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1

Environmental Compliance for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production  

SciTech Connect

The Appalachian/Illinois Basin Directors is a group devoted to increasing communication among the state oil and gas regulatory agencies within the Appalachian and Illinois Basin producing region. The group is comprised of representatives from the oil and gas regulatory agencies from states in the basin (Attachment A). The directors met to discuss regulatory issues common to the area, organize workshops and seminars to meet the training needs of agencies dealing with the uniqueness of their producing region and perform other business pertinent to this area of oil and gas producing states. The emphasis of the coordinated work was a wide range of topics related to environmental compliance for natural gas and oil exploration and production.

Hansen, Christine

1999-10-26

2

Environmental benefits of advanced oil and gas exploration and production technology  

SciTech Connect

THROUGHOUT THE OIL AND GAS LIFE CYCLE, THE INDUSTRY HAS APPLIED AN ARRAY OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES TO IMPROVE EFFICIENCY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE. THIS REPORT FOCUSES SPECIFICALLY ON ADVANCES IN EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION (E&P) OPERATIONS.

None

1999-10-01

3

Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed during the initial period of the project 'Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems.' The specific region that is within the scope of this study is the Fayetteville Shale Play. This is an unconventional, tight formation, natural gas play that currently has approximately 1.5 million acres under lease, primarily to Southwestern Energy Incorporated and Chesapeake Energy Incorporated. The currently active play encompasses a region from approximately Fort Smith, AR east to Little Rock, AR approximately 50 miles wide (from North to South). The initial estimates for this field put it almost on par with the Barnett Shale play in Texas. It is anticipated that thousands of wells will be drilled during the next several years; this will entail installation of massive support infrastructure of roads and pipelines, as well as drilling fluid disposal pits and infrastructure to handle millions of gallons of fracturing fluids. This project focuses on gas production in Arkansas as the test bed for application of proactive risk management decision support system for natural gas exploration and production. The activities covered in this report include meetings with representative stakeholders, development of initial content and design for an educational web site, and development and preliminary testing of an interactive mapping utility designed to provide users with information that will allow avoidance of sensitive areas during the development of the Fayetteville Shale Play. These tools have been presented to both regulatory and industrial stakeholder groups, and their feedback has been incorporated into the project.

Greg Thoma; John Veil; Fred Limp; Jackson Cothren; Bruce Gorham; Malcolm Williamson; Peter Smith; Bob Sullivan

2009-05-31

4

Offsite commercial disposal of oil and gas exploration and production waste :availability, options, and cost.  

SciTech Connect

A survey conducted in 1995 by the American Petroleum Institute (API) found that the U.S. exploration and production (E&P) segment of the oil and gas industry generated more than 149 million bbl of drilling wastes, almost 18 billion bbl of produced water, and 21 million bbl of associated wastes. The results of that survey, published in 2000, suggested that 3% of drilling wastes, less than 0.5% of produced water, and 15% of associated wastes are sent to offsite commercial facilities for disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) collected information on commercial E&P waste disposal companies in different states in 1997. While the information is nearly a decade old, the report has proved useful. In 2005, Argonne began collecting current information to update and expand the data. This report describes the new 2005-2006 database and focuses on the availability of offsite commercial disposal companies, the prevailing disposal methods, and estimated disposal costs. The data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, state oil and gas regulatory officials in 31 states were contacted to determine whether their agency maintained a list of permitted commercial disposal companies dedicated to oil. In the second stage, individual commercial disposal companies were interviewed to determine disposal methods and costs. The availability of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities falls into three categories. The states with high oil and gas production typically have a dedicated network of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities in place. In other states, such an infrastructure does not exist and very often, commercial disposal companies focus on produced water services. About half of the states do not have any industry-specific offsite commercial disposal infrastructure. In those states, operators take their wastes to local municipal landfills if permitted or haul the wastes to other states. This report provides state-by-state summaries of the types of offsite commercial disposal facilities that are found in each state. In later sections, data are presented by waste type and then by disposal method.

Puder, M. G.; Veil, J. A.

2006-09-05

5

Framework for managing wastes from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) sites.  

SciTech Connect

Oil and gas companies operate in many countries around the world. Their exploration and production (E&P) operations generate many kinds of waste that must be carefully and appropriately managed. Some of these wastes are inherently part of the E&P process; examples are drilling wastes and produced water. Other wastes are generic industrial wastes that are not unique to E&P activities, such as painting wastes and scrap metal. Still other wastes are associated with the presence of workers at the site; these include trash, food waste, and laundry wash water. In some host countries, mature environmental regulatory programs are in place that provide for various waste management options on the basis of the characteristics of the wastes and the environmental settings of the sites. In other countries, the waste management requirements and authorized options are stringent, even though the infrastructure to meet the requirements may not be available yet. In some cases, regulations and/or waste management infrastructure do not exist at all. Companies operating in these countries can be confronted with limited and expensive waste management options.

Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.; Environmental Science Division

2007-09-15

6

Gas pipe explorer robot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas pipe explorer formed of a plurality of connecting elements, and an articulation element between the connected elements. The connected elements include drive capabilities, and the articulation element allows the connected elements to traverse gas pipes of arbitrary shapes and sizes. A sensor may sends the characteristics of the gas pipe, and the communication element may send back those sends characteristics. The communication can be wired, over a tether connecting the device to a remote end. Alternatively, the connection can be wireless, driven by either a generator or a battery.

Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

2004-01-01

7

Oil and Gas Exploration  

E-print Network

limestone pit 3. Argenta barite mine 4. Basalt diatomite mine 5. Blue Diamond gypsum mine 6. Clark diatomiteMetals Industrial Minerals Oil and Gas Geothermal Exploration Development Mining Processing Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Special Publication MI-1995 The Nevada Mineral Industry 1995 UNIVERSITY

Tingley, Joseph V.

8

Devonian shale gas exploration and production studies. Final report, November 1983April 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten wells in southwestern West Virginia were selected as potential candidates for in-depth study to identify Devonian-shale-gas production-controlling mechanisms. Wells were studied using geophysical logs, TV log, and flow measurements. Sidewall cores were retrieved for geochemical and geophysical analyses. The well studies were augmented with a seismic survey, production data analysis and data collection for approximately 1400 wells in the

J. L. Wallace; G. Koziar; J. P. Lemon; M. J. Akers

1986-01-01

9

Devonian shale gas exploration and production studies. Final report, November 1983-April 1986  

SciTech Connect

Ten wells in southwestern West Virginia were selected as potential candidates for in-depth study to identify Devonian-shale-gas production-controlling mechanisms. Wells were studied using geophysical logs, TV log, and flow measurements. Sidewall cores were retrieved for geochemical and geophysical analyses. The well studies were augmented with a seismic survey, production data analysis and data collection for approximately 1400 wells in the study area.

Wallace, J.L.; Koziar, G.; Lemon, J.P.; Akers, M.J.

1986-08-01

10

Noble gas and carbon isotopes in natural gas: a new methodology for oil and gas exploration/production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic measurements of both stables isotopes and noble gases give important clues to reconstruct the geological history of hydrocarbons, from their generation to their accumulation. Recent analytical advances in carbon isotopes of natural gases (methane to butane and carbon dioxide) allowed to characterize some of the physico-chemical processes which affect natural gas, instead of using these signatures as simple fingerprinting of origins as it was the case some decades ago. These reconstructions provide important information on both the origins and the dynamic behavior of hydrocarbon fluids in sedimentary basins. Moreover, correlating this methodology with other natural tracers increases the knowledge of hydrocarbon history. Among them, noble gas isotopes may be the new frontier tool, as their chemical inertness allows to use them as precise tracers of sources and of associated physical processes (phases behavior, migration and leakage). Moreover, because some isotopes are produced by natural radioactivity, they act therefore as geological clocks, giving potentially a quantification of the residence times of hydrocarbons in a reservoir. The parameters one would hope to constrain, and which may be used as boundary conditions for basin modeling, are the age and the residence time of the fluids constituting a petroleum system, the quantitative estimate of the distance of migration of the hydrocarbons from the source rock to the reservoir and from the petroleum system to the atmosphere, and the proportion of hydrocarbons lost through leakage from the time of accumulation to the present. Other parameters associated with hydrocarbon accumulations, and more conventionally studied, include the relations between source rocks and accumulated fluids, the possible bacterial contribution through methanogenesis and/or biodegradation, the range of maturity of the fluids, the possible dysmigration of the gas from a liquid through evaporative fractionation, the characterization of permeability barriers in reservoirs, and the efficiency of accumulation. New geological case studies demonstrate the power of this new methodology, as it is possible in some cases to quantify the absolute amount of hydrocarbons lost through leakage and the relative residence times of fluids in an accumulation for an homogeneous geological setting. Diagnosis on the genesis of hydrocarbons (bacterial activity versus thermal degradation of organic matter) and on the distance of migration from the source rocks to the accumulation are also confirmed combining both stable isotopes and noble gas natural tracing.

Prinzhofer, A.; Battani, A.

2003-04-01

11

Measurement of atmospheric pollutants associated with oil and natural gas exploration and production activity in Pennsylvania's Allegheny National Forest.  

PubMed

Oil and natural gas exploration and production (E&P) activities generate emissions from diesel engines, compressor stations, condensate tanks, leaks and venting of natural gas, construction of well pads, and well access roads that can negatively impact air quality on both local and regional scales. A mobile, autonomous air quality monitoring laboratory was constructed to collect measurements of ambient concentrations of pollutants associated with oil and natural gas E&P activities. This air-monitoring laboratory was deployed to the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) in northwestern Pennsylvania for a campaign that resulted in the collection of approximately 7 months of data split between three monitoring locations between July 2010 and June 2011. The three monitoring locations were the Kane Experimental Forest (KEF) area in Elk County, which is downwind of the Sackett oilfield; the Bradford Ranger Station (BRS) in McKean County, which is downwind of a large area of historic oil and gas productivity; and the U.S. Forest Service Hearts Content campground (HC) in Warren County, which is in an area relatively unimpacted by oil and gas development and which therefore yielded background pollutant concentrations in the ANF. Concentrations of criteria pollutants ozone and NO2 did not vary significantly from site to site; averages were below National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas (ethane, propane, butane, pentane) were highly correlated. Applying the conditional probability function (CPF) to the ethane data yielded most probable directions of the sources that were coincident with known location of existing wells and activity. Differences between the two impacted and one background site were difficult to discern, suggesting the that the monitoring laboratory was a great enough distance downwind of active areas to allow for sufficient dispersion with background air such that the localized plumes were not detected. Implications: Monitoring of pollutants associated with oil and natural gas exploration and production activity at three sites within the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) showed only slight site-to-site differences even with one site far removed from these activities. However, the impact was evident not in detection of localized plumes but in regional elevated ethane concentrations, as ethane can be considered a tracer species for oil and natural gas activity. The data presented serve as baseline conditions for evaluation of impacts from future development of Marcellus or Utica shale gas reserves. PMID:25283004

Pekney, Natalie J; Veloski, Garret; Reeder, Matthew; Tamilia, Joseph; Rupp, Erik; Wetzel, Alan

2014-09-01

12

Oil and Gas Exploration Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise simulates the geologic, economic, and competitive business conditions usually encountered in oil and gas exploration. Each student is now a geologist with their own exploration and production corporation, and all corporations are competing to find oil and gas resources in the map area provided. Every section in this quadrangle has been drilled by oil companies in the past. Everyone agrees there must be oil and/or gas here, but no one has been successful in bringing in a producing well. Apparently none of the companies bothered to hire a geologist to analyze the data (weird!). They have gone bankrupt and the leases are all available for sale. Suddenly several corporations with geologists (you) appear on the scene, but with limited capital. The principal goal is to make as big a profit as possible for your corporation; therefore you must find the most oil and gas possible in a limited amount of time. To find oil and gas deposits, there are essentially 3 steps: 1) Gather information about the geology of the area and determine areas that are potential traps 2) Make bids on the land that you determine has high potential 3) Drill wells to see if you are correct

Andrew M. Goodliffe

13

Reducing Onshore Natural Gas and Oil Exploration and Production Impacts Using a Broad-Based Stakeholder Approach  

SciTech Connect

Never before has the reduction of oil and gas exploration and production impacts been as important as it is today for operators, regulators, non-governmental organizations and individual landowners. Collectively, these stakeholders are keenly interested in the potential benefits from implementing effective environmental impact reducing technologies and practices. This research project strived to gain input and insight from such a broad array of stakeholders in order to identify approaches with the potential to satisfy their diverse objectives. The research team examined three of the most vital issue categories facing onshore domestic production today: (1) surface damages including development in urbanized areas, (2) impacts to wildlife (specifically greater sage grouse), and (3) air pollution, including its potential contribution to global climate change. The result of the research project is a LINGO (Low Impact Natural Gas and Oil) handbook outlining approaches aimed at avoiding, minimizing, or mitigating environmental impacts. The handbook identifies technical solutions and approaches which can be implemented in a practical and feasible manner to simultaneously achieve a legitimate balance between environmental protection and fluid mineral development. It is anticipated that the results of this research will facilitate informed planning and decision making by management agencies as well as producers of oil and natural gas. In 2008, a supplemental task was added for the researchers to undertake a 'Basin Initiative Study' that examines undeveloped and/or underdeveloped oil and natural gas resources on a regional or geologic basin scope to stimulate more widespread awareness and development of domestic resources. Researchers assessed multi-state basins (or plays), exploring state initiatives, state-industry partnerships and developing strategies to increase U.S. oil and gas supplies while accomplishing regional economic and environmental goals.

Amy Childers

2011-03-30

14

Exploration's a gas in Australia  

SciTech Connect

Exploration in Australia's offshore basins has been one of the region's leading lights during 1999, with the area's gas potential drawing major interest after some crucial new finds. The paper describes five gas targets near the Gorgon gas field, offshore the northwest coast of western Australia. Natural gas consortium plans are also discussed.

NONE

1999-11-01

15

The potential for coalbed gas exploration and production in the Greater Green River Basin, southwest Wyoming and northwest Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coalbed gas is an important source of natural gas in the United States. In 1993, approximately 740 BCF of coalbed gas was produced in the United States, or about 4.2% of the nation`s total gas production. Nearly 96% of this coalbed gas is produced from just two basins, the San Juan (615.7 BCF; gas in place 84 TCF) and Black

R. Tyler; W. R. Kaiser; A. R. Scott; D. S. Hamilton

1997-01-01

16

Exploring Products: Nano Fabrics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how the application of nano-sized "whiskers" can protect clothing from stains. Learners investigate the hydrophobic properties of pants made from nano fabric and ordinary fabric. Use this activity to talk about products that we can already buy that use nanotechnology, like treated fabrics, water filters, sunscreen and stuffed animals that have silver nanoparticles.

Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network

2010-01-01

17

Oil and gas exploration and production activities in Brazil: The consideration of environmental issues in the bidding rounds promoted by the National Petroleum Agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to address and analyze the environmental issues related to the Brazilian bidding rounds for exploration and production of oil and natural gas held by the National Petroleum Agency (ANP) from 1999 to 2005. To do so, after a brief retrospective of the seven rounds, the four main points of the bidding process are analyzed from an environmental

Jacqueline Mariano; Emilio La Rovere

2007-01-01

18

Conference on the topic: {open_quotes}Exploration and production of petroleum and gas from chalk reservoirs worldwide{close_quotes}  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 170 delegates from 14 countries in Europe, North America, Africa, and Asia took part in a conference on the topic: Exploration and Production of Petroleum and Gas from Chalk Reservoirs Worldwide. The conference was held in Copenhagen, Denmark in September,1994, and was a joint meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the European Association of

Kuznetsov

1995-01-01

19

Characterizing Natural Gas Hydrates in the Deep Water Gulf of Mexico: Applications for Safe Exploration and Production Activities  

SciTech Connect

In 2000 Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deep water portion of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Chevron is an active explorer and operator in the Gulf of Mexico and is aware that natural gas hydrates need to be understood to operate safely in deep water. In August 2000 Chevron worked closely with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and held a workshop in Houston, Texas to define issues concerning the characterization of natural gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, the workshop was meant to clearly show where research, the development of new technologies, and new information sources would be of benefit to the DOE and to the oil and gas industry in defining issues and solving gas hydrate problems in deep water.

Bent, Jimmy

2014-05-31

20

Beyond SHARP-- Primary Formaldehyde from Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the Gulf of Mexico Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formaldehyde has been named by the EPA as a hazardous air pollutant that may be carcinogenic and also cause irritation to the eyes, nose, throat and lung. Moreover, it is a powerful radical and ozone precursor. The 2009 Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors (SHARP) was conceived by the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) on behalf of the Texas Environmental Research Consortium (TERC) to examine the relative importance of primary and secondary formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrous acid (HONO) in ozone formation. SHARP confirmed that primary combustion sources of HCHO, such as flares end engines, may be underestimated (by an order of magnitude or more) in official emission inventories used for the purpose of air quality modeling in highly industrialized areas such as Houston. This presentation provides recently generated modeling and observational evidence that the same may be true in both rural and urban areas with oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) activities, such as the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming and the Barnett Shale of Texas. Oil and gas E&P is increasing in the Gulf of Mexico region, particularly in the Barnett, Haynesville, Eagle Ford, Cana-Woodford, and Fayetteville shale basins. In the Barnett Shale, E&P activities are moving into urban neighborhoods, and may affect the ability to bring the Dallas-Ft. Worth region into attainment of the federal ozone standard. Data concerning formaldehyde emissions from drill rig and pipeline compressor engines, flares, and glycol or amine reboilers, should be obtained in order to more accurately model air quality in the Gulf of Mexico region.

Olaguer, E. P.

2010-12-01

21

78 FR 41768 - Chemical Substances and Mixtures Used in Oil and Gas Exploration or Production; TSCA Section 21...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EPA-HQ-OPPT-2011-0683; FRL-9339-4] Chemical Substances and Mixtures Used in Oil and...exploration and production (E&P) chemical substances and mixtures to maintain certain...health and safety studies related to E&P chemical substances and mixtures; TSCA...

2013-07-11

22

Exploration-production studies in newly drilled Devonian shale gas wells. Annual report, February1988January 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cooperative program is part of a continuing field-oriented effort whose objectives are to identify productive gas zones, to develop a comprehensive set of diagnostics, and to determine the effectiveness of various stimulation techniques. To date, the program has encompassed 71 cooperative wells and 15 participating producers with outside funding in excess of 10 million dollars. The program has progressed

R. L. Graham; J. Foster; P. Amick; J. Worthington

1989-01-01

23

CHARACTERIZING NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEP WATER GULF OF MEXICO: APPLICATIONS FOR SAFE EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES  

SciTech Connect

In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deep water Gulf of Mexico (GOM). These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to drilling and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. During April-September 2002, the JIP concentrated on: Reviewing the tasks and subtasks on the basis of the information generated during the three workshops held in March and May 2002; Writing Requests for Proposals (RFPs) and Cost, Time and Resource (CTRs) estimates to accomplish the tasks and subtasks; Reviewing proposals sent in by prospective contractors; Selecting four contractors; Selecting six sites for detailed review; and Talking to drill ship owners and operators about potential work with the JIP.

Steve Holditch; Emrys Jones

2003-01-01

24

CHARACTERIZING NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEP WATER GULF OF MEXICO: APPLICATIONS FOR SAFE EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES  

SciTech Connect

In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deep water Gulf of Mexico (GOM). These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to drilling and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. During the first six months of operation, the primary activities of the JIP were to conduct and plan Workshops, which were as follows: (1) Data Collection Workshop--March 2002 (2) Drilling, Coring and Core Analyses Workshop--May 2002 (3) Modeling, Measurement and Sensors Workshop--May 2002.

Steve Holditch; Emrys Jones

2003-01-01

25

Conference on the topic: {open_quotes}Exploration and production of petroleum and gas from chalk reservoirs worldwide{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect

More than 170 delegates from 14 countries in Europe, North America, Africa, and Asia took part in a conference on the topic: Exploration and Production of Petroleum and Gas from Chalk Reservoirs Worldwide. The conference was held in Copenhagen, Denmark in September,1994, and was a joint meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the European Association of Petroleum Geoscientists and Engineers (EAPG). In addition to the opening remarks, 25 oral and nine poster reports were presented. The topics included chalk deposits as reservoir rocks, the occurrence of chalk deposits worldwide, the North Sea oil and gas fields, and other related topics.

Kuznetsov, V.G.

1995-07-01

26

An Exploration on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Production by Insect Species Suitable for Animal or Human Consumption  

PubMed Central

Background Greenhouse gas (GHG) production, as a cause of climate change, is considered as one of the biggest problems society is currently facing. The livestock sector is one of the large contributors of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Also, large amounts of ammonia (NH3), leading to soil nitrification and acidification, are produced by livestock. Therefore other sources of animal protein, like edible insects, are currently being considered. Methodology/Principal Findings An experiment was conducted to quantify production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and average daily gain (ADG) as a measure of feed conversion efficiency, and to quantify the production of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) as well as NH3 by five insect species of which the first three are considered edible: Tenebrio molitor, Acheta domesticus, Locusta migratoria, Pachnoda marginata, and Blaptica dubia. Large differences were found among the species regarding their production of CO2 and GHGs. The insects in this study had a higher relative growth rate and emitted comparable or lower amounts of GHG than described in literature for pigs and much lower amounts of GHG than cattle. The same was true for CO2 production per kg of metabolic weight and per kg of mass gain. Furthermore, also the production of NH3 by insects was lower than for conventional livestock. Conclusions/Significance This study therefore indicates that insects could serve as a more environmentally friendly alternative for the production of animal protein with respect to GHG and NH3 emissions. The results of this study can be used as basic information to compare the production of insects with conventional livestock by means of a life cycle analysis. PMID:21206900

Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; van Itterbeeck, Joost; Heetkamp, Marcel J. W.; van den Brand, Henry; van Loon, Joop J. A.; van Huis, Arnold

2010-01-01

27

Analysis of selected energy security issues related to US crude oil and natural gas exploration, development, production, transportation and processing. Final report, Task 13  

SciTech Connect

In July 1989, President Bush directed the Secretary of Energy to initiate the development of a comprehensive National Energy Strategy (NES) built upon a national consensus. The overall principle for the NES, as defined by the President and articulated by the Economic Policy Council (EPC), is the continuation of the successful policy of market reliance, consistent with the following goals: Balancing of energy, economic, and environmental concerns; and reduced dependence by the US and its friends and allies on potentially unreliable energy suppliers. The analyses presented in this report draw upon a large body of work previously conducted for DOE/Office of Fossil Energy, the US Department of Interior/Minerals Management Service (DOI/MMS), and the Gas Research Institute (GRI), referenced throughout the text of this report. This work includes assessments in the following areas: the potential of advanced oil and gas extraction technologies as improved through R&D, along with the successful transfer of these technologies to the domestic petroleum industry; the economic and energy impacts of environmental regulations on domestic oil and gas exploration, production, and transportation; the potential of tax incentives to stimulate domestic oil and gas development and production; the potential environmental costs associated with various options for leasing for US oil and gas resources in the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS); and the economic impacts of environmental regulations affecting domestic crude oil refining.

Not Available

1990-10-01

28

Exploring Products: Nano Sand  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how water behaves differently when it comes in contact with "nano sand" and regular sand. Learners learn about the hydrophobic properties of "nano sand." Use this activity to talk about how many materials behave differently at the nanoscale.

Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network

2010-01-01

29

Norwegian production to grow, but exploration is in a slump  

SciTech Connect

Exploration and production in Norwegian waters are moving in opposite directions. Oil production will rise over the next 3 years as new projects come on stream. Two major gas projects will also help gas output to recover from a downturn expected in the early 1990s. But exploration is depressed, with only seven rigs involved in exploration and appraisal work. The article is divided into the following areas: Heidrun poser; Sleipner/troll; other development work; exploration successes.

Not Available

1989-08-21

30

Exploring Nanotechnology through Consumer Products  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, covers nanotechnology in consumer products. First, the instructor presents an introductory PowerPoint and then "students are given a chance in groups to explore consumer products through an information sheet provided over available consumer products." A Teacher Preparation Guide, Student Guide, PowerPoint presentation,Nano Products Resource Guide, as well as a wide variety of product information sheets are included.

31

Exploration basics led to Chalkley gas find  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a potential giant gas field discovered in 1989 in the very mature exploration province of South Louisiana by Transco Exploration Partners (TXP) and Exxon Co., U.S.A. The West Chalkley prospect is located in Cameron Parish, La., and is productive in Upper Oligocene Miogypsinoides sands. The discovery is in the same producing trend as prolific South Lake Arthur field, where Miogyp sands have reserves of about 1 tcf. The prospect was generated by a combination of trend analysis, subsurface well control, and reflection seismic data. The feature appears to be a faulted anticline separate from the nearest production in the area. Chalkley field, which is about 1 mile to the east and was discovered in 1938. TXP and Exxon, working independently, recognized the potential prospect and acquired leases. TXP started discussions with the landowner in February 1988 and acquired a 960 acre lease in June. Exxon leased approximately 2,100 acres surrounding the TXP lease about 1 month later. TXP subsequently sold the prospect to Exxon on Oct. 12, 1988.

Klefstad, G.E. (Transco Exploration Co., Houston, TX (US))

1991-09-30

32

Geology for petroleum exploration, drilling and production  

SciTech Connect

This book provides a non-technical introduction to the subject of oil. The author guides the readers in logical sequence: How oil and gas form and accumulate; how to explore for oil; and how to drill and complete a well and produce the petroleum. The contents are: The earth's crust; identification of common rocks and minerals; weathering, erosion, and unconformities; deformation; geologic time; sandstone reservoirs; limestone reservoirs; subsurface fluids; sedimentary rock patterns; surface and subsurface maps; ocean environment - plate tectonics; hydrocarbons source rocks, generation, migration and accumulation; well logs, traps; petroleum exploration; drilling a well; completing a well; and petroleum production.

Hyne, N.J.

1984-01-01

33

It`s not easy being green: Environmental legal challenges and strategies for international oil and gas exploration and production  

SciTech Connect

International oil and gas E&P companies are being exposed to a steady proliferation of policies, laws, guidelines and other standards applicable to their activities. These are accompanied by expanded potential for legal and other liability. There are a number of treaties and other international agreements potentially relevant to F&P activities. National laws are the primary source of environmental law of concern to companies. However, guidelines developed by international governmental, financing, industry and other organizations are establishing standards to which companies may be held legally accountable. A number of key environmental issues and trends are influencing the development of environmental laws and generating areas of legal exposure for companies. Many basic company activities which involve layers are potentially affected. Companies can and should undertake a variety of activities to manage the environmental legal risks they face. Lawyers and negotiators for companies will play an essential role in developing and implementing such risk management programs.

Armstrong, K.E.

1996-12-31

34

A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata. Technical progress report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

The project objective is to develop a methodology for high grading areas of multistrata potential in southern West Virginia and to test it in up to five wells. The work consists of a two-phase research and development program to develop and verify a unique approach to finding and developing natural gas resources, including coalbed methane and other natural gas resources. Accomplishments for this past quarter are presented for the task on six month dewatering/production extension test. Well records for dewatering and natural gas production are presented for the months of April, May and June of 1993.

Brunk, R.G.

1993-08-17

35

Dictionary of petroleum exploration, drilling, and production  

SciTech Connect

This book contains more than 20,000 definitions of oil exploration, drilling, and production terms, making this dictionary mandatory for both the experienced industry professional and the nontechnical person. Completing this comprehensive reference are more than 500 detailed illustrations. Appendices include a rotary rig diagram, a cable tool drilling rig, a beam pumping unit, giant oil fields of the world, giant oil, and gas fields of the United States and Canada, a geological time chart, geological map symbols, conversion factors, the Greek alphabet atomic weights and numbers, charts of the geological features of the United States and Canada, plus much, much more.

Hyne, N.J.

1991-01-01

36

CJ) Gas Products GAS EQUIPMENT TECHNOLOGY GROUP  

E-print Network

UNITS: TUBE NUMBER; · SERIAL NUMBER: FLOAT MATERIAL; CERT FILE #: SCCM WATER E501 TYPICAL GLASS 'E500WGC£±J) Gas Products GAS EQUIPMENT TECHNOLOGY GROUP UN\\TS: TUBE NUMBER: SERIAL NUMBER: FLOAT MATERIAL TYPICAL GLASS E500G SCALE READING DATE: STD CONDITIONS: GAS TEMPERATURE; PRESSURE IN TUBE: 2/27/97 1 ATMOS

Kleinfeld, David

37

Exploration-production studies in newly drilled Devonian-shale gas wells. Annual technical report, February 1, 1987January 31, 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cooperative program is a continuing field-oriented effort whose objectives are to identify productive gas zones, to develop a comprehensive set of diagnostics, and to determine the effectiveness of various stimulation techniques. To date, the program has encompassed fifty cooperative wells and twelve participating producers, with outside funding in excess of 8 million dollars. The rapport established with these producers

R. L. Graham; J. Foster; K. Walbe; J. Worthington

1988-01-01

38

Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration. [Applicability to USA  

SciTech Connect

During the 1970s a number of different exploration and production incentive programs were put in place in Canada, in particular in the Province of Alberta, Canada's principal oil- and gas-producing province. The DOE/RA is evaluating Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration, and this study is intended to provide information that will help guide DOE/RA in determining the applicability of Canadian incentive programs in US energy policy. The study describes and documents the fiscal structure in which the Canadian oil industry operates. The incentive features of pricing policy, taxation policy, and provincial royalty systems are discussed. A principal focus of the study is on one of the most important of Canada's specific incentive programs, the Alberta Exploratory Drilling Incentive Credit Program (EDICP). The study describes and evaluates the effect of the EDICP on increased oil and gas exploration activity. Similarly, the study also reviews and evaluates other specific incentive programs such as the Alberta Geophysical Incentive Program, Frontier Exploration Allowances, and various tar sand and heavy oil development incentives. Finally the study evaluates the applicability of Canadian incentives to US energy policy.

Not Available

1980-04-01

39

Geology of marine evaporites favorable for oil, gas exploration  

SciTech Connect

Significant petroleum production related to carbonate-evaporite sequences has been found in many areas such as the Delaware, Paradox, and Michigan basins of North America and the Phanerozoic oil-bearing sediments of the Middle East and the North Sea. The regular association of petroleum and evaporites long has been recognized in almost all major oil-producing chemical and biochemical reservoir rocks of the world. A geologic approach to an exploration strategy may illustrate the facies relationships and hydrocarbon occurrences that provide a model for discovering the physical and chemical aspects of petroleum generation, migration, and accumulation, as well as the stratigraphic-tectonic relations necessary for entrapping oil and gas. This article endeavors to review exploration to date on the productive potential of evaporite basins, to appraise basic requirements for evaporitic environments to contain potential hydrocarbons, and to assess the significance of marine evaporites in petroleum geology.

Billo, S.M. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

1996-02-05

40

'94 E P (exploration and production) spending: Depends on oil prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the exploration and production statistics and expenditures for the oil and gas industry for 1993 through 1994. The paper presents numerous graphs that show the expenditures for each of the major oil and gas companies for both 1993 and 1994 along with a discussion of which segment of the exploration or production cycle the money was utilized

J. D. Crandell; C. Y. Lau; G. B. Kieburtz; J. R. Wilson; V. L. Hallstrom; G. A. Howald

1994-01-01

41

Natural gas production from Arctic gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural gas hydrates of the Messoyakha field in the West Siberian basin of Russia and those of the Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk River area on the North Slope of Alaska occur within a similar series of interbedded Cretaceous and Tertiary sandstone and siltstone reservoirs. Geochemical analyses of gaseous well-cuttings and production gases suggest that these two hydrate accumulations contain a mixture

1993-01-01

42

Product Lifecycle Management and Sustainable Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the use of product lifecycle management (PLM) in the general aerospace industry, its use and development at NASA and at Marshall Space Flight Center, and how the use of PLM can lead to sustainable space exploration.

Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Grieves, Michael

2011-01-01

43

Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions*  

E-print Network

Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions* Francis O Environ. Res. Lett. 7 (2012) 044030 (6pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044030 Shale gas production: potential gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level

44

Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions  

E-print Network

Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

OSullivan, Francis Martin

45

Plan for Management of Mineral Assess on Native Tribal Lands and for Formation of a Fully Integrated Natural Gas and Oil Exploration and Production Company  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a plan for Native American tribes to assume responsibility for and operation of tribal mineral resources using the Osage Tribe as an example. Under this plan, the tribal council select and employ a qualified Director to assume responsibility for management of their mineral reservations. The procurement process should begin with an application for contracting to the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Under this plan, the Director will develop strategies to increase income by money management and increasing exploitation of natural gas, oil, and other minerals.

Blechner, Michael H.; Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

1999-04-27

46

Exploration & development: US Rockies gas focus points up need for access, risk takers, infrastructure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The last 20 yr of the Rocky Mountains oil and gas exploration and production business have been turbulent. Most of the major companies have left; they have been replaced with, independents and small to larger private and public companies. Natural gas become the primary focus of exploration. A discussion covers the shift of interest from drilling for oil to gas exploration and development in the Rockies since 1980; resource pyramid, showing relative volumes, reserves, resources, and undiscovered gas; the Wyoming fields that boost US gas supply, i.e., Jonah (6-12 tcf), Pinedale Anticline (10-20 tcf); Big Piney-LaBarge (15-25 tcf), Madden (3-5 tcf), and Powder river (24-27 tcf); and the future.

Thomasson, M.R.; Belanger, P.E.; Cook, L.

2004-01-01

47

Geologging in Oil and Gas Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geologging, which is usually referred to in the oil industry as mud logging, is a continuous monitoring system of various parameters during drilling of exploratory-assessment wells aimed for geological, gas logging, drilling, and overpressure studies. Inasmuch as it is a formation evaluation tool, monitoring of the various parameters must be carried out by geologists, who keep round-the-clock watch and plot

Bhagwan Sahay

1986-01-01

48

Natural gas production verification tests  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to fund, through a contract with Petroleum Consulting Services, Inc. of Canton, Ohio, the testing of the effectiveness of a non-water based hydraulic fracturing treatment to increase gas recovery from low-pressure, tight, fractured Devonian Shale formations. Although Devonian Shales are found in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois Basins, testing will be done only in the dominant, historical five state area of established production. The objective of this proposed project is to assess the benefits of liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2})/sand stimulations in the Devonian Shale. In addition, this project would evaluate the potential nondamaging (to the formation) properties of this unique fracturing treatment relative to the clogging or chocking of pores and fractures that act as gas flow paths to the wellbore in the target gas-producing zones of the formation. This liquid CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing process is water-free and is expected to facilitate gas well cleanup, reduce the time required for post-stimulation cleanup, and result in improved production levels in a much shorter time than is currently experienced.

Not Available

1992-02-01

49

History of coastal Alabama natural gas exploration and development. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study documents the development and growth of the natural gas industry offshore Alabama. This report provides a full account of natural gas discover, Mobile Bay leasing, industry exploration, industry development projects and production history. A gas production forecast is developed for the Mobile Bay region with and without proposed development of the Destin Dome OCS in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico. Coastal Alabama Norphlet and Miocene production will rise to 1.4 BCFD by 2000. Destin Dome`s production came online after Mobile Bay production from discovered reserves reaches peak, thereby sustaining supplies to interstate markets in the 1.4--1.6 BCFD through 2005. Combining both the Alabama state and federal OCS offshore production, the Alabama-Destin Dome production forecast reaches and sustains 1.6 BCFD between 2002--2004.

Wade, W.W.; Plater, J.R.; Kelley, J.Q.

1999-05-01

50

Alaska Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, and Permitting Project  

SciTech Connect

This is the final technical report for Project 15446, covering the grant period of October 2002 through March 2006. This project connects three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for an advanced information technology infrastructure to better support resource development and resource conservation. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells. The broad goal of this grant is to increase domestic production from Alaska's known producing fields through the implementation of preferred upstream management practices. (PUMP). Internet publication of extensive and detailed geotechnical data is the first task, improving the permitting process is the second task, and building an advanced geographical information system to offer continuing support and public access of the first two goals is the third task. Excellent progress has been made on all three tasks; the technical objectives as defined by the approved grant sub-tasks have been met. The end date for the grant was March 31, 2006.

Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall

2006-03-31

51

Exploring Increased Productivity Through Employee Engagement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disengaged employees cost U.S. companies billions of dollars annually in lowered productivity, a cost which has been compounded by the difficult economic situations in the country. The potential for increasing productivity through increased employee engagement was examined in this study. Using personal engagement theory and the theory of planned behavior, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore how the experiences of salaried aerospace employees affected productivity and the financial performance of an organization. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 20 aerospace employees whose responses were codified and analyzed to identify themes. The analysis indicated that (a) the lived experiences of employees influenced employee engagement, (b) employee engagement affects organizational commitment and performance, and (c) trust and respect and leadership are essential components to keep employees engaged. Eighty percent of the participants indicated that as employee engagement increases so too does organizational performance. The implications for positive social change include new insights for leaders seeking to increase productivity and financial performance, and to support employee engagement for maintaining sustainability, retaining talent, increasing profits, and improving the economy.

Richards, Wayne K., Jr.

52

NPDES permit requirements in Gulf Coast exploration and production areas  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Government regulates discharges of pollutants into waters of the United States under the Clean Water Act (CWA) through issuance of permits under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). Anyone discharging pollutants directly into [open quotes]waters of the United States[close quotes] (almost any body of water, including lakes, rivers, streams, wetlands, or offshore waters) from a point source (e.g., oil and gas exploration and production facilities) is a direct discharger. Direct dischargers must have an NPDES permit that specifically allows them to discharge designated pollutants. The permit will normally list the pollutants that the facility may discharge, and limit the discharge of each pollutant on a monthly, weekly, or daily basis. The EPA has developed NPDES requirements for facilities engaged in offshore oil and gas exploration and production. On September 30, 1992, Region 6 of the EPA issued a general NPDES permit for offshore operators within the Gulf of Mexico authorizing discharges in accordance with specific effluent limitations, monitoring requirements, and other conditions of the permit. A general NPDES permit was also formalized by EPA Region 6 in 1991 for onshore oil and gas facilities. This [open quotes]zero discharge[close quotes] NPDES permit (prohibiting any discharge of pollutants into waters of the U.S.) is applicable to most onshore oil and gas facilities within Texas, Louisiana, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. Failure to meet the requirements of a general or site-specific NPDES permit violates the law. The EPA and states with delegated permit authority can penalize violators through fines and imprisonment. Permitting authorities are becoming increasingly diligent in their enforcement efforts.

Mundt, W.J. (R.W. Beck and Associates, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-09-01

53

ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

This is the second technical report, covering the period from April 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. The geo-technical component is a shared effort between the State Department of Administration and the US Department of Energy. The Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission is rapidly converting high volumes of paper documents and geo-technical information to formats suitable for search and retrieval over the Internet. The permitting component is under the lead of the DNR Office of Project Management and Permitting. A web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information on-line. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. Structural changes are taking place in terms of organization, statutory authority, and regulatory requirements. Geographic Information Systems are a central component to the organization of information, and the delivery of on-line services. Progress has been made to deploy the foundation system for the shared GIS based on open GIS protocols to the extent feasible. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells.

Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

2003-11-19

54

Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas  

SciTech Connect

The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD participants believe that the platform concept could have far-reaching applications in the Arctic as a drilling and production platform, as originally intended, and as a possible staging area. The overall objective of this project was to document various potential applications, locations, and conceptual designs for the inland platform serving oil and gas operations on the Alaska North Slope. The University of Alaska Fairbanks assisted the HARC/TerraPlatforms team with the characterization of potential resource areas, geotechnical conditions associated with continuous permafrost terrain, and the potential end-user evaluation process. The team discussed the various potential applications with industry, governmental agencies, and environmental organizations. The benefits and concerns associated with industry's use of the technology were identified. In this discussion process, meetings were held with five operating companies (22 people), including asset team leaders, drilling managers, HSE managers, and production and completion managers. Three other operating companies and two service companies were contacted by phone to discuss the project. A questionnaire was distributed and responses were provided, which will be included in the report. Meetings were also held with State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources officials and U.S. Bureau of Land Management regulators. The companies met with included ConcoPhillips, Chevron, Pioneer Natural Resources, Fairweather E&P, BP America, and the Alaska Oil and Gas Association.

Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

2008-12-31

55

Exploration drilling for pre-mining gas drainage in coal mines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High natural gas content in coal seams and low gas drainage efficiency are the basic issues to be addressed in order to ensure coal mining safety. A great number of wells being drilled within various gas drainage techniques significantly increase the costs of coal mining and do not reduce the gas content levels within the coal beds up to the required parameters in a short period of time. The integrated approach toward exploration well spacing applied at the stage of project development could make it possible to consider coal seam data to provide more effective gas drainage not only ahead of mining but also during further gas content reduction and commercial production of methane. The comparative analysis of a closely spaced grid of exploration program compiled in accordance with the recommendations on applying mineral reserves classification and inferred resources of coal and shale coal deposits and currently effective stimulation radius proves the necessity and possibility to consider exploration well data for gas drainage. Pre-mining gas drainage could ensure the safety of mining operations.

Shubina, E. A.; Brylin, V. I.; Lukyanov, V. G.; Korotchenko, T. V.

2015-02-01

56

Gas Analysis of Geothermal Fluid Inclusions: A New Technology For Geothermal Exploration  

SciTech Connect

To increase our knowledge of gaseous species in geothermal systems by fluid inclusion analysis in order to facilitate the use of gas analysis in geothermal exploration. The knowledge of gained by this program can be applied to geothermal exploration, which may expand geothermal production. Knowledge of the gas contents in reservoir fluids can be applied to fluid inclusion gas analysis of drill chip cuttings in a similar fashion as used in the petroleum industry. Thus the results of this project may lower exploration costs both in the initial phase and lower drill hole completion costs. Commercial costs for fluid inclusion analysis done on at 20 feet intervals on chip samples for 10,000 ft oil wells is about $6,000, and the turn around time is a few weeks.

David I. Norman; Joseph Moore

2004-03-09

57

Production Trends of Shale Gas Wells  

E-print Network

To obtain better well performance and improved production from shale gas reservoirs, it is important to understand the behavior of shale gas wells and to identify different flow regions in them over a period of time. It is also important...

Khan, Waqar A.

2010-01-14

58

ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to eliminate three closely inter-related barriers to oil production in Alaska through the use of a geographic information system (GIS) and other information technology strategies. These barriers involve identification of oil development potential from existing wells, planning projects to efficiently avoid conflicts with other interests, and gaining state approvals for exploration and development projects. Each barrier is the result of either current labor-intensive methods or poorly accessible information. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. This web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information online. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. The application will include an on-line diagnostic Coastal Project Questionnaire to determine the suite of permits required for a specific project. The application will also automatically create distribution lists based on the location and type of project, populate document templates for project review start-ups, public notices and findings, allow submission of e-comments, and post project status information on the Internet. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells. Currently, State of Alaska agencies use multiple, independent systems to identify, authenticate, and authorize customers for online transactions. Consumers of online state services may be required to manage multiple online ''profiles,'' and during a permit review process valuable time may be lost verifying identity or reconciling differences in applicant information when agency records disagree. The state's Information Technology Group is developing a shared applicant profile system that will provide an additional opportunity to demonstrate data sharing between agencies.

Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

2003-08-04

59

Gas production in distant comets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular spectroscopy at radio wavelengths is a tool well suited for studying the composition and outgassing kinematics of cometary comae. This is particularly true for distant comets, i.e. comets at heliocentric distances greater than a few AU, where the excitation of molecules is inefficient other than for rotational energy levels. At these distances, water sublimation is inefficient, and cometary activity is dominated by outgassing of carbon monoxide. An observing campaign is presented, where the millimeter- wave emission from CO in comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 has been studied in detail using the Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST). Coma models have been used to analyse the spectra. The production of CO is found to have two separate sources, one releasing CO gas on the nuclear dayside, and one extended source, where CO is produced from coma material, proposed to be icy dust grains. Radio observations of many molecules in comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) have been carried out in a long-term international effort using several radio telescopes. An overview of the results is presented, describing the evolution of the gas production as the comet passed through the inner Solar system. Spectra recorded using the SEST, primarily of CO, for heliocentric distances from 3 to 11 AU are analysed in detail, also using coma models. The concept of icy grains constituting the extended source discovered in comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 is examined by theoretical modelling of micrometre-sized ice/dust particles at 6 AU from the Sun. It is shown that that such grains can release their content of volatiles on timescales similar to that found for the extended source.

Gunnarsson, Marcus

60

ERP System Implementation: An Oil and Gas Exploration Sector Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems provide integration and optimization of various business processes which leads to improved planning and decision quality, smoother coordination between business units resulting in higher efficiency, and quicker response time to customer demands and inquiries. This paper reports challenges, opportunities and outcome of ERP implementation in Oil & Gas exploration sector. This study will facilitate in understanding transition, constraints and implementation of ERP in this sector and also provide guidelines from lessons learned in this regard.

Mishra, Alok; Mishra, Deepti

61

Construction guidelines for oil and gas exploration in northern Alaska  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the unique problems associated with oil and gas explorations in northern Alaska and provides background information on the climate and environment, including the permanently frozen ground that exists throughout the area. Information on exploration efforts in the 1940s and 1950s is also included to demonstrate what happens when summertime operations disturb the surface vegetation and thermal regime of the frozen tundra, being the basis for why such operations are no longer permitted. Separate chapters are provided on the design, construction and operation of winter trails, roads, airfields and drill pads, including a separate chapter on their abandonment. Emphasis is placed on how, why and when to accomplish the various tasks to successfully accomplish an exploration.

Crory, F.E.

1991-11-01

62

17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false (Item 1204) Oil and gas production...prices and production costs. 229.1204 Section...1204 (Item 1204) Oil and gas production...prices and production costs. (a) For each...conversion to synthetic oil or gas, the product's...prices, and production costs should be...

2011-04-01

63

Natural gas hydrates - issues for gas production and geomechanical stability  

E-print Network

in an offshore hydrate deposit. I modeled geomechanical failures associated with gas production using a horizontal well and a vertical well for two different types of sediments, sand and clay. The simulation results showed that the sediment and failures can... be a serious issue during the gas production from weaker sediments such as clays. v DEDICATION I dedicate this dissertation to my family; my mother and father, my brother, Arun and my sister, Aarti. It is only because of their love and support...

Grover, Tarun

2008-10-10

64

Product grammar : construction and exploring solution spaces  

E-print Network

Developing a design methodology that accounts for system- and component-level parameters in the design of products is a challenge for design and manufacturing organizations. Designed products like automobiles, personal ...

Chin, Ryan C. C., 1974-

2004-01-01

65

International oil and gas exploration and development activities  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of an ongoing series of quarterly publications that monitors discoveries of oil and natural gas in foreign countries and provides an analysis of the reserve additions that result. The report is prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). It presents a summary of discoveries and reserve additions that result from recent international exploration and development activities. It is intended for use by petroleum industry analysts, various government agencies, and political leaders in the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy plans, policy, and legislation. 25 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Not Available

1990-10-29

66

17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false (Item 1204) Oil and gas production...prices and production costs. 229.1204 Section...1204 (Item 1204) Oil and gas production...prices and production costs. (a) For each...computed using production costs disclosed pursuant to...Extractive ActivitiesOil and Gas....

2014-04-01

67

17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false (Item 1204) Oil and gas production...prices and production costs. 229.1204 Section...1204 (Item 1204) Oil and gas production...prices and production costs. (a) For each...computed using production costs disclosed pursuant to...Extractive ActivitiesOil and Gas....

2013-04-01

68

17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false (Item 1204) Oil and gas production...prices and production costs. 229.1204 Section...1204 (Item 1204) Oil and gas production...prices and production costs. (a) For each...computed using production costs disclosed pursuant to...Extractive ActivitiesOil and Gas....

2012-04-01

69

17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production...product sold, of oil, gas, and other products...be made by geographical area and for each country...disclose, by geographical area: (1) The average...transfers) per unit of oil, gas and other products...

2010-04-01

70

21 CFR 173.350 - Combustion product gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Combustion product gas. 173.350 Section 173...Specific Usage Additives 173.350 Combustion product gas. The food additive combustion product gas may be safely used in...

2014-04-01

71

21 CFR 173.350 - Combustion product gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Combustion product gas. 173.350 Section 173...Specific Usage Additives 173.350 Combustion product gas. The food additive combustion product gas may be safely used in...

2010-04-01

72

21 CFR 173.350 - Combustion product gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Combustion product gas. 173.350 Section 173...Specific Usage Additives 173.350 Combustion product gas. The food additive combustion product gas may be safely used in...

2013-04-01

73

21 CFR 173.350 - Combustion product gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Combustion product gas. 173.350 Section 173...Specific Usage Additives 173.350 Combustion product gas. The food additive combustion product gas may be safely used in...

2012-04-01

74

21 CFR 173.350 - Combustion product gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Combustion product gas. 173.350 Section 173...Specific Usage Additives 173.350 Combustion product gas. The food additive combustion product gas may be safely used in...

2011-04-01

75

Monthly Natural Gas Gross Production Report  

EIA Publications

Monthly natural gas gross withdrawals estimated from data collected on Form EIA-914 (Monthly Natural Gas Production Report) for Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico, Texas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Wyoming, other states and lower 48 states. Alaska data are from the Alaska state government and included to obtain a U.S. total.

2015-01-01

76

ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrate Production Test  

SciTech Connect

Work began on the ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrates Production Test (DOE award number DE-NT0006553) on October 1, 2008. This final report summarizes the entire project from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2013.

Schoderbek, David; Farrell, Helen; Howard, James; Raterman, Kevin; Silpngarmlert, Suntichai; Martin, Kenneth; Smith, Bruce; Klein, Perry

2013-06-30

77

Advancing New 3D Seismic Interpretation Methods for Exploration and Development of Fractured Tight Gas Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

In a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and GeoSpectrum, Inc., new P-wave 3D seismic interpretation methods to characterize fractured gas reservoirs are developed. A data driven exploratory approach is used to determine empirical relationships for reservoir properties. Fractures are predicted using seismic lineament mapping through a series of horizon and time slices in the reservoir zone. A seismic lineament is a linear feature seen in a slice through the seismic volume that has negligible vertical offset. We interpret that in regions of high seismic lineament density there is a greater likelihood of fractured reservoir. Seismic AVO attributes are developed to map brittle reservoir rock (low clay) and gas content. Brittle rocks are interpreted to be more fractured when seismic lineaments are present. The most important attribute developed in this study is the gas sensitive phase gradient (a new AVO attribute), as reservoir fractures may provide a plumbing system for both water and gas. Success is obtained when economic gas and oil discoveries are found. In a gas field previously plagued with poor drilling results, four new wells were spotted using the new methodology and recently drilled. The wells have estimated best of 12-months production indicators of 2106, 1652, 941, and 227 MCFGPD. The latter well was drilled in a region of swarming seismic lineaments but has poor gas sensitive phase gradient (AVO) and clay volume attributes. GeoSpectrum advised the unit operators that this location did not appear to have significant Lower Dakota gas before the well was drilled. The other three wells are considered good wells in this part of the basin and among the best wells in the area. These new drilling results have nearly doubled the gas production and the value of the field. The interpretation method is ready for commercialization and gas exploration and development. The new technology is adaptable to conventional lower cost 3D seismic surveys.

James Reeves

2005-01-31

78

RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING  

SciTech Connect

The new exploration technology for basin center gas accumulations developed by R.C. Surdam and Associates at the Institute for Energy Research, University of Wyoming, was applied to the Riverton Dome 3-D seismic area. Application of the technology resulted in the development of important new exploration leads in the Frontier, Muddy, and Nugget formations. The new leads are adjacent to a major north-south trending fault, which is downdip from the crest of the major structure in the area. In a blind test, the drilling results from six new Muddy test wells were accurately predicted. The initial production values, IP, for the six test wells ranged from < one mmcf/day to four mmcf/day. The three wells with the highest IP values (i.e., three to four mmcf/day) were drilled into an intense velocity anomaly (i.e., anomalously slow velocities). The well drilled at the end of the velocity anomaly had an IP value of one mmcf/day, and the two wells drilled outside of the velocity anomaly had IP values of < one mmcf/day and are presently shut in. Based on these test results, it is concluded that the new IER exploration strategy for detecting and delineating commercial, anomalously pressured gas accumulation is valid in the southwestern portions of the Wind River Basin, and can be utilized to significantly reduce exploration risk and to increase profitability of so-called basin center gas accumulations.

Ronald C. Surdam; Zunsheng Jiao; Nicholas K. Boyd

1999-11-01

79

RADIOLYTIC GAS PRODUCTION RATES OF POLYMERS EXPOSED TO TRITIUM GAS  

SciTech Connect

Data from previous reports on studies of polymers exposed to tritium gas is further analyzed to estimate rates of radiolytic gas production. Also, graphs of gas release during tritium exposure from ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, a trade name is Teflon), and Vespel polyimide are re-plotted as moles of gas as a function of time, which is consistent with a later study of tritium effects on various formulations of the elastomer ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM). These gas production rate estimates may be useful while considering using these polymers in tritium processing systems. These rates are valid at least for the longest exposure times for each material, two years for UHMW-PE, PTFE, and Vespel, and fourteen months for filled and unfilled EPDM. Note that the production rate for Vespel is a quantity of H{sub 2} produced during a single exposure to tritium, independent of length of time. The larger production rate per unit mass for unfilled EPDM results from the lack of filler- the carbon black in filled EPDM does not produce H{sub 2} or HT. This is one aspect of how inert fillers reduce the effects of ionizing radiation on polymers.

Clark, E.

2013-08-31

80

Petroleum exploration and production in Europe in 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale oil production from North Sea fields started late in 1975, but production elsewhere in western and southern Europe changed little from the 1974 rate. A large gas field in the Dutch North Sea area went on production and other fields were being developed actively. A major oil discovery was made at Brae in the Viking graben near the center

1976-01-01

81

A New Technology for the Exploration of Shale Gas Reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy consumption in the world increases 5.6% every year, and alternative resources like shale gas, coal-bed methane (CBM), tar sand, and so on are strongly needed. Shale gas is an unconventional natural gas of enormous potential. Abundant shale gas resides in the form of adsorption gas. Desorption of shale gas is an important mechanism and power source of shale gas

W. Jing; L. Huiqing; G. Rongna; K. Aihong; Z. Mi

2011-01-01

82

Lunar lander propellant production for a multiple site exploration mission  

E-print Network

A model has been developed to analyze the benefit of utilizing a processing plant architecture so that a lunar oxygen production demonstration mission can also provide a significant exploration and scientific return. This ...

Neubert, Joshua, 1981-

2004-01-01

83

Exploring the Potential Business Case for Synergies Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas and renewable energy each contribute to economic growth, energy independence, and carbon mitigation, sometimes independently and sometimes collectively. Often, natural gas and renewables are considered competitors in markets, such as those for bulk electricity. This paper attempts to address the question, 'Given near- and long-term needs for abundant, cleaner energy sources and decarbonization, how can more compelling business models be created so that these two domestic forms of energy work in greater concert?' This paper explores revenue opportunities that emerge from systems-level perspectives in 'bulk energy' (large-scale electricity and natural gas production, transmission, and trade) and four 'distribution edge' subsectors: industrial, residential, commercial, and transportation end uses.

Cochran, J.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.; Arent, D.

2014-02-01

84

SkyHunter: A Multi-Surface Environment for Supporting Oil and Gas Exploration  

E-print Network

costs of an oil and gas company, as well as the resulting activities from their decisionsSkyHunter: A Multi-Surface Environment for Supporting Oil and Gas Exploration Teddy Seyed, Mario}@ucalgary.ca ABSTRACT The process of oil and gas exploration and its result, the decision to drill for oil in a specific

Maurer, Frank

85

Exploring the Environmental Effects of Shale Gas Development in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed  

E-print Network

Exploring the Environmental Effects of Shale Gas Development in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed STAC Committee). 2013. Exploring the environmental effects of shale gas development in the Chesapeake Bay of shale gas development in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. The purpose of this workshop was to engage

86

Petroleum exploration and production in Europe in 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

North Sea oil production rose to 1,242,000 b\\/d in December 1977, although production from several large fields was curtailed. Onshore oil production in western and southern Europe declined slightly in Austria, France, and Germany, and increased modestly in the Netherlands, Britain, and Yugoslavia. Overall gas production increased slightly, but there were declines in Italy and the Netherlands. The giant Frigg

1978-01-01

87

Novel Chemical Space Exploration via Natural Products  

PubMed Central

Natural products (NPs) are a rich source of novel compound classes and new drugs. In the present study we have used the chemical space navigation tool ChemGPS-NP to evaluate the chemical space occupancy by NPs and bioactive medicinal chemistry compounds from the database WOMBAT. The two sets differ notable in coverage of chemical space, and tangible lead-like NPs were found to cover regions of chemical space that lack representation in WOMBAT. Property based similarity calculations were performed to identify NP neighbours of approved drugs. Several of the NPs revealed by this method, were confirmed to exhibit the same activity as their drug neighbours. The identification of leads from a NP starting point may prove a useful strategy for drug discovery, in the search for novel leads with unique properties. PMID:19265440

Rosn, Josefin; Gottfries, Johan; Muresan, Sorel; Backlund, Anders; Oprea, Tudor I.

2009-01-01

88

BUILDING MATERIALS MADE FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION BY-PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect

Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) materials are produced in abundant quantities by coal burning utilities. Due to environmental restrains, flue gases must be ''cleaned'' prior to release to the atmosphere. They are two general methods to ''scrub'' flue gas: wet and dry. The choice of scrubbing material is often defined by the type of coal being burned, i.e. its composition. Scrubbing is traditionally carried out using a slurry of calcium containing material (slaked lime or calcium carbonate) that is made to contact exiting flue gas as either a spay injected into the gas or in a bubble tower. The calcium combined with the SO{sub 2} in the gas to form insoluble precipitates. Some plants have been using dry injection of these same materials or their own Class C fly ash to scrub. In either case the end product contains primarily hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}O) with smaller amounts of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O). These materials have little commercial use. Experiments were carried out that were meant to explore the feasibility of using blends of hannebachite and fly ash mixed with concentrated sodium hydroxide to make masonry products. The results suggest that some of these mixtures could be used in place of conventional Portland cement based products such as retaining wall bricks and pavers.

Michael W. Grutzeck; Maria DiCola; Paul Brenner

2006-03-30

89

Gas potential of the Rome Trough in Kentucky: Results of recent Cambrian exploration  

SciTech Connect

A recent gas discovery in the Rome Trough suggests the need to re-evaluate the deep Cambrian potential of eastern Kentucky. A new phase of Cambrian exploration began in mid-1994 with a new pool discovery by the Carson Associates No. 1 Kazee well in Elliott County, Ky. This well blew out and initially flowed 11 MMcfd of gas from the upper Conasauga Group/Rome Formation at 6,258 to 6,270 feet. After this discovery, a second exploratory well (the Blue Ridge No. 1Greene) was drilled on a separate structure in Elliott County in late 1995. The Blue Ridge well was temporarily abandoned, but had shows of gas and condensate. In early 1996, Carson Associates offset their initial discovery well with the No. 33 Lawson Heirs well. This activity follows a frustrating exploration history in the Rome Trough that is marked by numerous gas and oil shows, but rare commercial production. Only three single-well pools have produced commercial gas from the trough, including the recent Kazee well. Stratigraphic units below the Cambrian-Ordovician Knox Group in the Rome Trough are dramatically thicker than their equivalents on the shelf to the north. The interval in the trough is thought to include rocks as old as Early Cambrian, consisting of a basal sandstone, equivalents of the Shady/Tomstown Dolomite, the Rome Formation, and the Conasauga Formation. Sandstones and fractured shales have been responsible for most of the production to date, but dolostone intervals may also have potential. Limited seismic data indicate possible fan-delta and basin-floor fan deposits that may have reservoir potential.

Harris, D.C.; Drahovzal, J.A. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1996-09-01

90

Bio-gas production from alligator weeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of temperature, sample preparation, reducing agents, light intensity and pH of the media, on bio-gas and methane production from the microbial anaerobic decomposition of alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides. Efforts were also made for the isolation and characterization of the methanogenic bacteria.

Latif, A.

1976-01-01

91

Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions  

E-print Network

Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan and Sergey Paltsev://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan* and Sergey Paltsev* Abstract Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use

92

An Economic Exploration of Biofuel basedAn Economic Exploration of Biofuel based Greenhouse Gas Emission MitigationGreenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation  

E-print Network

An Economic Exploration of Biofuel basedAn Economic Exploration of Biofuel based Greenhouse Gas Afforestation, Forest management, Biofuels, Ag soil, Animals, Fertilization, Rice, Grassland expansion, Manure of Biofuel strategies Examine the dynamics of mitigation strategies #12;PolicyPolicy ContextContext U

McCarl, Bruce A.

93

Survey of price elasticities from economic exploration models of US oil and gas supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploration for oil or gas reserves consists of searching for and finding new reserves. It begins with the study of the geology of an area followed by exploratory or wildcat drilling in promising areas. How much oil or gas is found or the supply of new reserves is a function of exploration, the geology of the area drilled along with

Carol Dahl; Thomas E. Duggan

1998-01-01

94

Synthesis Gas Production from Partial Oxidation of Methane with Air in AC Electric Gas Discharge  

E-print Network

Synthesis Gas Production from Partial Oxidation of Methane with Air in AC Electric Gas Discharge K 73019 Received October 11, 2002 In this study, synthesis gas production in an AC electric gas discharge, Bangkok 10330, Thailand Lance L. Lobban and Richard G. Mallinson* Institute for Gas Utilization

Mallinson, Richard

95

Trend analysis. [Oil and gas exploration, economic aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of exploration is to find reserves that will earn an adequate rate of return on the capital invested. Neither exploration nor economics is an exact science. The authors must therefore explore in those trends (plays) that have the highest probability of achieving this goal. Trend analysis is a technique for organizing the available data to make these strategic

M. Smith; D. R. Jones

1991-01-01

96

A Computer-Assisted Oil Exploration and Production Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a computer-assisted oil exploration and production game for students involved in a short course in petroleum geology. Outlines the game and its procedures, and provides sample structure maps generated by the computer in the course of playing the game. (TW)

Nichols, Gary John

1987-01-01

97

Manufacturing Production: An Evaluation Report for the Occupational Exploration Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evaluation report is one of seven produced for the Occupational Exploration Program (OEP), a series of simulated occupational experiences designed for junior high school students. Describing the pilot testing of the simulation dealing with manufacturing production, the report contains sections describing the simulation context, evaluation

Altschuld, James W.; And Others

98

Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions  

E-print Network

Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

O'Sullivan, Francis

99

Natural gas production verification tests. Environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to fund, through a contract with Petroleum Consulting Services, Inc. of Canton, Ohio, the testing of the effectiveness of a non-water based hydraulic fracturing treatment to increase gas recovery from low-pressure, tight, fractured Devonian Shale formations. Although Devonian Shales are found in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois Basins, testing will be done only in the dominant, historical five state area of established production. The objective of this proposed project is to assess the benefits of liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2})/sand stimulations in the Devonian Shale. In addition, this project would evaluate the potential nondamaging (to the formation) properties of this unique fracturing treatment relative to the clogging or chocking of pores and fractures that act as gas flow paths to the wellbore in the target gas-producing zones of the formation. This liquid CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing process is water-free and is expected to facilitate gas well cleanup, reduce the time required for post-stimulation cleanup, and result in improved production levels in a much shorter time than is currently experienced.

Not Available

1992-02-01

100

Measurement of product alignment in beam-gas chemiluminescent reactions  

E-print Network

Measurement of product alignment in beam-gas chemiluminescent reactions Michael G. Prisant, Charles of the chemiluminescent atom-diatom exchange reaction A + BC-.AB* + C under beam-gas conditions. The degree of product momentum appears as product rotational angular momentum. For beam-gas chemiluminescence, this implies

Zare, Richard N.

101

Ohio oil and gas activity, exploration on the upswing  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time in several years, there was improvement in almost every area of Ohio oil and gas activity in 1996. Higher oil and gas prices combined with an improved exploratory success rate helped increase drilling. The number of discoveries since 1990 has helped energize operators and change their drilling focus. The Ohio industry in 1996 continued its progression

McCormac

1997-01-01

102

Arizona strip breccia pipe program: exploration, development, and production  

SciTech Connect

As part of the long-range plans for the Energy Fuels Corporation, they have embarked on one of the most active and aggressive uranium exploration programs in the US. These exploration efforts are located in the northwestern part of Arizona in an area referred to as the Arizona Strip. At a time when the domestic uranium industry is staggering to recover from its worst economic slump, Energy Fuels is spending millions of dollars a year on exploration, development, production, and milling. The reason for Energy Fuels' commitment to uranium exploration and production lies in the ground of Arizona in unique geologic formations called breccia pipes. Some of these structures, generally no more than 300 to 350 ft in diameter, contain uranium that is, on the average, five to ten times richer than ore found elsewhere in the US. The richness of this Arizona ore makes it the only conventionally mined uranium in the US that can compete in today's market of cheaper, high-grade foreign sources. Between January 1980 and December 1986, Energy Fuels has mined more than 10 billion lb of uranium from breccia pipe deposits at an average grade of 0.65% U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Currently, Energy Fuels is operating six breccia pipe mines, and a plan of operations on a seventh mine has been submitted to the appropriate government agencies for the necessary mining permits.

Mathisen, I.W. Jr.

1987-05-01

103

75 FR 29996 - Review of MMS NEPA Policies, Practices, and Procedures for OCS Oil and Gas Exploration and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas exploration and development...being conducted as a result of the oil spill from the Deepwater Horizon well and...management of Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas exploration and...

2010-05-28

104

Evaluation of long-term gas hydrate production testing locations on the Alaska north slope  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The results of short duration formation tests in northern Alaska and Canada have further documented the energy resource potential of gas hydrates and justified the need for long-term gas hydrate production testing. Additional data acquisition and long-term production testing could improve the understanding of the response of naturally-occurring gas hydrate to depressurization-induced or thermal-, chemical-, and/or mechanical-stimulated dissociation of gas hydrate into producible gas. The Eileen gas hydrate accumulation located in the Greater Prudhoe Bay area in northern Alaska has become a focal point for gas hydrate geologic and production studies. BP Exploration (Alaska) Incorporated and ConocoPhillips have each established research partnerships with U.S. Department of Energy to assess the production potential of gas hydrates in northern Alaska. A critical goal of these efforts is to identify the most suitable site for production testing. A total of seven potential locations in the Prudhoe Bay, Kuparuk, and Milne Point production units were identified and assessed relative to their suitability as a long-term gas hydrate production test site. The test site assessment criteria included the analysis of the geologic risk associated with encountering reservoirs for gas hydrate testing. The site selection process also dealt with the assessment of the operational/logistical risk associated with each of the potential test sites. From this review, a site in the Prudhoe Bay production unit was determined to be the best location for extended gas hydrate production testing. The work presented in this report identifies the key features of the potential test site in the Greater Prudhoe Bay area, and provides new information on the nature of gas hydrate occurrence and potential impact of production testing on existing infrastructure at the most favorable sites. These data were obtained from well log analysis, geological correlation and mapping, and numerical simulation. Copyright 2011, Offshore Technology Conference.

Collett, T.S.; Boswell, R.; Lee, M.W.; Anderson, B.J.; Rose, K.; Lewis, K.A.

2011-01-01

105

Coral reef formation theory may apply to oil, gas exploration  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports a coral reef formation theory that has implications for hydrocarbon exploration. The theory states that many coral reefs and carbonate buildups from at and are dependent upon nutrient rich fluids seeping through the seabed.

Not Available

1990-12-10

106

Bio Gas Oil Production from Waste Lard  

PubMed Central

Besides the second generations bio fuels, one of the most promising products is the bio gas oil, which is a high iso-paraffin containing fuel, which could be produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of different triglycerides. To broaden the feedstock of the bio gas oil the catalytic hydrogenation of waste lard over sulphided NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst, and as the second step, the isomerization of the produced normal paraffin rich mixture (intermediate product) over Pt/SAPO-11 catalyst was investigated. It was found that both the hydrogenation and the decarboxylation/decarbonylation oxygen removing reactions took place but their ratio depended on the process parameters (T = 280380C, P = 2080 bar, LHSV = 0.753.0?h?1 and H2/lard ratio: 600?Nm3/m3). In case of the isomerization at the favourable process parameters (T = 360370C, P = 40 50 bar, LHSV = 1.0?h?1 and H2/hydrocarbon ratio: 400?Nm3/m3) mainly mono-branching isoparaffins were obtained. The obtained products are excellent Diesel fuel blending components, which are practically free of heteroatoms. PMID:21403875

Hancsk, Jen?; Baladincz, Pter; Kasza, Tams; Kovcs, Sndor; Tth, Csaba; Varga, Zoltn

2011-01-01

107

Bio gas oil production from waste lard.  

PubMed

Besides the second generations bio fuels, one of the most promising products is the bio gas oil, which is a high iso-paraffin containing fuel, which could be produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of different triglycerides. To broaden the feedstock of the bio gas oil the catalytic hydrogenation of waste lard over sulphided NiMo/Al(2)O(3) catalyst, and as the second step, the isomerization of the produced normal paraffin rich mixture (intermediate product) over Pt/SAPO-11 catalyst was investigated. It was found that both the hydrogenation and the decarboxylation/decarbonylation oxygen removing reactions took place but their ratio depended on the process parameters (T = 280-380C, P = 20-80 bar, LHSV = 0.75-3.0? h(-1) and H(2)/lard ratio: 600 ?Nm(3)/m(3)). In case of the isomerization at the favourable process parameters (T = 360-370C, P = 40-50 bar, LHSV = 1.0? h(-1) and H(2)/hydrocarbon ratio: 400? Nm(3)/m(3)) mainly mono-branching isoparaffins were obtained. The obtained products are excellent Diesel fuel blending components, which are practically free of heteroatoms. PMID:21403875

Hancsk, Jeno; Baladincz, Pter; Kasza, Tams; Kovcs, Sndor; Tth, Csaba; Varga, Zoltn

2011-01-01

108

Federal offshore statistics: 1992. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenues as of December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, enacted in 1953 and amended several times, charges the Secretary of the Interior with the responsibility for administering and managing mineral exploration and development of the outer continental shelf, as well as for conserving its natural resources. This report documents the following: Federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; Federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from Federal offshore leases; disbursement of Federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. 11 figs., 83 tabs.

Francois, D.K.

1993-12-31

109

Interaction of Shale Gas Production and Potential CO2 Sequestration Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon sequestration may be seen as a needed bridge technology between the current energy portfolio with high carbon emissions and a future portfolio based on low-carbon energy sources. A path to the low-carbon future would also include exploration and production of unconventional gas reserves, especially shale gas. However, the production of shale gas could interact with potential CO2 storage because the shale formations that are fractured could otherwise act as caprock formations in CO2 storage operation. Because of the large zone of influence resulting from the pressure perturbation associated with large-scale CO2 injection, there is potential for a large spatial extent of CO2 storage interaction with unconventional gas production. For this presentation we identify areas where shale gas production occurs in formations that are suitable for use as caprock formations in CO2 storage operations. We subsequently discuss the interaction of gas production activity and a CO2 sequestration project, in an area such as the Barnett Shale. We then examine concentrated leakage pathways in the caprock to simulate a localized increase in permeability, due to induced fractures, of an otherwise confining unit. Furthermore, we examine how a CO2 plume would encounter a hydraulic zone perturbed by exploration, and if there would be direct interruption of both the CO2 storage program and gas production.

Elliot, T. R.; Celia, M. A.

2011-12-01

110

Trend analysis. [Oil and gas exploration, economic aspects  

SciTech Connect

The goal of exploration is to find reserves that will earn an adequate rate of return on the capital invested. Neither exploration nor economics is an exact science. The authors must therefore explore in those trends (plays) that have the highest probability of achieving this goal. Trend analysis is a technique for organizing the available data to make these strategic exploration decisions objectively and is in conformance with their goals and risk attitudes. Trend analysis differs from resource estimation in its purpose. It seeks to determine the probability of economic success for an exploration program, not the ultimate results of the total industry effort. Thus the recent past is assumed to be the best estimate of the exploration probabilities for the near future. This information is combined with economic forecasts. The computer software tools necessary for trend analysis are (1) Information data base - requirements and sources. (2) Data conditioning program - assignment to trends, correction of errors, and conversion into usable form. (3) Statistical processing program - calculation of probability of success and discovery size probability distribution. (4) Analytical processing - Monte Carlo simulation to develop the probability distribution of the economic return/investment ratio for a trend. Limited capital (short-run) effects are analyzed using the Gambler's Ruin concept in the Monte Carlo simulation and by a short-cut method. Multiple trend analysis is concerned with comparing and ranking trends, allocating funds among acceptable trends, and characterizing program risk by using risk profiles. In summary, trend analysis is a reality check for long-range exploration planning.

Smith, M. (Michael Smith and Associates, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Jones, D.R.

1991-03-01

111

ALMA Explorations of Warm Dense Molecular Gas in Nearby LIRGs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of ALMA (Cycle-0) observations of the CO (6-5) line emission and the 435?m continuum of two nearby luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) NGC 34 (a major merger with an AGN) and NGC 1614 (a minor merger with a circum-nuclear starburst). Using receivers in the highest frequency ALMA band available (Band-9), these observations achieved the best angular resolutions (~0''.25) for ALMA Cycle-0 observations and resolved for the first time distributions of warm dense molecular gas (n > 105 cm-3, T > 100 K) in LIRGs with spatial resolutions better than 100 pc. Our ALMA data show a very tight correlation between the CO (6-5) line emission and the 435?m dust continuum emission, suggesting the warm dense molecular gas dominates the ISM in the central kpc of LIRGs, and gas heating and dust heating in the warm dense gas cores are strongly coupled. On the other hand, we saw very different spatial distributions and kinematic properties of warm dense gas in the two LIRGs, indicating that physical conditions in the ISM can be very different in different LIRGs.

Xu, C. Kevin

2015-02-01

112

Development and Demonstration of Mobile, Small Footprint Exploration and Development Well System for Arctic Unconventional Gas Resources (ARCGAS)  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally, oil and gas field technology development in Alaska has focused on the high-cost, high-productivity oil and gas fields of the North Slope and Cook Inlet, with little or no attention given to Alaska's numerous shallow, unconventional gas reservoirs (carbonaceous shales, coalbeds, tight gas sands). This is because the high costs associated with utilizing the existing conventional oil and gas infrastructure, combined with the typical remoteness and environmental sensitivity of many of Alaska's unconventional gas plays, renders the cost of exploring for and producing unconventional gas resources prohibitive. To address these operational challenges and promote the development of Alaska's large unconventional gas resource base, new low-cost methods of obtaining critical reservoir parameters prior to drilling and completing more costly production wells are required. Encouragingly, low-cost coring, logging, and in-situ testing technologies have already been developed by the hard rock mining industry in Alaska and worldwide, where an extensive service industry employs highly portable diamond-drilling rigs. From 1998 to 2000, Teck Cominco Alaska employed some of these technologies at their Red Dog Mine site in an effort to quantify a large unconventional gas resource in the vicinity of the mine. However, some of the methods employed were not fully developed and required additional refinement in order to be used in a cost effective manner for rural arctic exploration. In an effort to offset the high cost of developing a new, low-cost exploration methods, the US Department of Energy, National Petroleum Technology Office (DOE-NPTO), partnered with the Nana Regional Corporation and Teck Cominco on a technology development program beginning in 2001. Under this DOE-NPTO project, a team comprised of the NANA Regional Corporation (NANA), Teck Cominco Alaska and Advanced Resources International, Inc. (ARI) have been able to adapt drilling technology developed for the mineral industry for use in the exploration of unconventional gas in rural Alaska. These techniques have included the use of diamond drilling rigs that core small diameter (< 3.0-inch) holes coupled with wireline geophysical logging tools and pressure transient testing units capable of testing in these slimholes.

Paul Glavinovich

2002-11-01

113

Development of a Contingency Gas Analyzer for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's experience with electrochemical sensors in a hand-held toxic gas monitor serves as a basis for the development of a fixed on-board instrument, the Contingency Gas Analyzer (CGA), for monitoring selected toxic combustion products as well as oxygen and carbon dioxide on the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Oxygen and carbon dioxide are major components of the cabin environment and accurate measurement of these compounds is critical to maintaining a safe working environment for the crew. Fire or thermal degradation events may produce harmful levels of toxic products, including carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and hydrogen chloride (HCl) in the environment. These three components, besides being toxic in their own right, can serve as surrogates for a panoply of hazardous combustion products. On orbit monitoring of these surrogates provides for crew health and safety by indicating the presence of toxic combustion products in the environment before, during and after combustion or thermal degradation events. Issues identified in previous NASA experiences mandate hardening the instrument and components to endure the mechanical and operational stresses of the CEV environment while maintaining high analytical fidelity. Specific functional challenges involve protecting the sensors from various anticipated events- such as rapid pressure changes, low cabin pressures, and extreme vibration/shock exposures- and extending the sensor lifetime and calibration periods far beyond the current state of the art to avoid the need for on-orbit calibration. This paper focuses on lessons learned from the earlier NASA hardware, current testing results, and engineering solutions to the identified problems. Of particular focus will be the means for protecting the sensors, addressing well known cross-sensitivity issues and the efficacy of a novel self monitoring mechanism for extending sensor calibration periods.

Niu, Bill; Carney, Kenneth; Steiner, George; OHarra, William; Lewis, John

2010-01-01

114

Production trends of Gulf of Mexico: exploration and development  

SciTech Connect

The Gulf of Mexico represents a matured hydrocarbon province with a long exploration and development history. The hydrocarbon occurrences in this province are delineated into several approximately shore-parallel trends of Miocene to Pleistocene age and a recently discovered northwest-southeast-trending deep Jurassic Norphlet trend. In addition, an Oligocene trend of limited extent is present in the western gulf. The current hottest plays of the Gulf of Mexico include the Jurassic Norphlet trend, the middle Miocene Corsair trend, and the Pliocene-Pleistocene Flexure trend. The Cenozoic sediments of the Gulf of Mexico, which are primarily regressive, were deposited in fluvial, deltaic, and interdeltaic barrier-plain environments. As the sediment source moved from the Rio Grande Embayment to the Mississippi Embayment during the Cenozoic, so did the depocenters. Salt-shale tectonics played a major role in forming hydrocarbon traps in this otherwise tectonically stable area. Most of the hydrocarbons are associated with the salt-shale domal structures and their associated fault systems and with growth faults and their associated rollover structures. Historical leasing activity on the continental margin of the Gulf of Mexico indicates that the oil industry steadily moved exploration and development activity into deeper waters and plays. Area-wide lease sales have significantly accelerated exploration and development activity of this area. Historically, the response of the activity in the Gulf of Mexico to fluctuations of oil and gas prices has differed from other areas of the US. The short-term adverse impact of declining prices on the exploration and development in the Gulf of Mexico, especially the deep-water areas, may be significant, but the long-term effect will be minimal.

Pearcy, J.R.; Ray, P.K.

1986-09-01

115

Ohio 1995 oil and gas activity and exploration highlights  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ohio oil and gas industry continued its progression from a low-risk, mature play (Silurian Clinton sandstone) to a higher risk, high reward immature play (Cambrian Rose Run sandstone). The number of exploratory discoveries since 1990 has helped energize operators and change their drilling focus. The use of seismic -- including three dimensional techniques -- directional drilling, and advanced down-hole

M. P. McCormac; M. E. Wolfe

1996-01-01

116

Design Exploration of Engineered Materials, Products, and Associated Manufacturing Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past few years, ICME-related research has been directed towards the study of multi-scale materials design. However, relatively little has been reported on model-based methods that are of relevance to industry for the realization of engineered materials, products, and associated industrial manufacturing processes. Computational models used in the realization of engineered materials and products are fraught with uncertainty, have different levels of fidelity, are incomplete and are even likely to be inaccurate. In light of this, we adopt a robust design strategy that facilitates the exploration of the solution space thereby providing decision support to a design engineer. In this paper, we describe a foundational construct embodied in our method for design exploration, namely, the compromise Decision Support Problem. We introduce a problem that we are using to establish the efficacy of our method. It involves the integrated design of steel and gears, traversing the chain of steel making, mill production, and evolution of the material during these processes, and linking this to the mechanical design and manufacture of the gear. We provide an overview of our method to determine the operating set points for the ladle, tundish and caster operations necessary to manufacture steel of a desired set of properties. Finally, we highlight the efficacy of our method.

Shukla, Rishabh; Kulkarni, Nagesh H.; Gautham, B. P.; Singh, Amarendra K.; Mistree, Farrokh; Allen, Janet K.; Panchal, Jitesh H.

2015-01-01

117

Principal geological results of oil and gas exploration in southern Sakhalin. [USSR  

SciTech Connect

The results of gas and oil exploration in southern Sakhalin, USSR are discussed in three aspects: 1) oil and gas fields revealed; 2) new data on geological cross sections, and 3) tectonic position of Upper Cretaceous and Cenozic deposits. Commercial oil deposits have been located in the lower and middle Miocene deposits of the Progranichnyy trough, and commercial gas presence has been discovered in the upper Miocene deposits of the Aniva Gulf trough. (JMT)

Tyutrin, I.I.; Dunichev, V.M.; Taboyakov, A.Y.

1982-09-01

118

Developing geochemical methods for marine exploration of oil and gas  

SciTech Connect

Experimental-methodological oil exploration geochemical investigations have been carried out in the Caspian and Black seas. The bottom deposits were selected according to a differential grid, the type of which depended on geologic structure and morphology of the bottom, Lithology, and other factors. Bottom sediments were collected by scientific-research vessels using coring devices. This paper reviews the results of this testing for hydrocarbon distribution, bituminous and organic matter composition; and methane content in marine sediments.

Bagirov, V.I.; Zor'kin, L.M.; Zubayrayev, S.L.; Lopatin, N.V.

1983-01-01

119

Exploring effects of magnetic field on the Hadron Resonance Gas  

E-print Network

We present a study of the effects of magnetic fields on various physical quantities in hadron resonance gas model. We find significant non-trivial dependence of particle ratios on the magnetic field. Depending on the charge and spin, some of the particle ratios are even getting inverted due to the magnetic field. There is also significant changes in the fluctuations of net baryon number, electric charge and strangeness. This is also reflected in various fluctuation ratios along the freezeout curve.

Bhattacharyya, Abhijit; Ray, Rajarshi; Samanta, Subhasis

2015-01-01

120

Synthesis Gas Production from Partial Oxidation of Methane with Air in AC Electric Gas Discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, synthesis gas production in an AC electric gas discharge of methane and air mixtures at room temperature and ambient pressure was investigated. The objective of this work was to understand how the CH4\\/O2 feed mole ratio, ethane added, diluent gas, residence time, input power, applied frequency, and waveform, affected methane and oxygen conversions, product selectivities, and specific

K. Supat; A. Kruapong; S. Chavadej; Lance L. Lobban; Richard G. Mallinson

2001-01-01

121

Gas Production Strategy of Underground Coal Gasification Based on Multiple Gas Sources  

PubMed Central

To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method. PMID:25114953

Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

2014-01-01

122

Gas production strategy of underground coal gasification based on multiple gas sources.  

PubMed

To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method. PMID:25114953

Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

2014-01-01

123

Royalty relief, leasing, exploration may help maintain Cook Inlet production  

SciTech Connect

Cook Inlet production largely held its own in 1995 while Alaska`s overall oil production fell 4%. The Inlet`s seven oil fields produced 15.5 million bbl of oil, or a decline of only 0.6% from 1994`s 15.6 million bbl. Fields and their average production in 1995 compared with 1994 in parentheses, are McArthur River 18,142 b/d (19,427); Middle Ground Shoal 7.753 b/d (7,577); Granite Point 7,069 b/d (6,053); Swanson River 4,738 b/d (4,645); West McArthur River 2,526 b/d (2,522); Trading Bay 1,979 b/d (2,037); and Beaver Creek 362 b/d (383). The paper discusses Unocal`s plans, royalty relief, ARCO`s outlook, sales of Shell, explorations by Marathon, drilling by Stewart, reserves and production, and Cook Inlet leases.

NONE

1996-07-01

124

Low permeability gas reservoir production using large hydraulic fractures. [Underground nuclear explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been relatively little work published on recovering hydrocarbon gas from low permeability reservoirs. Recently, several nuclear projects have explored the feasibility of creating a cavity and a fractured zone in such a formation to stimulate production. One such test, Gasbuggy, was begun Dec. 10, 1967, with the detonation of a 26-kt nuclear device in the Pictured Cliffs Formation,

S. A. Holditch; R. A. Morse

1970-01-01

125

Analysis of the economic benefits and strategy of exploration and development of China`s oil and gas  

SciTech Connect

On one hand, the population of China accounts for one- fifth that of the world, whereas the proved oil reserve for in average person in China makes up less than one nineth that in the world. And the average natural gas reserve per person for China is only one twentieth that of the world. On the other hand, the yearly oil output of China has from 120,000 tons to 139,000,000 tons, which has made China one of the largest oil countries in the world, presenting a striking contrast with the former. This is a problem which is worth noticing. More and more oil and gas are needed for the continued economic development of China, but the oil industry of exploration and development is faced with such contradictions and difficulties as of reserve volume, imbalance of the ratio of reserves and production, shortage of funds, surplus of staffs, low labor productivity, and so on. For this reason it is necessary to analyse the economic benefit and strategy of China`s oil and gas exploration and development. With a series of data and charts this paper analyses the economic benefit of the exploration and development of China`s oil and gas and proceed to study the strategy of {open_quotes}Stabilising the Eastern Part and Developing the Western Part of Oil Zones{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Starting the Second Oil Undertaking and Opening the Second Battlefield for Oil Production{close_quotes}. And in this paper the author comes up with his own points of view.

Sun, Q.; Lei, H.

1995-12-31

126

International oil and gas exploration and development: 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report starts where the previous quarterly publication ended. This first publication of a new annual series contains most of the same data as the quarterly report, plus some new material, through 1991. It also presents historical data covering a longer period of time than the previous quarterly report. Country-level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve-to-production rations (R/P ratios) are listed for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form. The most popular table in the previous quarterly report, a listing of new discoveries, continues in this annual report as Appendix A.

Not Available

1993-12-01

127

Thermal reactor. [liquid silicon production from silane gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal reactor apparatus and method of pyrolyticaly decomposing silane gas into liquid silicon product and hydrogen by-product gas is disclosed. The thermal reactor has a reaction chamber which is heated well above the decomposition temperature of silane. An injector probe introduces the silane gas tangentially into the reaction chamber to form a first, outer, forwardly moving vortex containing the liquid silicon product and a second, inner, rewardly moving vortex containing the by-product hydrogen gas. The liquid silicon in the first outer vortex deposits onto the interior walls of the reaction chamber to form an equilibrium skull layer which flows to the forward or bottom end of the reaction chamber where it is removed. The by-product hydrogen gas in the second inner vortex is removed from the top or rear of the reaction chamber by a vortex finder. The injector probe which introduces the silane gas into the reaction chamber is continually cooled by a cooling jacket.

Levin, H.; Ford, L. B. (inventors)

1982-01-01

128

Accounting for Adsorbed gas and its effect on production bahavior of Shale Gas Reservoirs  

E-print Network

ACCOUNTING FOR ADSORBED GAS AND ITS EFFECT ON PRODUCTION BEHAVIOR OF SHALE GAS RESERVOIRS A Thesis by SALMAN AKRAM MENGAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2010 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering ACCOUNTING FOR ADSORBED GAS AND ITS EFFECT ON PRODUCTION BEHAVIOR OF SHALE GAS RESERVOIRS A Thesis by SALMAN AKRAM MENGAL...

Mengal, Salman Akram

2010-10-12

129

Exploring Remote Sensing Products Online with Giovanni for Studying Urbanization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently, a Large amount of MODIS land products at multi-spatial resolutions have been integrated into the online system, Giovanni, to support studies on land cover and land use changes focused on Northern Eurasia and Monsoon Asia regions. Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) is a Web-based application developed by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES-DISC) providing a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access Earth science remotely-sensed and modeled data. The customized Giovanni Web portals (Giovanni-NEESPI and Giovanni-MAIRS) are created to integrate land, atmospheric, cryospheric, and social products, that enable researchers to do quick exploration and basic analyses of land surface changes and their relationships to climate at global and regional scales. This presentation documents MODIS land surface products in Giovanni system. As examples, images and statistical analysis results on land surface and local climate changes associated with urbanization over Yangtze River Delta region, China, using data in Giovanni are shown.

Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina; Kempler, Steve

2012-01-01

130

Exploring Hot Gas at Junctions of Galaxy Filaments with Suzaku  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed five pointing observations with Suzaku to search for hot gases associated with the junctions of galaxy filaments where no significant diffuse X-ray sources were previously detected. We discovered X-ray sources successfully in all five regions including merging groups of galaxies, Suzaku J0957+2610 and Suzaku J1134+2105, and analyzed two bright sources in each field. Spectral analysis indicates that three sources originate from X-ray diffuse halos associated with optically bright galaxies or groups of galaxies with kT ~ 0.6-0.8 keV. The three other sources are possibly group- and cluster-scale X-ray halos with temperatures of ~1 keV and ~4 keV, respectively while the others are compact object origins such as active galactic nuclei. All of the three observed intracluster media within the junctions of the galaxy filaments previously found are involved in ongoing mergers. Thus, we demonstrate that deep X-ray observations at the filament junctions identified by galaxy surveys are a powerful means to explore previously undetected growing halos in a hierarchical structure.

Mitsuishi, I.; Kawahara, H.; Sekiya, N.; Sasaki, S.; Sousbie, T.; Yamasaki, N. Y.

2014-03-01

131

Exploring Hot Gas at Junctions of Galaxy Filaments with Suzaku  

E-print Network

We performed five pointing observations with Suzaku to search for hot gases associated with the junctions of galaxy filaments where no significant diffuse X-ray sources were detected so far. We discovered X-ray sources successfully in all five regions and analyzed two bright sources in each field. Spectral analysis indicates that three sources originate from X-ray diffuse halos associated with optically bright galaxies or groups of galaxies with kT~0.6-0.8 keV. Other three sources are possibly group- and cluster-scale X-ray halos with temperatures of ~1 keV and ~4 keV, respectively while the others are compact object origins such as AGNs. All the three observed intracluster media within the junctions of the galaxy filaments previously found are involved in ongoing mergers. Thus, we demonstrate that deep X-ray observations at the filament junctions identified by galaxy surveys are a powerful mean to explore growing halos in a hierarchical structure undetected so far.

Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Sekiya, Norio; Sasaki, Shin; Sousbie, Thierry; Yamasaki, Noriko Y

2013-01-01

132

GASCAP: Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model documentation, June 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model (GASCAP) has been developed by EIA to provide a historical analysis of the monthly productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead and a projection of monthly capacity for 2 years into the future. The impact of drilling, oil and gas price assumptions, and demand on gas productive capacity are examined. Both gas-well gas and oil-well gas are included. Oil-well gas productive capacity is estimated separately and then combined with the gas-well gas productive capacity. This documentation report provides a general overview of the GASCAP Model, describes the underlying data base, provides technical descriptions of the component models, diagrams the system and subsystem flow, describes the equations, and provides definitions and sources of all variables used in the system. This documentation report is provided to enable users of EIA projections generated by GASCAP to understand the underlying procedures used and to replicate the models and solutions. This report should be of particular interest to those in the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas.

Not Available

1993-07-01

133

Exploring extrasolar worlds: from gas giants to terrestrial habitable planets.  

PubMed

Almost 500 extrasolar planets have been found since the discovery of 51 Peg b by Mayor and Queloz in 1995. The traditional field of planetology has thus expanded its frontiers to include planetary environments not represented in our Solar System. We expect that in the next five years space missions (Corot, Kepler and GAIA) or ground-based detection techniques will both increase exponentially the number of new planets discovered and lower the present limit of a approximately 1.9 Earth-mass object [e.g. Mayor et al., Astron. Astrophys., 2009, 507, 487]. While the search for an Earth-twin orbiting a Sun-twin has been one of the major goals pursued by the exoplanet community in the past years, the possibility of sounding the atmospheric composition and structure of an increasing sample of exoplanets with current telescopes has opened new opportunities, unthinkable just a few years ago. As a result, it is possible now not only to determine the orbital characteristics of the new bodies, but moreover to study the exotic environments that lie tens of parsecs away from us. The analysis of the starlight not intercepted by the thin atmospheric limb of its planetary companion (transit spectroscopy), or of the light emitted/reflected by the exoplanet itself, will guide our understanding of the atmospheres and the surfaces of these extrasolar worlds in the next few years. Preliminary results obtained by interpreting current atmospheric observations of transiting gas giants and Neptunes are presented. While the full characterisation of an Earth-twin might requires a technological leap, our understanding of large terrestrial planets (so called super-Earths) orbiting bright, later-type stars is within reach by current space and ground telescopes. PMID:21302557

Tinetti, Giovanna; Griffith, Caitlin A; Swain, Mark R; Deroo, Pieter; Beaulieu, Jean Philippe; Vasisht, Gautam; Kipping, David; Waldmann, Ingo; Tennyson, Jonathan; Barber, Robert J; Bouwman, Jeroen; Allard, Nicole; Brown, Linda R

2010-01-01

134

Robust MEMS gyroscope for oil and gas exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To satisfy the performance and reliability requirement of a MEMS based harsh environment sensor, the sensor development needs to depart from the classic method of single-discipline technology improvement. In this paper, the authors will describe a Microsystem-based design methodology which considers simultaneous multiple technology domain interaction and achieves performance optimization at the system level to address the harsh environment sensing challenge. This is demonstrated through specific examples of investigating a robust MEMS gyroscope suitable for high temperature and high vibration environments such as down-hole drilling for Oil and Gas applications. In particular, the different mechanisms of temperature-induced errors in MEMS gyroscope are discussed. The error sources include both the direct impact of the gyroscope dynamics by temperature and the indirect perturbation by temperature-induced package stress. For vibration and shock induced failure, the error contributions from the low frequency and high frequency contents are discussed. Different transducer designs with equivalent rate sensitivity can vary with several orders of magnitude in terms of the susceptibility to mechanical vibration. Also shown are the complex interactions among the gyroscopic transducer, packaging and the control electronics, resulting from these temperature and vibration error sources. The microsystem-based design methodology is able to capture such complex interactions and improve the gyroscope temperature and vibration performance. In contrast to other efforts in harsh environment sensing which focus on specific technology domains, the authors strive to demonstrate the need and advantage of addressing MEMS performance and reliability in harsh environment from a microsystem perspective.

Lin, David; Miller, Todd

2014-06-01

135

Features of the marketing strategy of oil and gas companies in exploration drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The implementation of national and regional programs for the development of new oil and gas provinces of Eastern Siberia poses the challenge of increasing geological exploration. The current drilling service companies' market structure, as well as the strategic task of search and exploration effectiveness requires qualitatively new approaches for choosing a contractor. The proposed strategy to select a contractor based on comprehensive analysis of certain groups of industrial, financial, infrastructural criteria allows not only to optimize the costs of exploration activities, but also to minimize preventively the risks of a poor geological exploration. The authors' SWOT- analysis of the marketing strategy of "Gazprom neft" for choosing a contractor outlined the problem of imperfection of the Russian legislation in the sphere of activities of service companies in the oil and gas sector.

Sharf, I.; Malanina, V.; Kamynina, L.

2014-08-01

136

A field gas chromatograph using technology developed for solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trace gas analysis is an integral part of biospheric studies. Analytical instruments, primarily gas chromatographs (GC), are capable of measuring gases and volatiles to the ppb-level in real time. Trace gases significant in the study of biocycles include nitrous oxide, hydrogen sulfide, other nitrogen and sulfur species, as well as methane and ethylene. The concept of a field gas chromatograph is derived from technology being pursued in the design of ultra-compact instruments for solar system exploration. The instrument breadboard incorporates the specialized porous column packings and the highly sensitive metastable ionization detector developed by the Solar System Exploration Office. These parts ensure a broad capability for which the analysis of ambient N2O is one example. A commercial, portable gas chromatograph is currently being extensively modified to incorporate analytical concepts and components derived from flight GC technology. Data storage devices suitable for field use are presently being studied.

Woeller, F. H.; Lehwalt, M. E.; Carle, Glenn C.

1985-01-01

137

Air quality concerns of unconventional oil and natural gas production.  

PubMed

Increased use of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") in unconventional oil and natural gas (O & NG) development from coal, sandstone, and shale deposits in the United States (US) has created environmental concerns over water and air quality impacts. In this perspective we focus on how the production of unconventional O & NG affects air quality. We pay particular attention to shale gas as this type of development has transformed natural gas production in the US and is set to become important in the rest of the world. A variety of potential emission sources can be spread over tens of thousands of acres of a production area and this complicates assessment of local and regional air quality impacts. We outline upstream activities including drilling, completion and production. After contrasting the context for development activities in the US and Europe we explore the use of inventories for determining air emissions. Location and scale of analysis is important, as O & NG production emissions in some US basins account for nearly 100% of the pollution burden, whereas in other basins these activities make up less than 10% of total air emissions. While emission inventories are beneficial to quantifying air emissions from a particular source category, they do have limitations when determining air quality impacts from a large area. Air monitoring is essential, not only to validate inventories, but also to measure impacts. We describe the use of measurements, including ground-based mobile monitoring, network stations, airborne, and satellite platforms for measuring air quality impacts. We identify nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), ozone, hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and methane as pollutants of concern related to O & NG activities. These pollutants can contribute to air quality concerns and they may be regulated in ambient air, due to human health or climate forcing concerns. Close to well pads, emissions are concentrated and exposure to a wide range of pollutants is possible. Public health protection is improved when emissions are controlled and facilities are located away from where people live. Based on lessons learned in the US we outline an approach for future unconventional O & NG development that includes regulation, assessment and monitoring. PMID:24699994

Field, R A; Soltis, J; Murphy, S

2014-05-01

138

Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is an outcome of lean thinking to eliminate waste and increase productivity. PLM is inextricably tied to the systems engineering business philosophy, coupled with a methodology by which personnel, processes and practices, and information technology combine to form an architecture platform for product design, development, manufacturing, operations, and decommissioning. In this model, which is being implemented by the Engineering Directorate at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center, total lifecycle costs are important variables for critical decision-making. With the ultimate goal to deliver quality products that meet or exceed requirements on time and within budget, PLM is a powerful concept to shape everything from engineering trade studies and testing goals, to integrated vehicle operations and retirement scenarios. This paper will demonstrate how the Engineering Directorate is implementing PLM as part of an overall strategy to deliver safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions. It has been 30 years since the United States fielded the Space Shuttle. The next generation space transportation system requires a paradigm shift such that digital tools and knowledge management, which are central elements of PLM, are used consistently to maximum effect. The outcome is a better use of scarce resources, along with more focus on stakeholder and customer requirements, as a new portfolio of enabling tools becomes second nature to the workforce. This paper will use the design and manufacturing processes, which have transitioned to digital-based activities, to show how PLM supports the comprehensive systems engineering and integration function. It also will go through a launch countdown scenario where an anomaly is detected to show how the virtual vehicle created from paperless processes will help solve technical challenges and improve the likelihood of launching on schedule, with less hands-on labor needed for processing and troubleshooting.

Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.

2010-01-01

139

Products of Mind: Exploring Student Preferences for Product Development Using My Way ... An Expression Style Instrument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' preferences for creating potential products were explored through use of "My Way ... An Expression Style Inventory". Analysis of data from 3,532 students allowed examination of content and construct validity for the instrument. The article suggests practical applications for the inventory in talent-development programs such as those

Kettle, Karen E.; Renzulli, Joseph S.; Rizza, Mary G.

1998-01-01

140

Production of biodiesel using expanded gas solvents  

SciTech Connect

A method of producing an alkyl ester. The method comprises providing an alcohol and a triglyceride or fatty acid. An expanding gas is dissolved into the alcohol to form a gas expanded solvent. The alcohol is reacted with the triglyceride or fatty acid in a single phase to produce the alkyl ester. The expanding gas may be a nonpolar expanding gas, such as carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, ethylene, propylene, butylene, pentene, isomers thereof, and mixtures thereof, which is dissolved into the alcohol. The gas expanded solvent may be maintained at a temperature below, at, or above a critical temperature of the expanding gas and at a pressure below, at, or above a critical pressure of the expanding gas.

Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID; Fox, Robert V [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-04-07

141

Senate Forum on Shale Gas Development Explores Environmental and Industry Issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources brought together industry and environmental leaders for a 23 May forum that focused on industry best practices and environmental concerns related to the current shale gas boom. The boom in shale gas development has been brought about in large part through advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") to increase shale oil and gas production.

Showstack, Randy

2013-06-01

142

78 FR 17661 - Proposed Reissuance of a General NPDES Permit for Oil and Gas Exploration Facilities in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exploration Facilities in Federal Waters of Cook Inlet (AKG 31-5000...pollutants into Cook Inlet Federal Waters from oil and gas exploration facilities...to minimize pollution and protect water quality. DATES: Comments. Interested...

2013-03-22

143

In-Situ Production of Solar Power Systems for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current proposals for developing an extended human presence, beyond space stations, on the Moon and Mars increasingly consider the processing of non-terrestrial materials essential for keeping the Earth launch burden reasonable. Utilization of in-situ resources for construction of lunar and Mars bases will initially require assessment of resource availability followed by the development of economically acceptable and technically feasible extractive processes. In regard to materials processing and fabrication the lower gravity level on the Moon (0.125 g) and Mars (0.367 g) will dramatically change the presently accepted hierarchy of materials in terms of specific properties, a factor which must be understood and exploited. Furthermore, significant changes are expected in the behavior of liquid materials during processing. In casting, for example, mold filling and associated solidification processes have to be reevaluated. Finally microstructural development and therefore material properties, presently being documented through on-going research in microgravity science and applications, needs to be understood and scaled to the reduced gravity environments. One of the most important elements of a human planetary base is power production. Lunar samples and geophysical measurements returned by the Apollo missions provide detailed data on the composition and physical characteristics of the lunar materials and environment. Based on this knowledge and extrapolations of terrestrial industrial experience it is clear that several types of solar-to-electric converters can be manufactured on the Moon. It is conceivable that well over 90% of a solar-to- electric power system could be made from lunar materials. Production and utilization of photovoltaic devices for solar energy production on Earth is primarily driven by the market economy. On Earth a production plant for photovoltaic devices is intimately linked to the planets massive industrial base. A selection of off the shelf refined materials are available as well as cheap fast transportation on demand. The processes takes place (except for the few seconds reprieve in shot towers etc.) under one gravity, with solar radiation significantly modulated by weather, and under conditions where one atmosphere is free and high vacuum is cumbersome and expensive. Off Earth, on lunar or Mars bases, the cost of photovoltaic power is driven by transport costs - Earth launch, deep space transport, landing on the planetary surface. Thus there is a premium for processes that are materials self-sufficient or for closed loop in-situ processes. The lack of differentiated ores on the Moon, and lack of explored minerals on Mars and interplanetary space give a premium to universal/non-ore-specific mineral extractive processes. Initially a semiconductor/photovoltaic production facility will build on no conveniently located industrial base, further increasing the premium on closed loop self sufficient processes.

Curreri, Peter A.; Criswell, David R.

1999-01-01

144

Tempest gas turbine extends EGT product line  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the introduction of the 7.8 MW (mechanical output) Tempest gas turbine, ECT has extended the company`s line of its small industrial turbines. The new Tempest machine, featuring a 7.5 MW electric output and a 33% thermal efficiency, ranks above the company`s single-shaft Typhoon gas turbine, rated 3.2 and 4.9 MW, and the 6.3 MW Tornado gas turbine. All three

Chellini

1995-01-01

145

EXTENSIONS OF NASA'S EXPLORATION ARCHITECTURE: PERFORMANCE CAPABILITIES AND MARKET ECONOMICS OF A LUNAR PROPELLANT PRODUCTION FACILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are the parameters for a successful commercial company that can provide future products to a government customer interested in human exploration of the lunar surface? Multiple governments, specifically the United States of America, are interested in human exploration of cis- lunar space. These space exploration architectures could potentially utilize new commercial products (e.g. space hotels, propellant depots, orbital tourism).

A. C. Charania; Hiroshi Kanamori

146

Impact of Recent Discoveries on Petroleum and Natural Gas Exploration: Emphasis on India  

E-print Network

Two discoveries have greatly impacted understanding relevant to the origination and emplacement of petroleum and natural gas deposits. One discovery, pertaining to hydrocarbon formation from methane broadens significantly potential regions where abiotic petroleum and natural gas deposits might be found. The other, discovery of the physical impossibility of Earth-mantle convection, restricts the range and domain of geodynamic behavior, and leads to new insights on the formation of petroleum and natural gas deposits. This article highlights the impact and implications of those discoveries, especially as they relate to petroleum and natural gas exploration in India and throughout the world. From the reasoning developed here, the generality of the considerations involved, the understanding developed with respect to the East African Rift System, and the experience garnered from the larger and older Siberian Traps, the prognosis and potential for the region beneath the Deccan Traps of India to eventually become a major source of petroleum and natural gas seems quite favorable.

J. Marvin Herndon

2010-03-31

147

40 CFR Table W - 1A of Subpart W-Default Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production W Table... MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions...Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production...

2012-07-01

148

Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites  

SciTech Connect

An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore, enhances the energy security of the United States in a green and environmentally friendly manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate alternatives and recommend equipment to develop into hybrid energy conversion and storage systems for deep ocean operations. Such power systems will be located on the ocean floor and will be used to power offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations. Such power systems will be located on the oceans floor, and will be used to supply oil and gas exploration activities, as well as drilling operations required to harvest petroleum reserves. The following conceptual hybrid systems have been identified as candidates for powering sub-surface oil and gas production operations: (1) PWR = Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor + Lead-Acid Battery; (2) FC1 = Line for Surface O{sub 2} + Well Head Gas + Reformer + PEMFC + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (3) FC2 = Stored O2 + Well Head Gas + Reformer + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (4) SV1 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (5) SV2 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Engine or Turbine + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (6) SV3 = Submersible Vehicle + Charge at Docking Station + ZEBRA & Li-Ion Batteries; (7) PWR TEG = PWR + Thermoelectric Generator + Lead-Acid Battery; (8) WELL TEG = Thermoelectric Generator + Well Head Waste Heat + Lead-Acid Battery; (9) GRID = Ocean Floor Electrical Grid + Lead-Acid Battery; and (10) DOC = Deep Ocean Current + Lead-Acid Battery.

Farmer, J C; Haut, R; Jahn, G; Goldman, J; Colvin, J; Karpinski, A; Dobley, A; Halfinger, J; Nagley, S; Wolf, K; Shapiro, A; Doucette, P; Hansen, P; Oke, A; Compton, D; Cobb, M; Kopps, R; Chitwood, J; Spence, W; Remacle, P; Noel, C; Vicic, J; Dee, R

2010-02-19

149

Application of sequence stratigraphy to oil and gas exploration in Bredasdorp basin offshore South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than two decades, oil and gas exploration in offshore South African rift basins within structural synrift plays yielded limited success. After the first oil discovery in postrift sediments in the Bredasdorp basin in 1987, sequence-stratigraphic concepts were applied to the Lower Cretaceous postrift sequences to permit correlation of depositional systems tracts and related facies throughout the basin. Extensive

Van Wyk

1989-01-01

150

Oil and Gas CDT Are non-marine organic-rich shales suitable exploration  

E-print Network

Oil and Gas CDT Are non-marine organic-rich shales suitable exploration targets? The University Hesselbo, University of Exeter http://emps.exeter.ac.uk/csm/staff/sph216 Key Words Shales, depositional environments, diagenesis, sedimentology, geochemistry Overview Shales are of increasing interest not only

Henderson, Gideon

151

Integrated production of fuel gas and oxygenated organic compounds from synthesis gas  

DOEpatents

An oxygenated organic liquid product and a fuel gas are produced from a portion of synthesis gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur-containing compounds in a integrated feed treatment and catalytic reaction system. To prevent catalyst poisoning, the sulfur-containing compounds in the reactor feed are absorbed in a liquid comprising the reactor product, and the resulting sulfur-containing liquid is regenerated by stripping with untreated synthesis gas from the reactor. Stripping offgas is combined with the remaining synthesis gas to provide a fuel gas product. A portion of the regenerated liquid is used as makeup to the absorber and the remainder is withdrawn as a liquid product. The method is particularly useful for integration with a combined cycle coal gasification system utilizing a gas turbine for electric power generation.

Moore, Robert B. (Allentown, PA); Hegarty, William P. (State College, PA); Studer, David W. (Wescosville, PA); Tirados, Edward J. (Easton, PA)

1995-01-01

152

Measuring micro-organism gas production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transducer, which senses pressure buildup, is easy to assemble and use, and rate of gas produced can be measured automatically and accurately. Method can be used in research, in clinical laboratories, and for environmental pollution studies because of its ability to detect and quantify rapidly the number of gas-producing microorganisms in water, beverages, and clinical samples.

Wilkins, J. R.; Pearson, A. O.; Mills, S. M.

1973-01-01

153

Methane hydrate gas production: evaluating and exploiting the solid gas resource  

SciTech Connect

Methane hydrate gas could be a tremendous energy resource if methods can be devised to produce this gas economically. This paper examines two methods of producing gas from hydrate deposits by the injection of hot water or steam, and also examines the feasibility of hydraulic fracturing and pressure reduction as a hydrate gas production technique. A hydraulic fracturing technique suitable for hydrate reservoirs and a system for coring hydrate reservoirs are also described.

McGuire, P.L.

1981-01-01

154

Methanol production with elemental phosphorus byproduct gas: technical and economic feasibility  

SciTech Connect

The technical and economic feasibility of using a typical, elemental, phosphorus byproduct gas stream in methanol production is assessed. The purpose of the study is to explore the potential of a substitute for natural gas. The first part of the study establishes economic tradeoffs between several alternative methods of supplying the hydrogen which is needed in the methanol synthesis process to react with CO from the off gas. The preferred alternative is the Battelle Process, which uses natural gas in combination with the off gas in an economically sized methanol plant. The second part of the study presents a preliminary basic design of a plant to (1) clean and compress the off gas, (2) return recovered phosphorus to the phosphorus plant, and (3) produce methanol by the Battelle Process. Use of elemental phosphorus byproduct gas in methanol production appears to be technically feasible. The Battelle Process shows a definite but relatively small economic advantage over conventional methanol manufacture based on natural gas alone. The process would be economically feasible only where natural gas supply and methanol market conditions at a phosphorus plant are not significantly less favorable than at competing methanol plants. If off-gas streams from two or more phosphorus plants could be combined, production of methanol using only offgas might also be economically feasible. The North American methanol market, however, does not seem likely to require another new methanol project until after 1990. The off-gas cleanup, compression, and phosphorus-recovery system could be used to produce a CO-rich stream that could be economically attractive for production of several other chemicals besides methanol.

Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

1981-01-01

155

Exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

Wilburn, D.R.; Porter, K.E.

1999-01-01

156

Exploration and Exploitation Alliances in Biotechnology: A System of New Product Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We link the exploration--exploitation framework of organizational learning to a technology venture's strategic alliances and argue that the causal relationship between the venture's alliances and its new product development depends on the type of the alliance. In particular, we propose a product development path beginning with exploration alliances predicting products in development, which in turn predict exploitation alliances, and that

Frank T. Rothaermel; David L. Deeds

2004-01-01

157

78 FR 33051 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity, The Gas Company, LLC dba Hawai'i Gas, Subzone 9F...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...authorized by the FTZ Board. Production under FTZ procedures could...components used in export production. On its domestic sales...natural gas, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, hydrocarbon gas mixtures...reduced on foreign status production equipment. The...

2013-06-03

158

Impact of Recent Discoveries on Petroleum and Natural Gas Exploration: Emphasis on India  

E-print Network

Two discoveries have greatly impacted understanding relevant to the origination and emplacement of petroleum and natural gas deposits. One discovery, pertaining to hydrocarbon formation from methane broadens significantly potential regions where abiotic petroleum and natural gas deposits might be found. The other, discovery of the physical impossibility of Earth-mantle convection, restricts the range and domain of geodynamic behavior, and leads to new insights on the formation of petroleum and natural gas deposits. This article highlights the impact and implications of those discoveries, especially as they relate to petroleum and natural gas exploration in India and throughout the world. From the reasoning developed here, the generality of the considerations involved, the understanding developed with respect to the East African Rift System, and the experience garnered from the larger and older Siberian Traps, the prognosis and potential for the region beneath the Deccan Traps of India to eventually become a m...

Herndon, J Marvin

2010-01-01

159

21 CFR 886.5918 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. 886.5918... 886.5918 Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens care product is a device...

2013-04-01

160

21 CFR 886.5918 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. 886.5918... 886.5918 Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens care product is a device...

2014-04-01

161

21 CFR 886.5918 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. 886.5918... 886.5918 Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens care product is a device...

2012-04-01

162

21 CFR 886.5918 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. 886.5918... 886.5918 Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens care product is a device...

2011-04-01

163

Low permeability gas reservoir production using large hydraulic fractures  

E-print Network

LOVT PERMEABILITY GAS RESERVOIR PRODUCTION USING LARGE HYDRAULIC FRACTURES A Thesis by STEPHEN ALLEN HOLDITCH Approved as to style and content by: ( airman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Me er) (Member) (Membe r) (Member) (Member...) August 1970 111 ABSTRACT Low Permeability Gas Reservoir Production Using Large Hydraulic Fractures. (August 1970) Stephen Allen Holditch, B. S. , Texas ARM University Directed by: Dr, R. A. Morse There has been relatively little work published...

Holditch, Stephen A

1970-01-01

164

Mitigating Accidents In Oil And Gas Production Facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated operations are increasingly used in oil and gas production facilities to improve yields, reduce costs and maximize profits. They leverage information and communications technology (ICT) to facilitate collaboration between experts at widely dispersed locations. This paper discusses the safety and security consequences of implementing integrated operations for oil and gas production. It examines the increased accident risk arising from the tight coupling of complex ICT and SCADA systems, and proposes technological, organizational and human factors based strategies for mitigating the risk.

Johnsen, Stig

165

Process for production desulfurized of synthesis gas  

DOEpatents

A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1900.degree.-2600.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises a calcium-containing compound portion, a sodium-containing compound portion, and a fluoride-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (1) a sulfur-containing sodium-calcium-fluoride silicate phase; and (2) a sodium-calcium sulfide phase.

Wolfenbarger, James K. (Torrance, CA); Najjar, Mitri S. (Wappingers Falls, NY)

1993-01-01

166

Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits  

SciTech Connect

The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas hydrate petroleum system, to discuss advances, requirement and suggested practices in gas hydrate (GH) prospecting and GH deposit characterization, and to review the associated technical, economic and environmental challenges and uncertainties, including: the accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource, the development of methodologies for identifying suitable production targets, the sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments and sample analysis, the analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs, well testing methods and interpretation of the results, geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns, well design, operation and installation, field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs, monitoring production and geomechanical stability, laboratory investigations, fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior, the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates, and the associated environmental concerns.

Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswell, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Sloan, E.D.; Sum, A.K.; Koh, C.

2010-11-01

167

Preliminary report on the commercial viability of gas production from natural gas hydrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Economic studies on simulated gas hydrate reservoirs have been compiled to estimate the price of natural gas that may lead to economically viable production from the most promising gas hydrate accumulations. As a first estimate, $CDN2005 12/Mscf is the lowest gas price that would allow economically viable production from gas hydrates in the absence of associated free gas, while an underlying gas deposit will reduce the viability price estimate to $CDN2005 7.50/Mscf. Results from a recent analysis of the simulated production of natural gas from marine hydrate deposits are also considered in this report; on an IROR basis, it is $US2008 3.50-4.00/Mscf more expensive to produce marine hydrates than conventional marine gas assuming the existence of sufficiently large marine hydrate accumulations. While these prices represent the best available estimates, the economic evaluation of a specific project is highly dependent on the producibility of the target zone, the amount of gas in place, the associated geologic and depositional environment, existing pipeline infrastructure, and local tariffs and taxes. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Walsh, M.R.; Hancock, S.H.; Wilson, S.J.; Patil, S.L.; Moridis, G.J.; Boswell, R.; Collett, T.S.; Koh, C.A.; Sloan, E.D.

2009-01-01

168

Application of the Stretched Exponential Production Decline Model to Forecast Production in Shale Gas Reservoirs  

E-print Network

Production forecasting in shale (ultra-low permeability) gas reservoirs is of great interest due to the advent of multi-stage fracturing and horizontal drilling. The well renowned production forecasting model, Arps? Hyperbolic Decline Model...

Statton, James Cody

2012-07-16

169

Tempest gas turbine extends EGT product line  

SciTech Connect

With the introduction of the 7.8 MW (mechanical output) Tempest gas turbine, ECT has extended the company`s line of its small industrial turbines. The new Tempest machine, featuring a 7.5 MW electric output and a 33% thermal efficiency, ranks above the company`s single-shaft Typhoon gas turbine, rated 3.2 and 4.9 MW, and the 6.3 MW Tornado gas turbine. All three machines are well-suited for use in combined heat and power (CHP) plants, as demonstrated by the fact that close to 50% of the 150 Typhoon units sold are for CHP applications. This experience has induced EGT, of Lincoln, England, to announce the introduction of the new gas turbine prior to completion of the testing program. The present single-shaft machine is expected to be used mainly for industrial trial cogeneration. This market segment, covering the needs of paper mills, hospitals, chemical plants, ceramic industry, etc., is a typical local market. Cogeneration plants are engineered according to local needs and have to be assisted by local organizations. For this reason, to efficiently cover the world market, EGT has selected a number of associates that will receive from Lincoln completely engineered machine packages and will engineer the cogeneration system according to custom requirements. These partners will also assist the customer and dispose locally of the spares required for maintenance operations.

Chellini, R.

1995-07-01

170

Exploration and development of oil and gas field on the shelf of Sakhalin  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes the level of investigation of Sakhalin shelf for 17 years of prospecting and exploration. 8 oil and gas fields have been discovered with the total recoverable reserves ca. 272 million tons of crude oil and 819 billion m{sup 3} of gas. In the nearest 5--7 years the intensive exploration of these sectors by the companies-winners of tenders is expected. The volumes of drilling can reach 45,000-50,000 m/year. The deterrents are severe environmental conditions on the Sakhalin shelf, which are characterized by a short summer season and complicated ice conditions in winter. Offshore fields of Sakhalin can become one of the most promising sources of import of crude oil and LNG to the countries of Asia Pacific region.

Bogdanchikov, S.M.; Astafiev, V.N.; Bojarshin, E.K. [JSC Sakhalinmorneftegas, Okha (Russian Federation)

1995-12-31

171

Evaluation of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the work performed under this directive is to assess whether gas hydrates could potentially be technically and economically recoverable. The technical potential and economics of recovering gas from a representative hydrate reservoir will be established using the cyclic thermal injection model, HYDMOD, appropriately modified for this effort, integrated with economics model for gas production on the North Slope of Alaska, and in the deep offshore Atlantic. The results from this effort are presented in this document. In Section 1, the engineering cost and financial analysis model used in performing the economic analysis of gas production from hydrates -- the Hydrates Gas Economics Model (HGEM) -- is described. Section 2 contains a users guide for HGEM. In Section 3, a preliminary economic assessment of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model is presented. Section 4 contains a summary critique of existing hydrate gas recovery models. Finally, Section 5 summarizes the model modification made to HYDMOD, the cyclic thermal injection model for hydrate gas recovery, in order to perform this analysis.

Kuuskraa, V.A.; Hammersheimb, E.; Sawyer, W.

1985-05-01

172

Mercury in soil gas and air--A potential tool in mineral exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mercury content in soil gas and in the atmosphere was measured in several mining districts to test the possibility that the mercury content in the atmosphere is higher over ore deposits than over barren ground. At Cortez, Nev., the distribution of anorhalous amounts of mercury in the air collected at ground level (soil gas) correlates well with the distribution of gold-bearing rocks that are covered by as much as 100 feet of gravel. The mercury content in the atmosphere collected at an altitude of 200 feet by an aircraft was 20 times background over a mercury posit and 10 times background over two porphyry copper deposits. Measurement of mercury in soil gas and air may prove to be a valuable exploration tool.

McCarthy, Joseph Howard; Vaughn, W.W.; Learned, R.E.; Meuschke, J.L.

1969-01-01

173

Radiolytic gas production from concrete containing Savannah River Plant waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the extent of gas production from radiolysis of concrete containing radioactive Savannah River Plant waste, samples of concrete and simulated waste were irradiated by Co gamma rays and Cm alpha particles. Gamma radiolysis simulated radiolysis by beta particles from fission products in the waste. Alpha radiolysis indicated the effect of alpha particles from transuranic isotopes in the waste.

Bibler

1978-01-01

174

Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 states 1985 through 1997  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents information on wellhead productive capacity and a projection of gas production requirements. A history of natural gas production and productive capacity at the wellhead, along with a projection of the same, is illustrated.

NONE

1996-12-01

175

Water Resources and Natural Gas Production from the Marcellus Shale  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Marcellus Shale is a sedimentary rock formation deposited over 350 million years ago in a shallow inland sea located in the eastern United States where the present-day Appalachian Mountains now stand (de Witt and others, 1993). This shale contains significant quantities of natural gas. New developments in drilling technology, along with higher wellhead prices, have made the Marcellus Shale an important natural gas resource. The Marcellus Shale extends from southern New York across Pennsylvania, and into western Maryland, West Virginia, and eastern Ohio (fig. 1). The production of commercial quantities of gas from this shale requires large volumes of water to drill and hydraulically fracture the rock. This water must be recovered from the well and disposed of before the gas can flow. Concerns about the availability of water supplies needed for gas production, and questions about wastewater disposal have been raised by water-resource agencies and citizens throughout the Marcellus Shale gas development region. This Fact Sheet explains the basics of Marcellus Shale gas production, with the intent of helping the reader better understand the framework of the water-resource questions and concerns.

Soeder, Daniel J.; Kappel, William M.

2009-01-01

176

Canadian offshore oil production solution gas utilization alternatives  

SciTech Connect

Oil and gas development in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador is in its early stage and the offshore industry emphasis is almost exclusively on oil production. At the Hibernia field, the Gravity Base Structure (GBS) is installed and the first wells are in production. The Terra Nova project, based on a Floating Production Storage Offloading (FPSO) ship shaped concept, is in its engineering and construction stage and first oil is expected by late 2000. Several other projects, such as Husky's White Rose and Chevron's Hebron, have significant potential for future development in the same area. It is highly probably that these projects will employ the FPSO concept. It is also expected that the solution gas disposal issues of such second generation projects will be of more significance in their regulatory approval process and of such second generation projects will be of more significance in their regulatory approval process and the operators may be forced to look for alternatives to gas reinjection. Three gas utilization alternatives for a FPSO concept based project have been considered and evaluated in this paper: liquefied natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG), and gas-to-liquids conversion (GTL). The evaluation and the relative ranking of these alternatives is based on a first pass screening type of study which considers the technical and economical merits of each alternative. Publicly available information and in-house data, compiled within Fluor Daniel's various offices, was used to establish the basic parameters.

Wagner, J.V.

1999-07-01

177

Gas Production from Hydrate-Bearing Sediments - Emergent Phenomena -  

SciTech Connect

Even a small fraction of fine particles can have a significant effect on gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments and sediment stability. Experiments were conducted to investigate the role of fine particles on gas production using a soil chamber that allows for the application of an effective stress to the sediment. This chamber was instrumented to monitor shear-wave velocity, temperature, pressure, and volume change during CO{sub 2} hydrate formation and gas production. The instrumented chamber was placed inside the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Seafloor Process Simulator (SPS), which was used to control the fluid pressure and temperature. Experiments were conducted with different sediment types and pressure-temperature histories. Fines migrated within the sediment in the direction of fluid flow. A vuggy structure formed in the sand; these small cavities or vuggs were precursors to the development of gas-driven fractures during depressurization under a constant effective stress boundary condition. We define the critical fines fraction as the clay-to-sand mass ratio when clays fill the pore space in the sand. Fines migration, clogging, vugs, and gas-driven fracture formation developed even when the fines content was significantly lower than the critical fines fraction. These results show the importance of fines in gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments, even when the fines content is relatively low.

Jung, J.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Jang, J.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Rawn, Claudia J [ORNL; Santamarina, Carlos [Georgia Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

178

On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines  

DOEpatents

A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed. A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed.

Johansson, Lennart N. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2004-06-29

179

Shale Gas Production Theory and Case Analysis We researched the process of oil recovery and shale gas  

E-print Network

Shale Gas Production Theory and Case Analysis (Siemens) We researched the process of oil recovery and shale gas recovery and compare the difference between conventional and unconventional gas reservoir and recovery technologies. Then we did theoretical analysis on the shale gas production. According

Ge, Zigang

180

Forecasting Gas Production in Organic Shale with the Combined Numerical Simulation of Gas Diffusion in Kerogen, Langmuir Desorption from  

E-print Network

SPE 159250 Forecasting Gas Production in Organic Shale with the Combined Numerical Simulation algorithm to forecast gas production in organic shale that simultaneously takes into account gas diffusion-than-expected permeability in shale-gas formations, while Langmuir desorption maintains pore pressure. Simulations confirm

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

181

Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

Andrew Lucero

2009-01-31

182

A1. SHALE GAS PRODUCTION GROWTH IN THE UNITED STATES..............................1 A2. VARIABILITY IN SHALE WELL PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE ............................1  

E-print Network

1 APPENDIX1 Contents A1. SHALE GAS PRODUCTION GROWTH IN THE UNITED STATES FOR FLOWBACK GAS CAPTURE IN SHALE PLAYS..9 A5. REFERENCES...................................................................................................................13 A1. SHALE GAS PRODUCTION GROWTH IN THE UNITED STATES Natural gas production in the United States

183

Engineering analysis of biomass gasifier product gas cleaning technology  

SciTech Connect

For biomass gasification to make a significant contribution to the energy picture in the next decade, emphasis must be placed on the generation of clean, pollutant-free gas products. This reports attempts to quantify levels of particulated, tars, oils, and various other pollutants generated by biomass gasifiers of all types. End uses for biomass gases and appropriate gas cleaning technologies are examined. Complete systems analysis is used to predit the performance of various gasifier/gas cleanup/end use combinations. Further research needs are identified. 128 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs.

Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Moore, R.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Elliott, D.C.

1986-08-01

184

Greenhouse gas budgets of crop production current  

E-print Network

of agricultural output 13 2.3.3 Soil N2 O emissions from crop residue incorporation and N-fixing crops 13 2.4 CH4 4.7.3 Residue management 41 4.8 Mitigation potential of agronomy measures 42 4.8.1 Catch crops and increased cover 42 4.8.2 Crop selection and rotation 42 4.9 Mitigation potential in rice production 43 4

Levi, Ran

185

Ecological Production Functions: A Theoretical and Practical Exploration  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecological production functions characterize relationships between ecosystem condition, management practices, and the delivery of economically valuable ecosystem services. Many in the ecosystem service research community view ecological research directed toward developing ecolog...

186

A First Mass Production of Gas Electron Multipliers  

E-print Network

We report on the manufacture of a first batch of approximately 2,000 Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) using 3M's fully automated roll to roll flexible circuit production line. This process allows low-cost, reproducible fabrication of a high volume of GEMs of dimensions up to 30$\\times$30 cm$^{2}$. First tests indicate that the resulting GEMs have optimal properties as radiation detectors. Production techniques and preliminary measurements of GEM performance are described. This now demonstrated industrial capability should help further establish the prominence of micropattern gas detectors in accelerator based and non-accelerator particle physics, imaging and photodetection.

Barbeau, P S; Geissinger, J D; Miyamoto, J; Shipsey, I; Yang, R

2003-01-01

187

A First Mass Production of Gas Electron Multipliers  

E-print Network

We report on the manufacture of a first batch of approximately 2,000 Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) using 3M's fully automated roll to roll flexible circuit production line. This process allows low-cost, reproducible fabrication of a high volume of GEMs of dimensions up to 30$\\times$30 cm$^{2}$. First tests indicate that the resulting GEMs have optimal properties as radiation detectors. Production techniques and preliminary measurements of GEM performance are described. This now demonstrated industrial capability should help further establish the prominence of micropattern gas detectors in accelerator based and non-accelerator particle physics, imaging and photodetection.

P. S. Barbeau; J. I. Collar; J. D. Geissinger; J. Miyamoto; I. Shipsey; R. Yang

2003-04-07

188

Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production  

DOEpatents

A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange.

Brown, William R. (Zionsville, PA); Cassano, Anthony A. (Allentown, PA); Dunbobbin, Brian R. (Allentown, PA); Rao, Pradip (Allentown, PA); Erickson, Donald C. (Annapolis, MD)

1986-01-01

189

Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production  

DOEpatents

A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange. 4 figs.

Brown, W.R.; Cassano, A.A.; Dunbobbin, B.R.; Rao, P.; Erickson, D.C.

1986-10-14

190

Outer continental shelf statistics: oil, gas, sulfur, salt, leasing, drilling, production, income. Calendar year 1978, 1953--1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information and data are provided on geological and geophysical exploration, leasing, development, production, and revenue for the US outer continental shelf. Related maps of Alaska, the Atlantic seacoast, Gulf of Mexico, Texas coast, Louisiana coastal area, and the Pacific coast are provided. Statistics by years (mostly 1953 to 1978) are included for oil and condensate, oil, gas, natural gasoline, and

W. M. Harris; B. E. McFarlane; S. K. Piper; D. J. Arritt

1979-01-01

191

Natural gas production problems : solutions, methodologies, and modeling.  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas is a clean fuel that will be the most important domestic energy resource for the first half the 21st centtuy. Ensuring a stable supply is essential for our national energy security. The research we have undertaken will maximize the extractable volume of gas while minimizing the environmental impact of surface disturbances associated with drilling and production. This report describes a methodology for comprehensive evaluation and modeling of the total gas system within a basin focusing on problematic horizontal fluid flow variability. This has been accomplished through extensive use of geophysical, core (rock sample) and outcrop data to interpret and predict directional flow and production trends. Side benefits include reduced environmental impact of drilling due to reduced number of required wells for resource extraction. These results have been accomplished through a cooperative and integrated systems approach involving industry, government, academia and a multi-organizational team within Sandia National Laboratories. Industry has provided essential in-kind support to this project in the forms of extensive core data, production data, maps, seismic data, production analyses, engineering studies, plus equipment and staff for obtaining geophysical data. This approach provides innovative ideas and technologies to bring new resources to market and to reduce the overall environmental impact of drilling. More importantly, the products of this research are not be location specific but can be extended to other areas of gas production throughout the Rocky Mountain area. Thus this project is designed to solve problems associated with natural gas production at developing sites, or at old sites under redevelopment.

Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Herrin, James M.; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Basinski, Paul M. (El Paso Production Company, Houston, TX); Olsson, William Arthur; Arnold, Bill Walter; Broadhead, Ronald F. (New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM); Knight, Connie D. (Consulting Geologist, Golden, CO); Keefe, Russell G.; McKinney, Curt (Devon Energy Corporation, Oklahoma City, OK); Holm, Gus (Vermejo Park Ranch, Raton, NM); Holland, John F.; Larson, Rich (Vermejo Park Ranch, Raton, NM); Engler, Thomas W. (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM); Lorenz, John Clay

2004-10-01

192

Some modern notions on oil and gas reservoir production regulation  

SciTech Connect

The historic rhetoric of oil and gas reservoir production regulations has been burdened with misconceptions. One was that most reservoirs are rate insensitive. Another was that a reservoir's decline is primarily a function of reservoir mechaism rather than a choice unconstrained by the laws of physics. Relieved of old notions like these, we introduce some modern notions, the most basic being that production regulation should have the purpose of obtaining the highest value from production per irreversible diminution of thermodynamically available energy. The laws of thermodynamics determine the available energy. What then is value. Value may include contributions other than production per se and purely monetary economic outcomes.

Lohrenz, J.; Monash, E.A.

1980-05-21

193

Industrial Food Animal Production and Global Health Risks: Exploring the Ecosystems and Economics of Avian Influenza  

E-print Network

Industrial Food Animal Production and Global Health Risks: Exploring the Ecosystems and Economics Production and Health Division, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy 3 Department of Agricultural food animal production systems and their asso- ciated value chains dominate in developed countries

Kammen, Daniel M.

194

In situ propellant production: Alternatives for Mars exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current planning for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) recognizes the need for extraterrestrial resources to sustain long-term human presence and to attain some degree of self-sufficiency. As a practical matter, reducing the need to carry large supplies of propellant from Earth will make space exploration more economical. For nearly every round trip planned with conventional propulsion, the actual payload is only a small fraction - perhaps 10-15 percent - of the mass launched from Earth. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential application for SEI missions of propellants made exclusively from lunar or martian resources. Using such propellants could minimize or eliminate the cost of carrying propellant for surface excursion vehicles and return transfers through two high-energy maneuvers: Earth launch and trans-Mars injection. Certain chemical mono- and bipropellants are candidates for this approach; they could be recovered entirely from in situ resources on the Moon and Mars, without requiring a continuing Earth-based resupply of propellant constituents (e.g., fuel to mix with a locally obtained oxidizer) and, perhaps, with minimal need to resupply consumables (e.g., reagents or catalyst for process reactions). A complete assessment of the performance potential of these propellants must include the requirements for installation, operations, maintenance, and resupply of the chemical processing facility.

Stancati, Michael L.; Jacobs, Mark K.; Cole, Kevin J.; Collins, John T.

1991-01-01

195

Hazardous Gas Production by Alpha Particles  

SciTech Connect

This project focused on the production of hazardous gases in the radiolysis of solid organic matrices, such as polymers and resins, that may be associated with transuranic waste material. Self-radiolysis of radioactive waste is a serious environmental problem because it can lead to a change in the composition of the materials in storage containers and possibly jeopardize their integrity. Experimental determination of gaseous yields is of immediate practical importance in the engineering and maintenance of containers for waste materials. Fundamental knowledge on the radiation chemical processes occurring in these systems allows one to predict outcomes in materials or mixtures not specifically examined, which is a great aid in the management of the variety of waste materials currently overseen by Environmental Management.

Jay A. LaVerne, Principal Investigator

2001-11-26

196

Reactive oxygen species production and discontinuous gas exchange in insects  

PubMed Central

While biochemical mechanisms are typically used by animals to reduce oxidative damage, insects are suspected to employ a higher organizational level, discontinuous gas exchange mechanism to do so. Using a combination of real-time, flow-through respirometry and live-cell fluorescence microscopy, we show that spiracular control associated with the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) in Samia cynthia pupae is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hyperoxia fails to increase mean ROS production, although minima are elevated above normoxic levels. Furthermore, a negative relationship between mean and mean ROS production indicates that higher ROS production is generally associated with lower . Our results, therefore, suggest a possible signalling role for ROS in DGC, rather than supporting the idea that DGC acts to reduce oxidative damage by regulating ROS production. PMID:21865257

Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S.; Hetz, Stefan K.; Marais, Elrike; Chown, Steven L.

2012-01-01

197

Advanced Exploration Systems Logistics Reduction and Repurposing Trash-to-Gas and Heat Melt Compactor KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics covered: 1. Project Structure 2. "Trash to Gas" 3. "Smashing Trash! The Heat Melt Compactor" 4. "Heat Melt Compaction as an Effective Treatment for Eliminating Microorganisms from Solid Waste" Thermal degradation of trash reduces volume while creating water, carbon dioxide and ash. CO2 can be fed to Sabatier reactor for CH4 production to fuel LOX/LCH4 ascent vehicle. Optimal performance: HFWS, full temperature ramp to 500-600 C. Tar challenges exist. Catalysis: Dolomag did eliminate allene byproducts from the product stream. 2nd Gen Reactor Studies. Targeting power, mass, time efficiency. Gas separation, Catalysis to reduce tar formation. Microgravity effects. Downselect in August will determine where we should spend time optimizing the technology.

Caraccio, Anne J.; Layne, Andrew; Hummerick, Mary

2013-01-01

198

A first mass production of gas electron multipliers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the manufacture of a first batch of approximately 2000 Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) using 3M's fully automated roll-to-roll flexible circuit production line. This process allows low-cost, reproducible fabrication of a high volume of GEMs of dimensions up to 3030cm2. First tests indicate that the resulting GEMs have optimal properties as radiation detectors. Production techniques and preliminary measurements

P. S. Barbeau; J. I. Collar; J. D. Geissinger; J. Miyamoto; I. Shipsey; R. Yang

2003-01-01

199

Pumps, refracturing hike production from tight shale gas wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that downhole pumps and refracturing are two ways to significantly improve production rates from the Antrim shale, a tight formation in the Michigan basin (U.S.) and the objective of a major natural gas play. Candidate wells for restimulation can be identified by pressure build-up tests and specifically productivity index-vs.-permeability plots based on these tests. The work in

S. R. Reeves; W. K. Morrisson; D. G. Hill

1993-01-01

200

Product News versus Advertising: An Exploration within a Student Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory survey (part of a larger study) examined the relative effectiveness of news versus advertising as sources of product information. Subjects, 140 undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory public speaking course or a course in visual communication, completed a 5-page media interest survey. Results indicated that news rates

Hallahan, Kirk

201

Exploring children's choice: The reminder effect of product placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been little attempt to understand the influence on children of branded products that appear in television programs and movies. A study exposed children of two different age groups (6-7 and 11-12) in classrooms to a brief film clip. They were then individually asked to demonstrate their witness skills by describing in as much detail as pos- sible what

Susan Auty; Charlie Lewis

2004-01-01

202

Heat Production as a Tool in Geothermal Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat flow data (together with knowledge, or assumptions, of stratigraphy, thermal conductivity and heat production) provide the prime parameter for estimating the potential of geothermal resources. Unfortunately this information is expensive to obtain as it requires deep boreholes. Consequently it is sparse or lacking in areas not traditionally considered as having geothermal potential. New England (and most of the northeastern U.S.A.) is one such area. However, in the absence of volcano-derived hydrothermal activity with its attendant high heat flow, granitic plutons provide an alternative geothermal resource. Compared with other crustal rocks, granites contain higher concentrations of heat-producing elements (K, U, Th). Additionally, they are relatively homogeneous, compared to surrounding country rock, allowing for stimulation through hydro-fracking of large (>1 km3) geothermal reservoirs. Consequently we have adopted a different approach, obtaining heat production data rather then relying on the very sparse heat flow data. Birch and colleagues long since recognized the relationship between heat flow and heat production as an integral part of their concept of Heat Flow Provinces. Heat production is readily determined in the laboratory by measuring the density of a sample and the concentrations of its heat-producing elements potassium, uranium and thorium. We have determined the heat production for 570 samples from most of the major granitic and gneissic bodies in Massachusetts and Connecticut. We have also measured these parameters for 70 sedimentary rocks that cover granites and gneiss in the Connecticut and Narragansett Basins. This data is being used to calculate inferred heat flow data for these localities. Comparison of these inferred heat flow values with the sparse number of those measured directly in boreholes in the two States is encouraging, indicating that this approach has merit. We have also measured thermal conductivity on all of these samples. This, together with the measured heat production and the inferred heat flow allow the calculation of inferred temperature - depth profiles for these localities, from which we have produced maps showing the distribution of heat production, thermal conductivity, inferred heat flow and inferred temperatures at depths of 2, 4 and 6 km in the two States. We believe that this is a rapid and relatively cheap approach for evaluating the geothermal potential of a region lacking in heat flow data allowing identification of areas that warrant more detailed investigation which would include geophysical surveys and drilling. In Massachusetts and Connecticut such areas include the Fitchburg pluton, Permian granites and the Narragansett and Hartford Basins, where gneiss and granites are buried beneath Carboniferous and Triassic sediments respectively. This project is funded by the Department of Energy through an award to the Association of American State Geologists.

Rhodes, J. M.; Koteas, C.; Mabee, S. B.; Thomas, M.; Gagnon, T.

2012-12-01

203

Exploration and production operations in an environmentally sensitive area  

SciTech Connect

The Ecuadorian portion of the Amazon Basin, known locally as the Oriente, is the major oil producing region in Ecuador. The tropical rain forests of the Oriente contain some of the Earth`s most biologically diverse and ecologically sensitive areas. In addition, the rain forest is home to several groups of indigenous peoples.When formulating an exploration plan and prior to beginning E and P activities in the Oriente, operators must understand the environmental and sociocultural issues in the region. These concerns are considered throughout the planning process, from project conception to project closure. An environmental management plan is adopted which addresses environmental and sociocultural concerns, minimizes environmental impact, prevents delays, and limits environmental liability.

Barker, G.W.; Steele, E.J.; Robalino, J.; Baldwin, S.J.

1994-12-31

204

Federal Offshore Statistics, 1993. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This document contains statistical data on the following: federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from federal offshore leases; disbursement of federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. A glossary is included.

Francois, D.K.

1994-12-31

205

NASA EG-2000-03-002-GSFC Exploring the Aurora and the Ionosphere 1 Educational Product  

E-print Network

NASA EG-2000-03-002-GSFC Exploring the Aurora and the Ionosphere 1 Educational Product Educators#DQG#Aurora and the Ionosphere An Educator Guide with Activities in Space Science #12;NASA EG-2000-03-002-GSFC Exploring the Aurora and the Ionosphere 2 Solar Storms and You! is available in electronic for

206

Study sizes up Iraq`s reserves, exploration status, production potential  

SciTech Connect

Iraq has a volatile exploration and production history, but unlike more stable OAPEC countries it was National Oil Co. (INOC) rather than foreign oil companies that discovered most of the country`s proved oil reserves. Proved reserves are in Paleozoic, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary reservoirs charged by Silurian and Jurassic and/or Cretaceous source rocks. The pre-gulf war production capacity was 3.5 million b/d, but the country`s current damaged production capacity is about 2.5 million b/d. New discoveries have elevated Iraq`s proved reserves to 120 billion bbl of oil. The paper discusses exploration history, proven reserves, exploration plays, exploration potential, and production potential.

Ibrahim, M.W. [Target Exploration Consultants, London (United Kingdom)

1996-06-24

207

The Use of Centrifugal Separators for Offshore Gas Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

For offshore installations, the use of centrifugal separators results in a reduction of capital investments for production equipment, and a reduction in construction costs can be realized. Centrifugal separators are relatively small in diameter, light in weight, and yield efficient separation of gas well fluids for a wide range of flow rates. This flexibility results in the design and onshore

W. R. Lobdell; L. M. Ayers

1974-01-01

208

Improvement of computation on neutron induced helium gas production  

SciTech Connect

In the calculations of neutron induced Helium gas production the pick-up mechanism plays an important role. The improvement of Iwamoto model has been proposed. Then the pre-formation probabilities of the emitted composite particle in compound nucleus becomes into excitation energy dependent form.

Jingshang, Zhang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

1994-12-31

209

Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of

Eduardo Barretto de Figueiredo; Alan Rodrigo Panosso; Rangel Romo; Newton La Scala Jr

2010-01-01

210

Trace gas flux from container production of woody landscape plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The agriculture industry is a large source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions which are widely believed to be causing increased global temperatures. Reduction of these emissions has been heavily researched, with most of the work focusing on row crop and animal production sectors. Little attention has...

211

Patterns of partner selection within a network of joint ventures in oil and gas exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaders of companies exploring for oil and gas had no means of characterizing the multitude of intercompany associations common to the industry. This study examined the patterns of intercompany associations, based on exploration lease joint ventures, for leases active on December 31, 2005 in the U.S. waters of the Gulf of Mexico. The company attributes examined in this study included company status, company size, lease joint venture network centrality, longevity of company lease ownership, and the extent of company operations. The joint count, network and spatial autocorrelation tests detected the significant patterning of intercompany associations by company status, but no patterning by company attributes including size, centrality, longevity, or extent. This study identified the strong tendency to homophily for major companies and heterophily for nonmajor companies. The overall tendency to heterophily by status remained across all the companies included in the study. Oil and gas company leaders and lease resource administrators can use insights from the observed patterns to inform partner selection decisions or lease administration practices.

Cooke, Jeffrey Emmet

212

Catalytic steam gasification of pig compost for hydrogen-rich gas production in a fixed bed reactor.  

PubMed

The catalytic steam gasification of pig compost (PC) for hydrogen-rich gas production was experimentally investigated in a fixed bed reactor using the developed NiO on modified dolomite (NiO/MD) catalyst. A series of experiments have been performed to explore the effects of catalyst, catalytic temperature, steam to PC ratio and PC particle size on the gas quality and yield. The results indicate that the NiO/MD catalyst could significantly eliminate the tar in the gas production and increase the hydrogen yield, and the catalyst lives a long lifetime in the PC steam gasification. Moreover, the higher catalytic temperature and smaller PC particle size can contribute to more hydrogen production and gas yield. Meanwhile, the optimal ratio of steam to PC (S/P) is found to be 1.24. PMID:23422306

Wang, Jingbo; Xiao, Bo; Liu, Shiming; Hu, Zhiquan; He, Piwen; Guo, Dabin; Hu, Mian; Qi, Fangjie; Luo, Siyi

2013-04-01

213

Multi-strata exploration and production study, October 1,1989--September 24, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Multi-Strata project is designed to co-develop both natural gas and coal-bed methane produced through a single well bore. Sites were selected based on the total gas resources available for development combined with a sound knowledge of the reservoir parameters that contribute to the accumulation and production of natural gas in the study area of Raleigh County, West Virginia. The project was planned and is being conducted in two phases. Phase I of the project, initiated in October 1989, consisted of compiling and analyzing relevant geological and gas production information in Raleigh County, West Virginia. The Eccles 7-{1/2} Minute . The Phase I analysis identified, by May 1990, five drilling locations with a high potential for economic gas production. Phase II activities included the drilling, coring, logging, testing, and completion of three wells. It is clear from the tests conducted to date, that the three wells will deliver significant quantities of natural gas from the conventional formations, augmented by high-quality methane from the coal intervals. Gas deliverability will be determined in the upcoming production test into a commercial pipeline. Economic analyses of the project will be undertaken when sufficient production data have been obtained.

Overbey, W.K.; Reeves, T.K.; Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.; Johnson, H.R.; Hawkins, H.R. [BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1992-09-01

214

Multi-strata exploration and production study, October 1,1989--September 24, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Multi-Strata project is designed to co-develop both natural gas and coal-bed methane produced through a single well bore. Sites were selected based on the total gas resources available for development combined with a sound knowledge of the reservoir parameters that contribute to the accumulation and production of natural gas in the study area of Raleigh County, West Virginia. The project was planned and is being conducted in two phases. Phase I of the project, initiated in October 1989, consisted of compiling and analyzing relevant geological and gas production information in Raleigh County, West Virginia. The Eccles 7-{1/2} Minute . The Phase I analysis identified, by May 1990, five drilling locations with a high potential for economic gas production. Phase II activities included the drilling, coring, logging, testing, and completion of three wells. It is clear from the tests conducted to date, that the three wells will deliver significant quantities of natural gas from the conventional formations, augmented by high-quality methane from the coal intervals. Gas deliverability will be determined in the upcoming production test into a commercial pipeline. Economic analyses of the project will be undertaken when sufficient production data have been obtained.

Overbey, W.K.; Reeves, T.K.; Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.; Johnson, H.R.; Hawkins, H.R. (BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States))

1992-01-01

215

Use of computer-generated maps of oil and gas development and exploration intensity for delineating producing trends, Denver basin, Colorado, Nebraska, and Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Exploration intensity maps were used in conjunction with existing or generated maps of depositional environment, structure, thermal maturity, core porosity, and production data to delineate trends and assess oil and gas resources for the Denver basin as part of the US Geological Survey's Federal Lands Assessment Program. Maps illustrating oil and gas production, shows, and dry holes were constructed for the Denver basin using the Petroleum Information WHCS data base, with mapping and statistical software developed by the US Geological Survey. Data from more than 36,000 drill hoes in the Denver basin were entered into a program that divides the basin into 1/2 mi/sup 2/ grid cells and analyzes show and production data for drill holes within each grid cell.

Higley, D.K.; Mast, R.F.; Gautier, D.L.

1986-05-01

216

Lunar Thermal Wadis and Exploration Rovers: Outpost Productivity and Participatory Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation introduces the concept of a thermal wadi, an engineered source of thermal energy that can be created using native material on the moon or elsewhere to store solar energy for use by various lunar surface assets to survive the extremely cold environment of the lunar night. A principal benefit of this approach to energy storage is the low mass requirement for transportation from Earth derived from the use of the lunar soil, or regolith, as the energy storage medium. The presentation includes a summary of the results of a feasibility study involving the numerical modeling of the performance of a thermal wadi including a manufactured thermal mass, a solar energy reflector, a nighttime thermal energy reflector and a lunar surface rover. The feasibility study shows that sufficient thermal energy can be stored using unconcentrated solar flux to keep a lunar surface rover sufficiently warm throughout a 354 hour lunar night at the lunar equator, and that similar approaches can be used to sustain surface assets during shorter dark periods that occur at the lunar poles. The presentation includes descriptions of a compact lunar rover concept that could be used to manufacture a thermal wadi and could alternatively be used to conduct a variety of high-value tasks on the lunar surface. Such rovers can be produced more easily because the capability for surviving the lunar night is offloaded to the thermal wadi infrastructure. The presentation also includes several concepts for operational scenarios that could be implemented on the moon using the thermal wadi and compact rover concepts in which multiple affordable rovers, operated by multiple terrestrial organizations, can conduct resource prospecting and human exploration site preparation tasks.

Sacksteder, Kurt; Wegeng, Robert; Suzuki, Nantel

2009-01-01

217

Explore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created "to champion the selfless acts of others" and "to create a portal into the soul of humanity" the Explore website was created in part with support from the Annenberg Foundation. On this website, visitors can view films that cover themes such as animal rights, poverty, the environment, and spirituality. Clicking on the "Films" tab brings up a grid of recently added films, complete with another section that divides them up by "Places" and Causes". The films range in length from a two to thirty minutes, and visitors can also create their own playlist of films for their own use. Some of the more recently added films of note include "Fish Out of Water" and "Gorillas 98.6% Human". Also, visitors can connect with other parties by using the "Discussions" section to talk about travel, philanthropy, or filmmaking. The "Minds" area features profiles of the filmmakers and others profiled throughout the site, and visitors can filter them by countries and causes.

218

Analytical Modeling of Shale Hydraulic Fracturing and Gas Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shale gas is abundant all over the world. Due to its extremely low permeability, extensive stimulation of a shale reservoir is always required for its economic production. Hydraulic fracturing has been the primary method of shale reservoir stimulation. Consequently the design and optimization of a hydraulic fracturing treatment plays a vital role insuring job success and economic production. Due to the many variables involved and the lack of a simple yet robust tool based on fundamental physics, horizontal well placement and fracturing job designs have to certain degree been a guessing game built on previous trial and error experience. This paper presents a method for hydraulic fracturing design and optimization in these environments. The growth of a complex hydraulic fracture network (HFN) during a fracturing job is equivalently represented by a wiremesh fracturing model (WFM) constructed on the basis of fracture mechanics and mass balance. The model also simulates proppant transport and placement during HFN growth. Results of WFM simulations can then be used as the input into a wiremesh production model (WPM) constructed based on WFM. WPM represents gas flow through the wiremesh HFN by an elliptic flow and the flow of gas in shale matrix by a novel analytical solution accounting for contributions from both free and adsorbed gases stored in the pore space. WPM simulation is validated by testing against numerical simulations using a commercially available reservoir production simulator. Due to the analytical nature of WFM and WPM, both hydraulic fracturing and gas production simulations run very fast on a regular personal computer and are suitable for hydraulic fracturing job design and optimization. A case study is presented to demonstrate how a non-optimized hydraulic fracturing job might have been optimized using WFM and WPM simulations.Fig. 1. Ellipsoidal representation of (a) stimulated reservoir and (b) hydraulic fracture network created by hydraulic fracturing treatment. Fig. 2. Gas flow represented by (a) elliptical flow through fracture network and (b) linear flow within reservoir matrix.

Xu, W.

2012-12-01

219

Relative water and gas permeability for gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

water and gas permeability equations are important for estimating gas and water production from hydrate-bearing sediments. However, experimental or numerical study to determine fitting parameters of those equations is not available in the literature. In this study, a pore-network model is developed to simulate gas expansion and calculate relative water and gas permeability. Based on the simulation results, fitting parameters for modified Stone equation are suggested for a distributed hydrate system where initial hydrate saturations range from Sh = 0.1 to 0.6. The suggested fitting parameter for relative water permeability is nw ? 2.4 regardless of initial hydrate saturation while the suggested fitting parameter for relative gas permeability is increased from ng = 1.8 for Sh = 0.1 to ng = 3.5 for Sh = 0.6. Results are relevant to other systems that experience gas exsolution such as pockmark formation due to sea level change, CO2 gas formation during geological CO2 sequestration, and gas bubble accumulation near the downstream of dams.

Mahabadi, Nariman; Jang, Jaewon

2014-06-01

220

Alaska North Slope regional gas hydrate production modeling forecasts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A series of gas hydrate development scenarios were created to assess the range of outcomes predicted for the possible development of the "Eileen" gas hydrate accumulation, North Slope, Alaska. Production forecasts for the "reference case" were built using the 2002 Mallik production tests, mechanistic simulation, and geologic studies conducted by the US Geological Survey. Three additional scenarios were considered: A "downside-scenario" which fails to identify viable production, an "upside-scenario" describes results that are better than expected. To capture the full range of possible outcomes and balance the downside case, an "extreme upside scenario" assumes each well is exceptionally productive.Starting with a representative type-well simulation forecasts, field development timing is applied and the sum of individual well forecasts creating the field-wide production forecast. This technique is commonly used to schedule large-scale resource plays where drilling schedules are complex and production forecasts must account for many changing parameters. The complementary forecasts of rig count, capital investment, and cash flow can be used in a pre-appraisal assessment of potential commercial viability.Since no significant gas sales are currently possible on the North Slope of Alaska, typical parameters were used to create downside, reference, and upside case forecasts that predict from 0 to 71??BM3 (2.5??tcf) of gas may be produced in 20 years and nearly 283??BM3 (10??tcf) ultimate recovery after 100 years.Outlining a range of possible outcomes enables decision makers to visualize the pace and milestones that will be required to evaluate gas hydrate resource development in the Eileen accumulation. Critical values of peak production rate, time to meaningful production volumes, and investments required to rule out a downside case are provided. Upside cases identify potential if both depressurization and thermal stimulation yield positive results. An "extreme upside" case captures the full potential of unconstrained development with widely spaced wells. The results of this study indicate that recoverable gas hydrate resources may exist in the Eileen accumulation and that it represents a good opportunity for continued research. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Wilson, S.J.; Hunter, R.B.; Collett, T.S.; Hancock, S.; Boswell, R.; Anderson, B.J.

2011-01-01

221

Elemental Fluorine-18 Gas: Enhanced Production and Availability  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project was to develop an efficient, reproducible and reliable process for the preparation of fluorine-18 labeled fluorine gas ([18F]F2) from readily available cyclotron-produced [18F]fluoride ion. The two step process entailed the production of [18F]fluoromethane with subsequent conversion to [18F]F2 by electric discharge of [18F]fluoromethane in the presence of carrier nonradioactive F2 gas. The specific goals of this project were i) to optimize the preparation of [18F]fluoromethane from [18F]fluoride ion; ii) to develop a prototype automated system for the production of [18F]F2 from [18F]fluoride ion and iii) develop a compact user friendly automated system for the preparation of [18F]F2 with initial synthesis of fluorine-18 labeled radiotracers. Over the last decade there has been an increased interest in the production of â??non-standardâ? positron-emitting isotopes for the preparation of new radiotracers for a variety of applications including medical imaging and therapy. The increased availability of these isotopes from small biomedical cyclotrons has prompted their use in labeling radiotracers. In much the same way the production of [18F]F2 gas has been known for several decades. However, access to [18F]F2 gas has been limited to those laboratories with the means (e.g. F2 targetry for the cyclotron) and the project-based need to work with [18F]F2 gas. Relatively few laboratories, compared to those that produce [18F]fluoride ion on a daily basis, possess the capability to produce and use [18F]F2 gas. A simplified, reliable system employing [18F]fluoride ion from cyclotron targetry systems that are already in place coupled with on-demand production of the [18F]F2 gas would greatly enhance its availability. This would improve the availability of [18F]F2 gas and promote further work with a valuable precursor. The major goals of the project were accomplished over the funding period. The preparation of [18F]fluoromethane has been automated with reproducible yields greater than 90% conversion from [18F]fluoride ion. A trap and release system was established for the [18F]fluoride ion concentration and direct elution of the [18F]fluoride ion into the reaction vial with the appropriate base and precursor in DMSO. Other solvents were also investigated. The production time for [18F]fluoromethane is less than 10 minutes. An automated system for the [18F]F2 gas production from the [18F]fluoromethane has been developed. The unit coupled to the [18F]fluoromethane system permits the on demand production of [18F]F2 gas. In less than 30 minutes, mCi quantities of [18F]F2 gas were produced. Several variables for the [18F]F2 gas production were investigated and a set of parameters for reproducible operation were determined. These parameters included discharge chamber size, carrier gas (He, Ne, Ar), discharge time, discharge current, mass of F2 gas added to the chamber. FDOPA and EF5 were used to test the reactivity of the [18F]F2 gas. Both products were produced in low to modest yield. The ready availability of [18F]F2 gas has potential impact to advance both DOE mission-driven initiatives and nuclear medicine initiatives through other federally funded agencies such as NIH and DoD. New reactions involving the use of [18F]F2 gas will lead to direct labeling of new radiotracers and intermediates as well as new fluorine-18 labeled synthons that may be further reacted with other reagents to provide useful fluorine-18 labeled compounds. New tracers to understand and follow plant and microbial metabolism as well as new tracers for nuclear medicine applications, that have been either difficult to obtain or never produced due to the limited availability of [18F]F2 gas, may be prepared using the techniques developed .

VanBrocklin, Henry F. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging

2011-12-01

222

Gas plant economic optimization is more than meeting product specification  

SciTech Connect

Gas plants require a higher level of process control to optimize the process to maximize operating profits. Automation alone does not achieve this objective whereas, on-line dynamic optimization of the control variables based on product pricing, the cost to process the gas and the contracts for gas and liquids is solvable by new control techniques. Daily operations are affected by a paradigm shift in the method of control for the facility. This newly developed and site proven technique has demonstrated how to improve benefits when net processing margins are positive and minimize operating cost when liquids margins are negative. Because ethane recovery versus its rejection is not a binary decision, a better means to operate can be shown to benefit the gas plant operator. Each specification has a cost to meet it or a penalty to exceed it. However, if allowed, exceeding specification may prove beneficial to the net profitability of the operations. With the decision being made on-line every few minutes, the results are more dramatic than previously understood. Gas Research Institute and Continental Controls, Inc. have installed more than 10 such systems in US gas processing plants. Project payout from the use of the MVC{reg_sign} technology has on average been less than six months. Processing savings have ranged from $.0075 to $.024 per Mcf. The authors paper last year showed where the benefits can be derived. This year the results of those facilities are shared along with the methodology to achieve them.

Berkowitz, P.N.; Colwell, L.W. [Continental Controls, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Gamez, J.P. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

223

The production of activated silica with carbon dioxide gas  

E-print Network

LIBRARY A A M COLLEGE OF TEXAS THE PRODIICTION OF ACTIVAT!D SILICA )TITH CARBON DIOXIDE GAS A Thesis Killi, am Bell Hayes III Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechani cal ColleSe of Texas in parti. al fulfillment... of the reciuire . ents for the dedree of iliASTER OF SCIENCE Janus', 1956 Major Subject: Chemi. cal Engineering TH PRODUCTION OP ACTIVATED SILICA 7iIITH CARBON DIOXIDE GAS A Thesis William Bell Hayes III Approved as to style and content by: Chairmen...

Hayes, William Bell

1956-01-01

224

From Paper to Production to Test: An Update on NASA's J-2X Engine for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/industry team responsible for developing the J-2X upper stage engine for the Space Launch System (SLS) Program has made significant progress toward moving beyond the design phase and into production, assembly, and test of development hardware. The J-2X engine exemplifies the SLS Program goal of using proven technology and experience from more than 50 years of United States spaceflight experience combined with modern manufacturing processes and approaches. It will power the second stage of the fully evolved SLS Program launch vehicle that will enable a return to human exploration of space beyond low earth orbit. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is under contract to develop and produce the engine, leveraging its flight-proven LH2/LOX, gas generator cycle J-2 and RS-68 engine capabilities, recent experience with the X-33 aerospike XRS-2200 engine, and development knowledge of the J-2S tap-off cycle engine. The J- 2X employs a gas generator operating cycle designed to produce 294,000 pounds of vacuum thrust in primary operating mode with its full nozzle extension. With a truncated nozzle extension suitable to support engine clustering on the stage, the nominal vacuum thrust level in primary mode is 285,000 pounds. It also has a secondary mode, during which it operates at 80 percent thrust by altering its mixture ratio. The J-2X development philosophy is based on proven hardware, an aggressive development schedule, and early risk reduction. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and PWR began development of the J-2X in June 2006. The government/industry team of more than 600 people within NASA and PWR successfully completed the Critical Design Review (CDR) in November 2008, following extensive risk mitigation testing. Assembly of the first development engine was completed in May 2011 and the first engine test was conducted at the NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC), test stand A2, on 14 July 2011. Testing of the first development engine will continue through the autumn of 2011, be paused for test stand modifications to the passive diffuser, and then restart in the spring of 2012. This testing will be followed by specialized powerpack testing intended to examine the design and operating margins of the engine turbomachinery. The development plan beyond this point leads through more system-level, engine testing of several samples, analytical model validation activities, functional and performance verification, and then ultimate certification to support human spaceflight. This paper will discuss the J-2X development background, provide top-level information on design and development planning, and will explore some of the development challenges and mitigation activities pursued to date.

Kynard, Michael

2011-01-01

225

Production Rates for Noble-Gas Isotopes in Eucrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To get cosmic-ray exposure ages of meteorites from measured concentrations of cosmic-ray-produced ("cosmogenic") noble-gas isotopes, production rates for those isotopes are needed. The best production rates take into consideration the composition of the meteorite and the "shielding" of the sample (the pre-atmospheric size and shape of the meteoroid and the sample s location in the meteoroid). For ordinary chondrites, there have been many sets of measurements to establish production systematics. The Ne-22/Ne-21 is often used to help to get shielding-dependent production rates. We report here numerical simulations for the production of isotopes of the light noble gases He, Ne, and Ar in both basaltic and cumulate eucrites for several sizes.

Reedy, R. C.; Kim, K. J.

2004-01-01

226

NOBLE GAS PRODUCTION FROM MERCURY SPALLATION AT SNS  

SciTech Connect

Calculations for predicting the distribution of the products of spallation reactions between high energy protons and target materials are well developed and are used for design and operational applications in many projects both within DOE and in other arenas. These calculations are based on theory and limited experimental data that verifies rates of production of some spallation products exist. At the Spallation Neutron Source, a helium stream from the mercury target flows through a system to remove radioactivity from this mercury target offgas. The operation of this system offers a window through which the production of noble gases from mercury spallation by protons may be observed. This paper describes studies designed to measure the production rates of twelve noble gas isotopes within the Spallation Neutron Source mercury target.

DeVore, Joe R [ORNL; Lu, Wei [ORNL; Schwahn, Scott O [ORNL

2013-01-01

227

Trash-to-Gas: Converting Space Trash into Useful Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Logistical Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project is a collaborative effort in which NASA is determined to reduce total logistical mass through reduction, reuse and recycling of various wastes and components of long duration space missions and habitats. LRR is focusing on four distinct advanced areas of study: Advanced Clothing System, Logistics-to-Living, Heat Melt Compactor and Trash to Supply Gas (TtSG). The objective of TtSG is to develop technologies that convert material waste, human waste and food waste into high-value products. High-value products include life support oxygen and water, rocket fuels, raw material production feedstocks, and other energy sources. There are multiple pathways for converting waste to products involving single or multi-step processes. This paper discusses thermal oxidation methods of converting waste to methane. Different wastes, including food, food packaging, Maximum Absorbent Garments (MAGs), human waste simulants, and cotton washcloths have been evaluated in a thermal degradation reactor under conditions promoting pyrolysis, gasification or incineration. The goal was to evaluate the degradation processes at varying temperatures and ramp cycles and to maximize production of desirable products and minimize high molecular weight hydrocarbon (tar) production. Catalytic cracking was also evaluated to minimize tar production. The quantities of CO2, CO, CH4, and H2O were measured under the different thermal degradation conditions. The conversion efficiencies of these products were used to determine the best methods for producing desired products.

Caraccio, Anne J.; Hintze, Paul E.

2013-01-01

228

Exploring regional irrigation water demand using typologies of farms and production units: an example from Tunisia.  

E-print Network

Exploring regional irrigation water demand using typologies of farms and production units. BENMIHOUB, IRD Tunis (Tunisie), Abstract Most methods used to predict irrigation water consumption of irrigation water and of other inputs, as well as the production of outputs. The framework can also be used

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

229

A Coordination-Theory Approach to Exploring Process Alternatives for Designing Differentiated Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new systematic method for exploring and evaluating alternatives of a product design process for differentiated products - those that share some elements but also have differentiating features. Based on coordination theory, the method clarifies the opportunities and risks of process alternatives. The method consists of three steps: 1) finding applicable differentiation approaches, 2) finding applicable patterns

Naoki Hayashi; George Herman

2002-01-01

230

A coordination-theory approach to exploring process alternatives for designing differentiated products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new systematic method for exploring and evaluating alternatives of a product design process for differentiated products those that share some elements but also have differentiating features. Based on coordination theory, the method clarifies the opportunities and risks of process alternatives.

Naoki Hayashi; George Herman

2002-01-01

231

A Coordination-theory Approach to Exploring Process Alternatives for Designing Differentiated Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new systematic method for exploring and evaluating alternatives of a product design process for differentiated products - those that share some elements but also have differentiating features. Based on coordination theory, the method clarifies the opportunities and risks of process alternatives. The method consists of three steps: 1) finding applicable differentiation approaches, 2) finding applicable patterns

Naoki Hayashi; George Herman

2003-01-01

232

Shallow seismic investigations of Devonian-shale gas production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractured Devonian shale gas reservoirs which are detectable by seismic reflection methods is discussed. The preferred exploration rationale is based on travel time anomalies related to lowered acoustic velocity within the gas bearing zone. In the simplest case the travel time anomaly causes an apparent down warp or sag in a flat lying reflector. The high resolution extension of the seismic method drew two separate conclusions: (1) additional, valuable subsurface information can be obtained by recording seismic data at frequencies higher than those in common use by the petroleum industry; and (2) it is feasible to obtain seismic reflection data on a smaller scale, using less costly instrumentation, than is typically employed in the petroleum industry.

Williams, R. T.; Ruotsala, J. E.; Kudla, J. J.; Dunne, W. E.

1982-06-01

233

Value-Added Products from Remote Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

In Wyoming and throughout the United States, there are natural gas fields that are not producing because of their remoteness from gas pipelines. Some of these fields are ideal candidates for a cogeneration scheme where components suitable for chemical feedstock or direct use, such as propane and butane, are separated. Resulting low- to medium-Btu gas is fired in a gas turbine system to provide power for the separation plant. Excess power is sold to the utility, making the integrated plant a true cogeneration facility. This project seeks to identify the appropriate technologies for various subsystems of an integrated plant to recover value-added products from wet gas and/or retrograde condensate reservoirs. Various vendors and equipment manufacturers will be contacted and a data base consisting of feedstock constraints and output specifications for various subsystems and components will be developed. Based on vendor specifications, gas reservoirs suited for value-added product recovery will be identified. A candidate reservoir will then be selected, and an optimum plant layout will be developed. A facility will then be constructed and operated. The project consists of eight subtasks: Compilation of Reservoir Data; Review of Treatment and Conditioning Technologies; Review of Product Recovery and Separation Technologies; Development of Power Generation System; Integrated Plant Design for Candidate Field; System Fabrication; System Operation and Monitoring; and Economic Evaluation and Reporting. The first five tasks have been completed and the sixth is nearly complete. Systems Operations and Monitoring will start next year. The Economic Evaluation and Reporting task will be a continuous effort for the entire project. The reservoir selected for the initial demonstration of the process is the Burnt Wagon Field, Natrona County, Wyoming. The field is in a remote location with no electric power to the area and no gas transmission line. The design for the gas processing train to produce the liquefied gas products includes three gas compressors, a cryogenic separation unit, and a natural gas powered generator. Based on the equipment specifications, air quality permits for the well field and the gas processing unit were developed and the permits were issued by the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality. Also, to make state and federal reporting easier, three of the four leases that made up the Burnt Wagon were combined. All major equipment has been installed and individual component operability is being conducted. During the next project year, operability testing and the shakedown of the entire system will be completed. Once shakedown is complete, the system will be turned over to the cosponsor for day-to-day operations. During operations, data will be collected through remote linkage to the data acquisition system or analysis of the system performance to develop an economic evaluation of the process.

Lyle A. Johnson

2002-03-15

234

Harsh-Environment Solid-State Gamma Detector for Down-hole Gas and Oil Exploration  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this program was to develop a revolutionary solid-state gamma-ray detector suitable for use in down-hole gas and oil exploration. This advanced detector would employ wide-bandgap semiconductor technology to extend the gamma sensor's temperature capability up to 200 C as well as extended reliability, which significantly exceeds current designs based on photomultiplier tubes. In Phase II, project tasks were focused on optimization of the final APD design, growing and characterizing the full scintillator crystals of the selected composition, arranging the APD device packaging, developing the needed optical coupling between scintillator and APD, and characterizing the combined elements as a full detector system preparing for commercialization. What follows is a summary report from the second 18-month phase of this program.

Peter Sandvik; Stanislav Soloviev; Emad Andarawis; Ho-Young Cha; Jim Rose; Kevin Durocher; Robert Lyons; Bob Pieciuk; Jim Williams; David O'Connor

2007-08-10

235

Challenges, uncertainties, and issues facing gas production from gas-hydrate deposits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas-hydrate (GH) petroleum system; to discuss advances, requirements, and suggested practices in GH prospecting and GH deposit characterization; and to review the associated technical, economic, and environmental challenges and uncertainties, which include the following: accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource; development of methods for identifying suitable production targets; sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments (HBS) and sample analysis; analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs; well-testing methods; interpretation of well-testing results; geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns; well design, operation, and installation; field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs; monitoring production and geomechanical stability; laboratory investigations; fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior; the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates; and associated environmental concerns. ?? 2011 Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswel, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M.B.; Reagan, M.T.; Sloan, E.D.; Sum, A.K.; Koh, C.A.

2011-01-01

236

Emissions implications of future natural gas production and use in the U.S. and in the Rocky Mountain region.  

PubMed

Enhanced prospects for natural gas production raise questions about the balance of impacts on air quality, as increased emissions from production activities are considered alongside the reductions expected when natural gas is burned in place of other fossil fuels. This study explores how trends in natural gas production over the coming decades might affect emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for the United States and its Rocky Mountain region. The MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) energy system optimization model is used with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's nine-region database to compare scenarios for natural gas supply and demand, constraints on the electricity generation mix, and GHG emissions fees. Through 2050, total energy system GHG emissions show little response to natural gas supply assumptions, due to offsetting changes across sectors. Policy-driven constraints or emissions fees are needed to achieve net reductions. In most scenarios, wind is a less expensive source of new electricity supplies in the Rocky Mountain region than natural gas. U.S. NOx emissions decline in all the scenarios considered. Increased VOC emissions from natural gas production offset part of the anticipated reductions from the transportation sector, especially in the Rocky Mountain region. PMID:25329514

McLeod, Jeffrey D; Brinkman, Gregory L; Milford, Jana B

2014-11-18

237

Exploring Advanced Technology Gas Turbine Engine Design and Performance for the Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR) conceptual design was developed as part of the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation in order to establish a consistent basis for evaluating the benefits of advanced technology for large tiltrotors. The concept has since evolved into the second-generation LCTR2, designed to carry 90 passengers for 1,000 nautical miles at 300 knots, with vertical takeoff and landing capability. This paper explores gas turbine component performance and cycle parameters to quantify performance gains possible for additional improvements in component and material performance beyond those identified in previous LCTR2 propulsion studies and to identify additional research areas. The vehicle-level characteristics from this advanced technology generation 2 propulsion architecture will help set performance levels as additional propulsion and power systems are conceived to meet ever-increasing requirements for mobility and comfort, while reducing energy use, cost, noise and emissions. The Large Civil Tiltrotor vehicle and mission will be discussed as a starting point for this effort. A few, relevant engine and component technology studies, including previous LCTR2 engine study results will be summarized to help orient the reader on gas turbine engine architecture, performance and limitations. Study assumptions and methodology used to explore engine design and performance, as well as assess vehicle sizing and mission performance will then be discussed. Individual performance for present and advanced engines, as well as engine performance effects on overall vehicle size and mission fuel usage, will be given. All results will be summarized to facilitate understanding the importance and interaction of various component and system performance on overall vehicle characteristics.

Snyder, Christopher A.

2014-01-01

238

Exploring Potential U.S. Switchgrass Production for Lignocellulosic Ethanol  

SciTech Connect

In response to concerns about oil dependency and the contributions of fossil fuel use to climatic change, the U.S. Department of Energy has begun a research initiative to make 20% of motor fuels biofuel based in 10 years, and make 30% of fuels bio-based by 2030. Fundamental to this objective is developing an understanding of feedstock dynamics of crops suitable for cellulosic ethanol production. This report focuses on switchgrass, reviewing the existing literature from field trials across the United States, and compiling it for the first time into a single database. Data available from the literature included cultivar and crop management information, and location of the field trial. For each location we determined latitude and longitude, and used this information to add temperature and precipitation records from the nearest weather station. Within this broad database we were able to identify the major sources of variation in biomass yield, and to characterize yield as a function of some of the more influential factors, e.g., stand age, ecotype, precipitation and temperature in the year of harvest, site latitude, and fertilization regime. We then used a modeling approach, based chiefly on climatic factors and ecotype, to predict potential yields for a given temperature and weather pattern (based on 95th percentile response curves), assuming the choice of optimal cultivars and harvest schedules. For upland ecotype varieties, potential yields were as high as 18 to 20 Mg/ha, given ideal growing conditions, whereas yields in lowland ecotype varieties could reach 23 to 27 Mg/ha. The predictive equations were used to produce maps of potential yield across the continental United States, based on precipitation and temperature in the long term climate record, using the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) in a Geographic Information System (GIS). Potential yields calculated via this characterization were subsequently compared to the Oak Ridge Energy Crop County Level data base (ORECCL), which was created at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Graham et al. 1996) to predict biofuel crop yields at the county level within a limited geographic area. Mapped output using the model was relatively consistent with known switchgrass distribution. It correctly showed higher yields for lowland switchgrass when compared with upland varieties at most locations. Projections for the most northern parts of the range suggest comparable yields for the two ecotypes, but inadequate data for lowland ecotypes grown at high latitudes make it difficult to fully assess this projection. The final model is a predictor of optimal yields for a given climate scenario, but does not attempt to identify or account for other limiting or interacting factors. The statistical model is nevertheless an improvement over historical efforts, in that it is based on quantifiable climatic differences, and it can be used to extrapolate beyond the historic range of switchgrass. Additional refinement of the current statistical model, or the use of different empirical or process-based models, might improve the prediction of switchgrass yields with respect to climate and interactions with cultivar and management practices, assisting growers in choosing high-yielding cultivars within the context of local environmental growing conditions.

Gunderson, Carla A [ORNL; Davis, Ethan [ORNL; Jager, Yetta [ORNL; West, Tristram O. [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Baskaran, Latha Malar [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL

2008-08-01

239

Thermal Flammable Gas Production from Bulk Vitrification Feed  

SciTech Connect

The baseline bulk-vitrification (BV) process (also known as in-container vitrification ICV) includes a mixer/dryer to convert liquid low-activity waste (LAW) into a dried, blended feed for vitrification. Feed preparation includes blending LAW with glass-forming minerals (GFMs) and cellulose and drying the mixture to a suitable dryness, consistency, and particle size for transport to the ICVTM container. The cellulose is to be added to the BV feed at a rate sufficient to destroy 75% of the nitrogen present as nitrate or nitrite. Concern exists that flammable gases may be produced during drying operations at levels that could pose a risk. The drying process is conducted under vacuum in the temperature range of 60 to 80C. These flammable gases could be produced either through thermal decomposition of cellulose or waste organics or as a by-product of the reaction of cellulose and/or waste organics with nitrate or the postulated small amount of nitrite present in the waste. To help address the concern about flammable gas production during drying, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) performed studies to identify the gases produced at dryer temperatures and at possible process upset conditions. Studies used a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) up to 525C and isothermal testing up to 120C to determine flammable gas production resulting from the cellulose and organic constituents in bulk vitrification feed. This report provides the results of those studies to determine the effects of cellulose and waste organics on flammable gas evolution

Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Bagaasen, Larry M.

2008-05-21

240

Effects of Disturbance Associated With Seismic Exploration for Oil and Gas Reserves in Coastal Marshes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic disturbances in wetland ecosystems can alter the composition and structure of plant assemblages and affect system functions. Extensive oil and gas extraction has occurred in wetland habitats along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast since the early 1900s. Activities involved with three-dimensional (3D) seismic exploration for these resources cause various disturbances to vegetation and soils. We documented the impact of a 3D seismic survey in coastal marshes in Louisiana, USA, along transects established before exploration began. Two semi-impounded marshes dominated by Spartina patens were in the area surveyed. Vegetation, soil, and water physicochemical data were collected before the survey, about 6 weeks following its completion, and every 3 months thereafter for 2 years. Soil cores for seed bank emergence experiments were also collected. Maximum vegetation height at impact sites was reduced in both marshes 6 weeks following the survey. In one marsh, total vegetation cover was also reduced, and dead vegetation cover increased, at impact sites 6 weeks after the survey. These effects, however, did not persist 3 months later. No effects on soil or water properties were identified. The total number of seeds that germinated during greenhouse studies increased at impact sites 5 months following the survey in both marshes. Although some seed bank effects persisted 1 year, these effects were not reflected in standing vegetation. The marshes studied were therefore resilient to the impacts resulting from 3D seismic exploration because vegetation responses were short term in that they could not be identified a few months following survey completion.

Howard, Rebecca J.; Wells, Christopher J.; Michot, Thomas C.; Johnson, Darren J.

2014-07-01

241

Effects of disturbance associated with seismic exploration for oil and gas reserves in coastal marshes.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic disturbances in wetland ecosystems can alter the composition and structure of plant assemblages and affect system functions. Extensive oil and gas extraction has occurred in wetland habitats along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast since the early 1900s. Activities involved with three-dimensional (3D) seismic exploration for these resources cause various disturbances to vegetation and soils. We documented the impact of a 3D seismic survey in coastal marshes in Louisiana, USA, along transects established before exploration began. Two semi-impounded marshes dominated by Spartina patens were in the area surveyed. Vegetation, soil, and water physicochemical data were collected before the survey, about 6weeks following its completion, and every 3 months thereafter for 2years. Soil cores for seed bank emergence experiments were also collected. Maximum vegetation height at impact sites was reduced in both marshes 6weeks following the survey. In one marsh, total vegetation cover was also reduced, and dead vegetation cover increased, at impact sites 6weeks after the survey. These effects, however, did not persist 3 months later. No effects on soil or water properties were identified. The total number of seeds that germinated during greenhouse studies increased at impact sites 5months following the survey in both marshes. Although some seed bank effects persisted 1year, these effects were not reflected in standing vegetation. The marshes studied were therefore resilient to the impacts resulting from 3D seismic exploration because vegetation responses were short term in that they could not be identified a few months following survey completion. PMID:24788940

Howard, Rebecca J; Wells, Christopher J; Michot, Thomas C; Johnson, Darren J

2014-07-01

242

Exploring Exploring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners will investigate, discuss, and determine why humans have always explored the world (and now space) around them. Students determine these reasons for exploration through a class discussion. In the first activity, students use the Internet to examine the characteristics of past explorers and why they conducted their exploration. The students then examine why current explorers - including the students themselves - want to explore other worlds in the Solar System. By the end of the lesson, the students can conclude that no matter what or when we explore - past, present, or future - the reasons for exploration are the same; the motivation for exploration is universal.

243

Gas Sensor Evaluations in Polymer Combustion Product Atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Toxic gases produced by the combustion or thermo-oxidative degradation of materials such as wire insulation, foam, plastics, or electronic circuit boards in space shuttle or space station crew cabins may pose a significant hazard to the flight crew. Toxic gas sensors are routinely evaluated in pure gas standard mixtures, but the possible interferences from polymer combustion products are not routinely evaluated. The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) has developed a test system that provides atmospheres containing predetermined quantities of target gases combined with the coincidental combustion products of common spacecraft materials. The target gases are quantitated in real time by infrared (IR) spectroscopy and verified by grab samples. The sensor responses are recorded in real time and are compared to the IR and validation analyses. Target gases such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride can be generated by the combustion of poly(vinyl chloride), polyimide-fluoropolymer wire insulation, polyurethane foam, or electronic circuit board materials. The kinetics and product identifications for the combustion of the various materials were determined by thermogravimetric-IR spectroscopic studies. These data were then scaled to provide the required levels of target gases in the sensor evaluation system. Multisensor toxic gas monitors from two manufacturers were evaluated using this system. In general, the sensor responses satisfactorily tracked the real-time concentrations of toxic gases in a dynamic mixture. Interferences from a number of organic combustion products including acetaldehyde and bisphenol-A were minimal. Hydrogen bromide in the products of circuit board combustion registered as hydrogen chloride. The use of actual polymer combustion atmospheres for the evaluation of sensors can provide additional confidence in the reliability of the sensor response.

Delgado, Rafael H.; Davis, Dennis D.; Beeson, Harold D.

1999-01-01

244

Using noble gases to constrain gas exchange and biological productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The five noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) are biologically and chemically inert, making them useful oceanographic tracers. Moreover, the noble gases have a wide range of solubilities and diffusivities, and thus respond differently to physical forcing. We present here a one year time-series of the five noble gases and the isotope 3He, measured in the upper 400 m of the Sargasso Sea with monthly resolution at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Site (BATS). Two profiles of the noble gases in the entire water column down to 4200 m are presented as well. We combine the upper ocean noble gas time-series data, nutrient, oxygen, and hydrographic data from BATS, and a one-dimensional vertical mixed layer model (a modified Price-Weller-Pinkel model) in order to quantify air-sea gas exchange processes. We use inverse modeling to quantify the magnitude of both diffusive gas exchange and air injection processes. The estimates obtained constrain the seasonal time-scale gas exchange rate to a precision of 6% and the bubble injection fluxes to 15%, valid for wind speeds up to 15 m/sec. The overall results suggest that the Wanninkhof quadratic formulation needs to be adjusted downward by approximately 20%. Additionally, 3He is used as a tracer of upwelling nutrients in order to constrain new production. Nutrients in the upper thermocline are well correlated with 3He, and thus 3He and nitrate measurements, combined with estimates of gas exchange, are used to quantify the input of new nutrients into the mixed layer. 3He measurement are also used in conjunction with tritium and oxygen data in order to calculate apparent oxygen utilization rates (AOUR) and thus to estimate export production.

Stanley, R.; Jenkins, W. J.; Lott, D. E.; Doney, S. C.

2007-12-01

245

Production of bioplastics and hydrogen gas by photosynthetic microorganisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our efforts have been aimed at the technological basis of photosynthetic-microbial production of materials and an energy carrier. We report here accumulation of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a raw material of biodegradable plastics and for production of hydrogen gas, and a renewable energy carrier by photosynthetic microorganisms (tentatively defined as cyanobacteria plus photosynthetic bateria, in this report). A thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. MA19 that accumulates PHB at more than 20% of cell dry wt under nitrogen-starved conditions was isolated and microbiologically identified. The mechanism of PHB accumulation was studied. A mesophilic Synechococcus PCC7942 was transformed with the genes encoding PHB-synthesizing enzymes from Alcaligenes eutrophus. The transformant accumulated PHB under nitrogen-starved conditions. The optimal conditions for PHB accumulation by a photosynthetic bacterium grown on acetate were studied. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms was studied. Cyanobacteria can produce hydrogen gas by nitrogenase or hydrogenase. Hydrogen production mediated by native hydrogenase in cyanobacteria was revealed to be in the dark anaerobic degradation of intracellular glycogen. A new system for light-dependent hydrogen production was targeted. In vitro and in vivo coupling of cyanobacterial ferredoxin with a heterologous hydrogenase was shown to produce hydrogen under light conditions. A trial for genetic trasformation of Synechococcus PCC7942 with the hydrogenase gene from Clostridium pasteurianum is going on. The strong hydrogen producers among photosynthetic bacteria were isolated and characterized. Co-culture of Rhodobacter and Clostriumdium was applied to produce hydrogen from glucose. Conversely in the case of cyanobacteria, genetic regulation of photosynthetic proteins was intended to improve conversion efficiency in hydrogen production by the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV. A mutant acquired by UV irradiation will be characterized for the mutation and for hydrogen productivity in comparison with the wild type strain. Some basic studies to develop photobioreactors are also introduced.

Yasuo, Asada; Masato, Miyake; Jun, Miyake

1998-03-01

246

Central Africa Energy: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Explore Flared Gas as an Energy Source Alternative to Biomass in Central Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Much of Central Africa's economy is centered on oil production. Oil deposits lie below vast amounts of compressed natural gas. The latter is often flared off during oil extraction due to a lack of the infrastructure needed to utilize it for productive energy generation. Though gas flaring is discouraged by many due to its contributions to greenhouse emissions, it represents a waste process and is rarely tracked or recorded in this region. In contrast to this energy waste, roughly 80% of Africa's population lacks access to electricity and in turn uses biomass such as wood for heat and light. In addition to the dangers incurred from collecting and using biomass, the practice commonly leads to ecological change through the acquisition of wood from forests surrounding urban areas. The objective of this project was to gain insight on domestic energy usage in Central Africa, specifically Angola, Gabon, and the Republic of Congo. This was done through an analysis of deforestation, an estimation of gas flared, and a suitability study for the infrastructure needed to realize the natural gas resources. The energy from potential natural gas production was compared to the energy equivalent of the biomass being harvested. A site suitability study for natural gas pipeline routes from flare sites to populous locations was conducted to assess the feasibility of utilizing natural gas for domestic energy needs. Analyses and results were shared with project partners, as well as this project's open source approach to assessing the energy sector. Ultimately, Africa's growth demands energy for its people, and natural gas is already being produced by the flourishing petroleum industry in numerous African countries. By utilizing this gas, Africa could reduce flaring, recuperate the financial and environmental loss that flaring accounts for, and unlock a plentiful domestic energy source for its people. II. Introduction Background Africa is home to numerous burgeoning economies; a significant number rely on oil production as their primary source of revenue. Relative to its size and population density, the continent has a wealth of natural resources, including oil and natural gas deposits. The exploration of these resources is not a new endeavor, but rather one that spans decades, up to a century in some places. Their resources, if realized, could provide a great means of economic and social mobility for the people of Africa. Currently, Africa represents about 12 % of the energy market, yet at the same time, consumes only 3 % of the world's energy (Kasekende 2009). The higher

Jones, Amber; White, Charles; Castillo, Christopher; Hitimana, Emmanuel; Nguyen, Kenny; Mishra, Shikher; Clark, Walt

2014-01-01

247

Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations  

SciTech Connect

The project is titled 'Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations'. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is the principal investigator and the IOGCC has partnered with ALL Consulting, Inc., headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in this project. State agencies that also have partnered in the project are the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, the Montana Board of Oil and Gas Conservation, the Kansas Oil and Gas Conservation Division, the Oklahoma Oil and Gas Conservation Division and the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. The objective is to characterize produced water quality and management practices for the handling, treating, and disposing of produced water from conventional oil and gas operations throughout the industry nationwide. Water produced from these operations varies greatly in quality and quantity and is often the single largest barrier to the economic viability of wells. The lack of data, coupled with renewed emphasis on domestic oil and gas development, has prompted many experts to speculate that the number of wells drilled over the next 20 years will approach 3 million, or near the number of current wells. This level of exploration and development undoubtedly will draw the attention of environmental communities, focusing their concerns on produced water management based on perceived potential impacts to fresh water resources. Therefore, it is imperative that produced water management practices be performed in a manner that best minimizes environmental impacts. This is being accomplished by compiling current best management practices for produced water from conventional oil and gas operations and to develop an analysis tool based on a geographic information system (GIS) to assist in the understanding of watershed-issued permits. That would allow management costs to be kept in line with the specific projects and regions, which increases the productive life of wells and increases the ultimate recoverable reserves in the ground. A case study was conducted in Wyoming to validate the applicability of the GIS analysis tool for watershed evaluations under real world conditions. Results of the partnered research will continue to be shared utilizing proven methods, such as on the IGOCC Web site, preparing hard copies of the results, distribution of documented case studies, and development of reference and handbook components to accompany the interactive internet-based GIS watershed analysis tool. Additionally, there have been several technology transfer seminars and presentations. The goal is to maximize the recovery of our nation's energy reserves and to promote water conservation.

Rachel Henderson

2007-09-30

248

Multiphasic analysis of gas production kinetics for in vitro fermentation of ruminant feeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently developed time-related gas production techniques to quantify the kinetics of ruminant feed fermentation have a high resolution. Consequently, fermentation processes with clearly contrasting gas production kinetics can be identified. Parameterization of the separate processes is possible with a suitable multiphasic model and modelling method. A flexible, empirical, multiphasic model was proposed for parameterization of gas production profiles. This equation

Jeroen C. J. Groot; John W. Cone; Barbara A. Williams; Filip M. A. Debersaques; Egbert A. Lantinga

1996-01-01

249

Process for the production of fuel gas from coal  

DOEpatents

An improved apparatus and process for the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous materials, such as coal, to more valuable gaseous products in a fluidized bed gasification reaction and efficient withdrawal of agglomerated ash from the fluidized bed is disclosed. The improvements are obtained by introducing an oxygen containing gas into the bottom of the fluidized bed through a separate conduit positioned within the center of a nozzle adapted to agglomerate and withdraw the ash from the bottom of the fluidized bed. The conduit extends above the constricted center portion of the nozzle and preferably terminates within and does not extend from the nozzle. In addition to improving ash agglomeration and withdrawal, the present invention prevents sintering and clinkering of the ash in the fluidized bed and permits the efficient recycle of fine material recovered from the product gases by contacting the fines in the fluidized bed with the oxygen as it emanates from the conduit positioned within the withdrawal nozzle. Finally, the present method of oxygen introduction permits the efficient recycle of a portion of the product gases to the reaction zone to increase the reducing properties of the hot product gas.

Patel, Jitendra G. (Bolingbrook, IL); Sandstrom, William A. (Chicago, IL); Tarman, Paul B. (Elmhurst, IL)

1982-01-01

250

Characterizing tight-gas systems with production data: Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The study of produced fluids allows comparisons among tight-gas systems. This paper examines gas, oil, and water production data from vertical wells in 23 fields in five Rocky Mountain basins of the United States, mostly from wells completed before the year 2000. Average daily rates of gas, oil, and water production are determined two years and seven years after production begins in order to represent the interval in which gas production declines exponentially. In addition to the daily rates, results are also presented in terms of oil-to-gas and water-to-gas ratios, and in terms of the five-year decline in gas production rates and water-to-gas ratios. No attempt has been made to estimate the ultimate productivity of wells or fields. The ratio of gas production rates after seven years to gas production rates at two years is about one-half, with median ratios falling within a range of 0.4 to 0.6 in 16 fields. Oil-gas ratios show substantial variation among fields, ranging from dry gas (no oil) to wet gas to retrograde conditions. Among wells within fields, the oil-gas ratios vary by a factor of three to thirty, with the exception of the Lance Formation in Jonah and Pinedale fields, where the oil-gas ratios vary by less than a factor of two. One field produces water-free gas and a large fraction of wells in two other fields produce water-free gas, but most fields have water-gas ratios greater than 1 bbl/mmcfgreater than can be attributed to water dissolved in gas in the reservoir and as high as 100 bbl/mmcf. The median water-gas ratio for fields increases moderately with time, but in individual wells water influx relative to gas is erratic, increasing greatly with time in many wells while remaining constant or decreasing in others.

Nelson, Philip H.; Santus, Stephen L.

2013-01-01

251

Australian petroleum geoscience research: Its influence on exploration and production in Australasia  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum geoscience research in support of efficient and effective exploration in Australia and focused on the reduction of exploration risk has never been healthier. The recognition and mapping of new oil families, new methods to predict trap integrity and charge history, new techniques for fluid history analysis, the development of new explanations and models for the development of large portions of the Australian margin and the development of information systems that meet the needs of explorers are reducing risk. The scale of the research undertaken and the degree of collaboration between industry and research groups is remarkable. There is a productive balance between groups developing and applying new technology and those undertaking regional geological and petroleum systems research. The balance has occurred because of the long term commitment by the Australian government, via legislation and funding, to ensure the preservation of exploration data in national geoscience database systems and that basic and applied research at all scales from basins to wells is undertaken in support of petroleum exploration and development. The reduction in the number of geoscientists in major companies and the number of major companies undertaking exploration in Australia has resulted in a shift in tasks traditionally undertaken by these companies to consultants, contractors, universities, and government agencies. The scale and complexity of the questions that need to be solved has forced significant and productive collaborations.

Loutit, T.S. (Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Canberra (Australia))

1996-01-01

252

Australian petroleum geoscience research: Its influence on exploration and production in Australasia  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum geoscience research in support of efficient and effective exploration in Australia and focused on the reduction of exploration risk has never been healthier. The recognition and mapping of new oil families, new methods to predict trap integrity and charge history, new techniques for fluid history analysis, the development of new explanations and models for the development of large portions of the Australian margin and the development of information systems that meet the needs of explorers are reducing risk. The scale of the research undertaken and the degree of collaboration between industry and research groups is remarkable. There is a productive balance between groups developing and applying new technology and those undertaking regional geological and petroleum systems research. The balance has occurred because of the long term commitment by the Australian government, via legislation and funding, to ensure the preservation of exploration data in national geoscience database systems and that basic and applied research at all scales from basins to wells is undertaken in support of petroleum exploration and development. The reduction in the number of geoscientists in major companies and the number of major companies undertaking exploration in Australia has resulted in a shift in tasks traditionally undertaken by these companies to consultants, contractors, universities, and government agencies. The scale and complexity of the questions that need to be solved has forced significant and productive collaborations.

Loutit, T.S. [Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Canberra (Australia)

1996-12-31

253

Development of an Electrostatic Precipitator to Remove Martian Atmospheric Dust from ISRU Gas Intakes During Planetary Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Manned exploration missions to Mars will need dependable in situ resource utilization (ISRU) for the production of oxygen and other commodities. One of these resources is the Martian atmosphere itself, which is composed of carbon dioxide (95.3%), nitrogen (2.7%), argon (1.6%), oxygen (0.13%), carbon monoxide (0.07%), and water vapor (0.03%), as well as other trace gases. However, the Martian atmosphere also contains relatively large amounts of dust, uploaded by frequent dust devils and high Winds. To make this gas usable for oxygen extraction in specialized chambers requires the removal of most of the dust. An electrostatic precipitator (ESP) system is an obvious choice. But with an atmospheric pressure just one-hundredth of Earth's, electrical breakdown at low voltages makes the implementation of the electrostatic precipitator technology very challenging. Ion mobility, drag forces, dust particle charging, and migration velocity are also affected because the low gas pressure results in molecular mean free paths that are approximately one hundred times longer than those at Earth .atmospheric pressure. We report here on our efforts to develop this technology at the Kennedy Space Center, using gases with approximately the same composition as the Martian atmosphere in a vacuum chamber at 9 mbars, the atmospheric pressure on Mars. We also present I-V curves and large particle charging data for various versions of wire-cylinder and rod-cylinder geometry ESPs. Preliminary results suggest that use of an ESP for dust collection on Mars may be feasible, but further testing with Martian dust simulant is required.

Clements, J. Sidney; Thompson, Samuel M.; Cox, Nathan D.; Johansen, Michael R.; Williams, Blakeley S.; Hogue, Michael D.; Lowder, M. Loraine; Calle, Carlos I.

2011-01-01

254

Development of temporary subtropical wetlands induces higher gas production  

PubMed Central

Temporary wetlands are short-term alternative ecosystems formed by flooding for irrigation of areas used for rice farming. The goal of this study is to describe the development cycle of rice fields as temporary wetlands in southern Brazil, evaluating how this process affect the gas production (CH4 and CO2) in soil with difference % carbon and organic matter content. Two areas adjacent to Lake Mangueira in southern Brazil were used during a rice-farming cycle. One area had soil containing 1.1% carbon and 2.4% organic matter, and the second area had soil with 2.4% carbon and 4.4% organic matter. The mean rates of gas production were 0.04 0.02 mg CH4 m?2 d?1 and 1.18 0.30 mg CO2 m?2 d?1 in the soil area with the lower carbon content, and 0.02 0.03 mg CH4 m?2 d?1 and 1.38 0.41 mg CO2 m?2 d?1 in the soil area with higher carbon content. Our results showed that mean rates of CO2 production were higher than those of CH4 in both areas. No statistically significant difference was observed for production of CH4 considering different periods and sites. For carbon dioxide (CO2), however, a Two-Way ANOVA showed statistically significant difference (p = 0.05) considering sampling time, but no difference between areas. The results obtained suggest that the carbon and organic matter contents in the soil of irrigated rice cultivation areas may have been used in different ways by soil microorganisms, leading to variations in CH4 and CO2 production. PMID:23508352

Canterle, Eliete B.; da Motta Marques, David; Rodrigues, Lcia R.

2013-01-01

255

Trash to Gas: Converting Space Waste into Useful Supply Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cost of sending mass into space with current propulsion technology is very expensive, making every item a crucial element of the space mission. It is essential that all materials be used to their fullest potential. Items like food, packaging, clothing, paper towels, gloves, etc., normally become trash and take up space after use. These waste materials are currently either burned up upon reentry in earth's atmosphere or sent on cargo return vehicles back to earth: a very wasteful method. The purpose of this project was to utilize these materials and create useful products like water and methane gas, which is used for rocket fuel, to further supply a deep space mission. The system used was a thermal degradation reactor with the configuration of a down-draft gasifier. The reactor was loaded with approximately 100g of trash simulant and heated with two external ceramic heaters with separate temperature control in order to create pyrolysis and gasification in one zone and incineration iri a second zone simultaneously. Trash was loaded into the top half of the reactor to undergo pyrolysis while the downdraft gas experienced gasification or incineration to treat tars and maximize the production of carbon dioxide. Minor products included carbon monoxide, methane, and other hydrocarbons. The carbon dioxide produced can be sent to a Sabatier reactor to convert the gas into methane, which can be used as rocket propellant. In order to maximize the carbon dioxide and useful gases produced, and minimize the unwanted tars and leftover ashen material, multiple experiments were performed with altered parameters such as differing temperatures, flow rates, and location of inlet air flow. According to the data received from these experiments, the process will be further scaled up and optimized to ultimately create a system that reduces trash buildup while at the same time providing enough useful gases to potentially fill a methane tank that could fuel a lunar ascent vehicle or other deep space mission.

Tsoras, Alexandra

2013-01-01

256

Geomechanical Development of Fractured Reservoirs During Gas Production  

E-print Network

gas desorption and rock matrix/fracture deformation, a poroelastic constitutive relation is developed and used for deformation of gas shale. Local continuity equation of dry gas model is developed by considering the mass conservation of gas, including...

Huang, Jian

2013-04-05

257

SynGas Production from Catalytic Steam Gasification of Municipal Solid Wastes in a Combined Fixed Bed Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalytic steam gasification of municipal solid wastes (MSW) for syn-gas production was experimentally investigated in a combined fixed bed reactor using the newly developed tri-metallic catalyst. A series of experiments have been performed to explore the effects of catalyst presence, catalytic temperature, catalyst to MSW weight ratio (C\\/M) and steam to MSW ratio (S\\/M) on the composition and yield

Jianfen Li; Jianjun Liu; Shiyan Liao; Xiaorong Zhou; Rong Yan

2010-01-01

258

Exploration of the land potential for the production of biomass for energy in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy potential for energy crops and biomass residues in the Netherlands is assessed. The analysis explores the possible use of land for biomass production in the future. Various government memorandums and analyses of the expected future land use in various sectors have served as the basis for the assessment of the supply of and the demand for land in

Ineke Steetskamp; Ad van Wijk; Wim Turkenburg

1998-01-01

259

Operationalizing sustainability: exploring options for environmentally friendly flower bulb production systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current production systems for flower bulbs in the Netherlands employ considerable quantities of pesticides and nutrients per unit area. In 1993, an association of growers and environmentalists set out to design new farming systems that meet environmental objectives in addition to economic objectives. To support the design process, an explorative study was carried out to bring together the fragmented agronomic

Walter A. H. Rossing; Jan Eelco Jansma; Frank J. De Ruijter; Jan Schans

1997-01-01

260

Product Services Module: An Evaluation Report for the Occupational Exploration Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evaluation report is one of seven produced for the Occupational Exploration Program (OEP), a series of simulated occupational experiences designed for junior high school students. Describing the pilot testing of the simulation dealing with product services, the report contains sections describing the simulation context, evaluation procedures,

Altschuld, James W.; And Others

261

Exploring Long-Term Productive Vocabulary Development in an EFL Context: The Role of Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reports on a longitudinal multiple-case study that probed into four advanced university-level Chinese EFL learners' situated vocabulary learning experiences and explored the role of L2 motivation in their productive vocabulary development. In the study, Lexical Frequency Profile analysis and semi-structured interviews were conducted with

Zheng, Yongyan

2012-01-01

262

Exploration of Food Management, Production and Services Occupations. Performance Objectives. Criterion Measures. Home Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of four terminal objectives for a course in exploration of food management, production, and service occupations for 8th and 9th grade students. The materials were developed for a 12- to 18-week course designed to include awareness of the operation

Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.

263

Twisting Tongues and Memories: Explorations of the Relationship between Language Production and Verbal Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many accounts of working memory posit specialized storage mechanisms for the maintenance of serial order. We explore an alternative, that maintenance is achieved through temporary activation in the language production architecture. Four experiments examined the extent to which the phonological similarity effect can be explained as a sublexical

Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

2009-01-01

264

Common In-Situ Consumable Production Plant for Robotic Mars Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilization of extraterrestrial resources, or In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), is viewed by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise as an enabling technology for the exploration and commercial development of space. A key subset of ISRU which has significant cost, mass, and risk reduction benefits for robotic and human exploration, and which requires a minimum of infrastructure, is In-Situ Consumable Production (ISCP). ISCP involves acquiring, manufacturing, and storing mission consumables from in situ resources, such as propellants, fuel cell reagents, and gases for crew and life support, inflation, science and pneumatic equipment. One of the four long-term goals for the Space Science Enterprise (SSE) is to 'pursue space science programs that enable and are enabled by future human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - a goal exploiting the synergy with the human exploration of space'. Adequate power and propulsion capabilities are critical for both robotic and human exploration missions. Minimizing the mass and volume of these systems can reduce mission cost or enhance the mission by enabling the incorporation of new science or mission-relevant equipment. Studies have shown that in-situ production of oxygen and methane propellants can enhance sample return missions by enabling larger samples to be returned to Earth or by performing Direct Earth Return (DER) sample return missions instead of requiring a Mars Orbit Rendezvous (MOR). Recent NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) work on oxygen and hydrocarbon-based fuel cell power systems shows the potential of using fuel cell power systems instead of solar arrays and batteries for future rovers and science equipment. The development and use of a common oxygen/methane ISCP plant for propulsion and power generation can extend and enhance the scientific exploration of Mars while supporting the development and demonstration of critical technologies and systems for the human exploration of Mars.

Sanders, G. B.; Trevathan, J. R.; Peters, T. A.; Baird, R. S.

2000-07-01

265

Common In-Situ Consumable Production Plant for Robotic Mars Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Utilization of extraterrestrial resources, or In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), is viewed by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise as an enabling technology for the exploration and commercial development of space. A key subset of ISRU which has significant cost, mass, and risk reduction benefits for robotic and human exploration, and which requires a minimum of infrastructure, is In-Situ Consumable Production (ISCP). ISCP involves acquiring, manufacturing, and storing mission consumables from in situ resources, such as propellants, fuel cell reagents, and gases for crew and life support, inflation, science and pneumatic equipment. One of the four long-term goals for the Space Science Enterprise (SSE) is to 'pursue space science programs that enable and are enabled by future human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - a goal exploiting the synergy with the human exploration of space'. Adequate power and propulsion capabilities are critical for both robotic and human exploration missions. Minimizing the mass and volume of these systems can reduce mission cost or enhance the mission by enabling the incorporation of new science or mission-relevant equipment. Studies have shown that in-situ production of oxygen and methane propellants can enhance sample return missions by enabling larger samples to be returned to Earth or by performing Direct Earth Return (DER) sample return missions instead of requiring a Mars Orbit Rendezvous (MOR). Recent NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) work on oxygen and hydrocarbon-based fuel cell power systems shows the potential of using fuel cell power systems instead of solar arrays and batteries for future rovers and science equipment. The development and use of a common oxygen/methane ISCP plant for propulsion and power generation can extend and enhance the scientific exploration of Mars while supporting the development and demonstration of critical technologies and systems for the human exploration of Mars.

Sanders, G. B.; Trevathan, J. R.; Peters, T. A.; Baird, R. S.

2000-01-01

266

The Economic Impact of Shale Gas Production in the U.S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy is important to our daily lives. A price change of one energy type may influence our consumption choices, commodities prices and industry production. For the United States, shale gas is becoming a promising source of natural gas because of the rapid increase in its reserve and production capacity. Shale gas production is projected to be a large proportion of U.S. gas production, as predicted by Energy Information Administration (EIA). However, besides knowing the big picture, more details are needed before characterizing shale gas as a "game changer." It is interesting to address questions like to what extent the production of shale gas could affect other industries' production, stabilize commodities' prices, and what are the impacts on factor payments, capital returns, labor payments and household consumption. In this study, I use a CGE model to measure the impact on industry and the change in social welfare associated with shale gas production.

Yang, Yang

267

Federal offshore statistics: 1995 - leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report provides data on federal offshore operations for 1995. Information is included for leasing activities, development, petroleum and natural gas production, sales and royalties, revenue from federal offshore leasing, disbursement of federal revenues, reserves and resource estimates, and oil pollution in U.S. and international waters.

Gaechter, R.A.

1997-07-01

268

Screening and characterization of oleaginous Chlorella strains and exploration of photoautotrophic Chlorella protothecoides for oil production.  

PubMed

The growth and oil production of nine Chlorella strains were comparatively assessed and Chlorellaprotothecoides CS-41 demonstrated the greatest lipid production potential. The effects of different nitrogen forms and concentrations, phosphorus concentrations and light intensities on growth and oil production were studied in laboratory columns. C. protothecoides CS-41 accumulated lipids up to 55% of dry weight, with triacylglycerol and oleic acid being 71% of total lipids and 59% of total fatty acids, respectively. High biomass and lipid productivities were achieved in outdoor panel PBRs, up to 1.25 and 0.59gL(-1)day(-1), or 44. 1 and 16.1gm(-2)day(-1), respectively. A two-stage cultivation strategy was proposed to enhance the algal biomass and lipid production. This is the first comprehensive investigation of both indoor and outdoor photoautotrophic C. protothecoides cultures for oil production, and C. protothecoides CS-41 represents a promising biofuel feedstock worthy of further exploration. PMID:25266686

Sun, Zheng; Zhou, Zhi-Gang; Gerken, Henri; Chen, Feng; Liu, Jin

2015-05-01

269

Agricultural use of a flue gas desulfurization by-product  

SciTech Connect

Few, if any, economical alternatives exist for operators of small coal-fired boilers that require a flue-gas desulfurization system which does not generate wastes. A new duct-injection technology called Fluesorbent has been developed to help fill this gap. Fluesorbent FGD was intentionally designed so that the saturated SO{sub 2}-sorbent materials would be valuable soil amendments for agricultural or turf-grass land. Agricultural and turf grass studies recently commenced using spent Fluesorbent materials from an FGD pilot program at an Ohio power plant. In the first year of testing, alfalfa yields on field plots with the FGD by-products were approximately 250% greater than on plots with no treatment, and about 40% greater than on plots treated with an equivalent amount of agricultural lime. Because the FGD by-products contained trace elements from included fly ash, the chemical composition of the alfalfa was significantly improved. Detailed yield and chemical data are presented.

Dick, W.; Chen, L. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center; Nelson, S. Jr. [Sorbent Technologies Corp., Twinsburg, OH (United States)

1998-12-31

270

Agricultural use of a flue gas desulfurization by-product  

SciTech Connect

Few, if any, economical alternatives exist for operators of small coal-fired boilers that require a flue-gas desulfurization system which does not generate wastes. A new duct-injection technology called Fluesorbent has been developed to help fill this gap. Fluesorbent FGD was intentionally designed so that the saturated SO{sub 2}-sorbent materials would be valuable solid amendments for agricultural or turf-grass land. Agricultural and turf grass studies recently commenced using spent Fluesorbent materials from an FGD pilot program at an Ohio power plant. In the first year of testing, alfalfa yields on field plots with the FGS by-products were approximately 250% greater than on plots with no treatment, and about 40% greater than on plots treated with an equivalent amount of agricultural lime. Because the FGD by-products contained trace elements from included fly ash, the chemical composition of the alfalfa was significantly improved.

Nelson, S. Jr.; Dick, W.; Chen, L.

1998-07-01

271

Agricultural use of a flue gas desulfurization by-product  

SciTech Connect

Few, if any, economical alternatives exist for operators of small coal-fired boilers that require a flue-gas desulfurization system which does not generate wastes. A new duct-injection technology called {open_quotes}Fluesorbent{close_quotes} has been developed to help fill this gap. Fluesorbent FGD was intentionally designed so that the saturated SO{sub 2}-sorbent materials would be valuable soil amendments for agricultural or turf-grass land. Agricultural and turf grass studies recently commenced using spent Fluesorbent materials from an FGD pilot program at an Ohio power plant. In the first year of testing, alfalfa yields on field plots with the FGD by-products were approximately 250% greater than on plots with no treatment, and about 40% greater than on plots treated with an equivalent amount of agricultural lime. Because the FGD by-products contained trace elements from included fly ash, the chemical composition of the alfalfa was significantly improved.

Nelson, S. Jr.; Dick, W.; Chen, L.

1998-04-01

272

Oil and gas exploration system and method for detecting trace amounts of hydrocarbon gases in the atmosphere  

DOEpatents

An oil and gas exploration system and method for land and airborne operations, the system and method used for locating subsurface hydrocarbon deposits based upon a remote detection of trace amounts of gases in the atmosphere. The detection of one or more target gases in the atmosphere is used to indicate a possible subsurface oil and gas deposit. By mapping a plurality of gas targets over a selected survey area, the survey area can be analyzed for measurable concentration anomalies. The anomalies are interpreted along with other exploration data to evaluate the value of an underground deposit. The system includes a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system with a spectroscopic grade laser light and a light detector. The laser light is continuously tunable in a mid-infrared range, 2 to 5 micrometers, for choosing appropriate wavelengths to measure different gases and avoid absorption bands of interference gases. The laser light has sufficient optical energy to measure atmospheric concentrations of a gas over a path as long as a mile and greater. The detection of the gas is based on optical absorption measurements at specific wavelengths in the open atmosphere. Light that is detected using the light detector contains an absorption signature acquired as the light travels through the atmosphere from the laser source and back to the light detector. The absorption signature of each gas is processed and then analyzed to determine if a potential anomaly exists.

Wamsley, Paula R. (Littleton, CO); Weimer, Carl S. (Littleton, CO); Nelson, Loren D. (Evergreen, CO); O'Brien, Martin J. (Pine, CO)

2003-01-01

273

Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of sugar production. Results According to our calculations, 241 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent were released to the atmosphere per a ton of sugar produced (2406 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a hectare of the cropped area, and 26.5 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a ton of sugarcane processed). The major part of the total emission (44%) resulted from residues burning; about 20% resulted from the use of synthetic fertilizers, and about 18% from fossil fuel combustion. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the most important reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sugarcane areas could be achieved by switching to a green harvest system, that is, to harvesting without burning. PMID:20565736

2010-01-01

274

Storage sizing for embedding of local gas production in a micro gas grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study the optimal control of a micro grid of biogas producers. The paper considers the possibility to have a local storage device for each producer, who partly consumes his own production, i.e. prosumer. In addition, connected prosumers can sell stored gas to create revenue from it. An optimization model is employed to derive the size of storage device and to provide a pricing mechanism in an effort to value the stored gas. Taking into account physical grid constraints, the model is constructed in a centralized scheme of model predictive control. Case studies show that there is a relation between the demand and price profiles in terms of peaks and lows. The price profiles generally follow each other. The case studies are employed as well to to study the impacts of model parameters on deriving the storage size.

Alkano, D.; Nefkens, W. J.; Scherpen, J. M. A.; Volkerts, M.

2014-12-01

275

Producing ammonium sulfate from flue gas desulfurization by-products  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Emission control technologies using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have been widely adopted by utilities burning high-sulfur fuels. However, these technologies require additional equipment, greater operating expenses, and increased costs for landfill disposal of the solid by-products produced. The financial burdens would be reduced if successful high-volume commercial applications of the FGD solid by-products were developed. In this study, the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate from FGD residues by allowing it to react with ammonium carbonate in an aqueous solution was preliminarily assessed. Reaction temperatures of 60, 70, and 80??C and residence times of 4 and 6 hours were tested to determine the optimal conversion condition and final product evaluations. High yields (up to 83%) of ammonium sulfate with up to 99% purity were achieved under relatively mild conditions. The optimal conversion condition was observed at 60??C and a 4-hour residence time. The results of this study indicate the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate fertilizer from an FGD by-product. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

Chou, I.-Ming; Bruinius, J.A.; Benig, V.; Chou, S.-F.J.; Carty, R.H.

2005-01-01

276

Microbiology of synthesis gas fermentation for biofuel production.  

PubMed

A significant portion of biomass sources like straw and wood is poorly degradable and cannot be converted to biofuels by microorganisms. The gasification of this waste material to produce synthesis gas (or syngas) could offer a solution to this problem, as microorganisms that convert CO and H2) (the essential components of syngas) to multicarbon compounds are available. These are predominantly mesophilic microorganisms that produce short-chain fatty acids and alcohols from CO and H2. Additionally, hydrogen can be produced by carboxydotrophic hydrogenogenic bacteria that convert CO and H2O to H2 and CO2. The production of ethanol through syngas fermentation is already available as a commercial process. The use of thermophilic microorganisms for these processes could offer some advantages; however, to date, few thermophiles are known that grow well on syngas and produce organic compounds. The identification of new isolates that would broaden the product range of syngas fermentations is desirable. Metabolic engineering could be employed to broaden the variety of available products, although genetic tools for such engineering are currently unavailable. Nevertheless, syngas fermenting microorganisms possess advantageous characteristics for biofuel production and hold potential for future engineering efforts. PMID:17399976

Henstra, Anne M; Sipma, Jan; Rinzema, Arjen; Stams, Alfons J M

2007-06-01

277

Orbital remote sensing for geological mapping in southern Tunisia: Implication for oil and gas exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southern Tunisia is dominated by early to middle Triassic continental sandstones inter-bedded with shales and conglomerates followed by late Triassic shallow marine carbonates, lower Jurassic evaporates, and upper Jurassic to lower Cretaceous clastic sedimentary rocks. These constitute the Dahar Plateau (which is part of the Ghadames Basin and it is the focus of this study) that was developed in association with regional uplift of the Saharan Platform. Efforts in mapping the details of surface geology in southern Tunisia are hindered by the lack of continuous bedrock outcrops, where some of the formations are buried under the sand of the Sahara Desert. Remote sensing data including multi-spectral optical (Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)), radar (RADARSAT), and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) extracted from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data are used to trace along strike continuity of different lithological units as well as mapping morphologically defined structures in southern Tunisia. Landsat ETM+ and ASTER Red-Green-Blue (RGB) color combination images (both band and band-ratio images) have been used for the identification of various lithological units when they are exposed on the surface. On the other hand, RADARSAT images have been utilized for tracing geological formations and geological structures that are buried under thin (1 m) sand. Fusion of optical and radar remote sensing data using Color Normalization Transformation (CNT) has been effectively implemented to further identify lithological units and geological structures. Hill-shading techniques are applied to SRTM DEMs to enhance terrain perspective views and to extract geomorphological features and morphologically defined structures through the means of lineament analysis. Results from remote sensing analysis are in good agreement with results obtained from in situ investigations including geological mapping and seismic exploration. Identifying lithological and structural features using remote sensing studies incorporated with surface and sub-surface geological investigations in southern Tunisia can aid exploration for new oil and gas fields. Such an approach of integrating remote sensing and in situ geological studies can be successfully adopted in other parts of North Africa and arid regions in general.

Pea, Sherrie A.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.

2006-02-01

278

A GLOBAL DATASET OF ONSHORE GAS AND OIL SEEPS: A NEW TOOL FOR HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum seeps have historically been important drivers of global petroleum explora- tion. Still today they can serve as direct indicators of gas and\\/or oil subsurface accumulations. In particular the assessment of the origin of seeping gas is a key task for understanding, without drilling, the subsurface hydrocarbon potential, genesis and quality, e.g. the presence of shallow microbial gas, deeper thermogenic

Giuseppe Etiope

2009-01-01

279

General screening criteria for shale gas reservoirs and production data analysis of Barnett shale  

E-print Network

them in making certain decisions while going after shale gas reservoirs. A guideline chart has been created with the help of available literature published so far on different shale gas basins across the US. For evaluating potential of a productive...

Deshpande, Vaibhav Prakashrao

2009-05-15

280

Commander field: Case study of a gas productive landsat and geochemical anomaly, Parker County, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Landsat data for a mature area of southern Parker County were analyzed for structural anomalies and lineaments in order to determine the relationship of these data to gas production and the possible fracturing of Atoka sand reservoirs. Interstitial soil gas data gathered over a 160 acre tract revealed a strong surface anomaly situated at the intersection of two lineaments. The drilling of this anomaly resulted in gas production from a Bend conglomerate and excellent mudlog shows of gas from shallower sands in the Atoka and Strawn intervals. A subsequent offset well, located within the original surface soil gas anomaly, also proved gas productive in the shallow Strawn interval. Well data from the productive gas zones are discussed in relation to local stratigraphy and structure. The limitations and advantages of Landsat/soil gas data are considered in terms of future applicability to other mature areas.

Crowder, W.T. Jr. [Consulting Geologist, Dallas, TX (United States)

1995-06-01

281

Atmospheric emissions and air quality impacts from natural gas production and use.  

PubMed

The US Energy Information Administration projects that hydraulic fracturing of shale formations will become a dominant source of domestic natural gas supply over the next several decades, transforming the energy landscape in the United States. However, the environmental impacts associated with fracking for shale gas have made it controversial. This review examines emissions and impacts of air pollutants associated with shale gas production and use. Emissions and impacts of greenhouse gases, photochemically active air pollutants, and toxic air pollutants are described. In addition to the direct atmospheric impacts of expanded natural gas production, indirect effects are also described. Widespread availability of shale gas can drive down natural gas prices, which, in turn, can impact the use patterns for natural gas. Natural gas production and use in electricity generation are used as a case study for examining these indirect consequences of expanded natural gas availability. PMID:24498952

Allen, David T

2014-01-01

282

Process improvement exploration: mapping multimedia production process to CMMI-DEV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multimedia takes improvement of multiple computing technologies to incorporate data from a wide variety of resources, without involving users to know how and where the data is encoded and stored. By reason of Multimedia applications interact with users with numerous diverse techniques and incorporate into strong applications that greatly extend the range and strength of applications, the production process are often complicated and complex. Production of such applications requires both process- and product-based quality assurance. Apparently, there are no universally accepted technical production standards. Consequently, Multimedia applications have sometimes diminished the quality of the end product, increased costs, delayed completion and failure. The focus is on the mapping between the current practices of multimedia production process and one of universal process improvement framework, Capability Maturity Model Integration for Development (CMMI-DEV). It shows that how current practices of multimedia production process address the Engineering Process Areas of CMMI-DEV. For each of the relevant process areas, it then explores how current practices can contribute to achieve the specific goals of that process area. This is practical for organizations that have their plan-driven process based on the CMMI-DEV model and are planning to improve the current practices of multimedia production process or to assist organization to define an innovative multimedia production process cycle based on CMMI-DEV practices.

Lim, ChienWin; Kamaruddin, Noraida; Daud, Nor Izyani; Zainal Osman, Zosipha

2013-03-01

283

Assessment of Air Emissions at the U S Liquids Exploration and Production Land Treatment Facility  

SciTech Connect

This project was initiated to make the first set of measurements documenting the potential for emissions of pollutants from exploration and production (E&P) waste disposal facilities at Bourg, Louisiana and Bateman Island, Louisiana. The objective of the project was to quantify the emissions and to determine whether the measured emissions were potentially harmful to human health of workers and the adjacent community. The study, funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) is designed to complement additional studies funded by Louisiana Department of Natural Resources (LADNR) and the American Petroleum Institute. The distinguishing feature of this study is that actual, independent field measurements of emissions were used to assess the potential problems of this disposal technology. Initial measurements were made at the Bourg, LA facility, adjacent to the community of Grand Bois in late 1998-early 1999. Emission measurements were performed using aluminum chambers placed over the surface of the landfarm cells. Air was pulled through the chambers and the concentration of the contaminants in the air exiting the chambers was measured. The contaminants of interest were the ''BTEX'' compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), commonly found in E&P wastes and hydrogen sulfide, a noxious gas present naturally in many E&P wastes and crude oils. Measurements indicated that emissions were measurable using the techniques developed for the study. However, when the air concentrations of these contaminants that developed above the landfarm cells were compared with standards for workers from the Occupational and Safety and Health Association (''OSHA'') and for communities (Louisiana's ambient air standards), levels were not of concern. Since amounts of wastes being processed by the Bourg facility were considerably lower than normal, a decision was made to continue the study at the Bateman Island facility near Morgan City, LA. This facility was receiving more normal loadings of E&P wastes. Additional emission measurements were made at the Bateman Island facility within cells over a range of ''ages'', from those most recently loaded with E&P wastes to cells that have not received wastes for 9 months or more. As expected the greatest chance for emissions when the cell is most recently loaded. Again, measured fluxes did not produce air concentrations that were of concern. As expected, the highest fluxes were observed in the cells that had recently received wastes and older cells had very low emissions. Measurements of emissions of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) were also conducted at these two facilities. Levels of emissions were similar to the xange observed in the literature for natural salt marshes that surround these facilities. Production of sulfide within the cells was also measured by the most sensitive techniques available and measured sulfide production rates were low in the samples tested. The only potential concern at the facility with regards to sulfide was the levels of sulfide emitted from the sumps. The facility logbook at Bourg was analyzed to determine a time sequence of activities over 1998-1999. The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality conducted a time-series of air concentrations for hazardous air pollutants during this period at the fenceline of the Bourg facility. These data were characterized by periods of static concentrations interspersed with peaks. A series of peaks were analyzed and compared with logbook records for the activities occurring at the time. In reverse fashion, a set of activities documented by the logbook was examined and the concentrations of benzene that developed from these activities were documented. No direct correlation could be made with the observed peaks and any activities suggesting that concentrations of benzene at the fenceline may be the result of a complex suite of activities including onsite activities not documented in the logbook (loading of the cells by truck haulers) and offsite activities (automobile traffic). Based on these results several recomme

John H. Pardue; K.T. Valsaraj

2000-12-01

284

Calculation of entropy production in slightly rarefied gas flows by Sonine polynomial expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expansion method in the kinetic theory of gases is often used for the calculation of entropy production in rarefied gas flows, usually in terms of Her-mite polynomials. In this paper, the method of Sonine polynomials expansion is used and the calculation of entropy production is carried out. First, the formal evaluation of the entropy production in rarefied gas flows

Liu Guangjun

1997-01-01

285

How to rejuvenate interest in exploring an old production area in Gabon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mandji peninsula area is the oldest explored petroleum province in Gabon. The Clairette, Lopez North and South, N'Tchengue fields were discovered in the 50's in Senonian and Tertiary turbidites structured by salt domes. A total of 120 wells have led to a production of 12,5 MT (91 MMbls) oil. However, some gaps in the understanding of reservoir distribution and

J. M. Fontaine; M. Jones; M. L. Ombagho

1996-01-01

286

Positron plasma techniques and the production of a positronium gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of buffer gas positron traps has led to numerous advances in the field of positron physics, including improved beams for measurements of positron scattering from atoms and molecules, the production of antihydrogen and the generation of high-density positron pulses. The latter has been used to study dense positronium (Ps), in particular Ps-Ps scattering and the formation of molecular positronium, Ps2. The ability to create non-neutral positron plasmas has played a key role in such experiments; using the rotating wall technique in the strong drive regime [Danielson and Surko, PRL 94, 035001] allows for precise control of the positron density as well as very long confinement times. Here I shall outline the methods we have used to produce intense bursts of dense Ps and consider what we can do using these techniques in the future.

Cassidy, David

2012-10-01

287

Atomic hydrogen production rates for comet P/Halley from observations with Dynamics Explorer I  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Newly analyzed observations of the Dynamics Explorer I (DE1), launched on August 3, 1981, were used to determine the hydrogen production rate for Comet Halley at heliocentric distances, r, less than about 1.5 AU from measurements of the total Lyman-alpha flux at earth due to the cometary neutral hydrogen distribution. The production rates, determined as a function of r, were found to be consistent with in situ measurements from the Giotto and Vega spacecraft. The calculated rates are also consistent with remote observations using two sounding rockets and with the Pioneer-Venus and IUE spacecraft.

Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.

1987-01-01

288

How to rejuvenate interest in exploring an old production area in Gabon  

SciTech Connect

The Mandji peninsula area is the oldest explored petroleum province in Gabon. The Clairette, Lopez North and South, N'Tchengue fields were discovered in the 50's in Senonian and Tertiary turbidites structured by salt domes. A total of 120 wells have led to a production of 12,5 MT (91 MMbls) oil. However, some gaps in the understanding of reservoir distribution and fluids regime appeared as production went on and could not be resolved with the available seismic data which was old (1974 to 1982) and irregular. A new 3D seismic survey was shot in 1992 (245 km2) over an area fringed with shallow water and mangrove forests, covered with savannah liable to flooding, and including several populated areas. The acquisition set-up was adjusted to every type of environment: Airgun in shallow water, explosive in uninhabited areas, and Vibroseis (TM) through the city of Port-Gentil. A carefully designed processing sequence led to consistently good quality throughout the survey, allowing a complete and detailed review of the area. In addition to building a coherent reference model, multi-disciplinary studies have already unveiled new opportunities : complex structural and stratigraphic components in the old fields together with unexpected structural closures and stratigraphic leads are revealed by the 3D interpretation. They will constitute new targets for further exploring an area at late production stage, and may help build a model for the exploration of the turbidites in the Senonian basin.

Fontaine, J.M.; Jones, M.; Ombagho, M.L. (Elf Gabon, Port-Gentil (Gabon)) (and others)

1996-01-01

289

How to rejuvenate interest in exploring an old production area in Gabon  

SciTech Connect

The Mandji peninsula area is the oldest explored petroleum province in Gabon. The Clairette, Lopez North and South, N`Tchengue fields were discovered in the 50`s in Senonian and Tertiary turbidites structured by salt domes. A total of 120 wells have led to a production of 12,5 MT (91 MMbls) oil. However, some gaps in the understanding of reservoir distribution and fluids regime appeared as production went on and could not be resolved with the available seismic data which was old (1974 to 1982) and irregular. A new 3D seismic survey was shot in 1992 (245 km2) over an area fringed with shallow water and mangrove forests, covered with savannah liable to flooding, and including several populated areas. The acquisition set-up was adjusted to every type of environment: Airgun in shallow water, explosive in uninhabited areas, and Vibroseis (TM) through the city of Port-Gentil. A carefully designed processing sequence led to consistently good quality throughout the survey, allowing a complete and detailed review of the area. In addition to building a coherent reference model, multi-disciplinary studies have already unveiled new opportunities : complex structural and stratigraphic components in the old fields together with unexpected structural closures and stratigraphic leads are revealed by the 3D interpretation. They will constitute new targets for further exploring an area at late production stage, and may help build a model for the exploration of the turbidites in the Senonian basin.

Fontaine, J.M.; Jones, M.; Ombagho, M.L. [Elf Gabon, Port-Gentil (Gabon)] [and others

1996-12-31

290

Evaluation of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model. [Cyclic thermal injection  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the work performed under this directive is to assess whether gas hydrates could potentially be technically and economically recoverable. The technical potential and economics of recovering gas from a representative hydrate reservoir will be established using the cyclic thermal injection model, HYDMOD, appropriately modified for this effort, integrated with economics model for gas production on the North Slope of Alaska, and in the deep offshore Atlantic. The results from this effort are presented in this document. In Section 1, the engineering cost and financial analysis model used in performing the economic analysis of gas production from hydrates -- the Hydrates Gas Economics Model (HGEM) -- is described. Section 2 contains a users guide for HGEM. In Section 3, a preliminary economic assessment of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model is presented. Section 4 contains a summary critique of existing hydrate gas recovery models. Finally, Section 5 summarizes the model modification made to HYDMOD, the cyclic thermal injection model for hydrate gas recovery, in order to perform this analysis.

Kuuskraa, V.A.; Hammersheimb, E.; Sawyer, W.

1985-05-01

291

The Impact of Biofuel and Greenhouse Gas Policies on Land Management, Agricultural Production, and Environmental Quality  

E-print Network

This dissertation explores the combined effects of biofuel mandates and terrestrial greenhouse gas GHG mitigation incentives on land use, management intensity, commodity markets, welfare, and the full costs of GHG abatement through conceptual...

Baker, Justin Scott

2012-10-19

292

Open-source LCA tool for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from crude oil production using field characteristics.  

PubMed

Existing transportation fuel cycle emissions models are either general and calculate nonspecific values of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil production, or are not available for public review and auditing. We have developed the Oil Production Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE) to provide open-source, transparent, rigorous GHG assessments for use in scientific assessment, regulatory processes, and analysis of GHG mitigation options by producers. OPGEE uses petroleum engineering fundamentals to model emissions from oil and gas production operations. We introduce OPGEE and explain the methods and assumptions used in its construction. We run OPGEE on a small set of fictional oil fields and explore model sensitivity to selected input parameters. Results show that upstream emissions from petroleum production operations can vary from 3 gCO2/MJ to over 30 gCO2/MJ using realistic ranges of input parameters. Significant drivers of emissions variation are steam injection rates, water handling requirements, and rates of flaring of associated gas. PMID:23634761

El-Houjeiri, Hassan M; Brandt, Adam R; Duffy, James E

2013-06-01

293

ANALYSIS OF GAS PRODUCTION FROM HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED WELLS IN THE HAYNESVILLE SHALE USING SCALING METHODS  

E-print Network

ANALYSIS OF GAS PRODUCTION FROM HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED WELLS IN THE HAYNESVILLE SHALE USING. INTRODUCTION Before the advent of hydraulic fracturing technology and hor- izontal drilling, the Haynesville

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

294

Gas phase production and loss of isoprene epoxydiols.  

PubMed

Isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) form in high yields from the OH-initiated oxidation of isoprene under low-NO conditions. These compounds contribute significantly to secondary organic aerosol formation. Their gas-phase chemistry has, however, remained largely unexplored. In this study, we characterize the formation of IEPOX isomers from the oxidation of isoprene by OH. We find that cis-?- and trans-?-IEPOX are the dominant isomers produced, and that they are created in an approximate ratio of 1:2 from the low-NO oxidation of isoprene. Three isomers of IEPOX, including cis-?- and trans-?, were synthesized and oxidized by OH in environmental chambers under high- and low-NO conditions. We find that IEPOX reacts with OH at 299 K with rate coefficients of (0.84 0.07) 10(-11), (1.52 0.07) 10(-11), and (0.98 0.05) 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for the ?1, cis-?, and trans-? isomers. Finally, yields of the first-generation products of IEPOX + OH oxidation were measured, and a new mechanism of IEPOX oxidation is proposed here to account for the observed products. The substantial yield of glyoxal and methylglyoxal from IEPOX oxidation may help explain elevated levels of those compounds observed in low-NO environments with high isoprene emissions. PMID:24476509

Bates, Kelvin H; Crounse, John D; St Clair, Jason M; Bennett, Nathan B; Nguyen, Tran B; Seinfeld, John H; Stoltz, Brian M; Wennberg, Paul O

2014-02-20

295

Modeling the Relative GHG Emissions of Conventional and Shale Gas Production  

PubMed Central

Recent reports show growing reserves of unconventional gas are available and that there is an appetite from policy makers, industry, and others to better understand the GHG impact of exploiting reserves such as shale gas. There is little publicly available data comparing unconventional and conventional gas production. Existing studies rely on national inventories, but it is not generally possible to separate emissions from unconventional and conventional sources within these totals. Even if unconventional and conventional sites had been listed separately, it would not be possible to eliminate site-specific factors to compare gas production methods on an equal footing. To address this difficulty, the emissions of gas production have instead been modeled. In this way, parameters common to both methods of production can be held constant, while allowing those parameters which differentiate unconventional gas and conventional gas production to vary. The results are placed into the context of power generation, to give a ?well-to-wire? (WtW) intensity. It was estimated that shale gas typically has a WtW emissions intensity about 1.82.4% higher than conventional gas, arising mainly from higher methane releases in well completion. Even using extreme assumptions, it was found that WtW emissions from shale gas need be no more than 15% higher than conventional gas if flaring or recovery measures are used. In all cases considered, the WtW emissions of shale gas powergen are significantly lower than those of coal. PMID:22085088

2011-01-01

296

Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Exploration Solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is an outcome of lean thinking to eliminate waste and increase productivity. PLM is inextricably tied to the systems engineering business philosophy, coupled with a methodology by which personnel, processes and practices, and information technology combine to form an architecture platform for product design, development, manufacturing, operations, and decommissioning. In this model, which is being implemented by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Engineering Directorate, total lifecycle costs are important variables for critical decision-making. With the ultimate goal to deliver quality products that meet or exceed requirements on time and within budget, PLM is a powerful concept to shape everything from engineering trade studies and testing goals, to integrated vehicle operations and retirement scenarios. This briefing will demonstrate how the MSFC Engineering Directorate is implementing PLM as part of an overall strategy to deliver safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions and how that strategy aligns with the Agency and Center systems engineering policies and processes. Sustainable space exploration solutions demand that all lifecycle phases be optimized, and engineering the next generation space transportation system requires a paradigm shift such that digital tools and knowledge management, which are central elements of PLM, are used consistently to maximum effect. Adopting PLM, which has been used by the aerospace and automotive industry for many years, for spacecraft applications provides a foundation for strong, disciplined systems engineering and accountable return on investment. PLM enables better solutions using fewer resources by making lifecycle considerations in an integrative decision-making process.

Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Grieves, Michael

2011-01-01

297

Gas, water, and oil production from Wattenberg field in the Denver Basin, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from selected wells in two tight gas reservoirs-the Codell-Niobrara interval, comprised of the Codell Sandstone Member of the Carlile Shale and the Niobrara Formation; and the Dakota J interval, comprised mostly of the Muddy (J) Sandstone of the Dakota Group; both intervals are of Cretaceous age-in the Wattenberg field in the Denver Basin of Colorado. Production from each well is represented by two samples spaced five years apart, the first sample typically taken two years after production commenced, which generally was in the 1990s. For each producing interval, summary diagrams and tables of oil-versus-gas production and water-versus-gas production are shown with fluid-production rates, the change in production over five years, the water-gas and oil-gas ratios, and the fluid type. These diagrams and tables permit well-to-well and field-to-field comparisons. Fields producing water at low rates (water dissolved in gas in the reservoir) can be distinguished from fields producing water at moderate or high rates, and the water-gas ratios are quantified. The Dakota J interval produces gas on a per-well basis at roughly three times the rate of the Codell-Niobrara interval. After five years of production, gas data from the second samples show that both intervals produce gas, on average, at about one-half the rate as the first sample. Oil-gas ratios in the Codell-Niobrara interval are characteristic of a retrograde gas and are considerably higher than oil-gas ratios in the Dakota J interval, which are characteristic of a wet gas. Water production from both intervals is low, and records in many wells are discontinuous, particularly in the Codell-Niobrara interval. Water-gas ratios are broadly variable, with some of the variability possibly due to the difficulty of measuring small production rates. Most wells for which water is reported have water-gas ratios exceeding the amount that could exist dissolved in gas at reservoir pressure and temperature. The Codell-Niobrara interval is reported to be overpressured (that is, pressure greater than hydrostatic) whereas the underlying Dakota J interval is underpressured (less than hydrostatic), demonstrating a lack of hydraulic communication between the two intervals despite their proximity over a broad geographical area. The underpressuring in the Dakota J interval has been attributed by others to outcropping strata east of the basin. We agree with this interpretation and postulate that the gas accumulation also may contribute to hydraulic isolation from outcrops immediately west of the basin.

Nelson, Philip H.; Santus, Stephen L.

2011-01-01

298

30 CFR 206.174 - How do I value gas production when an index-based method cannot be used?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a reasonable sample, from the same area). For residue gas or gas plant products, the comparable...arm's-length contracts for like-quality gas in the same field or nearby fields or areas, or for residue gas or gas plant products from the...

2010-07-01

299

DETERMINATION OF INTERFERING TRIAZINE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Deethyl atrazine (DEA), along with other triazine degradation products, has been added to the US Environmental Protection Agency's Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). In its gas chromatographic (GC) analysis, deethyl atrazine, a degradation product of atrazine, can ...

300

Exploration of satellite-derived data products for atmospheric turbulence studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality, availability and diversity of satellite-derived earth observation data products are continuously improving. Such satellite products can provide an extensive and complementary view on many matters with respect to intensive but localised in-situ or ground measurements. A search has been undertaken on the available types and sources of satellite data products that could be applicable in the study of the spatio-temporal distribution of aero-optical turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer. This has included all satellite data products that are relevant to the surface energy balance such as surface reflectance, temperature and emissivity. It was also important to identify active archive data services that can provide preprocessed and quality-filtered time-series products. Products derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and other sensors on the NASA Terra and Aqua platforms were of special interest. The use of climatological shortwave and longwave radiative transfer models, combined with satellite-derived data was explored as a method of elucidating the surface heat balance. An in-situ dataset from the Rietvlei vertical turbulence profiling campaign of 2013 was used to validate a number of aspects of the satellite-derived heat balance approach.

Griffith, Derek J.; Ramkilowan, Arshath; Sprung, Detlev; Sucher, Erik; Willers, Cornelius J.; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; van Staden, Ryno

2014-10-01

301

Exploring sequence characteristics related to high-level production of secreted proteins in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Protein sequence features are explored in relation to the production of over-expressed extracellular proteins by fungi. Knowledge on features influencing protein production and secretion could be employed to improve enzyme production levels in industrial bioprocesses via protein engineering. A large set, over 600 homologous and nearly 2,000 heterologous fungal genes, were overexpressed in Aspergillus niger using a standardized expression cassette and scored for high versus no production. Subsequently, sequence-based machine learning techniques were applied for identifying relevant DNA and protein sequence features. The amino-acid composition of the protein sequence was found to be most predictive and interpretation revealed that, for both homologous and heterologous gene expression, the same features are important: tyrosine and asparagine composition was found to have a positive correlation with high-level production, whereas for unsuccessful production, contributions were found for methionine and lysine composition. The predictor is available online at http://bioinformatics.tudelft.nl/hipsec. Subsequent work aims at validating these findings by protein engineering as a method for increasing expression levels per gene copy. PMID:23049690

van den Berg, Bastiaan A; Reinders, Marcel J T; Hulsman, Marc; Wu, Liang; Pel, Herman J; Roubos, Johannes A; de Ridder, Dick

2012-01-01

302

77 FR 59209 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Production Requirements; Proposed Collection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...current regulations governing oil and gas production at 30 CFR...when necessary for certain oil and gas completions. The information...from the well potential test is essential to determine if an MPR is necessary...inspection, 30 CFR part 252, OCS Oil and Gas Information...

2012-09-26

303

Development of a low flow meter for measuring gas production in bioreactors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accurate measurement of gas production from biological processes is important in many laboratory experiments. A gas flow rate measurement system, consisting of an embedded controller operating three gas meters, was developed to measure volumetric flows between 0 and 8 ml min-1 (1 atm, 273.15 K). The...

304

Forecasting long-term gas production from shale  

E-print Network

Oil and natural gas from deep shale formations are transforming the United States economy and its energy outlook. Back in 2005, the US Energy Information Administration published projections of United States natural gas ...

Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis

305

Production of manufactured aggregates from flue gas desulfurization by-products  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL R and D has developed a disk pelletization process to produce manufactured aggregates from the by-products of various technologies designed to reduce sulfur emissions produced from coal utilization. Aggregates have been produced from the by-products of the Coolside and LIMB sorbent injection, the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), spray dryer absorption (SDA), and lime and limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. The aggregates produced meet the general specifications for use as road aggregate in road construction and for use as lightweight aggregate in concrete masonry units. Small field demonstrations with 1200 lb to 5000 lb of manufactured aggregates were conducted using aggregates produced from FBC ash and lime wet FGD sludge in road construction and using aggregates made from SDA ash and lime wet FGD sludge to manufacture concrete blocks. The aggregates for this work were produced with a bench-scale (200--400 lb batch) unit. In 1999, CONSOL R and D constructed and operated a 500 lb/hr integrated, continuous pilot plant. A variety of aggregate products were produced from lime wet FGD sludge. The pilot plant test successfully demonstrated the continuous, integrated operation of the process. The pilot plant demonstration was a major step toward commercialization of manufactured aggregate production from FGD by-products. In this paper, progress made in the production of aggregates from dry FGD (Coolside, LIMB, SDA) and FBC by-products, and lime wet FGD sludge is discussed. The discussion covers bench-scale and pilot plant aggregate production and aggregate field demonstrations.

Wu, M.M.; McCoy, D.C.; Fenger, M.L.; Scandrol, R.O.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Statnick, R.M.

1999-07-01

306

Oil and gas  

SciTech Connect

Highlights the standards that have been set concerning oil and natural gas exploration and production in the Netherlands. Topics covered include ownership rights, offshore health and safety of both people and animals, onshore exploration and production and the enormous financial implications.

Roggen Kamp, M. (Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands))

1992-01-01

307

Exploring the dynamic behaviors and transport properties of gas molecules in a transmembrane cyclic peptide nanotube.  

PubMed

The dynamic behaviors and transport properties of O2, CO2, and NH3 molecules through a transmembrane cyclic peptide nanotube (CPNT) of 8cyclo-(WL)4/POPE have been investigated by steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations and adaptive biasing force (ABF) samplings. Different external forces are needed for three gas molecules to enter the channel. The periodic change of the pulling force curve for a gas traveling through the channel mainly arises from the regular and periodic arrangement of the composed CP subunits of the CPNT. Radial distribution functions (RDFs) between gas and water disclose the density decrease of channel water, which strongly aggravates the discontinuity of H-bond formation between a gas molecule and the neighboring water. Compared to hardly any H-bond formation between CO2 (or O2) and the framework of the CPNT, NH3 can form abundant H-bonds with the carbonyl/amide groups of the CPNT, leading to a fierce competition to NH3-water H-bonded interactions. In addition to direct H-bonded interactions, all three gases can form water bridges with the tube. The potential profile of mean force coincides with the occurring probability of a gas molecule along the tube axis. The energy barriers at two mouths of the CPNT elucidate the phenomenon that CO2 and O2 are thoroughly confined in the narrow lumen while NH3 can easily go outside the tube. Intermolecular interactions of each gas with channel water and the CPNT framework and the formation of H-bonds and water bridges illuminate the different gas translocation behaviors. The results uncover interesting and comprehensive mechanisms underlying the permeation characteristics of three gas molecules traveling through a transmembrane CPNT. PMID:24245847

Li, Rui; Fan, Jianfen; Li, Hui; Yan, Xiliang; Yu, Yi

2013-12-01

308

Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced

David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

2006-01-01

309

Worldwide gas processing: Capacities as of January 1, 1995, and average production  

SciTech Connect

Two tables present data on the number of gas processing plants in 46 countries, their capacity, and the annual production of ethane, propane, isobutylene, butane, LP-gas mixtures, raw NGL mixtures, debutanized natural gasoline, and other products. The second table breaks up this data by company within each country.

NONE

1995-06-12

310

Detection and quantification of fugitive emissions from Colorado oil and gas production operations using remote monitoring  

EPA Science Inventory

Western states contain vast amounts of oil and gas production. For example, Weld County Colorado contains approximately 25,000 active oil and gas well sites with associated production operations. There is little information on the air pollutant emission potential from this source...

311

Water Use for Shale-Gas Production in Texas, U.S.  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT: Shale-gas production using hydraulic fracturing of mostly horizontal wells has led to considerable controversy over water-resource and environmental impacts. The study objective was to quantify net water use for shale-gas production using data from Texas, which is the dominant producer of

Bridget R. Scanlon

312

Different palm oil production systems for energy purposes and their greenhouse gas implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyses the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) production in northern Borneo (Malaysia), their transport to the Netherlands and their co-firing with natural gas for electricity production. In the case of CPO, conversion to biodiesel and the associated GHG emissions are also studied. This study follows the methodology suggested

Birka Wicke; Veronika Dornburg; Martin Junginger

2008-01-01

313

Geographically-Distributed Databases: A Big Data Technology for Production Analysis in the Oil & Gas Industry  

E-print Network

SPE 167844 Geographically-Distributed Databases: A Big Data Technology for Production Analysis advances in the scientific field of "big-data" to the world of Oil & Gas upstream industry. These off-of-the-start IT technologies currently employed in the data management of Oil & Gas production operations. Most current

314

Effects of Web Retail Service Quality and Product Categories on Consumer Behavior: A Research Model and Empirical Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores how web retail service quality at the point of purchase influences consumers' perceptions of value and willingness to buy. In particular, this study highlights how web retail service quality has different effects on perceived product quality, value, and willingness to buy according to product categories. We provide a research model on the basis of service quality, product

Byounggu Choi; Choongseok Lee; Heeseok Lee; Mani Subramani

315

Effects of Web Retail Service Quality and Product Categories on Consumer Behavior: A Research Model and Empirical Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper explores how web retail service quality atthe,point ,of purchase ,influences ,consumers perceptions,of value ,and ,willingness ,to buy. ,In particular, this study highlights how web retail service quality has ,different effects on perceived ,product quality, value, and willingness to buy according to product categories. We provide a research model on the basis of service quality, product categories on

Byounggu Choi; Choongseok Lee; Heeseok Lee; Mani R. Subramani

2004-01-01

316

Gas geochemistry of the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: implications for gas hydrate exploration in the Arctic  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gases were analyzed from well cuttings, core, gas hydrate, and formation tests at the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, drilled within the Milne Point Unit, Alaska North Slope. The well penetrated a portion of the Eileen gas hydrate deposit, which overlies the more deeply buried Prudhoe Bay, Milne Point, West Sak, and Kuparuk River oil fields. Gas sources in the upper 200 m are predominantly from microbial sources (C1 isotopic compositions ranging from ?86.4 to ?80.6). The C1 isotopic composition becomes progressively enriched from 200 m to the top of the gas hydrate-bearing sands at 600 m. The tested gas hydrates occur in two primary intervals, units D and C, between 614.0 m and 664.7 m, containing a total of 29.3 m of gas hydrate-bearing sands. The hydrocarbon gases in cuttings and core samples from 604 to 914 m are composed of methane with very little ethane. The isotopic composition of the methane carbon ranges from ?50.1 to ?43.9 with several outliers, generally decreasing with depth. Gas samples collected by the Modular Formation Dynamics Testing (MDT) tool in the hydrate-bearing units were similarly composed mainly of methane, with up to 284 ppm ethane. The methane isotopic composition ranged from ?48.2 to ?48.0 in the C sand and from ?48.4 to ?46.6 in the D sand. Methane hydrogen isotopic composition ranged from ?238 to ?230, with slightly more depleted values in the deeper C sand. These results are consistent with the concept that the Eileen gas hydrates contain a mixture of deep-sourced, microbially biodegraded thermogenic gas, with lesser amounts of thermogenic oil-associated gas, and coal gas. Thermal gases are likely sourced from existing oil and gas accumulations that have migrated up-dip and/or up-fault and formed gas hydrate in response to climate cooling with permafrost formation.

Lorenson, T.D.; Collett, T.S.; Hunter, R.B.

2011-01-01

317

Gas, Water, and Oil Production from the Wasatch Formation, Greater Natural Buttes Field, Uinta Basin, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from 38 wells with production commencing during the 1980s from the Wasatch Formation in the Greater Natural Buttes field, Uinta Basin, Utah. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid production from tight gas reservoirs, which are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. The general ranges of production rates after 2 years are 100-1,000 mscf/day for gas, 0.35-3.4 barrel per day for oil, and less than 1 barrel per day for water. The water:gas ratio ranges from 0.1 to10 barrel per million standard cubic feet, indicating that free water is produced along with water dissolved in gas in the reservoir. The oil:gas ratios are typical of a wet gas system. Neither gas nor water rates show dependence upon the number of perforations, although for low gas-flow rates there is some dependence upon the number of sandstone intervals that were perforated. Over a 5-year time span, gas and water may either increase or decrease in a given well, but the changes in production rate do not exhibit any dependence upon well proximity or well location.

Nelson, Philip H.; Hoffman, Eric L.

2009-01-01

318

Gas, Oil, and Water Production in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas, oil, and water production data were collected from the Fuller Reservoir, Cooper Reservoir, Frenchie Draw, Cave Gulch, and Madden fields in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming. These fields produce from the Mississippian Madison Limestone, the Upper Cretaceous Cody Shale and Mesaverde Formation, and the Paleocene lower unnamed member and Shotgun Member of the Fort Union Formation. Diagrams of water and gas production from tight gas accumulations in three formations in the Madden field show that (1) water production either increased or decreased with time in all three formations, (2) increases and decreases in water production were greater in the Cody Shale than in either the Mesaverde Formation or the lower unnamed member of the Fort Union Formation, (3) the gas production rate declined more slowly in the lower part of the Fort Union Formation than in the Cody Shale or the Mesaverde Formation, (4) changes in gas and water production were not related to their initial production rates, and (5) there appears to be no relation between well location and the magnitudes or trends of gas and water production. To explain the apparent independence of gas and water production in the Cody Shale and Mesaverde Formation, a two-step scenario is proposed: gas was generated and emplaced under the compressive stress regime resulting from Laramide tectonism; then, fractures formed during a subsequent period of stress relaxation and extension. Gas is produced from the pore and fracture system near the wellbore, whereas water is produced from a larger scale system of extension fractures. The distribution of gas and water in the lower Fort Union resulted from a similar scenario, but continued generation of gas during post-Laramide extension may have allowed its more widespread distribution.

Nelson, Philip H.; Trainor, Patrick K.; Finn, Thomas M.

2009-01-01

319

A review of in situ propellant production techniques for solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Representative studies done in the area of extraterrestrial chemical production as it applies to solar system exploration are presented. A description of the In Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) system is presented. Various propellant combinations and direct applications along with the previously mentioned benefits and liens are discussed. A series of mission scenarios is presented which is studied in the greatest detail. A general description of the method(s) of analysis used to study each mission is provided. Each section will be closed by an assessment of the performance advantage, if any, that can be provided by ISPP. A final section briefly summarizes those missions which, as a result of the studies completed thus far, should see a sizable benefit from the use of ISPP.

Hoffman, S. J.

1983-01-01

320

Exploring Evolution Through the Effects of Galaxy-Galaxy and Group Interactions on Gas Content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxy-galaxy interactions are a driving force in galaxy evolution, producing changes in color, morphology, metallicity and enhancing star formation. Many factors contributing to these changes have been well studied such as environment and orientation of the interaction, however studies of the gas content have been limited. To address the question of how interactions affect the gas content of galaxy pairs, we present results from two studies taking different approaches to the question. We present results from a combined optical and HI 21 cm study of 102 galaxy pairs with projected separations up to 120 kpc and velocity differences less than 500 km/s. These pairs were selected from the SDSS spectroscopic survey and were also observed by the ALFALFA HI 21 cm survey. We use these data to study how interactions effect the SFE and HI gas content of these systems. From the second study we present initial results from VLA D-array observations of a galaxy group in which interactions appear to be removing much of the cold gas from the galaxies creating a large reservoir in the inter-group medium. We investigate how this removal of gas and subsequent reservoir impact the evolution of the galaxies within the group, particularly two systems which are transitioning through the green valley. This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-000167932 and a George Mason University Presidential Fellowship.

Fertig, Derek; Rosenberg, J. L.; Patton, D. R.; Ellison, S. L.

2014-01-01

321

Prototype Vent Gas Heat Exchanger for Exploration EVA - Performance and Manufacturing Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is developing new portable life support system (PLSS) technologies, which it is demonstrating in an unmanned ground based prototype unit called PLSS 2.0. One set of technologies within the PLSS provides suitable ventilation to an astronaut while on an EVA. A new component within the ventilation gas loop is a liquid-to-gas heat exchanger to transfer excess heat from the gas to the thermal control system s liquid coolant loop. A unique bench top prototype heat exchanger was built and tested for use in PLSS 2.0. The heat exchanger was designed as a counter-flow, compact plate fin type using stainless steel. Its design was based on previous compact heat exchangers manufactured by United Technologies Aerospace Systems (UTAS), but was half the size of any previous heat exchanger model and one third the size of previous liquid-to-gas heat exchangers. The prototype heat exchanger was less than 40 cubic inches and weighed 2.57 lb. Performance of the heat exchanger met the requirements and the model predictions. The water side and gas side pressure drops were less 0.8 psid and 0.5 inches of water, respectively, and an effectiveness of 94% was measured at the nominal air side pressure of 4.1 psia.

Quinn, Gregory J.; Strange, Jeremy; Jennings, Mallory

2013-01-01

322

Enhanced methane emissions from oil and gas exploration areas to the atmosphere--the central Bohai Sea.  

PubMed

The distributions of dissolved methane in the central Bohai Sea were investigated in November 2011, May 2012, July 2012, and August 2012. Methane concentration in surface seawater, determined using an underway measurement system combined with wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy, showed marked spatiotemporal variations with saturation ratio from 107% to 1193%. The central Bohai Sea was thus a source of atmospheric methane during the survey periods. Several episodic oil and gas spill events increased surface methane concentration by up to 4.7 times and raised the local methane outgassing rate by up to 14.6 times. This study demonstrated a method to detect seafloor CH4 leakages at the sea surface, which may have applicability in many shallow sea areas with oil and gas exploration activities around the world. PMID:24602676

Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Hua-de; Zhai, Wei-dong; Zang, Kun-peng; Wang, Ju-ying

2014-04-15

323

Exploring the Dust-Gas Connection in the Protoplanetary Disk of GM Aur  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous Spitzer infrared observations of disks around young, low-mass pre-main sequence stars have given us an unprecedented look at dust evolution in young objects, particularly in disks which were revealed to have large inner holes (i.e., the transitional disks). Despite this ground-breaking progress in studying the dust in young disks, the relationship between the dust and gas properties in the inner disk remains essentially unknown. Here we propose to quantify the variability of both the dust and gas in the transitional disk surrounding GM Aur to study how or if accretion onto the star is tied to inhomogeneities in the inner disk. To do this, we will use simultaneous Spitzer, HST, and Swift observations to constrain the IR, UV, and X-ray emission of GM Aur and provide a picture of the interaction between dust and gas in the inner ~0.5-1 AU of the disk down to the stellar surface.

Espaillat, Catherine; Ingleby, Laura; Hernandez, Jesus; Calvet, Nuria

2014-12-01

324

Prototype Vent Gas Heat Exchanger for Exploration EVA - Performance and Manufacturing Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is developing new portable life support system (PLSS) technologies, which it is demonstrating in an unmanned ground based prototype unit called PLSS 2.0. One set of technologies within the PLSS provides suitable ventilation to an astronaut while on an EVA. A new component within the ventilation gas loop is a liquid-to-gas heat exchanger to transfer excess heat from the gas to the thermal control system's liquid coolant loop. A unique bench top prototype heat exchanger was built and tested for use in PLSS 2.0. The heat exchanger was designed as a counter-flow, compact plate fin type using stainless steel. Its design was based on previous compact heat exchangers manufactured by United Technologies Aerospace Systems, but was half the size of any previous heat exchanger model and one third the size of previous liquid-to-gas heat exchangers. The prototype heat exchanger was less than 40 cubic inches and weighed 2.6 lb. The water side and gas side pressure drops were 0.8 psid and 0.5 inches of water, respectively. Performance of the heat exchanger at the nominal pressure of 4.1 psia was measured at 94%, while a gas inlet pressure of 25 psia resulted in an effectiveness of 84%. These results compared well with the model, which was scaled for the small size. Modeling of certain phenomena that affect performance, such as flow distribution in the headers was particularly difficult due to the small size of the heat exchanger. Data from the tests has confirmed the correction factors that were used in these parts of the model.

Jennings, Mallory; Quinn, Gregory; Strange, Jeremy

2012-01-01

325

Process development of hydrogenous gas production for PEFC from biogas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory-scale gas processor that integrates four successive catalytic reactions: steam reforming of methane, high- and low-temperature water gas shifts and selective oxidation of carbon monoxide, was designed and tested in this study to produce hydrogen-rich gas with CO<10 ppm from a clean model biogas having a constant molar ratio of CH4\\/CO2=1.5:1.0 for a 50-W class polymer electrolyte fuel cell

Zhan-Guo Zhang; Guangwen Xu; Xin Chen; Kazunori Honda; Tadashi Yoshida

2004-01-01

326

Spatial resolution of gas hydrate and permeability changes from ERT data in LARS simulating the Mallik gas hydrate production test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German gas hydrate project SUGAR studies innovative methods and approaches to be applied in the production of methane from hydrate-bearing reservoirs. To enable laboratory studies in pilot scale, a large reservoir simulator (LARS) was realized allowing for the formation and dissociation of gas hydrates under simulated in-situ conditions. LARS is equipped with a series of sensors. This includes a cylindrical electrical resistance tomography (ERT) array composed of 25 electrode rings featuring 15 electrodes each. The high-resolution ERT array is used to monitor the spatial distribution of the electrical resistivity during hydrate formation and dissociation experiments over time. As the present phases of poorly conducting sediment, well conducting pore fluid, non-conducting hydrates, and isolating free gas cover a wide range of electrical properties, ERT measurements enable us to monitor the spatial distribution of these phases during the experiments. In order to investigate the hydrate dissociation and the resulting fluid flow, we simulated a hydrate production test in LARS that was based on the Mallik gas hydrate production test (see abstract Heeschen et al., this volume). At first, a hydrate phase was produced from methane saturated saline water. During the two months of gas hydrate production we measured the electrical properties within the sediment sample every four hours. These data were used to establish a routine estimating both the local degrees of hydrate saturation and the resulting local permeabilities in the sediment's pore space from the measured resistivity data. The final gas hydrate saturation filled 89.5% of the total pore space. During hydrate dissociation, ERT data do not allow for a quantitative determination of free gas and remaining gas hydrates since both phases are electrically isolating. However, changes are resolved in the spatial distribution of the conducting liquid and the isolating phase with gas being the only mobile isolating phase. Hence, it is possible to detect areas in the sediment sample where free gas is released due to hydrate dissociation and displaces the liquid phase. Combined with measurements and numerical simulation of the total two-phase fluxes from the sediment sample (see abstract Abendroth et al., this volume), the LARS experiments allow for detailed information on the dissociation process during hydrate production. Here we present the workflow and first results estimating local hydrate saturations and permeabilities during hydrate formation and the movement of liquid and gas phases during hydrate dissociation, respectively.

Priegnitz, Mike; Thaler, Jan; Spangenberg, Erik; Schicks, Judith M.; Abendroth, Sven

2014-05-01

327

Evaluation of in vitro gas production and rumen bacterial populations fermenting corn milling (co)products.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the fermentation dynamics of 2 commonly fed corn (co)products in their intact and defatted forms, using the in vitro gas production (IVGP) technique, and to investigate the shifts of the predominant rumen bacterial populations using the 16S rDNA bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) technique. The bTEFAP technique was used to determine the bacterial profile of each fermentation time at 24 and 48 h. Bacterial populations were identified at the species level. Species were grouped by substrate affinities (guilds) for cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, starch, sugars, protein, lipids, and lactate. The 2 (co)products were a dried distillers grain (DDG) plus solubles produced from a low-heat drying process (BPX) and a high-protein DDG without solubles (HP). Chemical analysis revealed that BPX contained about 11.4% ether extract, whereas HP contained only 3.88%. Previous studies have indicated that processing methods, as well as fat content, of corn (co)products directly affect fermentation rate and substrate availability, but little information is available regarding changes in rumen bacterial populations. Fermentation profiles of intact and defatted BPX and HP were compared with alfalfa hay as a standard profile. Defatting before incubation had no effect on total gas production in BPX or HP, but reduced lag time and the fractional rate of fermentation of BPX by at least half, whereas there was no effect for HP. The HP feed supported a greater percentage of fibrolytic and proteolytic bacteria than did BPX. Defatting both DDG increased the fibrolytic (26.8 to 38.7%) and proteolytic (26.1 to 37.2%) bacterial guild populations and decreased the lactate-utilizing bacterial guild (3.06 to 1.44%). Information regarding the fermentation kinetics and bacterial population shifts when feeding corn (co)products may lead to more innovative processing methods that improve feed quality (e.g., deoiling) and consequently allow greater inclusion rates in dairy cow rations. PMID:20855008

Williams, W L; Tedeschi, L O; Kononoff, P J; Callaway, T R; Dowd, S E; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

2010-10-01

328

Exploring the energy/beam current parameter space for the isotope production facility (IPF) at LANSCE  

SciTech Connect

IPF has recently investigated isotope production with proton beams at energies other than the 100-MeV currently available to the IPF beam line. To maximize the yield of a particular isotope, it is necessary to measure the production rate and cross section versus proton beam energy. Studies were conducted at 800 MeV and 197 MeV to determine the cross section of Tb-159. Also, the ability to irradiate targets at different proton beam energies opens up the possibility of producing other radioisotopes. A proof-of-principle test was conducted to develop a 40-MeV tune in the 100-MeV beam line. Another parameter explored was the beam current, which was raised from the normal limit of 250 {mu}A up to 356 {mu}A via both power and repetition rate increase. This proof-of-principle test demonstrated the capability of the IPF beam line for high current operation with potential for higher isotope yields. For the full production mode, system upgrades will need to be in place to operate at high current and high duty factor. These activities are expected to provide the data needed for the development of a new and unique isotope production capability complementing the existing 100-MeV IPF facility.

Gulley, Mark S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bach, Hong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nortier, Francis M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bitteker, Leo J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; John, Kevin D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdez, Frank O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seifter, Achim [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-07

329

Understanding Ozone: Exploring the Good and Bad Facets of a Famous Gas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents activities that help students distinguish between the beneficial layer of stratospheric ozone and the dangerous ground-level or tropospheric ozone, understand the chemical processes of ozone breakdown in the stratosphere, find the sources of ground-level ozone, and explore the differences in the patterns of ozone concentration over the

Hanif, Muhammad

1995-01-01

330

Worldwide gas processing: Capacities as of January 1, 1996, and average production  

SciTech Connect

Data are presented for gas plant capacities and production by country, by companies within each country, and by state or province within larger countries. Data are presented for total capacity as well as for average production of ethane, propane, isobutane, butane, LP-gas mixtures, raw NGL mixtures, natural gasoline, and other products. Processes are absorption, refrigerated absorption, refrigeration, compression, adsorption, cryogenic-Joule-Thomson, cryogenic-expander, and H{sub 2}S removal.

NONE

1996-07-01

331

A nuclide-separation wire precipitator for measurement of noble-gas fission products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wire precipitator, which has a capability of determining separately the activity concentrations of three radioactive noble-gas fission products, 88Kr, 89Kr and 138Xe, was developed. The precipitator utilizes the characteristics that the respective daughter nuclides of the fission products emit beta particles of different energy spectra. The activity concentrations of the noble gas fission products were separately quantified even when

M. Katagiri; M. Kishimoto; H. Ito; H. Yoshida; M. Fukushima; H. Ohkawa; T. Saruta

1993-01-01

332

Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Exploration Solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is an outcome of lean thinking to eliminate waste and increase productivity. PLM is inextricably tied to the systems engineering business philosophy, coupled with a methodology by which personnel, processes and practices, and information technology combine to form an architecture platform for product design, development, manufacturing, operations, and decommissioning. In this model, which is being implemented by the Engineering Directorate at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center, total lifecycle costs are important variables for critical decisionmaking. With the ultimate goal to deliver quality products that meet or exceed requirements on time and within budget, PLM is a powerful tool to shape everything from engineering trade studies and testing goals, to integrated vehicle operations and retirement scenarios. This paper will demonstrate how the Engineering Directorate is implementing PLM as part of an overall strategy to deliver safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions. It has been 30 years since the United States fielded the Space Shuttle. The next generation space transportation system requires a paradigm shift such that digital tools and knowledge management, which are central elements of PLM, are used consistently to maximum effect. The outcome is a better use of scarce resources, along with more focus on stakeholder and customer requirements, as a new portfolio of enabling tools becomes second nature to the workforce. This paper will use the design and manufacturing processes, which have transitioned to digital-based activities, to show how PLM supports the comprehensive systems engineering and integration function. It also will go through a launch countdown scenario where an anomaly is detected to show how the virtual vehicle created from paperless processes will help solve technical challenges and improve the likelihood of launching on schedule, with less hands-on labor needed for processing and troubleshooting. Sustainable space exploration solutions demand that all lifecycle phases be optimized. Adopting PLM, which has been used by the automotive industry for many years, for aerospace applications provides a foundation for strong, disciplined systems engineering and accountable return on investment by making lifecycle considerations variables in an iterative decision-making process. This paper combines the perspectives of the founding father of PLM, along with the experience of Engineering leaders who are implementing these processes and practices real-time. As the nation moves from an industrial-based society to one where information is a valued commodity, future NASA programs and projects will benefit from the experience being gained today for the exploration missions of tomorrow.

Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.

2010-01-01

333

Join Shell and Purdue for a series of discussions that will explore preventative measures to minimize risk of oil spills, the future of natural gas infrastructure, and  

E-print Network

to minimize risk of oil spills, the future of natural gas infrastructure, and the challenges we face in our (refreshments served) 8:00am ­ 8:15am Opening 8:15am ­ 9:15am Panel Discussion: "Offshore Oil Spill Containment ENERGY DAY A Symposium on the New Frontiers in Oil and Natural Gas Exploration #12;

Ginzel, Matthew

334

ANALYSIS OF THERMAL DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS OF FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AGENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of reactions of several flue gas conditioning agents in a laboratory-scale facility simulating conditions in the flue gas train of a coal-burning power plant. Primary purposes of the study were to characterize the chemical species resulting fro...

335

Lifecycle greenhouse gas implications of US national scenarios for cellulosic ethanol production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 set an annual US national production goal of 39.7 billion l of cellulosic ethanol by 2020. This paper explores the possibility of meeting that target by growing and processing Miscanthus giganteus. We define and assess six production scenarios in which active cropland and/or Conservation Reserve Program land are used to grow to Miscanthus. The crop and biorefinery locations are chosen with consideration of economic, land-use, water management and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction objectives. Using lifecycle assessment, the net GHG footprint of each scenario is evaluated, providing insight into the climate costs and benefits associated with each scenarios objectives. Assuming that indirect land-use change is successfully minimized or mitigated, the results suggest two major drivers for overall GHG impact of cellulosic ethanol from Miscanthus: (a) net soil carbon sequestration or emissions during Miscanthus cultivation and (b) GHG offset credits for electricity exported by biorefineries to the grid. Without these factors, the GHG intensity of bioethanol from Miscanthus is calculated to be 11-13 g CO2-equivalent per MJ of fuel, which is 80-90% lower than gasoline. Including soil carbon sequestration and the power-offset credit results in net GHG sequestration up to 26 g CO2-equivalent per MJ of fuel.

Scown, Corinne D.; Nazaroff, William W.; Mishra, Umakant; Strogen, Bret; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Masanet, Eric; Santero, Nicholas J.; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E.

2012-03-01

336

Effects of gas bubble production on heat transfer from a volumetrically heated liquid pool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqueous solutions of uranium salts may provide a new supply chain to fill potential shortfalls in the availability of the most common radiopharmaceuticals currently in use worldwide, including Tc99m which is a decay product of Mo99. The fissioning of the uranium in these solutions creates Mo99 but also generates large amounts of hydrogen and oxygen from the radiolysis of the water. When the dissolved gases reach a critical concentration, bubbles will form in the solution. Bubbles in the solution affect both the fission power and the heat transfer out of the solution. As a result, for safety and production calculations, the effects of the bubbles on heat transfer must be understood. A high aspect ratio tank was constructed to simulate a section of an annulus with heat exchangers on the inner and outer steel walls to provide cooling. Temperature measurements via thermocouples inside the tank and along the outside of the steel walls allowed the calculation of overall and local heat transfer coefficients. Different air injection manifolds allowed the exploration of various bubble characteristics and patterns on heat transfer from the pool. The manifold type did not appear to have significant impact on the bubble size distributions in water. However, air injected into solutions of magnesium sulfate resulted in smaller bubble sizes and larger void fractions than those in water at the same injection rates. One dimensional calculations provide heat transfer coefficient values as functions of the superficial gas velocity in the pool.

Bull, Geoffrey R.

337

Drilling and Production Testing the Methane Hydrate Resource Potential Associated with the Barrow Gas Fields  

SciTech Connect

In November of 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Slope Borough (NSB) committed funding to develop a drilling plan to test the presence of hydrates in the producing formation of at least one of the Barrow Gas Fields, and to develop a production surveillance plan to monitor the behavior of hydrates as dissociation occurs. This drilling and surveillance plan was supported by earlier studies in Phase 1 of the project, including hydrate stability zone modeling, material balance modeling, and full-field history-matched reservoir simulation, all of which support the presence of methane hydrate in association with the Barrow Gas Fields. This Phase 2 of the project, conducted over the past twelve months focused on selecting an optimal location for a hydrate test well; design of a logistics, drilling, completion and testing plan; and estimating costs for the activities. As originally proposed, the project was anticipated to benefit from industry activity in northwest Alaska, with opportunities to share equipment, personnel, services and mobilization and demobilization costs with one of the then-active exploration operators. The activity level dropped off, and this benefit evaporated, although plans for drilling of development wells in the BGF's matured, offering significant synergies and cost savings over a remote stand-alone drilling project. An optimal well location was chosen at the East Barrow No.18 well pad, and a vertical pilot/monitoring well and horizontal production test/surveillance well were engineered for drilling from this location. Both wells were designed with Distributed Temperature Survey (DTS) apparatus for monitoring of the hydrate-free gas interface. Once project scope was developed, a procurement process was implemented to engage the necessary service and equipment providers, and finalize project cost estimates. Based on cost proposals from vendors, total project estimated cost is $17.88 million dollars, inclusive of design work, permitting, barging, ice road/pad construction, drilling, completion, tie-in, long-term production testing and surveillance, data analysis and technology transfer. The PRA project team and North Slope have recommended moving forward to the execution phase of this project.

Steve McRae; Thomas Walsh; Michael Dunn; Michael Cook

2010-02-22

338

Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 States, 1980 through 1995  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to analyze monthly natural gas wellhead productive capacity in the lower 48 States from 1980 through 1992 and project this capacity from 1993 through 1995. For decades, natural gas supplies and productive capacity have been adequate to meet demand. In the 1970`s the capacity surplus was small because of market structure (split between interstate and intrastate), increasing demand, and insufficient drilling. In the early 1980`s, lower demand, together with increased drilling, led to a large surplus capacity as new productive capacity came on line. After 1986, this large surplus began to decline as demand for gas increased, gas prices fell, and gas well completions dropped sharply. In late December 1989, the decline in this surplus, accompanied by exceptionally high demand and temporary weather-related production losses, led to concerns about the adequacy of monthly productive capacity for natural gas. These concerns should have been moderated by the gas system`s performance during the unusually severe winter weather in March 1993 and January 1994. The declining trend in wellhead productive capacity is expected to be reversed in 1994 if natural gas prices and drilling meet or exceed the base case assumption. This study indicates that in the low, base, and high drilling cases, monthly productive capacity should be able to meet normal production demands through 1995 in the lower 48 States (Figure ES1). Exceptionally high peak-day or peak-week production demand might not be met because of physical limitations such as pipeline capacity. Beyond 1995, as the capacity of currently producing wells declines, a sufficient number of wells and/or imports must be added each year in order to ensure an adequate gas supply.

Not Available

1994-07-14

339

The elimination of liquid loading problems in low productivity gas wells  

E-print Network

of the production tubing and (3) slug flow in which the liquid phase is continuous. As the gas velocity falls below the critical gas velocity, the velocity of the liquid film along the walls of the tubing will become negative due to an increasing film thickness... previously, slug flow occurs when the gas phase velocity is below the critical gas velocity. The liquid film thick- ness on the walls of the tubing increases to a point where the liquid film velocity becomes negative. If the gas velocity remains below...

Neves, Toby Roy

1987-01-01

340

Potential biodefense model applications for portable chlorine dioxide gas production.  

PubMed

Development of decontamination methods and strategies to address potential infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorism events are pertinent to this nation's biodefense strategies and general biosecurity. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas has a history of use as a decontamination agent in response to an act of bioterrorism. However, the more widespread use of ClO2 gas to meet current and unforeseen decontamination needs has been hampered because the gas is too unstable for shipment and must be prepared at the application site. Newer technology allows for easy, onsite gas generation without the need for dedicated equipment, electricity, water, or personnel with advanced training. In a laboratory model system, 2 unique applications (personal protective equipment [PPE] and animal skin) were investigated in the context of potential development of decontamination protocols. Such protocols could serve to reduce human exposure to bacteria in a decontamination response effort. Chlorine dioxide gas was capable of reducing (2-7 logs of vegetative and spore-forming bacteria), and in some instances eliminating, culturable bacteria from difficult to clean areas on PPE facepieces. The gas was effective in eliminating naturally occurring bacteria on animal skin and also on skin inoculated with Bacillus spores. The culturable bacteria, including Bacillus spores, were eliminated in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Results of these studies suggested portable, easily used ClO2 gas generation systems have excellent potential for protocol development to contribute to biodefense strategies and decontamination responses to infectious disease outbreaks or other biothreat events. PMID:25812425

Stubblefield, Jeannie M; Newsome, Anthony L

2015-01-01

341

Exploring the limits of crop productivity: beyond the limits of tipburn in lettuce  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The productivity of lettuce in a combination of high light, high temperature, and elevated CO2 has not been commonly studied because rapid growth usually causes a calcium deficiency in meristems called tipburn, which greatly reduces quality and marketability. We eliminated tipburn by blowing air directly onto the meristem, which allowed us to increase the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) to 1000 micromoles m-2 s-1 (57.6 mol m-2 d-1); two to three times higher than normally used for lettuce. Eliminating tipburn doubled edible yield at the highest PPF level. In addition to high PPF, CO2 was elevated to 1200 micromoles m-2 mol-1, which increased the temperature optimum from 25 to 30 degrees C. The higher temperature increased leaf expansion rate, which improved radiation capture and more than doubled yield. Photosynthetic efficiency, measured as canopy quantum yield in a whole-plant gas exchange system, steadily increased up to the highest temperature of 32 degrees C in high CO2. The highest productivity was 19 g m-2 d-1 of dry biomass (380 g d-1 fresh mass) averaged over the 23 days the plants received light. Without the limitation of tipburn, the combination of high PPF, high temperature, and elevated CO2 resulted in a 4-fold increase in growth rate over productivity in conventional environments.

Frantz, Jonathan M.; Ritchie, Glen; Cometti, Nilton N.; Robinson, Justin; Bugbee, Bruce

2004-01-01

342

Depressurization-induced gas production from Class 1 and Class 2hydrate deposits  

SciTech Connect

Class 1 hydrate deposits are characterized by a Hydrate-Bearing Layer (HBL) underlain by a two-phase zone involving mobile gas. Such deposits are further divided to Class 1W (involving water and hydrate in the HBL) and Class 1G (involving gas and hydrate in the HBL). In Class 2 deposits, a mobile water zone underlies the hydrate zone. Methane is the main hydrate-forming gas in natural accumulations. Using TOUGH-FX/HYDRATE to study the depressurization-induced gas production from such deposits, we determine that large volumes of gas could be readily produced at high rates for long times using conventional technology. Dissociation in Class 1W deposits proceeds in distinct stages, but is continuous in Class 1G deposits. Hydrates are shown to contribute significantly to the production rate (up to 65 percent and 75 percent in Class 1W and 1G, respectively) and to the cumulative volume of produced gas (up to 45 percent and 54 percent in Class 1W and 1G, respectively). Large volumes of hydrate-originating CH4 could be produced from Class 2 hydrates, but a relatively long lead time would be needed before gas production (which continuously increases over time) attains a substantial level. The permeability of the confining boundaries plays a significant role in gas production from Class 2 deposits. In general, long-term production is needed to realize the full potential of the very promising Class 1 and Class 2 hydrate deposits.

Moridis, George J.; Kowalsky, Michael

2006-05-12

343

Water production analysis and reservoir simulation of the Jilake gas condensate field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the Jilake gas condensate field is dominated by production of old wells, with complication of well status, serious impact of edge-bottom water, and difficulty in development and adjustment. Through integration of formation water salinity analysis, color and density change of oil samples, diagnostic curve characteristic of modern production decline analysis and characteristic analysis of production water, the

Li Yong; Li Baozhu; Hu Yongle; Jiao Yuwei; Zhu Weihong; Xiao Xiangjiao; Niu Yu

2010-01-01

344

Worldwide gas processing: Capacities as of January 1, 1997, and average production  

SciTech Connect

Tables are presented on the capacity for and average production of ethane, propane, isobutane, butane, liquid petroleum gases, natural gas liquids, and natural gasoline. Data are presented by country and by company within each country, state, or province. Another table presents data on sulfur production by company within each country, state, or province. Design capacity, production, desulfurization process, and sulfur source are listed.

NONE

1997-06-02

345

Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant  

SciTech Connect

Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

1997-12-31

346

40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table...MM of Part 98Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1...

2011-07-01

347

40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table...MM of Part 98Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1...

2012-07-01

348

40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table...MM of Part 98Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1...

2013-07-01

349

40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table...MM of Part 98Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1...

2014-07-01

350

Controls of coal fabric on coalbed gas production and compositional shift in both field production and canister desorption tests  

SciTech Connect

The production rates of coalbed gas wells commonly vary significantly, even in the same field with similar reservoir permeability and gas content. The compositional variation in produced gas is also not everywhere predictable, although in most fields produced gas becomes progressively enriched in CO, through the production life of a reservoir, such as parts of the San Juan basin. In contrast, it is generally observed that the ratio of CO{sub 2}:CH{sub 4} declines with time during field and laboratory desorption testing of coal cores. In this study, we investigate numerically the importance of coal fabric, namely cleat spacing and aperture width, on the performance of coalbed gas wells and gas compositional shifts during production. Because of the cubic relationship between fracture permeability and fracture aperture width (and thus fracture porosity) for a given cleat permeability, the production profile of coal seams varies depending on whether the permeability is distributed among closely spaced fractures (cleat) with narrower apertures or more widely spaced fractures (cleat) with wider apertures. There is a lower fracture porosity for coal with widely spaced fractures than for coal with closely spaced fractures. Therefore, the relative permeability to gas increases more rapidly for coals with more widely spaced cleats as less dewatering from fractures is required, assuming that the fractures are initially water saturated. The enrichment of CO{sub 2} in the production gas with time occurs because of the stronger adsorption of coals for CO{sub 2} than CH{sub 4}. However, during desorption of coal cores, CO{sub 2} desorbs more rapidly than methane because desorption rate is governed more by diffusion than by sorption affinity, and CO{sub 2} has much higher effective diffusivity in microporous coals than CH{sub 4}.

Cui, X.J.; Bustin, R.M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2006-03-15

351

Mathematical modeling of a horizontal tubular loop bioreactor for biomass production from natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, mathematical modeling of a horizontal tubular loop bioreactor (HTLB) was considered for biomass production from natural gas. Gas inlet segments, static mixers, gasliquid separator, and liquid pump of the HTLB were mathematically modeled according to the ideal stirred reactors, and the horizontal parts, riser, and down-comer sections were modeled in line with the dispersed plug-flow reactors as

Z. S. Aghamiri; M. R. Mehrnia; Sh. Fatemi; S. A. Shojaosadati; F. Yazdian

2010-01-01

352

NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF VARIOUS FEEDSTUFFS FOR LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION USING IN VITRO GAS METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional quality of some conventional and non-conventional feed resources by using in vitro gas method. Samples of various feedstuffs were analyzed chemically, as well as by in vitro gas method. The feedstuffs having different digestibilities showed significant (P<0.05) differences in the rate and amount of gas production, metabolizable energy (ME) and digestibility of

S. A. KHANUM; T. YAQOOB; S. SADAF; M. HUSSAIN; M. A. JABBAR; H. N. HUSSAIN; R. KAUSAR; S. REHMAN

353

Autonomous ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements for exploring biogenic gas dynamics of peat soils in a northern peatland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely accepted that northern peat soils are responsible for up to 10% of methane flux to the atmosphere yet act as a net sink for as much as 75% of the global mass of atmospheric carbon. A better understanding of the processes by which peat soils store and release carbon products must be gained in order to more accurately model the contributions that peatlands make to global atmospheric carbon budgets. Rapid ebullition events of biogenic methane and carbon dioxide gases from peat soils are currently not well understood, particularly since the timing of the releases are poorly constrained. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical tool that has successfully been used in the past to non-invasively investigate the release of biogenic gasses from peat soils. In the work presented here, measurement frequency is expanded by including daily arrays of common offset and common midpoint GPR measurements combined with hourly autonomous GPR measurements to investigate biogenic gas dynamics during times of variable atmospheric pressure in a northern peatland in Maine. Geophysical data were supported by peat matrix deformation measurements using terrestrial LiDAR (TLS) and direct gas flux measurements using gas traps combined with time-lapse cameras at the sub-daily scale. A vertical array of moisture probes was also used to further constrain GPR measurements. Results from this study show the viability of autonomous GPR methods for improving temporal resolution of geophysical data in order to better understand the dynamics of biogenic gas releases from peat soils.

Wright, W. J.; Comas, X.; Heij, G.; Slater, L. D.; Schafer, K. V.; Reeve, A. S.

2012-12-01

354

Increasing plasma waveguide production efficiency in H2 gas jet by cryogenically cooling the gas jet  

E-print Network

generate an elongated plasma waveguide by using a combination of an axicon and the ignitor-heater scheme. The ignitor-heater scheme consists of a short and a long laser pulses to produce and heat electrons nitrogen is used to cool the valve and gas reservoir of the gas jet to increase the local atom density

355

Numerical modeling of the simulated gas hydrate production test at Mallik 2L-38 in the pilot scale pressure reservoir LARS - Applying the "foamy oil" model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of the German joint project SUGAR (Submarine Gas Hydrate Reservoirs: exploration, extraction and transport) we conducted a series of experiments in the LArge Reservoir Simulator (LARS) at the German Research Centre of Geosciences Potsdam. These experiments allow us to investigate the formation and dissociation of hydrates at large scale laboratory conditions. We performed an experiment similar to the field-test conditions of the production test in the Mallik gas hydrate field (Mallik 2L-38) in the Beaufort Mackenzie Delta of the Canadian Arctic. The aim of this experiment was to study the transport behavior of fluids in gas hydrate reservoirs during depressurization (see also Heeschen et al. and Priegnitz et al., this volume). The experimental results from LARS are used to provide details about processes inside the pressure vessel, to validate the models through history matching, and to feed back into the design of future experiments. In experiments in LARS the amount of methane produced from gas hydrates was much lower than expected. Previously published models predict a methane production rate higher than the one observed in experiments and field studies (Uddin et al. 2010; Wright et al. 2011). The authors of the aforementioned studies point out that the current modeling approach overestimates the gas production rate when modeling gas production by depressurization. They suggest that trapping of gas bubbles inside the porous medium is responsible for the reduced gas production rate. They point out that this behavior of multi-phase flow is not well explained by a "residual oil" model, but rather resembles a "foamy oil" model. Our study applies Uddin's (2010) "foamy oil" model and combines it with history matches of our experiments in LARS. Our results indicate a better agreement between experimental and model results when using the "foamy oil" model instead of conventional models of gas flow in water. References Uddin M., Wright J.F. and Coombe D. (2010) - Numerical Study of gas evolution and transport behaviors in natural gas hydrate reservoirs; CSUG/SPE 137439. Wright J.F., Uddin M., Dallimore S.R. and Coombe D. (2011) - Mechanisms of gas evolution and transport in a producing gas hydrate reservoir: an unconventional basis for successful history matching of observed production flow data; International Conference on Gas Hydrates (ICGH 2011).

Abendroth, Sven; Thaler, Jan; Klump, Jens; Schicks, Judith; Uddin, Mafiz

2014-05-01

356

Parameter identification in large-scale models for oil and gas production  

E-print Network

: Models used for model-based (long-term) operations as monitoring, control and optimization of oil and gas.g. valves in the well that can open or close certain segments of the well for flow and can be operated fromParameter identification in large-scale models for oil and gas production Jorn F.M. Van Doren

Van den Hof, Paul

357

State estimation for dynamic prediction of hydrate formation in oil and gas production systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since oil and gas production is moving to deeper waters, subsen pipelines are being subjected to higher pressures and lower temperatures. Under such conditions, the formation of hydrates is promoted. Hydrates are solid, non-flowing compounds of gas and water whose formation can cause line blockages, with the consequent economical losses and safety risks. The increasing hydrate formation propensity suggests the

J. Rodriguez Perez; C. S. Adjiman; C. D. Immanuel

2008-01-01

358

Dual gas and oil dispersions in water: production and stability of foamulsion Anniina Salonen,*a  

E-print Network

Dual gas and oil dispersions in water: production and stability of foamulsion Anniina Salonen of oil droplets and gas bubbles and show that the oil can have two very different roles, either suppressing foaming or stabilising the foam. We have foamed emulsions made from two different oils (rapeseed

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

359

Geologic model for identification of higher Devonian shale gas-production potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Areas of higher gas production within the Devonian shales of the Appalachian basin may be identified with the aid of an integrated geologic model. Lithology and fractures combine to form complex reservoir systems. The search for these reservoirs is aided by integration of log lithofacies analysis and interpretations of seismic data. Gas Research Institute - sponsored research has shown that

P. H. Lowry; R. W. Brown; A. Olszewski; J. W. Hobson

1991-01-01

360

Annual report of the origin of natural gas liquids production form EIA-64A  

SciTech Connect

The collection of basic, verifiable information on the Nation`s reserves and production of natural gas liquids (NGL) is mandated by the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (FEAA) (Public Law 93-275) and the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91). Gas shrinkage volumes reported on Form EIA-64A by natural gas processing plant operators are used with natural gas data collected on a {open_quotes}wet after lease separation{close_quotes} basis on Form EIA-23, Annual Survey of Domestic Oil and Gas Reserves, to estimate {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} natural gas reserves and production volumes regionally and nationally. The shrinkage data are also used, along with the plant liquids production data reported on Form EIA-64A, and lease condensate data reported on Form EIA-23, to estimate regional and national gas liquids reserves and production volumes. This information is the only comprehensive source of credible natural gas liquids data, and is required by DOE to assist in the formulation of national energy policies.

NONE

1995-12-31

361

Minimizing Water Production from Unconventional Gas Wells Using a Novel Environmentally Benign Polymer Gel System  

E-print Network

Excess water production is a major economic and environmental problem for the oil and gas industry. The cost of processing excess water runs into billions of dollars. Polymer gel technology has been successfully used in controlling water influx...

Gakhar, Kush

2012-02-14

362

Evidence of Pressure Dependent Permeability in Long-Term Shale Gas Production and Pressure Transient Responses  

E-print Network

The current state of shale gas reservoir dynamics demands understanding long-term production, and existing models that address important parameters like fracture half-length, permeability, and stimulated shale volume assume constant permeability...

Vera Rosales, Fabian 1986-

2012-12-11

363

UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS RESOURCES: AN OVERVIEW COVERING THE RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This report covers natural gas from the following unconventional sources: western tight sands, Devonian shale, coal deposits, geopressured aquifers, and landfills. This report covers the resource base, potential production levels, and associated environmental aspects. Over the pa...

364

Regional air quality impacts of increased natural gas production and use in Texas.  

PubMed

Natural gas use in electricity generation in Texas was estimated, for gas prices ranging from $1.89 to $7.74 per MMBTU, using an optimal power flow model. Hourly estimates of electricity generation, for individual electricity generation units, from the model were used to estimate spatially resolved hourly emissions from electricity generation. Emissions from natural gas production activities in the Barnett Shale region were also estimated, with emissions scaled up or down to match demand in electricity generation as natural gas prices changed. As natural gas use increased, emissions decreased from electricity generation and increased from natural gas production. Overall, NOx and SO2 emissions decreased, while VOC emissions increased as natural gas use increased. To assess the effects of these changes in emissions on ozone and particulate matter concentrations, spatially and temporally resolved emissions were used in a month-long photochemical modeling episode. Over the month-long photochemical modeling episode, decreases in natural gas prices typical of those experienced from 2006 to 2012 led to net regional decreases in ozone (0.2-0.7 ppb) and fine particulate matter (PM) (0.1-0.7 ?g/m(3)). Changes in PM were predominantly due to changes in regional PM sulfate formation. Changes in regional PM and ozone formation are primarily due to decreases in emissions from electricity generation. Increases in emissions from increased natural gas production were offset by decreasing emissions from electricity generation for all the scenarios considered. PMID:23441728

Pacsi, Adam P; Alhajeri, Nawaf S; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Webster, Mort D; Allen, David T

2013-04-01

365

City of North Bonneville, Washington: Geothermal Exploration Project, production test well, Phase II. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Based on discussions with the City of North Bonneville, the production test well was drilled to a depth that would also explore for ground water temperatures near 130/sup 0/F (54.4/sup 0/C). Depth projections to a 130/sup 0/F bottom hole temperature were made by assuming a constant ground water temperature rise greater than 50/sup 0/C per kilometer, and by assuming that essentially homogeneous or equivalent conductive rock units would be encountered. Minimum water production requirements were not set, although the City determined that about 800 gpm would be acceptable. Large upper casing diameters of 16 and 12 inches were installed in order to provide the future use of either a vertical turbine or submersible pump, as desired by the city. The scope of work included interpretation of well characteristics, evaluation of ground water as a geothermal resource, geologic analysis of data from drilling and testing, drilling supervision, daily drilling cost accounting, and preparation of a final report. The report includes geologic evaluation of the drilling and test data, ground water and geothermal potential.

Not Available

1982-06-01

366

Water alternating enriched gas injection to enhance oil production and recovery from San Francisco Field, Colombia  

E-print Network

) using Kulin oil (21 'API oil Irom Indonesia). ' The same effect of production acceleration was observed in these experiments and steam injectivity was improved with the addition of propane to the steam. Rivero and Mamora (2002) conducted several steam... studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil. ' With steam-propane injection no improvement on production and oil recovery was obtained. Enriched gas injection increase the oil recovery in 13'/o, (74'/o OOIP with 5...

Rueda Silva, Carlos Fernando

2003-01-01

367

The effects of production rate and gravitational segregation on gas injection performance of oil reservoirs  

E-print Network

THE EFFECTS OF PRODUCTION RATE AND GRAVITATIONAL SEGREGATION ON GAS INJECTION PERFORMANCE OF OIL RESERVOIRS A Thesis by ED MARTIN FERGUSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1972 Major Subject: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING THE EFFECTS OF PRODUCTION RATE AND GRAVITATIONAL SEGREGATION ON GAS INJECTION PERFORMANCE OF OIL RESERVOIRS A Thesis by ED MARTIN FERGUSON Approved as. to style...

Ferguson, Ed Martin

1972-01-01

368

Gas evolution in reservoir and its effect on well productivity and well transient behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas-oil reservoir simulator was developed to study the productivity behavior of a well from the time the reservoir is above the bubble-point pressure (single-phase flow), as it goes through the bubble-point pressure (2-phase flow), and until abandonment. Other useful studies included the effect of well-bore shut-in on subsequent oil productivity, and an understanding of the role of nonuniform gas

Kazemi

1974-01-01

369

Gas production and transport during bench-scale electrical resistance heating of water and trichloroethene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effective remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones using in situ thermal treatment requires successful capture of gas that is produced. Replicate electrical resistance heating experiments were performed in a thin bench-scale apparatus, where water was boiled and pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) trichloroethene (TCE) and water were co-boiled in unconsolidated silica sand. Quantitative light transmission visualization was used to assess gas production and transport mechanisms. In the water boiling experiments, nucleation, growth and coalescence of the gas phase into connected channels were observed at critical gas saturations of Sgc = 0.233 0.017, which allowed for continuous gas transport out of the sand. In experiments containing a colder region above a target heated zone, condensation prevented the formation of steam channels and discrete gas clusters that mobilized into colder regions were trapped soon after discontinuous transport began. In the TCE-water experiments, co-boiling at immiscible fluid interfaces resulted in discontinuous gas transport above the DNAPL pool. Redistribution of DNAPL was also observed above the pool and at the edge of the vapor front that propagated upwards through colder regions. These results suggest that the subsurface should be heated to water boiling temperatures to facilitate gas transport from specific locations of DNAPL to extraction points and reduce the potential for DNAPL redistribution. Decreases in electric current were observed at the onset of gas phase production, which suggests that coupled electrical current and temperature measurements may provide a reliable metric to assess gas phase development.

Hegele, P. R.; Mumford, K. G.

2014-09-01

370

The production spectrum of a relativistic Maxwell-Boltzmann gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A formula is derived for use in the calculation of the spectrum of particles or photons produced through particle collisions in a Maxwell-Boltzmann gas. The result is valid for all temperatures and for the general case when the gas contains different mass particles. It is written in terms of a double integral over the cross section differential in the energy of the produced particles (or photons) in the center-of-momentum system of two colliding particles. Analytic expressions for the reaction rate and luminosity are also derived and reproduce the findings of previous work. Application to the problem of the annihilation spectrum from a relativistic Maxwell-Boltzmann electron-positron gas is made. Agreement is found between the present work and previous numerical and analytical studies.

Dermer, C. D.

1984-01-01

371

Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content  

DOEpatents

A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

Najjar, Mitri S. (Hopewell Junction, NY); Corbeels, Roger J. (Wappingers Falls, NY); Kokturk, Uygur (Wappingers Falls, NY)

1989-01-01

372

Production of a Gas- Controlling a Chemical Reaction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students have seen a few reactions that produce a gas.They will adjust the amount of baking soda and vinegar to control the amount of gas produced in the reaction. The materials needed are basic and easily available anywhere. There is a downloadable activity sheet that will be very helpful to educators, and will help students stay on track. An assessment sheet is also available on the activity page to keep track of students progress. There is also a step by step guide as to how to perform the experiment, and how to introduce it t the students.

James Kessler

2010-01-01

373

Monotoring of mangrove ecosystem in relation with exploration and production activities  

SciTech Connect

From Indonesia`s initial 13 million hectares of mangrove forests, presently only 2.6 million hectares remains which must be certainly protected. Mangrove swamps are of considerable ecological importance not only because of their use as spawning and feeding grounds for a many variety of fish and shrimps but also of economical importance and last but not least as coastal protection. In such a sensitive ecosystem, i.e. in the mangrove swamp area of Mahakam Delta in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, TOTAL Indonesie, an affiliate of the French oil company {open_quotes}TOTAL{close_quotes} and one of the production sharing contractors of PERTAMINA, the Indonesian owned state oil company, has undertaken its E&P operations since 1974. Realizing the sensitivity of the mangrove area, TOTAL Indonesie has undertaken continuous monitoring of the environment as part of its Environmental Management System. This monitoring is very important not only to measure the impact to the mangrove ecosystem in particular due to TOTAL Indonesie activities but also as a feed back for the environmental management. Physicochemical and biological aspects of the environment are monitored and various measurements are taken covering: (1) Hydrology and hydrodynamics of the water streams i.e. the water quality, productivity and flow characteristic of the region (2) Sedimentation and biodegradation (3) The influence of accidental and chronic pollution mangrove ecosystem (3) Sensitivity of the mangroves. The above monitoring has led to the conclusion that after more than 20 years of operation, there has significant adverse impact to the mangrove ecosystem by the exploration and production activities of Indonesie.

Alamsyah, C.; Dwistiadi, D.

1996-11-01

374

Forecasting long-term gas production Luis Cueto-Felguerosoa  

E-print Network

and hydraulic fracturing. Hori- zontal drilling enhances the spatial access to the hydrocarbon resource by increasing the length of a single well within the gas-bearing shale. Hydraulic fracturing, or "fracking" (9 significantly over the next three dec- ades, with strong demand growth from the electricity generation

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

375

Agricultural By-products as Mercury Adsorbents in Gas Applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increased emphasis on reduction of mercury emissions from coal fired electric power plans have resulted in environmental regulations that may in the future require application of activated carbons as mercury sorbents. The sorbents could be injected into the flue gas stream where is adsorbs the merc...

376

Optimum gas compressor selection and design to maximize Brent production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timely upgrading of the gas export compressors to suit the late life requirements of the reservoir is increasing hydrocarbon recovery from the Brent field in the North Sea. The strategy driving initial selection, re-wheeling and subsequent replacement of the compressors is explained. Advances in technology and modelling methods allowed each phase of the development to extend the operational envelope of

Thomas Nikolaus Schneider; Riccardo Brogelli

377

Atmospheric hydrocarbon emissions and concentrations in the barnett shale natural gas production region.  

PubMed

Hourly ambient hydrocarbon concentration data were collected, in the Barnett Shale Natural Gas Production Region, using automated gas chromatography (auto-GC), for the period from April 2010 to December 2011. Data for three sites were compared: a site in the geographical center of the natural gas production region (Eagle Mountain Lake (EML)); a rural/suburban site at the periphery of the production region (Flower Mound Shiloh), and an urban site (Hinton). The dominant hydrocarbon species observed in the Barnett Shale region were light alkanes. Analyses of daily, monthly, and hourly patterns showed little variation in relative composition. Observed concentrations were compared to concentrations predicted using a dispersion model (AERMOD) and a spatially resolved inventory of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from natural gas production (Barnett Shale Special Emissions Inventory) prepared by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), and other emissions information. The predicted concentrations of VOC due to natural gas production were 0-40% lower than background corrected measurements, after accounting for potential under-estimation of certain emission categories. Hourly and daily variations in observed, background corrected concentrations were primarily explained by variability in meteorology, suggesting that episodic emission events had little impact on hourly averaged concentrations. Total emissions for VOC from natural gas production sources are estimated to be approximately 25,300 tons/yr, when accounting for potential under-estimation of certain emission categories. This region produced, in 2011, approximately 5 bcf/d of natural gas (100 Gg/d) for a VOC to natural gas production ratio (mass basis) of 0.0006. PMID:24712292

Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Sullivan, David W; Allen, David T

2014-05-01

378

Western Gas Sands Project: production histories of the Piceance and Uinta basins of Colorado and Utah  

SciTech Connect

Current United States geological tight sand designations in the Piceance and Uinta Basins' Western Gas Sands Project include the Mesaverde Group, Fort Union and Wasatch Formations. Others, such as the Dakota, Cedar Mountain, Morrison and Mancos may eventually be included. Future production from these formations will probably be closely associated with existing trends. Cumulative gas production through December 1979, of the Mesaverde Group, Fort Union and Wasatch Formations in the Piceance and Uinta Basins is less than 275 billion cubic feet. This contrasts dramatically with potential gas in place estimates of 360 trillion cubic feet. If the geology can be fully understood and engineering problems surmounted, significant potential reserves can be exploited.

Anderson, S.; Kohout, J. (comp.)

1980-11-20

379

Gas production from a cold, stratigraphically-bounded gas hydrate deposit at the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Implications of uncertainties  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of an effort to identify suitable targets for a planned long-term field test, we investigate by means of numerical simulation the gas production potential from unit D, a stratigraphically bounded (Class 3) permafrost-associated hydrate occurrence penetrated in the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well on North Slope, Alaska. This shallow, low-pressure deposit has high porosities (?? = 0.4), high intrinsic permeabilities (k = 10-12 m2) and high hydrate saturations (SH = 0.65). It has a low temperature (T = 2.3-2.6 ??C) because of its proximity to the overlying permafrost. The simulation results indicate that vertical wells operating at a constant bottomhole pressure would produce at very low rates for a very long period. Horizontal wells increase gas production by almost two orders of magnitude, but production remains low. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the initial deposit temperature is by the far the most important factor determining production performance (and the most effective criterion for target selection) because it controls the sensible heat available to fuel dissociation. Thus, a 1 ??C increase in temperature is sufficient to increase the production rate by a factor of almost 8. Production also increases with a decreasing hydrate saturation (because of a larger effective permeability for a given k), and is favored (to a lesser extent) by anisotropy. ?? 2010.

Moridis, G.J.; Silpngarmlert, S.; Reagan, M.T.; Collett, T.; Zhang, K.

2011-01-01

380

Pyrolysis of glycerol for the production of hydrogen or syn gas.  

PubMed

Biodiesel has high potential as alternative liquid transportation fuel because it is renewable and CO(2) neutral, and has similar properties as diesel fuel. Glycerol is a by-product obtained during the production of biodiesel. Canadian government has planned to produce 500 million litres of biodiesel by 2010. An increase in biodiesel production would decrease the market price of glycerol. The objective of this study is to pyrolyse glycerol for the production of clean fuels such as H(2) or a feedstock such as syn gas for additional transportation fuel via Fisher-Tropsch synthesis. The pyrolysis of glycerol was carried out at various flow rates of N(2) (30-70 mL/min), temperatures (650-800 degrees C) and types and sizes of packing material in a tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure. The products were mostly gas, essentially consisting of CO, H(2), CO(2), CH(4) and C(2)H(4). It was observed that temperature, carrier flow rates and particle diameter of packing material had profound effects on the conversion of glycerol as well as product distribution. Composition of product gas ranged between syn gas 70-93 mol%, CH(4) 3-15 mol% and C(2)H(4) 2-12 mol% and heating value ranged from 13 to 22 MJ/m(3). This study indicates that the bio-glycerol has potential in making syn gas and medium heating value gases. PMID:17951053

Valliyappan, T; Bakhshi, N N; Dalai, A K

2008-07-01

381

Educating students and stakeholders about shale gas production using a physical model of hydraulic fracturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural gas from shale gas deposits in the United States can potentially help reduce the dependency on foreign energy sources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and improve economic development in currently depressed regions of the country. However, the hydraulic fracturing process (';fracking') employed to release natural gas from formation such as the Marcellus Shale in New York State and Pennsylvania carries significant environmental risks, in particular for local and regional water resources. The current polarized discussion of the topic needs to be informed by sound data and a better understanding of the technical, scientific, social, and economic aspects of hydrofracking. We developed, built and tested an interactive portable physical model of the gas production by hydrofracking that can be used in class rooms and at public events to visualize the procedures and associated risks including the dynamics of water, gas and fracking fluids. Dyes are used to identify shale, fracking fluids and backflow and can be traced in the adjacent groundwater system. Gas production is visualized by a CO2 producing acid/bicarbonate solution reaction. The tank was shown to considerably improve knowledge of environmental issues related to unconventional gas production by hydrofracking in an advanced undergraduate course.

Stute, M.; Garten, L.

2013-12-01

382

Reactive greenhouse gas scenarios: Systematic exploration of uncertainties and the role of atmospheric chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the atmospheric chemistry of reactive greenhouse gases is needed to accurately quantify the relationship between human activities and climate, and to incorporate uncertainty in our projections of greenhouse gas abundances. We present a method for estimating the fraction of greenhouse gases attributable to human activities, both currently and for future scenarios. Key variables used to calculate the atmospheric chemistry and budgets of major non-CO2 greenhouse gases are codified along with their uncertainties, and then used to project budgets and abundances under the new climate-change scenarios. This new approach uses our knowledge of changing abundances and lifetimes to estimate current total anthropogenic emissions, independently and possibly more accurately than inventory-based scenarios. We derive a present-day atmospheric lifetime for methane (CH4) of 9.1 0.9 y and anthropogenic emissions of 352 45 Tg/y (64% of total emissions). For N2O, corresponding values are 131 10 y and 6.5 1.3 TgN/y (41% of total); and for HFC-134a, the lifetime is 14.2 1.5 y.

Prather, Michael J.; Holmes, Christopher D.; Hsu, Juno

2012-05-01

383

From Paper to Production: An Update on NASA's Upper Stage Engine for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/industry team responsible for developing the J-2X Upper Stage Engine for the Constellation Program's Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles has made significant progress toward moving the design from paper to production during the past year. The J-2X exemplifies the Constellation goal of using proven technology and experience from more than 50 years of United States spaceflight experience and seeking where possible to employ common hardware in the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The J-2X will power the Ares I upper stage to place the Orion crew vehicle in orbit. For the Ares V, the J-2X will place the Earth departure stage (EDS) and lunar lander in orbit and later re-start to send the Orion and lander to the Moon. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is under contract to develop and produce the engine, leveraging its flight-proven LH2/LOX, gas generator cycle J-2 and RS-68 engine capabilities, recent experience with the X-33 aerospike XRS-2200 engine, and development knowledge of the J-2S tap-off cycle engine. The J-2X employs a gas generator operating cycle designed to produce 294,000 pounds of thrust in primary operating mode for the Ares I and Ares V ascent phases. It also has a secondary mode, during which it operates at 80 percent thrust by altering its mixture ratio to perform the TLI burn for the Ares V lunar sortie and lunar cargo missions. The J-2X development philosophy is based on proven hardware, an aggressive development schedule, and early risk reduction. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and PWR began development of the J-2X in June 2006. The government/industry team of more than 600 people within NASA and PWR successfully completed the Critical Design Review (CDR) in November 2008, following extensive risk mitigation testing. The team is working toward a first flight of the J-2X on the Orion 1 mission in 2014. This paper will discuss the J-2X development background and provide top-level information on design and testing to date. Details will be provided on overcoming challenges such as gas generator instability, turbine blade life, and nozzle extension selection and materials.

Kynard, Mike

2010-01-01

384

Using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography to explore the geochemistry of the Santa Barbara oil seeps  

SciTech Connect

The development of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) has expanded the analytical window for studying complex mixtures like oil. Compared to traditional gas chromatography, this technology separates and resolves at least an order of magnitude more compounds, has a much larger signal to noise ratio, and sorts compounds based on their chemical class; hence, providing highly refined inventories of petroleum hydrocarbons in geochemical samples that was previously unattainable. In addition to the increased resolution afforded by GC x GC, the resulting chromatograms have been used to estimate the liquid vapor pressures, aqueous solubilities, octanol-water partition coefficients, and vaporization enthalpies of petroleum hydrocarbons. With these relationships, powerful and incisive analyses of phase-transfer processes affecting petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in the environment are available. For example, GC x GC retention data has been used to quantitatively deconvolve the effects of phase transfer processes such as water washing and evaporation. In short, the positive attributes of GC x GC-analysis have led to a methodology that has revolutionized the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons. Overall, this research has opened numerous fields of study on the biogeochemical "?genetics" (referred to as petroleomics) of petroleum samples in both subsurface and surface environments. Furthermore, these new findings have already been applied to the behavior of oil at other seeps as well, for petroleum exploration and oil spill studies.

Reddy, Christopher; Nelson, Robert

2013-03-27

385

Gas Production From a Class 3 Hydrate Deposit at the Mount Elbert Site, North Slope, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amounts of hydrocarbon gases trapped in natural hydrate accumulations are enormous, leading to a recent interest in the evaluation of their potential as an energy source. Recent studies have provided strong indications that it is possible to produce large volumes of gas from natural hydrate deposits at high rates for long times from gas hydrate accumulations by means of depressurization-induced dissociation using conventional technology. In this study we investigate by means of numerical simulation the gas production potential from Unit D, a Class 3 permafrost hydrate deposit at the Mount Elbert Site in North Slope, Alaska. Class 3 deposits are characterized by the absence of hydrate-free zones of mobile reservoir fluids. The hydrate-bearing formation in Unit D begins at a depth of 616 m, is about 11 m thick, is bounded by nearly impermeable shale layers, and has a high porosity, permeability and hydrate saturation. Because of its proximity to the permafrost, its temperature is low, i.e., 2.3 - 2.6 C. Our numerical simulation studies indicate that gas production using vertical wells is seriously inhibited by the low temperature and the limited thickness of the deposit, resulting in low production rates and very long times (several years) before production rates reach levels of commercial viability. Conversely, the use of appropriately placed horizontal wells leads to dramatic increases in gas production from this deposit, and appears to be the only practical alternative for viable gas production from this hydrate accumulation. The sensitivity of gas production to various properties and parameters is also analyzed. These include the magnitude of the hydraulic properties (permeability and porosity), the anisotropy and heterogeneity in their spatial distribution, the heterogeneity in the distribution of the hydrate saturation, the effect of nonzero permeability is the shale boundaries, and operational parameters defining the production strategy.

Moridis, G. J.; Reagan, M. T.; Silpngarmlert, S.; Zhang, K.

2008-12-01

386

Optoelectronic sensors for subsea oil and gas production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential for optoelectronic sensor technology to provide the monitoring and control systems required for advanced subsea hydrocarbon production management is described. The utilisation of optoelectronic sensor technology to produce a new class of subsea Christmas Tree with in-built enhanced production monitoring and control systems as well as effective environmental monitoring systems is reported.

McStay, D.; Shiach, G.; Nolan, A.; McAvoy, S.

2007-07-01

387

Achieving high peak capacity production for gas chromatography and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography by minimizing off-column peak broadening.  

PubMed

By taking into consideration band broadening theory and using those results to select experimental conditions, and also by reducing the injection pulse width, peak capacity production (i.e., peak capacity per separation time) is substantially improved for one dimensional (1D-GC) and comprehensive two dimensional (GCGC) gas chromatography. A theoretical framework for determining the optimal linear gas velocity (the linear gas velocity producing the minimum H), from experimental parameters provides an in-depth understanding of the potential for GC separations in the absence of extra-column band broadening. The extra-column band broadening is referred to herein as off-column band broadening since it is additional band broadening not due to the on-column separation processes. The theory provides the basis to experimentally evaluate and improve temperature programmed 1D-GC separations, but in order to do so with a commercial 1D-GC instrument platform, off-column band broadening from injection and detection needed to be significantly reduced. Specifically for injection, a resistively heated transfer line is coupled to a high-speed diaphragm valve to provide a suitable injection pulse width (referred to herein as modified injection). Additionally, flame ionization detection (FID) was modified to provide a data collection rate of 5kHz. The use of long, relatively narrow open tubular capillary columns and a 40C/min programming rate were explored for 1D-GC, specifically a 40m, 180?m i.d. capillary column operated at or above the optimal average linear gas velocity. Injection using standard auto-injection with a 1:400 split resulted in an average peak width of ?1.5s, hence a peak capacity production of 40peaks/min. In contrast, use of modified injection produced ?500ms peak widths for 1D-GC, i.e., a peak capacity production of 120peaks/min (a 3-fold improvement over standard auto-injection). Implementation of modified injection resulted in retention time, peak width, peak height, and peak area average RSD%'s of 0.006, 0.8, 3.4, and 4.0%, respectively. Modified injection onto the first column of a GCGC coupled with another high-speed valve injection onto the second column produced an instrument with high peak capacity production (500-800peaks/min), ?5-fold to 8-fold higher than typically reported for GCGC. PMID:21255787

Wilson, Ryan B; Siegler, W Christopher; Hoggard, Jamin C; Fitz, Brian D; Nadeau, Jeremy S; Synovec, Robert E

2011-05-27

388

Common In-Situ Consumable Production Plant for Robotic Mars Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization of extraterrestrial resources, or In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), is viewed by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise as an enabling technology for the exploration and commercial development of space. A key subset of ISRU which has significant cost, mass, and risk reduction benefits for robotic and human exploration, and which requires a minimum of infrastructure, is

G. B. Sanders; J. R. Trevathan; T. A. Peters; R. S. Baird

2000-01-01

389

Toward Sustainable and Affordable Space Exploration: The Role of NASA's Space Product Development Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Vision for Space Exploration calls for sustainable and affordable human and robotic missions to explore the solar system. Sustainability requires that the program produce visible benefits to the public, along with scientific and technological advances in support of exploration that would be expected from a program of this magnitude. Affordability requires that the private sector be heavily involved,

Franklin D. Schowengerdt

2005-01-01

390

Toward Sustainable and Affordable Space Exploration: The Role of NASAs Space Product Development Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Vision for Space Exploration calls for sustainable and affordable human and robotic missions to explore the solar system. Sustainability requires that the program produce visible benefits to the public, along with scientific and technological advances in support of exploration that would be expected from a program of this magnitude. Affordability requires that the private sector be heavily involved,

Franklin D. Schowengerdt

2005-01-01

391

Geochemical Monitoring Of The Gas Hydrate Production By CO2/CH4 Exchange In The Ignik Sikumi Gas Hydrate Production Test Well, Alaska North Slope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrocarbon gases, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water were collected from production streams at the Ignik Sikumi gas hydrate production test well (TD, 791.6 m), drilled on the Alaska North Slope. The well was drilled to test the feasibility of producing methane by carbon dioxide injection that replaces methane in the solid gas hydrate. The Ignik Sikumi well penetrated a stratigraphically-bounded prospect within the Eileen gas hydrate accumulation. Regionally, the Eileen gas hydrate accumulation overlies the more deeply buried Prudhoe Bay, Milne Point, and Kuparuk River oil fields and is restricted to the up-dip portion of a series of nearshore deltaic sandstone reservoirs in the Sagavanirktok Formation. Hydrate-bearing sandstones penetrated by Ignik Sikumi well occur in three primary horizons; an upper zone, ("E" sand, 579.7 - 597.4 m) containing 17.7 meters of gas hydrate-bearing sands, a middle zone ("D" sand, 628.2 - 648.6 m) with 20.4 m of gas hydrate-bearing sands and a lower zone ("C" sand, 678.8 - 710.8 m), containing 32 m of gas hydrate-bearing sands with neutron porosity log-interpreted average gas hydrate saturations of 58, 76 and 81% respectively. A known volume mixture of 77% nitrogen and 23% carbon dioxide was injected into an isolated section of the upper part of the "C" sand to start the test. Production flow-back part of the test occurred in three stages each followed by a period of shut-in: (1) unassisted flowback; (2) pumping above native methane gas hydrate stability conditions; and (3) pumping below the native methane gas hydrate stability conditions. Methane production occurred immediately after commencing unassisted flowback. Methane concentration increased from 0 to 40% while nitrogen and carbon dioxide concentrations decreased to 48 and 12% respectively. Pumping above the hydrate stability phase boundary produced gas with a methane concentration climbing above 80% while the carbon dioxide and nitrogen concentrations fell to 2 and 18% respectively. Pumping below the gas hydrate stability phase boundary occurred in two periods with the composition of the produced gases continually increasing in methane reaching an excess of 96%, along with carbon dioxide decreasing to <1% and nitrogen to ~3%. The isotopic composition of all the gases was monitored. Methane carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions remained stable throughout the test, while the carbon dioxide carbon became isotopically heavier. Nitrogen isotopic composition remained stable or became slightly isotopically depleted at the later phase of the test. These results imply that the produced methane was not isotopically fractionated, whereas carbon dioxide was fractionated becoming isotopically heavier at the end of each production phase. In addition, water samples were analyzed during the production phase documenting an increase in salinity.

Lorenson, T. D.; Collett, T. S.; Ignik Sikumi, S.

2012-12-01

392

Volatile organic compound emissions from unconventional natural gas production: Source signatures and air quality impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing over the past two decades have allowed access to previously unrecoverable reservoirs of natural gas and led to an increase in natural gas production. Intensive unconventional natural gas extraction has led to concerns about impacts on air quality. Unconventional natural gas production has the potential to emit vast quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. Many VOCs can be toxic, can produce ground-level ozone or secondary organic aerosols, and can impact climate. This dissertation presents the results of experiments designed to validate VOC measurement techniques, to quantify VOC emission rates from natural gas sources, to identify source signatures specific to natural gas emissions, and to quantify the impacts of these emissions on potential ozone formation and human health. Measurement campaigns were conducted in two natural gas production regions: the Denver-Julesburg Basin in northeast Colorado and the Marcellus Shale region surrounding Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. An informal measurement intercomparison validated the canister sampling methodology used throughout this dissertation for the measurement of oxygenated VOCs. Mixing ratios of many VOCs measured during both campaigns were similar to or higher than those observed in polluted cities. Fluxes of natural gas-associated VOCs in Colorado ranged from 1.5-3 times industry estimates. Similar emission ratios relative to propane were observed for C2-C6 alkanes in both regions, and an isopentane:n-pentane ratio ?1 was identified as a unique tracer for natural gas emissions. Source apportionment estimates indicated that natural gas emissions were responsible for the majority of C2-C8 alkanes observed in each region, but accounted for a small proportion of alkenes and aromatic compounds. Natural gas emissions in both regions accounted for approximately 20% of hydroxyl radical reactivity, which could hinder federal ozone standard compliance in downwind cities. A health risk assessment showed no increase in cancer or chronic non-cancer risk at locations near natural gas wells in Pennsylvania, but the contribution of natural gas emissions to total risk was 3-6 times higher near wells. These results will assist policy makers, natural gas producers, and citizen stakeholders in crafting effective policies to control VOC emissions from natural gas production activities.

Swarthout, Robert F.

393

Production of sulfur from sulfur dioxide obtained from flue gas  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a regenerable process for recovery of elemental sulfur from a gas containing sulfur dioxide comprising the steps of: contacting the gas with an aqueous, alkaline reaction medium containing sodium sulfite in concentration sufficient so that a slurry containing solid sodium sulfide is formed to react sulfur dioxide with sodium sulfite to form a solution containing dissolved sodium pyrosulfite and sodium sulfite; separating sulfur dioxide from the solution produced to leave a residual mixture containing water, sodium sulfite and a sodium pyrosulfite, the amount of sulfur dioxide separated being equal to about one-third the amount of sulfur dioxide which reacted with sodium sulfite; adding, in substantial absence of air, sufficient water and sodium bicarbonate to the residual mixture to react with the dissolved sodium pyrsulfide and form a slurry of solid sodium sulfite suspended in the resulting aqueous, alkaline reaction medium and gaseous carbon dioxide; separating the gaseous carbon dioxide; separating the solid sodium sulfite from the aqueous alkaline reaction medium and recycling the separated reaction medium; reducing the separated sodium sulfite to sodium sulfide; adding the sodium sulfide to an aqueous reaction medium containing sodium bicarbonate and, in the substantial absence of air, carbonating the resulting mixture with the gaseous carbon dioxide to form a slurry of solid particles of sodium bicarbonate dispersed in an aqueous reactor medium containing sodium bicarbonate, along with a gas composed primarily of hydrogen sulfide.

Miller, R.

1989-06-06

394

Life cycle assessment of the conventional and solar thermal production of zinc and synthesis gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current industrial productions of zinc and synthesis gas are characterized by their high energy consumption and their concomitant environmental pollution. Emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) could be reduced substantially by combining both productions and by replacing fossil fuels with concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat. The extent of such a GHG mitigation has been quantified

Miriam Werder; Aldo Steinfeld

2000-01-01

395

CO2 gas production understanding above a partly flooded coal post-mining area  

E-print Network

CO2 gas production understanding above a partly flooded coal post-mining area Candice Lagnya, a former coal mining area. To understand the origin of this production, a borehole of 90 meters deep located above a former coal mine associated with a rising water table. These variations are characterized

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

396

NITROGEN AND OTHER TRACE-GAS EMISSIONS FROM SWINE PRODUCTION IN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current storage, processing/recycling, and disposal techniques for wastes in animal production systems present a challenge to minimize negative impacts on air-quality and global change trace-gas losses to the environment. The use of animal wastes for biofuels production represents a potential to co...

397

Applied reaction dynamics: Efficient synthesis gas production via single collision partial oxidation of methane to CO on Rh(111)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supersonic molecular beams have been used to determine the yield of CO from the partial oxidation of CH4 on a Rh(111) catalytic substrate, CH4+(1/2)O2?CO +2H2, as a function of beam kinetic energy. These experiments were done under ultrahigh vacuum conditions with concurrent molecular beams of O2 and CH4, ensuring that there was only a single collision for the CH4 to react with the surface. The fraction of CH4 converted is strongly dependent on the normal component of the incident beam's translational energy, and approaches unity for energies greater than 1.3eV. Comparison with a simplified model of the methane-Rh(111) reactive potential gives insight into the barrier for methane dissociation. These results demonstrate the efficient conversion of methane to synthesis gas, CO +2H2, are of interest in hydrogen generation, and have the optimal stoichiometry for subsequent utilization in synthetic fuel production (Fischer-Tropsch or methanol synthesis). Moreover, under the reaction conditions explored, no CO2 was detected, i.e., the reaction proceeded with the production of very little, if any, unwanted greenhouse gas by-products. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of overcoming the limitations of purely thermal reaction mechanisms by coupling nonthermal mechanistic steps, leading to efficient C-H bond activation with subsequent thermal heterogeneous reactions.

Gibson, K. D.; Viste, M.; Sibener, S. J.

2006-10-01

398

Potential restrictions for CO2 sequestration sites due to shale and tight gas production.  

PubMed

Carbon capture and geological sequestration is the only available technology that both allows continued use of fossil fuels in the power sector and reduces significantly the associated CO(2) emissions. Geological sequestration requires a deep permeable geological formation into which captured CO(2)can be injected, and an overlying impermeable formation, called a caprock, that keeps the buoyant CO(2) within the injection formation. Shale formations typically have very low permeability and are considered to be good caprock formations. Production of natural gas from shale and other tight formations involves fracturing the shale with the explicit objective to greatly increase the permeability of the shale. As such, shale gas production is in direct conflict with the use of shale formations as a caprock barrier to CO(2) migration. We have examined the locations in the United States where deep saline aquifers, suitable for CO(2) sequestration, exist, as well as the locations of gas production from shale and other tight formations. While estimated sequestration capacity for CO(2) sequestration in deep saline aquifers is large, up to 80% of that capacity has areal overlap with potential shale-gas production regions and, therefore, could be adversely affected by shale and tight gas production. Analysis of stationary sources of CO(2) shows a similar effect: about two-thirds of the total emissions from these sources are located within 20 miles of a deep saline aquifer, but shale and tight gas production could affect up to 85% of these sources. These analyses indicate that colocation of deep saline aquifers with shale and tight gas production could significantly affect the sequestration capacity for CCS operations. This suggests that a more comprehensive management strategy for subsurface resource utilization should be developed. PMID:22352312

Elliot, T R; Celia, M A

2012-04-01

399

Fast-quench reactor for hydrogen and elemental carbon production from natural gas and other hydrocarbons  

DOEpatents

A fast-quench reactor for production of diatomic hydrogen and unsaturated carbons is provided. During the fast quench in the downstream diverging section of the nozzle, such as in a free expansion chamber, the unsaturated hydrocarbons are further decomposed by reheating the reactor gases. More diatomic hydrogen is produced, along with elemental carbon. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The product is a substantially clean-burning hydrogen fuel that leaves no greenhouse gas emissions, and elemental carbon that may be used in powder form as a commodity for several processes.

Detering, Brent A.; Kong, Peter C.

2006-08-29

400

Method and apparatus for natural gas and thermal energy production from aquifers  

SciTech Connect

A novel method for producing methane from geopressured aquifers offers advantages over other techniques: 1) the natural gas is produced water-free at the wellhead, 2) less heat is lost during exsolution and expansion of natural gas in the water as it rises in the wellbore and passes through turbines and heat exchangers at the land surface, 3) most of the heat required for exsolution and lost in expansion of the natural gas as it moves to the wellbore is supplied by the aquifer rock matrix of the gas reservoir, 4) the mechanical efficiency of fluid-handling equipment is much improved, and 5) gas-depleted geothermal waters of the reservoir can be produced subsequently through the same wells, at wellhead temperatures only slightly below reservoir temperatures. In this production system, the gas and hot water flow to the wellhead separately - the gas through an annulus between the well casing and a water eductor pipe, and the hot saline water though the eductor pipe, which is coated to reduce friction and prevent corrosion. The eductor pipe is supported at the wellhead to allow changing the depth setting without shutting in the well or restricting the discharge of fluids from the well. This permits the bottom of the pipe to be maintained below the gas-water interface or raised to allow gas flow into the pipe under maximum gas yield conditions.

Jones, P.A.

1982-11-16

401

Effects of preservation conditions of canine feces on in vitro gas production kinetics and fermentation end products.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of chilling and freezing (for 24 h) canine feces on in vitro gas production kinetics and fermentation end product profiles from carbohydrate-rich (in vitro run 1) and protein-rich (in vitro run 2) substrates. Feces were collected from 3 adult retriever-type dogs fed a canned diet for at least 2 wk. Each fecal sample was divided into 3 portions: 1 portion was used immediately as an inoculum (fresh) and the other 2 portions were used after either chilling to 5C for 30 min and storage in crushed ice for 23.5 h (chilling) or freezing to -20C for 30 min and storage in a prefrozen (-20C) container for 23.5 h (freezing). The medium solution for run 1 contained N whereas that for run 2 was N free. Substrates included fructooligosaccharide (FOS), sugar beet pulp, and wheat middlings in run 1 and soybean meal, poultry meat meal, and feather meal in run 2. Gas production kinetics were calculated from cumulative gas production data measured for 72 h. After incubation, fermentation liquids were analyzed for short-chain fatty acids, NH3, and aromatic compounds. For both in vitro runs, chilling feces did not affect gas production kinetics and end product profiles of substrates compared with inocula from fresh feces. Freezing feces decreased the maximum rate of gas production in phase 2 for FOS (P<0.001) and across substrates increased gas produced (P?0.005) and time of maximum gas production in phase 2 (P<0.001). Furthermore, compared with fresh fecal inocula, inocula from frozen feces resulted in increased overall indole concentrations in run 1 (P=0.006) and indole concentrations from soybean meal and poultry meat meal in run 2 (P<0.001). In run 2, phenol concentrations were greater (P=0.015) for frozen feces than for fresh feces (P=0.015). In conclusion, freezing canine feces for 24 h slightly altered fermentative characteristics of fecal inoculum whereas chilling feces in crushed ice for 24 h maintained fermentative characteristics. Chilling feces in crushed ice is a practical method to preserve feces during transport between laboratories within 24 h for in vitro fermentation studies evaluating dietary ingredients. PMID:23048150

Bosch, G; Wrigglesworth, D J; Cone, J W; Pellikaan, W F; Hendriks, W H

2013-01-01

402

Co-production well test of the CBS Unit No. 1 well Mt. Selman Gas Field, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project was designed to obtain technical data on the mechanism of co-production of gas and water. Primary production from the Mt. Selman field started in 1956 and extended until 1971, during which a total of 7.7 BCF of natural gas had been produced. Secondary Gas Recovery, Inc. acquired leases to the abandoned field in February 1983. Reentry of one

Foh

1985-01-01

403

Products from pyrolysis of gas-phase propionaldehyde.  

PubMed

A hyperthermal nozzle was utilized to study the thermal decomposition of propionaldehyde, CH3CH2CHO, over a temperature range of 1073-1600 K. Products were identified with two detection methods: matrix-isolation Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and photoionization mass spectrometry. Evidence was observed for four reactions during the breakdown of propionaldehyde: ?-C-C bond scission yielding CH3CH2, CO, and H, an elimination reaction forming methylketene and H2, an isomerization pathway leading to propyne via the elimination of H2O, and a ?-C-C bond scission channel forming methyl radical and ()CH2CHO. The products identified during this experiment were CO, HCO, CH3CH2, CH3CH?C?O, H2O, CH3C?CH, CH3, H2C?C?O, CH2CH2, CH3CH?CH2, HC?CH, CH2CCH, H2CO, C4H2, C4H4, and CH3CHO. The first eight products result from primary or bimolecular reactions involving propionaldehyde while the remaining products occur from reactions including the initial pyrolysis products. While the pyrolysis of propionaldehyde involves reactions similar to those observed for acetaldehyde and butyraldehyde in recent studies, there are a few unique products observed which highlight the need for further study of the pyrolysis mechanism. PMID:25526259

Warner, Brian J; Wright, Emily M; Foreman, Hannah E; Wellman, Courtney D; McCunn, Laura R

2015-01-01

404

Overview of the 2006-2008 JOGMEC/NRCan/Aurora Mallik Gas Hydrate Production Test Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the winters of 2007 and 2008 the Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC) and Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), with Aurora Research Institute as the operator, carried out an on-shore gas hydrate production test program at the Mallik site, Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada. The prime objective of the program was to verify the feasibility of depressurization technique by drawing down the formation pressure across a 12m perforated gas hydrate bearing section. This project was the second full scale production test at this site following the 2002 Japex/JNOC/GSC et al Mallik research program in which seven participants organizatinos from five countries undertook a thermal test using hot water circulation Field work in 2007 was devoted to establishing a production test well, installing monitoring devices outside of casing, conducting base line geophysical studies and undertaking a short test to gain practical experience prior to longer term testing planned for 2008 . Hydrate-dissociated gas was produced to surface by depressurization achieved by lowering the fluid level with a dowhole pump. However, the operation was terminated 60 hours after the start of the pumping mainly due to sand production problems. In spite of the short period (12.5 hours of ellapsed pumping time), at least 830m3 of the gas was produced and accumulated in the borehole. Sand screens were installed across the perforated interval at the bottom hole for the 2008 program to overcome operational problems encountered in 2007 and achieve sustainable gas production. Stable bottom hole flowing pressures were successfully achieved during a 6 day test with continuous pump operation. Sustained gas production was achieved with rates between 2000- 4000m3/day and cummulative gas volume in the surface of approximately 13,000m3. Temperature and pressure data measured at the bottom hole and gas and water production rates gave positive evidence for the high efficiency of gas production through depressurization method. Pre and post produciton testing geophysical logging program, geochemical analyses and monitoring tools outside of the casing also derived the supporting data for the formation responses to the depressurization. Acknowledgements: METI, MH21, JOGMEC and NRCan, Government of NWT, 2002 partners, IPM, R&D team members.

Yamamoto, K.; Dallimore, S. R.

2008-12-01

405

SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT IN THE MID-CONTINENT  

SciTech Connect

Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: (1) Continued coordinating the final selection of candidates and field implementation with Oneok. Oneok plans on performing the operations early in 2003.

Scott Reeves

2003-03-01

406

SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT IN THE MID-CONTINENT  

SciTech Connect

Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: (1) Began preparing final project report, less the field implementation component. (2) Coordinated the final selection of candidates and field implementation with Oneok.

Scott Reeves

2003-03-01

407

SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT IN THE MID-CONTINENT  

SciTech Connect

Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: (1) The contract was signed on August 20, 2000. Little work has been performed other than preliminary planning to get the project underway.

Scott Reeves

2003-03-01

408

SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT IN THE MID-CONTINENT  

SciTech Connect

Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: Continued coordinating the final selection of candidates and field implementation with Oneok. Oneok plans on performing the operations early in 2003.

Scott Reeves

2003-04-01

409

Exploring the Collective Spin--Isospin Longitudinal Response of Nuclei with Coherent Pion Production in (3He, t? +).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SATURNE charge-exchange program explored the spin-isospin response of nuclei in the ? region. New results on coherent pion production are presented. They give a precise measure of the spin longitudinal component of this response. This component is particularly interesting since theoretical models predict that attractive residual ? -hole correlations in the longitudinal channel (pion exchange) softens the response.

Boyard, J. L.; Farhi, L.; Hennino, T.; Jourdain, J. C.; Kunne, R.; Radvanyi, P.; Ramstein, B.; Roy-Stephan, M.; Dahl, R.; Drews, M.; Ellegaard, C.; Gaarde, C.; Jensen, J.; Larsen, J.; Skousen, M.; Kagarlis, M. A.; Augustyniak, W.; Zupranski, P.

2000-10-01

410

Exploring Global Patterns in Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production Using Earth Observation Satellites and Statistical Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique combination of satellite and socio-economic data were used to explore the relationship between human consumption and the carbon cycle. Biophysical models were applied to consumption data to estimate the annual amount of Earth's terrestrial net primary production humans require for food, fiber and fuel using the same modeling architecture as satellite-supported NPP measurements. The amount of Earth's NPP

M. Imhoff; L. Bounoua

2004-01-01

411

A product of his time? Exploring the construct of the ideal manager in the Cold War era  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the idea that the ideal manager is a social construct that is a product of the context within which it exists. The context chosen to illustrate this idea is that of the first two decades of the Cold War (1945-1965) in the USA. Design\\/methodology\\/approach The methodology used is an

Patricia Genoe McLaren; Albert J. Mills

2008-01-01

412

Production of Gas Bubbles in Reduced Gravity Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a wide variety of applications such as waste water treatment, biological reactors, gas-liquid reactors, blood oxygenation, purification of liquids, etc., it is necessary to produce small bubbles in liquids. Since gravity plays an essential role in currently available techniques, the adaptation of these applications to space requires the development of new tools. Under normal gravity, bubbles are typically generated by forcing gas through an orifice in a liquid. When a growing bubble becomes large enough, the buoyancy dominates the surface tension force causing it to detach from the orifice. In space, the process is quite different and the bubble may remain attached to the orifice indefinitely. The most practical approach to simulating gravity seems to be imposing an ambient flow to force bubbles out of the orifice. In this paper, we are interested in the effect of an imposed flow in 0 and 1 g. Specifically, we investigate the process of bubble formation subject to a parallel and a cross flow. In the case of parallel flow, we have a hypodermic needle in a tube from which bubbles can be produced. On the other hand, the cross flow condition is established by forcing bubbles through an orifice on a wall in a shear flow. The first series of experiments have been performed under normal gravity conditions and the working fluid was water. A high quality microgravity facility has been used for the second type and silicone oil is used as the host liquid.

Oguz, Hasan N.; Takagi, Shu; Misawa, Masaki

1996-01-01

413

Impacts of Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Production on Regional Air Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural gas is a clean burning alternative to other fossil fuels, producing lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions during combustion. Gas deposits located within shale rock or tight sand formations are difficult to access using conventional drilling techniques. However, horizontal drilling coupled with hydraulic fracturing is now widely used to enhance natural gas extraction. Potential environmental impacts of these practices are currently being assessed because of the rapid expansion of natural gas production in the U.S. Natural gas production has contributed to the deterioration of air quality in several regions, such as in Wyoming and Utah, that were near or downwind of natural gas basins. We conducted a field campaign in southwestern Pennsylvania on 16-18 June 2012 to investigate the impact of gas production operations in the Marcellus Shale on regional air quality. A total of 235 whole air samples were collected in 2-liter electropolished stainless- steel canisters throughout southwestern Pennsylvania in a regular grid pattern that covered an area of approximately 8500 square km. Day and night samples were collected at each grid point and additional samples were collected near active wells, flaring wells, fluid retention reservoirs, transmission pipelines, and a processing plant to assess the influence of different stages of the gas production operation on emissions. The samples were analyzed at Appalachian State University for methane (CH4), CO2, C2-C10 nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), C1-C2 halocarbons, C1-C5 alkyl nitrates and selected reduced sulfur compounds. In-situ measurements of ozone (O3), CH4, CO2, nitric oxide (NO), total reactive nitrogen (NOy), formaldehyde (HCHO), and a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were carried out at an upwind site and a site near active gas wells using a mobile lab. Emissions associated with gas production were observed throughout the study region. Elevated mixing ratios of CH4 and CO2 were observed in the southwest and northeast portions of the study area indicating multiple emission sources. We also present comparisons of VOC fingerprints observed in the Marcellus Shale to our previous observations of natural gas emissions from the Denver-Julesburg Basin in northeast Colorado to identify tracers for these different natural gas sources.

Swarthout, R.; Russo, R. S.; Zhou, Y.; Mitchell, B.; Miller, B.; Lipsky, E. M.; Sive, B. C.

2012-12-01

414

An air quality emission inventory of offshore operations for the exploration and production of petroleum by the Mexican oil industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An air quality screening study was performed to assess the impacts of emissions from the offshore operations of the oil and gas exploration and production by Mexican industry in the Campeche Sound, which includes the states of Tabasco and Campeche in southeast Mexico. The major goal of this study was the compilation of an emission inventory (EI) for elevated, boom and ground level flares, processes, internal combustion engines and fugitive emissions. This inventory is so far the most comprehensive emission register that has ever been developed for the Mexican petroleum industry in this area. The EI considered 174 offshore platforms, the compression station at Atasta, and the Maritime Ports at Dos Bocas and Cayo Arcas. The offshore facilities identified as potential emitters in the area were the following: (1) trans-shipment stations, (2) a maritime floating port terminal, (3) drilling platforms, (4) crude oil recovering platforms, (5) crude oil production platforms, (6) linking platforms, (7) water injection platforms, (8) pumping platforms, (9) shelter platforms, (10) telecommunication platforms, (11) crude oil measurement platforms, and (12) flaring platforms. Crude oil storage tanks, helicopters and marine ship tankers were also considered to have an EI accurate enough for air quality regulations and mesoscale modeling of atmospheric pollutants. Historical ambient data measure at two onshore petroleum facilities were analyzed to measure air quality impacts on nearby inhabited coastal areas, and a source-receptor relationship for flares at the Ixtoc marine complex was performed to investigate health-based standards for offshore workers. A preliminary air quality model simulation was performed to observe the transport and dispersion patterns of SO 2, which is the main pollutant emitted from the offshore platforms. The meteorological wind and temperature fields were generated with CALMET, a diagnostic meteorological model that used surface observations and upper air soundings from a 4-day field campaign conducted in February of 1999. The CALMET meteorological output and the generated EI drove the transport and dispersion model, CALPUFF. Model results were compared with SO 2 measurements taken from the monitoring network at Dos Bocas.

Villasenor, R.; Magdaleno, M.; Quintanar, A.; Gallardo, J. C.; Lpez, M. T.; Jurado, R.; Miranda, A.; Aguilar, M.; Melgarejo, L. A.; Palmern, E.; Vallejo, C. J.; Barchet, W. R.

415

76 FR 13431 - Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in Designated Areas Not Associated With an...prices for all designated areas not associated with an...date of this notice. Gas Major Portion Prices ($/MMBtu) for Designated Areas Not Associated With...

2011-03-11

416

75 FR 22159 - Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in Designated Areas Not Associated With an...prices for all designated areas not associated with an...date of this notice. Gas Major Portion Prices ($/MMBtu) for Designated Areas Not Associated With...

2010-04-27

417

78 FR 14834 - Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in Designated Areas Not Associated With an...prices for all designated areas not associated with an...date of this notice. Gas Major Portion Prices ($/MMBtu) for Designated Areas Not Associated With...

2013-03-07

418

Exploring states of matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will simultate the 3 states of matter; followed by the online quiz. 1. Explore the solids animation. ice 2. Explore the water animation. water animation 3. Explore the gas animation. gas animation 4. Explore comparing the 3 states of matter. compare 3 state Take the quiz. quiz ...

Mrs. Connerley

2010-10-26

419

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY NATURAL GAS STEAM REFORMING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concern with sustainable development has been taking to a constant improvement in the tools for environmental management. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systematic analytical method that helps identify and evaluate the environmental impacts of process, product or activity processes. In order to quantify the emissions, resource consumption, and energy use, material and energy balances are performed in a

J. Cintra da Silva

420

METHANOL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS AND NATURAL GAS AS TRANSPORTATION FUEL  

EPA Science Inventory

Two processes are examined for production of methanol. They are assessed against the essential requirements of a future alternative fuel for road transport: that it (i) is producible in amounts comparable to the 19 EJ of motor fuel annually consumed in the U.S., (ii) minimizes em...

421

Pulsed power production of ozone using nonthermal gas discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses ozone synthesis by employing a short duration (\\\\?120 ns) of pulsed power and using positive voltages in dry air and in oxygen, with and without a dielectric barrier. Ozone concentration and ozone production yield (efficiency) are measured at various peak pulsed voltages, pulse repetition rates, varying input energy densities, and different gaseous gap spacings.

W. J. M. Samaranayake; E. Namihira; S. Katsuki; Y. Miyahara; T. Sakugawa; R. Hackam; H. Akiyama

2001-01-01

422

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products use on agricultural land  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over half of the electricity used in the U.S. is presently produced by burning coal. Currently 114 m mt/year of coal combustion by products (CCP) are produced when coal is burned for generation of electricity. Only about 43% of CCPs currently produced in the U.S. are utilized. Opportunities should b...

423

Gas cooking, kitchen ventilation, and exposure to combustion products.  

PubMed

We evaluated a questionnaire-based system for classifying homes into groups with distinctly different chances of accumulating combustion products from cooking appliances. The system was based on questions about type of cooking appliance, type and use of ventilation provisions, and kitchen size. Real-time measurements were made of CO, CO(2), temperature, and water vapor, and passive sampling was performed of nitrogen oxides, over a week-long period in 74 kitchens. During the measurements, inhabitants kept a diary to record appliance use time and use of ventilation provisions. The questionnaire-based and diary-based home classifications for the 'Chance of Accumulation of Combustion Products' (CACP) turned out to agree fairly well. For CO(2) as well as for CO a significant difference between the 'high' and 'low' CACP groups was found for the mean accumulation in the kitchen during cooking of the combustion generated concentrations. These facts are considered to be important experimental evidence of the CACP stratification being valid for our study population. In the homes studied, NO(2) as well as CO concentrations were found to be lower compared with previous studies in The Netherlands. Practical Implications Previous studies on indoor combustion product dispersal conducted in the early- to mid-1980s in the Netherlands showed much higher NO(2) and CO concentrations than the present study. Apparently, the removal of combustion products formed during cooking is more efficient in the (mostly newer) homes that we studied than in the homes studied in the early- to mid-1980s. More detailed knowledge of kitchen situations is needed to improve the CACP model. Future studies can achieve this by using questionnaires on the kitchen situation, diaries and real-time measurements of the combustion products under consideration. PMID:16420499

Willers, S M; Brunekreef, B; Oldenwening, M; Smit, H A; Kerkhof, M; Vries, H

2006-02-01

424

Exploring separated gas-magma flows in basaltic volcanoes using analogue experiments at a range of scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decoupling of magmatic gas from magma during transport to the surface may result in cyclical and unsteady flow of magma within basaltic conduits. These flows are characterized by low-intensity, impulsive explosions which may recur rhythmically for long periods of time. We present the results of scaled analogue experiments which elucidate the separated flow processes which underpin such eruptions. Experiments are conducted in liquid-filled vertical pipes ranging from 0.02 to 0.2 m in diameter, and 2 to 12 m in height, allowing us to investigate Reynolds numbers 10-3 < Re < 105, encompassing the natural range for volcanoes. The chief novelty of this study is that we explore the role played by the boundary conditions at the top and at the bottom of the pipe: i) the top of the conduit is either plugged, rheologically impeded, or open; ii) the base of the conduit is either closed (zero flux) or held at constant pressure. This latter condition mimics the presence of a magma chamber at the lower end of the conduit. Our study combines the direct observation of in-conduit fluid dynamic processes with measured pressure variations inside and outside the pipe. Our results illustrate that changing boundary conditions dramatically affects the degree of overpressure acquired by the decoupled gas phase during ascent and, consequently, the explosivity of the eruption. We place our results in the context of field observations and data from Stromboli, and discuss the insights afforded by our experiments into the shallow expansion/explosion dynamics and the interpretation of seismo-acoustic signals.

Del Bello, E.; Llewellin, E. W.; Taddeucci, J.; Scarlato, P.; Lane, S. J.; James, M. R.

2012-12-01

425

Gas-Phase Production of Titanium Nitride and Carbide Powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bureau of Mines investigated a procedure to produce fine-sized titanium nitride, carbide, and carbonitride powders. These powders, because of their high hardness and abrasion resistance, can be substituted for tungsten carbide in some cutting tool applications. Titanium nitride and carbide powders can be cemented together with nickel. The investigated approach produces titanium nitride by reducing titanium tetrachloride with magnesium or sodium vapor in a nitrogen atmosphere at temperatures between 750 and 1,050C (1,382 and 1,922F). Titanium carbide and titanium carbonitride can be formed by adding methane to the nitrogen atmosphere. Titanium tetrachloride reduction efficiencies as high as 98% are achieved. X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the powders contain no major impurities. Because the reactions occur in the gas phase, powders finer than 1 ?m are produced.

Harbuck, Donna D.; Davidson, Charles F.; Shirts, Monte B.

1986-09-01

426

Neutron Production in Deuterium Gas-Puff Z-Pinch Implosions on Refurbished Z  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier experiments with deuterium gas puff implosions on Z [Coverdale et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 022706 and 056309 (2007)] demonstrated reproducible production of high neutron yields, up to 3x10^13, a large part of which might be of thermonuclear origin. We report a scoping study for such experiments on refurbished Z which can implode deuterium gas-puff loads at high-current, longer pulse

R. W. Clark; A. L. Velikovich; J. Davis; J. L. Giuliani; C. A. Coverdale; D. Flicker

2009-01-01

427

Double Gas Puff Z-Pinch with Axial Magnetic Field for K-Shell Radiation Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A double gas puff with a solid fill inner shell and an annular outer shell with axial magnetic field is proposed as a possible load configuration for a plasma radiation source for K-shell radiation production of high-Z materials. This load configuration is investigated in the experiments with neon gas puffs on the IMRI-5 generator (400 kA, 430 ns) and with

Alexander V. Shishlov; Rina B. Baksht; Stanislav A. Chaikovsky; Aleksey Yu. Labetsky; Vladimir I. Oreshkin; Alexander G. Rousskikh; Anatoly V. Fedunin

2002-01-01

428

Workbook for prioritizing petroleum industry exploration and production sites for remediation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Workbook is to provide a screening-level method for prioritizing petroleum exploration and production sites for remediation that is based on readily available information, but which does not require a full characterization of the sites being evaluated. The process draws heavily from the Canadian National Classification System for Contaminated Sites, and fits into the framework for ecological risk assessment provided in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Using this approach, scoring guidelines are provided for a number of Evaluation Factors relating to: (1) the contaminants present at the site; (2) the potential exposure pathways for these contaminants; and (3) the potential receptors of those contaminants. The process therefore incorporates a risk-based corrective action (RBCA) framework to estimate the relative threat posed by a site to human health and to ecological systems. Physical (non-toxic) disturbance factors have also been incorporated into the process. It should also be noted that the process described in this Workbook has not yet been field tested at petroleum E and P sites. The first logical step in the field testing of this process is to apply the method at a small number of sites to assess the availability of the information that is needed to score each evaluation factor. Following this evaluation, the Workbook process should be applied at a series of sites to determine the effectiveness of the process at ranking sites according to their relative need for remediation. Upon completion of these tests, the Workbook should be revised to reflect the findings of the field tests.

White, G.J.

1998-08-03

429

Cryogenic gas target system for intense RI beam productions in nuclear astrophysics  

SciTech Connect

A cryogenic gas target system was newly developed to produce intense RI beams at the low-energy in-flight radio-isotope beam separator (CRIB) of the University of Tokyo. The main features of the cryogenic gas target system are the direct cooling of the target cell by a liquid N{sub 2} finger and the circulation of the target gas that goes through the liquid N{sub 2} tank. Hydrogen gas was cooled down to 85-90 K by liquid nitrogen and used as a secondary beam production target which has a thickness of 2.3 mg/cm{sup 2} at the gas pressure of 760 Torr. Intense RI beams, such as a {sup 7}Be beam of 2x10{sup 8} particles per second, were successfully produced using the target.

Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Kurihara, Y.; Amadio, G.; Fujikawa, H.; Kubono, S. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo (Japan); Binh, D. N. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo (Japan); Institute of Physics and Electronics, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (Viet Nam); He, J. J. [School of Physics, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Kim, A. [Department of Physics, Ewha Womans University (Korea, Republic of)

2008-05-21

430

UK Oil and Gas Collaborative Doctoral Training Centre (2014 start) Project Title: Are non-marine organic-rich shales suitable exploration targets?  

E-print Network

UK Oil and Gas Collaborative Doctoral Training Centre (2014 start) Project Title: Are non-marine organic-rich shales suitable exploration targets? (EARTH-15-SR2) Host institution: University of Oxford Supervisor 1: Stuart Robinson Supervisor 2: Steve Hesselbo (University of Exeter) Project description: Shales

Henderson, Gideon

431

LOW COST METHODOLOGIES TO ANALYZE AND CORRECT ABNORMAL PRODUCTION DECLINE IN STRIPPER GAS WELLS  

SciTech Connect

A study group of 376 Clinton Sand wells in Ohio provided data to determine the historic frequency of the problem of abnormal production declines in stripper gas wells and the causes of the abnormal production decline. Analysis of the historic frequency of the problem indicates over 70% of the wells experienced abnormal production decline. The most frequently occurring causes of abnormal production declines were determined to be fluid accumulation (46%), g