthly production (PMP), peak-consecutive-twelve month production (PYP), and cumulative production (CP), are tested as tools to quantify and understand the heterogeneity of reservoirs in fields where current monthly production is 10 percent or less of PMP. Variation coefficients, defined as VC= (F5-F95)/F50, where F5, F95, and F50 are the 5th, 95th, and 50th (median) fractiles of a probability distribution, are calculated for peak and cumulative production and examined with respect to internal consistency, type of production parameter, conventional versus unconventional accumulations, and reservoir depth. Well-production data for this study were compiled for 69 oil and gas fields in the Lower Pennsylvanian Morrow Formation of the Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma. Of these, 47 fields represent production from marine clastic facies. The Morrow data were supplemented by data from the Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician Arbuckle Group, Middle Ordovician Simpson Group, Middle Pennsylvanian Atoka Formation, and Silurian and Lower Devonian Hunton Group of the Anadarko Basin, one large gas field in Upper Cretaceous reservoirs of north-central Montana (Bowdoin field), and three areas of the Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation continuous-type (unconventional) oil accumulation in the Williston Basin, North Dakota and Montana. Production parameters (PMP, PYP, and CP) measure the net result of complex geologic, engineering, and economic processes. Our fundamental hypothesis is that well-production data provide information about subsurface heterogeneity in older fields that would be impossible to obtain using geologic techniques with smaller measurement scales such as petrographic, core, and well-log analysis. Results such as these indicate that quantitative measures of production rates and production volumes of wells, expressed as dimensionless variation coefficients, are potentially valuable tools for documenting reservoir heterogeneity in older fields for field redevelopment and risk analysis.

  13. Gas-phase products and secondary aerosol yields from the ozonolysis of ten different terpenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Anita; Goldstein, Allen H.; Keywood, Melita D.; Gao, Song; Varutbangkul, Varuntida; Bahreini, Roya; Ng, Nga L.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2006-04-01

    The ozonolyses of six monoterpenes (?-pinene, ?-pinene, 3-carene, terpinolene, ?-terpinene, and myrcene), two sesquiterpenes (?-humulene and ?-caryophyllene), and two oxygenated terpenes (methyl chavicol and linalool) were conducted individually in Teflon chambers to examine the gas-phase oxidation product and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields from these reactions. Particle size distribution and number concentration were monitored and allowed for the calculation of the SOA yield from each experiment, which ranged from 1 to 54%. A proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was used to monitor the evolution of gas-phase products, identified by their mass to charge ratio (m/z). Several gas-phase oxidation products, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, acetic acid, and nopinone, were identified and calibrated. Aerosol yields, and the yields of these identified and calibrated oxidation products, as well as many higher m/z oxidation products observed with the PTR-MS, varied significantly between the different parent terpene compounds. The sum of measured oxidation products in the gas and particle phase ranged from 33 to 77% of the carbon in the reacted terpenes, suggesting there are still unmeasured products from these reactions. The observations of the higher molecular weight oxidation product ions provide evidence of previously unreported compounds and their temporal evolution in the smog chamber from multistep oxidation processes. Many of the observed ions, including m/z 111 and 113, have also been observed in ambient air above a Ponderosa pine forest canopy, and our results confirm they are consistent with products from terpene + O3 reactions. Many of these products are stable on the timescale of our experiments and can therefore be monitored in field campaigns as evidence for ozone oxidative chemistry.

  14. Primary productivity, new productivity, and their relation to carbon flux during two Southern Ocean Gas Exchange tracer experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lance, Veronica P.; Strutton, Peter G.; Vaillancourt, Robert D.; Hargreaves, Bruce R.; Zhang, Jia-Zhong; Marra, John

    2012-04-01

    Biological uptake rates of inorganic carbon and nitrate were measured during two sequential tracer release gas exchange experiments, together known as the Southern Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment (SO GasEx) in the southwest Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean Antarctic Zone (51°N, 38°W). Primary productivity estimated from 14C incubations ranged from 26.7 to 47.2 mmol C m-2 d-1 in the first experiment (Patch 1) and 13.7 to 39.4 mmol C m-2 d-1 in the second experiment (Patch 2). Nitrate-based productivity estimated from 15NO3 incubations ranged from 5.8 to 13.1 mmol C m-2 d-1 in Patch 1 and 1.9 to 7.1 mmol C m-2 d-1 in Patch 2. The average ratio of nitrate-based productivity to primary productivity (approximating the f ratio) was 0.24 in Patch 1 and 0.15 in Patch 2. Chlorophyll concentrations for both patches were less than 1 mg m-3. Photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) was low (˜0.3) in Patch 1 and moderate (˜0.45) in Patch 2. Si(OH)4 concentrations were potentially limiting (<1 mmol m-3 for Patch 1 and ˜3 mmol m-3 for Patch 2), while NH4+ concentrations were elevated (˜1 mmol m-3 for Patch 1 and ˜2.2 mmol m-3 for Patch 2) compared with typical open ocean Antarctic Zone water. We hypothesize that Patch 1 productivity was regulated by the availability of Si(OH)4, while Patch 2 productivity was regulated by grazers. Primary production and nitrate-based production (as a proxy for C export) determined here provide components for a mixed layer carbon budget from which the air-sea flux of CO2 will be quantified.

  15. Hydrogen production and delivery analysis in US markets : cost, energy and greenhouse gas emissions.

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.; Gillette, J.; Elgowainy, A. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( ES)

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen production cost conclusions are: (1) Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) is the least-cost production option at current natural gas prices and for initial hydrogen vehicle penetration rates, at high production rates, SMR may not be the least-cost option; (2) Unlike coal and nuclear technologies, the cost of natural gas feedstock is the largest contributor to SMR production cost; (3) Coal- and nuclear-based hydrogen production have significant penalties at small production rates (and benefits at large rates); (4) Nuclear production of hydrogen is likely to have large economies of scale, but because fixed O&M costs are uncertain, the magnitude of these effects may be understated; and (5) Given H2A default assumptions for fuel prices, process efficiencies and labor costs, nuclear-based hydrogen is likely to be more expensive to produce than coal-based hydrogen. Carbon taxes and caps can narrow the gap. Hydrogen delivery cost conclusions are: (1) For smaller urban markets, compressed gas delivery appears most economic, although cost inputs for high-pressure gas trucks are uncertain; (2) For larger urban markets, pipeline delivery is least costly; (3) Distance from hydrogen production plant to city gate may change relative costs (all results shown assume 100 km); (4) Pipeline costs may be reduced with system 'rationalization', primarily reductions in service pipeline mileage; and (5) Liquefier and pipeline capital costs are a hurdle, particularly at small market sizes. Some energy and greenhouse gas Observations: (1) Energy use (per kg of H2) declines slightly with increasing production or delivery rate for most components (unless energy efficiency varies appreciably with scale, e.g., liquefaction); (2) Energy use is a strong function of production technology and delivery mode; (3) GHG emissions reflect the energy efficiency and carbon content of each component in a production-delivery pathway; (4) Coal and natural gas production pathways have high energy consumption and significant GHG emissions (in the absence of carbon caps, taxes or sequestration); (5) Nuclear pathway is most favorable from energy use and GHG emissions perspective; (6) GH2 Truck and Pipeline delivery have much lower energy use and GHG emissions than LH2 Truck delivery; and (7) For LH2 Truck delivery, the liquefier accounts for most of the energy and GHG emissions.

  16. A Hybrid Gas Cleaning Process for Production of Ultraclean Syngas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. C. Merkel; B. S. Turk; R. P. Gupta; Daniel C. Cicero; S. C. Jain

    2002-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop technologies for cleaning\\/conditioning IGCC generated syngas to meet contaminant tolerance limits for fuel cell and chemical production applications. The specific goals are to develop processes for (1) removal of reduced sulfur species to sub-ppm levels using a hybrid process consisting of a polymer membrane and a regenerable ZnO-coated monolith or a

  17. Biohydrogen gas production from food processing and domestic wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven W. Van Ginkel; Sang-Eun Oh; Bruce E. Logan

    2005-01-01

    The food processing industry produces highly concentrated, carbohydrate-rich wastewaters, but their potential for biological hydrogen production has not been extensively studied. Wastewaters were obtained from four different food-processing industries that had chemical oxygen demands of 9g\\/L (apple processing), 21g\\/L (potato processing), and 0.6 and 20g\\/L (confectioners A and B). Biogas produced from all four food processing wastewaters consistently contained 60%

  18. Gas Chromatographic measurement of the radiolytic products of irradiated pork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    cai, Zhou ying; ying, Wang xiu; shu, Xu pei; huai, Yuan bi

    The radiolytic Products of irradiated pork were isolated. analyzed and identified by the techniques of vacuum distillation. GC-MS. The higher boiling point compounds were recovered on a short precolumn packed with alumina. And the volatiles of lean pork were collected on a short column packed with TCEP/Chromosovb. Some experimental conditions were studied. 49 compounds were identified. These compounds include hydrocarbons and sulphides etc.

  19. Gamma radiation effect on gas production in anion exchange resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traboulsi, A.; Labed, V.; Dauvois, V.; Dupuy, N.; Rebufa, C.

    2013-10-01

    Radiation-induced decomposition of Amberlite IRA400 anion exchange resin in hydroxide form by gamma radiolysis has been studied at various doses in different atmospheres (anaerobic, anaerobic with liquid water, and aerobic). The effect of these parameters on the degradation of ion exchange resins is rarely investigated in the literature. We focused on the radiolysis gases produced by resin degradation. When the resin was irradiated under anaerobic conditions with liquid water, the liquid phase over the resin was also analyzed to identify any possible water-soluble products released by degradation of the resin. The main products released are trimethylamine (TMA), molecular hydrogen (H2g) and carbon dioxide (CO2g). TMA and H2g are produced in all the irradiation atmospheres. However, TMA was in gaseous form under anaerobic and aerobic conditions and in aqueous form in presence of liquid water. In the latter conditions, TMAaq was associated with aqueous dimethylamine (DMAaq), monomethylamine (MMAaq) and ammonia (NH). CO2g is formed in the presence of oxygen due to oxidation of organic compounds present in the system, in particular the degradation products such as TMAg.

  20. Preliminary investigation of biogenic gas production in Indonesian low rank coals and implications for a renewable energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilawati, Rita; Papendick, Sam L.; Gilcrease, Patrick C.; Esterle, Joan S.; Golding, Suzanne D.; Mares, Tennille E.

    2013-11-01

    Indonesia has abundant coal resources at depths suitable to contain substantial volumes of naturally occurring methane, which are currently being explored. Most Indonesian coals are thermally immature, but are composed of hydrogen-rich organic components that are presumed to make them excellent substrates for biogenic methane production. Gas isotope results from pilot wells in South Sumatra, reported in this study, are interpreted to indicate biogenic origins for the methane. Corresponding formation water samples were collected and incubated, and show the presence of indigenous microbial communities capable of producing methane from Indonesian and Australian coal. Although these results are only preliminary, they are promising and support the possibility of Indonesia developing bio renewable energy from coal seams.

  1. Amine-degradation products play no part in corrosion at gas-sweetening plants

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, C.; Grall, M.; Demarais, G.

    1982-11-15

    Gas-sweetening units using diethanolamine (DEA) and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) are occasionally subject to corrosion. Discounting the basic degradation products of DEA as the cause, researchers (1) confirmed the presence of formic, oxalic, and acetic acids in used amine solutions, (2) defined oxygen's role in forming these carboxylic acids, and (3) demonstrated that the acid contents of different units are about the same order of magnitude for both DEA and MDEA. In most cases, oxygen can be easily excluded from gas-treating units, especially in storage tanks, thereby limiting the formation of acid products.

  2. Hydrogen and elemental carbon production from natural gas and other hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    Diatomic hydrogen and unsaturated hydrocarbons are produced as reactor gases in a fast quench reactor. During the fast quench, the unsaturated hydrocarbons are further decomposed by reheating the reactor gases. More diatomic hydrogen is produced, along with elemental carbon. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The product is a substantially clean-burning hydrogen fuel that leaves no greenhouse gas emissions, and elemental carbon that may be used in powder form as a commodity for several processes.

  3. Oil production from thin oil columns subject to water and gas coning 

    E-print Network

    Chai, Kwok Kit

    1981-01-01

    OIL PRODUCTION FROM THIN OIL COLUMNS SUBJECT TO MATER AND GAS CONING A Thesis by KMOK KIT CHAI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1981... Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering OIL PRODUCTION FROM THIN OIL COLUMNS SUBJECT TO WATER AND GAS CONING A Thesis by KWOK KIT CHAI Approved as to style and content by airman of o t ee Member Member Head o Department May 1981 ABSTRACT Oil...

  4. Workbook for prioritizing petroleum industry exploration and production sites for remediation

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.J.

    1998-08-03

    The purpose of this Workbook is to provide a screening-level method for prioritizing petroleum exploration and production sites for remediation that is based on readily available information, but which does not require a full characterization of the sites being evaluated. The process draws heavily from the Canadian National Classification System for Contaminated Sites, and fits into the framework for ecological risk assessment provided in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Using this approach, scoring guidelines are provided for a number of Evaluation Factors relating to: (1) the contaminants present at the site; (2) the potential exposure pathways for these contaminants; and (3) the potential receptors of those contaminants. The process therefore incorporates a risk-based corrective action (RBCA) framework to estimate the relative threat posed by a site to human health and to ecological systems. Physical (non-toxic) disturbance factors have also been incorporated into the process. It should also be noted that the process described in this Workbook has not yet been field tested at petroleum E and P sites. The first logical step in the field testing of this process is to apply the method at a small number of sites to assess the availability of the information that is needed to score each evaluation factor. Following this evaluation, the Workbook process should be applied at a series of sites to determine the effectiveness of the process at ranking sites according to their relative need for remediation. Upon completion of these tests, the Workbook should be revised to reflect the findings of the field tests.

  5. Assessing the hydraulic connection between fresh water aquifers and unconventional gas production using methane and stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverach, Charlotte P.; Cendón, Dioni I.; Hankin, Stuart I.; Lowry, Dave; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Nisbet, Euan G.; Baker, Andy; Kelly, Bryce F. J.

    2015-04-01

    Unconventional gas developments pose a risk to groundwater quality and quantity in adjacent or overlying aquifers. To manage these risks there is a need to measure the background concentration of indicator groundwater chemicals and to map pathways of hydraulic connectivity between aquifers. This study presents methane (CH4) concentration and isotopic composition, dissolved organic carbon concentration ([DOC]) and tritium (3H) activity data from an area of expanding coal seam gas (CSG) exploration and production (Condamine Catchment, south-east Queensland, Australia). The target formation for gas production within the Condamine Catchment is the Walloon Coal Measures (WCM). This is a 700 m thick, low-rank CSG resource, which consists of numerous thin discontinuous lenses of coal separated by very fine-to medium-grained sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone, with minor calcareous sandstone, impure limestone and ironstone. The thickness of the coal makes up less than 10% of the total thickness of the unit. The WCM are overlain by sandstone formations, which form part of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB). The Condamine Alluvium fills a paleo-valley carved through the above formations. A combination of groundwater and degassing air samples were collected from irrigation bores and government groundwater monitoring boreholes. Degassing air samples were collected using an SKC 222-2301 air pump, which pumped the gas into 3 L Tedlar bags. The groundwater was analysed for 3H and [DOC]. A mobile CH4 survey was undertaken to continuously sample air in and around areas of agricultural and unconventional gas production. The isotopic signature of gas from the WCM was determined by sampling gas that was off-gassing from a co-produced water holding pond as it was the largest emission that could be directly linked to the WCM. This was used to determine the source signature of the CH4 from the WCM. We used Keeling plots to identify the source signature of the gas sampled. For the borehole samples these plots assume that there are only two sources of CH4, each with a unique isotopic signature. When the two sources mix in varying proportions they will plot along a straight line in the Keeling plot. Geometric mean displacement was used to fit a regression line and determine the intercept value. Within the Keeling plot, samples clustered according to their 3H and [DOC] values. One cluster is associated with near surface biological processes, while the other cluster can be attributed to gas sourced from the WCM. This indicates that in places there is hydraulic connectivity between the WCM and the overlying Condamine Alluvium. The results from this case study demonstrate that measuring 3H activity, [DOC] and CH4 concentrations in combination with CH4 isotopic analysis can provide an early indicator of hydraulic connectivity in areas of expanding unconventional gas development.

  6. Fractal dimension analysis of landscape scale variability in greenhouse gas production potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Bicalho, Elton; Spokas, Kurt; La Scala, Newton, Jr.

    2015-04-01

    Soil greenhouse gas emission is influenced by tillage and management practices that modify soil attributes directly related to the dynamics of soil carbon in the agricultural environment. The aim of this study was to assess the soil CO2 and N2O production potentials and their spatial variability characterized by fractal dimension in different scales, in addition to their correlation with other soil attributes. The quantification of soil CO2 and N2O production was carried out from dry soil samples collected in a grid of 50 × 50 m containing 133 points arranged symmetrically on a sugarcane area under green residue management in southern Brazil. Laboratory incubations were used to analyze greenhouse gas dynamics by gas chromatography. Soil CO2 and N2O production were correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with microbial biomass, silt and clay content, pH, available phosphorus, sum of metal cations (bases), and cation exchange capacity. Similarly, these soil attributes also were correlated with microbial biomass, supporting their role in soil microbial activity and greenhouse gas production. Furthermore, variations in the fractal dimension over the scale indicate that the pattern of the spatial variability structure of soil CO2 production potential was correlated to that observed for microbial biomass, pH, available phosphorus, sum of bases, and cation exchange capacity. On the other hand, only the spatial structure of the clay content, pH and the sum of bases were correlated with the soil N2O production. Therefore, examining the fractal dimension enables the spatially visualization of altering processes across a landscape at different scales, which highlights properties that influence greenhouse gas production and emission in agricultural areas.

  7. The effect of floating vegetation on denitrification and greenhouse gas production in wetland mesocosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, A. E.; Harrison, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic intensification of nitrogen (N) loading to aquatic ecosystems is widespread and can lead to the degradation of these systems. Wetlands are important sites for N removal via denitrification, the microbially mediated reduction of reactive nitrate to inert N2 gas, but they can also produce high levels of greenhouse gases. Floating plants play an important role in encouraging denitrification, since they create low oxygen conditions that may favor denitrification. We investigated whether wetland sediments with floating plant cover had higher denitrification and greenhouse gas production rates than wetland sediments without floating plants. Replicate flow-through mesocosms with wetland sediment and water were constructed in a growth chamber to mimic the wetland where the sediment and water were collected. Mesocosm treatments were covered with floating vegetation (duckweed), an opaque tarp, or no cover to determine how cover type affects denitrification and greenhouse gas production and whether biotic or abiotic factors are likely responsible for observed differences. Denitrification and greenhouse gas production rates were calculated by measuring excess N2 gas, methane, and nitrous oxide concentrations in the water column and measuring the gas exchange rates between the water column and the atmosphere. Gas exchange rates were measured using an inert volatile tracer added to the water column and accumulation of gas in the mesocosm headspace. Additional mesocosm experiments were performed to determine how duckweed-dominated wetland systems respond to nitrogen loading and which mechanism for lowering dissolved oxygen concentrations is important in affecting denitrification under floating vegetation. Mesocosms with floating vegetation had lower dissolved oxygen than no cover or tarp-covered mesocosms, which is consistent with field and literature observations. Water flowing out of the mesocosms had statistically lower total nitrogen and nitrate concentrations compared to inflow water, and calculated denitrification was statistically higher in the floating vegetation treatments compared to the other treatments. Greenhouse gas production, measured in CO2 equivalents for N2O and CH4, was highly variable and not statistically different between the treatments. Denitrification in the tarp covered mesocosms was similar to the no-cover treatment, indicating that biotic effects in the floating vegetation treatment may be important in lowering water column oxygen levels and increasing denitrification. Understanding how floating vegetation affects total nitrogen loss, denitrification, and greenhouse gas production can be used to weigh ecological costs and benefits of different vegetation types, especially in constructed and managed wetlands.

  8. Hydrogen-Rich Gas Production by Cogasification of Coal and Biomass in an Intermittent Fluidized Bed

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Qun; Chen, Zhao-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of cogasification of coal and biomass in an intermittent fluidized bed reactor, aiming to investigate the influences of operation parameters such as gasification temperature (T), steam to biomass mass ratio (SBMR), and biomass to coal mass ratio (BCMR) on hydrogen-rich (H2-rich) gas production. The results show that H2-rich gas free of N2 dilution is produced and the H2 yield is in the range of 18.25~68.13?g/kg. The increases of T, SBMR, and BCMR are all favorable for promoting the H2 production. Higher temperature contributes to higher CO and H2 contents, as well as H2 yield. The BCMR has a weak influence on gas composition, but the yield and content of H2 increase with BCMR, reaching a peak at the BCMR of 4. The H2 content and yield in the product gas increase with SBMR, whilst the content of CO increases first and then decreases correspondingly. At a typical case, the relative linear sensitivity coefficients of H2 production efficiency to T, SBMR, and BCMR were calculated. The results reveal that the order of the influence of the operation parameters on H2 production efficiency is T > SBMR > BCMR. PMID:24174911

  9. Hydrogen-rich gas production by cogasification of coal and biomass in an intermittent fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Qun; Chen, Zhao-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of cogasification of coal and biomass in an intermittent fluidized bed reactor, aiming to investigate the influences of operation parameters such as gasification temperature (T), steam to biomass mass ratio (SBMR), and biomass to coal mass ratio (BCMR) on hydrogen-rich (H2-rich) gas production. The results show that H2-rich gas free of N2 dilution is produced and the H2 yield is in the range of 18.25~68.13?g/kg. The increases of T, SBMR, and BCMR are all favorable for promoting the H2 production. Higher temperature contributes to higher CO and H2 contents, as well as H2 yield. The BCMR has a weak influence on gas composition, but the yield and content of H2 increase with BCMR, reaching a peak at the BCMR of 4. The H2 content and yield in the product gas increase with SBMR, whilst the content of CO increases first and then decreases correspondingly. At a typical case, the relative linear sensitivity coefficients of H2 production efficiency to T, SBMR, and BCMR were calculated. The results reveal that the order of the influence of the operation parameters on H2 production efficiency is T > SBMR > BCMR. PMID:24174911

  10. Production of long-lived atomic vapor inside high-density buffer gas

    E-print Network

    Sushkov, A O

    2007-01-01

    Atomic vapor of four different paramagnetic species: gold, silver, lithium, and rubidium, is produced and studied inside several buffer gases: helium, nitrogen, neon, and argon. The paramagnetic atoms are injected into the buffer gas using laser ablation. 50-$\\mu$m-diameter wires are used as ablation targets for gold and silver, bulk targets are used for lithium and rubidium. The buffer gas cools and confines the ablated atoms, slowing down their transport to the cell walls. Buffer gas temperatures between 20 K and 295 K, and densities between $10^{16}$ cm$^{-3}$ and $2\\times10^{19}$ cm$^{-3}$ are explored. Peak paramagnetic atom densities of $10^{11}$ cm$^{-3}$ are routinely achieved. The longest observed paramagnetic vapor density decay times are 110 ms for silver at 20 K and 4 ms for lithium at 32 K. The candidates for the limiting paramagnetic atom loss mechanism are dimer formation and atom loss on sputtered clusters.

  11. Simulating the gas hydrate production test at Mallik using the pilot scale pressure reservoir LARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeschen, Katja; Spangenberg, Erik; Schicks, Judith M.; Priegnitz, Mike; Giese, Ronny; Luzi-Helbing, Manja

    2014-05-01

    LARS, the LArge Reservoir Simulator, allows for one of the few pilot scale simulations of gas hydrate formation and dissociation under controlled conditions with a high resolution sensor network to enable the detection of spatial variations. It was designed and built within the German project SUGAR (submarine gas hydrate reservoirs) for sediment samples with a diameter of 0.45 m and a length of 1.3 m. During the project, LARS already served for a number of experiments simulating the production of gas from hydrate-bearing sediments using thermal stimulation and/or depressurization. The latest test simulated the methane production test from gas hydrate-bearing sediments at the Mallik test site, Canada, in 2008 (Uddin et al., 2011). Thus, the starting conditions of 11.5 MPa and 11°C and environmental parameters were set to fit the Mallik test site. The experimental gas hydrate saturation of 90% of the total pore volume (70 l) was slightly higher than volumes found in gas hydrate-bearing formations in the field (70 - 80%). However, the resulting permeability of a few millidarcy was comparable. The depressurization driven gas production at Mallik was conducted in three steps at 7.0 MPa - 5.0 MPa - 4.2 MPa all of which were used in the laboratory experiments. In the lab the pressure was controlled using a back pressure regulator while the confining pressure was stable. All but one of the 12 temperature sensors showed a rapid decrease in temperature throughout the sediment sample, which accompanied the pressure changes as a result of gas hydrate dissociation. During step 1 and 2 they continued up to the point where gas hydrate stability was regained. The pressure decreases and gas hydrate dissociation led to highly variable two phase fluid flow throughout the duration of the simulated production test. The flow rates were measured continuously (gas) and discontinuously (liquid), respectively. Next to being discussed here, both rates were used to verify a model of gas hydrate dissociation applying the foamy oil approach, a method earlier adopted to model the Mallik production test (see abstract Abendroth et al., this volume). Combined with a dense set of data from a cylindrical electrical resistance tomography (ERT) array (see abstract Priegnitz et al., this volume), very valuable information were gained on the spatial as well as temporal formation and dissociation of gas hydrates as well as changes in permeability and resulting pathways for the fluid flow. Here we present the set-up and execution of the experiment and discuss the results from temperature and flow measurements with respect to the gas hydrate dissociation and characteristics of resulting fluid flow. Uddin, M., Wright, F., and Coombe, D. 2011. Numerical Study of Gas Evolution and Transport Behaviours in Natural Gas-Hydrate Reservoirs. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology 50, 70-89.

  12. SMALL SCALE HOT GAS CLEANING DEVICE FOR SOFC UTILISATION OF WOODY BIOMASS PRODUCT GAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Schweiger; U. Hohenwarter

    Decentralized small scale combined heat and power plants (CHP) are getting more important in future electricity production. Due to energy losses during the conversion from biomass to electricity, small-scale power plants only reach low electric efficiencies. To increase the overall efficiency, the combination of small biomass gasification plants with high temperature fuel cells seems to be a promising technology for

  13. Toward Sustainable and Affordable Space Exploration: The Role of NASA's Space Product Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, Franklin D.

    2005-02-01

    The National Vision for Space Exploration calls for sustainable and affordable human and robotic missions to explore the solar system. Sustainability requires that the program produce visible benefits to the public, along with scientific and technological advances in support of exploration that would be expected from a program of this magnitude. Affordability requires that the private sector be heavily involved, not just as contractors to NASA, but as sources of investment and direct beneficiaries of returns; in short, full participants in a long-term program that can transform the future of mankind. In order to make the vision both sustainable and affordable, true partnerships involving industry, academia and government must exist to create Earth benefits while working on needed exploration technologies and, at the same time, provide the added investments that will inevitably be required in extended periods of fiscal restraint. Such partnership programs, embodied in the Research Partnership Centers, have long existed within NASA. They have recently been realigned to more fully support the exploration vision and brought into the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. This program and its past and potential contributions to the exploration vision will be described in detail at the conference.

  14. Continuous-flow gas-lift installation design utilizing production-pressure-operated valve performance

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, H.W. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The variable-gradient design-line method is a widely accepted procedure for spacing gas-lift valves (GLVs) in a continuous-flow gas-lift (GL) installation. Injection-pressure-operated (IPO) and production-pressure-operated (PPO) GLVs can be used in a variable gradient designed installation. The primary purpose of GLVs is to unload a well to the desired depth of gas injection. If the installation design is based on a constant surface injection-gas pressure (p{sub io}), the GLVs must be opened by an increase in the flowing-production pressure at valve depth (p{sub pfD}) rather than an increase in injection-gas pressure at valve depth (p{sub ioD}). PPO, also called fluid-operated, valves are opened and closed by changes in p{sub pfD}. This paper outlines in detail the calculations for a variable-gradient continuous-flow installation design procedure based on a constant p{sub io} for spacing the unloading PPO valves. The valve spacing and port size selection includes performance characteristics of PPO GLVs. A simplified method for calculating the injection daily volumetric gas rate (q{sub gsc}) throughput of an unbalanced bellows type of PPO valve on the basis of a change in p{sub pfD} and the valve bellows-assembly load rate (B{sub lr}) is given in the Appendix.

  15. Targeted multidimensional gas chromatography for the quantitative analysis of suspected allergens in fragrance products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael S. Dunn; Natalie Vulic; Robert A. Shellie; Simon Whitehead; Paul Morrison; Philip J. Marriott

    2006-01-01

    Two approaches are described and compared for the analysis of suspected allergens (SAs) in fragrance products, which are defined by the Scientific Committee of Cosmetics and Non-Food Products (SCCNFP). The first consists of a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) experiment using both a “conventional” non-polar\\/polar column combination and an “inverse” polar\\/non-polar column set. The second approach uses a targeted multidimensional

  16. Computerized Monitoring of Gas Production to Measure Forage Digestion In Vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Pell; P. Schofield

    1993-01-01

    ABSTRACT The techniques reported in this paper were developed,to facilitate the study of the kinetics of forage digestion in vitro by measuring,gas production. Fiber dis- appearance,as a measure,of the reaction rate has been replaced,by the use of computerized,pressure sensors to moni- tor the gaseous products (C02, CH4) of microbial,metabolism.,The,recording system described requires a computer, pressure sensors, an interface card, and

  17. Mesoporous Nickel–Alumina Catalysts for Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeong Gil Seo; Min Hye Youn; In Kyu Song

    2010-01-01

    Recent progress on the mesoporous nickel–alumina catalysts for hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural\\u000a gas (LNG) was reported in this review. A number of mesoporous nickel–alumina composite catalysts were prepared by a single-step\\u000a surfactant-templating method using cationic, anionic, and non-ionic surfactant as structure-directing agents for use in hydrogen\\u000a production by steam reforming of LNG. For comparison, nickel catalysts

  18. PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    M.M. Wu; D.C. McCoy; R.O. Scandrol; M.L. Fenger; J.A. Withum; R.M. Statnick

    2000-05-01

    The three main conclusions of this report are: (1) The pilot plant successfully demonstrated the continuous, fully-integrated, long-term process operation, including the mixing, pelletizing, and curing steps for aggregate production. The curing vessel, which was designed for the pilot plant test, was operated in a mass flow mode and performed well during pilot plant operation. (2) The pilot plant test demonstrated process flexibility. The same equipment was used to produce lightweight, medium-weight, and road aggregates. The only change was the mix formulation. Aggregates were produced from a variety of mix designs and from FGD sludge with solids concentrations between 45.0% and 56.7% and moisture contents between 55.0% and 43.3%. (3) The pilot plant provided operating data and experience to design and cost a commercial plant, which was not part of the cooperative agreement.

  19. Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB)

    E-print Network

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Overview Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB) to cool process syngas. The gas enters satisfies all 3 design criteria. · Correlations relating our experimental results to a waste heat boiler

  20. Detection and quantification of methane and VOC emissions from oil and gas production operations using remote measurements, Interim report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Improved understanding of air pollutant emissions from oil and gas production operations is needed. With a steadily increasing number of production sources, the impact of emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on regional ozone is potentially significant. As the separation dis...

  1. Digital field-bus mode SCADA is key to offshore efficiency. [Automation of offshore gas production platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Cuthbert, P. (Arcom Control Systems, Cambridge (United Kingdom))

    1994-02-01

    An all-digital SCADA network has been installed in one of the North Sea's largest natural gas fields, controlling the delivery of gas from Shell UK Exploration and Production's souther-area fields to a British Gas Terminal at Bacton, UK. The innovative use of digital technology -- based on the industry-standard HART field protocol -- to complete a digital communications link stretching from the onshore SCADA host right out to the process variable transmitters on the platforms, is playing a key role in the automation of the monitoring and control system by allowing Shell UK Expro to run the majority of the platforms unmanned. The SCADA system is part of a major refit being carried out by Shell Expro on its Leman field. The refit is part of the company's long-term strategy to extend the lifetime of this established field, which started operations in the late 1960s. In order to meet this goal, the prime requirements are to reduce operational costs and risk exposure, and the key element in this area was to reduce the need for resident staff and all of their associated support and equipment costs, through the deployment of automation. The system will achieve the project's cost-cutting aims, but also break new ground in control and monitoring technology for the gas industry, through the use of a smart transmitter scheme as a digital field communications within the wide-area network, using the protocol's all-digital capability in preference to the commonly used 4-20mA-compatible mode, will allow real-time monitoring and control, plus maintenance and diagnostics, to take place remotely. This paper describes the design of this system.

  2. Swarm intelligence for multi-objective optimization of synthesis gas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, T.; Vasant, P.; Elamvazuthi, I.; Ku Shaari, Ku Zilati

    2012-11-01

    In the chemical industry, the production of methanol, ammonia, hydrogen and higher hydrocarbons require synthesis gas (or syn gas). The main three syn gas production methods are carbon dioxide reforming (CRM), steam reforming (SRM) and partial-oxidation of methane (POM). In this work, multi-objective (MO) optimization of the combined CRM and POM was carried out. The empirical model and the MO problem formulation for this combined process were obtained from previous works. The central objectives considered in this problem are methane conversion, carbon monoxide selectivity and the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio. The MO nature of the problem was tackled using the Normal Boundary Intersection (NBI) method. Two techniques (Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)) were then applied in conjunction with the NBI method. The performance of the two algorithms and the quality of the solutions were gauged by using two performance metrics. Comparative studies and results analysis were then carried out on the optimization results.

  3. Evaluation of naturally fractured gas shale production utilizing multiwell transient tests: A field study

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.C.; Alam, J.; Blanton, T.L.; Vozniak, J.P.

    1984-05-01

    A series of multiple well transient tests were conducted in a Devonian shale gas field in Meigs County, Ohio. Production parameters were quantified and it was determined that the reservoir is highly anisotropic, which is a significant factor in calculating half-fracture length from pressure transient data. Three stimulation treatments, including conventional explosive shooting, nitrogen foam frac, and high energy gas frac (HEGF), were compared on the basis of overall effectiveness and performance. Based on the evaluation of results, the nitrogen foam frac provided the most improved productivity. The study provided new type curves and analytical solutions for the mathematical representation of naturally fractured reservoirs and confirmed that the shale reservoir in Meigs County can be modeled as a dual porosity system using pseudosteady-state gas transfer from the matrix to the fracture system.

  4. Determining the Cause of a Header Failure in a Natural Gas Production Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Matthes, S.A.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, G.R.

    2007-03-01

    An investigation was made into the premature failure of a gas-header at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) natural gas production facility. A wide variety of possible failure mechanisms were considered: design of the header, deviation from normal pipe alloy composition, physical orientation of the header, gas composition and flow rate, type of corrosion, protectiveness of the interior oxide film, time of wetness, and erosion-corrosion. The failed header was examined using metallographic techniques, scanning electron microscopy, and microanalysis. A comparison of the failure site and an analogous site that had not failed, but exhibited similar metal thinning was also performed. From these studies it was concluded that failure resulted from erosion-corrosion, and that design elements of the header and orientation with respect to gas flow contributed to the mass loss at the failure point.

  5. Energy, environmental and greenhouse gas effects of using alternative fuels in cement production

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    1 Energy, environmental and greenhouse gas effects of using alternative fuels in cement to an increase of AF use from 8.7% to 20.9% of the total energy consumption. 2. One of the alternative fuels used cement industry produces about 3.3 billion tonnes of cement annually. Cement production is energy

  6. Monitoring of Emissions from Natural Gas Production Facilities in Barnett Shale Area for Population Exposure Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Zielinska; E. Fujita; D. Campbell; V. Samburova; E. Hendler; C. S. Beskid

    2010-01-01

    The Barnett Shale study was conducted in April-May 2010 to provide a better understanding of population exposure to air toxics associated with gas production operations in the Barnett Shale region of North Texas. The Barnett Shale is a geological formation that stretches form Dallas to west of Fort Worth and southward, covering 5,000 square miles and 18 counties in the

  7. Synthesis gas production from methane over an iron electrode in a solid electrolyte cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Alqahtany; D. Eng; M. Stoukides

    1993-01-01

    The production of synthesis gas, CO + H[sub 2], from methane oxidation was studied in an yttria-stabilized zirconia reactor at 950C and atmospheric pressure. The anodic electrode was Fe and the cathode that was exposed to air was Pt. Reduced iron was more active than oxidized iron for syngas formation. The effect of two oxygen sources, gaseous oxygen and ionically

  8. Thermo-economic process model for thermochemical production of Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) from lignocellulosic biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Gassner; François Maréchal

    2009-01-01

    A detailed thermo-economic model considering different technological alternatives for thermochemical production of Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) from lignocellulosic biomass is presented. First, candidate technology for processes based on biomass gasification and subsequent methanation is discussed and assembled in a general superstructure. Both energetic and economic models for biomass drying with air or steam, thermal pretreatment by torrefaction or pyrolysis, indirectly

  9. Reliability of high-pressure gas compressors in synthetic ammonia production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. I. Kuz'min; N. K. Tsel'm; A. N. Shelepova

    1969-01-01

    To develop the possibility and means of raising this coefficient and compressor reliability, the authors of this article have conducted a study of the reliability of three types of gas compressors used in ammonia production in one of the ammonia fertilizer combines. The technical features of these compressors are given in Table 1. Compressor reliability was determined by working up

  10. Effects of Leafy Spurge (Euphorbia esula) on Ruminant Gas Production and In Vitro Digestion.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge (LS; Euphorbia esula) is indigenous to Eurasia and is rapidly changing the landscape in the northern Great Plains and Intermountain West. Sheep consume LS at a higher rate than cattle. Our objectives were to investigate LS in vitro digestibility and gas production by bovine vs ovine in...

  11. EFFECTS OF LEAFY SPURGE (EUPHORBIA ESULA) ON RUMINANT GAS PRODUCTION AND IN VITRO DIGESTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge (LS; Euphorbia esula) is indigenous to Eurasia and is rapidly changing the landscape in the northern Great Plains and Intermountain West. Sheep consume LS at a higher rate than cattle. Our objectives were to investigate LS in vitro digestibility and gas production by bovine vs ovine in...

  12. Hydrogen production by the partial oxidation and steam reforming of tar from hot coke oven gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaki Onozaki; Koji Watanabe; Takao Hashimoto; Hitoshi Saegusa; Yukuo Katayama

    2006-01-01

    Hot coke oven gas (COG) with a temperature of about 1050K was produced from a test unit for coke production, the capacity of which was 80kg of coal. The COG was introduced into an experimental unit with a tar converter where oxygen and steam were injected. Over 98% of the total carbon in the hot COG was partially oxidized, reformed

  13. Development of a method for estimating emissions from oil and gas production sites utilizing remote observations

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a lack of information on emissions of ozone precursors, hazardous air pollutants, and greenhouse gases from oil and gas production operations, and measurement of these emissions presents many challenges. Assessment is complicated by the fugitive nature ofthe emissions, v...

  14. Chapter 5: Quantifying greenhouse gas sources and sinks in animal production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this publication is to develop methods to quantify greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from U.S. agriculture and forestry. This chapter provides guidance for reporting GHG emissions from animal production systems. In particular, it focuses on methods for estimating emissions from beef cat...

  15. MERCURY IN PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS: ESTIMATION OF EMISSIONS FROM PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an examination of mercury (Hg) in liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons that are produced and/or processed in the U.S. The Hg associated with petroleum and natural gas production and processing enters the environment primarily via solid waste streams (drilli...

  16. Gas chromatographic\\/mass spectrometric analysis of on-line pyrolysis–silylation products of monosaccharides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Scalarone; Oscar Chiantore; Chiara Riedo

    2008-01-01

    Classification of polysaccharides may be achieved on the basis of the monosaccharidic composition after cleavage of glycosidic bonds. Pyrolysis is a useful method to obtain polysaccharide decomposition and generally pyrolysis products can be identified by the use of gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. This paper describes an on-line silylation pyrolysis approach and compares the efficiency of two derivatization reagents, hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and

  17. Determination of nutritive value of forages in south Texas using an in vitro gas production technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to use the in vitro gas production (IVGP) technique to evaluate the pattern and parameters of anaerobic fermentation of forages from south Texas pastures throughout the year to obtain empirical relationships between the IVGP technique fermentation parameters and chemi...

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from final harvest fuel chip production in Finland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margareta Wihersaari

    2005-01-01

    Renewable energy sources have been identified to play an important role in mitigating climate change. The main reason is that carbon dioxide emission is avoided when fossil fuels are replaced. This paper presents a study focusing on direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions from fuel chip production in Finland. The fuel chips studied were produced from logging residue at final

  19. Collaborative study on yeast activity, gas production (AACC Method 89-01)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Gélinas

    1997-01-01

    A method of the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) for determining yeast activity (gas production) was tested in a collaborative study involving five laboratories. Samples of three different manufacturers for each of three yeast types (three active dry yeasts, three compressed yeasts, and three instant active dry yeasts) were duplicated and tested in three dough formulations mainly characterized by

  20. Inoculant effects on alfalfa silage: in vitro gas and volatile fatty acid production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa silages from two similar trials, 15 treatments with an untreated control and 14 lactic acid bacterial inoculants, were analyzed for in vitro ruminal gas production. First cut (477 g DM/kg) and second cut (393 g DM/kg) alfalfa had been ensiled in glass jars for a minimum of 30 days at room te...

  1. Fluctuation theorem for entropy production during effusion of an ideal gas with momentum transfer

    E-print Network

    Kawai, Ryoichi

    , for example, the theory of linear irreversible processes 2 and the fluctuation- dissipation theorem 3 . OverFluctuation theorem for entropy production during effusion of an ideal gas with momentum transfer and explicitly verify the thermo- dynamic fluctuation theorem, thereby directly exhibiting its extended

  2. Production of a new wastewater treatment coagulant from fly ash with concomitant flue gas scrubbing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling Li; Maohong Fan; Robert C. Brown; Jacek A. Koziel

    2009-01-01

    The research focused on the production of a complex wastewater coagulant containing polymeric sulfates of aluminum and iron from fly ash. At the same time, SO2 in the simulated flu gas was removed by absorption in a fly ash slurry and oxidized with sodium chlorate. Extraction efficiency of iron and aluminum oxides from fly ash was affected greatly by reaction

  3. Volume reduction of produced water generated from natural gas production process using membrane technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Visvanathan; P. Svenstrup; P. Ariyamethee

    This paper presents a case study of a natural gas production site covering various technical issues related to selection of an appropriate Reverse Osmosis (RO) system. The long-term field experience indicates the necessity of the selection of appropriate pretreatment systems for fouling-free RO operational conditions. The produced water has a variety of impurities such as oil and grease, process chemicals

  4. Operator Trainer System for the Petrobras P-26 Semi-Submersible Oil and Gas Production Unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Pereira; A. Riera; G. Padilla; E. Musulin; N. J. Nakamura

    2009-01-01

    Operator trainer systems aim to improve operator performance, by simulating scenarios such as emergency conditions, thus reducing accidents and increasing processes economical results. In this paper, we present PETROBRAS' Oil & Gas Production Process and Utilities Simulator Environment called AMBTREI (Training Environment) that mimics the actual Control Room of an E&P semi-submersible Platform at a very high fidelity level. This

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas Steam Reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.

    2000-09-28

    A life cycle assessment of hydrogen production via natural gas steam reforming was performed to examine the net emissions of greenhouse gases as well as other major environmental consequences. LCA is a systematic analytical method that helps identify and evaluate the environmental impacts of a specific process or competing processes.

  6. DESULFURIZATION OF HOT BIOMASS PRODUCT GAS WITH REGENERATIVE ADSORBENTS FOR SOFC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Bamberger; A. Schweiger; U. Hohenwarter

    The increasing need for sustainable energy and the independency from fossil fuels makes biomass an important energy source. The gasification of biomass with a subsequent use of the product gas in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) can achieve a higher overall efficiency compared to conventional combined heat and power plants (CHP). Impurities like dust, alkali, heavy metal, sulfur and halogenous

  7. Genetic variation in perennial ryegrass for gas production during in vitro rumen fermentation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Genetic variation in perennial ryegrass for gas production during in vitro rumen fermentation EN Nutrition, (ID-DLO), PO Box 160, 8200 AD Lelystad, The Netherlands Genetic variation for fermentation. The material was produced at two locations and consisted of a cut in late summer at two locations. Fermentation

  8. Air Pollutant Emissions from Oil and Gas Production pads (Investigating Low Cost Passive Samplers)

    EPA Science Inventory

    To help achieve the goal of sustainable, environmentally responsible development of oil and gas resources, it isnecessary to understand the potential for air pollutant emissions from various extraction and production (E&P)processes at the upstream, wellpad level. Upstream oil and...

  9. Production of natural gas from methane hydrate by a constant downhole pressure well

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Goodarz Ahmadi; Chuang Ji; Duane H. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Natural gas production from the dissociation of methane hydrate in a confined reservoir by a depressurizing downhole well was studied. The case that the well pressure was kept constant was treated, and two different linearization schemes in an axisymmetric configuration were used in the analysis. For different fixed well pressures and reservoir temperatures, approximate self similar solutions were obtained. Distributions

  10. Field nano-localization of gas bubble production from water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammadi, Z.; Morin, R.; Olives, J.

    2013-11-01

    Using a tip shaped electrode and ac voltages, we show that the production of micro bubbles of gas from water electrolysis is localized at the tip apex inside a domain in the voltage frequency phase space. A model taking into account the electrode shape and dimensions explains these results which suggest a field effect control of the electrolysis reaction rate at a nanometer scale.

  11. Identification of Petroleum Products in Environmental Samples Using Gas Chromatography and Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Brodskii; I. M. Lukashenko; G. A. Kalinkevich; S. A. Savchuk

    2002-01-01

    Typical analytical features of petroleum products in environmental samples were considered. Among them are typical shapes of chromatograms; peaks of n-alkanes; the ratio between n-alkanes with even and odd numbers of carbon atoms; peaks of biomarkers (isoprenanes, steranes, triterpanes, etc.); the predominance of methyl- and alkyl-substituted mono-, bi-, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons over unsubstituted aromatic hydrocarbons; and other features. These

  12. The Stability of CI02 as a Product of Gas Phase Decontamination Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    D. W. Simmons

    1994-09-01

    The gas phase decontamination project is investigating the use of chlorine trifluoride (ClF{sub 3}) to fluorinate nonvolatile uranium deposits to produce uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) gas. The potential existence of chlorine dioxide (ClO{sub 2}) during gas phase decontamination with ClF{sub 3} has been the subject of recent safety discussions. Some of the laboratory data collected during feasibility studies of the gas phase process has been evaluated for the presence of ClO{sub 2} in the product gas stream. The preliminary evidence to date can be summarized as follows: (1) ClO{sub 2} was not detected in the flow loop in the absence of ClF{sub 3}; (2) ClO{sub 2} was not detected in the static reactors in the absence of both ClF{sub 3} and ClF; and (3) ClO{sub 2} was detected in a static reactor in the absence of all fluorinating gases. The experimental evidence suggests that ClO{sub 2} will not exist in the presence of ClF{sub 3}, ClF, or UF{sub 6}. The data analyzed to date is insufficient to determine the stability of ClO{sub 2} in the presence of ClO{sub 2}F. Thermodynamic calculations of the ClF{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O system support the experimental evidence, and suggest that ClO{sub 2} will not exist in the presence of ClO{sub 2}F. Additional experimental efforts are needed to provide a better understanding of the gas phase ClF{sub 3} treatments and the product gases. However, preliminary evidence to date suggests that ClO{sub 2} should not be present as a product during the normal operations of the gas phase decontamination project.

  13. Introduction of the 2007-2008 JOGMEC\\/NRCan\\/Aurora Mallik Gas Hydrate Production Research Program, NWT, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Yamamoto; S. R. Dallimore; M. Numasawa; M. Yasuda; T. Fujii; K. Fujii; J. Wright; F. Nixon

    2007-01-01

    Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC) and Natural Resource Canada (NRCan) have embarked on a new research program to study the production potential of gas hydrates. The program is being carried out at the Mallik gas hydrate field in the Mackenzie Delta, a location where two previous scientific investigations have been carried in 1998 and 2002. In the

  14. A Simulation Experiment of the Results of Fission Product Gas Release due to Fuel Cladding Failure using Water Circulation System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shunsuke KONDO; Kimihide MIYAGUCHI; Shigehiro AN; Akira OYAMA

    1970-01-01

    To examine the effects of fission product gas release into the coolant channel due to fuel cladding failure, two preliminary simulation experiments were undertaken using an electrical heater pin set in a system for water circulation. The first experiment represented a continuous release of gas from a small hole in the cladding, and the second a sudden burst of gas

  15. Gas production in the Barnett Shale obeys a simple scaling theory.

    PubMed

    Patzek, Tad W; Male, Frank; Marder, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Natural gas from tight shale formations will provide the United States with a major source of energy over the next several decades. Estimates of gas production from these formations have mainly relied on formulas designed for wells with a different geometry. We consider the simplest model of gas production consistent with the basic physics and geometry of the extraction process. In principle, solutions of the model depend upon many parameters, but in practice and within a given gas field, all but two can be fixed at typical values, leading to a nonlinear diffusion problem we solve exactly with a scaling curve. The scaling curve production rate declines as 1 over the square root of time early on, and it later declines exponentially. This simple model provides a surprisingly accurate description of gas extraction from 8,294 wells in the United States' oldest shale play, the Barnett Shale. There is good agreement with the scaling theory for 2,057 horizontal wells in which production started to decline exponentially in less than 10 y. The remaining 6,237 horizontal wells in our analysis are too young for us to predict when exponential decline will set in, but the model can nevertheless be used to establish lower and upper bounds on well lifetime. Finally, we obtain upper and lower bounds on the gas that will be produced by the wells in our sample, individually and in total. The estimated ultimate recovery from our sample of 8,294 wells is between 10 and 20 trillion standard cubic feet. PMID:24248376

  16. Gas production in the Barnett Shale obeys a simple scaling theory

    PubMed Central

    Patzek, Tad W.; Male, Frank; Marder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Natural gas from tight shale formations will provide the United States with a major source of energy over the next several decades. Estimates of gas production from these formations have mainly relied on formulas designed for wells with a different geometry. We consider the simplest model of gas production consistent with the basic physics and geometry of the extraction process. In principle, solutions of the model depend upon many parameters, but in practice and within a given gas field, all but two can be fixed at typical values, leading to a nonlinear diffusion problem we solve exactly with a scaling curve. The scaling curve production rate declines as 1 over the square root of time early on, and it later declines exponentially. This simple model provides a surprisingly accurate description of gas extraction from 8,294 wells in the United States’ oldest shale play, the Barnett Shale. There is good agreement with the scaling theory for 2,057 horizontal wells in which production started to decline exponentially in less than 10 y. The remaining 6,237 horizontal wells in our analysis are too young for us to predict when exponential decline will set in, but the model can nevertheless be used to establish lower and upper bounds on well lifetime. Finally, we obtain upper and lower bounds on the gas that will be produced by the wells in our sample, individually and in total. The estimated ultimate recovery from our sample of 8,294 wells is between 10 and 20 trillion standard cubic feet. PMID:24248376

  17. A Hybrid Gas Cleaning Process for Production of Ultraclean Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, T.C.; Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.; Cicero, D.C.; Jain, S.C.

    2002-09-20

    The overall objective of this project is to develop technologies for cleaning/conditioning IGCC generated syngas to meet contaminant tolerance limits for fuel cell and chemical production applications. The specific goals are to develop processes for (1) removal of reduced sulfur species to sub-ppm levels using a hybrid process consisting of a polymer membrane and a regenerable ZnO-coated monolith or a mixed metal oxide sorbent; (2) removal of hydrogen chloride vapors to sub-ppm levels using an inexpensive, high-surface-area material; and (3) removal of NH3 with acidic adsorbents followed by conversion of this NH3 into nitrogen and water. Existing gasification technologies can effectively and efficiently convert a wide variety of carbonaceous feedstocks (coal, petcoke, resids, biomass, etc.) into syngas, which predominantly contains carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Unfortunately, the impurities present in these carbonaceous feedstocks are converted to gaseous contaminants such as H2S, COS, HCl, NH3, alkali macromolecules and heavy metal compounds (such as Hg) during the gasification process. Removal of these contaminants using conventional processes is thermally inefficient and capital intensive. This research and development effort is focused on investigation of modular processes for removal of sulfur, chlorine, nitrogen and mercury compounds from syngas at elevated temperature and pressures at significantly lower costs than conventional technologies.

  18. Water and Productivity of Floodplain Grasslands: Exploring Linkages through Experimentations and Models in the Tana River Delta, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leauthaud, C.; Musila, W.; Kergoat, L.; Hiernaux, P.; Manuela, G.; Duvail, S.

    2014-12-01

    Floodplain grasslands have one of the highest productivities of non-cultivated ecosystems on Earth. They procure a wide variety of benefits to human beings. In Eastern Africa, grasslands of Echinochloa stagnina are primordial for pastoralists as highly productive dry-season grazing zones. Regular flooding is a critical property in maintaining their productivity and resulting services. Yet, construction of hydrologic infrastructure modifies the flooding regime of rivers and the consequences on downstream floodplain grasslands need to be assessed. This presentation focuses on quantifying the productivity of the floodplain grasslands in the Tana River Delta, Kenya, in order to assess potential changes under varying flooding regimes. The interactions between growth and floods are explored firstly at an experimental site, then through the construction of a process-based plant growth model adapted to floodplain grasslands. The 15-month experiment consisted in quantifying daily growth rates under various rainfall, irrigation, cutting and flooding regimes . Floods increased growth rates three-folds, and high productivities were maintained after the floods. The cutting regime and contribution of non-flood water also influenced productivity. Modelling allowed exploring the underlying processes explaining such behaviour. In an exploratory endeavour, the productivity of the grassland at the ecosystem scale was assessed with the model for a variety of flood and non-flooded scenarios. Decreasing floods led to a drop in annual productivity that could have serious consequences for the livestock keeping activities of the zone. This research highlights the importance of floods in the maintenance of high productivities for a floodplain grassland typical of East Africa, and maybe of the Sahelian band. The model, once further validated, could be used on other floodplain grasslands, such as those of the Niger delta. Results for the Tana River Delta would need to be discussed with the stakeholders so that proper action can be taken.

  19. Determination of thiodiglycol, a mustard gas hydrolysis product by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after tert-butyldimethylsilylation.

    PubMed

    Ohsawa, Isaac; Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Tsuge, Kouichiro; Seto, Yasuo

    2004-12-24

    A method for determining thiodiglycol (TDG), a mustard gas hydrolysis product in water, serum and urine samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after tert-butyldimethylsilylation (TBDMS) is described. Quantitation of TDG was performed by measuring the respective peak area on the extracted ion chromatogram of m/z 293, using an internal standard, the TDG homologue, thiodipropanol, peak area of which was measured as m/z 321. The presence of salts in the sample solution not only suppressed the loss of TDG by vaporization during the evaporation of water, but also facilitated the rate of production of di-silylated derivative, bis(tert-butyldimethylsilyoxylethyl)sulfide (TDG-(TBDMS)2). Under the pretreatment conditions used, in which 0.5 ml of water sample supplemented with 100 microM potassium chloride was evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure, followed by reaction with N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide at 60 degrees C for 1 h, TDG-(TBDMS)2 was reproducibly detected with about a 55% recovery and a limit of detection (LOD, scan mode, S/N = 3) of 5.4 ng/ml. TDG was also determined by GC-MS from a 0.5 ml serum sample (after perchloric acid deproteinization) and from a 0.1 ml urine sample, after TBDMS derivatization. The LOD was determined to be 7.0 and 110 ng/ml for serum and urine, respectively. PMID:15641367

  20. Measurements of methane emissions at natural gas production sites in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Allen, David T.; Torres, Vincent M.; Thomas, James; Sullivan, David W.; Harrison, Matthew; Hendler, Al; Herndon, Scott C.; Kolb, Charles E.; Fraser, Matthew P.; Hill, A. Daniel; Lamb, Brian K.; Miskimins, Jennifer; Sawyer, Robert F.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Engineering estimates of methane emissions from natural gas production have led to varied projections of national emissions. This work reports direct measurements of methane emissions at 190 onshore natural gas sites in the United States (150 production sites, 27 well completion flowbacks, 9 well unloadings, and 4 workovers). For well completion flowbacks, which clear fractured wells of liquid to allow gas production, methane emissions ranged from 0.01 Mg to 17 Mg (mean = 1.7 Mg; 95% confidence bounds of 0.67–3.3 Mg), compared with an average of 81 Mg per event in the 2011 EPA national emission inventory from April 2013. Emission factors for pneumatic pumps and controllers as well as equipment leaks were both comparable to and higher than estimates in the national inventory. Overall, if emission factors from this work for completion flowbacks, equipment leaks, and pneumatic pumps and controllers are assumed to be representative of national populations and are used to estimate national emissions, total annual emissions from these source categories are calculated to be 957 Gg of methane (with sampling and measurement uncertainties estimated at ±200 Gg). The estimate for comparable source categories in the EPA national inventory is ?1,200 Gg. Additional measurements of unloadings and workovers are needed to produce national emission estimates for these source categories. The 957 Gg in emissions for completion flowbacks, pneumatics, and equipment leaks, coupled with EPA national inventory estimates for other categories, leads to an estimated 2,300 Gg of methane emissions from natural gas production (0.42% of gross gas production). PMID:24043804

  1. A stepwise procedure for successive calculation of temperature and pressure gradients in gas wells. [Gas flow in production and injection wells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Tek; J. R. Elenbaas; D. L. Katz; M. Whims; J. L. Roberts

    1978-01-01

    A stepwise procedure for successive calculation of temperature and pressure gradients in gas wells during production or injection, developed from a thermodynamic energy balance in the well bore and the usual equations for the flow of natural gas in vertical pipe, gives reasonably accurate predictions of actual field measurements. Assumptions of succession of steady states in the well bore and

  2. Numerical Analysis of the Effect of Reduction Gas Composition and Temperature on the Quality of Sponge Iron Product

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bayu Alamsari; Shuichi Torii; Yazid Bindar; Azis Trianto

    2010-01-01

    Reduction zone of iron ore reactor have been simulated. This is a part of counter current gas-solid reactor for producing sponge iron. The aim of this research is to study the effect of reduction gas composition and temperature on quality and product capacity of sponge iron products through mathematical modeling arrangement and simulation. Simultaneous mass and energy balances along the

  3. Estimating starch availability and protein degradation of steam-flaked and reconstituted sorghum grain through a gas production technique.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Y; Bartle, S J; Preston, R L; Meng, Q

    1990-11-01

    Five steam-flaked sorghum grain (SFSG) samples with bulk densities of 476, 412, 347, 309 and 283 g/liter made by adjusting tension between mill rollers and three reconstituted sorghum grain (RSG) samples with reconstitution times of 10, 20 and 30 d and a control sample were analyzed for gas production kinetics (rumen liquor fermentation) and enzymatic glucose release (amyloglucosidase). Protein degradation was estimated from 6-h gas production and residual ammonia in the liquid. Gas production followed first-order kinetics (r2 greater than .98; P less than .01) and was used to describe rate and extent of digestion kinetics. Rate of gas production increased as processing degree increased. The magnitude of increase in gas production, however, was much less for RSG than for SFSG. Linear relationships were observed between enzymatic glucose release and the gas production rate constant k as well as gas production at 4,6 and 8 h (r2 greater than .98; P less than .01). Protein degradation decreased with processing degree of SFSG but increased with reconstitution time. A technique based on 6-h gas production and residual ammonia in the liquid is proposed to estimate both ruminal starch availability and ruminal protein degradability for processed sorghum grain. PMID:2262434

  4. Statistical Properties of a Trapped Relativistic Fermi Gas with Pair Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Guozhen; Chen, Liwei; Chen, Jincan

    2013-09-01

    Statistical properties of an ideal gas of relativistic fermions trapped in a D-dimensional power-law potential are studied, in which the effect of particle-antiparticle pair production is taken into account. It is shown that the relativistic effect is considerable even at very low temperatures for the system with Fermi energy comparable with the rest energy of a particle. In contrast, the effect of pair production is significant at high temperatures, but negligible at low temperatures. Moreover, it is found that the pair production results in several novel characteristics, such as the asymptotic behavior of chemical potential and rapid increase of heat capacity in the high temperature region.

  5. CITE Suitability : an exploration of product evaluation methodologies for developing world technologies

    E-print Network

    Pombrol, Christopher Anthony

    2014-01-01

    There are a multitude of technological products that have been developed to improve the lives of bottom of pyramid consumers in the developing world. Unfortunately, many of these products fail to have the desired impact ...

  6. Characterization of tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis products of near-shore marine sediments using gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography\\/combustion\\/isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry Pulchan; Teofilo A. Abrajano; Robert Helleur

    1997-01-01

    The study describes the application of gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) and gas chromatography\\/combustion\\/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC\\/C\\/IRMS) to characterize the molecular and compound-specific stable carbon isotope composition, respectively, of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) thermochemolysis products of organic matter present in marine sediments. The objective of the study was to examine the usefulness of TMAH thermochemolysis products in identifying organic markers of

  7. Exploring Execution of Ecological Engineering and Cleaner Production in Pharmaceutical Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miao Ze-hua; Bian Na; Dong Li; Sun Wen-bo

    2011-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is the focus of State Environmental Protection Plan among the 12 industries, the execution of ecological engineering and furthering of cleaner production is a key way to sustainable development with enhancing production vitality of pharmaceutical companies. With the consideration of the pollution from pharmaceutical companies, this paper examines the implementation of cleaner production for the pharmaceutical companies

  8. Medical Grade Water Generation for Intravenous Fluid Production on Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niederhaus, Charles E.; Barlow, Karen L.; Griffin, DeVon W.; Miller, Fletcher J.

    2008-01-01

    This document describes the intravenous (IV) fluids requirements for medical care during NASA s future Exploration class missions. It further discusses potential methods for generating such fluids and the challenges associated with different fluid generation technologies. The current Exploration baseline mission profiles are introduced, potential medical conditions described and evaluated for fluidic needs, and operational issues assessed. Conclusions on the fluid volume requirements are presented, and the feasibility of various fluid generation options are discussed. A separate report will document a more complete trade study on the options to provide the required fluids.At the time this document was developed, NASA had not yet determined requirements for medical care during Exploration missions. As a result, this study was based on the current requirements for care onboard the International Space Station (ISS). While we expect that medical requirements will be different for Exploration missions, this document will provide a useful baseline for not only developing hardware to generate medical water for injection (WFI), but as a foundation for meeting future requirements. As a final note, we expect WFI requirements for Exploration will be higher than for ISS care, and system capacity may well need to be higher than currently specified.

  9. Exploring the chemical fate of the sulfate radical anion by reaction with sulfur dioxide in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsona, N. T.; Bork, N.; Vehkamäki, H.

    2014-05-01

    The gas phase reaction between SO4-(H2O)n and SO2, n = 0-2, is investigated using ab initio calculations and kinetic modeling. Structures of reactants, transition states and products are reported. Our calculations predict that the SO2SO4-(H2O)n cluster ion, formed upon SO2 and SO4-(H2O)n collision, can isomerize to SO3SO3-(H2O)n. The overall reaction is SO2 oxidation by the SO4-(H2O)n anionic cluster. The results show that SO4-(H2O)n is a good SO2 oxidant, especially at low relative humidity, with a~reaction rate constant up to 1.1 × 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. At high relative humidity, instead, the re-evaporation of SO2 from the SO2SO4-(H2O)n cluster ion is favoured.

  10. Exploring the chemical fate of the sulfate radical anion by reaction with sulfur dioxide in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsona, N. T.; Bork, N.; Vehkamäki, H.

    2015-01-01

    The gas phase reaction between SO4-(H2O)n and SO2, n = 0-2, is investigated using ab initio calculations and kinetic modelling. Structures of reactants, transition states and products are reported. Our calculations predict that the SO2SO4-(H2O)n cluster ion, which is formed upon SO2 and SO4-(H2O)n collision, can isomerize to SO3SO3-(H2O)n. The overall reaction is SO2 oxidation by the SO4-(H2O)n anionic cluster. The results show that SO4-(H2O)n is a good SO2 oxidant, especially at low relative humidity, with a reaction rate constant up to 1.5 × 10-10 cm3 molecule-1s-1. At high relative humidity, instead, the re-evaporation of SO2 from the SO2SO

  11. The effects of production rates and some reservoir parameters on recovery in a strong water drive gas reservoir 

    E-print Network

    Soemarso, Christophorus

    1978-01-01

    gas. Laboratory imbibition tests from cores indicated a residual gas saturation of 28. 7/. From a single field in situ residual gas measurement using a tracer technique conducted in 1974 a value of 25. 4/ residual gas saturation was obtained... of gravity drainage, and is defined as: ll KLA GRR = gaoslnn The nomenclature is given at the end of the paper. The expression of production rates in terms of GRR enables the results to be generalized with respect to reservoir parameters...

  12. Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systems

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Mario; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Notenbaert, An; Rufino, Mariana C.; Thornton, Philip K.; Blümmel, Michael; Weiss, Franz; Grace, Delia; Obersteiner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We present a unique, biologically consistent, spatially disaggregated global livestock dataset containing information on biomass use, production, feed efficiency, excretion, and greenhouse gas emissions for 28 regions, 8 livestock production systems, 4 animal species (cattle, small ruminants, pigs, and poultry), and 3 livestock products (milk, meat, and eggs). The dataset contains over 50 new global maps containing high-resolution information for understanding the multiple roles (biophysical, economic, social) that livestock can play in different parts of the world. The dataset highlights: (i) feed efficiency as a key driver of productivity, resource use, and greenhouse gas emission intensities, with vast differences between production systems and animal products; (ii) the importance of grasslands as a global resource, supplying almost 50% of biomass for animals while continuing to be at the epicentre of land conversion processes; and (iii) the importance of mixed crop–livestock systems, producing the greater part of animal production (over 60%) in both the developed and the developing world. These data provide critical information for developing targeted, sustainable solutions for the livestock sector and its widely ranging contribution to the global food system. PMID:24344273

  13. An unsteady state model for estimating swab pressure and gas production when tripping in horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Moura Jorge, N. de [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Drilling Dept.; Santos, O.L.A. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper resulted from a comprehensive study on surge pressures that occur when tripping in horizontal wells. These pressures were modeled by a verified numerical procedure based on the solution of flow equations for a homogeneous mixture (gas and drilling mud) by the Method of Characteristics. A transient model for gas reservoirs was coupled to the numerical procedure to provide an estimation of the amount of gas produced during trips in horizontal wells. Comparisons with an existing model and with field data of circulation pressure have shown that the proposed model is accurate and coherent. According to simulation results, pulling speed of the drill string, rheological properties of the drilling fluid, rheological model adopted (Plastic or Power Law) and the presence of gas inside the wellbore have shown to be the most important factors affecting the surge pressure behavior during trips. As new technical contribution, this paper discloses a verified numerical procedure to calculate surge pressures in horizontal wells, shows the interaction between wellbore pressure and gas production, and provides an estimation procedure of the amount of gas left in a horizontal well after the drill string removal.

  14. Functionally gradient material for membrane reactors to convert methane gas into value-added products

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Kobylinski, T.P.

    1996-11-12

    A functionally gradient material for a membrane reactor for converting methane gas into value-added-products includes an outer tube of perovskite, which contacts air; an inner tube which contacts methane gas, of zirconium oxide, and a bonding layer between the perovskite and zirconium oxide layers. The bonding layer has one or more layers of a mixture of perovskite and zirconium oxide, with the layers transitioning from an excess of perovskite to an excess of zirconium oxide. The transition layers match thermal expansion coefficients and other physical properties between the two different materials. 7 figs.

  15. Influence of electrolytes and membranes on cell operation for syn-gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Eric J. Dufek; Tedd E. Lister; Michael E. McIlwain

    2012-02-01

    The impact of membrane type and electrolyte composition for the electrochemical generation of synthesis gas (CO + H2) using a Ag gas diffusion electrode are presented. Changing from a cation exchange membrane to an anion exchange membrane (AEM) extended the cell operational time at low Ecell values (up to 4x) without impacting product composition. The use of KOH as the catholyte decreased the Ecell and resulted in a minimum electrolyte cost reduction of 39%. The prime factor in determining operational time at low Ecell values was the ability to maintain a sufficiently high anolyte pH.

  16. Coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant of Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, V.N.; Anikin, G.J. [Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, (Russian Federation); Gross, M. [Krupp Koppers GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, Russia, decided to erect a new coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant to replace the existing obsolete units and to improve the environmental conditions of the area. The paper deals with the technological concept and the design requirements. Commissioning is scheduled at the beginning of 1996. The paper describes H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal, sulfur recovery and ammonia destruction, primary gas cooling and electrostatic tar precipitation, and the distributed control system that will be installed.

  17. Application of backscatter absorption gas imaging to the detection of chemicals related to drug production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulp, Thomas J.; Garvis, Darrel G.; Kennedy, Randall B.; McRae, Thomas G.

    1991-08-01

    The application of backscatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI) to the detection of gaseous chemical species associated with the production of illegal drugs is considered. BAGI is a gas visualization technique that allows the imaging of over 70 organic vapors at minimum concentrations of a few to several hundred ppm-m. Present BAGI capabilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Laser Imaging Systems are discussed. Eighteen different species of interest in drug-law enforcement are identified as being detectable by BAGI. The chemical remote sensing needs of law enforcement officials are described, and the use of BAGI in meeting some of these needs is outlined.

  18. Transport of fission products with a helium gas-jet at TRIGA-SPEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibach, M.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Herfurth, F.; Geppert, C.; Ketelaer, J.; Ketter, J.; Krämer, J.; Krieger, A.; Knuth, K.; Nagy, Sz.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Smorra, C.

    2010-02-01

    A helium gas-jet system for the transport of fission products from the research reactor TRIGA Mainz has been developed, characterized and tested within the TRIGA-SPEC experiment. For the first time at TRIGA Mainz carbon aerosol particles have been used for the transport of radionuclides from a target chamber with high efficiency. The radionuclides have been identified by means of ?-spectroscopy. Transport time, efficiency as well as the absolute number of transported radionuclides for several species have been determined. The design and the characterization of the gas-jet system are described and discussed.

  19. Explorer-II: Wireless Self-Powered Visual and NDE Robotic Inspection System for Live Gas Distribution Mains

    SciTech Connect

    Carnegie Mellon University

    2008-09-30

    Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) under contract from Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DoE/NETL) and co-funding from the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), has completed the overall system design, field-trial and Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) sensor evaluation program for the next-generation Explorer-II (X-II) live gas main Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) and visual inspection robot platform. The design is based on the Explorer-I prototype which was built and field-tested under a prior (also DoE- and NGA co-funded) program, and served as the validation that self-powered robots under wireless control could access and navigate live natural gas distribution mains. The X-II system design ({approx}8 ft. and 66 lbs.) was heavily based on the X-I design, yet was substantially expanded to allow the addition of NDE sensor systems (while retaining its visual inspection capability), making it a modular system, and expanding its ability to operate at pressures up to 750 psig (high-pressure and unpiggable steel-pipe distribution mains). A new electronics architecture and on-board software kernel were added to again improve system performance. A locating sonde system was integrated to allow for absolute position-referencing during inspection (coupled with external differential GPS) and emergency-locating. The power system was upgraded to utilize lithium-based battery-cells for an increase in mission-time. The resulting robot-train system with CAD renderings of the individual modules. The system architecture now relies on a dual set of end camera-modules to house the 32-bit processors (Single-Board Computer or SBC) as well as the imaging and wireless (off-board) and CAN-based (on-board) communication hardware and software systems (as well as the sonde-coil and -electronics). The drive-module (2 ea.) are still responsible for bracing (and centering) to drive in push/pull fashion the robot train into and through the pipes and obstacles. The steering modules and their arrangement, still allow the robot to configure itself to perform any-angle (up to 90 deg) turns in any orientation (incl. vertical), and enable the live launching and recovery of the system using custom fittings and a (to be developed) launch-chamber/-tube. The battery modules are used to power the system, by providing power to the robot's bus. The support modules perform the functions of centration for the rest of the train as well as odometry pickups using incremental encoding schemes. The electronics architecture is based on a distributed (8-bit) microprocessor architecture (at least 1 in ea. module) communicating to a (one of two) 32-bit SBC, which manages all video-processing, posture and motion control as well as CAN and wireless communications. The operator controls the entire system from an off-board (laptop) controller, which is in constant wireless communication with the robot train in the pipe. The sensor modules collect data and forward it to the robot operator computer (via the CAN-wireless communications chain), who then transfers it to a dedicated NDE data-storage and post-processing computer for further (real-time or off-line) analysis. The prototype robot system was built and tested indoors and outdoors, outfitted with a Remote-Field Eddy Current (RFEC) sensor integrated as its main NDE sensor modality. An angled launcher, allowing for live launching and retrieval, was also built to suit custom angled launch-fittings from TDW. The prototype vehicle and launcher systems are shown. The complete system, including the in-pipe robot train, launcher, integrated NDE-sensor and real-time video and control console and NDE-data collection and -processing and real-time display, were demonstrated to all sponsors prior to proceeding into final field-trials--the individual components and setting for said acceptance demonstration are shown. The launcher-tube was also used to verify that the vehicle system is capable of operating in high-pressure environments, and is safely deployable using proper evacuating/purging techniques for operation in the po

  20. Thermal-destruction products of coal in the blast-furnace gas-purification system

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Amdur; M.V. Shibanova; E.V. Ental'tsev [Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Russia Institute of Metallurgy

    2008-10-15

    The lean, poorly clinkering coal and anthracite used to replace coke in blast furnaces has a considerable content of volatile components (low-molecular thermaldestruction products), which enter the water and sludge of the blast-furnace gas-purification system as petroleum products. Therefore, it is important to study the influence of coal on the petroleum-product content in the water and sludge within this system. The liberation of primary thermal-destruction products is investigated for anthracite with around 4 wt % volatiles, using a STA 449C Jupiter thermoanalyzer equipped with a QMC 230 mass spectrometer. The thermoanalyzer determines small changes in mass and thermal effects with high accuracy (weighing accuracy 10{sup -8} g; error in measuring thermal effects 1 mV). This permits experiments with single layers of coal particles, eliminating secondary reactions of its thermal-destruction products.

  1. Use of thermal infrared remote sensing data for fisheries, environmental monitoring, oil and gas exploration, and ship routing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roffer, M. A.; Gawlikowski, G.; Muller-Karger, F.; Schaudt, K.; Upton, M.; Wall, C.; Westhaver, D.

    2006-12-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) and ocean color remote sensing data (1.1 - 4.0 km) are being used as the primary data source in decision making systems for fisheries management, commercial and recreational fishing advisory services, fisheries research, environmental monitoring, oil and gas operations, and ship routing. Experience over the last 30 years suggests that while ocean color and other remote sensing data (e.g. altimetry) are important data sources, TIR presently yields the most useful data for studying ocean surface circulation synoptically on a daily basis. This is due primarily to the greater temporal resolution, but also due to one's better understanding of the dynamics of sea surface temperature compared with variations in ocean color and the spatial limitations of altimeter data. Information derived from commercial operations and research is being used to improve the operational efficiency of fishing vessels (e.g. reduce search time and increase catch rate) and to improve our understanding of the variations in catch distribution and rate needed to properly manage fisheries. This information is also being used by the oil and gas industry to minimize transit time and thus, save costs (e.g., tug charter, insurance), to increase production and revenue up to 500K dollars a day. The data are also be used to reduce the risk of equipment loss, loss of time and revenue to sudden and unexpected currents such as eddies. Sequential image analysis integrating TIR and ocean color provided near-real time, synoptic visualization of the rapid and wide dispersal of coastal waters from the northern Gulf of Mexico following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in September 2005. The satellite data and analysis techniques have also been used to monitor the effects and movement of other potential environmentally damaging substances, such as dispersing nutrient enriched waste water offshore. A review of our experience in several commercial applications and research efforts will reinforce the importance and benefits of TIR compared to other remote sensing data. Examples of sequential image analysis and side by side image comparisons will demonstrate the utility of TIR for oceanographic applications. This will emphasize that TIR research and development be continued, as well as, implemented on all new research sensor packages. Sea surface temperature, derived from TIR, has the longest history and reliability for synoptic observations of ocean circulation. Thus, any new sensor packages should be fitted with TIR at the same temporal and spatial resolution to facilitate an objective comparison of the utility of the new sensors compared with the TIR.

  2. Exploring Ovulation & Pregnancy Using Over-the-Counter Products: A Novel Guided Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venditti, Jennifer J.; Surmacz, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    In this guided inquiry, students explore the complex hormonal regulation of the female reproductive cycle using inexpensive ovulation and pregnancy detection kits that are readily available over the counter. This hands-on activity engages students in the practice of doing science as highlighted by the "National Science Education Standards." The…

  3. Evaluation of water production in tight gas sands in the Cotton Valley formation in the Caspiana, Elm Grove and Frierson fields 

    E-print Network

    Ozobeme, Charles Chinedu

    2007-04-25

    Normally in tight gas sands, water production is not a problem but in such low permeability reservoirs it is difficult to produce gas at commercial flow rates. Since water is more viscous than gas, very little water is ...

  4. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  5. Educational Roadmap of Natural Gas and Crude Oil

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This webpage from the Ohio Oil and Gas Energy Education Program will assist classes learning about natural gas, crude oil and fuel production. The page is divided into six sections, focusing on formation, migration, exploration, drilling and production, refinement and finally, end products. Each section has a video demonstration, resources, links and more.

  6. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  7. Exploring Multiple Patterns of Faculty Productivity in STEM Disciplines at Doctoral Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying

    2010-01-01

    This study is one of only a few that attempts to examine simultaneously faculty productivity in teaching, research, and service. The research is guided by a conceptual model built from several branches of the literature on career stage theory, motivation theory, and previous studies of faculty productivity. The model hypothesizes that faculty…

  8. Mis/Representations in School-Based Digital Media Production: An Ethnographic Exploration with Muslim Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahya, Negin; Jenson, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss findings from a digital media production club with racialized girls in a low-income school in Toronto, Ontario. Specifically, the authors consider how student-produced media is impacted by ongoing postcolonial structures relating to power and representation in the school and in the media production work of…

  9. Non-timber forest products from the Canadian boreal forest: an exploration of aboriginal opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter C. Boxall; Gordon Murray; James R. Unterschultz

    2003-01-01

    Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) such as foods or environmental products are proposed as potential engines of economic development or income for Aboriginal Peoples in rural or remote communities in Canada. An assessment of the potential market for NTFPs is often overlooked when proposing the development of new NTFPs. Our study specifically evaluates the market potential for wild berry jams produced

  10. Continuous determination of volatile products in anaerobic fermenters by on-line capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, V; Melidis, P; Aivasidis, A

    2006-07-28

    Bio-ethanol and biogas produced during the anaerobic conversion of organic compounds has been a subject of great interest since the oil crisis of the 1970s. In ethanol fermentation and anaerobic treatment of wastewaters, end-product (ethanol) and intermediate-products (short-chain fatty acids, SCFA) cause inhibition that results in reduced process efficiency. Control of these constituents is of utmost importance for bioreactor optimization and process stability. Ethanol and SCFA can be detected with precision by capillary gas chromatography usually conducted in off-line measurements. In this work, an on-line monitoring and controlling system was developed and connected to the fermenter via an auto-sampling equipment, which could perform the feeding, filtration and dilution of the sample and final injection into the gas chromatograph through an automation-based programmed procedure. The sample was continuously pumped from the recycle stream of the bioreactor and treated using a microfiltration unit. The concentrate was returned to the reactor while the permeate was quantitatively mixed with an internal standard solution. The system comprised of a gas chromatograph with the flow cell and one-shot sampler and a PC with the appropriate software. The on-line measurement of ethanol and SCFA, directly from the liquid phase of an ethanol fermenter and a high-rate continuous mode anaerobic digester, was accomplished by gas chromatography. Also, this monitoring and controlling system was proved to be effective in the continuous fermentation of alcohol-free beer. PMID:17723523

  11. Tar-free fuel gas production from high temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leguan; Xiao, Bo; Hu, Zhiquan; Liu, Shiming; Cheng, Gong; He, Piwen; Sun, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Pyrolysis of sewage sludge was studied in a free-fall reactor at 1000-1400 °C. The results showed that the volatile matter in the sludge could be completely released to gaseous product at 1300 °C. The high temperature was in favor of H2 and CO in the produced gas. However, the low heating value (LHV) of the gas decreased from 15.68 MJ/Nm(3) to 9.10 MJ/Nm(3) with temperature increasing from 1000 °C to 1400 °C. The obtained residual solid was characterized by high ash content. The energy balance indicated that the most heating value in the sludge was in the gaseous product. PMID:24220150

  12. Study of arc by-products in gas-insulated equipment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, A.; Dethlefsen, R.; Dodds, J.; Oswalt, N.; Vouros, P.

    1980-12-01

    The project objective was to develop a chemical data base for sulfur hexafluoride, SF/sub 6/ decomposition products as generated by electrical discharges within gas-insulated equipment to serve as a basis for unified handling procedures of faulted SF/sub 6/ equipment and disposal of the arc products. An analysis capability was to be developed that could be used by utilities for incipient and actual fault analysis on SF/sub 6/ insulated power equipment. Arced SF/sub 6/ gas and solid samples were generated in test devices which simulate SF/sub 6/ circuit breakers or SF/sub 6/ insulated bus. Actual production hardware and procedures were used for assembly of the test devices. Fault arc currents ranged between 15 kA and 50 kA. Arced SF/sub 6/ samples were obtained and shipped in stainless steel cylinders. Gaseous arc products were analyzed with a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The attained sensitivity is 100 ppM. The major SF/sub 6/ arc products are SOF/sub 2/ and CF/sub 4/. The amount increases with the arc energy. SOF/sub 2/ can effectively be removed by absorber-scrubbers containing soda-lime, activated alumina and molecular sieves. The solid arc products consisted of metal fluorides (AlF/sub 3/ and CuF/sub 2/.2 H/sub 2/O). Airborne dust, collected upon opening of the faulted test section had a size of about 10 micron.

  13. Optimization of Standard Gas Chromatographic Methodology for the Determination of Trans Fat in Unlabeled Bakery Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine M. Phillips; David M. Ruggio; Karen R. Amanna

    2010-01-01

    Analytical parameters and quality control measures were optimized for standard direct gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of\\u000a trans fat in unlabeled bakery products, and differences in concentrations measured in samples assayed with and without the modifications\\u000a were evaluated. Total lipid was extracted with chloroform\\/methanol from homogenized cakes, cookies, doughnuts, pastries, muffins,\\u000a and commercially available reference materials (NIST SRM 2387 Peanut Butter,

  14. Hydrogen production from simulated hot coke oven gas by using oxygen-permeable ceramics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongwei Cheng; Yuwen Zhang; Xionggang Lu; Weizhong Ding; Qian Li

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen production from simulated hot coke oven gas (HCOG) was investigated in a BaCo{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.2}Nb{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-} (BCFNO) membrane reactor combined with a Ni\\/Mg(Al)O catalyst by the partial oxidation with toluene as a model tar compound under atmospheric pressure. The reaction results indicated that toluene was completely converted to H and CO in the catalytic reforming of the simulated

  15. Primary productivity in the central equatorial Pacific (3°S 130°W) during GasEx-2001

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter G. Strutton; Francisco P. Chavez; Richard C. Dugdale; Victoria Hogue

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of chlorophyll concentration, phytoplankton productivity, and nutrient dynamics were made during the GasEx-2001 cruise to the equatorial Pacific in February 2001. During the core measurement period of the experiment, a parcel of water was tracked over a 16-day period in order to close the mixed layer carbon budget. Chlorophyll concentration averaged 0.16 mg m?3 and integrated mixed layer primary

  16. Relevance of laboratory experiments for investigation and mitigation of flow induced corrosion in gas production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Schmitt; W. Bruckhoff

    1988-01-01

    Lab investigations on flow induced corrosion in gas production always face the problem of simulating down-hole flow regimes as relevant as possible at high pressures of COâ and\\/or HâS and at elevated temperatures. The paper describes different experimental approaches (the closed loop with ring samples in a ring column and with short tubings; the rotated cage with coupons on a

  17. Rapid Analysis of Multiresidual Pesticides in Agricultural Products by Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Libin Liu; Hashi Yuki; Yaping Qin; Haixia Zhou; Jinming Lin

    2006-01-01

    A method for the rapid analysis of multiresidual pesticides in agricultural products using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) was introduced. The matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) technique with slight modification was employed to minimize the matrix interferences. To calculate the recovery, 97 target pesticides were spiked into a range of foods including potato, cabbage, carrot, apple, orange, cucumber, and rice. The combination

  18. Gas chromatographic study of the volatile products from co-pyrolysis of coal and polyethylene wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Dom??nguez; C. G Blanco; C Barriocanal; R Alvarez; M. A D??ez

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the volatile products distribution of co-processing of coal with two plastic wastes, low-density polyethylene from agriculture greenhouses and high-density polyethylene from domestic uses, in order to explain the observed decrease in coal fluidity caused by polyethylene waste addition. Polymeric materials, although they are not volatile themselves, may be analysed by gas chromatography

  19. The elimination of liquid loading problems in low productivity gas wells

    E-print Network

    Neves, Toby Roy

    1987-01-01

    . The advantages, disadvantages, and limitations of all liquid removal candidates were noted. Techniques for analyzing wells of this nature were studied in detail. ~ph s Operators and equipment suppliers in the Central and Eastern regions of Texas were... methods include rod pumping, gas lift, plunger lift, foaming agents, smaller diameter production tubing, swabbing, subsurface liquid diverter system, and alternate flow/shut-in periods, This thesis will discuss the advantages, disadvantages...

  20. Flue gas desulfurization and by-product treatment at Tisov power plant (Czech Republic)

    SciTech Connect

    Valbert, G.; Schneider, G.

    1998-07-01

    The FGD plant Tisovain the Czech republic is a retrofit downstream of a 100 MW lignite fired power plant. It was designed and built by L. and C. STEINMUELLER GmbH. Despite a narrow time schedule, the project was finished on time in December 1997. The major objectives of the applied limestone/gypsum process are: Minimum investment and operating costs; production and environmentally neutral disposal of a stabilized product containing the by-products fly ash, slag, gypsum and effluent. The first objective is achieved by the following new process arrangement: The flue gas is taken over from the boiler and fed directly into a wet scrubber for absorptive removal of the acid gases SO{sub 2}, HCl and HF. The cleaned flue gas is vented into the atmosphere without reheating by means of a wet stack which is arranged on top of the scrubber. By the described arrangement, a heat exchanger for cooling/heating of the flue gas is not required. No ductwork for connecting scrubber and stack is needed. Furthermore, the pressure drop across the FGD plant is minimized and allows the use of the already existing flue gas fans. Based on Steinmueller's experience with various limestone qualities, the powdered limestone supplied to the plant is milled once more on site. Thereby the reactivity of the limestone is enhanced resulting in low power consumption for the required plant performance. The second objective is achieved as follows: A part of the scrubbing liquid is continuously bled off as the underflow of a hydrocyclone station in order to remove the gypsum produced in the scrubber. A further dewatering of the gypsum does not take place. Instead, the effluent is mixed with fly ash and slag. As an additive, lime slaked with slag slurry is added. The resulting mixture is disposed of and compacted in the nearby opencast mine workings. It hardens in cement-like setting reactions to an environmentally safe stabilized product.