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1

Understanding the Basics of Gas Exploration and Production  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation from Eric K. Albert explains the basics of gas exploration and production, as well as some of the career opportunities created by the industry. Most of the presentation focuses on natural gas development, exploration and production. He also discusses where the jobs are in the natural gas industry.The presentation may be downloaded in Power Point file format.

Albert, Eric K.

2012-11-28

2

National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: Areas of Historical Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains maps and associated spatial data showing historical oil and gas exploration and production in the United States. Because of the proprietary nature of many oil and gas well databases, the United States was divided into cells one-quarter square mile and the production status of all wells in a given cell was aggregated. Base-map reference data are included, using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Map, the USGS and American Geological Institute (AGI) Global GIS, and a World Shaded Relief map service from the ESRI Geography Network. A hardcopy map was created to synthesize recorded exploration data from 1859, when the first oil well was drilled in the U.S., to 2005. In addition to the hardcopy map product, the data have been refined and made more accessible through the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. The cell data are included in a GIS database constructed for spatial analysis via the USGS Internet Map Service or by importing the data into GIS software such as ArcGIS. The USGS internet map service provides a number of useful and sophisticated geoprocessing and cartographic functions via an internet browser. Also included is a video clip of U.S. oil and gas exploration and production through time.

Biewick, Laura R. H.

2008-01-01

3

Offsite commercial disposal of oil and gas exploration and production waste :availability, options, and cost.  

SciTech Connect

A survey conducted in 1995 by the American Petroleum Institute (API) found that the U.S. exploration and production (E&P) segment of the oil and gas industry generated more than 149 million bbl of drilling wastes, almost 18 billion bbl of produced water, and 21 million bbl of associated wastes. The results of that survey, published in 2000, suggested that 3% of drilling wastes, less than 0.5% of produced water, and 15% of associated wastes are sent to offsite commercial facilities for disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) collected information on commercial E&P waste disposal companies in different states in 1997. While the information is nearly a decade old, the report has proved useful. In 2005, Argonne began collecting current information to update and expand the data. This report describes the new 2005-2006 database and focuses on the availability of offsite commercial disposal companies, the prevailing disposal methods, and estimated disposal costs. The data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, state oil and gas regulatory officials in 31 states were contacted to determine whether their agency maintained a list of permitted commercial disposal companies dedicated to oil. In the second stage, individual commercial disposal companies were interviewed to determine disposal methods and costs. The availability of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities falls into three categories. The states with high oil and gas production typically have a dedicated network of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities in place. In other states, such an infrastructure does not exist and very often, commercial disposal companies focus on produced water services. About half of the states do not have any industry-specific offsite commercial disposal infrastructure. In those states, operators take their wastes to local municipal landfills if permitted or haul the wastes to other states. This report provides state-by-state summaries of the types of offsite commercial disposal facilities that are found in each state. In later sections, data are presented by waste type and then by disposal method.

Puder, M. G.; Veil, J. A.

2006-09-05

4

Framework for managing wastes from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) sites.  

SciTech Connect

Oil and gas companies operate in many countries around the world. Their exploration and production (E&P) operations generate many kinds of waste that must be carefully and appropriately managed. Some of these wastes are inherently part of the E&P process; examples are drilling wastes and produced water. Other wastes are generic industrial wastes that are not unique to E&P activities, such as painting wastes and scrap metal. Still other wastes are associated with the presence of workers at the site; these include trash, food waste, and laundry wash water. In some host countries, mature environmental regulatory programs are in place that provide for various waste management options on the basis of the characteristics of the wastes and the environmental settings of the sites. In other countries, the waste management requirements and authorized options are stringent, even though the infrastructure to meet the requirements may not be available yet. In some cases, regulations and/or waste management infrastructure do not exist at all. Companies operating in these countries can be confronted with limited and expensive waste management options.

Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.; Environmental Science Division

2007-09-15

5

Noble gas and carbon isotopes in natural gas: a new methodology for oil and gas exploration/production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic measurements of both stables isotopes and noble gases give important clues to reconstruct the geological history of hydrocarbons, from their generation to their accumulation. Recent analytical advances in carbon isotopes of natural gases (methane to butane and carbon dioxide) allowed to characterize some of the physico-chemical processes which affect natural gas, instead of using these signatures as simple fingerprinting of origins as it was the case some decades ago. These reconstructions provide important information on both the origins and the dynamic behavior of hydrocarbon fluids in sedimentary basins. Moreover, correlating this methodology with other natural tracers increases the knowledge of hydrocarbon history. Among them, noble gas isotopes may be the new frontier tool, as their chemical inertness allows to use them as precise tracers of sources and of associated physical processes (phases behavior, migration and leakage). Moreover, because some isotopes are produced by natural radioactivity, they act therefore as geological clocks, giving potentially a quantification of the residence times of hydrocarbons in a reservoir. The parameters one would hope to constrain, and which may be used as boundary conditions for basin modeling, are the age and the residence time of the fluids constituting a petroleum system, the quantitative estimate of the distance of migration of the hydrocarbons from the source rock to the reservoir and from the petroleum system to the atmosphere, and the proportion of hydrocarbons lost through leakage from the time of accumulation to the present. Other parameters associated with hydrocarbon accumulations, and more conventionally studied, include the relations between source rocks and accumulated fluids, the possible bacterial contribution through methanogenesis and/or biodegradation, the range of maturity of the fluids, the possible dysmigration of the gas from a liquid through evaporative fractionation, the characterization of permeability barriers in reservoirs, and the efficiency of accumulation. New geological case studies demonstrate the power of this new methodology, as it is possible in some cases to quantify the absolute amount of hydrocarbons lost through leakage and the relative residence times of fluids in an accumulation for an homogeneous geological setting. Diagnosis on the genesis of hydrocarbons (bacterial activity versus thermal degradation of organic matter) and on the distance of migration from the source rocks to the accumulation are also confirmed combining both stable isotopes and noble gas natural tracing.

Prinzhofer, A.; Battani, A.

2003-04-01

6

Shale gas exploration potential in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shale gas exploration is one of the main new `unconventional' hydrocarbon plays and production is now a major contribution to USA's indigenous supply. BGS has begun a study of hydrocarbon exploration and other data to assess the potential in the UK. Key shale characteristics have been identified in the USA, including gas window maturity and high total organic carbon (TOC)

N. Smith

2009-01-01

7

Reducing Onshore Natural Gas and Oil Exploration and Production Impacts Using a Broad-Based Stakeholder Approach  

SciTech Connect

Never before has the reduction of oil and gas exploration and production impacts been as important as it is today for operators, regulators, non-governmental organizations and individual landowners. Collectively, these stakeholders are keenly interested in the potential benefits from implementing effective environmental impact reducing technologies and practices. This research project strived to gain input and insight from such a broad array of stakeholders in order to identify approaches with the potential to satisfy their diverse objectives. The research team examined three of the most vital issue categories facing onshore domestic production today: (1) surface damages including development in urbanized areas, (2) impacts to wildlife (specifically greater sage grouse), and (3) air pollution, including its potential contribution to global climate change. The result of the research project is a LINGO (Low Impact Natural Gas and Oil) handbook outlining approaches aimed at avoiding, minimizing, or mitigating environmental impacts. The handbook identifies technical solutions and approaches which can be implemented in a practical and feasible manner to simultaneously achieve a legitimate balance between environmental protection and fluid mineral development. It is anticipated that the results of this research will facilitate informed planning and decision making by management agencies as well as producers of oil and natural gas. In 2008, a supplemental task was added for the researchers to undertake a 'Basin Initiative Study' that examines undeveloped and/or underdeveloped oil and natural gas resources on a regional or geologic basin scope to stimulate more widespread awareness and development of domestic resources. Researchers assessed multi-state basins (or plays), exploring state initiatives, state-industry partnerships and developing strategies to increase U.S. oil and gas supplies while accomplishing regional economic and environmental goals.

Amy Childers

2011-03-30

8

The potential for coalbed gas exploration and production in the Greater Green River Basin, southwest Wyoming and northwest Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Coalbed gas is an important source of natural gas in the United States. In 1993, approximately 740 BCF of coalbed gas was produced in the United States, or about 4.2% of the nation`s total gas production. Nearly 96% of this coalbed gas is produced from just two basins, the San Juan (615.7 BCF; gas in place 84 TCF) and Black Warrior (105 BCF; gas in place 20 TCF), and current production represents only a fraction of the nation`s estimated 675 TCF of in-place coalbed gas. Coal beds in the Greater Green River Basin in southwest Wyoming and northwest Colorado hold almost half of the gas in place (314 TCF) and are an important source of gas for low-permeability Almond sandstones. Because total gas in place in the Greater Green River Basin is reported to exceed 3,000 TCF (Law et al., 1989), the basin may substantially increase the domestic gas resource base. Therefore, through integrated geologic and hydrologic studies, the coalbed gas potential of the basin was assessed where tectonic, structural, and depositional setting, coal distribution and rank, gas content, coal permeability, and ground-water flow are critical controls on coalbed gas producibility. Synergism between these geologic and hydrologic controls determines gas productivity. High productivity is governed by (1) thick, laterally continuous coals of high thermal maturity, (2) basinward flow of ground water through fractured and permeable coals, down the coal rank gradient toward no-flow boundaries oriented perpendicular to the regional flow direction, and (3) conventional trapping of gas along those boundaries to provide additional sources of gas beyond that sorbed on the coal surface.

Tyler, R.; Kaiser, W.R.; Scott, A.R.; Hamilton, D.S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1997-01-01

9

The Aquitaine Basin: 60 years of gas exploration and production in the foreland of the Pyrenean fold and thrust belt  

SciTech Connect

Over the last 60 years, Exploration in the Aquitaine Basin has led to the discovery of about 13 TCF of gas associated with 100 MMBls of condensate. The first gas discovery was made on the St Marcet surface anticline in 1939. However the major step was accomplished in 1951 by the discovery of the Giant Lacq field (9 TCF of gas), which was followed in 1965 by the discovery of the Meillon Field (2,5 TCF). Production started in 1944 at St Marcel, in 1957 at Lacq and in 1967 at Meillon leading to a cumulative production of 10 TCF of gas as of December 1994. The fields are located in the immediate foreland of the Alpine Pyrenean Thrust Belt. The region shows as a result extreme structural complexity, which is also linked to the polyphased geological evolution of the area. Overprinted on the faulting pattern of the basement (Variscan and Hercynian orgenies), the area is characterized by a general E-W extension during the Jurassic and the Early Cretaceous, followed by a major submeridian compression from the Late Cretaceous to the Oligo-Miocene. In this context the traps for the fields consist in deep (3500 to 4500 m in average) faulted blocks derived from the Early to Mid Mesozoic extension, inverted at various degrees during the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary compressive events. In such a petroleum context, the challenge for the 90`s is to evaluate the remaining potential and to optimize the development of existing fields as well as to discover new fields especially within the unexplored zones along the leading edge of the Pyrenean Fold and Thrust Belt. Recent onshore 3D seismic (over 1500 km2 shot from 1987 to 1993) has proven to be efficient in defining good geometry for the fields and in delineating precisely the fractured zones of the reservoirs. It has as well allowed to develop a comprehensive understanding of the area and therefore a good evaluation of the unexplored zones within this very prolific region.

Le Vot, M.; Masset, J.M.; Biteau, J.J. [Elf Aquitaine, Paris (France)

1995-08-01

10

Canadian Incentives for Oil and Gas Exploration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the 1970s a number of different exploration and production incentive programs were put in place in Canada, in particular in the Province of Alberta, Canada's principal oil- and gas-producing province. The DOE/RA is evaluating Canadian incentives fo...

1980-01-01

11

Environmental guidance documents for exploration, development, Production, and transportation of crude oil and natural gas in texas: Quarterly technical report, January 1, 1997March 31, 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following technical report provides a detailed status report of the DOE grant project entitled `Environmental Guidance Documents for Exploration, Development, Production, and Transportation of Crude Oil and Natural Gas in Texas.` The grant funding allocated is for the purpose of provided the Railroad Commission of Texas (Commission) with resources and capabilities to draft, publish and distribute documents that provide

1997-01-01

12

Shale gas exploration potential in the UK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shale gas exploration is one of the main new ‘unconventional' hydrocarbon plays and production is now a major contribution to USA's indigenous supply. BGS has begun a study of hydrocarbon exploration and other data to assess the potential in the UK. Key shale characteristics have been identified in the USA, including gas window maturity and high total organic carbon (TOC) content. Existing gasfields and discoveries containing migrated gas in conventional reservoirs are the obvious starting points. These prove gas has been generated. Discovering the nearby source rocks, which charged them, involves analysing the gas compositions and their carbon isotope characteristics, as well as delving into past exploration and well completion reports. Also used are parameters more widely available which act as surrogates (e.g. radioactivity for TOC). The main targets are Namurian and Dinantian black shales in northern England, source rocks for the small East Midlands oilfields. Lesser targets occur in southern England near small gasfields and discoveries, probably in Lower Jurassic shales, and possibly Kimmeridge Clay (Upper Jurassic). Their advantage is that natural permeabilities are probably higher than the older formations. Early Palaeozoic shales between the Caledonian and Variscan fold belts may also retain some potential but, unlike the association with the Alum Shale source rock in the Baltic, no gasfields have been discovered. Can shale gas production occur where there are no conventional fields?

Smith, N.

2009-04-01

13

A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The research has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc. (Beckley) and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Phase 1 of the project consisted of compiling and analyzing relevant geological and gas production information in selected areas of Raleigh County, West Virginia, ultimately narrowed to the Eccles, West Virginia, 7 {1/2} minute Quadrangle. The Phase 1 analysis identified key parameters contributing to the accumulation and production of natural gas in Raleigh County, developed analog models relating geological factors to gas production, and identified specific sites to test and verify the analysis methodologies by drilling. Based on the Phase 1 analysis, five sites have been identified with high potential for economic gas production. Phase 2 will consist of drilling, completing, and producing one or more wells at the sites identified in the Phase 1 analyses. The initial well is schedules to the drilled in April 1991. This report summarizes the results of the Phase 1 investigations. For clarity, the report has been prepared in two volumes. Volume 1 presents the Phase 1 overview; Volume 2 contains the detailed geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study.

Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. (BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States))

1991-05-01

14

A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. (BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States))

1991-05-01

15

CHARACTERIZING NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEP WATER GULF OF MEXICO: APPLICATIONS FOR SAFE EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES  

SciTech Connect

In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deep water Gulf of Mexico (GOM). These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to drilling and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. During April-September 2002, the JIP concentrated on: Reviewing the tasks and subtasks on the basis of the information generated during the three workshops held in March and May 2002; Writing Requests for Proposals (RFPs) and Cost, Time and Resource (CTRs) estimates to accomplish the tasks and subtasks; Reviewing proposals sent in by prospective contractors; Selecting four contractors; Selecting six sites for detailed review; and Talking to drill ship owners and operators about potential work with the JIP.

Steve Holditch; Emrys Jones

2003-01-01

16

CHARACTERIZING NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEP WATER GULF OF MEXICO: APPLICATIONS FOR SAFE EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES  

SciTech Connect

In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deep water Gulf of Mexico (GOM). These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to drilling and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. During the first six months of operation, the primary activities of the JIP were to conduct and plan Workshops, which were as follows: (1) Data Collection Workshop--March 2002 (2) Drilling, Coring and Core Analyses Workshop--May 2002 (3) Modeling, Measurement and Sensors Workshop--May 2002.

Steve Holditch; Emrys Jones

2003-01-01

17

An Exploration on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Production by Insect Species Suitable for Animal or Human Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundGreenhouse gas (GHG) production, as a cause of climate change, is considered as one of the biggest problems society is currently facing. The livestock sector is one of the large contributors of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Also, large amounts of ammonia (NH3), leading to soil nitrification and acidification, are produced by livestock. Therefore other sources of animal protein, like edible insects,

Dennis G. A. B. Oonincx; Joost van Itterbeeck; Marcel J. W. Heetkamp; Henry van den Brand; Joop J. A. van Loon; Arnold van Huis; Immo A. Hansen

2010-01-01

18

Exploring Products: Nano Sand  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how water behaves differently when it comes in contact with "nano sand" and regular sand. Learners learn about the hydrophobic properties of "nano sand." Use this activity to talk about how many materials behave differently at the nanoscale.

Network, Nanoscale I.; Sciencenter

2010-01-01

19

A Novel Geotechnical/Geostatistical Approach for Exploration and Production of Natural Gas from Multiple Geologic Strata: Quarterly report, January 1-March 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses dewatering and production extension test periods, and the demonstration of newly developed technologies for multi-strata gas and water production to enhance commercial applications.

NONE

1997-12-31

20

Geology for petroleum exploration, drilling and production  

SciTech Connect

This book provides a non-technical introduction to the subject of oil. The author guides the readers in logical sequence: How oil and gas form and accumulate; how to explore for oil; and how to drill and complete a well and produce the petroleum. The contents are: The earth's crust; identification of common rocks and minerals; weathering, erosion, and unconformities; deformation; geologic time; sandstone reservoirs; limestone reservoirs; subsurface fluids; sedimentary rock patterns; surface and subsurface maps; ocean environment - plate tectonics; hydrocarbons source rocks, generation, migration and accumulation; well logs, traps; petroleum exploration; drilling a well; completing a well; and petroleum production.

Hyne, N.J.

1984-01-01

21

CHARACTERIZING NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEP WATER GULF OF MEXICO: APPLICATIONS FOR SAFE EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop

Steve Holditch; Emrys Jones

2003-01-01

22

Exploration, development, and production of crude oil and natural gas. (technical report). Field sampling and analytical results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates or makes determinations as to whether to regulate the oil and gas extraction industry under several major environmental statutes. These statutes include the Clean Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, which uses information from the study under Section 8002(m). The purpose of this technical report

Hall

1987-01-01

23

A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata. Topical report, October--December 1997  

SciTech Connect

Total gas production from several natural gas wells is described. Water production is also given for the wells. The wells are located in the Big Lime/Ravencliff formations and the Pocahontas coal deposit. Plans for degassing various coal mines were also made and are described. Plans involved recovery of methane from an active mine with power generation, reworking and stimulation of coals in existing conventional gas wells, and storage of methane in an abandoned coal mine.

Brunk, R.G.

1997-12-31

24

67 FR 50453 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Swanson River Satellites Natural Gas Exploration and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...impacts of constructing natural gas exploration and production...existing Swanson River oil and gas field. The...INFORMATION: Union Oil Company of California...and production of natural gas resources within...The subsurface oil, gas, and coal...Unocal has leased the natural gas development...

2002-08-02

25

Dictionary of petroleum exploration, drilling, and production  

SciTech Connect

This book contains more than 20,000 definitions of oil exploration, drilling, and production terms, making this dictionary mandatory for both the experienced industry professional and the nontechnical person. Completing this comprehensive reference are more than 500 detailed illustrations. Appendices include a rotary rig diagram, a cable tool drilling rig, a beam pumping unit, giant oil fields of the world, giant oil, and gas fields of the United States and Canada, a geological time chart, geological map symbols, conversion factors, the Greek alphabet atomic weights and numbers, charts of the geological features of the United States and Canada, plus much, much more.

Hyne, N.J.

1991-01-01

26

Developments in Coal Seam Gas Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful development of coal seam gas (CSG) resources in low-rank coalfields such as the Powder River Basin has raised interest in CSG from low rank coal in New Zealand. Kenham Holdings Limited holds 12 Petroleum Exploration Permits (PEP) covering some of New Zealand's low-rank coal and lignite resources and has engaged CRL Energy Limited to assist in the systematic evaluation

S. J. Pope; D. A. Manhire; J. G. Pope; M. E. Taulis; S. Hayton

27

Federal offshore statistics: leasing - exploration - production - revenue  

SciTech Connect

Federal Offshore Statistics is a numerical record of what has happened since Congress gave authority to the Secretary of the Interior in 1953 to lease the Federal portion of the Continental Shelf for oil and gas. The publication updates and augments the first Federal Offshore Statistics, published in December 1983. It also extends a statistical series published annually from 1969 until 1981 by the US Geological Survey (USGS) under the title Outer Continental Shelf Statistics. The USGS collected royalties and supervised operation and production of minerals on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) until the Minerals Management Service (MMS) took over these functions in 1982. Statistics are presented under the following topics: (1) highlights, (2) leasing, (3) exploration and development, (4) production and revenue, (5) federal offshore production by ranking operator, 1983, (6) reserves and undiscovered recoverable resources, and (7) oil pollution in the world's oceans.

Essertier, E.P. (comp.)

1984-01-01

28

A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata. [Quarterly] technical progress report, January--March 1995  

SciTech Connect

The project objective is to verify a development strategy for high grading areas of multistrata (shallow gas sand and coalbeds) potential in southern West Virginia and test it in up to five wells. Accomplishments for the quarter are presented briefly for the following tasks: Alaskan energy development;dewatering/production extension test period; and demonstrate newly developed technologies for multi strata gas and water production to enhance commercial application.

Brunk, R.G.

1995-04-01

29

A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1. Volume 1, Overview  

SciTech Connect

This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The research has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc. (Beckley) and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Phase 1 of the project consisted of compiling and analyzing relevant geological and gas production information in selected areas of Raleigh County, West Virginia, ultimately narrowed to the Eccles, West Virginia, 7 {1/2} minute Quadrangle. The Phase 1 analysis identified key parameters contributing to the accumulation and production of natural gas in Raleigh County, developed analog models relating geological factors to gas production, and identified specific sites to test and verify the analysis methodologies by drilling. Based on the Phase 1 analysis, five sites have been identified with high potential for economic gas production. Phase 2 will consist of drilling, completing, and producing one or more wells at the sites identified in the Phase 1 analyses. The initial well is schedules to the drilled in April 1991. This report summarizes the results of the Phase 1 investigations. For clarity, the report has been prepared in two volumes. Volume 1 presents the Phase 1 overview; Volume 2 contains the detailed geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study.

Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. [BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1991-05-01

30

A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1. Volume 2, Geology and engineering  

SciTech Connect

This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. [BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1991-05-01

31

Exploration and production in Papua New Guinea  

SciTech Connect

The prospectivity of the Papuan Basin has been appreciated, since oil seeps were first discovered in 1911. Initially, the mountainous terrain, a deeply karstified limestone surface covered with tropical rainforest, fed by 300 inches of rain each year, restricted access to the adventurous. Early exploration was focussed along the coastline and river systems, with only limited success. The development of helicopter transportable rigs during the 1970s was the technological advance that led to success, as the crests of anticlines became accessible to the drill. Even so, the lack of seismic due to severe terrain conditions and structural complexity, still constrains our ability to image trap. Despite these limitations, the oil discovery at Lagifu-2 in 1986, led to the development of the Kutubu Field by a Chevron led joint venture, with first oil in 1992. The Kutubu Field was developed at a cost of US$ 1 billion. Reserves are in excess of 250 mmbo with production currently at 1,00,000 bopd. PNG's second oil development will be the Gobe / SE Gobe Fields, also in the Papuan Thrust Belt, and thought to contain around 100 mmbo. Discovered in the late 1980s, the field is expected to produce 25 000 bopd from 1997. Significant volumes of gas have been discovered in the Highlands at Hides, where 3 wells have now confirmed a gas column in excess of 1 km. Additional large gas discoveries have been made in the Papuan Basin, highlighting the potential for PNG to become a long term LNG s producer.

Wulff, K.; Hobson, D. (Oil Search Limited, Port Morseby (Papua New Guinea))

1996-01-01

32

Gas Analysis of Geothermal Fluid Inclusions: A New Technology For Geothermal Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

To increase our knowledge of gaseous species in geothermal systems by fluid inclusion analysis in order to facilitate the use of gas analysis in geothermal exploration. The knowledge of gained by this program can be applied to geothermal exploration, which may expand geothermal production. Knowledge of the gas contents in reservoir fluids can be applied to fluid inclusion gas analysis

David I. Norman; Joseph Moore

2004-01-01

33

Permian basin gas production  

SciTech Connect

Of the 242 major gas fields in the Permian basin, 67 are on the Central Basin Platform, 59 are in the Delaware basin, 44 are in the Midland basin, 28 are in the Val Verde basin, 24 are on the Eastern Shelf, 12 are in the Horshoe Atoll and eight are on the Northwest Shelf. Eleven fields have produced over one trillion cubic feet of gas, 61 have produced between 100 billion and one trillion cubic feet of gas and 170 have produced less than 100 billion cubic feet. Highlights of the study show 11% of the gas comes from reservoirs with temperatures over 300 degrees F. and 11% comes from depths between 19,000 and 20,000 feet. Twenty percent of the gas comes from reservoirs with pressures between 1000 and 2000 psi, 22% comes from reservoirs with 20-24% water saturation and 24% comes from reservoirs between 125 and 150 feet thick. Fifty-three reservoirs in the Ellenburger formation have produced 30% of the gas, 33% comes from 88 reservoirs in the Delaware basin and 33% comes from reservoirs with porosities of less than five percent. Forty percent is solution gas and 46% comes from combination traps. Over 50% of the production comes from reservoirs with five millidarcys or less permeability, and 60% of the gas comes from reservoirs in which dolomite is the dominant lithology. Over 50% of the gas production comes from fields discovered before 1957 although 50% of the producing fields were not discovered until 1958.

Haeberle, F.R. [Consulting Geologist, Dallas, TX (United States)

1995-06-01

34

Exploring Careers. Industrial Production Occupations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Exploring Careers" is a career education resource program, presented in fifteen separate booklets, for junior high school-age students. It provides information about the world of work and offers its readers a way of learning about themselves and relating that information to career choices. The publications aim to build career awareness by means…

Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

35

Synergetic study of Silurian-Niagaran pinnacle reef belt around the Michigan Basin for exploration and production of oil and gas. Volumes 1 and 2  

SciTech Connect

The Silurian-Niagaran pinnacle reef occur on a belt which encircles the entire Michigan Basin including areas presently covered by the Great Lakes Huron and Michigan. Two different structural settings existed in the Michigan Basin during the Silurian Period. This resulted in formation of pinnacle reefs with somewhat different characteristics in the northern and southern parts of the basin. The pinnacles of the northern trend occur at depths of 4000 to 7000 ft, are up to 700 ft thick, and average about 100 acres in area. The southern pinnacles occur at depths of 2000 to 3000 ft, are shorter, about 300 ft, and attain larger areas. The majority of the hydrocarbon reserves of the northern trend are concentrated in pinnacles which occur on a band 3 to 4 miles wide inside the middle of the trend. There exists a regional partitioning of oil and gas in the northern pinnacle reefs which can be best explained by Gussaw Theory of migration and differential entrapment. A probabilistic model for exploration in play was found applicable in mature areas of the northern trend. The results were extended to other parts of the northern trend based on similar reef density and size distribution. In the southern trend where the reef density and size distribution is entirely different, the model was tested against limited data and results of future exploration were predicted. The effectiveness of exploration on the reef belt, based on seismic surveys, is 8 to 10 times better than random drilling. The reserves of the reef belt is in excess of 7 bbl of oil and 15 trillion ft/sup 3/ of natural gas originally in place. The oil primary and secondary recovery factors are 20 and 30%, respectively.

Aminian, K.

1982-01-01

36

Oil and gas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colloid and interface science is fundamental to many aspects of oil and gas production processes. This review focuses on recent advances in water-based drilling fluids, reservoir fracturing fluids, polymer gels for modifying reservoir permeability, avoiding problems caused by colloidal asphaltene oil fractions and characterising the wettability of reservoir rocks. There have been major advances in the design and responsiveness of

G. C Maitland

2000-01-01

37

Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration. [Applicability to USA  

SciTech Connect

During the 1970s a number of different exploration and production incentive programs were put in place in Canada, in particular in the Province of Alberta, Canada's principal oil- and gas-producing province. The DOE/RA is evaluating Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration, and this study is intended to provide information that will help guide DOE/RA in determining the applicability of Canadian incentive programs in US energy policy. The study describes and documents the fiscal structure in which the Canadian oil industry operates. The incentive features of pricing policy, taxation policy, and provincial royalty systems are discussed. A principal focus of the study is on one of the most important of Canada's specific incentive programs, the Alberta Exploratory Drilling Incentive Credit Program (EDICP). The study describes and evaluates the effect of the EDICP on increased oil and gas exploration activity. Similarly, the study also reviews and evaluates other specific incentive programs such as the Alberta Geophysical Incentive Program, Frontier Exploration Allowances, and various tar sand and heavy oil development incentives. Finally the study evaluates the applicability of Canadian incentives to US energy policy.

Not Available

1980-04-01

38

Petroleum geoscience in Norden - exploration, production and organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore exploration in Norway and Denmark—in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea—has involved drilling about 850 wildcat wells, resulting in about 300 oil and gas finds, of which 84 are fields with production. The recoverable resources of all these finds total about 65 billion barrels of oil equivalent. Almost all these hydrocarbons come from a Jurassic

Anthony M. Spencer; Per Ivar Briskeby; Lone Dyrmose Christensen; Rune Foyn; Marie Kjųlleberg; Erling Kvadsheim; Ian Knight; Morten Rye-Larsen; John Williams

39

Changing Productivity in U.S. Petroleum Exploration and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes sources of productivity change in petroleum exploration and development in the United States over the last ten years. There have been several major developments in the industry over the last decade that have led to dramatic reductions in the cost of finding and developing oil and natural gas resources. While some of the cost savings are organizational

Douglas Bohi

1998-01-01

40

Investigations Into Devonian Shale Gas Production Mechanisms in Southern Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic gas production from the Devonian Shale requires permeable pathways combined with matrix storage. These pathways may include fractures, bedding planes or silt layers. The Gas Research Institute is sponsoring a research project to evaluate the relationships these geologic features and productive gas flows have with the eventual aim of developing better exploration, stimulation and production strategies. This study will

T. W. Thompson; R. A. McBane; Gary Sitler; Jon Strawn; Mark Moody

1984-01-01

41

Industry requested exploration\\/production environmental regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

California State Review by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission recommends state and regional water boards issue requirements to all pits subject to basin plans and chapter 15. Resources shortfalls have kept production pits from being Water Board priorities. Threat of United States EPA designation of crude oil as hazardous waste and subsequent land use conflicts of buried pits

Blanck

1994-01-01

42

Oil and Gas Leasing/Production Program  

SciTech Connect

As the Congress declared in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA), the natural gas and oil production from the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) constitutes an important part of the Nation's domestic energy supply. Federal offshore minerals are administered within the Department of the Interior by the Minerals Management Service (MMS), which provides access to potential new sources of natural gas and oil offshore by conducting lease sales. Each year, on or before March 31, the MMS (as mandated by OCSLA) presents to Congress a fiscal year annual report on the Federal offshore natural gas and oil leasing and production program. In FY 1990, the MMS's offshore natural gas and oil leasing and production program was the fourth largest producer of revenue for the US Treasury, contributing more than $3.0 billion. This report describes sales, exploration activities, and environmental monitoring activities. 16 figs., 11 tabs.

Heimberger, M.L.; O'Brien, D. (comps.)

1991-03-31

43

Surface exploration geochemistry: Numerical unmixing of soil gas data and application for hydrocarbon exploration  

SciTech Connect

Soil hydrocarbon gas surveying is one of several surface exploration techniques proposed for oil and gas exploration. These surveys usually measure hydrocarbon gas concentrations and the date are used to define exploration fairways or to evaluate prospective areas. However, conventional simple soil gas data may be misleading and prone to misinterpretation. A systematic evaluation of several thousand soil gas data points from 30 field surveys indicates the high degree of uncertainty in the interpretation of conventional soil gas data. Many concentration driven anomalies follow a random pattern and are not necessarily related to subsurface oil or gas deposits. The scatter and high degree of randomness are, largely attributed to wide background fluctuation, co-produced in-situ biological hydrocarbon gases and secondary alteration effects. By using numerical unmixing techniques, the small but critical fraction of gases due to hydrocarbon seepage can be discriminated from other extraneous gases. Model calculations are used to systematically watch for a defined seepage signal in noisy and complex soil gas data sets. Near surface gas samples that obey {open_quotes}model seepage criteria{close_quotes} show a high degree of correlation with subsurface hydrocarbon occurrences. Several exploration examples using this technique are provided and the statistical record from more than 50 prospects is discussed. Results show that the exploration risk is lowered when thin discrimination techniques are incorporated into exploration programs. Advantages and limitations of this new approach are discussed on the basis of the large-scale test program. Limitations are recognized in exploration areas with very deep targets and tight seals. The advantages of this technique are the reduction of false anomalies along with an improved level of interpretation.

Von der Dick, H.; Bosman, D. [ChemTerra International, Calgary (Canada); Wyman, R.E. [Wyman & Associates, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1995-06-01

44

Oil and gas exploration, offshore southern California  

SciTech Connect

Four local Tertiary basins comprise the regional Pacific Basin south of Point Conception: the San Diego trough and the offshore Los Angeles, Outer Banks, and Ventura-Santa Barbara Channel Basins. The San Diego trough has not been tested by deep wells. The offshore Los Angeles Basin produces oil and gas from Neogene sandstones in giant oil fields which extend on shore. The Outer Banks Basin is primarily a late cretaceous and Eocene-Oligocene basin which does not extend on shore; 6 test wells have been drilled since the 1975 sale, but no discoveries have been announced. The offshore Ventura-Santa Barbara Channel Basin produces oil and gas from Pliocene, Miocene, Oligocene, and Eocene sandstones and from fractured Monterey chert and siliceous shale of Miocene age; major future reserves are expected to be found in these reservoirs. 13 references.

Wallis, W.S.

1981-01-01

45

Federal offshore statistics: leasing, exploration, production, revenue  

SciTech Connect

This publication is a numerical record of what has happened since Congress gave authority to the Secretary of the Interior in 1953 to lease the federal portion of the Continental Shelf for oil and gas. The publication updates and augments the first Federal Offshore Statistics, published in December 1983. It also extends a statistical series published annually from 1969 until 1981 by the US Geological Survey (USGS) under the title Outer Continental Shelf Statistics. The USGS collected royalties and supervised operation and production of minerals on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) until the Minerals Management Service (MMS) took over these functions in 1982. Some of the highlights are: of the 329.5 million acres offered for leasing, 37.1 million acres were actually leased; total revenues for the 1954 to 1983 period were $68,173,112,563 and for 1983 $9,161,435,540; a total of 22,095 wells were drilled in federal waters and 10,145 wells were drilled in state waters; from 1954 through 1983, federal offshore areas produced 6.4 billion barrels of oil and condensate, and 62.1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas; in 1983 alone production was 340.7 million barrels of oil and condensate, and 3.9 trillion cubic feet of gas; and for the second straight year, no oil was lost in 1983 as a result of blowouts in federal waters. 8 figures, 66 tables.

Essertier, E.P. (comp.)

1984-09-01

46

Natural gas production from Arctic gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural gas hydrates of the Messoyakha field in the West Siberian basin of Russia and those of the Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk River area on the North Slope of Alaska occur within a similar series of interbedded Cretaceous and Tertiary sandstone and siltstone reservoirs. Geochemical analyses of gaseous well-cuttings and production gases suggest that these two hydrate accumulations contain a mixture

1993-01-01

47

Plan for Management of Mineral Assess on Native Tribal Lands and for Formation of a Fully Integrated Natural Gas and Oil Exploration and Production Company  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a plan for Native American tribes to assume responsibility for and operation of tribal mineral resources using the Osage Tribe as an example. Under this plan, the tribal council select and employ a qualified Director to assume responsibility for management of their mineral reservations. The procurement process should begin with an application for contracting to the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Under this plan, the Director will develop strategies to increase income by money management and increasing exploitation of natural gas, oil, and other minerals.

Blechner, Michael H.; Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

1999-04-27

48

Gas Production in Reactor Materials  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an overview of the principal nuclear reactions that are known to produce hydrogen and helium in irradiated materials and a summary of the comparison of measurements with predictions in various reactors. Hydrogen and helium are produced in all reactor materials by fast neutron reactions which typically have thresholds above 4 MeV. Selected elements also have thermal neutron gas production reactions that can be quite prolific, such as 6Li, 10B, and 14N, and there are a number of elements which produce transmutation products that have high thermal neutron gas production cross sections, most notably 59Ni produced by irradiation of Ni and 65Zn produced by irradiation of Cu or Zn. Since gas production cross sections are isotope-specific, gas production rates can change during irradiation due to transmutation effects or initial rates can be modified by isotopic tailoring of reactor materials.

Greenwood, Lawrence R.

2006-01-18

49

Oil and gas leasing/production program  

SciTech Connect

As the Congress declared in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act the natural gas and oil production from the Outer Continental Shelf constitutes an important part of the Nation's domestic energy supply. Federal offshore minerals are administered within the Department of the Interior by the Minerals Management Service (MMS), which provides access to potential new sources of natural gas and oil offshore by conducting lease sales. Each year, on or before March 31, the MMS presents to Congress a fiscal year annual report on the Federal offshore natural gas and oil leasing and production program. In FY 1991, this program was the third largest producer of non-tax revenue for the US Treasury, contributing more than $3 billion. This report presents Federal offshore leasing, sales, production, and exploration activities, and environmental monitoring activities.

Heimberger, M.L. (comp.)

1992-03-31

50

The integration of biodiversity conservation with oil and gas exploration in sensitive tropical environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the approach of TOTAL Exploration & Production concerning the protection of biodiversity during oil and\\u000a gas exploration and production activities, particularly in sensitive environments such as tropical islands. This approach\\u000a was developed according to three stages: knowing biodiversity, protecting biodiversity and, going further, by contributing\\u000a to scientific research. This three step approach is embedded in an environment

Claude-Henri Chaīneau; Jacques Miné; Suripno

2010-01-01

51

Gas decontrol will spur production, cut oil dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mr. Kiernan says the consensus among industrial natural gas users is that the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) has distorted production and the market. The National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) blames the NGPA's low prices and incorrect forecasts for discouraging exploration and fuel production, with the result that old wells are abandoned and new wells aren't developed. NAM recommends deregulation

Kiernan

1982-01-01

52

Permian basin gas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the 242 major gas fields in the Permian basin, 67 are on the Central Basin Platform, 59 are in the Delaware basin, 44 are in the Midland basin, 28 are in the Val Verde basin, 24 are on the Eastern Shelf, 12 are in the Horshoe Atoll and eight are on the Northwest Shelf. Eleven fields have produced over

Haeberle

1995-01-01

53

Characterization and geographic location of sources of radioactivity lost downhole in the course of oil and gas exploration and production activities in Texas, 1956 to 2001.  

PubMed

Case reports describing sources of radioactivity lost downhole in Texas from 1956 to 2001 were obtained from the Texas Department of Health Bureau of Radiation Control and entered into a computerized database. The events of the 45-y period of analysis were characterized, examining aspects such as source type, amount of activity, location of loss, depth, and date of occurrence. Results of the study found that 316 downhole source incidents were reported to the agency during this period of time, representing a total of 426 distinct sources of radioactivity lost downhole within the boundaries of the State of Texas. The sources lost were predominantly AmBe, accounting for 74 TBq of radioactivity at the time of loss, and Cs, accounting for 16.3 TBq of radioactivity. A longitudinal analysis of the data showed the average loss per active oil and gas rig in Texas (known as "rig count") at approximately 24 losses per 1,000 rigs. Specific geographic information was largely missing from many of the records, which prevented the geolocation of wells described to contain lost radioactive sources. As a result, most wells could only be located to the county level, and no comprehensive geographical information system (GIS) map could be accurately created from the data. However, when available, source location information was standardized to permit the characterization of the sources reported as lost. This effort produced the first dedicated compendium of lost downhole sources for the State of Texas and provides an important source of information for regulatory agencies. The ability to provide prompt information about the fate and location of sources of radioactivity is important to regulatory officials, given the recent concerns about radiation source inventory control in the post 9/11 world as it relates to the possible creation of radiological dispersal devices. PMID:16224264

Patlovich, S; Emery, R J; Whitehead, L W

2005-11-01

54

Environmental protection: Streamlining petroleum exploration and production  

SciTech Connect

The petroleum industry is inherently subject to a tremendous degree of volatility through fluctuation in world market prices and vagaries of world politics. A more recent stressful demand on the existing domestic petroleum exploration and production system has been the burgeoning number of environmental regulations imposed on this segment of the industry. Prudent and acceptable oil-field practices must now include agency-regulated environmental protection measures. Many independent producers are unfamiliar not only with the regulatory agencies, but also with the jargon and ambiguities, of regulations that very widely from state to state. Whereas some companies perceive only the restrictions and added cost of regulatory compliance, other companies have sought to optimize benefits while minimizing financial burdens by approaching this modern necessity more creatively, thereby discovering numerous means to become even more competitive. The domestic oil field of the 1990s will be increasingly affected by environmental regulation and public opinion. A number of companies have taken a proactive position on environmental issues. Industry examples include Louisiana Land and Exploration Company's history of wetlands conservation and Chevron's SMART (Save Money and Reduce Toxics). The future of the quality of life of this nation, and indeed the planet as a whole, lies in our capability to deal concurrently with the issues of a petroleum-based economy while protecting the natural environment that sustains life.

Hunt, A.M. (Dames and Moore, Cincinnati, OH (United States))

1991-08-01

55

Alaska Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, and Permitting Project  

SciTech Connect

This is the final technical report for Project 15446, covering the grant period of October 2002 through March 2006. This project connects three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for an advanced information technology infrastructure to better support resource development and resource conservation. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells. The broad goal of this grant is to increase domestic production from Alaska's known producing fields through the implementation of preferred upstream management practices. (PUMP). Internet publication of extensive and detailed geotechnical data is the first task, improving the permitting process is the second task, and building an advanced geographical information system to offer continuing support and public access of the first two goals is the third task. Excellent progress has been made on all three tasks; the technical objectives as defined by the approved grant sub-tasks have been met. The end date for the grant was March 31, 2006.

Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall

2006-03-31

56

Development of the first coal seam gas exploration program in Indonesia: Reservoir properties of the Muaraenim Formation, south Sumatra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Late Miocene Muaraenim Formation in southern Sumatra contains thick coal sequences, mostly of low rank ranging from lignite to sub-bituminous, and it is believed that these thick low rank coals are the most prospective for the production of coal seam gas (CSG), otherwise known as coalbed methane (CBM), in Indonesia.As part of a major CSG exploration project, gas exploration

I. B. Sosrowidjojo; A. Saghafi

2009-01-01

57

The Niobrara Gas Play: Exploration and Development of a Low-Pressure, Low-Permeability Gas Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated interdisciplinary exploration\\/exploitation strategy contributed to the successful economic development of the Niobrara gas play, located in eastern Colorado, northwestern Kansas, and western Nebraska. The exploration, development, production, and evaluation data suggest that (1) Niobrara chalk reservoirs have exceptionally high porosities but very low permeabilities, (2) individual reservoirs are low-relief, highly faulted structural traps characterized consistently by extensive water-transition

C. A. Brown; J. W. Crafton; J. G. Golson

1982-01-01

58

Synthetic gas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed is a method and apparatus for producing synthetic gas by using a blast furnace as a gasifier. The furnace is charged in a conventional manner with particles of solid carbonaceous material such as normal, low grade or undersized coke together with slag-producing material, such as limestone, silica and\\/or basic oxygen furnace and\\/or open hearth furnace slag. Fluent fuel such

Wintrell

1979-01-01

59

Production of synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis gas prepared from ash-containing carbonaceous fuel is passed to a water-containing contace zone wherein the ash is collected in a lower settling portion of the contact zone prior to passage through a valved passageway and thence to a lock hopper during a valve-open period, flow of said ash being augmented by intermittent positive flow of water during the time said valve is open, through said valve from said settling zone to said lock hopper whereby more positive flow of ash is obtained (when compared to that obtained by use of continuous flow of water from the lock hopper) with substantially decreased heat loss.

Jahnke, F. C.; Crouch, W. B.

1985-08-06

60

Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas  

SciTech Connect

The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD participants believe that the platform concept could have far-reaching applications in the Arctic as a drilling and production platform, as originally intended, and as a possible staging area. The overall objective of this project was to document various potential applications, locations, and conceptual designs for the inland platform serving oil and gas operations on the Alaska North Slope. The University of Alaska Fairbanks assisted the HARC/TerraPlatforms team with the characterization of potential resource areas, geotechnical conditions associated with continuous permafrost terrain, and the potential end-user evaluation process. The team discussed the various potential applications with industry, governmental agencies, and environmental organizations. The benefits and concerns associated with industry's use of the technology were identified. In this discussion process, meetings were held with five operating companies (22 people), including asset team leaders, drilling managers, HSE managers, and production and completion managers. Three other operating companies and two service companies were contacted by phone to discuss the project. A questionnaire was distributed and responses were provided, which will be included in the report. Meetings were also held with State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources officials and U.S. Bureau of Land Management regulators. The companies met with included ConcoPhillips, Chevron, Pioneer Natural Resources, Fairweather E&P, BP America, and the Alaska Oil and Gas Association.

Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

2008-12-31

61

Explore Your Future: Careers in the Natural Gas Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This career awareness booklet provides information and activities to help youth prepare for career and explore jobs in the natural gas industry. Students are exposed to career planning ideas and activities; they learn about a wide variety of industry jobs, what workers say about their jobs, and how the industry operates. Five sections are…

American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

62

Explore Your Future: Careers in the Natural Gas Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This career awareness booklet provides information and activities to help youth prepare for career and explore jobs in the natural gas industry. Students are exposed to career planning ideas and activities; they learn about a wide variety of industry jobs, what workers say about their jobs, and how the industry operates. Five sections are…

American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

63

Oil and gas exploration in Egypt past, present, and future  

SciTech Connect

Egypt was among the early countries in which exploration for hydrocarbons took place. Back to 1886 when the first oil discovery was achieved and since then exploration operations were carried out covering almost every prospective area in Egypt. The history of oil exploration in Egypt passed through six stages, each of which is characterized by its own activities and reflects the impact of certain developments not only in the applied exploration techniques, but also in the work style and prevailing exploration concepts, in addition to the development in the agreement terms. Six areas could add new oil and gas reserves to Egypt, namely: N. Sinai (onshore and offshore); Nile Delta (onshore and offshore); Western Desert (onshore and offshore); Nile Valley; Red Sea; and the Gulf of Aqaba. Such areas have the prerequisites for commercial oil and/or gas accumulations including potential source rocks, good reservoirs and adequate traps in addition to effective seals. It is believed that the undiscovered oil and gas reserves of Egypt could be several times that which have been discovered so far.

Halim, M.A.

1995-08-01

64

ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

This is the second technical report, covering the period from April 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. The geo-technical component is a shared effort between the State Department of Administration and the US Department of Energy. The Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission is rapidly converting high volumes of paper documents and geo-technical information to formats suitable for search and retrieval over the Internet. The permitting component is under the lead of the DNR Office of Project Management and Permitting. A web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information on-line. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. Structural changes are taking place in terms of organization, statutory authority, and regulatory requirements. Geographic Information Systems are a central component to the organization of information, and the delivery of on-line services. Progress has been made to deploy the foundation system for the shared GIS based on open GIS protocols to the extent feasible. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells.

Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

2003-11-19

65

Industry requested exploration/production environmental regulation  

SciTech Connect

California State Review by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission recommends state and regional water boards issue requirements to all pits subject to basin plans and chapter 15. Resources shortfalls have kept production pits from being Water Board priorities. Threat of United States EPA designation of crude oil as hazardous waste and subsequent land use conflicts of buried pits in developing areas have led to the call for full implementation of State regulations. Recommended state improvements include (1) interagency communication, cross training, computer database, and inspections; (2) development of guidance documents and consistency in pit closure policy, permitting, water quality in DOG pit rules, land spreading, road spreading, and minimum construction and operation requirements and; (3) administratively finding additional resources to fully implement requirements, increase records retention time, consider compliance history, revise Water Board/DOG Memorandum of Understanding and adjust DOG financial assurance program to provide incentive for proper and timely well plugging and site reclamation. Industry/Regulatory Agency cooperation can significantly reduce the burden of regulation implementation, Industry willingness to pay appropriate regulatory fees can facilitate regulation execution. Field drilling crew education can minimize regulatory implementation costs. Mud pit Resource Conservation and Recovery Act exemption can be maintained if hazardous substances (e.g., pipe dope and solvents) are kept out of the pit.

Blanck, L. (California Regional Water Quality Control Board, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States))

1994-04-01

66

64 FR 66194 - Pinedale Anticline Natural Gas Exploration and Development Project, Sublette County, Wyoming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Pinedale Anticline Natural Gas Exploration and Development...and development of, natural gas resources in the Pinedale...Gathering Company, McMurry Oil Company, Questar Exploration...Wyoming, and the Jonah Natural Gas Field located 30...

1999-11-24

67

H.R. 1282: A Bill to provide enhanced energy security through incentives to explore and develop frontier areas of the Outer Continental Shelf and to enhance production of the domestic oil and gas resources in deep water areas of the Outer Continental Shelf. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, March 10, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The report H.R. 1282 is a bill to provide enhanced energy security through incentives to explore and develop frontier areas of the Outer Continental Shelf and to enhance production of the domestic oil and gas resources in deep water areas. The proposed legislative text is included.

NONE

1993-12-31

68

VSAT: opening new horizons to oil and gas explorations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whether exploring in the Empty Quarter, drilling offshore in the Gulf of Mexico, or monitoring gas pipelines or oil wells in the deserts, communications is a key element to the success of oil and gas operations. Secure, efficient communications is required between remote, isolated locations and head offices to report on work status, dispatch supplies and repairs, report on-site emergencies, transfer geophysical surveys and real-time drilling data. Drilling and exploration firms have traditionally used land-based terrestrial networks that rely on radio transmissions for voice and data communications to offshore platforms and remote deep desert drilling rigs. But these systems are inefficient and have proven inflexible with today's drilling and exploration communications demands, which include high-speed data access, telephone and video conferencing. In response, numerous oil and gas exploration entities working in deep waters and remote deep deserts have all tapped into what is an ideal solution for these needs: Very Small Aperture Terminal Systems (VSAT) for broadband access services. This led to the use of Satellite Communication Systems for a wide range of applications that were difficult to achieve in the past, such as real-time applications transmission of drilling data and seismic information. This paper provides a thorough analysis of opportunities for satellite technology solutions in support of oil and gas operations. Technologies, architecture, service, networking and application developments are discussed based upon real field experience. More specifically, the report addresses: (1) VSAT Opportunities for the Oil and Gas Operations; (2) Corporate Satellite Business Model Findings; (3) Satellite Market Forecasts.

Al-Dhamen, Muhammad I.

2002-08-01

69

Flue gas desulfurization increasing productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of those components of a wet flue gas desulfurization system which can affect the productivity of an electrical power generation plant. These complex systems are very important to an electrical power plant in desulfurizing flue gases in order to comply with Federal and State pollution control regulations. They must approach 100% availability so as not

Zourides

1983-01-01

70

EIA's Natural Gas Production Data  

EIA Publications

This special report examines the stages of natural gas processing from the wellhead to the pipeline network through which the raw product becomes ready for transportation and eventual consumption, and how this sequence is reflected in the data published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA).

Information Center

2009-04-09

71

Electricity and Heat Production Using Natural Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to describe technique, production costs and competitiveness for the production of electricity and heat from natural gas. The report deals with the production of electricity using gas turbines, conventional power plants fuelle...

E. Hakkarainen B. Olsson M. Borchers

1987-01-01

72

Petroleum Development Oman gas exploration unlocks major new reserves  

SciTech Connect

Since 1985, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has been exploring for gas on behalf of the Government of Oman under a ten-year agreement signed in June 1984. The aim of the one-rig programme was to find additional non-associated gas reserves (3 TCF) to meet domestic energy requirements for a minimum of 40 years, for which the available reserves at that time (5.6 TCF) were insufficient. Initial results of the campaign, which principally targeted the Permian Khuff Formation, were disappointing, analogues to the major accumulations of the Arabian Gulf failing to materialise. During the second half of the programme, therefore, the strategy was revised to address the prospectivity of higher risk/higher reward plays recognised at greater depths. Well Saih Nihayda-24, drilled in 1989, found gas/condensate-bearing reservoirs in Cambro/Ordovician sandstones of the Andam Formation below 4000 metres. This discovery, in a seismically poorly defined anticline, sparked an intensive effort of 2D, and later 3D, long cable seismic acquisition. This led in 1991 to additional major gas/condensate finds in Saih Rawl and Barik, and a dedicated two-year two-rig appraisal campaign has since proven up sufficient reserves to support an LNG gas export scheme. The ten-year programme has more than tripled Oman`s non-associated gas expectation reserves to some 22 TCF, exceeding-the target more than five-fold. Significant potential for further gas discoveries identified in both North and South Oman provides encouragement for continued successful gas exploration in the future.

Wood, A.; Mozetic, A.

1995-08-01

73

Gas Analysis of Geothermal Fluid Inclusions: A New Technology For Geothermal Exploration  

SciTech Connect

To increase our knowledge of gaseous species in geothermal systems by fluid inclusion analysis in order to facilitate the use of gas analysis in geothermal exploration. The knowledge of gained by this program can be applied to geothermal exploration, which may expand geothermal production. Knowledge of the gas contents in reservoir fluids can be applied to fluid inclusion gas analysis of drill chip cuttings in a similar fashion as used in the petroleum industry. Thus the results of this project may lower exploration costs both in the initial phase and lower drill hole completion costs. Commercial costs for fluid inclusion analysis done on at 20 feet intervals on chip samples for 10,000 ft oil wells is about $6,000, and the turn around time is a few weeks.

David I. Norman; Joseph Moore

2004-03-09

74

17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...production, by final product sold, of oil, gas, and other products. Disclosure...including transfers) per unit of oil, gas and other products produced; and...in common units of production with oil, gas, and other products converted...

2010-04-01

75

17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...production, by final product sold, of oil, gas, and other products. Disclosure...including transfers) per unit of oil, gas and other products produced; and...in common units of production with oil, gas, and other products converted...

2009-04-01

76

Construction guidelines for oil and gas exploration in northern Alaska  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the unique problems associated with oil and gas explorations in northern Alaska and provides background information on the climate and environment, including the permanently frozen ground that exists throughout the area. Information on exploration efforts in the 1940s and 1950s is also included to demonstrate what happens when summertime operations disturb the surface vegetation and thermal regime of the frozen tundra, being the basis for why such operations are no longer permitted. Separate chapters are provided on the design, construction and operation of winter trails, roads, airfields and drill pads, including a separate chapter on their abandonment. Emphasis is placed on how, why and when to accomplish the various tasks to successfully accomplish an exploration.

Crory, F.E.

1991-11-01

77

Study on Exploring for Oil, Gas Using Hyperion data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reflectance spectra in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths provide a rapid and inexpensive means for determining the mineralogy of samples and obtaining information on chemical composition Hydrocarbon microseepage theory setup a cause-and-effect relation between oil and gas reservoirs and some special surface alterations Therefore we can explore for oil gas by determining reflectance spectra of surface alterations This determination can be fulfilled by means of field work and hyperspectral remote sensing Our cooperative R D project which is sponsored by China National Petroleum Corporation CNPC and committing itself to exploration of oil gas in Qinghai area of China using NASA experimental Hyperion hyperspectral satellite documents a macroscopical feature of reflectance spectra of typical observation points in gas fields and then proposes a method in order to provide surface distribution information e g classification of alterations based on the reflectance spectra determined from the field and remote sensing and obtain anomaly zones of the special alterations This method mainly includes preprocessing of Hyperion images to improve the poor SNR Signal Noise Ratio of them principal component analysis PCA based on wavelet transform to reduce dimensionality and techniques providing surface distribution information using both absorption-band parameters such as the position depth width and asymmetry of the spectra and similarity of the entire shape between two spectra Finally several anomaly zones of alterations are obtained which are

Xu, D.-Q.; Ni, G.-Q.; Jiang, L.-L.; Ge, S.-L.

78

Federal offshore statistics: leasing, exploration, production, revenue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication is a numerical record of what has happened since Congress gave authority to the Secretary of the Interior in 1953 to lease the federal portion of the Continental Shelf for oil and gas. The publication updates and augments the first Federal Offshore Statistics, published in December 1983. It also extends a statistical series published annually from 1969 until

Essertier

1984-01-01

79

Federal offshore statistics: leasing - exploration - production - revenue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federal Offshore Statistics is a numerical record of what has happened since Congress gave authority to the Secretary of the Interior in 1953 to lease the Federal portion of the Continental Shelf for oil and gas. The publication updates and augments the first Federal Offshore Statistics, published in December 1983. It also extends a statistical series published annually from 1969

Essertier

1984-01-01

80

Environmental regulations: Impact on the United States petroleum exploration and production industry. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

In the past 20 years environmental regulations have progressed from being nearly nonexistent to a main concern in an oil company's activities. This thesis reviews the more significant environmental regulations, focusing on how these regulations have impacted the U.S. oil and gas exploration and production industry. A brief history of each environmental Act is given. Then the current regulations, stemming from these Acts and their amendments, are reviewed. Also, a brief overview of the common wastes generated in the oil and gas exploration and production industry and the waste management practices used to deal with these wastes are discussed. Finally, the economic impacts of these regulations are reviewed.

Hardin, J.L.

1993-12-01

81

Product service systems: exploring operational practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are offering integrated solutions of products and services (product service systems (PSS)). To be successful in a service strategy, the OEM has to be able to provide services at a lower cost than the do-it-yourself alternative of the customer. We identify five service operations guidelines to achieve operational excellence in the field of PSS. The

P. J. Colen; M. R. Lambrecht

2012-01-01

82

Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface

Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

2008-01-01

83

South America: Growth in E and P opportunities keeps accelerating. [Oil and gas exploration and development in South America  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews and summarizes the oil and gas developments in Columbia, Argentina, Venezuela, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and other South American oil and gas producing countries during 1992 through 1993 and forecasts the future developments. The expanding exploration in these areas has resulted from the major new oil finds and the need for local countries to help stabilize their currency. The paper discusses exploration and drilling activity, production, and financial expenditures made on developing this regions reserves.

Not Available

1993-08-01

84

49th Annual international outlook issue. [World oil gas exploration and development trends  

SciTech Connect

This article represents the World Oil's 49th annual outlook. It discusses oil and gas exploration information, pricing, drilling activity, production, and reserves. It discusses the various reasons for increases or decreases in drilling activity in the various production regions of the earth. The article is broken down into the various geo-political regions and each region is described individually. These regions are described as North America, South America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Africa, the Middle East, the Far East (China, Indonesia, Viet Nam, etc.), and the South Pacific (Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea). Information on production, pricing, and drilling is presented in tabular formats along with a narrative discussion.

Not Available

1994-08-01

85

A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide incentives for domestic oil and natural gas exploration and production, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, February 22, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This Act may be cited as the [open quotes]Energy Independence, Infrastructure, and Investment Act of 1993[close quotes]. The purpose of this Bill is to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide incentives for domestic oil and natural gas exploration and production, and for other purposes. Title I of this Bill is Energy Independence Incentives. Title II is Infrastructure Incentives. Title III is Investment Incentives.

Not Available

1993-01-01

86

72 FR 7391 - National Environmental Policy Act Documentation Needed for Oil and Natural Gas Exploration and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Act Documentation Needed for Oil and Natural Gas Exploration and Development...Use Plan of Operations for oil and natural gas exploratory operations and...reviewed 73 site-specific oil and natural gas projects on National...

2007-02-15

87

North America: A better second half for drilling--Maybe. [Oil and gas exploration and development in North America  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides data on the exploration, production, and drilling activity of the oil and gas industry in Canada, the US, and Central America. The section on the US discusses trends in drilling activity in both the first and second half of 1993. Statistical information on all oil and gas producing states if provided in a tabular format. Information on exploration and development expenditures is also discussed. Data is also provided drilling and production information for Canada, Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Nicaragua, and other minor production areas.

Not Available

1993-08-01

88

An exploration of energy-saving green products design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of the growing problem of global warming, resource depletion, air pollution and other environmental problems, by analyzing the excessive use of fossil fuels, and the drawbacks of product design without considering energy consumption, this paper points out the importance of green energy-saving products design and explores the types of energy-saving green products.

Xiaodan Yang; Wenhuan Liao

2010-01-01

89

Elf Aquitaine, exploration & production: What R&D in a low oil price environment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elf Aquitaine, a major international oil and gas company, has recently undergone a thorough reengineering of its research and development in exploration and production division. The aim of this reengineering, was to align the company R&D with its business strategy, and also to give a clear picture of two major features for a R&D portfolio: a duration profile (short, median

Deliac

1995-01-01

90

Novel Chemical Space Exploration via Natural Products  

PubMed Central

Natural products (NPs) are a rich source of novel compound classes and new drugs. In the present study we have used the chemical space navigation tool ChemGPS-NP to evaluate the chemical space occupancy by NPs and bioactive medicinal chemistry compounds from the database WOMBAT. The two sets differ notable in coverage of chemical space, and tangible lead-like NPs were found to cover regions of chemical space that lack representation in WOMBAT. Property based similarity calculations were performed to identify NP neighbours of approved drugs. Several of the NPs revealed by this method, were confirmed to exhibit the same activity as their drug neighbours. The identification of leads from a NP starting point may prove a useful strategy for drug discovery, in the search for novel leads with unique properties.

Rosen, Josefin; Gottfries, Johan; Muresan, Sorel; Backlund, Anders; Oprea, Tudor I.

2009-01-01

91

Advancing New 3D Seismic Interpretation Methods for Exploration and Development of Fractured Tight Gas Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

In a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and GeoSpectrum, Inc., new P-wave 3D seismic interpretation methods to characterize fractured gas reservoirs are developed. A data driven exploratory approach is used to determine empirical relationships for reservoir properties. Fractures are predicted using seismic lineament mapping through a series of horizon and time slices in the reservoir zone. A seismic lineament is a linear feature seen in a slice through the seismic volume that has negligible vertical offset. We interpret that in regions of high seismic lineament density there is a greater likelihood of fractured reservoir. Seismic AVO attributes are developed to map brittle reservoir rock (low clay) and gas content. Brittle rocks are interpreted to be more fractured when seismic lineaments are present. The most important attribute developed in this study is the gas sensitive phase gradient (a new AVO attribute), as reservoir fractures may provide a plumbing system for both water and gas. Success is obtained when economic gas and oil discoveries are found. In a gas field previously plagued with poor drilling results, four new wells were spotted using the new methodology and recently drilled. The wells have estimated best of 12-months production indicators of 2106, 1652, 941, and 227 MCFGPD. The latter well was drilled in a region of swarming seismic lineaments but has poor gas sensitive phase gradient (AVO) and clay volume attributes. GeoSpectrum advised the unit operators that this location did not appear to have significant Lower Dakota gas before the well was drilled. The other three wells are considered good wells in this part of the basin and among the best wells in the area. These new drilling results have nearly doubled the gas production and the value of the field. The interpretation method is ready for commercialization and gas exploration and development. The new technology is adaptable to conventional lower cost 3D seismic surveys.

James Reeves

2005-01-31

92

Visual product evaluation: exploring users’ emotional relationships with products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses an industrial designer's approach to eliciting user perceptions and emotional responses to products through visual evaluation and stimuli. Whilst the authors accept that product functionality is crucial for product success, the appearance, use of materials, shape and form provide the most immediate product data for the user. Less tangible issues such as emotional bonding of users with

Deana McDonagh; Anne Bruseberg; Cheryl Haslam

2002-01-01

93

Petroleum exploration and production in Europe in 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

North Sea oil production rose to 1,242,000 b\\/d in December 1977, although production from several large fields was curtailed. Onshore oil production in western and southern Europe declined slightly in Austria, France, and Germany, and increased modestly in the Netherlands, Britain, and Yugoslavia. Overall gas production increased slightly, but there were declines in Italy and the Netherlands. The giant Frigg

1978-01-01

94

Cottageville (Mount Alto) gas field, Jackson County, West Virginia: a case study of Devonian shale gas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploration and development of upper Devonian organic shales in the Cottageville gas field of western West Virginia began in the late 1920s. Continued development has led to the drilling of over 110 shale wells with accumulative production of more than 10 billion cubic feet of natural gas. Data indicate primary production from zones of organic shales in the lower part

Nuckols

1981-01-01

95

Cottageville (Mount Alto) gas field, Jackson County, West Virginia: a case study of Devonian shale-gas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploration and development of Middle and Upper Devonian organic shales in the Cottageville gas field of western West Virginia began in the late 1920s. Continued development has lead to the drilling of over 110 shale wells with accumulative production of more than 10 billion cubic feet of natural gas. Data indicate primary production from zones of organic shales in the

Nuckols

1979-01-01

96

Product placement: exploring effects of product usage by principal actors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of product placements has evoked interest by marketers for many years. Yet, little research has been done on this medium within the South African context; therefore the purpose of this study is to investigate consumer attitudes towards prominent product placements and the principal actor using the brand in the film or broadcast programme. Product placements are seen as

V. Nunes; J. Stroebel

2008-01-01

97

Theoretical approach to explore the production routes of astatine radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

To fulfill the recent thrust of astatine radionuclides in the field of nuclear medicine, various production routes have been explored in the present work. The possible production routes of At209-211 comprise both light- and heavy-ion-induced reactions at the bombarding energy range starting from threshold to a maximum of 100 MeV. Excitation functions of those radionuclides, produced through various production routes,

Moumita Maiti; Susanta Lahiri

2009-01-01

98

Theoretical approach to explore the production routes of astatine radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

To fulfill the recent thrust of astatine radionuclides in the field of nuclear medicine, various production routes have been explored in the present work. The possible production routes of ²°²¹¹At comprise both light- and heavy-ion-induced reactions at the bombarding energy range starting from threshold to a maximum of 100 MeV. Excitation functions of those radionuclides, produced through various production routes,

Moumita Maiti; Susanta Lahiri

2009-01-01

99

Desulfurized gas production from vertical kiln pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas, formed as a product of a pyrolysis of oil shale, is passed through hot, retorted shale (containing at least partially decomposed calcium or magnesium carbonate) to essentially eliminate sulfur contaminants in the gas. Specifically, a single chambered pyrolysis vessel, having a pyrolysis zone and a retorted shale gas into the bottom of the retorted shale zone and cleaned

Harry A. Harris; Jones Jr. John B

1978-01-01

100

Dosimetry of noble-gas fission products  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first minutes and hours following a reactor accident, personnel at the reactor facility, and possibly members of the public at off-site locations may be subjected to significant radiation dose from exposure to the entire spectrum of noble gas fission products and their daughter radionuclides. In order to measure the immersion dose of noble gas fission products following the

P. J. T

1989-01-01

101

Methane Hydrate Gas Production by Thermal Stimulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two models have been developed to bracket the expected gas production from a methane hydrate reservoir. The frontal-sweep model represents the upper bound on the gas production, and the fracture-flow model represents the lower bound. Parametric studies we...

P. L. McGuire

1981-01-01

102

Manufacturing Production: An Evaluation Report for the Occupational Exploration Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The evaluation report is one of seven produced for the Occupational Exploration Program (OEP), a series of simulated occupational experiences designed for junior high school students. Describing the pilot testing of the simulation dealing with manufacturing production, the report contains sections describing the simulation context, evaluation…

Altschuld, James W.; And Others

103

Exploring enzymes on cotton and their product targets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Enzyme-active cotton is a functional biocompatible material, and has potential applications as a sustainable material. With this in mind we have explored development of enzyme-active cotton with product potential as a disposable or reusable textile material. Lysozyme, which historically has been a w...

104

A Computer-Assisted Oil Exploration and Production Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a computer-assisted oil exploration and production game for students involved in a short course in petroleum geology. Outlines the game and its procedures, and provides sample structure maps generated by the computer in the course of playing the game. (TW)|

Nichols, Gary John

1987-01-01

105

Using production-based plays in the northern Gulf of Mexico as a hydrocarbon exploration tool  

SciTech Connect

The Minerals Management Service has described more than 100 plays in the northern Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf encompassing approximately 1,100 fields and over 9,500 productive sands. Plays are defined by a combination of production, chronostratigraphy, lighostratigraphy, and structural style. Cumulative production from these plays as of December 1993 is 9.01 billion barrels of oil and 107.7 trillion cubic feet of gas, with remaining proved reserves of 2.14 billion barrels of oil and 29.1 trillion cubic feet of gas. The information associated with these plays can be used by explorationists as a qualitative tool to target areas of potential exploration interest and as a quantitative tool to test the potential economic viability of both plays and individual prospects. Specific examples of each of these potential uses are provided. Qualitatively, the play maps target areas for future exploration in two ways. The first is to identify conceptual deep-sea fan plays located downdip from plays established in sediments of shallow water depositional environments. The second is to emphasize areas for both future exploration and infill potential around and within established plays. The extensive data sets associated with each play provide valuable quantitative information that can be used to assess the possible number and size of undiscovered accumulations in a play of exploration interest. At the individual prospect level, data related to reach productive sand and pool can be used to perform detailed geologic and economic evaluations.

Lore, G.L.; Batchelder, E.C. [Department of the Interior, New Orleans, LA (United States)

1995-10-01

106

Riverton Dome Gas Exploration and Stimulation Technology Demonstration, Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This project will provide a full demonstration of an entirely new package of exploration technologies that will result in the discovery and development of significant new gas reserves now trapped in unconventional low-permeability reservoirs. This demonstration includes the field application of these technologies, prospect definition and well siting, and a test of this new strategy through wildcat drilling. In addition this project includes a demonstration of a new stimulation technology that will improve completion success in these unconventional low permeability reservoirs which are sensitive to drilling and completion damage. The work includes two test wells to be drilled by Snyder Oil Company on the Shoshone/Arapahoe Tribal Lands in the Wind River Basin. This basin is a foreland basin whose petroleum systems include Paleozoic and Cretaceous source beds and reservoirs which were buried, folded by Laramide compressional folding, and subsequently uplifted asymmetrically. The anomalous pressure boundary is also asymmetric, following differential uplift trends. The Institute for Energy Research has taken a unique approach to building a new exploration strategy for low-permeability gas accumulations in basins characterized by anomalously pressured, compartmentalized gas accumulations. Key to this approach is the determination and three-dimensional evaluation of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalous pressure regimes, and the detection and delineation of areas of enhanced storage capacity and deliverability below this boundary. This new exploration strategy will be demonstrated in the Riverton Dome? Emigrant Demonstration Project (RDEDP) by completing the following tasks: 1) detect and delineate the anomalous pressure boundaries, 2) delineate surface lineaments, fracture and fault distribution, spacing, and orientation through remote sensing investigations, 3) characterize the internal structure of the anomalous pressured volume in the RDEDP and determine the scale of compartmentalization using produced water chemistry, 4) define the prospects and well locations as a result on this new exploration technology, and 5) utilize new completion techniques that will minimize formation damage and optimize production.

Ronald C. Surdam

1998-11-15

107

Study of gas production potential of New Albany Shale (group) in the Illinois basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New Albany Shale (Devonian and Mississippian) is recognized as both a source rock and gas-producing reservoir in the Illinois basin. The first gas discovery was made in 1885, and was followed by the development of several small fields in Harrison County, Indiana, and Meade County, Kentucky. Recently, exploration for and production of New Albany gas has been encouraged by

N. R. Hasenmueller; W. S. Boberg; J. Comer; Z. Smidchens; W. T. Frankie; D. K. Lumm; T. Hamilton-Smith; J. D. Walker

1991-01-01

108

Anatomy of success in oil and gas exploration in Pakistan, 1915--94  

SciTech Connect

Pakistan, flanked by Iran, Afghanistan, China, and India, is the size of Texas and Louisiana combined. The Indus and Baluchistan basins cover 80% of Pakistan`s total area. The country also has 230,000 sq km of marine Exclusive Economic Zone. The law regarding E and P activity was promulgated in 1986, replacing the previous Petroleum (Production) Rules of 1949. As a result of the new Petroleum Policy implemented in March 1994 and streamlining of the bid review and award process, acreage leased including reconnaissance during 1994 was 355,541 sq km onshore and 120,640 sq km offshore, with the number of operating groups also a record high of 46. Although complex and disturbed as a result of collision tectonics, Pakistan`s geology is as fascinating as the surface geomorphology, from the complex compressional thrusted to the relatively simple extensional rifted, salt related to transform fault associated, the reefs, too, all impressive traps for petroleum, at times almost textbook examples. However, domestic oil production at yearend 1994 was about 53,251 b/d of oil and 1.7 bcfd of gas. Oil and gas have been found in the Potwar/Upper Indus basin and Lower Indus basin, and mainly gas with one gas/condensate discovery in the Sulaiman/Middle Indus basin. This article attempts to present brief case history outlines of typical, significant oil and gas discoveries of Pakistan 1915--94 with respect to the two main productive basins, their source and reservoir sequences, in order to determine the anatomy of success in exploration in Pakistan.

Quadri, V.N.; Quadri, S.M.G.J.

1996-05-13

109

Monthly Natural Gas Gross Production Report  

EIA Publications

Monthly natural gas gross withdrawals estimated from data collected on Form EIA-914 (Monthly Natural Gas Production Report) for Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico, Texas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Wyoming, Other States and Lower 48 States. Alaska data are from the State of Alaska and included to obtain a U.S. Total.

Information Center

2013-08-30

110

Lake Erie gas production posed unique problems  

SciTech Connect

Thick, soft bottom sediments plus the presence of H/sub 2/S, CO/sub 2/ and hydrates required application of special gas production techniques. Wellheads needed modification, flexible flowline connections were used and potential dangers from sour gas were handled with inhibitors and a safety shut-down system.

Sangster, R.B.

1981-09-01

111

Oil and gas leasing\\/production program  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the Congress declared in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act the natural gas and oil production from the Outer Continental Shelf constitutes an important part of the Nation's domestic energy supply. Federal offshore minerals are administered within the Department of the Interior by the Minerals Management Service (MMS), which provides access to potential new sources of natural gas and

Heimberger

1992-01-01

112

Caspian Oil and Gas: Production and Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary There is a likelihood of relatively large reserves of crude oil and natural gas in the Caspian Sea region, and a consequent large increase in oil and natural gas production from that area. Because diversity of energy sources and energy security are considerations in Congressional deliberations on energy policy, this prospect could play a role in such discussions. However,

Bernard A. Gelb

113

Federal Environmental Regulations Impacting Hydrocarbon Exploration, Drilling, and Production Operations  

SciTech Connect

Waste handling and disposal from hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through federal and state regulations and/or through implementation of federal regulations. Some wastes generated in these operations are exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) but are not exempt under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and other federal environmental laws. Exempt wastes remain exempt only if they are not mixed with hazardous wastes or hazardous substances. Once mixture occurs, the waste must be disposed as a hazardous material in an approved hazardous waste disposal facility. Before the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, air emissions from production, storage, steam generation, and compression facilities associated with hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production industry were not regulated. A critical proposed regulatory change which will significantly effect Class II injection wells for disposal of produced brine and injection for enhanced oil recovery is imminent. Federal regulations affecting hydrocarbon exploration, drilling and production, proposed EPA regulatory changes, and a recent significant US Court of Appeals decision are covered in this report. It appears that this industry will, in the future, fall under more stringent environmental regulations leading to increased costs for operators.

Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

1999-04-27

114

Study looks at exploration model and gas prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computerized simulation model of the search for deep Hunton formation gas in the Anadarko basin of Texas and Oklahoma demonstrates that, based on the prevailing FPC area wellhead gas rate of 22 cents\\/1000, many discoveries may in the long run become barely breakeven situations or less--a bleak situation that does not attract investment capital. After 213 computer runs representing

Hunt

1974-01-01

115

Deepwater production drives design of new Gulf gas plant  

SciTech Connect

Exploration and production success in deepwater, eastern Gulf of Mexico has created the need for additional gas-transmission and processing infrastructure. The Destin pipeline and the Pascagoula gas-processing plant are being built to serve this need. The Destin pipeline originates at a junction platform at Main Pass 260 and, after coming ashore near Pascagoula, Miss., will connect with five interstate gas-transmission pipelines, by-passing gas-transportation bottlenecks in Louisiana and Alabama. The Pascagoula plant will be built near the point the pipeline comes ashore and immediately before the first compressor station. The paper discusses handling condensate, design goals, achieving objectives, low life-cycle cost, and project schedule.

Nielsen, R.A. [Amoco Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Petty, L.; Elliot, D.; Chen, R. [International Process Services Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1998-03-16

116

Coral reef formation theory may apply to oil, gas exploration  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports a coral reef formation theory that has implications for hydrocarbon exploration. The theory states that many coral reefs and carbonate buildups from at and are dependent upon nutrient rich fluids seeping through the seabed.

Not Available

1990-12-10

117

17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...932-235-50-24 (Extractive ActivitiesāOil and Gas Topic). Instruction 5 to Item 1204: The average production...computed using production costs disclosed pursuant to FASB ASC Topic 932, Extractive ActivitiesāOil and Gas. Units of...

2013-04-01

118

Trend analysis. [Oil and gas exploration, economic aspects  

SciTech Connect

The goal of exploration is to find reserves that will earn an adequate rate of return on the capital invested. Neither exploration nor economics is an exact science. The authors must therefore explore in those trends (plays) that have the highest probability of achieving this goal. Trend analysis is a technique for organizing the available data to make these strategic exploration decisions objectively and is in conformance with their goals and risk attitudes. Trend analysis differs from resource estimation in its purpose. It seeks to determine the probability of economic success for an exploration program, not the ultimate results of the total industry effort. Thus the recent past is assumed to be the best estimate of the exploration probabilities for the near future. This information is combined with economic forecasts. The computer software tools necessary for trend analysis are (1) Information data base - requirements and sources. (2) Data conditioning program - assignment to trends, correction of errors, and conversion into usable form. (3) Statistical processing program - calculation of probability of success and discovery size probability distribution. (4) Analytical processing - Monte Carlo simulation to develop the probability distribution of the economic return/investment ratio for a trend. Limited capital (short-run) effects are analyzed using the Gambler's Ruin concept in the Monte Carlo simulation and by a short-cut method. Multiple trend analysis is concerned with comparing and ranking trends, allocating funds among acceptable trends, and characterizing program risk by using risk profiles. In summary, trend analysis is a reality check for long-range exploration planning.

Smith, M. (Michael Smith and Associates, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Jones, D.R.

1991-03-01

119

Theoretical approach to explore the production routes of astatine radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To fulfill the recent thrust of astatine radionuclides in the field of nuclear medicine, various production routes have been explored in the present work. The possible production routes of At209-211 comprise both light- and heavy-ion-induced reactions at the bombarding energy range starting from threshold to a maximum of 100 MeV. Excitation functions of those radionuclides, produced through various production routes, have been calculated by using nuclear reaction model codes TALYS, ALICE91, and PACE-II and are compared with the available measured data. Contributions of various reaction mechanisms, such as direct, pre-equilibrium, and equilibrium reactions, to the total reaction cross section have been studied using the codes. Results show that the equilibrium reaction dominates in all cases over other reaction mechanisms.

Maiti, Moumita; Lahiri, Susanta

2009-02-01

120

Theoretical approach to explore the production routes of astatine radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

To fulfill the recent thrust of astatine radionuclides in the field of nuclear medicine, various production routes have been explored in the present work. The possible production routes of {sup 209-211}At comprise both light- and heavy-ion-induced reactions at the bombarding energy range starting from threshold to a maximum of 100 MeV. Excitation functions of those radionuclides, produced through various production routes, have been calculated by using nuclear reaction model codes TALYS, ALICE91, and PACE-II and are compared with the available measured data. Contributions of various reaction mechanisms, such as direct, pre-equilibrium, and equilibrium reactions, to the total reaction cross section have been studied using the codes. Results show that the equilibrium reaction dominates in all cases over other reaction mechanisms.

Maiti, Moumita; Lahiri, Susanta [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

2009-02-15

121

Gas utilization platform improves crude oil production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooper-Bessemer and CB\\/Southern shipped the 1st of several gas utilization compression platforms late last year to facilitate oil lift and production and conserve natural gas at Venezuela's Lake Maracaibo. The 435-ton package, which was lifted to its platform support, started up, and checked out in 19 days, has been operating since without any shutdown related to equipment problems. The platform

1975-01-01

122

Exploring the Thermodynamics of a Two-Dimensional Bose Gas  

SciTech Connect

Using in situ measurements on a quasi-two-dimensional, harmonically trapped {sup 87}Rb gas, we infer various equations of state for the equivalent homogeneous fluid. From the dependence of the total atom number and the central density of our clouds with chemical potential and temperature, we obtain the equations of state for the pressure and the phase-space density. Then, using the approximate scale invariance of this 2D system, we determine the entropy per particle and find very low values (below 0.1k{sub B}) in the strongly degenerate regime. This shows that this gas can constitute an efficient coolant for other quantum fluids. We also explain how to disentangle the various contributions (kinetic, potential, interaction) to the energy of the trapped gas using a time-of-flight method, from which we infer the reduction of density fluctuations in a nonfully coherent cloud.

Yefsah, Tarik; Desbuquois, Remi; Chomaz, Lauriane; Guenter, Kenneth J.; Dalibard, Jean [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, CNRS, UPMC, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75005 Paris (France)

2011-09-23

123

IRIS DMC products help explore the Tohoku earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within two hours after the great March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake the IRIS DMC started publishing automated data products through its Searchable Product Depository (SPUD), which provides quick viewing of many aspects of the data and preliminary analysis of this great earthquake. These products are part of the DMC's data product development effort intended to serve many purposes: stepping-stones for future research projects, data visualizations, data characterization, research result comparisons as well as outreach material. Our current and soon-to-be-released products that allow users to explore this and other global M>6.0 events include 1) Event Plots, which are a suite of maps, record sections, regional vespagrams and P-coda stacks 2) US Array Ground Motion Visualizations that show the vertical and horizontal global seismic wavefield sweeping across US Array including minor and major arc surface waves and their polarizations 3) back-projection movies that show the time history of short-period energy from the rupture 4) R1 source-time functions that show approximate duration and source directivity and 5) aftershock sequence maps and statistics movies based on NEIC alerts that self-update every hour in the first few days following the mainshock. Higher order information for the Tohoku event that can be inferred based on our products which will be highlighted include a rupture duration of order 150 sec (P-coda stacks, back-projections, R1 STFs) that ruptured approximately 400 km along strike primarily towards the south (back-projections, R1 STFs, aftershock animation) with a very low rupture velocity (back-projections, R1 STFs). All of our event-based products are automated and consistently produced shortly after the event so that they may serve as familiar baselines for the seismology research community. More details on these and other existing products are available at: http://www.iris.edu/dms/products/

Trabant, C.; Hutko, A. R.; Bahavar, M.; Ahern, T. K.; Benson, R. B.; Casey, R.

2011-12-01

124

BUILDING MATERIALS MADE FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION BY-PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect

Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) materials are produced in abundant quantities by coal burning utilities. Due to environmental restrains, flue gases must be ''cleaned'' prior to release to the atmosphere. They are two general methods to ''scrub'' flue gas: wet and dry. The choice of scrubbing material is often defined by the type of coal being burned, i.e. its composition. Scrubbing is traditionally carried out using a slurry of calcium containing material (slaked lime or calcium carbonate) that is made to contact exiting flue gas as either a spay injected into the gas or in a bubble tower. The calcium combined with the SO{sub 2} in the gas to form insoluble precipitates. Some plants have been using dry injection of these same materials or their own Class C fly ash to scrub. In either case the end product contains primarily hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}O) with smaller amounts of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O). These materials have little commercial use. Experiments were carried out that were meant to explore the feasibility of using blends of hannebachite and fly ash mixed with concentrated sodium hydroxide to make masonry products. The results suggest that some of these mixtures could be used in place of conventional Portland cement based products such as retaining wall bricks and pavers.

Michael W. Grutzeck; Maria DiCola; Paul Brenner

2006-03-30

125

Alaska Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, and Permitting Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the final technical report for Project 15446, covering the grant period of October 2002 through March 2006. This project connects three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for an advanced information technology infrastructure to better support resource development and resource conservation. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude

Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall

2006-01-01

126

Accumulation and exploration of gas hydrate in deep-sea sediments of northern South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large deep-sea area from the southwestern Qiongdongnan Basin to the eastern Dongsha Islands, within the continental margin of northern South China Sea, is a frontier of natural gas hydrate exploration in China. Multiform of deep-sea sedimentations have been occurred since late Miocene, and sediment waves as a potential quality reservoir of natural gas hydrate is an most important style of them. Based on abundant available data of seismic, gravity sampling and drilling core, we analyzed the characteristics of seismic reflection and sedimentation of sediment waves and the occurrence of natural gas hydrate hosted in it, and discussed the control factors on natural gas hydrate accumulation. The former findings revealed the deep sea of the northern South China Sea have superior geological conditions on natural gas hydrate accumulation. Therefore, it will be of great significance in deep-sea natural gas hydrate exploration with the study on the relationship between deep-sea sedimentation and natural gas hydrate accumulation.

Zhang, Guangxue; Chen, Fang; Yang, Shengxiong; Su, Xin; Sha, Zhibin; Wang, Hongbin; Liang, Jinqiang; Zhou, Yang

2012-09-01

127

Methane hydrate gas production by thermal stimulation  

SciTech Connect

Two models have been developed to bracket the expected gas production from a methane hydrate reservoir. The frontal-sweep model represents the upper bound on the gas production, and the fracture-flow model represents the lower bound. Parametric studies were made to determine the importance of a number of variables, including porosity, bed thickness, injection temperature, and fracture length. These studies indicate that the hydrate-filled porosity should be at least 15%, reservoir thickness should be about 25 ft or more, and well spacing should be fairly large (maybe 40 acres/well), if possible. Injection temperatures should probably be between 150 and 250/sup 0/F to achieve an acceptable balance between high heat losses and unrealistically high injection rates. Numerous important questions about hydrate gas production remain unanswered.

McGuire, P.L.

1981-01-01

128

Project Explorer Takes Its Second Step: GAS-608 in Engineering Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An a continuation of its Project Explorer series, the Alabama Space and Rocket Center is sponsoring the development of two additional Get Away Special payloads. Details are given of GAS-608, including descriptions of its six experiments in organic crystal...

P. H. Kitchens

1988-01-01

129

The gas mask: a probe for exploring fearsome interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce an interface for horror-themed entertainment experiences based on integrating breath sensors and WiFi into gas masks. Beyond enabling the practical breath control of entertainment systems, our design aims to heighten the intensity of the experience by amplifying the user's awareness of their breathing, as well as their feelings of isolation, claustrophobia and fear. More generally, this interface is

Joe Marshall; Brendan Walker; Steve Benford; George Tomlinson; Stefan Rennick Egglestone; Stuart Reeves; Patrick Brundell; Paul Tennent; Jo Cranwell; Paul Harter; Jo Longhurst

2011-01-01

130

Soil gas radon: a tool for exploring active fault zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The profile of soil gas radon was monitored in five active fault sites in northern and northwestern Greece. Measurements were carried out during summer months, using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The spatial distribution of radon along lines traversing the fault zones revealed anomalies, clearly connected to the local tectonic structure. Specifically, increased radon signals evolved on the

K. Ioannides; C. Papachristodoulou; K. Stamoulis; D. Karamanis; S. Pavlides; A. Chatzipetros; E. Karakala

2003-01-01

131

Oil Exploration, Drilling and Production Operations A Field Seminar at Cepu, Central Java and Madura Island for Non-Technical Personnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

DESCRIPTION: A hands on, practical introduction to exploration, drilling, and production operations in the petroleum industry. The trip starts at a famous mud volcano and gas seep, then visits outcrops to discuss concepts of oil and gas reservoirs, source rocks, and seals. The instructor will lead participants to observe traditional production methods at the historic oil fields of Wonocolo and

132

Exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

Wilburn, D. R.; Porter, K. E.

1999-01-01

133

Developing geochemical methods for marine exploration of oil and gas  

SciTech Connect

Experimental-methodological oil exploration geochemical investigations have been carried out in the Caspian and Black seas. The bottom deposits were selected according to a differential grid, the type of which depended on geologic structure and morphology of the bottom, Lithology, and other factors. Bottom sediments were collected by scientific-research vessels using coring devices. This paper reviews the results of this testing for hydrocarbon distribution, bituminous and organic matter composition; and methane content in marine sediments.

Bagirov, V.I.; Zor'kin, L.M.; Zubayrayev, S.L.; Lopatin, N.V.

1983-01-01

134

Preliminary report on the commercial viability of gas production from natural gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic studies on simulated gas hydrate reservoirs have been compiled to estimate the price of natural gas that may lead to economically viable production from the most promising gas hydrate accumulations. As a first estimate, $CDN2005 12\\/Mscf is the lowest gas price that would allow economically viable production from gas hydrates in the absence of associated free gas, while an

Matthew R. Walsh; Steve H. Hancock; Scott J. Wilson; Shirish L. Patil; George J. Moridis; Ray Boswell; Timothy S. Collett; Carolyn A. Koh; E. Dendy Sloan

2009-01-01

135

Oil and Gas Leasing\\/Production Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the Congress declared in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA), the natural gas and oil production from the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) constitutes an important part of the Nation's domestic energy supply. Federal offshore minerals are administered within the Department of the Interior by the Minerals Management Service (MMS), which provides access to potential new sources of natural

M. L. Heimberger; D. OBrien

1991-01-01

136

New Methodology for Natural Gas Production Estimates  

EIA Publications

A new methodology is implemented with the monthly natural gas production estimates from the EIA-914 survey this month. The estimates, to be released April 29, 2010, include revisions for all of 2009. The fundamental changes in the new process include the timeliness of the historical data used for estimation and the frequency of sample updates, both of which are improved.

Information Center

2010-04-26

137

Development and Demonstration of Mobile, Small Footprint Exploration and Development Well System for Arctic Unconventional Gas Resources (ARCGAS)  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally, oil and gas field technology development in Alaska has focused on the high-cost, high-productivity oil and gas fields of the North Slope and Cook Inlet, with little or no attention given to Alaska's numerous shallow, unconventional gas reservoirs (carbonaceous shales, coalbeds, tight gas sands). This is because the high costs associated with utilizing the existing conventional oil and gas infrastructure, combined with the typical remoteness and environmental sensitivity of many of Alaska's unconventional gas plays, renders the cost of exploring for and producing unconventional gas resources prohibitive. To address these operational challenges and promote the development of Alaska's large unconventional gas resource base, new low-cost methods of obtaining critical reservoir parameters prior to drilling and completing more costly production wells are required. Encouragingly, low-cost coring, logging, and in-situ testing technologies have already been developed by the hard rock mining industry in Alaska and worldwide, where an extensive service industry employs highly portable diamond-drilling rigs. From 1998 to 2000, Teck Cominco Alaska employed some of these technologies at their Red Dog Mine site in an effort to quantify a large unconventional gas resource in the vicinity of the mine. However, some of the methods employed were not fully developed and required additional refinement in order to be used in a cost effective manner for rural arctic exploration. In an effort to offset the high cost of developing a new, low-cost exploration methods, the US Department of Energy, National Petroleum Technology Office (DOE-NPTO), partnered with the Nana Regional Corporation and Teck Cominco on a technology development program beginning in 2001. Under this DOE-NPTO project, a team comprised of the NANA Regional Corporation (NANA), Teck Cominco Alaska and Advanced Resources International, Inc. (ARI) have been able to adapt drilling technology developed for the mineral industry for use in the exploration of unconventional gas in rural Alaska. These techniques have included the use of diamond drilling rigs that core small diameter (< 3.0-inch) holes coupled with wireline geophysical logging tools and pressure transient testing units capable of testing in these slimholes.

Paul Glavinovich

2002-11-01

138

Principal geological results of oil and gas exploration in southern Sakhalin. [USSR  

SciTech Connect

The results of gas and oil exploration in southern Sakhalin, USSR are discussed in three aspects: 1) oil and gas fields revealed; 2) new data on geological cross sections, and 3) tectonic position of Upper Cretaceous and Cenozic deposits. Commercial oil deposits have been located in the lower and middle Miocene deposits of the Progranichnyy trough, and commercial gas presence has been discovered in the upper Miocene deposits of the Aniva Gulf trough. (JMT)

Tyutrin, I.I.; Dunichev, V.M.; Taboyakov, A.Y.

1982-09-01

139

Exploring the Neutral Gas Dynamics of Nearby Starburst Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VLA multi-configuration (BnA, CnB) HI spectral line observations of IRAS 08339+6517 and Tol 1924-416 are presented. Previous HI observations by Cannon et al. (2004) showed that both of these starburst galaxies are strongly interacting with nearby companions. The observed Ly-? emission line from both systems favors a scenario where kinematic offsets of the neutral gas surrounding the starburst region decrease the efficiency of resonant scattering and allow the propagation of these photons through the ISM. To further investigate this scenario, we now present higher sensitivity, higher resolution HI spectral line imaging of these systems. These data add further evidence that the small-scale kinematic properties of the ISM in starburst galaxies are an important factor that governs the escape fraction of Ly-? photons from galaxies.

Cannon, John M.; Weindling, J.; Meitzner, S.; Skillman, E.; Walter, F.

2010-01-01

140

Gas extrusion in natural products total synthesis.  

PubMed

The thermodynamic driving force from the release of a gaseous molecule drives a broad range of synthetic transformations. This review focuses on gas expulsion in key reactions within natural products total syntheses, selected from the past two decades. The highlighted examples survey transformations that generate sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbonyl sulfide, or nitrogen through polar, radical, pericyclic, photochemical, or organometallic mechanisms. Of particular interest are applications wherein the gas extrusion enables formation of a synthetically challenging motif, such as an unusually hindered or strained bond. PMID:22940671

Jiang, Xuefeng; Shi, Lei; Liu, Hui; Khan, Akbar H; Chen, Jason S

2012-09-03

141

International oil and gas exploration and development: 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report starts where the previous quarterly publication ended. This first publication of a new annual series contains most of the same data as the quarterly report, plus some new material, through 1991. It also presents historical data covering a longer period of time than the previous quarterly report. Country-level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve-to-production rations (R/P ratios) are listed for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form. The most popular table in the previous quarterly report, a listing of new discoveries, continues in this annual report as Appendix A.

Not Available

1993-12-01

142

Natural gas production, proration and markets  

SciTech Connect

I would like to give you just a few of the technical aspects of what the Commission has done in its recent amendment of the gas proration rules. First, the Commission replaced the historical pipeline estimations of market demand with a process that includes what we call an optional producer forecast. This begins with the Commission creating a market demand forecast for prorated gas fields based on last year's production and mailing it to each operator, showing the amount of gas that was produced from that operator's wells in each field. The operator can then review that forecast. If it is a satisfactory estimate of market demand, then the operator need not respond. however, if indeed the market demand has gone up or down from last year's level, then the operator has the option of filling out an optional market demand forecast form that will override the Commission's estimate. That is the first significant change in the new rules.

Garlick, D.M. (Railroad Commission of Texas, Austin (United States))

1992-06-01

143

City of North Bonneville, Washington: Geothermal Exploration production test well  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on discussions with the City of North Bonneville, the production test well was drilled to a depth that would also explore for ground water temperatures near 130 F (54.4 C). Depth projections to a 130 F bottom hole temperature were made by assuming a constant ground water temperature rise greater than 50 C per kilometer, and by assuming that essentially homogeneous or equivalent conductive rock units would be encountered. Minimum water production requirements were not set, although the City determined that about 800 gpm would be acceptable. Larger upper casing diameters of 16 and 12 inches were installed in order to provide the future use of either a vertical turbine or submersible pump, as desired by the city. The scope of work included interpretation of well characteristics, evaluation of ground water as a geothermal resource, geologic analysis of data from drilling and testing, drilling supervision, daily drilling cost accounting, and preparation of a final report. The report includes geologic evaluation of the drilling and test data, ground water and geothermal potential.

1982-06-01

144

Exploring extrasolar worlds: from gas giants to terrestrial habitable planets.  

PubMed

Almost 500 extrasolar planets have been found since the discovery of 51 Peg b by Mayor and Queloz in 1995. The traditional field of planetology has thus expanded its frontiers to include planetary environments not represented in our Solar System. We expect that in the next five years space missions (Corot, Kepler and GAIA) or ground-based detection techniques will both increase exponentially the number of new planets discovered and lower the present limit of a approximately 1.9 Earth-mass object [e.g. Mayor et al., Astron. Astrophys., 2009, 507, 487]. While the search for an Earth-twin orbiting a Sun-twin has been one of the major goals pursued by the exoplanet community in the past years, the possibility of sounding the atmospheric composition and structure of an increasing sample of exoplanets with current telescopes has opened new opportunities, unthinkable just a few years ago. As a result, it is possible now not only to determine the orbital characteristics of the new bodies, but moreover to study the exotic environments that lie tens of parsecs away from us. The analysis of the starlight not intercepted by the thin atmospheric limb of its planetary companion (transit spectroscopy), or of the light emitted/reflected by the exoplanet itself, will guide our understanding of the atmospheres and the surfaces of these extrasolar worlds in the next few years. Preliminary results obtained by interpreting current atmospheric observations of transiting gas giants and Neptunes are presented. While the full characterisation of an Earth-twin might requires a technological leap, our understanding of large terrestrial planets (so called super-Earths) orbiting bright, later-type stars is within reach by current space and ground telescopes. PMID:21302557

Tinetti, Giovanna; Griffith, Caitlin A; Swain, Mark R; Deroo, Pieter; Beaulieu, Jean Philippe; Vasisht, Gautam; Kipping, David; Waldmann, Ingo; Tennyson, Jonathan; Barber, Robert J; Bouwman, Jeroen; Allard, Nicole; Brown, Linda R

2010-01-01

145

Gas production in the MEGAPIE spallation target  

SciTech Connect

The Megawatt Pilot Experiment (MEGAPIE) project was started in 2000 to design, build and operate a liquid Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) spallation neutron target at the power level of 1 MW. The target was irradiated for four months in 2006 at the Paul Scherrer Inst. in Switzerland. Gas samples were extracted in various phases of operation and analyzed by {gamma} spectroscopy leading to the determination of the main radioactive isotopes released from the LBE. Comparison with calculations performed using several validated codes (MCNPX2.5.0/CINDER'90, FLUKA/ORIHET and SNT) yields the ratio between simulated in-target isotope production rates and experimental amount released at any given time. This work underlines the weak points of spallation models for some released isotopes. Also, results provide relevant information for safety and radioprotection in an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) and more particularly for the gas management in a spallation target dedicated to neutron production facilities. (authors)

Thiolliere, N. [SUBATECH, EMN-IN2P3/CNRS-Universite, Nantes, F-44307 (France); Zanini, L. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); David, J. C. [CEA Saclay, Irfu/SPhN, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Eikenberg, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Guertin, A. [SUBATECH, EMN-IN2P3/CNRS-Universite, Nantes, F-44307 (France); Konobeyev, A. Y. [Institut fuer Reaktorsicherheit, FZK GmbH, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Lemaire, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DAM Ile de France, 91297 Arpajon Cedex (France); Panebianco, S. [CEA Saclay, Irfu/SPhN, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France)

2011-07-01

146

Radiolytic gas production from tritiated waste forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiolytic gas production during long-term storage of tritiated waste was estimated from gamma and alpha radiolysis tests to determine the extent of pressurization in sealed containers. Two forms of simulated wastes were irradiated with ā¶Ā°Co gamma rays or Ā²ā“ā“Cm alpha particles: concrete for solidification of tritiated water and vermiculite for solidification of tritiated octane or vacuum pump oil. For concrete,

N. E. Bibler; E. G. Orebaugh

1977-01-01

147

Remote sensing applications to the development of an integrated data base for oil and gas exploration  

SciTech Connect

Techniques employed in oil and gas exploration and the utility of satellite data to the exploration process are discussed. The application of satellite information to geologic analysis, planimetric mapping and other data collection efforts associated with the search for oil and gas are considered. Geographic information and image processing features that were utilized in three projects are outlined and the potential of data sources such as LANDSAT-D is assessed. Experience shows that satellite imagery is of greatest benefit when it is integrated into a comprehensive data base with conventional data.

Hall, R.J.

1982-06-01

148

Exploration for shallow compaction-induced gas accumulations in sandstones of the Fort Union Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Commercial quantities of gas have been produced from shallow sandstone reservoirs of the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene) in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin. The two largest accumulations discovered to date, Oedekoven and Chan pools, were drilled on prospects which invoked differential compaction as a mechanism for gas entrapment and prospect delineation. Coal-sourced bacterial gas may have accumulated in localized structural highs early in the burial history of lenticular sand bodies and associated sediments. Structural relief is due to the compaction contrast between sand and stratigraphically equivalent fine-grained sediments. A shallow gas play targeting sandstones as potential reservoirs was initiated in the Recluse area in response as sources for bacterial gas, and the presence of lenticular sandstones that may have promoted the development of compaction structures early in the burial process, to which early-formed bacterial gas migrated. Prospects were ranked based on a number of geologic elements related to compaction-induced trap development. Drilling of the Oedekoven prospect, which possessed all prospect elements, led to the discovery and development of the Oedekoven Fort Union gas pool, which has produced nearly 2 BCF of gas from a depth of 340 ft. Production figures from the Oedekoven and Chan pools demonstrate the commercial gas potential of Fort Union sandstone reservoirs in the Powder River Basin. The shallow depths of the reservoirs, coupled with low drilling and completion costs, an abundance of subsurface control with which to delineate prospects, and an existing network of gas-gathering systems, make them attractive primary targets in shallow exploration efforts as well as secondary objectives in deeper drilling programs.

Oldham, D.W. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1997-01-01

149

The Advancement of Geothermal Energy Production through Improved Exploration Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technologies Program invested $98 million in the geothermal exploration industry, and continues to encourage further research, development and demonstration in this field. The continued development of innovative exploration technologies is essential for wide adoption of geothermal resources. In 2008, the United States Geological Survey estimated that there are approximately 30,000 MW of undiscovered hydrothermal resources in the western United States alone. Improvements in exploration technologies are necessary to discover and define these hidden resources and to reduce up-front risk and cost through more accurate and efficient exploration. Currently, the surface and subsurface are characterized through combinations of ground-based and airborne geophysical surveys, geochemical surveys, satellite imaging and drilling. However, to increase geothermal exploration well success rates, development of improved and new exploration techniques is required.

Thorsteinsson, H.; Klein, K.

2010-12-01

150

Conceptual Design of a Floating Drilling Unit for Oil and Gas Exploration in Greater Waterdepth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A group of German industrial firms has examined the feasibility of exploration drilling and production of hydrocarbons from waterdepths up to 2000 m. Starting from the requirements a floating drilling unit for these waterdepths would have to meet, technic...

D. Meyer-Detring

1977-01-01

151

78 FR 17661 - Proposed Reissuance of a General NPDES Permit for Oil and Gas Exploration Facilities in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exploration Facilities in Federal Waters of Cook Inlet (AKG 31-5000...pollutants into Cook Inlet Federal Waters from oil and gas exploration facilities...to minimize pollution and protect water quality. DATES: Comments. Interested...

2013-03-22

152

Bio Gas Oil Production from Waste Lard  

PubMed Central

Besides the second generations bio fuels, one of the most promising products is the bio gas oil, which is a high iso-paraffin containing fuel, which could be produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of different triglycerides. To broaden the feedstock of the bio gas oil the catalytic hydrogenation of waste lard over sulphided NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst, and as the second step, the isomerization of the produced normal paraffin rich mixture (intermediate product) over Pt/SAPO-11 catalyst was investigated. It was found that both the hydrogenation and the decarboxylation/decarbonylation oxygen removing reactions took place but their ratio depended on the process parameters (T = 280–380°C, P = 20–80 bar, LHSV = 0.75–3.0?h?1 and H2/lard ratio: 600?Nm3/m3). In case of the isomerization at the favourable process parameters (T = 360–370°C, P = 40 –50 bar, LHSV = 1.0?h?1 and H2/hydrocarbon ratio: 400?Nm3/m3) mainly mono-branching isoparaffins were obtained. The obtained products are excellent Diesel fuel blending components, which are practically free of heteroatoms.

Hancsok, Jeno; Baladincz, Peter; Kasza, Tamas; Kovacs, Sandor; Toth, Csaba; Varga, Zoltan

2011-01-01

153

Explore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by the Tata Energy Research Institute, the EduGreen Explore Web site allows kids to learn about energy, water, climate change, solid waste, and more. Besides giving good descriptions on these various subjects, students will also gain a global perspective on these issues since the Institute, which is located in India, gives specific information for the country. The site also contains quizzes, maps, activities, and more worth checking out.

2002-01-01

154

Risk reduction or why stratigraphy. [The use of stratigraphy to determine oil and gas exploration risks  

SciTech Connect

Risks and uncertainties are involved in the exploration for resources. This paper identifies these risks in terms of oil and gas exploration and how an interdisciplinary stratigraphic approach to exploration can reduce these risks. Risk factors involved in the search for oil and gas include four geologic factors: structure, reservoir, trapping conditions, and hydrocarbon charge. Exploration decisions involve the consideration of these risks and uncertainties when determining budgets, geotechnical predictions and serial exploration. To find oil and gas, three geologic factors must be determined - the source rock, the reservoir, and the trapping mechanism. The geologic branch known as stratigraphy is best equipped to deal with these unknowns. Using lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and seismic stratigraphy, geologists can determine the nature and type of stratigraphic traps, as well as the risk factors involved with each. Once these factors are identified, ways to reduce them can be determined for development areas. Traps are identified using various tools. Drilling logs, fossil distribution charts, clastic analysis, and carbonate analysis, stratigraphic summaries and columns can be used for individual well sections. Area stratigraphy uses stratigraphic columns, strand line sequences, lithostratigraphic units and facies, previously known oil occurrences, cross sections, and stratigraphic sections. Seismic stratigraphy yields important information about the paleoenvironment and subsurface structures. With all the information collected, stratigraphers can apply Walther's law of facies succession to reduce risks in development areas.

Marks, E. (Marks and Associates, Whittier, CA (United States))

1991-02-01

155

Comet Encke - Gas production and lightcurve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive set of observations, both from the ground and with the IUE, was planned for the 1984 apparition of Comet Encke. The observations were intended to confirm the behavior seen in 1980 and to study the behavior of the comet after perihelion. The results of the observations indicate that all the measured trace species display an asymmetry around the perihelion that is consistent with the visual light curve (VLC). But the total gas production as monitored by OH (the dominant species) displays a behavior that has no relation to the VLC.

A'Hearn, M. F.; Birch, P. V.; Feldman, P. D.; Millis, R. L.

1985-10-01

156

Oil and gas exploration and development in oil importing developing countries  

SciTech Connect

The rapid rise in oil prices and supply shortfalls during the 1970s did not bring a concomitant increase in oil and gas exploration and development to the oil importing developing countries (OIDCs). To be sure, total exploratory activity in the OIDCs, as measured by the number of seismic party-months and the number of exploratory wells drilled, did in fact increase in the 1970s, but relative to the rest of the world exploratory activity actually declined. The consensus among many investigators indicates that exploration and development in OIDCs was inhibited by a combination of factors. First, the geologic prospects for oil and gas were not conductive to exploration. The high cost, small-sized fields that are characteristic of OIDCs limit profit potential, increases risk, and provides for limited prospects of exportable surpluses, which are necessary to supply downstream operations. Second, the lack of infrastructure in many nonpetroleum producing OIDCs deterred oil and gas exploration. Third, restrictive contracts provided for an insufficient amount of risk sharing to attract foreign capital. Fourth, host government taxation policies discriminated against high cost, small-sized fields. Fifth, political risk and government instability did not encourage foreign investment, considering the usual 10- to 15-year petroleum exploration and development period. Finally, US taxation policies following the oil embargo were designed to encourage domestic exploration and development. The 1980s have seen a substantial decline in real prices for petroleum, high interest rates, a developing country debt crisis, and a worldwide economic recession. These conditions are likely to cause an absolute decline in exploratory activity in OIDCs that are considered high risk, and where the probability of finding oil and gas is low. This trend is already evident in the recent exploratory and development data. 15 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Perlack, R.D.

1985-12-01

157

Exploration and Exploitation Alliances in Biotechnology: A System of New Product Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We link the exploration--exploitation framework of organizational learning to a technology venture's strategic alliances and argue that the causal relationship between the venture's alliances and its new product development depends on the type of the alliance. In particular, we propose a product development path beginning with exploration alliances predicting products in development, which in turn predict exploitation alliances, and that

Frank T. Rothaermel; David L. Deeds

2004-01-01

158

The Antrim Shale: Structural and stratigraphic influences on gas production  

SciTech Connect

The Antrim Shale of the Michigan basin is one of the most actively drilled gas plays in the United States. Core analysis, geologic mapping, and core to log correlations of a 9 mi{sup 2} study area in the middle of the present play have defined geologic influences on the location and productivity of Antrim reservoirs. Application of these factors in the design of exploration and development strategies could improve gas recovery from the Antrim Shale. The lower section of the Antrim Shale, containing the present producing horizons, is composed of four lithologies that subdivide the Antrim into facies and parasequences based upon their mineralogy and textural characteristics. The black shales of the producing horizons are characterized by high but variable quartz contents and an extremely fine-grained matrix of muscovite and clays. The black shales are surrounded by two types of gray shale, differentiated by amount and form of carbonates, and a green shale. The type of shale bounding the productive, organic-rich black shales may affect stimulation strategies and their effectiveness. These black shales average 10% but can be as high as 20% TOC by weight. The organic contents impart a distinctive signature to gamma ray logs that enabled isopach, lithofacies, and structural mapping of the Antrim. Correlated with available production data, the maps reveal distinct trends suggesting that well performance is influenced by both structural and stratigraphic controls.

Manger, K.C.; Oliver, S.J.P. (ICF Resources Incorporated, Fairfax, VA (United States)); Scheper, R.J. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States))

1991-03-01

159

Explore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created "to champion the selfless acts of others" and "to create a portal into the soul of humanity" the Explore website was created in part with support from the Annenberg Foundation. On this website, visitors can view films that cover themes such as animal rights, poverty, the environment, and spirituality. Clicking on the "Films" tab brings up a grid of recently added films, complete with another section that divides them up by "Places" and Causes". The films range in length from a two to thirty minutes, and visitors can also create their own playlist of films for their own use. Some of the more recently added films of note include "Fish Out of Water" and "Gorillas 98.6% Human". Also, visitors can connect with other parties by using the "Discussions" section to talk about travel, philanthropy, or filmmaking. The "Minds" area features profiles of the filmmakers and others profiled throughout the site, and visitors can filter them by countries and causes.

160

Gas-well production decline in multiwell reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces a pseudosteady-state constant-pressure solution for gas wells. The solution was used to develop a type-curve-based method to history match and predict multiwell gas reservoir production. Good agreements between the predicted and actual gas well production rates were obtained.

Aminian, K.; Ameri, S. (West Virginia Univ., WV (US)); Stark, J.J. (Exxon Co. U.S.A. (US)); Yost, A.B. II (US DOE (US))

1990-12-01

161

Exploring the BEC-BCS Crossover with an Ultracold Gas of 6Li Atoms  

SciTech Connect

We present an overview of our recent measurements on the crossover from a Bose-Einstein condensate of molecules to a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superfluid. The experiments are performed on a two-component spin-mixture of 6Li atoms, where a Feshbach resonance serves as the experimental key to tune the s-wave scattering length and thus to explore the various interaction regimes. In the BEC-BCS crossover, we have characterized the interaction energy by measuring the size of the trapped gas, we have studied collective excitation modes, and we have observed the pairing gap. Our observations provide strong evidence for superfluidity in the strongly interacting Fermi gas.

Bartenstein, M.; Altmeyer, A.; Riedl, S.; Jochim, S.; Geursen, R.; Chin, C.; Hecker Denschlag, J. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Innsbruck University, Innsbruck (Austria); Grimm, R. [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (IQOQI) and Institute of Experimental Physics, Innsbruck University, Innsbruck (Austria)

2005-05-05

162

Development and Demonstration of Mobile, Small Footprint Exploration and Development Well System for Arctic Unconventional Gas Resources (ARCGAS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, oil and gas field technology development in Alaska has focused on the high-cost, high-productivity oil and gas fields of the North Slope and Cook Inlet, with little or no attention given to Alaska's numerous shallow, unconventional gas reservoirs (carbonaceous shales, coalbeds, tight gas sands). This is because the high costs associated with utilizing the existing conventional oil and gas

Paul Glavinovich

2002-01-01

163

New methodology for estimating rumen protein degradation using the in vitro gas production technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the possibility of estimating in vitro degradable crude protein (IVDP) and effective crude protein (CP) degradation (EPD) of protein feeds in the rumen using a new method based on the in vitro gas production (GP) technique of Raab et al. [Raab, L., Cafantaris, B., Jilg, T., Menke, K.H., 1983. Rumen protein degradation and biosynthesis. 1. A new

L. Karlsson; M. Hetta; P. Udén; K. Martinsson

2009-01-01

164

Environmental issues of petroleum exploration and production: Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy is the lifeblood of our planet Earth, an essential commod- ity that powers the expanding global economy. Starting in the 1950s, oil and natural gas became the main sources of primary energy for the increasing world population, and this dominance is expected to continue for several more decades (Edwards, 1997; Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2004). In the United States,

Yousif K. Kharaka; Nancy S. Dorsey

2005-01-01

165

Evaluation of Hot-Brine Stimulation Technique for Gas Production From Natural Gas Hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermally efficient production of natural gas can be accomplished by the use of hot brine to dissociate solid gas hydrate deposits in the earth. The advantages of brine stimulation over steam or hot-water injection are lower energy requirements for reservoir heating and hydrate dissociation, reduced heat losses, higher gas production, and improved thermal efficiency. In addition, the problems of blockage

Vidyadhar Kamath; Sanjay Godbole

1987-01-01

166

Synthesis Gas Production from Partial Oxidation of Methane with Air in AC Electric Gas Discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, synthesis gas production in an AC electric gas discharge of methane and air mixtures at room temperature and ambient pressure was investigated. The objective of this work was to understand how the CH4\\/O2 feed mole ratio, ethane added, diluent gas, residence time, input power, applied frequency, and waveform, affected methane and oxygen conversions, product selectivities, and specific

K. Supat; A. Kruapong; S. Chavadej; Lance L. Lobban; Richard G. Mallinson

2001-01-01

167

Potential for surface gas flux measurements in exploration and surface evaluation of geothermal resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomalous concentrations of CO2 and, to a lesser extent, CH4 have been detected over many active geothermal systems. The production of these gases, and of N2O, can be affected by both geothermal and biological processes. In this investigation, soil gas and soil-gas fluxes were measured at the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale geothermal field in Utah, which produces steam from both liquid- and

Ronald W Klusman; Joseph N Moore; Michael P LeRoy

2000-01-01

168

Exploring the Linkages between Productivity and Social Development in Market Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the linkages between productivity and social development from the perspective of synthesizing the findings of projects undertaken by the Centre for the Study of Living Standards in three related areas. The first is a project exploring the linkages between productivity and social well-being involving researchers from around the world and culminating in the edited volume Toward a

Andrew Sharpe

2004-01-01

169

Applications of horizontal well completions to gas-productive formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has initiated a project to determine the reservoir characteristics and appropriate horizontal well designs in various gas-productive formations. The goal of the project is to evaluate horizontal completions as a means of reducing unit production costs in comparison to vertical well-completion methods. Three gas-productive formations were evaluated in the initial phase of the project: the

R. E. Hill; R. E. Peterson; M. I. Middlebrook; J. K. Aslakson

1993-01-01

170

Shallow seismic investigations of Devonian-shale gas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractured Devonian shale gas reservoirs which are detectable by seismic reflection methods is discussed. The preferred exploration rationale is based on travel time anomalies related to lowered acoustic velocity within the gas bearing zone. In the simplest case the travel time anomaly causes an apparent down warp or sag in a flat lying reflector. The high resolution extension of the

R. T. Williams; J. E. Ruotsala; J. J. Kudla; W. E. Dunne

1982-01-01

171

Exploring Uranium Resource Constraints on Fissile Material Production in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates possible scenarios for Pakistan's uranium enrichment and plutonium production programs since the late 1970s by using Pakistan's supply of natural uranium as a constraint. Since international sanctions have prevented Pakistan from importing uranium for decades, it has had to rely on domestic uranium production—currently estimated as approximately 40 tons a year. The paper divides the development of

ZIA MIAN; A. H. NAYYAR; R. RAJARAMAN

2009-01-01

172

Mercury in soil gas and air--A potential tool in mineral exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mercury content in soil gas and in the atmosphere was measured in several mining districts to test the possibility that the mercury content in the atmosphere is higher over ore deposits than over barren ground. At Cortez, Nev., the distribution of anorhalous amounts of mercury in the air collected at ground level (soil gas) correlates well with the distribution of gold-bearing rocks that are covered by as much as 100 feet of gravel. The mercury content in the atmosphere collected at an altitude of 200 feet by an aircraft was 20 times background over a mercury posit and 10 times background over two porphyry copper deposits. Measurement of mercury in soil gas and air may prove to be a valuable exploration tool.

McCarthy, Joseph Howard; Vaughn, W. W.; Learned, R. E.; Meuschke, J. L.

1969-01-01

173

European energy security: The future of Norwegian natural gas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union (EU) is expected to meet its future growing demand for natural gas by increased imports. In 2006, Norway had a 21% share of EU gas imports. The Norwegian government has on several occasions communicated that Norwegian gas production will continue to increase within the next decade by 25-40% from today's level of about 99 billion cubic meters

Bengt Söderbergh; Kristofer Jakobsson; Kjell Aleklett

174

The Use of Nuclear Explosives in Oil and Gas Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear explosions are currently being planned for use in oil and gas production, recovery of oil from oil shale, gas storage, and copper leaching. The current status of each of these projects is discussed with emphasis on the economics of each application. The first commercial application of nuclear explosives will in gas stimulation. Project Gasbuggy is scheduled to be fired

H. F. Coffer; H. E. Grier; H. H. Aronson

1967-01-01

175

Use of nuclear explosives in oil and gas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear explosions are currently being planned for use in oil and gas production recovery of oil from oil shale, gas storage, and copper leaching. The current status of each of these projects is discussed with emphasis on the economics of each application. The first commercial application of nuclear explosives will be in gas stimulation. Project Gasbuggy is scheduled to be

H. F. Coffer; H. E. Grier; H. H. Aronson

2008-01-01

176

17 years of gas production from coal. [SASOL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant of South African Coal Oil and Gas Corp., Ltd., at Sasolburg was expanded to produce gas for ammonia synthesis and a 500 Btu industrial gas in addition to synthetic liquid hydrocarbons. The plant uses Lurgi coal gasification, Lurgi Rectisol, and Lurgi Phenosolvan processes. Present production of 219 million cu ft\\/day is provided by 11 of the 13 installed

Hoogendom

1972-01-01

177

64 FR 32610 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Oil and Natural Gas Production and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Oil and Natural Gas Production and Natural Gas...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Oil and Natural Gas Production and National...of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) from oil and natural gas production and natural...

1999-06-17

178

Product News versus Advertising: An Exploration within a Student Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An exploratory survey (part of a larger study) examined the relative effectiveness of news versus advertising as sources of product information. Subjects, 140 undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory public speaking course or a course in visual communication, completed a 5-page media interest survey. Results indicated that news rates…

Hallahan, Kirk

179

Exploring the use of consumer collages in product design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development, application and evaluation of a method for need identification in food product design, which combines the use of collage techniques and focus groups. Recent findings in neurobiology and psychology have considerable relevance for methodological improvement in consumer research. Based on these findings, a collage and focus group study aiming to identify feelings, emotions and experiences

A. I. A. Costa; D. Schoolmeester; W. M. F. Jongen

2003-01-01

180

Exploring children's choice: The reminder effect of product placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been little attempt to understand the influence on children of branded products that appear in television programs and movies. A study exposed children of two different age groups (6-7 and 11-12) in classrooms to a brief film clip. They were then individually asked to demonstrate their witness skills by describing in as much detail as pos- sible what

Susan Auty; Charlie Lewis

2004-01-01

181

Synthesis gas production from peat using a steam plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steam plasma was used to convert peat into a synthesis gas, suitable for methanol production, in a cocurrent transport reactor. A cylindrical stainless-steel reactor 20 cm in diameter and 120 cm long was used. The effects of temperature and the carbon\\/ steam molar ratio on the product gas composition and carbon conversion were investigated. Finely ground peat (mean particle

P. R. Stuart; R. J. Munz; W. H. Gauvin

1984-01-01

182

Fiber optic penetrator for offshore oil well exploration and production  

SciTech Connect

A fiber optic penetrator arrangement is described for an undersea wall structure of offshore oil well production apparatus, comprising: a. a generally cylindrical housing; b. a cofferdam associated with the undersea production apparatus and defining a generally cylindrical entrance port into which the penetrator is designed to be inserted and mounted; c. a sealing means for sealing the penetrator relative to the entrance port after insertion of the penetrator therein; d. an external bulkhead; e. a second bulkhead positioned internally of the external bulkead; f. a compression spring normally retaining the second bulkhead in a sealed position with the penetrator, the compressing spring being compressed between the second bulkhead and the external bulkhead; g. a breakaway connection affixed to the external bulkhead for coupling an optical fiber transmission cable to the external bulkhead, such that if the transmission cable is snagged or pulled, the external bulkhead will sever along with the breakaway connection so that the penetrator is not pulled from the cofferdam entrance port, the second bulkhead being held in position by ambient water pressure to become the primary bulkhead after the external bulkhead is severed.

Collins, J.C.; Warner, C.P.; Henkener, J.A.; Glauser, R.

1986-07-01

183

Study sizes up Iraq`s reserves, exploration status, production potential  

SciTech Connect

Iraq has a volatile exploration and production history, but unlike more stable OAPEC countries it was National Oil Co. (INOC) rather than foreign oil companies that discovered most of the country`s proved oil reserves. Proved reserves are in Paleozoic, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary reservoirs charged by Silurian and Jurassic and/or Cretaceous source rocks. The pre-gulf war production capacity was 3.5 million b/d, but the country`s current damaged production capacity is about 2.5 million b/d. New discoveries have elevated Iraq`s proved reserves to 120 billion bbl of oil. The paper discusses exploration history, proven reserves, exploration plays, exploration potential, and production potential.

Ibrahim, M.W. [Target Exploration Consultants, London (United Kingdom)

1996-06-24

184

Methanol production with elemental phosphorus byproduct gas: technical and economic feasibility  

SciTech Connect

The technical and economic feasibility of using a typical, elemental, phosphorus byproduct gas stream in methanol production is assessed. The purpose of the study is to explore the potential of a substitute for natural gas. The first part of the study establishes economic tradeoffs between several alternative methods of supplying the hydrogen which is needed in the methanol synthesis process to react with CO from the off gas. The preferred alternative is the Battelle Process, which uses natural gas in combination with the off gas in an economically sized methanol plant. The second part of the study presents a preliminary basic design of a plant to (1) clean and compress the off gas, (2) return recovered phosphorus to the phosphorus plant, and (3) produce methanol by the Battelle Process. Use of elemental phosphorus byproduct gas in methanol production appears to be technically feasible. The Battelle Process shows a definite but relatively small economic advantage over conventional methanol manufacture based on natural gas alone. The process would be economically feasible only where natural gas supply and methanol market conditions at a phosphorus plant are not significantly less favorable than at competing methanol plants. If off-gas streams from two or more phosphorus plants could be combined, production of methanol using only offgas might also be economically feasible. The North American methanol market, however, does not seem likely to require another new methanol project until after 1990. The off-gas cleanup, compression, and phosphorus-recovery system could be used to produce a CO-rich stream that could be economically attractive for production of several other chemicals besides methanol.

Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

1981-01-01

185

Development of a geologic-diagenetic exploration model based on petrophysical evaluation of Yucal-Placer gas field in eastern Venezuelan basin  

SciTech Connect

An exploration model has been developed based on the petrophysical evaluation of the Yucal-Placer gas field which will optimize the development of this field and assist in the exploration of adjacent areas. Yucal-Placer is a large structural-stratigraphic trap with updip pinchouts of low-porosity gas sands from the Tertiary Roblecito and La Pascua Formations. Thick, clean sands are prevalent throughout the section, but exploration has been hindered as a result of low-porosity, low-permeability reservoirs. The key to exploration in the area is to locate sands with high porosity. Water saturation, shaliness, and porosity are calculated for each sand. Effective porosity and shaliness are mapped for these horizons. Graphs of 0 versus initial production and S/sub W/ are constructed for each sand. Production cutoffs of 6.5% porosity and 25% S/wirr/ are defined. Laboratory analysis of cores reveals evidence of paleo-oil/water contacts in La Pascua gas-bearing sands. This has led to the development of a geologic-diagenetic model, where formation of siliceous cement is reduced above paleo-oil/water contacts, giving rise to porosity trends in ancient oil reservoirs. The Guarico subbasin has undergone structural rotation. Beds initially dipping north-northwest now dip to the northeast. Porosity trends should be expected above paleo-oil/water contacts in stratigraphic traps at the southern margin of lower Roblecito and La Pascua marine bars.

Reistroffer, J.I.; Laurier, D.

1987-05-01

186

The Effect of Oral ?-Galactosidase on Intestinal Gas Production and Gas-Related Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bloating, abdominal distention, and flatulence represent very frequent complaints in functional disorders but their pathophysiology\\u000a and treatment are largely unknown. Patients frequently associate these symptoms with excessive intestinal gas and the reduction\\u000a of gas production may represent an effective strategy. The aim was to evaluate the effect of ?-galactosidase administration,\\u000a in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled protocol, on intestinal gas production

Michele Di Stefano; Emanuela Miceli; Samantha Gotti; Antonio Missanelli; Samanta Mazzocchi; Gino Roberto Corazza

2007-01-01

187

Hydrogen production from natural gas, sequestration of recovered CO 2 in depleted gas wells and enhanced natural gas recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

If fuel cells are introduced for vehicular applications, hydrogen might become an energy carrier for transport applications. Manufacture via steam-reforming of natural gas is a low-cost option for hydrogen production. This study deals with the feasibility of combining the production of hydrogen from natural gas with CO2 removal. When hydrogen is produced from natural gas, a concentrated stream of CO2

K. Blok; R. H. Williams; R. E. Katofsky; C. A. Hendriks

1997-01-01

188

Patterns of partner selection within a network of joint ventures in oil and gas exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaders of companies exploring for oil and gas had no means of characterizing the multitude of intercompany associations common to the industry. This study examined the patterns of intercompany associations, based on exploration lease joint ventures, for leases active on December 31, 2005 in the U.S. waters of the Gulf of Mexico. The company attributes examined in this study included company status, company size, lease joint venture network centrality, longevity of company lease ownership, and the extent of company operations. The joint count, network and spatial autocorrelation tests detected the significant patterning of intercompany associations by company status, but no patterning by company attributes including size, centrality, longevity, or extent. This study identified the strong tendency to homophily for major companies and heterophily for nonmajor companies. The overall tendency to heterophily by status remained across all the companies included in the study. Oil and gas company leaders and lease resource administrators can use insights from the observed patterns to inform partner selection decisions or lease administration practices.

Cooke, Jeffrey Emmet

189

Fuel Gas Production from Solid Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive computer model of a waste digestion plant was developed. Equipment, size, and processing conditions were selected for producing fuel gas at minimum cost on a scale representative of municipal waste generation. The values of operating and c...

R. G. Kispert L. C. Anderson D. H. Walker S. E. Sadek D. L. Wise

1974-01-01

190

Fuel Gas Production from Solid Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six major program tasks are discussed: (1) Preliminary engineering analysis and economic evaluation of a full-scale fuel gas from solid waste facility; (2) Pilot plant design, procurement, and initial operation; (3) Supporting laboratory experiments and s...

R. G. Kispert S. E. Sadek L. C. Anderson D. L. Wise

1975-01-01

191

Oil and gas leasing/production program. Annual report, FY 1991  

SciTech Connect

As the Congress declared in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act the natural gas and oil production from the Outer Continental Shelf constitutes an important part of the Nation`s domestic energy supply. Federal offshore minerals are administered within the Department of the Interior by the Minerals Management Service (MMS), which provides access to potential new sources of natural gas and oil offshore by conducting lease sales. Each year, on or before March 31, the MMS presents to Congress a fiscal year annual report on the Federal offshore natural gas and oil leasing and production program. In FY 1991, this program was the third largest producer of non-tax revenue for the US Treasury, contributing more than $3 billion. This report presents Federal offshore leasing, sales, production, and exploration activities, and environmental monitoring activities.

Heimberger, M.L. [comp.

1992-03-31

192

Process for production desulfurized of synthesis gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1900.degree.-2600.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises a calcium-containing compound portion, a sodium-containing

James K. Wolfenbarger; Mitri S. Najjar

1993-01-01

193

Multi-strata exploration and production study, October 1,1989--September 24, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Multi-Strata project is designed to co-develop both natural gas and coal-bed methane produced through a single well bore. Sites were selected based on the total gas resources available for development combined with a sound knowledge of the reservoir parameters that contribute to the accumulation and production of natural gas in the study area of Raleigh County, West Virginia. The project was planned and is being conducted in two phases. Phase I of the project, initiated in October 1989, consisted of compiling and analyzing relevant geological and gas production information in Raleigh County, West Virginia. The Eccles 7-{1/2} Minute . The Phase I analysis identified, by May 1990, five drilling locations with a high potential for economic gas production. Phase II activities included the drilling, coring, logging, testing, and completion of three wells. It is clear from the tests conducted to date, that the three wells will deliver significant quantities of natural gas from the conventional formations, augmented by high-quality methane from the coal intervals. Gas deliverability will be determined in the upcoming production test into a commercial pipeline. Economic analyses of the project will be undertaken when sufficient production data have been obtained.

Overbey, W.K.; Reeves, T.K.; Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.; Johnson, H.R.; Hawkins, H.R. (BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States))

1992-01-01

194

Multi-strata exploration and production study, October 1,1989--September 24, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Multi-Strata project is designed to co-develop both natural gas and coal-bed methane produced through a single well bore. Sites were selected based on the total gas resources available for development combined with a sound knowledge of the reservoir parameters that contribute to the accumulation and production of natural gas in the study area of Raleigh County, West Virginia. The project was planned and is being conducted in two phases. Phase I of the project, initiated in October 1989, consisted of compiling and analyzing relevant geological and gas production information in Raleigh County, West Virginia. The Eccles 7-{1/2} Minute . The Phase I analysis identified, by May 1990, five drilling locations with a high potential for economic gas production. Phase II activities included the drilling, coring, logging, testing, and completion of three wells. It is clear from the tests conducted to date, that the three wells will deliver significant quantities of natural gas from the conventional formations, augmented by high-quality methane from the coal intervals. Gas deliverability will be determined in the upcoming production test into a commercial pipeline. Economic analyses of the project will be undertaken when sufficient production data have been obtained.

Overbey, W.K.; Reeves, T.K.; Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.; Johnson, H.R.; Hawkins, H.R. [BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1992-09-01

195

Significance of high-wax oil variability to Pacific Rim exploration and production  

SciTech Connect

High-Wax oils are a class of paraffinic crudes that occur widely in Pacific Rim petroleum systems. New analytical technologies, particularly High Temperature Gas Chromatography (HTGC) show unexpected variations in the molecular weight ranges and concentrations of paraffin waxes within this class of crudes. These variations are source and maturity-related, providing paleoenvironmental and generative information useful to exploration. Paleoenvironmental factors revealed by high-wax oil HTGC source signatures can also help interpret the potential for nearby reservoirs. Furthermore, variations in wax compositions affect flow and organic scale-forming properties that impact the production economics of these oils. Lacustrine-sourced high-wax oils contain broad distributions of paraffin waxes ranging from C[sub 20] to C[sub 60] or higher. Various algae appear to be the source of higher molecular weight waxes in these oils. Paleoenvironmental factors, such as water salinities and paleoclimate, affect wax compositions of resulting lacustrine high-wax oils. Other terrestrial-sourced oils generated by paralic or nearshore marine source rocks show high concentrations of C[sub 25] to C[sub 35] waxes, but much lower distributions of higher molecular weight waxes. These high-wax oils appear to. contain waxes derived principally from terrestrial, higher plant materials. Results for high-wax petroleum systems in Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines and China illustrate these conclusions with examples ranging in age from Carboniferous-Permian to late Tertiary.

Carlson, R.M.K. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)); Jacobson, S.R. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States))

1996-01-01

196

Exploring Potential U.S. Switchgrass Production for Lignocellulosic Ethanol  

SciTech Connect

In response to concerns about oil dependency and the contributions of fossil fuel use to climatic change, the U.S. Department of Energy has begun a research initiative to make 20% of motor fuels biofuel based in 10 years, and make 30% of fuels bio-based by 2030. Fundamental to this objective is developing an understanding of feedstock dynamics of crops suitable for cellulosic ethanol production. This report focuses on switchgrass, reviewing the existing literature from field trials across the United States, and compiling it for the first time into a single database. Data available from the literature included cultivar and crop management information, and location of the field trial. For each location we determined latitude and longitude, and used this information to add temperature and precipitation records from the nearest weather station. Within this broad database we were able to identify the major sources of variation in biomass yield, and to characterize yield as a function of some of the more influential factors, e.g., stand age, ecotype, precipitation and temperature in the year of harvest, site latitude, and fertilization regime. We then used a modeling approach, based chiefly on climatic factors and ecotype, to predict potential yields for a given temperature and weather pattern (based on 95th percentile response curves), assuming the choice of optimal cultivars and harvest schedules. For upland ecotype varieties, potential yields were as high as 18 to 20 Mg/ha, given ideal growing conditions, whereas yields in lowland ecotype varieties could reach 23 to 27 Mg/ha. The predictive equations were used to produce maps of potential yield across the continental United States, based on precipitation and temperature in the long term climate record, using the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) in a Geographic Information System (GIS). Potential yields calculated via this characterization were subsequently compared to the Oak Ridge Energy Crop County Level data base (ORECCL), which was created at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Graham et al. 1996) to predict biofuel crop yields at the county level within a limited geographic area. Mapped output using the model was relatively consistent with known switchgrass distribution. It correctly showed higher yields for lowland switchgrass when compared with upland varieties at most locations. Projections for the most northern parts of the range suggest comparable yields for the two ecotypes, but inadequate data for lowland ecotypes grown at high latitudes make it difficult to fully assess this projection. The final model is a predictor of optimal yields for a given climate scenario, but does not attempt to identify or account for other limiting or interacting factors. The statistical model is nevertheless an improvement over historical efforts, in that it is based on quantifiable climatic differences, and it can be used to extrapolate beyond the historic range of switchgrass. Additional refinement of the current statistical model, or the use of different empirical or process-based models, might improve the prediction of switchgrass yields with respect to climate and interactions with cultivar and management practices, assisting growers in choosing high-yielding cultivars within the context of local environmental growing conditions.

Gunderson, Carla A [ORNL; Davis, Ethan [ORNL; Jager, Yetta [ORNL; West, Tristram O. [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Baskaran, Latha Malar [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL

2008-08-01

197

Multidisciplinary investigations exploring indicators of gas hydrate occurrence in the Krishna–Godavari Basin offshore, east coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report some main results of multidisciplinary investigations carried out within the framework of the Indian National Gas\\u000a Hydrate Program in 2002–2003 in the Krishna–Godavari Basin offshore sector, east coast of India, to explore indicators of\\u000a likely gas hydrate occurrence suggested by preliminary multi-channel seismic reflection data and estimates of gas hydrate\\u000a stability zone thickness. Swath bathymetry data reveal new

M. V. Ramana; T. Ramprasad; A. L. Paropkari; D. V. Borole; B. Ramalingeswara Rao; S. M. Karisiddaiah; M. Desa; M. Kocherla; H. M. Joao; P. Lokabharati; Maria-Judith Gonsalves; J. N. Pattan; N. H. Khadge; C. Prakash Babu; A. V. Sathe; P. Kumar; A. K. Sethi

2009-01-01

198

Strategies for gas production from oceanic Class 3 hydrateaccumulations  

SciTech Connect

Gas hydrates are solid crystalline compounds in which gasmolecules are lodged within the lattices of ice crystals. Vast amounts ofCH4 are trapped in gas hydrates, and a significant effort has recentlybegun to evaluate hydrate deposits as a potential energy source. Class 3hydrate deposits are characterized by an isolated Hydrate-Bearing Layer(HBL) that is not in contact with any hydrate-free zone of mobile fluids.The base of the HBL in Class 3 deposits may occur within or at the edgeof the zone of thermodynamic hydrate stability.In this numerical study oflong-term gas production from typical representatives of unfracturedClass 3 deposits, we determine that simple thermal stimulation appears tobe a slow and inefficient production method. Electrical heating and warmwater injection result in very low production rates (4 and 12 MSCFD,respectively) that are orders of magnitude lower than generallyacceptable standards of commercial viability of gas production fromoceanic reservoirs. However, production from depressurization-baseddissociation based on a constant well pressure appears to be a promisingapproach even in deposits characterized by high hydrate saturations. Thisapproach allows the production of very large volumes ofhydrate-originating gas at high rates (>15 MMSCFD, with a long-termaverage of about 8.1 MMSCFD for the reference case) for long times usingconventional technology. Gas production from hydrates is accompanied by asignificant production of water. However, unlike conventional gasreservoirs, the water production rate declines with time. The lowsalinity of the produced water may require care in its disposal. Becauseof the overwhelming advantage of depressurization-based methods, thesensitivity analysis was not extendedto thermal stimulation methods. Thesimulation results indicate that depressurization-induced gas productionfrom oceanic Class 3 deposits increases (and the corresponding waterto-gas ratio decreases) with increasing hydrate temperature (whichdefines the hydrate stability), increasing intrinsic permeability of theHBL, and decreasing hydrate saturation although depletion of the hydratemay complicate the picture in the latter case.

Moridis, George J.; Reagan, Matthew T.

2007-05-01

199

European energy security: The future of Norwegian natural gas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union (EU) is expected to meet its future growing demand for natural gas by increased imports. In 2006, Norway had a 21% share of EU gas imports. The Norwegian government has communicated that Norwegian gas production will increase by 25–40% from today's level of about 99 billion cubic meters (bcm)\\/year. This article shows that only a 20–25% growth

Bengt Söderbergh; Kristofer Jakobsson; Kjell Aleklett

2009-01-01

200

Production of motor fuels from natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world oil production and refining capacity is adequate to meet the volume requirements for all types of motor fuels. However, analysis of the anticipated demand for these fuels, in comparison with the capabilities of the Russian Federation's oil production and refining industries up to 2010, indicates a possible shortage of these products. Along with this, research aimed at the

O. P. Lykov

1996-01-01

201

Process for production desulfurized of synthesis gas  

DOEpatents

A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1900.degree.-2600.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises a calcium-containing compound portion, a sodium-containing compound portion, and a fluoride-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (1) a sulfur-containing sodium-calcium-fluoride silicate phase; and (2) a sodium-calcium sulfide phase.

Wolfenbarger, James K. (Torrance, CA); Najjar, Mitri S. (Wappingers Falls, NY)

1993-01-01

202

Natural gas production from hydrate decomposition by depressurization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a parametric study of natural gas production from the decomposition of methane hydrate in a confined reservoir by a depressurizing well. The one-dimensional linearized model suggested by Makogon is used in the analysis. For different well pressures and reservoir temperatures, distributions of temperature and pressure in the porous layer of methane hydrate and in the gas region

Chuang Ji; Goodarz Ahmadi; Duane H. Smith

2001-01-01

203

Combustible gas production from sewage sludge with a downdraft gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, sewage sludge has particularly become an important problem all over the world because of its harmful impacts on the environment and living beings. It should be converted to combustible gas or useful energy in order to remove all its negative effects and to contribute to a significant portion of the power generation. In this study, combustible gas production from

Adnan Midilli; Murat Dogru; Colin R. Howarth; Mike J. Ling; Teoman Ayhan

2001-01-01

204

Relationship between hydrogen gas and butanol production by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two simultaneous fermentations were performed at 26 degrees C with simultaneous inocula using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum. Fermentation 1 prevented the gas formed by the biomass from escaping the fermentor while 2 allowed the gas formed to escape. Fermentor 1 provided for the production of butanol, acetone, and ethanol, while when the Hā formed was allowed to escape with fermentor 2, neither

James D. Brosseau; Jwo-Yee Yan; K. Victor Lo

1986-01-01

205

Improving Well Productivity in Gas Condensate Reservoirs via Chemical Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Condensate dropout and accumulation along with high water saturation near the wellbore region result in a decrease in the gas relative permeability. This permeability is a function of fluid saturations interfacial tension (IFT and rock wettability between the condensate and gas. The need to mitigate the reduction in well productivity caused by condensate build up below the dew point is

Mukul Sharma; Vishal Bang; Mohabbat Ahmadi; Harry Linnemeyer

206

Prediction of wellbore temperatures in gas production wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a simple and physically transparent analytical solution for the prediction of wellbore temperatures in gas production wells. It is based on the extended Bernoulli equation and the steady-state energy balance applied to the flow of a real gas in a straight flow conduit. The solution includes three dimensionless numbers representing the effect of gravity, friction

Jacques Hagoort

2005-01-01

207

66 FR 34548 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Oil and Natural Gas Production...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hazardous Air Pollutants From Oil and Natural Gas Production Facilities and National...pollutants (NESHAP) from Oil and Natural Gas Production Facilities and the...is considered a part of the oil and natural gas production source...

2001-06-29

208

70 FR 39441 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Oil and Natural Gas Production Facilities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hazardous Air Pollutants: Oil and Natural Gas Production Facilities AGENCY...air pollutants (HAP) from oil and natural gas production facilities that...test method to EPA Method 18. Oil and natural gas production is included as...

2005-07-08

209

21 CFR 886.5918 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. 886.5918 ...886.5918 Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens care product is a device...

2009-04-01

210

21 CFR 886.5918 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. 886.5918 ...886.5918 Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens care product is a device...

2010-04-01

211

Mitigating Accidents In Oil And Gas Production Facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated operations are increasingly used in oil and gas production facilities to improve yields, reduce costs and maximize profits. They leverage information and communications technology (ICT) to facilitate collaboration between experts at widely dispersed locations. This paper discusses the safety and security consequences of implementing integrated operations for oil and gas production. It examines the increased accident risk arising from the tight coupling of complex ICT and SCADA systems, and proposes technological, organizational and human factors based strategies for mitigating the risk.

Johnsen, Stig

212

Gas Chromatography Olfactometry (GC\\/O) of Dairy Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the aroma of dairy products is a complex problem due to the heterogeneous nature of milk. Several analytical methods have been used to study the aroma of dairy products; gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) and gas chromatography– olfactometry (GC\\/O) are most commonly used. In order to identify the individual odor-active compounds a bioassay that is representative of the pattern

Jane E. Friedrich; Terry E. Acree

1998-01-01

213

Harsh-Environment Solid-State Gamma Detector for Down-hole Gas and Oil Exploration  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this program was to develop a revolutionary solid-state gamma-ray detector suitable for use in down-hole gas and oil exploration. This advanced detector would employ wide-bandgap semiconductor technology to extend the gamma sensor's temperature capability up to 200 C as well as extended reliability, which significantly exceeds current designs based on photomultiplier tubes. In Phase II, project tasks were focused on optimization of the final APD design, growing and characterizing the full scintillator crystals of the selected composition, arranging the APD device packaging, developing the needed optical coupling between scintillator and APD, and characterizing the combined elements as a full detector system preparing for commercialization. What follows is a summary report from the second 18-month phase of this program.

Peter Sandvik; Stanislav Soloviev; Emad Andarawis; Ho-Young Cha; Jim Rose; Kevin Durocher; Robert Lyons; Bob Pieciuk; Jim Williams; David O'Connor

2007-08-10

214

RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING  

SciTech Connect

This project will provide a full demonstration of an entirely new package of exploration technologies that will result in the discovery and development of significant new gas reserves now trapped in unconventional low-permeability reservoirs. This demonstration includes the field application of these technologies, prospect definition and well siting, and a test of this new strategy through wildcat drilling. In addition this project includes a demonstration of a new stimulation technology that will improve completion success in these unconventional low permeability reservoirs which are sensitive to drilling and completion damage. The work includes two test wells to be drilled by Snyder Oil Company on the Shoshone/Arapahoe Tribal Lands in the Wind River Basin. This basin is a foreland basin whose petroleum systems include Paleozoic and Cretaceous source beds and reservoirs which were buried, folded by Laramide compressional folding, and subsequently uplifted asymmetrically. The anomalous pressure boundary is also asymmetric, following differential uplift trends.

NONE

1998-08-28

215

RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING  

SciTech Connect

This project will provide a full demonstration of an entirely new package of exploration technologies that will result in the discovery and development of significant new gas reserves now trapped in unconventional low-permeability reservoirs. This demonstration includes the field application of these technologies, prospect definition and well siting, and a test of this new strategy through wildcat drilling. In addition this project includes a demonstration of a new stimulation technology that will improve completion success in these unconventional low permeability reservoirs which are sensitive to drilling and completion damage. The work includes two test wells to be drilled by Snyder Oil Company on the Shoshone/Arapahoe Tribal Lands in the Wind River Basin. This basin is a foreland basin whose petroleum systems include Paleozoic and Cretaceous source beds and reservoirs which were buried, folded by Laramide compressional folding, and subsequently uplifted asymmetrically. The anomalous pressure boundary is also asymmetric, following differential uplift trends.

Dr. Ronald C. Surdam

1999-02-01

216

NOVEL REACTOR FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

Praxair investigated an advanced technology for producing synthesis gas from natural gas and oxygen This production process combined the use of a short-reaction time catalyst with Praxair's gas mixing technology to provide a novel reactor system. The program achieved all of the milestones contained in the development plan for Phase I. We were able to develop a reactor configuration that was able to operate at high pressures (up to 19atm). This new reactor technology was used as the basis for a new process for the conversion of natural gas to liquid products (Gas to Liquids or GTL). Economic analysis indicated that the new process could provide a 8-10% cost advantage over conventional technology. The economic prediction although favorable was not encouraging enough for a high risk program like this. Praxair decided to terminate development.

Vasilis Papavassiliou; Leo Bonnell; Dion Vlachos

2004-12-01

217

Observation of Secondary O in the Interstellar Neutral Gas Flow with the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutral atom imaging observations of the interstellar gas flow in the inner heliosphere provide the most detailed information about the physical conditions of the surrounding interstellar medium and the interaction of this flow with the outer heliosheath. Key to the latter diagnostics is a secondary component of the interstellar neutral gas flow that originates from charge exchange interstellar neutrals with outer heliosheath ions, which are diverted around the heliosphere. Thus their trajectories contain information about the deceleration, deflection, and heating of interstellar plasma in the outer heliosheath. The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) intercepts the interstellar neutral atom flow trajectories at their perihelion at 1 AU and identifies the species with its low energy neutral atom camera IBEX-Lo. We have now observed the interstellar neutral flow with IBEX-Lo over three consecutive years and identified neutral interstellar H, He, O, and Ne in the flow observations. Already over the first two years, strong indications for a secondary flow component of O and He emerged. Based on three ISM flow passages thus far, we will characterize its strength relative to the primary interstellar O flow and its arrival direction relative to the interstellar flow as observed for primary interstellar He and O with IBEX. We will discuss potential implications of these findings.

Moebius, E.; Bochsler, P. A.; Bzowski, M.; Funsten, H. O.; Fuselier, S. A.; Heirtzler, D.; Kubiak, M. A.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; Leonard, T.; McComas, D. J.; Saul, L. A.; Schwadron, N. A.; Valovcin, D.; Wu, X.; Wurz, P.

2011-12-01

218

Generation and exploration of the Spin-Orbit coupled Bose gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To generate an artificial gauge field with ultracold quantum gas becomes a very hot topic in last few years and will continue to be attractive for ultracold atomic and condensed matter physics in the coming future. Many interesting and important topics such as Fractional Quantum Hall effect, Spin-orbit coupling and Topological insulator are connected to this topic very closely. Here we present our recent experimental progress of the synthesized gauge potential and the spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in optical dipole trap. Raman coupling technique and a bias magnetic field is applied to tune the structure of the gauge potential and spin-orbit coupling. Several fundamental properties of spin-orbit coupled BEC is experimentally studied including the properties of collective dipole oscillation, the stability of excited dressed state, the critical temperature of spin-orbit coupled Bose gas and the formation of magnetic order during evaporative cooling. These studies enrich the knowledge of this field and further explorations are also in planning.

Pan, Jian-Wei

2013-03-01

219

US production of natural gas from tight reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

For the purposes of this report, tight gas reservoirs are defined as those that meet the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC) definition of tight. They are generally characterized by an average reservoir rock permeability to gas of 0.1 millidarcy or less and, absent artificial stimulation of production, by production rates that do not exceed 5 barrels of oil per day and certain specified daily volumes of gas which increase with the depth of the reservoir. All of the statistics presented in this report pertain to wells that have been classified, from 1978 through 1991, as tight according to the FERC; i.e., they are ``legally tight`` reservoirs. Additional production from ``geologically tight`` reservoirs that have not been classified tight according to the FERC rules has been excluded. This category includes all producing wells drilled into legally designated tight gas reservoirs prior to 1978 and all producing wells drilled into physically tight gas reservoirs that have not been designated legally tight. Therefore, all gas production referenced herein is eligible for the Section 29 tax credit. Although the qualification period for the credit expired at the end of 1992, wells that were spudded (began to be drilled) between 1978 and May 1988, and from November 5, 1990, through year end 1992, are eligible for the tax credit for a subsequent period of 10 years. This report updates the EIA`s tight gas production information through 1991 and considers further the history and effect on tight gas production of the Federal Government`s regulatory and tax policy actions. It also provides some high points of the geologic background needed to understand the nature and location of low-permeability reservoirs.

Not Available

1993-10-18

220

Evaluation of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the work performed under this directive is to assess whether gas hydrates could potentially be technically and economically recoverable. The technical potential and economics of recovering gas from a representative hydrate reservoir will be established using the cyclic thermal injection model, HYDMOD, appropriately modified for this effort, integrated with economics model for gas production on the North Slope of Alaska, and in the deep offshore Atlantic. The results from this effort are presented in this document. In Section 1, the engineering cost and financial analysis model used in performing the economic analysis of gas production from hydrates -- the Hydrates Gas Economics Model (HGEM) -- is described. Section 2 contains a users guide for HGEM. In Section 3, a preliminary economic assessment of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model is presented. Section 4 contains a summary critique of existing hydrate gas recovery models. Finally, Section 5 summarizes the model modification made to HYDMOD, the cyclic thermal injection model for hydrate gas recovery, in order to perform this analysis.

Kuuskraa, V.A.; Hammersheimb, E.; Sawyer, W.

1985-05-01

221

An Analytical Model of Interstellar Gas in the Heliosphere Tailored to Interstellar Boundary Explorer Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stationary distribution of interstellar neutral gas in the heliosphere subject to solar gravity, solar radiation pressure, photoionization, and charge exchange is investigated analytically assuming ionization rates and radiation pressure that are proportional to R -2, where R is the heliocentric radius. The collisionless hyperbolic trajectories of the individual atoms including ionization losses are combined with Liouville's Theorem to construct the heliospheric phase-space distribution function of an interstellar gas species in the solar reference frame under the assumption that the distribution is a drifting Maxwellian at large distances from the Sun. The distribution is transformed to the Earth (essentially Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX)) frame as a function of solar longitude. The expression is then tailored to the latitudinal scan of IBEX as a function of longitude using the fact that IBEX detects each atom close to perihelion in its hyperbolic orbit. The distribution is further adapted to IBEX by integrating the differential intensity over the entrance aperture solid angle of the IBEX-Lo collimator, and over energy to predict the IBEX count rate of helium. The major features of the predicted count rate are described, including a peak in longitude, a peak in latitude at each longitude, and the widths of the major peak in both latitude and longitude. Analytical formulae for these features are derived for comparison with IBEX observations in order to determine the temperature and bulk velocity of the gas in interstellar space. Based in part on these formulae, the results for helium are presented in the companion paper by Möbius et al.

Lee, Martin A.; Kucharek, Harald; Möbius, Eberhard; Wu, Xian; Bzowski, Maciej; McComas, David

2012-02-01

222

Entropy production and viscosity of a dilute gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that the viscosity of a dilute gas can be derived by using kinetic theory. We present here a new derivation by using two entropy production principles: the steepest entropy ascent (SEA) principle and the maximum entropy production (MEP) principle. The known result is reproduced in a similar form.

Zhang, Yong-Jun

2012-06-01

223

Methanol production from biomass and natural gas as transportation fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two processes are examined for production of methanol. They are assessed against the essential requirements of a future alternative fuel for road transport: that it (1) is producible in amounts comparable to the 19 EJ of motor fuel annually consumed in the US, (2) minimizes emissions of criteria pollutants, (3) reduces greenhouse gas emissions from production and use, (4) is

Robert H. Borgwardt

1998-01-01

224

Gas production by accelerated in situ bioleaching of landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for improved gas production and accelerated stabilization of landfills by accelerated in situ bioleaching of organic wastes by acid forming bacteria in substantially sealed landfills, passing the leachate of hydrolysis and liquefaction products of microbial action of the microorganisms with the organic material to an acid phase digester to regenerate the activated culture of acid forming microorganisms for

1982-01-01

225

An evaluation of accounting-based finding costs as efficiency measures for oil and gas exploration  

SciTech Connect

The authors have operationalized firm-specific exploration efficiency as the difference between a firm-specific intercept estimated in a fixed-effects panel data Cobb-Douglas production frontier model and the maximum firm-specific intercept estimated in that model. The production model was estimated during two different time periods, 1982--1985 and 1989--1992, allowing efficiency to vary intertemporally. This efficiency estimate served as a benchmark against which they compared various measures of inverse finding costs. They assumed that the degree of association with an efficiency benchmark is an important attribute of any finding cost measure and that, further, the degree of association may be used as a metric for choosing between alternative finding cost measures. Accordingly, they evaluated the cross-sectional statistical association between estimated efficiency and alternative inverse finding cost measures. They discovered that the inverse finding cost measure that exhibited the strongest association with efficiency during the two time periods was a three-year moving-average finding cost which included exploration plus development expenditures as costs and reserve extensions and additions plus revisions as the units added.

Boynton, C.E. IV; Boone, J.P.

1994-08-01

226

Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

Andrew Lucero

2009-01-31

227

On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines  

DOEpatents

A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed. A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed.

Johansson, Lennart N. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2004-06-29

228

Gas Production from Hydrate-Bearing Sediments - Emergent Phenomena -  

SciTech Connect

Even a small fraction of fine particles can have a significant effect on gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments and sediment stability. Experiments were conducted to investigate the role of fine particles on gas production using a soil chamber that allows for the application of an effective stress to the sediment. This chamber was instrumented to monitor shear-wave velocity, temperature, pressure, and volume change during CO{sub 2} hydrate formation and gas production. The instrumented chamber was placed inside the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Seafloor Process Simulator (SPS), which was used to control the fluid pressure and temperature. Experiments were conducted with different sediment types and pressure-temperature histories. Fines migrated within the sediment in the direction of fluid flow. A vuggy structure formed in the sand; these small cavities or vuggs were precursors to the development of gas-driven fractures during depressurization under a constant effective stress boundary condition. We define the critical fines fraction as the clay-to-sand mass ratio when clays fill the pore space in the sand. Fines migration, clogging, vugs, and gas-driven fracture formation developed even when the fines content was significantly lower than the critical fines fraction. These results show the importance of fines in gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments, even when the fines content is relatively low.

Jung, J.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Jang, J.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Rawn, Claudia J [ORNL; Santamarina, Carlos [Georgia Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

229

Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 states 1985 through 1997  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents information on wellhead productive capacity and a projection of gas production requirements. A history of natural gas production and productive capacity at the wellhead, along with a projection of the same, is illustrated.

NONE

1996-12-01

230

62 FR 51637 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Oil and Gas Exploration...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...situations, such as an oil spill. NMFS notes however...regarding potential for oil spills and comment 8 regarding...seismic survey by BP Exploration (Alaska...Knowledge indicates that oil exploration deflects...exploration plan or oil spill contingency...

1997-10-02

231

Australian petroleum geoscience research: Its influence on exploration and production in Australasia  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum geoscience research in support of efficient and effective exploration in Australia and focused on the reduction of exploration risk has never been healthier. The recognition and mapping of new oil families, new methods to predict trap integrity and charge history, new techniques for fluid history analysis, the development of new explanations and models for the development of large portions of the Australian margin and the development of information systems that meet the needs of explorers are reducing risk. The scale of the research undertaken and the degree of collaboration between industry and research groups is remarkable. There is a productive balance between groups developing and applying new technology and those undertaking regional geological and petroleum systems research. The balance has occurred because of the long term commitment by the Australian government, via legislation and funding, to ensure the preservation of exploration data in national geoscience database systems and that basic and applied research at all scales from basins to wells is undertaken in support of petroleum exploration and development. The reduction in the number of geoscientists in major companies and the number of major companies undertaking exploration in Australia has resulted in a shift in tasks traditionally undertaken by these companies to consultants, contractors, universities, and government agencies. The scale and complexity of the questions that need to be solved has forced significant and productive collaborations.

Loutit, T.S. (Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Canberra (Australia))

1996-01-01

232

63 FR 6288 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Oil and Natural Gas Production and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Oil and Natural Gas Production and Natural Gas...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Oil and Natural Gas Production and Natural Gas...of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) from oil and natural gas production and natural...

1998-02-06

233

An attempt to explore the production routes of Astatine radionuclides: Theoretical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to fulfil the recent thrust of Astatine radionuclides in the field\\u000aof nuclear medicine various production routes have been explored in the present\\u000awork. The possible production routes of $^{209-211}$At comprise both light and\\u000aheavy ion induced reactions at the bombarding energy range starting from\\u000athreshold to maximum 100 MeV energy. For this purpose, we have used the

Moumita Maiti; Susanta Lahiri

2008-01-01

234

Crane assembly for floatable oil\\/gas production platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A floatable oil\\/gas production platform assembly has a deck, disposed beneath the deck a zone including a plurality of adjacent stations for support of oil\\/gas flowlines\\/risers originating from beneath the platform, and a crane disposed in a space above the station zone but below the deck and moveable over at least some of the stations. Such an assembly enables two

Shotbolt

1984-01-01

235

Numerical solution for natural gas production from methane hydrate dissociation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a one-dimensional model for natural gas production from the dissociation of methane hydrate in a confined reservoir by a depressurizing well. The approach accounts for the heat released by hydrate dissociation and convection–conduction heat transfer in the gas and hydrate zone. The system of governing equations is solved using a finite-difference scheme. For different well pressures and

Goodarz Ahmadi; Chuang Ji; Duane H Smith

2004-01-01

236

Common In-Situ Consumable Production Plant for Robotic Mars Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilization of extraterrestrial resources, or In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), is viewed by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise as an enabling technology for the exploration and commercial development of space. A key subset of ISRU which has significant cost, mass, and risk reduction benefits for robotic and human exploration, and which requires a minimum of infrastructure, is In-Situ Consumable Production (ISCP). ISCP involves acquiring, manufacturing, and storing mission consumables from in situ resources, such as propellants, fuel cell reagents, and gases for crew and life support, inflation, science and pneumatic equipment. One of the four long-term goals for the Space Science Enterprise (SSE) is to 'pursue space science programs that enable and are enabled by future human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - a goal exploiting the synergy with the human exploration of space'. Adequate power and propulsion capabilities are critical for both robotic and human exploration missions. Minimizing the mass and volume of these systems can reduce mission cost or enhance the mission by enabling the incorporation of new science or mission-relevant equipment. Studies have shown that in-situ production of oxygen and methane propellants can enhance sample return missions by enabling larger samples to be returned to Earth or by performing Direct Earth Return (DER) sample return missions instead of requiring a Mars Orbit Rendezvous (MOR). Recent NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) work on oxygen and hydrocarbon-based fuel cell power systems shows the potential of using fuel cell power systems instead of solar arrays and batteries for future rovers and science equipment. The development and use of a common oxygen/methane ISCP plant for propulsion and power generation can extend and enhance the scientific exploration of Mars while supporting the development and demonstration of critical technologies and systems for the human exploration of Mars.

Sanders, G. B.; Trevathan, J. R.; Peters, T. A.; Baird, R. S.

2000-07-01

237

Product Services Module: An Evaluation Report for the Occupational Exploration Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The evaluation report is one of seven produced for the Occupational Exploration Program (OEP), a series of simulated occupational experiences designed for junior high school students. Describing the pilot testing of the simulation dealing with product services, the report contains sections describing the simulation context, evaluation procedures,…

Altschuld, James W.; And Others

238

Operationalizing sustainability: exploring options for environmentally friendly flower bulb production systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current production systems for flower bulbs in the Netherlands employ considerable quantities of pesticides and nutrients per unit area. In 1993, an association of growers and environmentalists set out to design new farming systems that meet environmental objectives in addition to economic objectives. To support the design process, an explorative study was carried out to bring together the fragmented agronomic

Walter A. H. Rossing; Jan Eelco Jansma; Frank J. De Ruijter; Jan Schans

1997-01-01

239

Assessment of Air Emissions at the U S Liquids Exploration and Production Land Treatment Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project was initiated to make the first set of measurements documenting the potential for emissions of pollutants from exploration and production (E&P) waste disposal facilities at Bourg, Louisiana and Bateman Island, Louisiana. The objective of the project was to quantify the emissions and to determine whether the measured emissions were potentially harmful to human health of workers and the

John H. Pardue; K. T. Valsaraj

2000-01-01

240

Exploring Long-Term Productive Vocabulary Development in an EFL Context: The Role of Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reports on a longitudinal multiple-case study that probed into four advanced university-level Chinese EFL learners' situated vocabulary learning experiences and explored the role of L2 motivation in their productive vocabulary development. In the study, Lexical Frequency Profile analysis and semi-structured interviews were conducted with…

Zheng, Yongyan

2012-01-01

241

Faculty Research Productivity: Exploring the Role of Gender and Family-Related Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the role of several family-related factors in faculty research productivity for a large, nationally representative sample of university faculty members. The role of marriage, children, and aging parents is examined after controlling for other personal and environmental factors, such as age, rank, department, and intrinsic motivations to conduct research, that previous research has shown to influence research

Linda J. Sax; Linda Serra Hagedorn; Marisol Arredondo; Frank A. Dicrisi

2002-01-01

242

Automated generation of image products for Mars Exploration Rover mission tactical operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the period of development prior to the January, 2004 landing of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project's twin robotic vehicles on Mars, mission operations personnel recognized the need for timely generation and delivery of camera image products for rover traverse planning purposes. The task was assigned to the Multimission Image Processing Laboratory (MIPL), an element of the Jet Propulsion

Doug Alexander; Payam Zamani; Robert Deen; Paul Andres; Helen Mortensen

2005-01-01

243

The Death of a Salesman? An Exploration into the Discursive Production of Sales Identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper critically examines how identity formations change, dissolve and reform. It is argued that the framing overtly expressed in the production of identity and the construction of narrative therein provide an interesting stage from which to understand linguistic (de)constructions of identity change in organisational life, here explored, amongst salespeople in a single case organisation. Empirical material is presented to

Sheena J. Vachhani

2006-01-01

244

Twisting Tongues and Memories: Explorations of the Relationship between Language Production and Verbal Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many accounts of working memory posit specialized storage mechanisms for the maintenance of serial order. We explore an alternative, that maintenance is achieved through temporary activation in the language production architecture. Four experiments examined the extent to which the phonological similarity effect can be explained as a sublexical…

Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

2009-01-01

245

Exploration of the land potential for the production of biomass for energy in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy potential for energy crops and biomass residues in the Netherlands is assessed. The analysis explores the possible use of land for biomass production in the future. Various government memorandums and analyses of the expected future land use in various sectors have served as the basis for the assessment of the supply of and the demand for land in

Ineke Steetskamp; Ad van Wijk; Wim Turkenburg

1998-01-01

246

Synthesis gas production by mixed conducting membranes with integrated conversion into liquid products  

DOEpatents

Natural gas or other methane-containing feed gas is converted to a C.sub.5 -C.sub.19 hydrocarbon liquid in an integrated system comprising an oxygenative synthesis gas generator, a non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator, and a hydrocarbon synthesis process such as the Fischer-Tropsch process. The oxygenative synthesis gas generator is a mixed conducting membrane reactor system and the non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator is preferably a heat exchange reformer wherein heat is provided by hot synthesis gas product from the mixed conducting membrane reactor system. Offgas and water from the Fischer-Tropsch process can be recycled to the synthesis gas generation system individually or in combination.

Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Russek, Steven Lee (Allentown, PA); Dyer, Paul Nigel (Allentown, PA)

2000-01-01

247

77 FR 68144 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Production Measurement, Surface Commingling, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Production Measurement, Surface...the regulations under Subpart L, Oil and Gas Production Measurement, Surface...Potential respondents comprise Federal oil, gas and sulphur lessees and/or...

2012-11-15

248

76 FR 67201 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems; Submitted for Office of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems; Submitted...regulations under Subpart H, ``Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems.'' This...Potential respondents comprise Federal oil, gas, or sulphur lessees,...

2011-10-31

249

Engineering analysis of biomass gasifier product gas cleaning technology  

SciTech Connect

For biomass gasification to make a significant contribution to the energy picture in the next decade, emphasis must be placed on the generation of clean, pollutant-free gas products. This reports attempts to quantify levels of particulated, tars, oils, and various other pollutants generated by biomass gasifiers of all types. End uses for biomass gases and appropriate gas cleaning technologies are examined. Complete systems analysis is used to predit the performance of various gasifier/gas cleanup/end use combinations. Further research needs are identified. 128 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs.

Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Moore, R.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Elliott, D.C.

1986-08-01

250

U-GAS process for production of hydrogen from coal  

SciTech Connect

Today, hydrogen is produced mainly from natural gas and petroleum fractions. Tomorrow, because reserves of natural gas and oil are declining while demand continues to increase, they cannot be considered available for long-term, large-scale production of hydrogen. Hydrogen obtained from coal is expected to be the lowest cost, large-scale source of hydrogen in the future. The U-GAS coal gasification process and its potential application to the manufacture of hydrogen is discussed. Pilot plant results, the current status of the process, and economic projections for the cost of hydrogen manufactured are presented.

Dihu, R.J.; Patel, J.G.

1982-01-01

251

Natural gas production from hydrate dissociation: An axisymmetric model  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an axisymmetric model for natural gas production from the dissociation of methane hydrate in a confined reservoir by a depressurizing well. During the hydrate dissociation, heat and mass transfer in the reservoir are analyzed. The system of governing equations is solved by a finite difference scheme. For different well pressures and reservoir temperatures, distributions of temperature and pressure in the reservoir, as well as the natural gas production from the well are evaluated. The numerical results are compared with those obtained by a linearization method. It is shown that the gas production rate is a sensitive function of well pressure. The simulation results are compared with the linearization approach and the shortcomings of the earlier approach are discussed.

Ahmadi, G. (Clarkson Univ., Pottsdam, NY); Ji, Chuang (Clarkson Univ., Pottsdam, NY); Smith, D.H.

2007-08-01

252

Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, and Other Mining Operations in Navigable Water Along the Louisiana Coast, Louisiana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The statement concerns the determination of permissibility or acceptability of any request for a permit to explore for oil or gas or develop production of such resources or other mineral resources in navigable waterways along the Louisiana coast. State-ow...

1972-01-01

253

Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production and Other Mining Operations in Navigable Waters Along the Louisiana Coast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The action concerns the determination of permissibility or acceptability of any request for a permit for erection or construction of structures and ancillary facilities to explore for oil or gas or develop production of such resources and store them or ot...

1973-01-01

254

Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production  

DOEpatents

A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange. 4 figs.

Brown, W.R.; Cassano, A.A.; Dunbobbin, B.R.; Rao, P.; Erickson, D.C.

1986-10-14

255

Gas production from oceanic Class 2 hydrate accumulations  

SciTech Connect

Gas hydrates are solid crystalline compounds in which gasmolecules are lodged within the lattices of ice crystals. The vastamounts of hydrocarbon gases that are trapped in hydrate deposits in thepermafrost and in deep ocean sediments may constitute a promising energysource. Class 2 hydrate deposits are characterized by a Hydrate-BearingLayer (HBL) that is underlain by a saturated zone of mobile water. Inthis study we investigated three methods of gas production via verticalwell designs. A long perforated interval (covering the hydrate layer andextending into the underlying water zone) yields the highest gasproduction rates (up to 20 MMSCFD), but is not recommended for long-termproduction because of severe flow blockage caused by secondary hydrateand ice. A short perforated interval entirely within the water zoneallows long-term production, but only at rates of 4.5 7 MMSCFD. A newwell design involving localized heating appears to be the most promising,alleviating possible blockage by secondary hydrate and/or ice near thewellbore) and delivering sustainably large, long-term rates (10-15MMSCFD).The production strategy involves a cyclical process. During eachcycle, gas production continuously increases, while the correspondingwater production continuously decreases. Each cycle is concluded by acavitation event (marked by a precipitous pressure drop at the well),brought about by the inability of thesystem to satisfy the constant massproduction rate QM imposed at the well. This is caused by the increasinggas contribution to the production stream, and/or flow inhibition causedby secondary hydrate and/or ice. In the latter case, short-term thermalstimulation removes the blockage. The results show that gas productionincreases (and the corresponding water-to-gas ratio RWGC decreases) withan increasing(a) QM, (b) hydrate temperature (which defines its stabilityfor a given pressure), and (c) intrinsic permeability. Lower initialhydrate saturations lead initially to higher gas production and a lowerRWGC, but the effect is later reversed as the hydrate is depleted. Thedisposal of the large amounts of produced water does not appear to pose asignificant environmental problem. Production from Class 2 hydrates ischaracterized by (a) the need for confining boundaries, (b) thecontinuously improving RWGC over time (opposite to conventional gasreservoirs), and (c) the development of a free gas zone at the top of thehydrate layer (necessitating the existence of a gas cap forproduction).

Moridis, G.J.; Reagan, M.T.

2007-02-01

256

Hazardous Gas Production by Alpha Particles  

SciTech Connect

This project focused on the production of hazardous gases in the radiolysis of solid organic matrices, such as polymers and resins, that may be associated with transuranic waste material. Self-radiolysis of radioactive waste is a serious environmental problem because it can lead to a change in the composition of the materials in storage containers and possibly jeopardize their integrity. Experimental determination of gaseous yields is of immediate practical importance in the engineering and maintenance of containers for waste materials. Fundamental knowledge on the radiation chemical processes occurring in these systems allows one to predict outcomes in materials or mixtures not specifically examined, which is a great aid in the management of the variety of waste materials currently overseen by Environmental Management.

Jay A. LaVerne, Principal Investigator

2001-11-26

257

Assessing environmental impact from gas and oil exploration in the SW Barents Sea using benthic foraminiferal assemblages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decades petroleum industry and shipping activities have increased in the SW Barents Sea. Oil exploration wells were drilled in the 1980s with production starting in 2007. These activities are projected to expand in the coming years. As part of the Northern Environmental Waste Management (EWMA) project, a competence cluster for petroleum industry related waste handling, we investigate the impacts of enhanced anthropogenic activities on benthic foraminiferal assemblages in the SW Barents Sea. Sediment cores (0-20 cm) from sites in proximity to two oil- and gas fields are under investigation. These sediment cores, dated with the 210Pb method, represent the last 90 to 150 years. Both dead and living benthic foraminifera (100 µm-1 mm) were counted to elucidate differences in foraminiferal assemblages between pre-impact and recent conditions. In addition, the heavy metal concentrations, persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, grain size and total organic content (TOC) of the sediment cores have been analyzed. Pollution levels of the surface sediments (0-1 cm) are of background to good level (level I-II) according to the definitions of the Water Framework Directorate (WFD). Patterns in living benthic foraminiferal assemblages identified in the sea floor surface sediments, are the result of natural environmental changes such as depth, water mass and sediment composition. Further downcore (1-20 cm) pollution levels are in general of background environmental status (WFD level I). However, at some depth intervals, especially in sediment cores from the near proximity of the oil- and gas- fields, pollution levels are slightly enhanced (WFD level II). Further work will include statistical comparison of dead and living foraminiferal assemblages with sediment pollution levels, sediment properties, and oceanographic conditions. This research contributes to the development of foraminifera as a useful bio-monitoring technique for the Arctic region as industrial activities increase in the coming years.

Dijkstra, N.; Junttila, J.; Husum, K.; Carroll, J.; Hald, M.

2012-04-01

258

Corrosion inhibitor testing and selection for exploration and production: A user's perspective  

SciTech Connect

Inhibitor users need simple, reliable, and representative tests to select the best product from a number of candidates. This article describes a procedure that can help users test and select inhibitors for carbon dioxide/hydrogen sulfide (CO[sub 2]/H[sub 2]S) corrosion in oil and gas production, in a fast and cost-effective manner. The selection is based on two criteria: performance (effectiveness) against corrosion, and compatibility with other chemicals. The compatibility of the inhibitor with the injection and production systems must be confirmed.

Kapusta, S.D.

1999-06-01

259

Production of bio-synthetic natural gas in Canada.  

PubMed

Large-scale production of renewable synthetic natural gas from biomass (bioSNG) in Canada was assessed for its ability to mitigate energy security and climate change risks. The land area within 100 km of Canada's network of natural gas pipelines was estimated to be capable of producing 67-210 Mt of dry lignocellulosic biomass per year with minimal adverse impacts on food and fiber production. Biomass gasification and subsequent methanation and upgrading were estimated to yield 16,000-61,000 Mm(3) of pipeline-quality gas (equivalent to 16-63% of Canada's current gas use). Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of bioSNG-based electricity were calculated to be only 8.2-10% of the emissions from coal-fired power. Although predicted production costs ($17-21 GJ(-1)) were much higher than current energy prices, a value for low-carbon energy would narrow the price differential. A bioSNG sector could infuse Canada's rural economy with $41-130 billion of investments and create 410,000-1,300,000 jobs while developing a nation-wide low-carbon energy system. PMID:20175525

Hacatoglu, Kevork; McLellan, P James; Layzell, David B

2010-03-15

260

Entropy production and thermal conductivity of a dilute gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that the thermal conductivity of a dilute gas can be derived by using kinetic theory. We present here a new derivation by starting with two known entropy production principles: the steepest entropy ascent (SEA) principle and the maximum entropy production (MEP) principle. A remarkable feature of the new derivation is that it does not require the specification of the existence of the temperature gradient. The known result is reproduced in a similar form.

Zhang, Yong-Jun

2011-05-01

261

Tests show production logging problems in horizontal gas wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has concluded that production logging tools employed to evaluate multiphase horizontal well production behavior should be carefully screened as to their response characteristics in fully-segregated, two-phase flow. The study, performed at Marathon Oil Co.'s petroleum technology center in Littleton, Colo., indicated that gas in highly deviated well bores segregates rapidly in the presence of water, creating a downhole

P. Branagan; B. L. Knight; J. Aslakson; M. L. Middlebrook

1994-01-01

262

Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of

Eduardo Barretto de Figueiredo; Alan Rodrigo Panosso; Rangel Romćo; Newton La Scala Jr

2010-01-01

263

Devonian Shale Gas Production: Mechanisms and Simple Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that, even without consideration of their special storage and flow properties, Devonian shales are special cases of dual porosity. The authors show that wile neglecting these properties in the short term is appropriate, such neglect in the long term will result in an under-estimation of shale gas production.

Eric Carlson; James Mercer

1991-01-01

264

The Antrim Shale: Structural and stratigraphic influences on gas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Antrim Shale of the Michigan basin is one of the most actively drilled gas plays in the United States. Core analysis, geologic mapping, and core to log correlations of a 9 miĀ² study area in the middle of the present play have defined geologic influences on the location and productivity of Antrim reservoirs. Application of these factors in the

K. C. Manger; S. J. P. Oliver; R. J. Scheper

1991-01-01

265

The catalytic conversion of natural gas to useful products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a brief summary of some processes, direct and indirect, for the conversion of natural gas to useful products. It then proceeds to give an outline of some work from the authors' laboratories on subjects such as steam reforming, oxidative coupling and CO2 reforming of methane, paying particular attention to the development of novel catalysts for these processes.

J. R. H. Ross; A. N. J. van Keulen; M. E. S. Hegarty; K. Seshan

1996-01-01

266

Alaska North Slope regional gas hydrate production modeling forecasts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A series of gas hydrate development scenarios were created to assess the range of outcomes predicted for the possible development of the "Eileen" gas hydrate accumulation, North Slope, Alaska. Production forecasts for the "reference case" were built using the 2002 Mallik production tests, mechanistic simulation, and geologic studies conducted by the US Geological Survey. Three additional scenarios were considered: A "downside-scenario" which fails to identify viable production, an "upside-scenario" describes results that are better than expected. To capture the full range of possible outcomes and balance the downside case, an "extreme upside scenario" assumes each well is exceptionally productive.Starting with a representative type-well simulation forecasts, field development timing is applied and the sum of individual well forecasts creating the field-wide production forecast. This technique is commonly used to schedule large-scale resource plays where drilling schedules are complex and production forecasts must account for many changing parameters. The complementary forecasts of rig count, capital investment, and cash flow can be used in a pre-appraisal assessment of potential commercial viability.Since no significant gas sales are currently possible on the North Slope of Alaska, typical parameters were used to create downside, reference, and upside case forecasts that predict from 0 to 71??BM3 (2.5??tcf) of gas may be produced in 20 years and nearly 283??BM3 (10??tcf) ultimate recovery after 100 years.Outlining a range of possible outcomes enables decision makers to visualize the pace and milestones that will be required to evaluate gas hydrate resource development in the Eileen accumulation. Critical values of peak production rate, time to meaningful production volumes, and investments required to rule out a downside case are provided. Upside cases identify potential if both depressurization and thermal stimulation yield positive results. An "extreme upside" case captures the full potential of unconstrained development with widely spaced wells. The results of this study indicate that recoverable gas hydrate resources may exist in the Eileen accumulation and that it represents a good opportunity for continued research. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Wilson, S. J.; Hunter, R. B.; Collett, T. S.; Hancock, S.; Boswell, R.; Anderson, B. J.

2011-01-01

267

71 FR 11557 - Enhanced Oil and Natural Gas Production Through Carbon Dioxide Injection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 1004-AD82 Enhanced Oil and Natural Gas Production Through Carbon Dioxide...production and recovery of oil and natural gas. The rule would provide for...and gas fields, to promote oil and natural gas production from the Outer...

2006-03-08

268

In vitro cumulative gas production techniques: History, methodological considerations and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methodology used to measure in vitro gas production is reviewed to determine impacts of sources of variation on resultant gas production profiles (GPP). Current methods include measurement of gas production at constant pressure (e.g., use of gas tight syringes), a system that is inexpensive, but may be less sensitive than others thereby affecting its suitability in some situations. Automated systems

C. Rymer; J. A. Huntington; B. A. Williams; D. I. Givens

2005-01-01

269

Growth and gas production for hyperthermophilic archaebacterium, Pyrococcus furiosus.  

PubMed

Pyrococcus furiosus represents one of the most important hyperthermophilic bacteria isolated thus far because of its relatively high cell yields and rapid growth rates. Pyrococcus furiosus exhibits several interesting growth characteristics, especially in terms of biotic gas production, which were examined in this study. In the presence of elemental sulfur, both carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide production appeared to be strongly growth associated, while no significant hydrogen production was observed. In the absence of sulfur, hydrogen and carbon dioxide were produced by the organism and hydrogen inhibition was observed. The addition of elemental sulfur to the medium apparently eliminated, hydrogen inhibition as growth proceeded normally even when hydrogen was added to the gas phase. Also, no apparent substrate limitation or toxic product could be attributed to the cessation of growth as cell growth in spent media was at least as good as in fresh media. An unstructured growth model was used to correlate growth and gas production for P. furiosus in complex seawater-based media at 98 degrees C both in the absence and presence of elemental sulfur. The model was shown to be useful for examining some of the observations made in this study. PMID:18588198

Malik, B; Su, W W; Wald, H L; Blumentals, I I; Kelly, R M

1989-10-20

270

Process improvement exploration: mapping multimedia production process to CMMI-DEV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multimedia takes improvement of multiple computing technologies to incorporate data from a wide variety of resources, without involving users to know how and where the data is encoded and stored. By reason of Multimedia applications interact with users with numerous diverse techniques and incorporate into strong applications that greatly extend the range and strength of applications, the production process are often complicated and complex. Production of such applications requires both process- and product-based quality assurance. Apparently, there are no universally accepted technical production standards. Consequently, Multimedia applications have sometimes diminished the quality of the end product, increased costs, delayed completion and failure. The focus is on the mapping between the current practices of multimedia production process and one of universal process improvement framework, Capability Maturity Model Integration for Development (CMMI-DEV). It shows that how current practices of multimedia production process address the Engineering Process Areas of CMMI-DEV. For each of the relevant process areas, it then explores how current practices can contribute to achieve the specific goals of that process area. This is practical for organizations that have their plan-driven process based on the CMMI-DEV model and are planning to improve the current practices of multimedia production process or to assist organization to define an innovative multimedia production process cycle based on CMMI-DEV practices.

Lim, ChienWin; Kamaruddin, Noraida; Daud, Nor Izyani; Zainal Osman, Zosipha

2013-03-01

271

Distribution of shale gas resources in China and their exploration and development potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

ndly new energy with low carbon emission, shale gas has attracted very much attention around the world. Based on such characteristics as the geologic histories, the sedimentary and structural settings, and the shale gas accumulation mechanism and distribution patterns, the areas with shale gas accumulation in China can be divided into four regions which correspond to the tectonic plates by

Ding Wenlong; Jin Wenzheng; Zhang Jinchuan; Tang Xuan

2011-01-01

272

Twisting tongues and memories: Explorations of the relationship between language production and verbal working memory  

PubMed Central

Many accounts of working memory posit specialized storage mechanisms for the maintenance of serial order. We explore an alternative, that maintenance is achieved through temporary activation in the language production architecture. Four experiments examined the extent to which the phonological similarity effect can be explained as a sublexical speech error. Phonologically similar nonword stimuli were ordered to create tongue twister or control materials used in four tasks: reading aloud, immediate spoken recall, immediate typed recall, and serial recognition. Dependent measures from working memory (recall accuracy) and language production (speech errors) fields were used. Even though lists were identical except for item order, robust effects of tongue twisters were observed. Speech error analyses showed that errors were better described as phoneme rather than item ordering errors. The distribution of speech errors was comparable across all experiments and exhibited syllable-position effects, suggesting an important role for production processes. Implications for working memory and language production are discussed.

Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

2010-01-01

273

Shallow seismic investigations of Devonian-shale gas production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractured Devonian shale gas reservoirs which are detectable by seismic reflection methods is discussed. The preferred exploration rationale is based on travel time anomalies related to lowered acoustic velocity within the gas bearing zone. In the simplest case the travel time anomaly causes an apparent down warp or sag in a flat lying reflector. The high resolution extension of the seismic method drew two separate conclusions: (1) additional, valuable subsurface information can be obtained by recording seismic data at frequencies higher than those in common use by the petroleum industry; and (2) it is feasible to obtain seismic reflection data on a smaller scale, using less costly instrumentation, than is typically employed in the petroleum industry.

Williams, R. T.; Ruotsala, J. E.; Kudla, J. J.; Dunne, W. E.

1982-06-01

274

Analysis of GasHydrate Development R&D Program of Korea Using Technology-Product diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2005, Korea launched the Gas Hydrate R&D Organization and began series of research projects on gas hydrate development technologies. Korean government and the Gas Hydrate R&D Organization set 10-year plan that was separated into 3-stages since 2005. The Gas Hydrate R&D Organization had completed the 1st stage(2005-2008) with a confirmation of the gas hydrates located in the East Sea, and is focusing its capacities on production technology developments in the second stage. In the second stage(2009~2011), in order to improve the gas hydrate development research, which is much underdeveloped compared to advanced nations, researches are being conducted by focusing on exploration, geo-environment and production technologies. Focusing on Korea's Gas Hydrate R&D Organization's R&D planning, which is currently in its second stage, this study composes a Technology-Product diagram that can quickly identify the relationship of key technologies and products developed through the research shown through a diagram. This diagram can be used to prepare the Technology Road Map for the gas hydrate development project, to set the policy directions for the gas hydrate development project, and to identify the spillover effects of technology R&D. This study first arrays the factor technologies used in development by each of the 15 sub-projects. To identify the technologies and the products manufactured using technological development, we perform series of interview procedures with the supervisors for each sub-projects, then combine diagrams together by assignments. Then we perform an interdisciplinary research to consider organization's research objective into the diagram and to complete the Technology-Product diagram. We plan additional interviews to link our results together so that the results can be used to upgrade the government's plan and Technology Road Map for Gas-Hydrate development.

Heo, E.; Kim, D.; Lee, S.

2009-12-01

275

NOBLE GAS PRODUCTION FROM MERCURY SPALLATION AT SNS  

SciTech Connect

Calculations for predicting the distribution of the products of spallation reactions between high energy protons and target materials are well developed and are used for design and operational applications in many projects both within DOE and in other arenas. These calculations are based on theory and limited experimental data that verifies rates of production of some spallation products exist. At the Spallation Neutron Source, a helium stream from the mercury target flows through a system to remove radioactivity from this mercury target offgas. The operation of this system offers a window through which the production of noble gases from mercury spallation by protons may be observed. This paper describes studies designed to measure the production rates of twelve noble gas isotopes within the Spallation Neutron Source mercury target.

DeVore, Joe R [ORNL; Lu, Wei [ORNL; Schwahn, Scott O [ORNL

2013-01-01

276

78 FR 59632 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production Safety...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2013 (78 FR 52240). The proposed rule would amend and update the regulations regarding oil and natural gas production by addressing...safety device testing. The proposed rule would...and gas companies and industry groups asking BSEE...

2013-09-27

277

Pilot study of gas production analysis methods applied to Cottageville field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas production data from 63 wells in the Cottageville Gas Field, producing from Devonian shales, are studied in relationship to structure above and below producing horizons, isopach data and dip of producing shales, and basement structure trends. Gas production data are studied from several aspects including highest accumulated production, mean annual production, initial well pressure, and calculated loss ratio values

J. Negus de Wys; R. C. Shumaker

1978-01-01

278

Production of synthesis gas in a solid electrolyte cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of synthesis gas from methane was studied at 800-950C in an yttria-stabilized zirconia cell, using iron as\\u000a a catalyst-anode and platinum as cathodic electrode. The effect of gaseous O2 vs that of ionically transported O2- on CO selectivity and yield was studied. In general, O2- gave higher CO yields with maximum of 73%. The side reaction of hydrogen

A. Kungolos; P. Tsiakaras; M. Stoukides

1995-01-01

279

Measurement of plasma production and neutralization in gas neutralizers  

SciTech Connect

In order to satisfy the need of experimental data for the designing of gas neutralizers we have started a project aimed at measuring all relevant cross sections for the charge exchange of H/sup -/, H/sup 0/ and H/sup +/ projectiles, as well as the cross sections for the production of ions in the target. The expected results of these latter measurements are shown schematically.

Maor, D.; Meron, M.; Johnson, B.; Jones, K.; Agagu, A.; Hu, B.

1986-06-17

280

Recent MARS15 developments: nuclide inventory, DPA and gas production  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments in the MARS15 code are described for the critical modules related to demands of hadron and lepton colliders and Megawatt proton and heavy-ion beam facilities. Details of advanced models for particle production and nuclide distributions in nuclear interactions at low and medium energies, energy loss, atomic displacements and gas production are presented along with benchmarking against data. Recent developments in the MARS15 physics models, such as nuclide production, decay and transmutation and all-component DPA modelling for arbitrary projectiles in the 1 keV to 10 TeV energy range, add new capabilities to the code crucial in numerous applications with high-intensity high-power beams. Some discrepancies in DPA rate predictions by several codes, relation of DPA and H/He production rates to changes in material properties, as well as corresponding experimental studies at energies above a hundred of MeV are the areas requiring further efforts.

Mokhov, N.V.; /Fermilab

2010-12-01

281

Relationship between hydrogen gas and butanol production by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum  

SciTech Connect

Two simultaneous fermentations were performed at 26 degrees C with simultaneous inocula using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum. Fermentation 1 prevented the gas formed by the biomass from escaping the fermentor while 2 allowed the gas formed to escape. Fermentor 1 provided for the production of butanol, acetone, and ethanol, while when the H/sub 2/ formed was allowed to escape with fermentor 2, neither butanol nor acetone were produced. Ethanol was also formed in both fermentors and began along with the initial growth of biomass and continued until the fermentations were complete. Butanol and acetone production began after biomass growth had reached a maximum and began to subside. The butanol-acetone-ethanol millimolar yields and ratios were 38:1:14 respectively. The fermentor 2 results show that a yield of 2.1 l H/sub 2/, 93 or 370 mmol H/sub 2//mol glucose, was formed only during the growing stage of growth; neither butanol nor acetone were produced; ethanol was formed throughout the fermentation, reaching a yield of 15.2 mmolar. It appears that hydrogen gas is required for butanol production during the resting stage of growth. 16 references.

Brosseau, J.D.; Yan, J.Y.; Lo, K.V.

1986-03-01

282

Changes in Natural Gas Prices and Supplies Since Passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Through the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978, the Congress intended to stimulate production and exploration for reserves by permitting producers higher prices for gas from areas where production was previously not economic and for gas produced from new well...

1981-01-01

283

Simulation of natural gas production from submarine gas hydrate deposits combined with carbon dioxide storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recovery of methane from gas hydrate layers that have been detected in several submarine sediments and permafrost regions around the world so far is considered to be a promising measure to overcome future shortages in natural gas as fuel or raw material for chemical syntheses. Being aware that natural gas resources that can be exploited with conventional technologies are limited, research is going on to open up new sources and develop technologies to produce methane and other energy carriers. Thus various research programs have started since the early 1990s in Japan, USA, Canada, South Korea, India, China and Germany to investigate hydrate deposits and develop technologies to destabilize the hydrates and obtain the pure gas. In recent years, intensive research has focussed on the capture and storage of carbon dioxide from combustion processes to reduce climate change. While different natural or manmade reservoirs like deep aquifers, exhausted oil and gas deposits or other geological formations are considered to store gaseous or liquid carbon dioxide, the storage of carbon dioxide as hydrate in former methane hydrate fields is another promising alternative. Due to beneficial stability conditions, methane recovery may be well combined with CO2 storage in form of hydrates. This has been shown in several laboratory tests and simulations - technical field tests are still in preparation. Within the scope of the German research project »SUGAR«, different technological approaches are evaluated and compared by means of dynamic system simulations and analysis. Detailed mathematical models for the most relevant chemical and physical effects are developed. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into simulation programs like CMG STARS and COMSOL Multiphysics. New simulations based on field data have been carried out. The studies focus on the evaluation of the gas production potential from turbidites and their ability for carbon dioxide storage. The effects occurring during gas production and CO2 storage within a hydrate deposit are identified and described for various scenarios. The behaviour of relevant process parameters such as pressure, temperature and phase saturations is discussed and compared for different production strategies: depressurization, CO2 injection after depressurization and simultaneous methane production and CO2 injection.

Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

2013-04-01

284

Exploring sequence characteristics related to high-level production of secreted proteins in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Protein sequence features are explored in relation to the production of over-expressed extracellular proteins by fungi. Knowledge on features influencing protein production and secretion could be employed to improve enzyme production levels in industrial bioprocesses via protein engineering. A large set, over 600 homologous and nearly 2,000 heterologous fungal genes, were overexpressed in Aspergillus niger using a standardized expression cassette and scored for high versus no production. Subsequently, sequence-based machine learning techniques were applied for identifying relevant DNA and protein sequence features. The amino-acid composition of the protein sequence was found to be most predictive and interpretation revealed that, for both homologous and heterologous gene expression, the same features are important: tyrosine and asparagine composition was found to have a positive correlation with high-level production, whereas for unsuccessful production, contributions were found for methionine and lysine composition. The predictor is available online at http://bioinformatics.tudelft.nl/hipsec. Subsequent work aims at validating these findings by protein engineering as a method for increasing expression levels per gene copy. PMID:23049690

van den Berg, Bastiaan A; Reinders, Marcel J T; Hulsman, Marc; Wu, Liang; Pel, Herman J; Roubos, Johannes A; de Ridder, Dick

2012-10-01

285

Operation database petroleum GIS results: Evaluation and application of geographic information systems to exploration and production  

SciTech Connect

FACT: Maps are the principle graphic tool used in exploration and production. FACT: The geographic information systems (GTS) industry exceeds $250 million annually providing powerful mapping tools to a variety of disciplines. FACT: Geographic information systems are infrequently used in exploration and production which represents less than 2% of the total GIS sphere. Therefore, Operation Database Petroleum GIS, sponsored by AAPG's Geobyte and the National Computer Graphics Association, was conceived as an information exchange between the petroleum industry and GIS vendors to address this disparity. The objective of the database was to communicate petroleum industry requirements to GIS vendors and to demonstrate the potential of GIS to the petroleum industry. Requirements, in the form of data and problems, were developed by an industry group representing major and independent oil companies. The problems included base map, well, seismic, lease, transportation, topographic, three-dimensional, and remote sensing exercises. Data included scout well data, directional surveys, production histories, seismic shot-point locations and interpretive times, geologic interpretations (tops and structure and isopach maps), leases, topography, well logs, remote sensing images, gravity contours, and geographic reference information. Over 120 GIS vendors were offered a chance to participate, and nearly 20 engaged in the exercises. This talk will focus on the process, results, and conclusions of Operation Database Petroleum GIS.

Fried, C.C. (Amoco Production Co., Denver, CO (USA)); Leonard, J.E. (Platte River Associates, Denver, CO (USA))

1990-05-01

286

Devonian shales of central Appalachian basin: geological controls on gas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas reserves of the Devonian shales of the Appalachian basin constitute a large, underdeveloped resource producing from fractured reservoirs. As part of ongoing Gas Research Institute research, K and A Energy Consultants, Inc., is identifying geological controls on gas production. Preliminary findings indicate that local gas production is controlled by a combination of structure and stratigraphy. Regional geological review indicates

P. H. Lowry; T. Hamilton-Smith; R. M. Peterson

1989-01-01

287

Hydrogen sulfide production and fermentative gas production by Salmonella typhimurium require F0F1 ATP synthase activity.  

PubMed

A previously isolated mutant of Salmonella typhimurium lacking hydrogen sulfide production from both thiosulfate and sulfite was shown to have a single mutation which also caused the loss of fermentative gas production and the ability to grow on nonfermentable substrates and which mapped in the vicinity of the atp chromosomal locus. The implication that F0F1 ATP synthase might be essential for H2S and fermentative gas production was explored. The phs plasmid conferring H2S production on wild-type Escherichia coli failed to confer this ability on seven of eight E. coli atp point mutants representing, collectively, the eight genes encoding the subunits of F0F1 ATP synthase. However, it did confer some thiosulfate reductase activity on all except the mutant with a lesion in the ATP synthase catalytic subunit. Localized mutagenesis of the Salmonella atp chromosomal region yielded 500 point mutants unable to reduce thiosulfate to H2S or to produce gas from glucose, but differing in the extents of their ability to grow on succinate, to perform proton translocation as measured in a fluorescence quenching assay, and to reduce sulfite to H2S. Biochemical assays showed that all mutants were completely devoid of both methyl viologen and formate-linked thiosulfate reductase and that N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide blocked thiosulfate reductase activity by the wild type, suggesting that thiosulfate reductase activity has an absolute requirement for F0F1 ATP synthase. Hydrogenase-linked formate dehydrogenase was also affected, but not as severely as thiosulfate reductase. These results imply that in addition to linking oxidation with phosphorylation, F0F1 ATP synthase plays a key role in the proton movement accompanying certain anaerobic reductions and oxidations. PMID:9352924

Sasahara, K C; Heinzinger, N K; Barrett, E L

1997-11-01

288

30 CFR 1202.550 - How do I determine the royalty due on gas production?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...do I determine the royalty due on gas production? 1202.550 Section... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Gas Production From Indian Leases...

2013-07-01

289

Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations  

SciTech Connect

The project is titled 'Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations'. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is the principal investigator and the IOGCC has partnered with ALL Consulting, Inc., headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in this project. State agencies that also have partnered in the project are the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, the Montana Board of Oil and Gas Conservation, the Kansas Oil and Gas Conservation Division, the Oklahoma Oil and Gas Conservation Division and the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. The objective is to characterize produced water quality and management practices for the handling, treating, and disposing of produced water from conventional oil and gas operations throughout the industry nationwide. Water produced from these operations varies greatly in quality and quantity and is often the single largest barrier to the economic viability of wells. The lack of data, coupled with renewed emphasis on domestic oil and gas development, has prompted many experts to speculate that the number of wells drilled over the next 20 years will approach 3 million, or near the number of current wells. This level of exploration and development undoubtedly will draw the attention of environmental communities, focusing their concerns on produced water management based on perceived potential impacts to fresh water resources. Therefore, it is imperative that produced water management practices be performed in a manner that best minimizes environmental impacts. This is being accomplished by compiling current best management practices for produced water from conventional oil and gas operations and to develop an analysis tool based on a geographic information system (GIS) to assist in the understanding of watershed-issued permits. That would allow management costs to be kept in line with the specific projects and regions, which increases the productive life of wells and increases the ultimate recoverable reserves in the ground. A case study was conducted in Wyoming to validate the applicability of the GIS analysis tool for watershed evaluations under real world conditions. Results of the partnered research will continue to be shared utilizing proven methods, such as on the IGOCC Web site, preparing hard copies of the results, distribution of documented case studies, and development of reference and handbook components to accompany the interactive internet-based GIS watershed analysis tool. Additionally, there have been several technology transfer seminars and presentations. The goal is to maximize the recovery of our nation's energy reserves and to promote water conservation.

Rachel Henderson

2007-09-30

290

Influence of gas production induced volumetric strain on permeability of coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gas permeability of a coalbed, unlike that of conventional gas reservoirs, is influenced during gas production not only by the simultaneous changes in effective stress and gas slippage, but also by the volumetric strain of the coal matrix that is associated with gas desorption. A technique for conducting laboratory experiments to separate these effects and estimate their individual contribution

Satya Harpalani; Guoliang Chen

1997-01-01

291

Alaska Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, and Permitting Project. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final technical report for Project 15446, covering the grant period of October 2002 through March 2006. This project connects three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for an advanced inform...

R. Crandall R. R. McMahon

2006-01-01

292

Multiphasic analysis of gas production kinetics for in vitro fermentation of ruminant feeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently developed time-related gas production techniques to quantify the kinetics of ruminant feed fermentation have a high resolution. Consequently, fermentation processes with clearly contrasting gas production kinetics can be identified. Parameterization of the separate processes is possible with a suitable multiphasic model and modelling method. A flexible, empirical, multiphasic model was proposed for parameterization of gas production profiles. This equation

Jeroen C. J. Groot; John W. Cone; Barbara A. Williams; Filip M. A. Debersaques; Egbert A. Lantinga

1996-01-01

293

Relationship between in situ degradation kinetics and in vitro gas production fermentation using different mathematical models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro and in situ studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of different mathematical models, used to fit gas production profiles of 15 feedstuffs, on estimates of nylon bag organic matter (OM) degradation kinetics. The gas production data were fitted to Exponential, Logistic, Gompertz and a Sigmoidal model. Using only gas production parameters allowed poor prediction of in situ

M. A. M. Rodrigues; J. W. Cone; L. M. M. Ferreira; M. C. Blok; C. V. M. Guedes

2009-01-01

294

30 CFR 560.116 - How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible...Eligible Leases Ā§ 560.116 How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease? You must measure natural gas production on your...

2013-07-01

295

Gas-inducible product gene expression in bioreactors.  

PubMed

Inducible transgene expression technologies are of unmatched potential for biopharmaceutical manufacturing of unstable, growth-impairing and cytotoxic proteins as well as conditional metabolic engineering to improve desired cell phenotypes. Currently available transgene dosing modalities which rely on physical parameters or small-molecule drugs for transgene fine-tuning compromise downstream processing and/or are difficult to implement technologically. The recently designed gas-inducible acetaldehyde-inducible regulation (AIR) technology takes advantage of gaseous acetaldehyde to modulate product gene expression levels. At regulation effective concentrations gaseous acetaldehyde is physiologically inert and approved as food additive by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA). During standard bioreactor operation, gaseous acetaldehyde could simply be administered using standard/existing gas supply tubing and eventually eliminated by stripping with inducer-free air. We have determined key parameters controlling acetaldehyde transfer in three types of bioreactors and designed a mass balance-based model for optimal product gene expression fine-tuning using gaseous acetaldehyde. Operating a standard stirred-tank bioreactor set-up at 10 L scale we have validated AIR technology using CHO-K1-derived serum-free suspension cultures transgenic for gas-inducible production of human interferon-beta (IFN-beta). Gaseous acetaldehyde-inducible IFN-beta production management was fully reversible while maintaining cell viability at over 95% during the entire process. Compatible with standard bioreactor design and downstream processing procedures AIR-based technology will foster novel opportunities for pilot and large-scale manufacturing of difficult-to-produce protein pharmaceuticals. PMID:15885616

Weber, Wilfried; Rimann, Markus; de Glutz, Franēois-Nicolas; Weber, Eric; Memmert, Klaus; Fussenegger, Martin

2005-05-01

296

Exploring the energy/beam current parameter space for the isotope production facility (IPF) at LANSCE  

SciTech Connect

IPF has recently investigated isotope production with proton beams at energies other than the 100-MeV currently available to the IPF beam line. To maximize the yield of a particular isotope, it is necessary to measure the production rate and cross section versus proton beam energy. Studies were conducted at 800 MeV and 197 MeV to determine the cross section of Tb-159. Also, the ability to irradiate targets at different proton beam energies opens up the possibility of producing other radioisotopes. A proof-of-principle test was conducted to develop a 40-MeV tune in the 100-MeV beam line. Another parameter explored was the beam current, which was raised from the normal limit of 250 {mu}A up to 356 {mu}A via both power and repetition rate increase. This proof-of-principle test demonstrated the capability of the IPF beam line for high current operation with potential for higher isotope yields. For the full production mode, system upgrades will need to be in place to operate at high current and high duty factor. These activities are expected to provide the data needed for the development of a new and unique isotope production capability complementing the existing 100-MeV IPF facility.

Gulley, Mark S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bach, Hong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nortier, Francis M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bitteker, Leo J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; John, Kevin D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdez, Frank O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seifter, Achim [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-07

297

Hydrogen production from nuclear fission product waste heat and use in gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis has been made on the feasibility of producing hydrogen using fission product waste heat and its subsequent combustion in gas turbines. The work has been performed in three distinct phases. In the first phase, a system using radioactive waste heat has been designed, which produces electricity. The electrical power output of this system has been calculated as a

M. E. Nelson; E. L. Keating; D. R. Govan; R. J. Banchak; J. R. Corpus

1979-01-01

298

Development of temporary subtropical wetlands induces higher gas production  

PubMed Central

Temporary wetlands are short-term alternative ecosystems formed by flooding for irrigation of areas used for rice farming. The goal of this study is to describe the development cycle of rice fields as temporary wetlands in southern Brazil, evaluating how this process affect the gas production (CH4 and CO2) in soil with difference % carbon and organic matter content. Two areas adjacent to Lake Mangueira in southern Brazil were used during a rice-farming cycle. One area had soil containing 1.1% carbon and 2.4% organic matter, and the second area had soil with 2.4% carbon and 4.4% organic matter. The mean rates of gas production were 0.04 ± 0.02 mg CH4 m?2 d?1 and 1.18 ± 0.30 mg CO2 m?2 d?1 in the soil area with the lower carbon content, and 0.02 ± 0.03 mg CH4 m?2 d?1 and 1.38 ± 0.41 mg CO2 m?2 d?1 in the soil area with higher carbon content. Our results showed that mean rates of CO2 production were higher than those of CH4 in both areas. No statistically significant difference was observed for production of CH4 considering different periods and sites. For carbon dioxide (CO2), however, a Two-Way ANOVA showed statistically significant difference (p = 0.05) considering sampling time, but no difference between areas. The results obtained suggest that the carbon and organic matter contents in the soil of irrigated rice cultivation areas may have been used in different ways by soil microorganisms, leading to variations in CH4 and CO2 production.

Canterle, Eliete B.; da Motta Marques, David; Rodrigues, Lucia R.

2013-01-01

299

Exploring the potential contribution of irrigation to global agricultural primary productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential contribution of irrigation to global agricultural net primary productivity (NPP) was explored using the Carnegie Stanford Ames Approach (CASA) model, modified for irrigation inputs. Excluding the effects from cultivar choice, fertilizer application, and water availability, removing climatic constraints to productivity through irrigation has the potential to increase carbon uptake by global cropland areas (which already have an average carbon uptake rate in excess of 175 gC/m2/yr) by an average of 25 gC/m2/yr with a maximum of 627 gC/m2/yr, especially in heavily irrigated semiarid areas such as northern India, the Indus River Valley, northeast China, the western United States, and the Nile River Valley. When accumulated across all irrigated areas and years, the total contribution of irrigation could exceed 0.40 Pg C per year, a value equivalent to the total NPP of U.S. croplands (0.41 PgC). The results also reveal that the relationship between cropland productivity affected by irrigation and climatic moisture availability is nonlinear: in locations that receive less than 1500 mm/yr rainfall, cropland productivity has a strong response to moisture; as humidity increases, additional moisture has very little impact on the productivity of crop areas. Moreover, the relationship between irrigation amount and productivity increase is also nonlinear: in humid locations, NPP response to irrigation is small but persistent; as aridity increases, irrigation has a substantial impact but its effect quickly saturates for irrigation input above 800 mm/yr, which may point to the efficiency of irrigation for different precipitation regions.

Ozdogan, Mutlu

2011-09-01

300

Review on the gas hydrate development and production as a new energy resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas hydrates consist of guest gas molecules inside hydrogen-bonded water lattices. Natural gas hydrates are found in offshore\\u000a and permafrost regions. The large amounts of gas hydrate reserves suggest the potential of gas hydrates as an energy resource\\u000a if economically viable production methods were developed. The proper understandings of hydrate formation\\/dissociation are\\u000a important for the drilling and oil production applications.

Joo Yong Lee; Byung Jae Ryu; Tae Sup Yun; Jaehyung Lee; Gye-Chun Cho

2011-01-01

301

Texas severance tax on oil and gas production  

SciTech Connect

Texas severance taxes date from 1905, with little serious change until the Texas Natural Resources Code was enacted in 1977. Technical language makes the code easy to misinterpret, which needs to be corrected since severance taxes make up 21% of state revenue and generate $2.2 billion for schools and other state programs. An overview of the Code defines oil and natural gas production, and explains the reporting and payment, penalty, enforcement, and revenue allocation provisions. A glossary defines 10 related terms. 21 references, 2 figures.. (DCK)

Crumbley, D.L.; Williams, A.K.

1983-12-01

302

Understanding Ozone: Exploring the Good and Bad Facets of a Famous Gas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents activities that help students distinguish between the beneficial layer of stratospheric ozone and the dangerous ground-level or tropospheric ozone, understand the chemical processes of ozone breakdown in the stratosphere, find the sources of ground-level ozone, and explore the differences in the patterns of ozone concentration over the…

Hanif, Muhammad

1995-01-01

303

Study explores space weather risk to natural gas pipeline in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data being collected on the Finnish natural gas pipeline are providing a basis for estimating the space weather risk for the pipeline and for designing possible countermeasures. Finland's high latitude location makes such systems prone to problems caused by geomagnetically induced currents (GICs),but so far no harm has been detected. The statistical GIC risk in the Finnish high-voltage power system

Risto Pirjola; Antti Pulkkinen; Ari Viljanen; Heikki Nevanlinna; Kari Pajunpää

1999-01-01

304

Environmental legal implications of oil and gas exploration in the Niger Delta of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nigeria is an African country endowed with a wealth of oil and gas resources, and they are mainly found in the core Niger Delta (home to the Ijaw and Ogoni indigenous, ethnic minorities). Since Great Britain granted Nigeria political independence on October 1, 1960, successive Nigerian governments (military and civilian) have been dominated by the majority ethnic groups (Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba,

Bibobra Bello Orubebe

2009-01-01

305

Sulfur-containing gases. I. Improved gas chromatographic analysis II. Applied to geochemical exploration  

SciTech Connect

Contaminant water in well-scrubbed, high purity helium used as the GC carrier gas was tentatively identified as the cause of the poor chromatographic performance of sulfur dioxide during sub-ambient temperature capillary CG. Additional scrubbing of the carrier gas by frequently re-activated molecular sieves reduces the problem. The {minus}60 C temperature necessary to obtain satisfactory separation of the S-gases requires the use of inconvenient, troublesome, and costly cryogenic liquids, produces chromatographic problems, and elutes dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) only after 12-15 minutes. By using a modified form of window diagramming and recently available wide-bore capillary columns, a mixed phase column was developed that produces baseline separation of the seven common S-gases at initial temperatures of as high as 30C and elutes DMDS in less than five minutes. The improved GC/FPD system and an independent S-gas selective method, metal foil collection/flash desorption/sulfur selective detection (MFC/FD/SSD) were applied to the putative relationship between surface-soil sorbed S-gases and the presence of petroleum deposits at depth. Surface soil samples were collected from the area of a producing oil field and analyzed. Both methods produced similar S-gas responses and the anomalously high S-gas responses correlated well with the field position and with the higher hydrocarbon responses of an independent survey. A BASIC program for a reporting integrator that controls MFC/FD/SSD data aquisition, calculation, and output is also presented.

Barinaga, C.J.

1988-01-01

306

Exploration of the possible new island of inversion with the production of neutron rich nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experiments at the NSCL have demonstrated that fragmentation coupled with two-stage separation technique can be used to explore the properties of very neutron-rich nuclei. Production cross sections for a large number of neutron-rich nuclei produced from the fragmentation of a 76Ge beam at 132 MeV/u with beryllium and tungsten targets were measured, including 15 new isotopes of the elements 17 <= Z <= 25. The higher cross sections of several new nuclei relative to a simple thermal evaporation framework, previously shown to describe similar production cross sections, indicate that nuclei in the region around 62Ti might be more stable than predicted by current mass models. This could indicate the existence of a new island of inversion. This year, a newly-developed primary beam of 82Se at 140 MeV/u has been used to extend these measurements of production cross sections to even more neutron-rich isotopes for elements from calcium to cobalt.

Baumann, T.; Tarasov, O. B.; Amthor, A. M.; Bandura, L.; Bazin, D.; Berryman, J. S.; Gade, A.; Ginter, T. N.; Hausmann, M.; Morrissey, D. J.; Nettleton, A.; Pereira, J.; Portillo, M.; Sherrill, B. M.; Stolz, A.; Sumithrarachchi, C.; Thoennessen, M.; Weisshaar, D.; Fukuda, N.; Inabe, N.; Kubo, T.; Chubarian, G.

2011-10-01

307

Gas geochemistry of the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: implications for gas hydrate exploration in the Arctic  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gases were analyzed from well cuttings, core, gas hydrate, and formation tests at the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, drilled within the Milne Point Unit, Alaska North Slope. The well penetrated a portion of the Eileen gas hydrate deposit, which overlies the more deeply buried Prudhoe Bay, Milne Point, West Sak, and Kuparuk River oil fields. Gas sources in the upper 200 m are predominantly from microbial sources (C1 isotopic compositions ranging from ?86.4 to ?80.6‰). The C1 isotopic composition becomes progressively enriched from 200 m to the top of the gas hydrate-bearing sands at 600 m. The tested gas hydrates occur in two primary intervals, units D and C, between 614.0 m and 664.7 m, containing a total of 29.3 m of gas hydrate-bearing sands. The hydrocarbon gases in cuttings and core samples from 604 to 914 m are composed of methane with very little ethane. The isotopic composition of the methane carbon ranges from ?50.1 to ?43.9‰ with several outliers, generally decreasing with depth. Gas samples collected by the Modular Formation Dynamics Testing (MDT) tool in the hydrate-bearing units were similarly composed mainly of methane, with up to 284 ppm ethane. The methane isotopic composition ranged from ?48.2 to ?48.0‰ in the C sand and from ?48.4 to ?46.6‰ in the D sand. Methane hydrogen isotopic composition ranged from ?238 to ?230‰, with slightly more depleted values in the deeper C sand. These results are consistent with the concept that the Eileen gas hydrates contain a mixture of deep-sourced, microbially biodegraded thermogenic gas, with lesser amounts of thermogenic oil-associated gas, and coal gas. Thermal gases are likely sourced from existing oil and gas accumulations that have migrated up-dip and/or up-fault and formed gas hydrate in response to climate cooling with permafrost formation.

Lorenson, T. D.; Collett, T. S.; Hunter, R. B.

2011-01-01

308

Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of sugar production. Results According to our calculations, 241 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent were released to the atmosphere per a ton of sugar produced (2406 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a hectare of the cropped area, and 26.5 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a ton of sugarcane processed). The major part of the total emission (44%) resulted from residues burning; about 20% resulted from the use of synthetic fertilizers, and about 18% from fossil fuel combustion. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the most important reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sugarcane areas could be achieved by switching to a green harvest system, that is, to harvesting without burning.

2010-01-01

309

Proposed oil and gas exploration within the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

The draft environmental impact statement describes the procedures and probable effects of aerial and geological surveying for oil and gas in the coastal area of Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The procedures provide for the protection of caribou caving areas and the avoidance of duplication in the survey activities. Temporary disturbances from seismic surveys would interfere with wildlife breeding and migration due to changes in the habitat. The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980 provides the legal mandate for environmental assessment.

Not Available

1982-11-01

310

Advancing New 3D Seismic Interpretation Methods for Exploration and Development of Fractured Tight Gas Reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and GeoSpectrum, Inc., new P-wave 3D seismic interpretation methods to characterize fractured gas reservoirs are developed. A data driven exploratory approach is used to determine empirical relationships for reservoir properties. Fractures are predicted using seismic lineament mapping through a series of horizon and time slices in the reservoir zone. A

James Reeves

2005-01-01

311

Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 states 1984 through 1996, February 1996  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourth wellhead productive capacity report. The three previous ones were published in 1991, 1993, and 1994. This report should be of particular interest to those in Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas. The EIA Dallas Field Office has prepared five earlier reports regarding natural gas productive capacity. These reports, Gas Deliverability and Flow Capacity of Surveillance Fields, reported deliverability and capacity data for selected gas fields in major gas producing areas. The data in the reports were based on gas-well back-pressure tests and estimates of gas-in-place for each field or reservoir. These reports use proven well testing theory, most of which has been employed by industry since 1936 when the Bureau of Mines first published Monograph 7. Demand for natural gas in the United States is met by a combination of natural gas production, underground gas storage, imported gas, and supplemental gaseous fuels. Natural gas production requirements in the lower 48 States have been increasing during the last few years while drilling has remained at low levels. This has raised some concern about the adequacy of future gas supplies, especially in periods of peak heating or cooling demand. The purpose of this report is to address these concerns by presenting a 3-year projection of the total productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead for the lower 48 States. Alaska is excluded because Alaskan gas does not enter the lower-48 States pipeline system. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) generates this 3-year projection based on historical gas-well drilling and production data from State, Federal, and private sources. In addition to conventional gas-well gas, coalbed gas and oil-well gas are also included.

NONE

1996-02-09

312

Estimating methane releases from natural gas production and transmission in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane releases from the RAO Gazprom gas production and transmission facilities in Russia were determined in an extensive measurement program carried out in 1996 and 1997. Subsequently, the measurements were extrapolated to the Russian scale. The results show that methane releases from gas transmission are less than 1% of throughput. Methane loss from gas production in northwestern Siberia appears to

J. V. Dedikov; H. Kaesler; A. Ramm; A. Müller von Blumencron; J. Lelieveld

1999-01-01

313

Membrane biogas upgrading processes for the production of natural gas substitute  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biogas processing and production of natural gas substitute have gained importance in recent years. It is often considered to be superior to the production of electricity with internal combustion engines mainly because of the better energy utilisation. The processed biogas in the form of natural gas substitute can be supplied to the already developed natural gas grids and delivered

A. Makaruk; M. Miltner; M. Harasek

2010-01-01

314

Gas Processing Economics: The Impact of By-Product Pricing. Topical Report, August 1992-January 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sale of by-products extracted during natural gas processing could add significantly to the economics of producing gas. The by-products natural gas liquids (NGLs), helium, sulfur, carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen were examined. The sources of supply a...

C. C. Tannehill R. J. Harrison

1993-01-01

315

The recent changes in R & D for exploration-production: A research institute point of view  

SciTech Connect

The low price of oil forecasted on a long period of time brought deep changes in the oil companies which adapted to this economic environment. They largely succeeded to decrease the technical cost of discovery and exploitation of hydrocarbons; while simultaneously R & D expenses have been generally reduced. It demonstrates that the {open_quotes}technological scenario{close_quotes} for reducing costs have been efficient, and also that new ways of conducting R & D were defined. It consists in transfering a part of the effort to the contractors and service companies, in sharing R & D efforts with other companies while keeping in house what is considered the most strategic i.e. generally R & D related to Geosciences. This evolution will probably favour the development of a limited number of service companies capable to have an important R & D program and provoke regrouping of smaller companies. It implies also an adaptation of the Research Institutions. IFP already moved in three directions by: (1) selecting research project oriented towards the reduction of costs at all stages of exploration, delineation and exploitation, (2) proposing projects to different Companies for sharing expenses and experience. For example consortia were created on structural imagery from seismics, compositional basin modelling, 3D basin modelling, gas condensate, polymers for EOR... and (3) developing common projects with other research Institutions and Companies in the framework of the R & D programs of the European Union.

Tissot, B.; Montadert, L. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

1995-08-01

316

World mineral exploration trends and economic issues  

SciTech Connect

The subjects and methodologies presented in this book vary from the presentation of a heretofore unavailable collection of data on worldwide mineral exploration to case studies of mineral exploration in the developing countries of Botswana and Papua New Guinea to a study of the economic productivity of base metal exploration in Australia and Canada. Some authors concentrate on particular actors or participants in the exploration process, such as major mining companies, while other focus on a particular country such as the Soviet Union, France, or South Africa. Most chapters deal with exploration for nonfuel minerals, and particularly metals, although some take in uranium and coal exploration; oil and gas exploration is specifically excluded.

Tilton, J.E.; Eggert, R.G. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (USA). Dept. of Mineral Economics); Landsberg, H.H. (Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC (USA))

1988-01-01

317

Help for declining natural gas production seen in the unconventional sources of natural gas. [Eastern shales, tight sands, coal beds, geopressured zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil imports could be reduced and domestic gas production increased if additional gas production is obtained from four unconventional resources-eastern Devonian shales, tight sands, coal beds, and geopressured zones. Gas produced from these resources can help maintain overall production levels as supplies from conventional gas sources gradually decline. The eastern shales and western sands are the chief potential contributors in

Staats

1980-01-01

318

Multivariate data base for the solution of geologic problems in exploring for oil and gas in West Siberia  

SciTech Connect

Exploration data bases are distinguished in that many data elements change continuously over geologic time. Also, for maximum practical utility in exploration, the data base must be distributed. The data base developed by Tyumengeologiya on the West Siberian basin is composed of three fundamental elements. The first elemental covers the overall geologic structure of the basin, including tectonic, stratigraphic, and geomorphologic entities. This contains primary data and the results of analysis, which provide a geologic framework for the other two elements of the data base. The second block contains temporally stable data (e.g., identification numbers for wells, reservoirs, fields, etc.). The third block provides the mechanism for updating the other blocks with the newest observations from wells, laboratory analysis, seismic, and other sources. Ability to update not only primary data, but the tectonic and stratigraphic framework in the first block, is the key to successful, practical operation. There is a large degree of coincidence between the principles and architecture of the data base developed in West Siberia and those used by western oil and gas companies. This extends not only to the interdependence between elements of the data base, but also reflects a common understanding of the nature of the geologic problems that are analyzed through the use of computer data bases in the exploration for oil and gases.

Shpil'Man, V.I.; Yakovlev, V.M. (West Siberian Geologic Research Institute, Tyumen (Russian Federation))

1991-03-01

319

City of North Bonneville, Washington: Geothermal Exploration Project, production test well, Phase II. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Based on discussions with the City of North Bonneville, the production test well was drilled to a depth that would also explore for ground water temperatures near 130/sup 0/F (54.4/sup 0/C). Depth projections to a 130/sup 0/F bottom hole temperature were made by assuming a constant ground water temperature rise greater than 50/sup 0/C per kilometer, and by assuming that essentially homogeneous or equivalent conductive rock units would be encountered. Minimum water production requirements were not set, although the City determined that about 800 gpm would be acceptable. Large upper casing diameters of 16 and 12 inches were installed in order to provide the future use of either a vertical turbine or submersible pump, as desired by the city. The scope of work included interpretation of well characteristics, evaluation of ground water as a geothermal resource, geologic analysis of data from drilling and testing, drilling supervision, daily drilling cost accounting, and preparation of a final report. The report includes geologic evaluation of the drilling and test data, ground water and geothermal potential.

Not Available

1982-06-01

320

Health, safety and environmental risk of a gas pipeline in an oil exploring area of Gachsaran.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was assessing health, safety and environmental risk of a gas transfer pipeline in an oily area of Gachsaran. In this method, we used the Kent's pipeline risk assessment method except that to facilitate using the method more practically some changes were exerted into Kent's method. A pipeline with 16 kilometers length was selected considering surrounding nature of the pipeline. It was divided into two sections. Analogous to Kent's method, in this method, parameters included: interested party's injuries, corrosion, design factor, incorrect operation index and consequence scoring. The difference here was that for consequence scoring we used ALOHA 5.6 software instead of Kent's pattern. Results showed that health, safety and environmental risks of section 2 (the next 13 kilometers of outgoing pipeline from gas station after the first 3 kilometers) were greater. It seems the main cause of gaining a bigger risk number was related to more activities of interested parties around section 2. Because all figures gathered from indexes are almost close to gather except third parties activity. PMID:21173529

Kalatpoor, Omid; Goshtasp, Kambiz; Khavaji, Solieman

2010-12-16

321

Commander field: Case study of a gas productive landsat and geochemical anomaly, Parker County, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Landsat data for a mature area of southern Parker County were analyzed for structural anomalies and lineaments in order to determine the relationship of these data to gas production and the possible fracturing of Atoka sand reservoirs. Interstitial soil gas data gathered over a 160 acre tract revealed a strong surface anomaly situated at the intersection of two lineaments. The drilling of this anomaly resulted in gas production from a Bend conglomerate and excellent mudlog shows of gas from shallower sands in the Atoka and Strawn intervals. A subsequent offset well, located within the original surface soil gas anomaly, also proved gas productive in the shallow Strawn interval. Well data from the productive gas zones are discussed in relation to local stratigraphy and structure. The limitations and advantages of Landsat/soil gas data are considered in terms of future applicability to other mature areas.

Crowder, W.T. Jr. [Consulting Geologist, Dallas, TX (United States)

1995-06-01

322

Synthesis gas production by biomass pyrolysis: Effect of reactor temperature on product distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes mass, C, H, and O balances for wood chips pyrolysis experiments performed in a tubular reactor under conditions of rich H2 gas production (700–1000°C) and for determined solid heating rates (20–40°Cs?1). Permanent gases (H2, CO, CH4, CO2, C2H4, C2H6), water, aromatic tar (10 compounds from benzene to phenanthrene and phenols), and char were considered in the balance

A. Dufour; P. Girods; E. Masson; Y. Rogaume; A. Zoulalian

2009-01-01

323

Prediction of Gas Leak Tightness of Superplastically Formed Products  

SciTech Connect

In some applications, in this case an aluminium box in a subatomic particle detector containing highly sensitive detecting devices, it is important that a formed sheet should show no gas leak from one side to the other. In order to prevent a trial-and-error procedure to make this leak tight box, a method is set up to predict if a formed sheet conforms to the maximum leak constraint. The technique of superplastic forming (SPF) is used in order to attain very high plastic strains before failure. Since only a few of these boxes are needed, this makes, this generally slow, process an attractive production method. To predict the gas leak of a superplastically formed aluminium sheet in an accurate way, finite element simulations are used in combination with a user-defined material model. This constitutive model couples the leak rate with the void volume fraction. This void volume fraction is then dependent on both the equivalent plastic strain and the applied hydrostatic pressure during the bulge process (backpressure).

Snippe, Corijn H. C. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef) PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meinders, T. [University of Twente, Faculty of Engineering Technology PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

2010-06-15

324

64 FR 23349 - Continental Divide/Wamsutter II Natural Gas Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Wamsutter II (CD/WII) Natural Gas Project Draft Environmental...the CD/WII proposed natural gas development and production operation. Expansion of natural gas exploration and development...and adjacent to other oil and gas developments...

1999-04-30

325

75 FR 28052 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0051, Oil and Gas Production Measurement, Extension of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection Activity: 1010-0051, Oil and Gas Production Measurement, Extension...under 30 CFR 250, subpart L, ``Oil and Gas Production Measurement,'' and...Respondents: Respondents comprise Federal oil, gas and sulphur lessees and/or...

2010-05-19

326

Evaluation of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model. [Cyclic thermal injection  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the work performed under this directive is to assess whether gas hydrates could potentially be technically and economically recoverable. The technical potential and economics of recovering gas from a representative hydrate reservoir will be established using the cyclic thermal injection model, HYDMOD, appropriately modified for this effort, integrated with economics model for gas production on the North Slope of Alaska, and in the deep offshore Atlantic. The results from this effort are presented in this document. In Section 1, the engineering cost and financial analysis model used in performing the economic analysis of gas production from hydrates -- the Hydrates Gas Economics Model (HGEM) -- is described. Section 2 contains a users guide for HGEM. In Section 3, a preliminary economic assessment of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model is presented. Section 4 contains a summary critique of existing hydrate gas recovery models. Finally, Section 5 summarizes the model modification made to HYDMOD, the cyclic thermal injection model for hydrate gas recovery, in order to perform this analysis.

Kuuskraa, V.A.; Hammersheimb, E.; Sawyer, W.

1985-05-01

327

An evaluation of hydrogen production from the perspective of using blast furnace gas and coke oven gas as feedstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace (BF) is a large-scale reactor for producing hot metal where coke and coal are consumed as reducing agent and fuel, respectively. As a result, a large amount of CO2 is liberated into the atmosphere. The blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke oven gas (COG) from the ironmaking process can be used for H2 production in association with carbon

Wei-Hsin Chen; Mu-Rong Lin; Tzong-Shyng Leu; Shan-Wen Du

2011-01-01

328

World oil and gas resources-future production realities  

SciTech Connect

Welcome to uncertainty was the phrase Jack Schanz used to introduce both layman and professionals to the maze of petroleum energy data that must be comprehended to achieve understanding of this critical commodity. Schanz was referring to the variables as he and his colleagues with Resources for the Future saw them in those years soon after the energy-awakening oil embargo of 1973. In some respects, the authors have made progress in removing uncertainty from energy data, but in general, we simply must accept that there are many points of view and many ways for the blindman to describe the elephant. There can be definitive listing of all uncertainties, but for this paper the authors try to underscore those traits of petroleum occurrence and supply that the author's believe bear most heavily on the understanding of production and resource availability. Because oil and gas exist in nature under such variable conditions and because the products themselves are variable in their properties, the authors must first recognize classification divisions of the resource substances, so that the reader might always have a clear perception of just what we are talking about and how it relates to other components of the commodity in question.

Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D. (U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA (US))

1990-01-01

329

Gas production from sanitary landfills as a potential energy resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid increase in the cost of energy has increased interest in the recovery and utilization of sanitary landfill gas at locations throughout the World. These solid waste disposal sites are considered untapped sources of methane gas. If methane is not recovered and utilized, it forms an explosive mixture with oxygen and causes environmental damages. The amount of recoverable gas

Alzuydi

1980-01-01

330

Greenhouse effects of peat production and use compared with coal, oil, natural gas and wood.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines the effects of greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) arising from certain chains of peat production and use and compares them with the corresponding effects due to the chains of energy production and use ...

K. Hillebrand

1993-01-01

331

DETERMINATION OF INTERFERING TRIAZINE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Deethyl atrazine (DEA), along with other triazine degradation products, has been added to the US Environmental Protection Agency's Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). In its gas chromatographic (GC) analysis, deethyl atrazine, a degradation product of atrazine, can ...

332

Development of a low flow meter for measuring gas production in bioreactors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accurate measurement of gas production from biological processes is important in many laboratory experiments. A gas flow rate measurement system, consisting of an embedded controller operating three gas meters, was developed to measure volumetric flows between 0 and 8 ml min-1 (1 atm, 273.15 K). The...

333

Workbook for prioritizing petroleum industry exploration and production sites for remediation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Workbook is to provide a screening-level method for prioritizing petroleum exploration and production sites for remediation that is based on readily available information, but which does not require a full characterization of the sites being evaluated. The process draws heavily from the Canadian National Classification System for Contaminated Sites, and fits into the framework for ecological risk assessment provided in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Using this approach, scoring guidelines are provided for a number of Evaluation Factors relating to: (1) the contaminants present at the site; (2) the potential exposure pathways for these contaminants; and (3) the potential receptors of those contaminants. The process therefore incorporates a risk-based corrective action (RBCA) framework to estimate the relative threat posed by a site to human health and to ecological systems. Physical (non-toxic) disturbance factors have also been incorporated into the process. It should also be noted that the process described in this Workbook has not yet been field tested at petroleum E and P sites. The first logical step in the field testing of this process is to apply the method at a small number of sites to assess the availability of the information that is needed to score each evaluation factor. Following this evaluation, the Workbook process should be applied at a series of sites to determine the effectiveness of the process at ranking sites according to their relative need for remediation. Upon completion of these tests, the Workbook should be revised to reflect the findings of the field tests.

White, G.J.

1998-08-03

334

A product of “his” time? Exploring the construct of the ideal manager in the Cold War era  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the idea that the ideal manager is a social construct that is a product of the context within which it exists. The context chosen to illustrate this idea is that of the first two decades of the Cold War (1945-1965) in the USA. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The methodology used is an

Patricia Genoe McLaren; Albert J. Mills

2008-01-01

335

Irrelevant sound disrupts speech production: Exploring the relationship between short?term memory and experimentally induced slips of the tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the relationship between short?term memory and speech production, we developed a speech error induction technique. The technique, which was adapted from a Japanese word game, exposed participants to an auditory distractor word immediately before the utterance of a target word. In Experiment 1, the distractor words that were phonologically similar to the target word led to a greater

Satoru Saito; Alan D. Baddeley

2004-01-01

336

Exploring global patterns of net primary production carbon supply and demand using satellite observations and statistical data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique combination of satellite and socioeconomic data were used to explore the relationship between human consumption and the carbon cycle. The amount of Earth's net primary production (NPP) required to support human activities is a powerful measure of the aggregate impact on the biosphere and indicator of societal vulnerability to climate change. Biophysical models were applied to consumption data

Marc L. Imhoff; Lahouari Bounoua

2006-01-01

337

Volumetric strain associated with methane desorption and its impact on coalbed gas production from deep coal seams  

SciTech Connect

For deep coal seams, significant reservoir pressure drawdown is required to promote gas desorption because of the Langmuir-type isotherm that typifies coals. Hence, a large permeability decline may occur because of pressure drawdown and the resulting increase in effective stress, depending on coal properties and the stress field during production. However, the permeability decline can potentially be offset by the permeability enhancement caused by the matrix shrinkage associated with methane desorption. The predictability of varying permeability is critical for coalbed gas exploration and production-well management. We have investigated quantitatively the effects of reservoir pressure and sorption-induced volumetric strain on coal-seam permeability with constraints from the adsorption isotherm and associated volumetric strain measured on a Cretaceous Mesaverde Group coal (Piceance basin) and derived a stress-dependent permeability model. Our results suggest that the favorable coal properties that can result in less permeability reduction during earlier production and an earlier strong permeability rebound (increase in permeability caused by coal shrinkage) with methane desorption include (1) large bulk or Young's modulus; (2) large adsorption or Langmuir volume; (3) high Langmuir pressure; (4) high initial permeability and dense cleat spacing; and (5) low initial reservoir pressure and high in-situ gas content. Permeability variation with gas production is further dependent on the orientation of the coal seam, the reservoir stress field, and the cleat structure. Well completion with injection of N2 and displacement of CH{sub 4} only results in short-term enhancement of permeability and does not promote the overall gas production for the coal studied.

Cui, X.J.; Bustin, R.M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Earth & Ocean Science

2005-09-01

338

Separation of Flue-Gas Scrubber Sludge into Marketable Products  

SciTech Connect

The reduction of sulfur oxides from high sulfur coal burning utility companies has resulted in the production of huge quantities of wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge. A typical 400 MW power station burning a coal containing 3.5% sulfur by weight and using a limestone absorbent would produce approximately 177,000 tons (dry weight) of scrubber sludge per year. This brownish colored, finely divided material contains calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2 H{sub 2}O), calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O), unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), and various other impurities such as fly-ash and iron oxide particles. The physical separation of the components of scrubber sludge would result in the re-use of this material. The primary use would be conversion to a highly pure synthetic gypsum. This technical report concentrates on the effect of baffle configuration on the separation of calcium sulfite/sulfate from limestone. The position of the baffles as they related to the feed inlet, and the quantity of the baffles were examined. A clean calcium sulfite/sulfate (less than 2.0% limestone by weight) was achieved with the combination of water-only cyclone and horizontally baffled column.

NONE

1998-02-28

339

An investment-production-regulatory model for firms in the offshore oil and gas industry. [Economic effects of proposed environmental regulations  

SciTech Connect

This tripartite study examines the economic consequences of proposed environmental regulations on firms in the OCS oil and gas industry. The background part reviews the major issues associated with OCS oil and gas development and relevant environmental regulatory proposals. In the theoretical part, models are developed using optimal control theory and the theory of nonrenewable resources to analyze the impact of rising compliance cost on firm's behavior in terms of the investment and production rates over time. Finally, in the simulation part, an integrated investment-production-regulatory model is developed to simulate OCS development with and without the proposed environmental regulations. Effects of regulations are measured in terms of an increase in compliance costs and the associated reduction in net profits from oil and gas production. The theoretical results indicate that an increase in compliance costs will alter exploration, development and production rates. The total investments in exploration and development, and oil production will decrease as a result of rising compliance costs for exploration, development and production over the entire planning period.

Jin Di.

1991-01-01

340

The surface geochemical exploration of oil and gas in the Gangbatong-Ya’anxiang and the Dongqiao-Nam Co of the Qinghai-Tibet region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the complexity of geological background and the adverseness of natural geographical environment in the Qinghai-Tibet\\u000a Plateau, it is very difficult to carry out petroleum geological study in this region. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the only\\u000a blank space of petroleum exploration on a large scale. The authors carried out the surface geochemical exploration of oil\\u000a and gas in the

Bo Xiong; XianQing Li; YiBin Li; Qing Tan

2009-01-01

341

Detection and quantification of fugitive emissions from Colorado oil and gas production operations using remote monitoring  

EPA Science Inventory

Western states contain vast amounts of oil and gas production. For example, Weld County Colorado contains approximately 25,000 active oil and gas well sites with associated production operations. There is little information on the air pollutant emission potential from this source...

342

Western Gas Sands Project: production histories of the Piceance and Uinta basins of Colorado and Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current United States geological tight sand designations in the Piceance and Uinta Basins' Western Gas Sands Project include the Mesaverde Group, Fort Union and Wasatch Formations. Others, such as the Dakota, Cedar Mountain, Morrison and Mancos may eventually be included. Future production from these formations will probably be closely associated with existing trends. Cumulative gas production through December 1979, of

S. Anderson; J. Kohout

1980-01-01

343

Different palm oil production systems for energy purposes and their greenhouse gas implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyses the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) production in northern Borneo (Malaysia), their transport to the Netherlands and their co-firing with natural gas for electricity production. In the case of CPO, conversion to biodiesel and the associated GHG emissions are also studied. This study follows the methodology suggested

Birka Wicke; Veronika Dornburg; Martin Junginger

2008-01-01

344

Quarterly progress report (on gas production from shale), April--June 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

All regional structure maps of shales have been completed in rough draft or preliminary map form. Fracture studies show that shale gas production from eastern Kentucky and southern West Virginia comes from layers of more intense fracturing associated with the lower shales and most often the organic-rich portions. Production of Devonian Shale in the Cottageville gas field has been characterized;

K. G. Kirk; E. B. Nuckols; B. R. Long; H. W. Rauch; T. H. Wilson; J. M. Dixon; M. Evans; J. Negus de Wys

1978-01-01

345

European energy security: An analysis of future Russian natural gas production and exports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widening gap between EU gas production and consumption may require an 87% increase of import volumes between 2006 and 2030, and there are great uncertainties regarding the amounts of gas that can be expected from new suppliers. The potential of increased production from Norway and Algeria is limited; hence, Russia is likely to play a crucial part of meeting

Bengt Söderbergh; Kristofer Jakobsson; Kjell Aleklett

2010-01-01

346

Gas production potential of disperse low-saturation hydrateaccumulations in oceanic sediments  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we evaluate the gas production potential ofdisperse, low-saturation (SH<0.1) hydrate accumulations in oceanicsediments. Such hydrate-bearing sediments constitute a significantportion of the global hydrate inventory. Using numerical simulation, weestimate (a) the rates of gas production and gas release from hydratedissociation, (b) the corresponding cumulative volumes of released andproduced gas, as well as (c) the water production rate and the mass ofproduced water from disperse, low-SH hydrate-bearing sediments subject todepressurization-induced dissociation over a 10-year production period.We investigate the sensitivity of items (a) to (c) to the followinghydraulic properties, reservoir conditions, and operational parameters:intrinsic permeability, porosity, pressure, temperature, hydratesaturation, and constant pressure at which the production well is kept.The results of this study indicate that, despite wide variations in theaforementioned parameters (covering the entire spectrum of suchdeposits), gas production is very limited, never exceeding a few thousandcubic meters of gas during the 10-year production period. Such lowproduction volumes are orders of magnitude below commonly acceptedstandards of economic viability, and are further burdened with veryunfavorable gas-to-water ratios. The unequivocal conclusion from thisstudy is that disperse, low-SH hydrate accumulations in oceanic sedimentsare not promising targets for gas production by means ofdepressurization-induced dissociation, and resources for early hydrateexploitation should be focused elsewhere.

Moridis, George J.; Sloan, E. Dendy

2006-07-19

347

THE POTENTIAL FOR METHANOL PRODUCTION FROM NATURAL GAS BY DIRECT CATALYTIC PARTIAL OXIDATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of methanol production from natural gas by the conventional synthesis process shows that gas feedstock and capital charges are the dominant components of the methanol cost. Small but significant reductions In product cost can be made by increasing the conversion per pass and heat recovery from the synthesis reactor. However, the overall performance of the process is limited

J. H. Edwards; N. R. Foster

1986-01-01

348

Effect of spices on rumen fermentation, methanogenesis and protozoa counts in in vitro gas production test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of water, methanol and ethanol extracts of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Syzygium aromaticum (clove), Allium sativum (garlic), Allium cepa (onion) and Zingiber officinalis (ginger) on rumen fermentation, methanogenesis and ciliate protozoa counts were studied in in vitro gas production test. Gas production was reduced (P<0.05) on addition of ethanol and methanol extracts of fennel and clove. Water extract of

A. K. Patra; D. N. Kamra; Neeta Agarwal

2006-01-01

349

25 CFR 212.41 - Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases. 212.41 Section 212.41 Indians ...Appeals Ā§ 212.41 Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases. (a) A lessee shall pay, in...

2011-04-01

350

25 CFR 211.41 - Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases. 211.41 Section 211.41 Indians ...Appeals Ā§ 211.41 Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases. (a) A lessee shall pay, in...

2011-04-01

351

Measuring and Managing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Production of Livestock in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livestock production is the cause of substantial greenhouse gas emissions both through enteric fermentation and land use change. It has been shown that programs to reduce emissions from livestock could be a large and low-cost source of greenhouse gas mitigation. Yet in order to achieve emissions reductions, further research is needed to quantify how the emissions intensity of livestock production

A. Cohn

2009-01-01

352

Current oil and gas production from North American Upper Cretaceous Chalks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of oil and natural gas from North American chalks has increased significantly during the past five years. Chalk reservoirs have been discovered in the Gulf Coast in the Austin Group, Saratoga and Annona Chalks, Ozan Formation, Selma Group, Monroe gas rock, (an informal unit of Navarro age), and other Upper Cretaceous units. In the Western Interior, production has been

Scholle

1977-01-01

353

Recovery of gas from hydrate deposits using conventional production technology. [Salt-frac technique  

SciTech Connect

Methane hydrate gas could be a sizeable energy resource if methods can be devised to produce this gas economically. This paper examines two methods of producing gas from hydrate deposits by the injection of hot water or steam, and also examines the feasibility of hydraulic fracturing and pressure reduction as a hydrate gas production technique. A hydraulic fracturing technique suitable for hydrate reservoirs is also described.

McGuire, P.L.

1982-01-01

354

Reactions of different food classes during subcritical water gasification for hydrogen gas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactions of different food classes during alkaline subcritical water gasification have been investigated with a view on hydrogen gas production. Experiments were conducted with sub-stoichiometric amounts of H2O2 for partial oxidation. NaOH was added to aid sample decomposition, reduce char\\/tar formation and to promote water-gas shift reaction. In general, hydrogen gas production depended on the class of food wastes

Rattana Muangrat; Jude A. Onwudili; Paul T. Williams

355

Gas, Water, and Oil Production from the Wasatch Formation, Greater Natural Buttes Field, Uinta Basin, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from 38 wells with production commencing during the 1980s from the Wasatch Formation in the Greater Natural Buttes field, Uinta Basin, Utah. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid production from tight gas reservoirs, which are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. The general ranges of production rates after 2 years are 100-1,000 mscf/day for gas, 0.35-3.4 barrel per day for oil, and less than 1 barrel per day for water. The water:gas ratio ranges from 0.1 to10 barrel per million standard cubic feet, indicating that free water is produced along with water dissolved in gas in the reservoir. The oil:gas ratios are typical of a wet gas system. Neither gas nor water rates show dependence upon the number of perforations, although for low gas-flow rates there is some dependence upon the number of sandstone intervals that were perforated. Over a 5-year time span, gas and water may either increase or decrease in a given well, but the changes in production rate do not exhibit any dependence upon well proximity or well location.

Nelson, Philip H.; Hoffman, Eric L.

2009-01-01

356

Exploring the Relationship Between Wetland Methane Emissions and Net Ecosystem Productivity Using Experimental Shading and Labile Carbon Additions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane (CH4) emissions from wetlands are positively correlated with net ecosystem productivity (NEP); however the relative importance of proposed controlling mechanisms remains poorly understood. The carbon supply hypothesis suggests that recent photosynthesis contributes labile carbon substrate to methanogenic habitats, resulting in higher CH4 emissions with increases in NEP. Plant gas transport is also hypothesized to be important for conducting gases

S. Owens; J. C. von Fischer

2007-01-01

357

Production of a Gas: Controlling a Chemical Reaction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners mix vinegar and baking soda to produce a gas. With the addition of a bit of liquid soap, the gas becomes trapped in measurable bubbles. This way, learners can alter the amount of ingredients and evaluate the amount of gas produced based on the height the foam rises in the graduated cylinder. Learners have the opportunity to design their own experiment, control variables, and test their ideas.

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.

2007-01-01

358

Structure and shale gas production patterns from eastern Kentucky field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-derived subsurface structure, isopach, and gas-flow maps, based on 4000 drillers logs, have been generated for eastern Kentucky under a project sponsored by the Gas Research Institute. Structure maps show low-relief flextures related to basement structure. Some structures have been mapped at the surface, others have not. Highest final open-flow (fof) of shale gas from wells in Martin County follow

Shumaker

1987-01-01

359

Process development of hydrogenous gas production for PEFC from biogas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory-scale gas processor that integrates four successive catalytic reactions: steam reforming of methane, high- and low-temperature water gas shifts and selective oxidation of carbon monoxide, was designed and tested in this study to produce hydrogen-rich gas with CO<10 ppm from a clean model biogas having a constant molar ratio of CH4\\/CO2=1.5:1.0 for a 50-W class polymer electrolyte fuel cell

Zhan-Guo Zhang; Guangwen Xu; Xin Chen; Kazunori Honda; Tadashi Yoshida

2004-01-01

360

Seismo-geological models of stratigraphic sequences and their application to oil and gas exploration in west Siberia  

SciTech Connect

In west Siberia, large structural prospects for oil exploration have been exhausted. Further discoveries are expected to be made in small to medium structural traps and in lithostratigraphic traps. Prospecting and exploration for hydrocarbons in lithostratigraphic traps is based on new seismo-geological models of hydrocarbon-bearing sequences. In middle Paleozoic rocks, small hydrocarbon accumulations have been found in structural highs; the reservoirs are composed of fractured vuggy carbonates. Seismostratigraphic criteria for prediction of such traps are uncertain. The Lower-Middle Jurassic sequence consists of continental and partially of marine clastic rocks. The sequence is believed to contain considerable hydrocarbon resources in lithostratigraphic traps in basal sandstones and in pinch-out zones of Lower Jurassic sandstones. In the upper part of the sequence, oil pools have been discovered in channel sandstone bodies. Two different areas of oil accumulations are found in the Callovian-Oxfordian sequence. The Bazhenov Formation bituminous shales of Volgian-Berriasian contain sporadically distributed fractured-porous reservoirs. Accumulations in these reservoirs are characterized by irregular oil saturation. The Neocomian sequence consists of rocks deposited on the shallow-water shelf and on the basinal slope. Seismo-geological data indicate that the sequence is prospective for discovery of hydrocarbons in lithostratigraphic traps. The clinoform consists of laterally prograding strata; most prospective are frontal and depocentral parts of the strata which contain sandstone reservoirs of medium to poor quality. Lithostratigraphic traps in the shelf sequence can be found in the marginal parts of the paleoshelf where regional pinch-out zones and sandstones lenses are common. The Aptian-Cenomanian sequence deposited under terrestrial and coastal conditions is dominantly gas prone. New hydrocarbon discoveries in this sequence are expected in structural traps.

Mkrtchyan, O.M. (Institute of Geology and Exploration of Combustible Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation))

1993-09-01

361

Interstellar Gas Flow Parameters Derived from Interstellar Boundary Explorer-Lo Observations in 2009 and 2010: Analytical Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutral atom imaging of the interstellar gas flow in the inner heliosphere provides the most detailed information on physical conditions of the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) and its interaction with the heliosphere. The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) measured neutral H, He, O, and Ne for three years. We compare the He and combined O+Ne flow distributions for two interstellar flow passages in 2009 and 2010 with an analytical calculation, which is simplified because the IBEX orientation provides observations at almost exactly the perihelion of the gas trajectories. This method allows separate determination of the key ISM parameters: inflow speed, longitude, and latitude, as well as temperature. A combined optimization, as in complementary approaches, is thus not necessary. Based on the observed peak position and width in longitude and latitude, inflow speed, latitude, and temperature are found as a function of inflow longitude. The latter is then constrained by the variation of the observed flow latitude as a function of observer longitude and by the ratio of the widths of the distribution in longitude and latitude. Identical results are found for 2009 and 2010: an He flow vector somewhat outside previous determinations (?ISM? = 79fdg0+3fdg0(-3fdg5), ? ISM? = -4fdg9 ± 0fdg2, V ISM? = 23.5 + 3.0(-2.0) km s-1, T He = 5000-8200 K), suggesting a larger inflow longitude and lower speed. The O+Ne temperature range, T O+Ne = 5300-9000 K, is found to be close to the upper range for He and consistent with an isothermal medium for all species within current uncertainties.

Möbius, E.; Bochsler, P.; Bzowski, M.; Heirtzler, D.; Kubiak, M. A.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; Leonard, T.; Schwadron, N. A.; Wu, X.; Fuselier, S. A.; Crew, G.; McComas, D. J.; Petersen, L.; Saul, L.; Valovcin, D.; Vanderspek, R.; Wurz, P.

2012-02-01

362

40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 MM Table MM-1 to Subpart MM...for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 Products Column A: density...Other Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids Aviation Gasoline 0.1120...

2011-07-01

363

Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III cloud data product.  

PubMed

The latest in a series of solar occultation satellite instruments, Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III, was placed into orbit in December 2001, and data were obtained until March 2006. Measurements were made of the extinction attributable to aerosols and cloud at a number of wavelengths between 290 and 1550 nm. The analysis of data obtained by its predecessor, SAGE II, has shown that an intercomparison of such data at two or more wavelengths may be used to separate the effects of cloud and aerosol. This analysis has been done on a routine basis for many years using SAGE II data at 525 and 1020 nm and applied extensively to global studies of tropospheric cloud and aerosol. Here we describe the aerosol-cloud separation algorithm developed for use with the SAGE III data, which uses the extinction at 525, 1020, and 1550 nm. This algorithm is now being used to produce vertical profiles of cloud presence as a standard SAGE III data product. These profiles have a vertical resolution of 0.5 km and cover the altitude range from 6.0 to 30.0 km, and data are presently available from March 2002 onward. An outline is given of the development of this algorithm, the nature of the SAGE III data, and the algorithm performance. To maintain continuity with SAGE II cloud data, the relative performances of the SAGE II and SAGE III algorithms are also examined. An example of the application of the algorithm to SAGE III tropospheric data is shown and discussed. PMID:17318246

Kent, G S; Sage, K H; Trepte, C R; Wang, P-H

2007-03-10

364

Facing Today's Exploration Challenges in the Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gulf of Mexico represents one of the most intensively explored basins in the world, and yet it still delivers significant new material oil and gas discoveries every year. Because of it high productivity, geologic complexity, competitive acreage access and large profitability margins, the Gulf of Mexico presents many industry-leading challenges to Exploration today. For major companies exploring for oil

R. Detomo

2005-01-01

365

Investigations of the shale gas potential in NE Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

European shale gas exploration is still in its infancy, although the first ideas to search for this unconventional gas resource were published in the 1980s. Today, many companies have included this topic in their research programs and actively explore for shale gas in Europe. Until now, only the US has achieved commercial production of shale gas. The search for shale

A. Hartwig; S. Könitzer; H.-M. Schulz; B. Horsfield

2009-01-01

366

Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tremendous amount of wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge (estimated 20 million metric tons per year in the US) is currently being landfilled at a huge cost to utility companies. Scrubber sludge is the solid precipitate produced during desulfurization of flue-gas from burning high sulfur coal. The amount of this sludge is expected to increase in the near future due

S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele

1997-01-01

367

Model plant boosts production at Big West Texas Gas Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast action in setting up a unit at Coyanosa, West Texas, has made possible a gas-cycling plant at the field that will add 50 million bbl of condensate to ultimate recovery. The pay zone is the rich Wolfcamp formation. The plant is 22 miles NW. of Fort Stockton in Pecos County. The new gas-cycling plant already is on stream, turning

1964-01-01

368

Turbine or electric motor driven gas compressors on production platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results obtained from a study commissioned to ascertain the optimum drive arrangements for the gas compression machinery to be installed on an integrated platform in the North Sea. The study was restricted to two main drive type alternatives: all compressor stages on one shaft driven by a variable speed aeroderivative gas turbine, and all compressor stages

J. M. Overli; R. Magnusson

1983-01-01

369

ANALYSIS OF THERMAL DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS OF FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AGENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of reactions of several flue gas conditioning agents in a laboratory-scale facility simulating conditions in the flue gas train of a coal-burning power plant. Primary purposes of the study were to characterize the chemical species resulting fro...

370

History of hydrocarbon exploration by Shell in East Malaysia  

SciTech Connect

Shell's east Malaysia hydrocarbon exploration history can be viewed in four phases commencing in 1909. Between 1910 and 1954, 40 onshore exploration wells were drilled, resulting in the Miri discovery. In 1956, Shell started offshore exploration by acquiring seismic and gravity data in the Baram Delta. The first offshore exploration well was drilled from a fixed platform in 1957. Availability of mobile drilling rigs, modern seismic technology, and exploration success in the 1960s led to increased exploration such that between 1955 and 1975, 167 exploration wells were drilled by Shell, resulting in 19 oil discoveries and 14 gas discoveries. Petronas changed existing concession and royalties arrangements in 1976 to production sharing contracts (PSC). Under those 1976 PSCs, between 1976 and 1988, Shell drilled 94 exploration wells, resulting in 18 oil discoveries and 12 gas discoveries. In 1985, PSC terms were again changed and Shell subsequently drilled 18 exploration wells, resulting in 2 oil discoveries and 5 gas discoveries.

Seng, T.B. (Sarawak Shell Berhad, Lutong (Malaysia))

1994-07-01

371

Lifecycle greenhouse gas implications of US national scenarios for cellulosic ethanol production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 set an annual US national production goal of 39.7 billion l of cellulosic ethanol by 2020. This paper explores the possibility of meeting that target by growing and processing Miscanthus × giganteus. We define and assess six production scenarios in which active cropland and/or Conservation Reserve Program land are used to grow to Miscanthus. The crop and biorefinery locations are chosen with consideration of economic, land-use, water management and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction objectives. Using lifecycle assessment, the net GHG footprint of each scenario is evaluated, providing insight into the climate costs and benefits associated with each scenario’s objectives. Assuming that indirect land-use change is successfully minimized or mitigated, the results suggest two major drivers for overall GHG impact of cellulosic ethanol from Miscanthus: (a) net soil carbon sequestration or emissions during Miscanthus cultivation and (b) GHG offset credits for electricity exported by biorefineries to the grid. Without these factors, the GHG intensity of bioethanol from Miscanthus is calculated to be 11-13 g CO2-equivalent per MJ of fuel, which is 80-90% lower than gasoline. Including soil carbon sequestration and the power-offset credit results in net GHG sequestration up to 26 g CO2-equivalent per MJ of fuel.

Scown, Corinne D.; Nazaroff, William W.; Mishra, Umakant; Strogen, Bret; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Masanet, Eric; Santero, Nicholas J.; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E.

2012-03-01

372

Numerical, Laboratory And Field Studiesof Gas Production FromNatural Hydrate Accumulations in Geologic Media  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the range of activities at Lawrence BerkeleyNational Laboratory in support of gas production from natural hydrates.Investigations of production from the various classes of hydrate depositsby numerical simulation indicate their significant promise as potentialenergy sources. Laboratory studies are coordinated with the numericalstudies and are designed to address knowledge gaps that are important tothe prediction of gas production. Our involvement in field tests is alsobriefly discussed.

Moridis, George J.; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Kowalsky, Michael; Reagan, Matthew

2006-10-17

373

H. R. 5593: A Bill to maintain the viability of the domestic oil industry by enhancing capital investment and ensuring future oil and gas exploration, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, September 12, 1990  

SciTech Connect

This bill would maintain the viability of the domestic oil industry by enhancing capital investment and ensuring future oil and gas exploration by amending certain sections of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986. The bill describes the following provisions under the title, Percentage depletion and intangible drilling costs: increase in percentage depletion; percentage depletion permitted after transfer of proven property; percentage depletion allowed for stripper well production of integrated producers; net income limitation not to apply to oil or gas wells; and definitions of intangible drilling costs. Under Title II, Domestic energy improvement tax credits, the following tax credits are described: marginal production; exploring for oil or gas; vehicles fueled by clean-burning fuels, property converting vehicles to be so fueled, and facilities for the retail delivery of such fuels; conversion to natural gas equipment; clean fuel alternatives research; and tertiary recovery methods research.

Not Available

1990-01-01

374

Analysis of the product gas from biomass gasification by means of laser spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of biomass and waste for decentralised combined heat and power production (CHP) requires highly efficient gasification processes. In the Technische Universität München (TUM), an innovative gasification technology has been developed. This allothermal gasifier is producing a hydrogen- rich, high-calorific gas, that can be further used in a microturbine or a fuel cell producing energy. For the operation of such a system, the online analysis of the composition of the product gas is of high importance, since the efficient working of the machines is linked with the gas quality. For this purpose an optical measurement system based on laser spectroscopy has been applied. This system can measure not only the basic components of the product gas (H2, CH4, CO, CO2, H2O), but it also gives information concerning the content of high hydrocarbons, the so-called tars, in the product gas.

Karellas, S.; Karl, J.

2007-09-01

375

Drilling and Production Testing the Methane Hydrate Resource Potential Associated with the Barrow Gas Fields  

SciTech Connect

In November of 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Slope Borough (NSB) committed funding to develop a drilling plan to test the presence of hydrates in the producing formation of at least one of the Barrow Gas Fields, and to develop a production surveillance plan to monitor the behavior of hydrates as dissociation occurs. This drilling and surveillance plan was supported by earlier studies in Phase 1 of the project, including hydrate stability zone modeling, material balance modeling, and full-field history-matched reservoir simulation, all of which support the presence of methane hydrate in association with the Barrow Gas Fields. This Phase 2 of the project, conducted over the past twelve months focused on selecting an optimal location for a hydrate test well; design of a logistics, drilling, completion and testing plan; and estimating costs for the activities. As originally proposed, the project was anticipated to benefit from industry activity in northwest Alaska, with opportunities to share equipment, personnel, services and mobilization and demobilization costs with one of the then-active exploration operators. The activity level dropped off, and this benefit evaporated, although plans for drilling of development wells in the BGF's matured, offering significant synergies and cost savings over a remote stand-alone drilling project. An optimal well location was chosen at the East Barrow No.18 well pad, and a vertical pilot/monitoring well and horizontal production test/surveillance well were engineered for drilling from this location. Both wells were designed with Distributed Temperature Survey (DTS) apparatus for monitoring of the hydrate-free gas interface. Once project scope was developed, a procurement process was implemented to engage the necessary service and equipment providers, and finalize project cost estimates. Based on cost proposals from vendors, total project estimated cost is $17.88 million dollars, inclusive of design work, permitting, barging, ice road/pad construction, drilling, completion, tie-in, long-term production testing and surveillance, data analysis and technology transfer. The PRA project team and North Slope have recommended moving forward to the execution phase of this project.

Steve McRae; Thomas Walsh; Michael Dunn; Michael Cook

2010-02-22

376

Geologic and economic case histories of Upper Devonian natural gas production in Pennsylvania  

SciTech Connect

The Upper Devonian gas sands of western Pennsylvania have been commercially exploited since the turn of the century. The economic success of this exploitation may be attributed to the existence of multiply-stacked or en echelon reservoirs. The serendipity of development drilling coupled with multiple reservoirs made drilling for Upper Devonian gas very attractive to operators. As a result of many years of concentrated drilling, a current shortage of Upper Devonian developmental prospects exists and is forcing operators to explore nearshore more sporadically deposited Devonian sand reservoirs. The depositional modeling of developed areas can, however, help identify new prospective areas for exploration and development and increase economic success.

Mangini, K.N.

1988-08-01

377

Adolescent Boys' Grooming Product Use and Perceived Health Risks: An Exploration of Parental Influence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To investigate parental influence on adolescent boys' use and risk-perceptions of using appearance-related products. Design: Using appearance-enhancing products can present a health threat to adolescents, as these products are not only applied to the body, but can also be ingested. Adolescents may look to their parents for information…

Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Jacob, John; Baier, Margaret

2012-01-01

378

Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 States, 1980 through 1995  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to analyze monthly natural gas wellhead productive capacity in the lower 48 States from 1980 through 1992 and project this capacity from 1993 through 1995. For decades, natural gas supplies and productive capacity have been adequate to meet demand. In the 1970`s the capacity surplus was small because of market structure (split between interstate and intrastate), increasing demand, and insufficient drilling. In the early 1980`s, lower demand, together with increased drilling, led to a large surplus capacity as new productive capacity came on line. After 1986, this large surplus began to decline as demand for gas increased, gas prices fell, and gas well completions dropped sharply. In late December 1989, the decline in this surplus, accompanied by exceptionally high demand and temporary weather-related production losses, led to concerns about the adequacy of monthly productive capacity for natural gas. These concerns should have been moderated by the gas system`s performance during the unusually severe winter weather in March 1993 and January 1994. The declining trend in wellhead productive capacity is expected to be reversed in 1994 if natural gas prices and drilling meet or exceed the base case assumption. This study indicates that in the low, base, and high drilling cases, monthly productive capacity should be able to meet normal production demands through 1995 in the lower 48 States (Figure ES1). Exceptionally high peak-day or peak-week production demand might not be met because of physical limitations such as pipeline capacity. Beyond 1995, as the capacity of currently producing wells declines, a sufficient number of wells and/or imports must be added each year in order to ensure an adequate gas supply.

Not Available

1994-07-14

379

Production of Commodity Chemicals from Natural Gas by Methane Chlorination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ethylene and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) can be produced from natural gas through methane chlorination by reacting methane and chlorine at 900 C or higher. Experimental results indicate total ethylene equivalent yield from methane of 45% (wt) and margina...

F. Giacobbe R. G. Minet S. C. Che S. L. Mullick

1987-01-01

380

Comparative Assessment of Advanced Gas Hydrate Production Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Displacing natural gas and petroleum with carbon dioxide is a proven technology for producing conventional geologic hydrocarbon reservoirs, and producing additional yields from abandoned or partially produced petroleum reservoirs. Extending this concept t...

B. P. McGrail M. D. White S. K. Wurstner

2009-01-01

381

The simulation of nature gas production from ocean gas hydrate reservoir by depressurization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vast amount of hydrocarbon gas encaged in gas hydrates is regarded as a kind of future potential energy supply due to\\u000a its wide deposition and cleanness. How to exploit gas hydrate with safe, effective and economical methods is being pursued.\\u000a In this paper, a mathematical model is developed to simulate the hydrate dissociation by depressurization in hydrate-bearing\\u000a porous medium.

YuHu Bai; QingPing Li; XiangFang Li; Yan Du

2008-01-01

382

Exploring Ovulation & Pregnancy Using Over-the-Counter Products: A Novel Guided Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this guided inquiry, students explore the complex hormonal regulation of the female reproductive cycle using inexpensive ovulation and pregnancy detection kits that are readily available over the counter. This hands-on activity engages students in the practice of doing science as highlighted by the "National Science Education Standards." The…

Venditti, Jennifer J.; Surmacz, Cynthia A.

2012-01-01

383

Advances in the Application of Biostratigraphy to Petroleum Exploration and Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum exploration routinely employs biostratigraphic zones in dating rock units. As the world's hydrocarbon basins mature, most of its subsurface uncertainties lie at reservoir scale, hence the need for a change of strategy in the application of biostratigraphy. This gave rise to \\

G. O. Giwa; A. C. Oyede; E. A. Okosun

384

Visual Representation of Concepts: Exploring Users' and Designers' Concepts of Everyday Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the question on how to enhance the design of user-artefact interaction at the initial stages of the design process, this study focuses on exploring the differences between designers and users in regard to their concepts of an artefact usage. It also considers that human experience determines people's knowledge and concepts of the artefacts they interact with, and broadens

Marianella Chamorro-Ko; Vesna Popovic; Michael Emmison

385

Analysis of exploration, development and production activity on Federal outer continental shelf leases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently passed Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978 reconfirmed Congress' desire to ensure that persons holding Federal Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases act in a diligent manner to explore and develop the resources on these leases. Since the Secretary of Energy is responsible for issuing regulations that establish diligence requirements for operations on Federal leases, the Leasing

J. A. Gribbin; G. M. Kaitz; S. W. Edwards; K. W. Erickson

1979-01-01

386

Biofuels Bonanza?: Exploring community perceptions of the promises and perils of biofuels production  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the expansion of the biofuels industry has received scholarly attention with respect to environmental and food security concerns, little research has explored the impacts of biofuels industry on local communities where ethanol plants are located. Drawing on sociology of networks and flows theory to situate expansion of the industry globally, this paper uses a community case study approach to

Theresa Selfa; Laszlo Kulcsar; Carmen Bain; Richard Goe; Gerad Middendorf

2011-01-01

387

Wielding new media in Web 2.0: exploring the history of engagement with the collaborative construction of media products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores what is new about Web 2.0, the contemporary cutting-edge platform for web development, differentiating between what is celebrated in the discourse of Web 2.0 and what is genuinely novel about this phenomenon, which is users' propensity to construct content in the form of information and media products for the web environment. It argues that, from the perspective

TERESA M. HARRISON; B. Barthel

2009-01-01

388

Depressurization-induced gas production from Class 1 and Class 2hydrate deposits  

SciTech Connect

Class 1 hydrate deposits are characterized by a Hydrate-Bearing Layer (HBL) underlain by a two-phase zone involving mobile gas. Such deposits are further divided to Class 1W (involving water and hydrate in the HBL) and Class 1G (involving gas and hydrate in the HBL). In Class 2 deposits, a mobile water zone underlies the hydrate zone. Methane is the main hydrate-forming gas in natural accumulations. Using TOUGH-FX/HYDRATE to study the depressurization-induced gas production from such deposits, we determine that large volumes of gas could be readily produced at high rates for long times using conventional technology. Dissociation in Class 1W deposits proceeds in distinct stages, but is continuous in Class 1G deposits. Hydrates are shown to contribute significantly to the production rate (up to 65 percent and 75 percent in Class 1W and 1G, respectively) and to the cumulative volume of produced gas (up to 45 percent and 54 percent in Class 1W and 1G, respectively). Large volumes of hydrate-originating CH4 could be produced from Class 2 hydrates, but a relatively long lead time would be needed before gas production (which continuously increases over time) attains a substantial level. The permeability of the confining boundaries plays a significant role in gas production from Class 2 deposits. In general, long-term production is needed to realize the full potential of the very promising Class 1 and Class 2 hydrate deposits.

Moridis, George J.; Kowalsky, Michael

2006-05-12

389

40 CFR Table W-1b to Subpart W of... - Default Average Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment W Table...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Pt. 98, Subpt. W...Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment Major...

2013-07-01

390

Product gas reservoirs for cyclic char burning engines and gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

A cyclic char fuel burning power reactor (CFR) is described, comprising: at least one combined means for compressing and expanding gases, each comprising: an internal combustion engine (ICE) mechanism comprising a variable volume chamber (VVC) for compressing and expanding gases, and drive means for driving the ICE mechanism and for varying the volume of the chamber through repeated cycles and each the combined means being connected to a separate primary reaction chamber (PRC), within a pressure vessel container, each the PRC comprising: a refuel end with a mechanism for supplying fresh char fuel (CF) particles into the refuel end, an ash collection end, a CF direction of motion from the refuel end toward the ash removal end, a CF preheat zone positioned toward the refuel end, a rapid reaction zone positioned between the CF preheat zone and the ash collection zone, and at least one means for removing ashes; the CFR further comprising a source of supply of reactant gas containing appreciable oxygen gas to each the intake means for admitting reactant gases into the VVC; means for preheating the CF within the PRC to that temperature at which the CF reacts rapidly with oxygen in adjacent compressed reactant gases when the CFR is being started; means for cranking the ICE mechanism when the CFR is being started; an improvement comprising adding to each the PRC a reactant gas manifold comprising an inlet and an outlet; a producer gas reservoir (pgr) wherein all of the reactant gas inlet ports and also all of the outlet ports are smaller in at least one area cross section dimension than the CF particles to be refueled into the PRC; means for gas flow connecting the VVC of the ICE mechanism to the PRC so that during all compression time intervals gas flows from the VVC into the PRC via the reactant gas manifold inlet and gas flows from the PRC into the pgr; and further so that during all expansion time intervals gas flows from the pgr and the PRC into the VVC.

Firey, J.C.

1993-06-08

391

Gas, Water, and Oil Production from the Wasatch Formation, Greater Natural Buttes Field, Uinta Basin, Utah.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from 38 wells with production commencing during the 1980s from the Wasatch Formation in the Greater Natural Buttes field, Uinta Basin, Utah. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid product...

E. L. Hoffman P. H. Nelson

2009-01-01

392

Early Production From Some Devonian Shale Gas Wells Stimulated With Several Kinds of Explosive Charge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early cumulative production from Devonian Shale gas wells stimulated with a high energy water gel explosive averaged 2 times that from nearby wells stimulated with dynamite. From an estimate of production loss due to well damage done by post-shot drilling in the shot zone, it is concluded that production from the wells stimulated with water gel would have averaged 5

D. L. Coursen

1983-01-01

393

Controls of coal fabric on coalbed gas production and compositional shift in both field production and canister desorption tests  

SciTech Connect

The production rates of coalbed gas wells commonly vary significantly, even in the same field with similar reservoir permeability and gas content. The compositional variation in produced gas is also not everywhere predictable, although in most fields produced gas becomes progressively enriched in CO, through the production life of a reservoir, such as parts of the San Juan basin. In contrast, it is generally observed that the ratio of CO{sub 2}:CH{sub 4} declines with time during field and laboratory desorption testing of coal cores. In this study, we investigate numerically the importance of coal fabric, namely cleat spacing and aperture width, on the performance of coalbed gas wells and gas compositional shifts during production. Because of the cubic relationship between fracture permeability and fracture aperture width (and thus fracture porosity) for a given cleat permeability, the production profile of coal seams varies depending on whether the permeability is distributed among closely spaced fractures (cleat) with narrower apertures or more widely spaced fractures (cleat) with wider apertures. There is a lower fracture porosity for coal with widely spaced fractures than for coal with closely spaced fractures. Therefore, the relative permeability to gas increases more rapidly for coals with more widely spaced cleats as less dewatering from fractures is required, assuming that the fractures are initially water saturated. The enrichment of CO{sub 2} in the production gas with time occurs because of the stronger adsorption of coals for CO{sub 2} than CH{sub 4}. However, during desorption of coal cores, CO{sub 2} desorbs more rapidly than methane because desorption rate is governed more by diffusion than by sorption affinity, and CO{sub 2} has much higher effective diffusivity in microporous coals than CH{sub 4}.

Cui, X.J.; Bustin, R.M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2006-03-15

394

Using production-based plays in the northern Gulf of Mexico as a hydrocarbon exploration tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Minerals Management Service has described more than 100 plays in the northern Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf encompassing approximately 1,100 fields and over 9,500 productive sands. Plays are defined by a combination of production, chronostratigraphy, lighostratigraphy, and structural style. Cumulative production from these plays as of December 1993 is 9.01 billion barrels of oil and 107.7 trillion cubic

G. L. Lore; E. C. Batchelder

1995-01-01

395

30 CFR 206.174 - How do I value gas production when an index-based method cannot be used?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I value gas production when an index-based method cannot be...MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas Ā§ 206.174 How do I value gas production when an index-based method cannot...

2010-07-01

396

30 CFR 206.174 - How do I value gas production when an index-based method cannot be used?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false How do I value gas production when an index-based method cannot be...MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas Ā§ 206.174 How do I value gas production when an index-based method cannot...

2009-07-01

397

Methane hydrate gas production: an assessment of conventional production technology as applied to hydrate gas recovery. [Thermal stimulation; hydraulic frac; salt-frac  

SciTech Connect

Two fairly straightforward thermal-stimulation models have been developed to bracket the expected gas production from a methane hydrate reservoir. The frontal-sweep model represents the upper bound on hydrate gas production and the fracture-flow model represents the lower bound. Parametric studies were made with these two models to determine the importance of a number of variables, including porosity, bed thickness, injection temperature, and fracture length. A one-dimensional porous flow model was developed to approximate the hydrate gas production by pressure reduction from a hydraulically fractured well. Parametric studies were made with this decompression model to determine the importance of a number of variables, including porosity, initial formation temperature, bottomhole producing pressure, and the permeability in both the hydrated sediment and in the region in which the hydrate has been dissociated. Because the decompression model gave very encouraging results, a fracture-stimulation technique suitable for this production method was developed. The salt-frac described should make the production of hydrate gas feasible even at temperatures well below 32/sup 0/F.

McGuire, P.L.

1981-11-01

398

Multi-step chemical and radiation process for the production of gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-step chemical and radiation process for the production of gas which includes mixing water and chlorine gas, heating the mixture to a temperature of about 800Ā°C. to produce hydrogen chloride and oxygen and subjecting the hydrogen chloride to radiation to produce hydrogen and chlorine gas. The process also includes the recycling of the resulting halogen into the basic process.

1979-01-01

399

Exploring the Complexities of Children's Inquiries in Science: Knowledge Production Through Participatory Practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beginning with the assumption that young children are capable of producing unprecedented knowledges about science phenomena, this paper explores the complexities of children's inquiries within open-ended investigations. I ask two central questions: (1) how can we (teachers, researchers, and children themselves) use and build upon children's explorations in science in practice? and (2) what pedagogical approaches can position children as experts on their experiences to facilitate children's sense of ownership in the process of learning science? Six vignettes from a Kindergarten classroom are analyzed to elaborate the central claim of this work, which is that when children are engaged in collaborative open-ended activities, science emerges from their interactions. Open-ended structures allowed for teachers and children to facilitate further investigations collaboratively, and participatory structures mediated children's representations and explanations of their investigations. Evidence of children's interactions is used to illustrate the complexities of children's explorations, and pedagogical approaches that create the spaces for children to create knowledge are highlighted.

Siry, Christina

2013-06-01

400

College students' attitudes toward shopping online for apparel products : Exploring a rural versus urban campus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To study college students' attitudes toward and behavioral intention of shopping online for apparel products by using the theory of reasoned action. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Focus group interviews and a literature review identified specific items of interest related to the desirability of shopping online for apparel products. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to two groups of respondents: college

Yingjiao Xu; V. Ann Paulins

2005-01-01

401

Exploring human centred approaches in market research and product development: three case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can human centred approaches in market research and product development improve the process and results of innovation? Based on case studies two recommendations are formulated: 1) use a comprehensive view on man for studying people's behaviour, needs and wishes while they use products or services; and 2) employ an open dialogue and cooperation between the project's client, people in

Marc Steen; Nicole de Koning; Arlette Pikaart

2004-01-01

402

Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content  

DOEpatents

A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

Najjar, Mitri S. (Hopewell Junction, NY); Corbeels, Roger J. (Wappingers Falls, NY); Kokturk, Uygur (Wappingers Falls, NY)

1989-01-01

403

Gas production and behavior in the coolant of the SP100 space nuclear power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiologic generation and subsequent behavior of helium gas in the lithium coolant of SP-100 class space nuclear power reactors was investigated analytically in a two part study. Part One of the study consisted of a calculation of coolant radiologic helium gas production rates in a SP-100 class reactor using the discrete ordinates code TWODANT. Cross sections were developed from

John Morton McGhee

1989-01-01

404

Gas production and nitrogen digestion by rumen microbes from deer and sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates at which gas was produced by rumen microbes from red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sheep were measured in vitro. The objective was to test the hypothesis that the lower frequency of rumen eructation contractions in deer, compared to sheep and other ruminants, may have been associated with a lower rate of gas production. Two sheep and two deer

G. C. Waghorn; K. J. Stafford

1993-01-01

405

Black shale gas production. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative approach was taken to analysis of shale gas production from the Cottageville Field of Jackson County, West Virginia. Slickensides were generally considered to be compaction features, but analysis clearly shows that most are related to regional tectonics. Regional analyses and possible ramifications of this discovery to the Eastern Gas Shales program are discussed.

R. C. Shumaker; K. G. Kirk; E. B. Nuckols; B. R. Long; T. H. Wilson; J. M. Dixon; J. N. de Wys

1978-01-01

406

Identification of gas-productive shale intervals in upper Devonian of southern Appalachian basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Devonian shale gas production is influenced strongly by lithology as well as gas saturation. Petrographic analysis reveals five rock types in the shale interval: (1) clean sandstones and siltstones, (2) shaly sandstones and siltstones, (3) silty shales, (4) gray shales, and (5) black shales. The permeability of each is a function of pore geometry. Rocks with the highest permeabilities are

R. K. Vessell; R. L. Jr. Campbell; D. K. Davies; R. B. Truman; R. J. Scheper

1989-01-01

407

Study of Devonian Shale Gas Geology and Production in West Virginia, Kentucky, and Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas Research Inst. (GRI) is sponsoring research by the West Virginia, Kentucky, and Ohio state geologic surveys so that they may provide Appalachian basin operators with studies of Devonian shale geology, completion techniques, and gas production. The study area encompasses 16 West Virginia, 25 Kentucky, and 5 Ohio counties. Major portions of the investigation are complete and can be obtained

Richard Scheper; Stephen Meyers

1988-01-01

408

International oil and gas development, 1964 review. Volume 35. Part 2: production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1965 annual yearbook review, covering 1964 activity presents oil and gas production by fields, oil and gas pipeline construction, refinery operation, and gasoline, carbon black, recycling and repressuring plants in the US, Mexico, Canada, and most foreign countries. General areas are listed, such as Alaska, California Coastal, or Louisiana, N. These areas are listed alphabetically in the index found

Heins

1965-01-01

409

West Siberia and Far East Natural Gas Production Strategy: key provisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a forecast of the natural gas production and processing in the Eastern Siberia and Far East; calculates the development parameters in the oil processing and petrochemical sectors according to the plans and forecasts for oil industry; identifies the gas deliveries routes; assesses the fiscal and commercial effectiveness of investments; and formulates and validates the conditions due to

A. E. Kantorovich

2009-01-01

410

METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY: PRODUCTION AND TRANSMISSION EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a co-funded, Gas Research Institute/EPA project to quantify methane emissions to the atmosphere resulting from operations in the natural gas industry. tudy results will measure or calculate all methane emissions, from production at the well and up to, but not ...

411

Evaluation of Naturally Fractured Gas Shale Production Utilizing Multiwell Transient Tests: A Field Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of multiple well transient tests were conducted in a Devonian shale gas field in Meigs County, Ohio. Production parameters were quantified and it was determined that the reservoir is highly anisotropic, which is a significant factor in calculating half-fracture length from pressure transient data. Three stimulation treatments, including conventional explosive shooting, nitrogen foam frac, and high energy gas

Chih-Cheng Chen; Javaid Alam; J. P. Vozniak; T. L. Blanton

1984-01-01

412

Annual report of the origin of natural gas liquids production form EIA-64A  

SciTech Connect

The collection of basic, verifiable information on the Nation`s reserves and production of natural gas liquids (NGL) is mandated by the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (FEAA) (Public Law 93-275) and the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91). Gas shrinkage volumes reported on Form EIA-64A by natural gas processing plant operators are used with natural gas data collected on a {open_quotes}wet after lease separation{close_quotes} basis on Form EIA-23, Annual Survey of Domestic Oil and Gas Reserves, to estimate {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} natural gas reserves and production volumes regionally and nationally. The shrinkage data are also used, along with the plant liquids production data reported on Form EIA-64A, and lease condensate data reported on Form EIA-23, to estimate regional and national gas liquids reserves and production volumes. This information is the only comprehensive source of credible natural gas liquids data, and is required by DOE to assist in the formulation of national energy policies.

NONE

1995-12-31

413

Oil and gas leasing\\/production program. Annual report, FY 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the Congress declared in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act the natural gas and oil production from the Outer Continental Shelf constitutes an important part of the Nation`s domestic energy supply. Federal offshore minerals are administered within the Department of the Interior by the Minerals Management Service (MMS), which provides access to potential new sources of natural gas and

Heimberger

1992-01-01

414

Workshop in environmental issues associated with western hemisphere oil and gas production  

SciTech Connect

Representatives from several U.S. and Latin American oil and gas companies, and government representatives, met in Montevideo, Uruguay, on May 4-6, 1994, to discuss regulation, cooperation, and management of environmental issues associated with oil and gas production. This report presents a brief summary of the topics discussed at the meeting.

NONE

1994-12-31

415

Kaasuturbiinin kaeyttoe hierteen ja hiokkeen valmistukseen. (Gas turbines in the production of TMP and groundwood).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study examines the application of gas turbines for driving refiners and pressure grinders. Use of a gas turbine does not affect the quality of the pulp or the annual production rate; on the other hand, it greatly increases the amount of heat that has ...

A. Niemi

1988-01-01

416

Production of synthesis gas from heavy hydrocarbon fuels containing high metal concentrations  

SciTech Connect

Heavy hydrocarbon fuel containing high metal concentrations and all of the soot which is rich in metals that is produced in the system, are feedstocks in a partial oxidation process for the simultaneous continuous production of two streams of cleaned, raw synthesis gas having high and low H/sub 2/O/dry gas mole ratios, respectively. In the process, all of the stream of hot, raw synthesis gas containing entrained particulate carbon and ash that is produced in a first gas generator is quench cooled and scrubbed with water in a quench tank. Simultaneously, split streams of hot raw synthesis gas containing entrained particulate carbon and ash are produced in a second gas generator. One split gas stream is quench cooled and scrubbed with water in a quench tank while the other split gas stream is simultaneously cooled in a convection-type gas cooler and then scrubbed with water. All of the soot recovered from the quench cooling and scrubbing waters in the process is recycled to the first gas generator as a portion of the reactant fuel feed. Fouling and plugging of the tubes of a convection-type gas cooler associated with the second gas generator is prevented.

Marion, C.P.; Jahnke, F.C.

1983-10-25

417

Interpretation of Gas Production Curves from Comet 103P/Hartley 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will show that gas production curves, Doppler line shifts and spectral interferometric maps can be explained from geometric considerations, taking into account the shape and rotational state of 103P's nucleus and the high activity of the small lobe.

Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Zakharov, V.; Groussin, O.; Biver, N.; Boissier, J.

2012-05-01

418

Oil and gas leasing/production program: Annual report/FY 1989  

SciTech Connect

As the Congress declares in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA), the oil and gas production from the outer Continental Shelf (OCS) constitutes an important part of the Nation's domestic energy supply. (See Introduction, page 1.) The OCS is administered within the Department of the Interior, by the Minerals Management Service (MMS), which provides access to potential new sources of oil and gas offshore by conducting lease sales. (See MMS Organizational Chart.) Each year, on or before March 31, the MMS as mandated by OCSLA, presents to Congress a fiscal year annual report on the OCS oil and gas leasing and production program. In FY 1989, the MMS with its OCS oil and gas leasing and production program was the fourth largest producer of revenue for the US treasury at more than $2.9 billion. This report summarizes the leasing and production activities on the OCS during FY 1989. 11 figs., 10 tabs.

Not Available

1990-03-31

419

Enterprise, Shell scheduled to explore Romanian acreage  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the pace of exploration is packing up in Romania's offshore and onshore sectors. Enterprise Oil Exploration Ltd., London, signed an exploration and production sharing agreement with state owned Rompetrol SA for two Black Sea blocks, Nos. XIII and XV, covering 3,000 sq km and 4,000 sq km, respectively. Shell Romania Exploration BV agreed with Rompetrol on an exploration and production sharing agreement for onshore Block 10. This covers 6,150 sq km in northern Transylvania. Shell's target will be deep formations underlying producing gas zones. Enterprise has a 65% share as operator of Blocks XIII and XV, while partner CanadianOxy (Romania) Ltd. holds the remaining 35%. Exploration and development costs will be borne by the license partners, while Rompetrol will take a share of any production.

Not Available

1992-08-17

420

Changes in Gas Production and Retention in Non-Prefermented Frozen Wheat Doughs1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 73(4):472-477 The effect of freezing conditions, flour protein content, yeast type, -20'C for the same period. The risograph total gas production was water amount, and freeze-thaw cycles during storage on rheological decreased by 33.4% for frozen dough after four weeks storage. More- properties and gas production in non-prefermented frozen wheat doughs over, the reduction was 49.7% as a

E. A. EL-HADY; S. K. EL-SAMAHY; W. SEIBEL; J.-M. BRUMMER

421

Power and resource-saving process for producing syngas from natural gas in methanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of methanol production from syngas without feedstock recirculation flowing under constant pressure is carried\\u000a out. Natural gas from Yamal deposits (Russian Federation) is used as feedstock. The catalytic conversion of natural gas to\\u000a syngas is studied experimentally. The kinetic models of the reactions of steam conversion of methane and the model of the\\u000a catalytic reactor for syngas production

E. V. Pisarenko; V. N. Pisarenko

2011-01-01

422

Shifting post production patterns: exploring changes in New Zealand's seafood processing industry.  

PubMed

This paper examines the changing nature of New Zealand's seafood companies' production practices. The past 15 years has seen the offshore outsourcing of post-harvest fish gain unprecedented momentum. The growth in offshore processing is a further stage in an increasingly globalised fisheries value chain. Fish is head and gutted, frozen and then transported to processing sites in China where it is thawed, value-added processed and refrozen for export to the original sourcing country or third country markets. Reasons advanced by the industry for this shift in production practices include quota reductions, increasing production costs and the sale of trawlers. PMID:22250304

Stringer, Christina; Simmons, Glenn; Rees, Eugene

2011-01-01

423

Marine transportation of LNG (liquified natural gas) and related products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book deals with the technical and practical aspects of contemporary marine transportation, tanker design for specialty cargoes, safety standards, and what the petroleum industry is doing to drastically reduce accidental oil spills in rivers, estuaries, and oceans of the world. A great deal of effort has been expended to thoroughly explain the nature of liquefied natural gas--what it is,

Wooler

1975-01-01

424

Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A tremendous amount of wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge (estimated 20 million metric tons per year in the US) is currently being landfilled at a huge cost to utility companies. Scrubber sludge is the solid precipitate produced during desulfuri...

S. K. Kawatra T. C. Eisele

1997-01-01

425

Geothermal energy production utilizing abandoned oil and gas wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of acquiring geothermal energy from existing abandoned oil and gas wells. The equations describing the heat exchange between fluid and rocks are developed, and parametric studies are conducted in order to specify the optimum values of the main parameters. Computational results indicate that the geothermal energy produced from abandoned wells

Xianbiao Bu; Weibin Ma; Huashan Li

426

Agricultural By-products as Mercury Adsorbents in Gas Applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increased emphasis on reduction of mercury emissions from coal fired electric power plans have resulted in environmental regulations that may in the future require application of activated carbons as mercury sorbents. The sorbents could be injected into the flue gas stream where is adsorbs the merc...

427

Pulsed Power Production of Ozone Using Nonthermal Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

zone is increasingly being used in a large number of diverse applications as an alternative to other oxi- dants such as chlorine, peroxides, permanganates and dichromates, due to its better environmental compati- bility. Generally, ozone is generated with high voltage ac in a corona gas discharge. A dielectric barrier made of a glass tube is usually placed adjacent either to

W. J. M. Samaranayake; T. Namihira; S. Katsuki; Y. Miyahara; T. Sakugawa

2001-01-01

428

Thermocatalytic processing of mixed vapor\\/gas products from the semicoking shale-kukersite. 2. Polyphosphate catalysis in the thermocatalytic processing of vapor\\/gas semicoking products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution presents further experimental and theoretical data on the usefulness of thermocatalytically processing the entire vapor\\/gas product mixture from the semicoking of shale, with a view to enriching it with certain classes of compounds, notably water-soluble alkylresorcinols (AR). A correlation analysis of the strength and concentration of acid centers versus the degradative activity of catalysts has shown the way

N. V. Koroleva; I. V. Solodovnikova

1992-01-01

429

Integrated Approach To Explore the Potential of Marine Microorganisms for the Production of Bioactive Metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 10 years marine organisms have provided a large number of new natural products. Interesting compounds have\\u000a mainly been derived from macroorganisms such as sponges, ascidians, corals and bryozoans. The number of secondary metabolites\\u000a from marine microorganisms is smaller, but rapidly increasing. Because of the enormous difficulties involved in harvesting\\u000a products from marine animals, and the fact that

Irene Wagner-Döbler; Winfried Beil; Siegmund Lang; Marinus Meiners; Hartmut Laatsch

430

A Tropical Marine Microbial Natural Products Geobibliography as an Example of Desktop Exploration of Current Research Using Web Visualisation Tools  

PubMed Central

Microbial marine biodiscovery is a recent scientific endeavour developing at a time when information and other technologies are also undergoing great technical strides. Global visualisation of datasets is now becoming available to the world through powerful and readily available software such as Worldwind™, ArcGIS Explorer™ and Google Earth™. Overlaying custom information upon these tools is within the hands of every scientist and more and more scientific organisations are making data available that can also be integrated into these global visualisation tools. The integrated global view that these tools enable provides a powerful desktop exploration tool. Here we demonstrate the value of this approach to marine microbial biodiscovery by developing a geobibliography that incorporates citations on tropical and near-tropical marine microbial natural products research with Google Earth™ and additional ancillary global data sets. The tools and software used are all readily available and the reader is able to use and install the material described in this article.

Mukherjee, Joydeep; Llewellyn, Lyndon E; Evans-Illidge, Elizabeth A

2008-01-01

431

Impact of offshore oil exploration and production on the Social Institutions of Coastal Louisiana. University research initiative. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The research contained in the report considers the relationship of oil production--a primary economic activity--to five social institutions: the family; poverty and social service provision; communities; government; and the political economy. Findings suggest a direct impact of offshore oil and gas production on these institutions. The impact is both positive and negative. It is long-term as well as short-term. It affects different institutions and sub-populations differently. The effects are on the entire state, not just the area directly involved with oil production. Mitigation recommendations range from research, data collection, impact monitoring, a national policy requiring the use of American contractors, the sharing of severance taxes with the affected area, the escrowing of monies by oil companies, and the expansion of government assistance to mitigate impacts.

Laska, S.; Baxter, V.K.; Seydlitz, R.; Thayer, R.E.; Brabant, S.

1993-08-01

432

Gas production from a cold, stratigraphically-bounded gas hydrate deposit at the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Implications of uncertainties  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of an effort to identify suitable targets for a planned long-term field test, we investigate by means of numerical simulation the gas production potential from unit D, a stratigraphically bounded (Class 3) permafrost-associated hydrate occurrence penetrated in the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well on North Slope, Alaska. This shallow, low-pressure deposit has high porosities (?? = 0.4), high intrinsic permeabilities (k = 10-12 m2) and high hydrate saturations (SH = 0.65). It has a low temperature (T = 2.3-2.6 ??C) because of its proximity to the overlying permafrost. The simulation results indicate that vertical wells operating at a constant bottomhole pressure would produce at very low rates for a very long period. Horizontal wells increase gas production by almost two orders of magnitude, but production remains low. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the initial deposit temperature is by the far the most important factor determining production performance (and the most effective criterion for target selection) because it controls the sensible heat available to fuel dissociation. Thus, a 1 ??C increase in temperature is sufficient to increase the production rate by a factor of almost 8. Production also increases with a decreasing hydrate saturation (because of a larger effective permeability for a given k), and is favored (to a lesser extent) by anisotropy. ?? 2010.

Moridis, G. J.; Silpngarmlert, S.; Reagan, M. T.; Collett, T.; Zhang, K.

2011-01-01

433

Achieving high peak capacity production for gas chromatography and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography by minimizing off-column peak broadening.  

PubMed

By taking into consideration band broadening theory and using those results to select experimental conditions, and also by reducing the injection pulse width, peak capacity production (i.e., peak capacity per separation time) is substantially improved for one dimensional (1D-GC) and comprehensive two dimensional (GC×GC) gas chromatography. A theoretical framework for determining the optimal linear gas velocity (the linear gas velocity producing the minimum H), from experimental parameters provides an in-depth understanding of the potential for GC separations in the absence of extra-column band broadening. The extra-column band broadening is referred to herein as off-column band broadening since it is additional band broadening not due to the on-column separation processes. The theory provides the basis to experimentally evaluate and improve temperature programmed 1D-GC separations, but in order to do so with a commercial 1D-GC instrument platform, off-column band broadening from injection and detection needed to be significantly reduced. Specifically for injection, a resistively heated transfer line is coupled to a high-speed diaphragm valve to provide a suitable injection pulse width (referred to herein as modified injection). Additionally, flame ionization detection (FID) was modified to provide a data collection rate of 5kHz. The use of long, relatively narrow open tubular capillary columns and a 40°C/min programming rate were explored for 1D-GC, specifically a 40m, 180?m i.d. capillary column operated at or above the optimal average linear gas velocity. Injection using standard auto-injection with a 1:400 split resulted in an average peak width of ?1.5s, hence a peak capacity production of 40peaks/min. In contrast, use of modified injection produced ?500ms peak widths for 1D-GC, i.e., a peak capacity production of 120peaks/min (a 3-fold improvement over standard auto-injection). Implementation of modified injection resulted in retention time, peak width, peak height, and peak area average RSD%'s of 0.006, 0.8, 3.4, and 4.0%, respectively. Modified injection onto the first column of a GC×GC coupled with another high-speed valve injection onto the second column produced an instrument with high peak capacity production (500-800peaks/min), ?5-fold to 8-fold higher than typically reported for GC×GC. PMID:21255787

Wilson, Ryan B; Siegler, W Christopher; Hoggard, Jamin C; Fitz, Brian D; Nadeau, Jeremy S; Synovec, Robert E

2011-01-04

434

Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid.

Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya

2006-06-01

435

Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid  

SciTech Connect

We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid.

Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Shikoku Industry and Technology Promotion Center, 2-5 Marunouchi, Takamatsu, Kagawa 760-0033 (Japan)

2006-06-05

436

Plastic plugbacks can extend oil and gas well productive life  

SciTech Connect

A high rate of successful water reduction has been documented in 21 plastic plugbacks performed on gravel-packed oil and gas well completions in the Gulf of Mexico. This electric wireline plugback method is unique because it is performed inside gravel pack assemblies, utilizing plastic instead of cement. This article presents a case study of field results from 21 jobs performed by Tenneco/Chevron.

Rice, R.T. (Chevron U.S.A. Inc. (US))

1991-11-01

437

Updating turbine of synthesis gas compression unit for ammonia production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article an examination has been made of the problems that arise during operation of the R32\\/15-9.9\\/4.1 type of steam\\u000a turbine of the synthesis gas compressor of the enterprise Minudobreniya in Rossosh, Russia, due to high vibration levels that\\u000a cause emergency stoppage of the unit on account of failure of the standard sliding (plain) support bearings. The causes of

V. G. Getsman; K. V. Gordienko; P. V. Lebedev; V. S. Martsinkovskii; I. E. Kukharev; V. I. Yurko; I. V. Ovseiko

2010-01-01

438

Gas Production From a Class 3 Hydrate Deposit at the Mount Elbert Site, North Slope, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amounts of hydrocarbon gases trapped in natural hydrate accumulations are enormous, leading to a recent interest in the evaluation of their potential as an energy source. Recent studies have provided strong indications that it is possible to produce large volumes of gas from natural hydrate deposits at high rates for long times from gas hydrate accumulations by means of depressurization-induced dissociation using conventional technology. In this study we investigate by means of numerical simulation the gas production potential from Unit D, a Class 3 permafrost hydrate deposit at the Mount Elbert Site in North Slope, Alaska. Class 3 deposits are characterized by the absence of hydrate-free zones of mobile reservoir fluids. The hydrate-bearing formation in Unit D begins at a depth of 616 m, is about 11 m thick, is bounded by nearly impermeable shale layers, and has a high porosity, permeability and hydrate saturation. Because of its proximity to the permafrost, its temperature is low, i.e., 2.3 - 2.6 °C. Our numerical simulation studies indicate that gas production using vertical wells is seriously inhibited by the low temperature and the limited thickness of the deposit, resulting in low production rates and very long times (several years) before production rates reach levels of commercial viability. Conversely, the use of appropriately placed horizontal wells leads to dramatic increases in gas production from this deposit, and appears to be the only practical alternative for viable gas production from this hydrate accumulation. The sensitivity of gas production to various properties and parameters is also analyzed. These include the magnitude of the hydraulic properties (permeability and porosity), the anisotropy and heterogeneity in their spatial distribution, the heterogeneity in the distribution of the hydrate saturation, the effect of nonzero permeability is the shale boundaries, and operational parameters defining the production strategy.

Moridis, G. J.; Reagan, M. T.; Silpngarmlert, S.; Zhang, K.

2008-12-01

439

Production of sulfur from sulfur dioxide obtained from flue gas  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a regenerable process for recovery of elemental sulfur from a gas containing sulfur dioxide comprising the steps of: contacting the gas with an aqueous, alkaline reaction medium containing sodium sulfite in concentration sufficient so that a slurry containing solid sodium sulfide is formed to react sulfur dioxide with sodium sulfite to form a solution containing dissolved sodium pyrosulfite and sodium sulfite; separating sulfur dioxide from the solution produced to leave a residual mixture containing water, sodium sulfite and a sodium pyrosulfite, the amount of sulfur dioxide separated being equal to about one-third the amount of sulfur dioxide which reacted with sodium sulfite; adding, in substantial absence of air, sufficient water and sodium bicarbonate to the residual mixture to react with the dissolved sodium pyrsulfide and form a slurry of solid sodium sulfite suspended in the resulting aqueous, alkaline reaction medium and gaseous carbon dioxide; separating the gaseous carbon dioxide; separating the solid sodium sulfite from the aqueous alkaline reaction medium and recycling the separated reaction medium; reducing the separated sodium sulfite to sodium sulfide; adding the sodium sulfide to an aqueous reaction medium containing sodium bicarbonate and, in the substantial absence of air, carbonating the resulting mixture with the gaseous carbon dioxide to form a slurry of solid particles of sodium bicarbonate dispersed in an aqueous reactor medium containing sodium bicarbonate, along with a gas composed primarily of hydrogen sulfide.

Miller, R.

1989-06-06

440

Environmental Damage, Abandoned Treaties, and Fossil-Fuel Dependence: The Coming Costs of Oil-and-Gas Exploration in the “1002 Area” of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to claims from American politicians, lobbyists, and oil and gas executives, allowing energy development in the Alaskan\\u000a Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) will harm the environment, compromise international law, erode the social significance\\u000a of wilderness protection, and ultimately fail to?increase the energy security of the United States. After exploring a brief\\u000a history of the ANWR controversy, this piece argues

Benjamin K. Sovacool

2007-01-01

441

Production of natural gas from methane hydrate by a constant downhole pressure well  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas production from the dissociation of methane hydrate in a confined reservoir by a depressurizing downhole well was studied. The case that the well pressure was kept constant was treated, and two different linearization schemes in an axisymmetric configuration were used in the analysis. For different fixed well pressures and reservoir temperatures, approximate self similar solutions were obtained. Distributions of temperature, pressure and gas velocity field across the reservoir were evaluated. The distance of the decomposition front from the well and the natural gas production rate as functions of time were also computed. Time evolutions of the resulting profiles were presented in graphical forms, and their differences with the constant well output results were studied. It was shown that the gas production rate was a sensitive function of well pressure and reservoir temperature. The sensitivity of the results to the linearization scheme used was also studied.

Ahmadi, G. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY); Ji, C. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY); Smith, D.H.

2007-07-01

442

Field and laboratory support for the co-production of gas and water program. Annual report, May 1985May 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely recognized that tens of TCF of natural gas remain in water-drive reservoirs where primary production was abandoned at the onset of brine production. Today's depressed energy prices have focused attention upon an additional incentive for co-production: very low finding cost for new reserves. The location of the gas is already known. Further, in many cases, production can

P. Randolph; C. Hayden; M. Newberg; S. Foh

1987-01-01

443

Petroleum industry in Illinois, 1976. Part I. Oil and gas developments. Part II. Waterflood operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information in tabular form about crude oil production, exploration and development drilling, crude oil reserves, productive acreage, gas production, and underground storage of natural gas and liquified petroleum gas in Illinois for 1976 is presented. Production of crude oil in 1976 was 0.8% higher than that in 1975. The number of holes drilled, the footage drilled, and the oil production

J. Van Den Berg; T. F. Lawry

1977-01-01

444

The Interface between Morphology and Phonology: Exploring a Morpho-Phonological Deficit in Spoken Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a…

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-01-01

445

Exploring informal mathematical products of low achievers at the secondary school level  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the notion of informal mathematical products, in the specific context of teaching mathematics to low achieving students at the secondary school level. The complex and relative nature of this notion is illustrated and some of its characteristics are suggested. These include the use of ad-hoc strategies, mental calculations, idiosyncratic ideas, everyday rather than mathematical language, non-symbolic explanations,

Ronnie Karsenty; Abraham Arcavi; Nurit Hadas

2007-01-01

446

Exploring Product Placement in Video Games: An Investigation of Recall Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its growth and prominence, product placement is generally under-researched and this is even more apparent in the area of placement in video gaming. This paper presents exploratory focus group research into this practice. Findings indicate that the introductory footage to a game provides placement opportunities with the highest level of recall, while peripheral non-action is the worst. Interestingly, recall

Kerri-Ann L. Kuhn; Nigel K. Ll; Kevin E. Voges

447

From SuperGoo to Scratch: exploring creative digital media production in informal learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on work in media studies, new literacy studies, applied linguistics, the arts and empirical research on the experiences of urban youths' informal media arts practices, we articulate a new vision for media education in the digital age that encompasses new genres, convergence, media mixes and participation. We first outline the history of how students' creative production has been used

Kylie A. Peppler; Yasmin B. Kafai

2007-01-01

448

EXPLORING THE EFFECT OF TRADE BALANCE AND INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTIONS ON NATIONAL DEBT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the current research is to examine structural determinants of national debt levels. Mainstream economic theory holds government revenues and expenditures as the major causes of budget deficits and the accumulation of national debt. This paper adopts a somehow different approach, considering industrial production and trade balance as major causes of a countryā€™s debt. In order to test

Panagiotis KOTSIOS

2012-01-01

449

Exploring pedogenesis via nuclide-based soil production rates and OSL-based bioturbation rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

New dating techniques are available for soil scientists to test fundamental pedogenic ideas. Recent developments in applications of terrestrial in situ cosmogenic nuclides (TCN) from bedrock and saprolite allow the derivation of soil production rates, at scales ranging from local (sub-hillslope) to catchment wide, generally averaged over timescales of 104-105 years. Where soil depths are relatively constant over time, soil

Marshall T. WilkinsonA; Geoff S. HumphreysA

450

Exploring consumers' adoption of highly technological fashion products : The role of extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study seeks to develop and test a model of consumers' adoption of highly technological fashion products (HTFPs) through modifying the technology acceptance model (TAM). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Using a convenience sampling method, students between 18 to 26 years old were chosen as the sample population from a mid-size southern university in the USA. The final sample consisted of

Kittichai Watchravesringkan; Nancy Nelson Hodges; Yun-Hee Kim

2010-01-01

451

Product to service eco-innovation: the TRIZ model of creativity explored  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a number of years in incremental improvements in eco-design, it is now frequently hypothesized that step changes in environmental impact are required via the generation of new products or a transition to services. TRIZ models, based on the theory of inventive problem solving by Altshuller, are assessed for their ability to systematize this approach. The generation of innovative environmentally

M. K. Low; T. Lamvik; K. Walsh; O. Myklebust

2000-01-01

452

Exploring the perceived influence of South African adolescents on product purchases by family communication type  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the effect of family communication types on the perceived purchase influence of South African adolescents (13–18 years) across 34 product groups. The research builds on previous research in developed countries such as America and Israel, but represents only one of a few in a developing country such as South Africa that integrates family communication and consumer purchase

Deon Tustin

2009-01-01

453

Hungarian exploration potential  

SciTech Connect

In the Pannonian basin from the Pliocene Formation, commercial oil/gas production was started in 1937 by the Standard Oil of New Jersey and the National Oil Company joint venture firm (MADRT). Until now accumulated oil production was 70 million tons; for natural gas, 140 billion m{sup 3}. About 7,000 exploration, development, and production wells were drilled and 90,000 km of seismic lines were acquired. From some aspects, the Hungarian part of the Pannonian basin is a highly explored, mature area; from other aspects, it is far from that. In light of the most advanced seismic acquisitions and seismic stratigraphy, evaluation of the huge volume of organic matter-rich deltaic type Pliocene and Miocene deposits offer some new exploration possibilities. The Pannonian basin is the result of crustal extension culminating in the middle-Miocene, locally continuing with very reduced intensity until recent times. Some very deep (up to 7,000 m), medium (2,000-3,500 m), and shallow (1,000-2,000 m) subbasins were formed, where a huge volume of organic matter-rich sediments has been deposited. The Paleogene and Miocene subbasins are related to wrench-fault movements, while the Pliocene subbasins are related to wrench-fault movements, while the Pliocene subbasins are real postrift basins. There are different types of structures/forms for the hydrocarbon accumulations: classical anticlines, deposited arches above the Mesozoic-Paleozoic basement highs, overthrust zones, and flower structures. New explorations targets are expected in the thick Mesozoic dolomite and limestone formations, too.

Kokai, J. (New Ventures, Budapest (Hungary))

1991-03-01

454

Africa: the emphasis is exploration  

SciTech Connect

Individual country reports on drilling, oil and gas production, and petroleum exploration and reserves are given for Africa. Nigeria was the continent's largest oil producer in 1979, averaging 2.3 million bpd, followed closely by Libya with 2.07 million bpd. Algeria cut production of crude oil in 1979 to a level of 1,194,350 bpd, and increased gas production to 2031 mmcfd. In Egypt, the return of Israeli-occupied oil fields and a surge in productive capacity enabled production averaging 524,000 bpd. Brief country reports are included for Gabon, Angola, Republic of the Congo, Cameroun, Tunisia, Morocco, Zaire, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Niger, Chad, Republic of South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Equatorial Guinea, Seychelles Islands, Mauritania, Republic of Mali, Benin, Kenya, Madagascar, Botswana, Gambia, Mozambique, and Senegal.

Not Available

1980-08-15

455

Shaping medicinal product information: a before and after study exploring physicians' perspectives on the summary of product characteristics  

PubMed Central

Objective To establish, in the context of the revised European Pharmacovigilance Directive and based on physicians’ perspectives, how Summaries of Product Characteristics (SmPCs) could be more user friendly and better support physicians’ interactions with patients, thereby improving patients’ own understanding of their medicines. Design Qualitative focus group discussions (step 1), development of an alternative SmPC (step 2) and an online quantitative survey (step 3) comparing the alternative SmPC to the currently approved version. Setting Office-based physicians (n=218) from all federal states of Germany. Participants 218 German physicians participated, with an equal representation of office-based general practitioners and specialists. For step 1 (n=18), physicians were recruited who frequently consulted SmPCs. Outcome measures Planned and performed: Mayring's qualitative content analysis of focus group discussions (step 1), rating on a five-point Likert scale of preference of current versus alternative SmPCs (step 3). Results Physicians confirmed the importance of SmPCs as a comprehensive source of medicinal product information, but were moderately satisfied with the current SmPCs, utilised it infrequently and were more likely to engage additional sources of information. The alternative SmPC was consistently preferred. It differed in the way information for particular patient groups was presented, included additional sections (synopsis, checklist for patient information) and used a tabular format. Physicians indicated that SmPCs should be available with search and hyperlink functions, as well as be automatically updated and integrated in available practice software or similar solutions. Conclusions This research contributes to the development of an official, reliable medicinal product information system meeting the needs of a modern information society while providing the reliability of an officially authorised source. In the context of health literacy, SmPCs should be established as the primary information source for healthcare professionals to ensure compliant and safe utilisation of medicinal products.

Vromans, Lisette; Doyle, Gerardine; Petak-Opel, Silvia; Rodiger, Alexander; Rottgermann, Martina; Schlussel, Elke; Stetter, Eva

2013-01-01

456

Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from beef production systems in California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Beef production is recognized as a source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emission from production systems. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate whole-farm GHG emissions from representa...

457

Monoclonal Antibody Production in Gas-Permeable Flexible Flasks, Using Serum-Free Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the feasibility of flexible, gas-permeable tissue culture flasks (GPF) as an alternative in vitro technique for small-scale monoclonal antibody (MAb) production, hybridomas were cultured in GPF. Cell concentration, viability, and MAb production were monitored over time, and resulting MAb were tested for functionality. Various culture conditions were evaluated, including type of culture media, seeding density, and addition of

BERNADETTE V. STANG; PATRICIA A. WOOD; JOHN J. REDDINGTON

1998-01-01

458

Ground-water pollution from natural gas and oil production in New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas is produced throughout the central and W. part of New York State; whereas, oil production has been limited mainly to Allegheny and Cattaraugus counties. Oil production, and particularly secondary recovery by the water-flooding method, has resulted in pollution of ground- and surface-water supplies with oil and salt water. Pollution from active oil fields has been caused by separator

Crain

1970-01-01

459

Influence of production methods and transport distances on the greenhouse gas balance of organic apple juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the production of organic apple juice from apples from Germany's ‘Altes Land’ region were compared with apples from the Southern Carpathians (Romania). The goal of the analysis was to clarify whether extensive agricultural production methods have a greater influence on the total emissions produced by the apple juice value-added

A.-M. Engel; J. K. Wegener; M. Lange

2012-01-01

460

Interaction between technology and extraction scaling real options in natural gas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is the outcome of a research engagement studying questions of technology utilization and production management with managers at EQT Corp., an integrated natural gas production and distribution company. The question of how to best leverage the use of technology is fundamental to almost any industry; this is especially true for those companies operating in the volatile field of

Paul Enders; Alan Scheller-Wolf; Nicola Secomandi

2010-01-01

461

Analysis of the parameters of structural geology that affect gas production from the Devonian shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the results of five years' effort directed toward understanding the importance of geologic structure to Devonian gas production in eastern Kentucky and West Virginia. This study was designed to: (1) collect, compile, and analyze geologic data to construct regional structural maps of eastern Kentucky and West Virginia; (2) determine if structural types and styles affect production, and

B. Bebee; P. Berger; J. M. Dixon

1982-01-01

462

Life cycle assessment of the conventional and solar thermal production of zinc and synthesis gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current industrial productions of zinc and synthesis gas are characterized by their high energy consumption and their concomitant environmental pollution. Emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) could be reduced substantially by combining both productions and by replacing fossil fuels with concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat. The extent of such a GHG mitigation has been quantified

Miriam Werder; Aldo Steinfeld

2000-01-01