Science.gov

Sample records for gas exploration production

  1. Environmental issues in international oil and gas exploration and production

    SciTech Connect

    Kotvis, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    These days everyone in the oil and gas industry in the United States is familiar with the complex overlay of the seemingly infinite federal and state agencies claiming jurisdiction over oil and gas exploration and production and the associated operations. Although exemptions exist under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for wastes associated with the exploration, development or production of crude oil or gas, and petroleum and natural gas are excluded from regulation under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation Liability Act (CERCLA), recent case law continues to dilute the exemptions under RCRA and CERCLA. Furthermore, other byproducts of oil and gas exploration and production are increasingly being regulated under these statutes and other federal and state statutes.

  2. Environmental Compliance for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Christine

    1999-10-26

    The Appalachian/Illinois Basin Directors is a group devoted to increasing communication among the state oil and gas regulatory agencies within the Appalachian and Illinois Basin producing region. The group is comprised of representatives from the oil and gas regulatory agencies from states in the basin (Attachment A). The directors met to discuss regulatory issues common to the area, organize workshops and seminars to meet the training needs of agencies dealing with the uniqueness of their producing region and perform other business pertinent to this area of oil and gas producing states. The emphasis of the coordinated work was a wide range of topics related to environmental compliance for natural gas and oil exploration and production.

  3. Environmental benefits of advanced oil and gas exploration and production technology

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    THROUGHOUT THE OIL AND GAS LIFE CYCLE, THE INDUSTRY HAS APPLIED AN ARRAY OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES TO IMPROVE EFFICIENCY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE. THIS REPORT FOCUSES SPECIFICALLY ON ADVANCES IN EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION (E&P) OPERATIONS.

  4. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: Areas of Historical Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biewick, Laura R.H.

    2008-01-01

    This report contains maps and associated spatial data showing historical oil and gas exploration and production in the United States. Because of the proprietary nature of many oil and gas well databases, the United States was divided into cells one-quarter square mile and the production status of all wells in a given cell was aggregated. Base-map reference data are included, using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Map, the USGS and American Geological Institute (AGI) Global GIS, and a World Shaded Relief map service from the ESRI Geography Network. A hardcopy map was created to synthesize recorded exploration data from 1859, when the first oil well was drilled in the U.S., to 2005. In addition to the hardcopy map product, the data have been refined and made more accessible through the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. The cell data are included in a GIS database constructed for spatial analysis via the USGS Internet Map Service or by importing the data into GIS software such as ArcGIS. The USGS internet map service provides a number of useful and sophisticated geoprocessing and cartographic functions via an internet browser. Also included is a video clip of U.S. oil and gas exploration and production through time.

  5. An overview of oil and gas exploration and production waste issues

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, M.M.

    1995-12-31

    The petroleum exclusion of CERCLA and the drilling fluids exemption of RCRA were both created in 1980 to provide the oil and gas exploration and production industry with ample protection from excessive federal environmental regulation. Over the last 15 years, federal court decisions, EPA`s administration of these programs, and state regulatory actions have substantially reduced the scope of these two provisions. This presentation will explore the original intent of CERCLA`s petroleum exclusion and RCRA`s drilling fluids exemption, and how this original intent is at odds with subsequent EPA and judicial interpretation of these provisions. The presentation will conclude with an assessment of the current scope of the petroleum exclusion and the drilling fluids exemption, including a (cautious) prediction of the direction that federal and state policy governing exploration and production wastes is likely to take in the next few years.

  6. English-Spanish glossary: offshore exploration and production, gas processing, and valves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This series of articles contains 3 different English-Spanish glossaries of related terms used in the oil industry. The glossary of the offshore exploration and production involves a summary of terms used in the offshore oil activity. It also includes names of singular equipment used in offshore drilling, as well as several navigation terms in relation to the floating oil structures. With the help of the Gas Processors Association it was possible to compile a glossary of gas processing with a concise selection of common terms of the industry of gas processing. The glossary of valves includes more than 200 terms of the industry of valves in a specialized glossary, and several explanations about the application and operation of valves.

  7. An overview of regulations for offshore oil and gas exploration and production in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, M.

    1994-12-31

    Many American oil companies have participated in Chinese offshore oil and gas development in recent years and will continue to do so. Very often American oil companies that pursue joint development programs with the Chinese oil firms are responsible for engineering and construction execution and facility operation. To fulfill the responsibilities, the American oil companies need to design, construct, install and operate an offshore facility in compliance with relevant Chinese offshore oil and gas development regulations. This article provides an overview of current Chinese regulations for offshore oil and gas exploration and production as well as highlights on some specific requirements imposed by the Chinese regulations, especially in environmental protection and safety areas. This article also discusses permitting requirements and mandatory approvals by the Chinese government. Other discussions include how to achieve compliance through sound strategy, thorough understanding and good planning.

  8. Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Thoma; John Veil; Fred Limp; Jackson Cothren; Bruce Gorham; Malcolm Williamson; Peter Smith; Bob Sullivan

    2009-05-31

    This report describes work performed during the initial period of the project 'Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems.' The specific region that is within the scope of this study is the Fayetteville Shale Play. This is an unconventional, tight formation, natural gas play that currently has approximately 1.5 million acres under lease, primarily to Southwestern Energy Incorporated and Chesapeake Energy Incorporated. The currently active play encompasses a region from approximately Fort Smith, AR east to Little Rock, AR approximately 50 miles wide (from North to South). The initial estimates for this field put it almost on par with the Barnett Shale play in Texas. It is anticipated that thousands of wells will be drilled during the next several years; this will entail installation of massive support infrastructure of roads and pipelines, as well as drilling fluid disposal pits and infrastructure to handle millions of gallons of fracturing fluids. This project focuses on gas production in Arkansas as the test bed for application of proactive risk management decision support system for natural gas exploration and production. The activities covered in this report include meetings with representative stakeholders, development of initial content and design for an educational web site, and development and preliminary testing of an interactive mapping utility designed to provide users with information that will allow avoidance of sensitive areas during the development of the Fayetteville Shale Play. These tools have been presented to both regulatory and industrial stakeholder groups, and their feedback has been incorporated into the project.

  9. Airborne Measurements of Emissions from Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Activities in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Roiger, A.; Raut, J.; Rose, M.; Weinzierl, B.; Reiter, A.; Thomas, J. L.; Marelle, L.; Law, K.; Schlager, H.

    2013-12-01

    A rapid decline of Arctic sea ice is expected to promote hydrocarbon extraction in the Arctic, which in turn will increase emissions of atmospheric pollutants. To investigate impacts of different pollution sources on the Arctic atmosphere, an aircraft campaign based in northern Norway was conducted in July 2012, as a part of the EU ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change Economy and Society) project. One of the flights focused on measuring emissions from various oil/gas exploration and production facilities ~110 km south of the Arctic Circle in the Norwegian Sea. Fresh and aged (from 5 minutes to 2.5 hours old) exhaust plumes from oil/gas production platforms, drilling rigs and tankers were probed with extensive aerosol and trace gas instrumentations. It was found that different types of facilities emit plumes with distinct chemical compositions. For example, tanker plumes were characterized by high SO2 concentration and high fraction of non-volatile particles while plumes from oil/gas production platforms showed significant increase in the nucleation mode particle concentration. Drilling rigs were found to be high black carbon emitters. In addition to the fresh plumes, relatively aged plumes (1.5 - 2.5 hours old) from a facility under development were measured. Even in these aged plumes, total particle concentrations were more than 6 times higher than the background concentration. Therefore, emissions from oil and gas activities are expected to have a significant impact on local air quality and atmospheric composition. With the aid of FLEXPART-WRF (a Lagrangian dispersion model) simulations, the results of this study will be used to validate and improve current emission inventories. In the future, these improved emission inventories can be used in regional and global chemical transport models to more accurately predict future Arctic air pollution.

  10. Offsite commercial disposal of oil and gas exploration and production waste :availability, options, and cost.

    SciTech Connect

    Puder, M. G.; Veil, J. A.

    2006-09-05

    A survey conducted in 1995 by the American Petroleum Institute (API) found that the U.S. exploration and production (E&P) segment of the oil and gas industry generated more than 149 million bbl of drilling wastes, almost 18 billion bbl of produced water, and 21 million bbl of associated wastes. The results of that survey, published in 2000, suggested that 3% of drilling wastes, less than 0.5% of produced water, and 15% of associated wastes are sent to offsite commercial facilities for disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) collected information on commercial E&P waste disposal companies in different states in 1997. While the information is nearly a decade old, the report has proved useful. In 2005, Argonne began collecting current information to update and expand the data. This report describes the new 2005-2006 database and focuses on the availability of offsite commercial disposal companies, the prevailing disposal methods, and estimated disposal costs. The data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, state oil and gas regulatory officials in 31 states were contacted to determine whether their agency maintained a list of permitted commercial disposal companies dedicated to oil. In the second stage, individual commercial disposal companies were interviewed to determine disposal methods and costs. The availability of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities falls into three categories. The states with high oil and gas production typically have a dedicated network of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities in place. In other states, such an infrastructure does not exist and very often, commercial disposal companies focus on produced water services. About half of the states do not have any industry-specific offsite commercial disposal infrastructure. In those states, operators take their wastes to local municipal landfills if permitted or haul the wastes to other states. This report provides state-by-state summaries of the types of offsite commercial disposal facilities that are found in each state. In later sections, data are presented by waste type and then by disposal method.

  11. Framework for managing wastes from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) sites.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-09-15

    Oil and gas companies operate in many countries around the world. Their exploration and production (E&P) operations generate many kinds of waste that must be carefully and appropriately managed. Some of these wastes are inherently part of the E&P process; examples are drilling wastes and produced water. Other wastes are generic industrial wastes that are not unique to E&P activities, such as painting wastes and scrap metal. Still other wastes are associated with the presence of workers at the site; these include trash, food waste, and laundry wash water. In some host countries, mature environmental regulatory programs are in place that provide for various waste management options on the basis of the characteristics of the wastes and the environmental settings of the sites. In other countries, the waste management requirements and authorized options are stringent, even though the infrastructure to meet the requirements may not be available yet. In some cases, regulations and/or waste management infrastructure do not exist at all. Companies operating in these countries can be confronted with limited and expensive waste management options.

  12. Options, methods, and costs for offsite commercial disposal of oil and gas exploration and production wastes.

    SciTech Connect

    Puder, M. G.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division; Loyola Univ. Law School

    2007-12-01

    In the United States, most exploration and production (E&P) wastes generated at onshore oil and gas wells--contaminated soils, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), oil-based muds and cuttings, produced water, tank bottoms, and water-based muds and cuttings--are disposed of or otherwise managed at the well site. Some of these E&P wastes, however, are not suitable for onsite management, and some well locations in sensitive environments cannot be used for onsite management. In these situations, operators must find offsite waste-disposal solutions. Responding to this need, offsite commercial disposal facilities are businesses that charge a fee for accepting and managing E&P wastes generated by others. Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE), the authors of this paper assembled a unique set of data covering options, methods, and costs for offsite disposal of E&P wastes in the United States (Puder and Veil 2006a). Data were collected for more than 200 disposal facilities. This paper describes the project and the findings, which were published in September 2006.

  13. Gas pipe explorer robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A gas pipe explorer formed of a plurality of connecting elements, and an articulation element between the connected elements. The connected elements include drive capabilities, and the articulation element allows the connected elements to traverse gas pipes of arbitrary shapes and sizes. A sensor may sends the characteristics of the gas pipe, and the communication element may send back those sends characteristics. The communication can be wired, over a tether connecting the device to a remote end. Alternatively, the connection can be wireless, driven by either a generator or a battery.

  14. Devonian shale gas exploration and production studies. Final report, November 1983-April 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, J.L.; Koziar, G.; Lemon, J.P.; Akers, M.J.

    1986-08-01

    Ten wells in southwestern West Virginia were selected as potential candidates for in-depth study to identify Devonian-shale-gas production-controlling mechanisms. Wells were studied using geophysical logs, TV log, and flow measurements. Sidewall cores were retrieved for geochemical and geophysical analyses. The well studies were augmented with a seismic survey, production data analysis and data collection for approximately 1400 wells in the study area.

  15. Measurement of atmospheric pollutants associated with oil and natural gas exploration and production activity in Pennsylvania's Allegheny National Forest.

    PubMed

    Pekney, Natalie J; Veloski, Garret; Reeder, Matthew; Tamilia, Joseph; Rupp, Erik; Wetzel, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Oil and natural gas exploration and production (E&P) activities generate emissions from diesel engines, compressor stations, condensate tanks, leaks and venting of natural gas, construction of well pads, and well access roads that can negatively impact air quality on both local and regional scales. A mobile, autonomous air quality monitoring laboratory was constructed to collect measurements of ambient concentrations of pollutants associated with oil and natural gas E&P activities. This air-monitoring laboratory was deployed to the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) in northwestern Pennsylvania for a campaign that resulted in the collection of approximately 7 months of data split between three monitoring locations between July 2010 and June 2011. The three monitoring locations were the Kane Experimental Forest (KEF) area in Elk County, which is downwind of the Sackett oilfield; the Bradford Ranger Station (BRS) in McKean County, which is downwind of a large area of historic oil and gas productivity; and the U.S. Forest Service Hearts Content campground (HC) in Warren County, which is in an area relatively unimpacted by oil and gas development and which therefore yielded background pollutant concentrations in the ANF. Concentrations of criteria pollutants ozone and NO2 did not vary significantly from site to site; averages were below National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas (ethane, propane, butane, pentane) were highly correlated. Applying the conditional probability function (CPF) to the ethane data yielded most probable directions of the sources that were coincident with known location of existing wells and activity. Differences between the two impacted and one background site were difficult to discern, suggesting the that the monitoring laboratory was a great enough distance downwind of active areas to allow for sufficient dispersion with background air such that the localized plumes were not detected. Implications: Monitoring of pollutants associated with oil and natural gas exploration and production activity at three sites within the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) showed only slight site-to-site differences even with one site far removed from these activities. However, the impact was evident not in detection of localized plumes but in regional elevated ethane concentrations, as ethane can be considered a tracer species for oil and natural gas activity. The data presented serve as baseline conditions for evaluation of impacts from future development of Marcellus or Utica shale gas reserves. PMID:25283004

  16. Reducing Onshore Natural Gas and Oil Exploration and Production Impacts Using a Broad-Based Stakeholder Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Amy Childers

    2011-03-30

    Never before has the reduction of oil and gas exploration and production impacts been as important as it is today for operators, regulators, non-governmental organizations and individual landowners. Collectively, these stakeholders are keenly interested in the potential benefits from implementing effective environmental impact reducing technologies and practices. This research project strived to gain input and insight from such a broad array of stakeholders in order to identify approaches with the potential to satisfy their diverse objectives. The research team examined three of the most vital issue categories facing onshore domestic production today: (1) surface damages including development in urbanized areas, (2) impacts to wildlife (specifically greater sage grouse), and (3) air pollution, including its potential contribution to global climate change. The result of the research project is a LINGO (Low Impact Natural Gas and Oil) handbook outlining approaches aimed at avoiding, minimizing, or mitigating environmental impacts. The handbook identifies technical solutions and approaches which can be implemented in a practical and feasible manner to simultaneously achieve a legitimate balance between environmental protection and fluid mineral development. It is anticipated that the results of this research will facilitate informed planning and decision making by management agencies as well as producers of oil and natural gas. In 2008, a supplemental task was added for the researchers to undertake a 'Basin Initiative Study' that examines undeveloped and/or underdeveloped oil and natural gas resources on a regional or geologic basin scope to stimulate more widespread awareness and development of domestic resources. Researchers assessed multi-state basins (or plays), exploring state initiatives, state-industry partnerships and developing strategies to increase U.S. oil and gas supplies while accomplishing regional economic and environmental goals.

  17. The potential for coalbed gas exploration and production in the Greater Green River Basin, southwest Wyoming and northwest Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.; Kaiser, W.R.; Scott, A.R.; Hamilton, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    Coalbed gas is an important source of natural gas in the United States. In 1993, approximately 740 BCF of coalbed gas was produced in the United States, or about 4.2% of the nation`s total gas production. Nearly 96% of this coalbed gas is produced from just two basins, the San Juan (615.7 BCF; gas in place 84 TCF) and Black Warrior (105 BCF; gas in place 20 TCF), and current production represents only a fraction of the nation`s estimated 675 TCF of in-place coalbed gas. Coal beds in the Greater Green River Basin in southwest Wyoming and northwest Colorado hold almost half of the gas in place (314 TCF) and are an important source of gas for low-permeability Almond sandstones. Because total gas in place in the Greater Green River Basin is reported to exceed 3,000 TCF (Law et al., 1989), the basin may substantially increase the domestic gas resource base. Therefore, through integrated geologic and hydrologic studies, the coalbed gas potential of the basin was assessed where tectonic, structural, and depositional setting, coal distribution and rank, gas content, coal permeability, and ground-water flow are critical controls on coalbed gas producibility. Synergism between these geologic and hydrologic controls determines gas productivity. High productivity is governed by (1) thick, laterally continuous coals of high thermal maturity, (2) basinward flow of ground water through fractured and permeable coals, down the coal rank gradient toward no-flow boundaries oriented perpendicular to the regional flow direction, and (3) conventional trapping of gas along those boundaries to provide additional sources of gas beyond that sorbed on the coal surface.

  18. Exploration-production studies in newly drilled Devonian-Shale gas wells. Annual report, February 1, 1985-January 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.

    1986-02-01

    The Devonian shale has been recognized as an important source of gas in the Appalachian Basin. The program aids producers in the collection of reservoir data not normally collected and assists in the evaluation of the effectiveness of zone selection and stimulation designs and methods. The study should provide a fuller understanding of the relationships that affect productivity in the Devonian shale. The relationships between gas flows and geological features that control the production characteristics in the Devonian shale are being developed.

  19. Characterizing Natural Gas Hydrates in the Deep Water Gulf of Mexico: Applications for Safe Exploration and Production Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Jimmy

    2014-05-31

    In 2000 Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deep water portion of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Chevron is an active explorer and operator in the Gulf of Mexico and is aware that natural gas hydrates need to be understood to operate safely in deep water. In August 2000 Chevron worked closely with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and held a workshop in Houston, Texas to define issues concerning the characterization of natural gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, the workshop was meant to clearly show where research, the development of new technologies, and new information sources would be of benefit to the DOE and to the oil and gas industry in defining issues and solving gas hydrate problems in deep water.

  20. Beyond SHARP-- Primary Formaldehyde from Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olaguer, E. P.

    2010-12-01

    Formaldehyde has been named by the EPA as a hazardous air pollutant that may be carcinogenic and also cause irritation to the eyes, nose, throat and lung. Moreover, it is a powerful radical and ozone precursor. The 2009 Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors (SHARP) was conceived by the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) on behalf of the Texas Environmental Research Consortium (TERC) to examine the relative importance of primary and secondary formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrous acid (HONO) in ozone formation. SHARP confirmed that primary combustion sources of HCHO, such as flares end engines, may be underestimated (by an order of magnitude or more) in official emission inventories used for the purpose of air quality modeling in highly industrialized areas such as Houston. This presentation provides recently generated modeling and observational evidence that the same may be true in both rural and urban areas with oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) activities, such as the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming and the Barnett Shale of Texas. Oil and gas E&P is increasing in the Gulf of Mexico region, particularly in the Barnett, Haynesville, Eagle Ford, Cana-Woodford, and Fayetteville shale basins. In the Barnett Shale, E&P activities are moving into urban neighborhoods, and may affect the ability to bring the Dallas-Ft. Worth region into attainment of the federal ozone standard. Data concerning formaldehyde emissions from drill rig and pipeline compressor engines, flares, and glycol or amine reboilers, should be obtained in order to more accurately model air quality in the Gulf of Mexico region.

  1. Developing Terrestrial Trophic Models for Petroleum and Natural Gas Exploration and Production Sites: The Oklahoma Tallgrass Prairie Preserve Example

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, M; Coty, J; Stewart, J; Carlsen, T; Callaham, M

    2001-01-26

    This document details procedures to be used when constructing a conceptual terrestrial trophic model for natural gas and oil exploration and production sites. A site conceptual trophic model is intended for use in evaluating ecological impacts of oil and brine releases at E&P sites from a landscape or ecosystem perspective. The terrestrial trophic model protocol was developed using an example site, the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve (TPP) in Oklahoma. The procedure focuses on developing a terrestrial trophic model using information found in the primary literature, and augmented using site-specific research where available. Although the TPP has been the subject of considerable research and public interest since the high-profile reintroduction of bison (Bison bison) in 1993, little formal work has been done to develop a food web for the plant and animal communities found at the preserve. We describe how to divide species into guilds using explicit criteria on the basis of resource use and spatial distribution. For the TPP, sixteen guilds were developed for use in the trophic model, and the relationships among these guilds were analyzed. A brief discussion of the results of this model is provided, along with considerations for its use and areas for further study.

  2. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata. Quarterly report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This document contains the Quarterly Report of a Novel Geotechnical/Geostatistical Approach for Exploration and Production of Natural Gas from Multiple Geologic Strata for October 1 - December 31, 1996. This report is presented to the US DOE, Office of Fossil Energy by the College of West Virginia. A brief summary update of the following ongoing projects is presented: production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata (including coal deposits), dewatering of producing wells, and descriptions of cold weather production problems. A brief update of the project in Poland where brine wastewater is converted into potable water is also mentioned.

  3. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. )

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

  4. Conference on the topic: {open_quotes}Exploration and production of petroleum and gas from chalk reservoirs worldwide{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, V.G.

    1995-07-01

    More than 170 delegates from 14 countries in Europe, North America, Africa, and Asia took part in a conference on the topic: Exploration and Production of Petroleum and Gas from Chalk Reservoirs Worldwide. The conference was held in Copenhagen, Denmark in September,1994, and was a joint meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the European Association of Petroleum Geoscientists and Engineers (EAPG). In addition to the opening remarks, 25 oral and nine poster reports were presented. The topics included chalk deposits as reservoir rocks, the occurrence of chalk deposits worldwide, the North Sea oil and gas fields, and other related topics.

  5. An Exploration on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Production by Insect Species Suitable for Animal or Human Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; van Itterbeeck, Joost; Heetkamp, Marcel J. W.; van den Brand, Henry; van Loon, Joop J. A.; van Huis, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    Background Greenhouse gas (GHG) production, as a cause of climate change, is considered as one of the biggest problems society is currently facing. The livestock sector is one of the large contributors of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Also, large amounts of ammonia (NH3), leading to soil nitrification and acidification, are produced by livestock. Therefore other sources of animal protein, like edible insects, are currently being considered. Methodology/Principal Findings An experiment was conducted to quantify production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and average daily gain (ADG) as a measure of feed conversion efficiency, and to quantify the production of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) as well as NH3 by five insect species of which the first three are considered edible: Tenebrio molitor, Acheta domesticus, Locusta migratoria, Pachnoda marginata, and Blaptica dubia. Large differences were found among the species regarding their production of CO2 and GHGs. The insects in this study had a higher relative growth rate and emitted comparable or lower amounts of GHG than described in literature for pigs and much lower amounts of GHG than cattle. The same was true for CO2 production per kg of metabolic weight and per kg of mass gain. Furthermore, also the production of NH3 by insects was lower than for conventional livestock. Conclusions/Significance This study therefore indicates that insects could serve as a more environmentally friendly alternative for the production of animal protein with respect to GHG and NH3 emissions. The results of this study can be used as basic information to compare the production of insects with conventional livestock by means of a life cycle analysis. PMID:21206900

  6. Analysis of selected energy security issues related to US crude oil and natural gas exploration, development, production, transportation and processing. Final report, Task 13

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    In July 1989, President Bush directed the Secretary of Energy to initiate the development of a comprehensive National Energy Strategy (NES) built upon a national consensus. The overall principle for the NES, as defined by the President and articulated by the Economic Policy Council (EPC), is the continuation of the successful policy of market reliance, consistent with the following goals: Balancing of energy, economic, and environmental concerns; and reduced dependence by the US and its friends and allies on potentially unreliable energy suppliers. The analyses presented in this report draw upon a large body of work previously conducted for DOE/Office of Fossil Energy, the US Department of Interior/Minerals Management Service (DOI/MMS), and the Gas Research Institute (GRI), referenced throughout the text of this report. This work includes assessments in the following areas: the potential of advanced oil and gas extraction technologies as improved through R&D, along with the successful transfer of these technologies to the domestic petroleum industry; the economic and energy impacts of environmental regulations on domestic oil and gas exploration, production, and transportation; the potential of tax incentives to stimulate domestic oil and gas development and production; the potential environmental costs associated with various options for leasing for US oil and gas resources in the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS); and the economic impacts of environmental regulations affecting domestic crude oil refining.

  7. A Novel Geotechnical/Geostatistical Approach for Exploration and Production of Natural Gas from Multiple Geologic Strata: Quarterly report, January 1-March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses dewatering and production extension test periods, and the demonstration of newly developed technologies for multi-strata gas and water production to enhance commercial applications.

  8. Multistrata exploration and production study

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, L.; Brunk, R.G.; Al-Saadoon, F.T.; Weekley, J.L.

    1994-12-01

    The project objective is to verify a development strategy for high grading areas of multistrate (shallow gas sands and coalbeds) potential in southern West Virginia and test it in up to five wells. Activities for the Multistrata Project began in Fiscal Year 1993 with the placement of the three Test Wells into production full force. By turning all three wells in line October 1, 1992, gas began flowing as designed by the agreements negotiated in Fiscal Year 1992. All the parties involved began to see tangible results as the gas moved from the College`s gathering lines into the systems of Ramco, Columbia, and Mountaineer Gas Companies. The gas production overall from the three Project Test Wells has been exceptional. Work is currently underway which will allow for enhanced production from the College wells. This involves installation of a two-phase, 20 hp gas operated compressor into the main sales line. The College of West Virginia gathering system will be tied directly into a system owned by another local producer and will necessitate the laying of 700 feet of additional pipeline. The compressor will be equipped to suction 1 psi and discharge at 75 psi for delivery of the College`s gas into the host system.

  9. It`s not easy being green: Environmental legal challenges and strategies for international oil and gas exploration and production

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, K.E.

    1996-12-31

    International oil and gas E&P companies are being exposed to a steady proliferation of policies, laws, guidelines and other standards applicable to their activities. These are accompanied by expanded potential for legal and other liability. There are a number of treaties and other international agreements potentially relevant to F&P activities. National laws are the primary source of environmental law of concern to companies. However, guidelines developed by international governmental, financing, industry and other organizations are establishing standards to which companies may be held legally accountable. A number of key environmental issues and trends are influencing the development of environmental laws and generating areas of legal exposure for companies. Many basic company activities which involve layers are potentially affected. Companies can and should undertake a variety of activities to manage the environmental legal risks they face. Lawyers and negotiators for companies will play an essential role in developing and implementing such risk management programs.

  10. Gas production apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Winsche, Warren E.; Miles, Francis T.; Powell, James R.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates generally to the production of gases, and more particularly to the production of tritium gas in a reliable long operating lifetime systems that employs solid lithium to overcome the heretofore known problems of material compatibility and corrosion, etc., with liquid metals. The solid lithium is irradiated by neutrons inside low activity means containing a positive (+) pressure gas stream for removing and separating the tritium from the solid lithium, and these means are contained in a low activity shell containing a thermal insulator and a neutron moderator.

  11. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1. Volume 2, Geology and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L.

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

  12. Exploration and production in Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Wulff, K.; Hobson, D. )

    1996-01-01

    The prospectivity of the Papuan Basin has been appreciated, since oil seeps were first discovered in 1911. Initially, the mountainous terrain, a deeply karstified limestone surface covered with tropical rainforest, fed by 300 inches of rain each year, restricted access to the adventurous. Early exploration was focussed along the coastline and river systems, with only limited success. The development of helicopter transportable rigs during the 1970s was the technological advance that led to success, as the crests of anticlines became accessible to the drill. Even so, the lack of seismic due to severe terrain conditions and structural complexity, still constrains our ability to image trap. Despite these limitations, the oil discovery at Lagifu-2 in 1986, led to the development of the Kutubu Field by a Chevron led joint venture, with first oil in 1992. The Kutubu Field was developed at a cost of US$ 1 billion. Reserves are in excess of 250 mmbo with production currently at 1,00,000 bopd. PNG's second oil development will be the Gobe / SE Gobe Fields, also in the Papuan Thrust Belt, and thought to contain around 100 mmbo. Discovered in the late 1980s, the field is expected to produce 25 000 bopd from 1997. Significant volumes of gas have been discovered in the Highlands at Hides, where 3 wells have now confirmed a gas column in excess of 1 km. Additional large gas discoveries have been made in the Papuan Basin, highlighting the potential for PNG to become a long term LNG s producer.

  13. Synergetic study of Silurian-Niagaran pinnacle reef belt around the Michigan Basin for exploration and production of oil and gas. Volumes 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Aminian, K.

    1982-01-01

    The Silurian-Niagaran pinnacle reef occur on a belt which encircles the entire Michigan Basin including areas presently covered by the Great Lakes Huron and Michigan. Two different structural settings existed in the Michigan Basin during the Silurian Period. This resulted in formation of pinnacle reefs with somewhat different characteristics in the northern and southern parts of the basin. The pinnacles of the northern trend occur at depths of 4000 to 7000 ft, are up to 700 ft thick, and average about 100 acres in area. The southern pinnacles occur at depths of 2000 to 3000 ft, are shorter, about 300 ft, and attain larger areas. The majority of the hydrocarbon reserves of the northern trend are concentrated in pinnacles which occur on a band 3 to 4 miles wide inside the middle of the trend. There exists a regional partitioning of oil and gas in the northern pinnacle reefs which can be best explained by Gussaw Theory of migration and differential entrapment. A probabilistic model for exploration in play was found applicable in mature areas of the northern trend. The results were extended to other parts of the northern trend based on similar reef density and size distribution. In the southern trend where the reef density and size distribution is entirely different, the model was tested against limited data and results of future exploration were predicted. The effectiveness of exploration on the reef belt, based on seismic surveys, is 8 to 10 times better than random drilling. The reserves of the reef belt is in excess of 7 bbl of oil and 15 trillion ft/sup 3/ of natural gas originally in place. The oil primary and secondary recovery factors are 20 and 30%, respectively.

  14. Multistrata exploration and production study

    SciTech Connect

    Brunk, R.G.; Maestas, J.R.; Parsons, P.

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and verify a geotechnical/geostatistical approach to find natural gas resources and to verify the process by drilling, completing, testing, and producing wells located by the process.

  15. Exploring Careers. Industrial Production Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    "Exploring Careers" is a career education resource program, presented in fifteen separate booklets, for junior high school-age students. It provides information about the world of work and offers its readers a way of learning about themselves and relating that information to career choices. The publications aim to build career awareness by means…

  16. Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration. [Applicability to USA

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    During the 1970s a number of different exploration and production incentive programs were put in place in Canada, in particular in the Province of Alberta, Canada's principal oil- and gas-producing province. The DOE/RA is evaluating Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration, and this study is intended to provide information that will help guide DOE/RA in determining the applicability of Canadian incentive programs in US energy policy. The study describes and documents the fiscal structure in which the Canadian oil industry operates. The incentive features of pricing policy, taxation policy, and provincial royalty systems are discussed. A principal focus of the study is on one of the most important of Canada's specific incentive programs, the Alberta Exploratory Drilling Incentive Credit Program (EDICP). The study describes and evaluates the effect of the EDICP on increased oil and gas exploration activity. Similarly, the study also reviews and evaluates other specific incentive programs such as the Alberta Geophysical Incentive Program, Frontier Exploration Allowances, and various tar sand and heavy oil development incentives. Finally the study evaluates the applicability of Canadian incentives to US energy policy.

  17. Exploration and production in Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Wulff, K.; Hobson, D.

    1996-12-31

    The prospectivity of the Papuan Basin has been appreciated, since oil seeps were first discovered in 1911. Initially, the mountainous terrain, a deeply karstified limestone surface covered with tropical rainforest, fed by 300 inches of rain each year, restricted access to the adventurous. Early exploration was focussed along the coastline and river systems, with only limited success. The development of helicopter transportable rigs during the 1970s was the technological advance that led to success, as the crests of anticlines became accessible to the drill. Even so, the lack of seismic due to severe terrain conditions and structural complexity, still constrains our ability to image trap. Despite these limitations, the oil discovery at Lagifu-2 in 1986, led to the development of the Kutubu Field by a Chevron led joint venture, with first oil in 1992. The Kutubu Field was developed at a cost of US$ 1 billion. Reserves are in excess of 250 mmbo with production currently at 1,00,000 bopd. PNG`s second oil development will be the Gobe / SE Gobe Fields, also in the Papuan Thrust Belt, and thought to contain around 100 mmbo. Discovered in the late 1980s, the field is expected to produce 25 000 bopd from 1997. Significant volumes of gas have been discovered in the Highlands at Hides, where 3 wells have now confirmed a gas column in excess of 1 km. Additional large gas discoveries have been made in the Papuan Basin, highlighting the potential for PNG to become a long term LNG s producer.

  18. Geology of marine evaporites favorable for oil, gas exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, S.M.

    1996-02-05

    Significant petroleum production related to carbonate-evaporite sequences has been found in many areas such as the Delaware, Paradox, and Michigan basins of North America and the Phanerozoic oil-bearing sediments of the Middle East and the North Sea. The regular association of petroleum and evaporites long has been recognized in almost all major oil-producing chemical and biochemical reservoir rocks of the world. A geologic approach to an exploration strategy may illustrate the facies relationships and hydrocarbon occurrences that provide a model for discovering the physical and chemical aspects of petroleum generation, migration, and accumulation, as well as the stratigraphic-tectonic relations necessary for entrapping oil and gas. This article endeavors to review exploration to date on the productive potential of evaporite basins, to appraise basic requirements for evaporitic environments to contain potential hydrocarbons, and to assess the significance of marine evaporites in petroleum geology.

  19. Product Lifecycle Management and Sustainable Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Grieves, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of product lifecycle management (PLM) in the general aerospace industry, its use and development at NASA and at Marshall Space Flight Center, and how the use of PLM can lead to sustainable space exploration.

  20. Total outlines world exploration, production challenges, approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-27

    This paper describes the current international picture of exploration/production; expresses the most prominent challenges the author sees emerging from changing conditions, and discusses briefly how the industry can and does answer these challenges. Geologic status---first, oil and gas provinces are obviously maturing. The peak of discoveries in the U.K. North Sea is well past, and if yearly additions still appear more or less stable, this happens at the expense of a larger number of exploratory wells being drilled. This is going on with variations in a number of areas. Second, the world is shrinking in terms of new prospective basins. For instance, the Norwegian Barents Sea looked so promising a few years ago but has yet to yield a major field. The case is not unique, and everyone can make his own list of disappointments: East African rift basins, Paraguay, and so on. One article pointed out that the last decade's reserve addition from wildcat oil discoveries was down by almost 40% from additions registered during 1972-81. This excluded the USSR, Eastern Europe, China, Mexico, and a couple of Middle East countries.

  1. Geology and oil and gas exploration in California's offshore basins

    SciTech Connect

    Crain, W.E.; Thurston, S.P.

    1986-07-01

    California's continental shelf contains 12 large pull-apart basins that formed by transtensional extension during Neogene transform margin tectonics. Most are elongate basins, subparallel to regional dextral strike-slip fault zones, and contain from 5000 to 30,000 ft of Neogene sediments. The common Neogene stratigraphic sequence consists of a relatively thin, transgressive, shallow marine sand and a shelf to slope succession that is overlain by thick basin-plain deposits of middle and upper Miocene age. Only three of the twelve major offshore basins have been actively explored in recent years; each is an extension of a producing onshore basin. The Santa Barbara and Los Angeles basins contain all of California's current offshore production, presently at 191,000 BOPD and 140,000 MCFGD. From their 29 fields, 2.23 billion bbl of oil and 1.7 tcf of gas have been produced, and remaining proven reserves are 873 million bbl of oil and 544 bcf of gas (January 1, 1985). In the Santa Barbara Channel, seven new fields or major extensions await development platforms, from which an additional combined peak production of 205,000 BOPD and 210,000 MCFGD is planned. Since 1981, exploration efforts in the offshore Santa Maria basin have resulted in the discovery of seven new oil fields, all with Monterey Formation reservoirs. Development plans for four of these fields currently include seven platforms, with an anticipated combined peak production of 210,000 BOPD and 117,000 MCFGD. Twenty wells were drilled between 1963 and 1967 in five of the central and northern California offshore basins. They yielded encouraging oil shows, but additional exploration activity was curtailed due to poor then-current economics. Recent exploration efforts benefit greatly from advanced logging technologies, developing stimulation and artificial lift methods for heavy oil, and much improved seismic data.

  2. Thai gas production now underway

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    Encouraged by the prospect of reducing crude imports by 20%, the Thai government is investing heavily in a national gas development project that will tap at least two and possibly four gas fields in the Gulf of Thailand by the mid-1980's. The installation of the B wellhead platform on Union Oil Co. of Thailand's A-structure field marked the first completed construction in the project. Gas reserves in the A structure - a 15-mile-long faulted anticline in the southern Pattani trough - could be between 1 and 2 trillion CF; production will peak at 250 million CF/day of gas and 6000 bbl/day of condensate. Pairs of production-processing platforms will handle production, liquids-separation, and dehydration functions. The gas will then flow to a central processing platform for sendout to shore via a 264-mile (425-km) 34-in. pipeline. Production from the A field is scheduled to start in July 1980. Meanwhile, Texas Pacific Oil Co., Inc., has a 1983 production target for development of the more southerly B field, estimated to contain 5.8 TCF.

  3. Report to Congress: management of wastes from the exploration, development, and production of crude oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy. Executive summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    Section 8002(m) of the RCRA Amendments requires EPA to study these wastes and submit a final report to Congress. The report responds to those requirements. This document is the executive summary of the report to Congress. It includes summaries of both the oil and gas volume and the geothermal volume. Both summaries include conclusions and recommendation.

  4. EIA's Natural Gas Production Data

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This special report examines the stages of natural gas processing from the wellhead to the pipeline network through which the raw product becomes ready for transportation and eventual consumption, and how this sequence is reflected in the data published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA).

  5. Petroleum Engineer International 1997 exploration, drilling and production software directory

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Computers have become a powerful tool in the oil and gas industry. Each year, hundreds of new software applications and programs are developed to perform industry-related tasks. From transmitting data in real time to balancing a budget, the software applications, many of which are listed in Petroleum Engineer International`s software directory, have enhanced the capability of drilling, exploring and producing oil and gas. Updated for 1997, PEI`s software directory lists more than 65 companies with petroleum-related software products and applications. These products have been specifically developed and customized for the oil and gas industry. The companies are listed alphabetically across the top of the grid. The software applications are listed on the left side of the grid. A dot placed in a corresponding box indicates what type of software each company provides.

  6. GAS-007: First step in a series of Explorer payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, Philip H.

    1987-01-01

    As part of the NASA Get Away Special program for flying small, self-contained payloads onboard the Space Shuttle, the Alabama Space and Rocket Center (ASRC) in Huntsville has sponsored three such payloads for its Project Explorer. One of these is GAS-007, which was carried originally on STS mission 41-G in early October 1984. Due to an operational error it was not turned on and was, therefore, subsequently rescheduled and flown on mission 61-C. This paper will review Explorer's history, outline its experiments, present some preliminary experimental results, and describe future ASRC plans for Get Away Special activities, including follow-on Explorers GAS-105 and GAS-608.

  7. Plan for Management of Mineral Assess on Native Tribal Lands and for Formation of a Fully Integrated Natural Gas and Oil Exploration and Production Company

    SciTech Connect

    Blechner, Michael H.; Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    This report describes a plan for Native American tribes to assume responsibility for and operation of tribal mineral resources using the Osage Tribe as an example. Under this plan, the tribal council select and employ a qualified Director to assume responsibility for management of their mineral reservations. The procurement process should begin with an application for contracting to the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Under this plan, the Director will develop strategies to increase income by money management and increasing exploitation of natural gas, oil, and other minerals.

  8. International Oil and Gas Exploration and Development

    EIA Publications

    1993-01-01

    Presents country level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve to production ratios (R/P ratios) for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form.

  9. Perspective of gas exploration in Ying-Qiong Basin

    SciTech Connect

    He, Hanyi; Zhongtiang Hu

    1996-12-31

    The Yinggehai and Qiongdongnan Basin (Ying-Qiong Basin) in the northwest part of the South China Sea is a Cenozoic sedimentary basin, which has fast-subsiding and thick sediments. The maximum Cenozoic sediments in the center part of the basin is 20,000 m. Six sets of source rocks with prevailing Type III kerogen were developed in the basin, which has a great potential for gas generation. Different types of reservoirs and traps, leading to different assemblages of source rocks, reservoirs, and cap rocks, form good gas pools. Abnormal high temperature and high pressure in the basin resulted in many mud diapirs and made the generation, migration, and accumulation of gas more colorful. Up to now, four gas fields have been discovered in the basin. A large number of anticlines and stratigraphic-lithologic traps in the basin provide an extensive area for gas exploration. The perspective of gas exploration in the basin is vast and bright.

  10. Perspective of gas exploration in Ying-Qiong Basin

    SciTech Connect

    He, Hanyi; Zhongtiang Hu )

    1996-01-01

    The Yinggehai and Qiongdongnan Basin (Ying-Qiong Basin) in the northwest part of the South China Sea is a Cenozoic sedimentary basin, which has fast-subsiding and thick sediments. The maximum Cenozoic sediments in the center part of the basin is 20,000 m. Six sets of source rocks with prevailing Type III kerogen were developed in the basin, which has a great potential for gas generation. Different types of reservoirs and traps, leading to different assemblages of source rocks, reservoirs, and cap rocks, form good gas pools. Abnormal high temperature and high pressure in the basin resulted in many mud diapirs and made the generation, migration, and accumulation of gas more colorful. Up to now, four gas fields have been discovered in the basin. A large number of anticlines and stratigraphic-lithologic traps in the basin provide an extensive area for gas exploration. The perspective of gas exploration in the basin is vast and bright.

  11. Characterization and geographic location of sources of radioactivity lost downhole in the course of oil and gas exploration and production activities in Texas, 1956 to 2001.

    PubMed

    Patlovich, S; Emery, R J; Whitehead, L W

    2005-11-01

    Case reports describing sources of radioactivity lost downhole in Texas from 1956 to 2001 were obtained from the Texas Department of Health Bureau of Radiation Control and entered into a computerized database. The events of the 45-y period of analysis were characterized, examining aspects such as source type, amount of activity, location of loss, depth, and date of occurrence. Results of the study found that 316 downhole source incidents were reported to the agency during this period of time, representing a total of 426 distinct sources of radioactivity lost downhole within the boundaries of the State of Texas. The sources lost were predominantly AmBe, accounting for 74 TBq of radioactivity at the time of loss, and Cs, accounting for 16.3 TBq of radioactivity. A longitudinal analysis of the data showed the average loss per active oil and gas rig in Texas (known as "rig count") at approximately 24 losses per 1,000 rigs. Specific geographic information was largely missing from many of the records, which prevented the geolocation of wells described to contain lost radioactive sources. As a result, most wells could only be located to the county level, and no comprehensive geographical information system (GIS) map could be accurately created from the data. However, when available, source location information was standardized to permit the characterization of the sources reported as lost. This effort produced the first dedicated compendium of lost downhole sources for the State of Texas and provides an important source of information for regulatory agencies. The ability to provide prompt information about the fate and location of sources of radioactivity is important to regulatory officials, given the recent concerns about radiation source inventory control in the post 9/11 world as it relates to the possible creation of radiological dispersal devices. PMID:16224264

  12. Desulfurized gas production from vertical kiln pyrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Harry A.; Jones, Jr., John B.

    1978-05-30

    A gas, formed as a product of a pyrolysis of oil shale, is passed through hot, retorted shale (containing at least partially decomposed calcium or magnesium carbonate) to essentially eliminate sulfur contaminants in the gas. Specifically, a single chambered pyrolysis vessel, having a pyrolysis zone and a retorted shale gas into the bottom of the retorted shale zone and cleaned product gas is withdrawn as hot product gas near the top of such zone.

  13. Exploration & development: US Rockies gas focus points up need for access, risk takers, infrastructure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomasson, M.R.; Belanger, P.E.; Cook, L.

    2004-01-01

    The last 20 yr of the Rocky Mountains oil and gas exploration and production business have been turbulent. Most of the major companies have left; they have been replaced with, independents and small to larger private and public companies. Natural gas become the primary focus of exploration. A discussion covers the shift of interest from drilling for oil to gas exploration and development in the Rockies since 1980; resource pyramid, showing relative volumes, reserves, resources, and undiscovered gas; the Wyoming fields that boost US gas supply, i.e., Jonah (6-12 tcf), Pinedale Anticline (10-20 tcf); Big Piney-LaBarge (15-25 tcf), Madden (3-5 tcf), and Powder river (24-27 tcf); and the future.

  14. Alaska Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, and Permitting Project

    SciTech Connect

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall

    2006-03-31

    This is the final technical report for Project 15446, covering the grant period of October 2002 through March 2006. This project connects three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for an advanced information technology infrastructure to better support resource development and resource conservation. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells. The broad goal of this grant is to increase domestic production from Alaska's known producing fields through the implementation of preferred upstream management practices. (PUMP). Internet publication of extensive and detailed geotechnical data is the first task, improving the permitting process is the second task, and building an advanced geographical information system to offer continuing support and public access of the first two goals is the third task. Excellent progress has been made on all three tasks; the technical objectives as defined by the approved grant sub-tasks have been met. The end date for the grant was March 31, 2006.

  15. Exploring Increased Productivity Through Employee Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Wayne K., Jr.

    Disengaged employees cost U.S. companies billions of dollars annually in lowered productivity, a cost which has been compounded by the difficult economic situations in the country. The potential for increasing productivity through increased employee engagement was examined in this study. Using personal engagement theory and the theory of planned behavior, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore how the experiences of salaried aerospace employees affected productivity and the financial performance of an organization. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 20 aerospace employees whose responses were codified and analyzed to identify themes. The analysis indicated that (a) the lived experiences of employees influenced employee engagement, (b) employee engagement affects organizational commitment and performance, and (c) trust and respect and leadership are essential components to keep employees engaged. Eighty percent of the participants indicated that as employee engagement increases so too does organizational performance. The implications for positive social change include new insights for leaders seeking to increase productivity and financial performance, and to support employee engagement for maintaining sustainability, retaining talent, increasing profits, and improving the economy.

  16. H.R. 1282: A Bill to provide enhanced energy security through incentives to explore and develop frontier areas of the Outer Continental Shelf and to enhance production of the domestic oil and gas resources in deep water areas of the Outer Continental Shelf. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, March 10, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The report H.R. 1282 is a bill to provide enhanced energy security through incentives to explore and develop frontier areas of the Outer Continental Shelf and to enhance production of the domestic oil and gas resources in deep water areas. The proposed legislative text is included.

  17. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-11-19

    This is the second technical report, covering the period from April 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. The geo-technical component is a shared effort between the State Department of Administration and the US Department of Energy. The Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission is rapidly converting high volumes of paper documents and geo-technical information to formats suitable for search and retrieval over the Internet. The permitting component is under the lead of the DNR Office of Project Management and Permitting. A web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information on-line. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. Structural changes are taking place in terms of organization, statutory authority, and regulatory requirements. Geographic Information Systems are a central component to the organization of information, and the delivery of on-line services. Progress has been made to deploy the foundation system for the shared GIS based on open GIS protocols to the extent feasible. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells.

  18. Economic aspects of hydropressured aquifer gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    Economic analyses of base-case simulations of hydropressured reservoirs for gas production reveal that gas prices ranging from $5.60 to $16.07/1000 CF are required for a reasonable rate of return on project costs. Furthermore, a parametric analysis of reservoir characteristics suggests that the factor having the greatest positive influence on gas price is the presence of a gas cap in the reservoir. Of the cases studied, that reservoir having the thinnest, least permeable aquifer, the greatest having the thinnest, least permeable aquifer, the greatest brine production, and the thickest, most permeable gas cap produced the most gas.

  19. Explore Your Future: Careers in the Natural Gas Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    This career awareness booklet provides information and activities to help youth prepare for career and explore jobs in the natural gas industry. Students are exposed to career planning ideas and activities; they learn about a wide variety of industry jobs, what workers say about their jobs, and how the industry operates. Five sections are…

  20. 43 CFR 3152.1 - Application for oil and gas geophysical exploration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GAS GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION Exploration in Alaska § 3152.1 Application for oil and gas geophysical exploration permit. Parties wishing to conduct oil and gas geophysical exploration operations in Alaska shall... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application for oil and gas...

  1. 43 CFR 3152.1 - Application for oil and gas geophysical exploration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GAS GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION Exploration in Alaska § 3152.1 Application for oil and gas geophysical exploration permit. Parties wishing to conduct oil and gas geophysical exploration operations in Alaska shall... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application for oil and gas...

  2. 43 CFR 3152.1 - Application for oil and gas geophysical exploration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GAS GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION Exploration in Alaska § 3152.1 Application for oil and gas geophysical exploration permit. Parties wishing to conduct oil and gas geophysical exploration operations in Alaska shall... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for oil and gas...

  3. Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

    2008-12-31

    The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD participants believe that the platform concept could have far-reaching applications in the Arctic as a drilling and production platform, as originally intended, and as a possible staging area. The overall objective of this project was to document various potential applications, locations, and conceptual designs for the inland platform serving oil and gas operations on the Alaska North Slope. The University of Alaska Fairbanks assisted the HARC/TerraPlatforms team with the characterization of potential resource areas, geotechnical conditions associated with continuous permafrost terrain, and the potential end-user evaluation process. The team discussed the various potential applications with industry, governmental agencies, and environmental organizations. The benefits and concerns associated with industry's use of the technology were identified. In this discussion process, meetings were held with five operating companies (22 people), including asset team leaders, drilling managers, HSE managers, and production and completion managers. Three other operating companies and two service companies were contacted by phone to discuss the project. A questionnaire was distributed and responses were provided, which will be included in the report. Meetings were also held with State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources officials and U.S. Bureau of Land Management regulators. The companies met with included ConcoPhillips, Chevron, Pioneer Natural Resources, Fairweather E&P, BP America, and the Alaska Oil and Gas Association.

  4. Exploration drilling for pre-mining gas drainage in coal mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubina, E. A.; Brylin, V. I.; Lukyanov, V. G.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2015-02-01

    High natural gas content in coal seams and low gas drainage efficiency are the basic issues to be addressed in order to ensure coal mining safety. A great number of wells being drilled within various gas drainage techniques significantly increase the costs of coal mining and do not reduce the gas content levels within the coal beds up to the required parameters in a short period of time. The integrated approach toward exploration well spacing applied at the stage of project development could make it possible to consider coal seam data to provide more effective gas drainage not only ahead of mining but also during further gas content reduction and commercial production of methane. The comparative analysis of a closely spaced grid of exploration program compiled in accordance with the recommendations on applying mineral reserves classification and inferred resources of coal and shale coal deposits and currently effective stimulation radius proves the necessity and possibility to consider exploration well data for gas drainage. Pre-mining gas drainage could ensure the safety of mining operations.

  5. Industry requested exploration/production environmental regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Blanck, L. )

    1994-04-01

    California State Review by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission recommends state and regional water boards issue requirements to all pits subject to basin plans and chapter 15. Resources shortfalls have kept production pits from being Water Board priorities. Threat of United States EPA designation of crude oil as hazardous waste and subsequent land use conflicts of buried pits in developing areas have led to the call for full implementation of State regulations. Recommended state improvements include (1) interagency communication, cross training, computer database, and inspections; (2) development of guidance documents and consistency in pit closure policy, permitting, water quality in DOG pit rules, land spreading, road spreading, and minimum construction and operation requirements and; (3) administratively finding additional resources to fully implement requirements, increase records retention time, consider compliance history, revise Water Board/DOG Memorandum of Understanding and adjust DOG financial assurance program to provide incentive for proper and timely well plugging and site reclamation. Industry/Regulatory Agency cooperation can significantly reduce the burden of regulation implementation, Industry willingness to pay appropriate regulatory fees can facilitate regulation execution. Field drilling crew education can minimize regulatory implementation costs. Mud pit Resource Conservation and Recovery Act exemption can be maintained if hazardous substances (e.g., pipe dope and solvents) are kept out of the pit.

  6. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-08-04

    The objective of this project is to eliminate three closely inter-related barriers to oil production in Alaska through the use of a geographic information system (GIS) and other information technology strategies. These barriers involve identification of oil development potential from existing wells, planning projects to efficiently avoid conflicts with other interests, and gaining state approvals for exploration and development projects. Each barrier is the result of either current labor-intensive methods or poorly accessible information. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. This web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information online. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. The application will include an on-line diagnostic Coastal Project Questionnaire to determine the suite of permits required for a specific project. The application will also automatically create distribution lists based on the location and type of project, populate document templates for project review start-ups, public notices and findings, allow submission of e-comments, and post project status information on the Internet. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells. Currently, State of Alaska agencies use multiple, independent systems to identify, authenticate, and authorize customers for online transactions. Consumers of online state services may be required to manage multiple online ''profiles,'' and during a permit review process valuable time may be lost verifying identity or reconciling differences in applicant information when agency records disagree. The state's Information Technology Group is developing a shared applicant profile system that will provide an additional opportunity to demonstrate data sharing between agencies.

  7. VSAT: opening new horizons to oil and gas explorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dhamen, Muhammad I.

    2002-08-01

    Whether exploring in the Empty Quarter, drilling offshore in the Gulf of Mexico, or monitoring gas pipelines or oil wells in the deserts, communications is a key element to the success of oil and gas operations. Secure, efficient communications is required between remote, isolated locations and head offices to report on work status, dispatch supplies and repairs, report on-site emergencies, transfer geophysical surveys and real-time drilling data. Drilling and exploration firms have traditionally used land-based terrestrial networks that rely on radio transmissions for voice and data communications to offshore platforms and remote deep desert drilling rigs. But these systems are inefficient and have proven inflexible with today's drilling and exploration communications demands, which include high-speed data access, telephone and video conferencing. In response, numerous oil and gas exploration entities working in deep waters and remote deep deserts have all tapped into what is an ideal solution for these needs: Very Small Aperture Terminal Systems (VSAT) for broadband access services. This led to the use of Satellite Communication Systems for a wide range of applications that were difficult to achieve in the past, such as real-time applications transmission of drilling data and seismic information. This paper provides a thorough analysis of opportunities for satellite technology solutions in support of oil and gas operations. Technologies, architecture, service, networking and application developments are discussed based upon real field experience. More specifically, the report addresses: VSAT Opportunities for the Oil and Gas Operations, Corporate Satellite Business Model Findings, Satellite Market Forecasts

  8. Exploring for natural gas using reflectance spectra of surface soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Da-Qi; Ni, Guo-Qiang; Jiang, Li-Li; Shen, Yuan-Ting; Li, Ting; Ge, Shu-Le; Shu, Xian-Biao

    Reflectance spectra in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths provide a rapid and inexpensive means for determining the mineralogy of samples and obtaining information on chemical composition. Hydrocarbon microseepage theory establishes a cause-and-effect relation between oil and gas reservoirs and some special surface anomalies, which mainly include surface hydrocarbon microseepage and related alterations. Therefore, we can explore for oil, gas by determining reflectance spectra of surface anomalies. This idea has been applied to the R&D project of exploring for natural gas in Qinghai province of China using NASA EO-1 satellite with the Hyperion sensor (June 2005 to June 2006). In this project, in order to improve the accuracy of exploration targets of natural gas mapped in the field studied, an integrated practical system of exploration of oil and gas was built by the analysis of not only hyperspectral remote sensing data but also data provided from field work. In this paper, our efforts were focused on the analysis of the 799 reflectance spectra provided from the field work. In order to properly define the typical form of hydrocarbon microseepage with spectroscopy and fulfill the data analysis, it was necessary to build a spectral model. In this spectral model the most important features of hydrocarbon microseepage in the surface of our study area, i.e., diagnostic spectral macroscopic features and diagnostic spectral absorption features, were proposed and extracted, respectively. The distribution of coexisting anomalies, which results from both alteration minerals and hydrocarbons, is estimated by the diagnostic macroscopic features mainly using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classifier. On the other hand, the diagnostic absorption features of two main absorption bands presented abundant local information, based on deep analysis of which, we are able to map the anomalies of alteration minerals and hydrocarbons, respectively. Additionally, a general framework of analysis and key classification algorithms applied to the Hyperion data have been introduced briefly. In our work, three exploration targets of natural gas were identified from the study area which covers 2100 km2. In the three exploration targets, three wildcats have been drilled by China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) since July 2006, and all the three wells have been proven some industrial reserves.

  9. Gas Analysis of Geothermal Fluid Inclusions: A New Technology For Geothermal Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    David I. Norman; Joseph Moore

    2004-03-09

    To increase our knowledge of gaseous species in geothermal systems by fluid inclusion analysis in order to facilitate the use of gas analysis in geothermal exploration. The knowledge of gained by this program can be applied to geothermal exploration, which may expand geothermal production. Knowledge of the gas contents in reservoir fluids can be applied to fluid inclusion gas analysis of drill chip cuttings in a similar fashion as used in the petroleum industry. Thus the results of this project may lower exploration costs both in the initial phase and lower drill hole completion costs. Commercial costs for fluid inclusion analysis done on at 20 feet intervals on chip samples for 10,000 ft oil wells is about $6,000, and the turn around time is a few weeks.

  10. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Francis; Paltsev, Sergey

    2012-12-01

    Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during 2010. Data from each of the approximately 4000 horizontal shale gas wells brought online that year are used to show that about 900 Gg CH4 of potential fugitive emissions were generated by these operations, or 228 Mg CH4 per well—a figure inappropriately used in analyses of the GHG impact of shale gas. In fact, along with simply venting gas produced during the completion of shale gas wells, two additional techniques are widely used to handle these potential emissions: gas flaring and reduced emission ‘green’ completions. The use of flaring and reduced emission completions reduce the levels of actual fugitive emissions from shale well completion operations to about 216 Gg CH4, or 50 Mg CH4 per well, a release substantially lower than several widely quoted estimates. Although fugitive emissions from the overall natural gas sector are a proper concern, it is incorrect to suggest that shale gas-related hydraulic fracturing has substantially altered the overall GHG intensity of natural gas production.

  11. ERP System Implementation: An Oil and Gas Exploration Sector Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Alok; Mishra, Deepti

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems provide integration and optimization of various business processes which leads to improved planning and decision quality, smoother coordination between business units resulting in higher efficiency, and quicker response time to customer demands and inquiries. This paper reports challenges, opportunities and outcome of ERP implementation in Oil & Gas exploration sector. This study will facilitate in understanding transition, constraints and implementation of ERP in this sector and also provide guidelines from lessons learned in this regard.

  12. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... noted. Instruction 2 to Item 1204: Production of natural gas should include only marketable production of natural gas on an “as sold” basis. Production will include dry, residue, and wet gas, depending on... included until sold. Synthetic gas, when marketed as such, should be included in natural gas...

  13. Study on Exploring for Oil, Gas Using Hyperion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, D.-Q.; Ni, G.-Q.; Jiang, L.-L.; Ge, S.-L.

    Reflectance spectra in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths provide a rapid and inexpensive means for determining the mineralogy of samples and obtaining information on chemical composition Hydrocarbon microseepage theory setup a cause-and-effect relation between oil and gas reservoirs and some special surface alterations Therefore we can explore for oil gas by determining reflectance spectra of surface alterations This determination can be fulfilled by means of field work and hyperspectral remote sensing Our cooperative R D project which is sponsored by China National Petroleum Corporation CNPC and committing itself to exploration of oil gas in Qinghai area of China using NASA experimental Hyperion hyperspectral satellite documents a macroscopical feature of reflectance spectra of typical observation points in gas fields and then proposes a method in order to provide surface distribution information e g classification of alterations based on the reflectance spectra determined from the field and remote sensing and obtain anomaly zones of the special alterations This method mainly includes preprocessing of Hyperion images to improve the poor SNR Signal Noise Ratio of them principal component analysis PCA based on wavelet transform to reduce dimensionality and techniques providing surface distribution information using both absorption-band parameters such as the position depth width and asymmetry of the spectra and similarity of the entire shape between two spectra Finally several anomaly zones of alterations are obtained which are

  14. How EIA Estimates Natural Gas Production

    EIA Publications

    2004-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes estimates monthly and annually of the production of natural gas in the United States. The estimates are based on data EIA collects from gas producing states and data collected by the U. S. Minerals Management Service (MMS) in the Department of Interior. The states and MMS collect this information from producers of natural gas for various reasons, most often for revenue purposes. Because the information is not sufficiently complete or timely for inclusion in EIA's Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), EIA has developed estimation methodologies to generate monthly production estimates that are described in this document.

  15. A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide incentives for domestic oil and natural gas exploration and production, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, February 22, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This Act may be cited as the [open quotes]Energy Independence, Infrastructure, and Investment Act of 1993[close quotes]. The purpose of this Bill is to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide incentives for domestic oil and natural gas exploration and production, and for other purposes. Title I of this Bill is Energy Independence Incentives. Title II is Infrastructure Incentives. Title III is Investment Incentives.

  16. ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrate Production Test

    SciTech Connect

    Schoderbek, David; Farrell, Helen; Howard, James; Raterman, Kevin; Silpngarmlert, Suntichai; Martin, Kenneth; Smith, Bruce; Klein, Perry

    2013-06-30

    Work began on the ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrates Production Test (DOE award number DE-NT0006553) on October 1, 2008. This final report summarizes the entire project from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2013.

  17. South America: Growth in E and P opportunities keeps accelerating. [Oil and gas exploration and development in South America

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This paper reviews and summarizes the oil and gas developments in Columbia, Argentina, Venezuela, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and other South American oil and gas producing countries during 1992 through 1993 and forecasts the future developments. The expanding exploration in these areas has resulted from the major new oil finds and the need for local countries to help stabilize their currency. The paper discusses exploration and drilling activity, production, and financial expenditures made on developing this regions reserves.

  18. Project Explorer GAS #007: Marshall Amateur Radio Club Experiment (MARCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stluka, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    Polls were taken at the Project Explorer meetings regarding flying without the radio experiment transmitting. The radio downlinks require extra coordination and are sensitive to certain payloads. The poll results were unanimous. The radio downlinks are vital in providing data on the health and status of the total experiments package, in real time, during the flight. The amateur radio operators, prepared to receive the downlinks and OSCAR-10 relays, revealed that there was enormous interest throughout the world, to participate. This sets the stage for the reflight opportunities which the GAS program has provided. Major activities, pertinent to the STS-41G flight preparations by the GAS #007 team and support group, are listed.

  19. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1204) Oil and gas... Disclosure by Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1204 (Item 1204) Oil and gas... production, by final product sold, of oil, gas, and other products. Disclosure shall be made by...

  20. International oil and gas exploration and development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-29

    This report is part of an ongoing series of quarterly publications that monitors discoveries of oil and natural gas in foreign countries and provides an analysis of the reserve additions that result. The report is prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). It presents a summary of discoveries and reserve additions that result from recent international exploration and development activities. It is intended for use by petroleum industry analysts, various government agencies, and political leaders in the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy plans, policy, and legislation. 25 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. RADIOLYTIC GAS PRODUCTION RATES OF POLYMERS EXPOSED TO TRITIUM GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.

    2013-08-31

    Data from previous reports on studies of polymers exposed to tritium gas is further analyzed to estimate rates of radiolytic gas production. Also, graphs of gas release during tritium exposure from ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, a trade name is Teflon®), and Vespel® polyimide are re-plotted as moles of gas as a function of time, which is consistent with a later study of tritium effects on various formulations of the elastomer ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM). These gas production rate estimates may be useful while considering using these polymers in tritium processing systems. These rates are valid at least for the longest exposure times for each material, two years for UHMW-PE, PTFE, and Vespel®, and fourteen months for filled and unfilled EPDM. Note that the production “rate” for Vespel® is a quantity of H{sub 2} produced during a single exposure to tritium, independent of length of time. The larger production rate per unit mass for unfilled EPDM results from the lack of filler- the carbon black in filled EPDM does not produce H{sub 2} or HT. This is one aspect of how inert fillers reduce the effects of ionizing radiation on polymers.

  2. Myanmar production meets first-gas targets

    SciTech Connect

    Lepage, A.

    1998-09-07

    Despite scheduling complications caused by annual monsoons, the Yadana project to bring offshore Myanmar gas ashore and into neighboring Thailand has met it first-gas target of July 1, 1998. The Yadana field is a dry-gas reservoir in the reef upper Birman limestone formation t 1,260 m and a pressure of 174 bara (approximately 2,500 psi). It extends nearly 7 km (west to east) and 10 km (south to north). The water-saturated reservoir gas contains mostly methane mixed with CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. No production of condensate is anticipated. The Yadana field contains certified gas reserves of 5.7 tcf, calculated on the basis of 2D and 3D seismic data-acquisition campaigns and of seven appraisal wells. The paper discusses early interest, development sequences, offshore platforms, the gas-export pipeline, safety, environmental steps, and schedule constraints.

  3. North America: A better second half for drilling--Maybe. [Oil and gas exploration and development in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This paper provides data on the exploration, production, and drilling activity of the oil and gas industry in Canada, the US, and Central America. The section on the US discusses trends in drilling activity in both the first and second half of 1993. Statistical information on all oil and gas producing states if provided in a tabular format. Information on exploration and development expenditures is also discussed. Data is also provided drilling and production information for Canada, Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Nicaragua, and other minor production areas.

  4. 43 CFR 3151.1 - Notice of intent to conduct oil and gas geophysical exploration operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION Exploration Outside of Alaska § 3151.1 Notice of intent to... exploration outside of the State of Alaska shall file a Notice of Intent to Conduct Oil and Gas Exploration... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice of intent to conduct oil and...

  5. 43 CFR 3151.1 - Notice of intent to conduct oil and gas geophysical exploration operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION Exploration Outside of Alaska § 3151.1 Notice of intent to... exploration outside of the State of Alaska shall file a Notice of Intent to Conduct Oil and Gas Exploration... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice of intent to conduct oil and...

  6. 43 CFR 3151.1 - Notice of intent to conduct oil and gas geophysical exploration operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION Exploration Outside of Alaska § 3151.1 Notice of intent to... exploration outside of the State of Alaska shall file a Notice of Intent to Conduct Oil and Gas Exploration... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice of intent to conduct oil and...

  7. Oil and gas exploration near Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Grow, J.A.; Barker, C.E.; Harris, A.G.

    1994-12-31

    Three oil exploration wells were drilled within 20 km of Yucca Mountain in 1991. Conodont samples from two of these new wells and 190 locations near Yucca Mountain and have been analyzed for color alteration indices (CAI), which can be correlated to thermal maturity and petroleum generation. Cambrian through Triassic rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain have experienced temperatures too high to be capable of generating oil, except for a narrow zone (20 x 100 km) northeast of Yucca Mountain, where Mississippian through Triassic rocks are just within the upper limit of the oil generating window. Organic geochemical samples from the Mississippian Eleana Formation in this zone have low total organic carbon and low hydrogen indices, which, combined with overall pattern of CAI values, indicates that the entire Cambrian through Triassic sedimentary column is unfavorable as oil source rocks. While much of the Cambrian through Triassic rocks have thermal potential for gas, extensive Late Tertiary faulting at Yucca Mountain suggest that seals might be inadequate for retaining gas. No commercial gas fields have been found to date in Nevada or adjacent parts of California. Organic geochemistry on samples from a few Tertiary lacustrine deposits do show high carbon and hydrogen indices. However, the lacustrine deposits in these basin and range type valleys lack long range continuity and none of the present Nevada oil fields produce from such Tertiary valley-fill.

  8. Exploring HPSS bandwidth - NERSC production experience

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Harvard H.

    2003-11-30

    We have developed tools to help us analyze transfer logs from a production High Performance Storage System (HPSS) system at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC). These tools provide graphical displays of data transfer performance over relatively short (24 hour or less) time spans.

  9. Advancing New 3D Seismic Interpretation Methods for Exploration and Development of Fractured Tight Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    James Reeves

    2005-01-31

    In a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and GeoSpectrum, Inc., new P-wave 3D seismic interpretation methods to characterize fractured gas reservoirs are developed. A data driven exploratory approach is used to determine empirical relationships for reservoir properties. Fractures are predicted using seismic lineament mapping through a series of horizon and time slices in the reservoir zone. A seismic lineament is a linear feature seen in a slice through the seismic volume that has negligible vertical offset. We interpret that in regions of high seismic lineament density there is a greater likelihood of fractured reservoir. Seismic AVO attributes are developed to map brittle reservoir rock (low clay) and gas content. Brittle rocks are interpreted to be more fractured when seismic lineaments are present. The most important attribute developed in this study is the gas sensitive phase gradient (a new AVO attribute), as reservoir fractures may provide a plumbing system for both water and gas. Success is obtained when economic gas and oil discoveries are found. In a gas field previously plagued with poor drilling results, four new wells were spotted using the new methodology and recently drilled. The wells have estimated best of 12-months production indicators of 2106, 1652, 941, and 227 MCFGPD. The latter well was drilled in a region of swarming seismic lineaments but has poor gas sensitive phase gradient (AVO) and clay volume attributes. GeoSpectrum advised the unit operators that this location did not appear to have significant Lower Dakota gas before the well was drilled. The other three wells are considered good wells in this part of the basin and among the best wells in the area. These new drilling results have nearly doubled the gas production and the value of the field. The interpretation method is ready for commercialization and gas exploration and development. The new technology is adaptable to conventional lower cost 3D seismic surveys.

  10. 76 FR 68749 - Effluent Limits Under the NPDES General Permit for Oil and Gas Exploration, Development and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Production Facilities Located in State and Federal Waters in Cook Inlet, AK AGENCY: Environmental Protection... for Oil and Gas Exploration, Development and Production Facilities in State and Federal Waters in Cook..., copper, total aromatic hydrocarbons (TAH), total aqueous hydrocarbons (TAqH), silver, and whole...

  11. Natural gas product and strategic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Layne, A.W.; Duda, J.R.; Zammerilli, A.M.

    1993-12-31

    Product and strategic analysis at the Department of Energy (DOE)/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) crosscuts all sectors of the natural gas industry. This includes the supply, transportation, and end-use sectors of the natural-gas market. Projects in the Natural Gas Resource and Extraction supply program have been integrated into a new product focus. Product development facilitates commercialization and technology transfer through DOE/industry cost-shared research, development, and demonstration (RD&D). Four products under the Resource and Extraction program include Resource and Reserves; Low Permeability Formations; Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation: and Natural Gas Upgrading. Engineering process analyses have been performed for the Slant Hole Completion Test project. These analyses focused on evaluation of horizontal-well recovery potential and applications of slant-hole technology. Figures 2 and 3 depict slant-well in situ stress conditions and hydraulic fracture configurations. Figure 4 presents Paludal Formation coal-gas production curves used to optimize the hydraulic fracture design for the slant well. Economic analyses have utilized data generated from vertical test wells to evaluate the profitability of horizontal technology for low-permeability formations in Yuma County, Colorado, and Maverick County, Texas.

  12. RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald C. Surdam; Zunsheng Jiao; Nicholas K. Boyd

    1999-11-01

    The new exploration technology for basin center gas accumulations developed by R.C. Surdam and Associates at the Institute for Energy Research, University of Wyoming, was applied to the Riverton Dome 3-D seismic area. Application of the technology resulted in the development of important new exploration leads in the Frontier, Muddy, and Nugget formations. The new leads are adjacent to a major north-south trending fault, which is downdip from the crest of the major structure in the area. In a blind test, the drilling results from six new Muddy test wells were accurately predicted. The initial production values, IP, for the six test wells ranged from < one mmcf/day to four mmcf/day. The three wells with the highest IP values (i.e., three to four mmcf/day) were drilled into an intense velocity anomaly (i.e., anomalously slow velocities). The well drilled at the end of the velocity anomaly had an IP value of one mmcf/day, and the two wells drilled outside of the velocity anomaly had IP values of < one mmcf/day and are presently shut in. Based on these test results, it is concluded that the new IER exploration strategy for detecting and delineating commercial, anomalously pressured gas accumulation is valid in the southwestern portions of the Wind River Basin, and can be utilized to significantly reduce exploration risk and to increase profitability of so-called basin center gas accumulations.

  13. Exploring the Potential Business Case for Synergies Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.; Arent, D.

    2014-02-01

    Natural gas and renewable energy each contribute to economic growth, energy independence, and carbon mitigation, sometimes independently and sometimes collectively. Often, natural gas and renewables are considered competitors in markets, such as those for bulk electricity. This paper attempts to address the question, 'Given near- and long-term needs for abundant, cleaner energy sources and decarbonization, how can more compelling business models be created so that these two domestic forms of energy work in greater concert?' This paper explores revenue opportunities that emerge from systems-level perspectives in 'bulk energy' (large-scale electricity and natural gas production, transmission, and trade) and four 'distribution edge' subsectors: industrial, residential, commercial, and transportation end uses.

  14. BUILDING MATERIALS MADE FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael W. Grutzeck; Maria DiCola; Paul Brenner

    2006-03-30

    Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) materials are produced in abundant quantities by coal burning utilities. Due to environmental restrains, flue gases must be ''cleaned'' prior to release to the atmosphere. They are two general methods to ''scrub'' flue gas: wet and dry. The choice of scrubbing material is often defined by the type of coal being burned, i.e. its composition. Scrubbing is traditionally carried out using a slurry of calcium containing material (slaked lime or calcium carbonate) that is made to contact exiting flue gas as either a spay injected into the gas or in a bubble tower. The calcium combined with the SO{sub 2} in the gas to form insoluble precipitates. Some plants have been using dry injection of these same materials or their own Class C fly ash to scrub. In either case the end product contains primarily hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}O) with smaller amounts of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O). These materials have little commercial use. Experiments were carried out that were meant to explore the feasibility of using blends of hannebachite and fly ash mixed with concentrated sodium hydroxide to make masonry products. The results suggest that some of these mixtures could be used in place of conventional Portland cement based products such as retaining wall bricks and pavers.

  15. Metal powder production by gas atomization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, E. Y.; Grant, N. J.

    1986-01-01

    The confined liquid, gas-atomization process was investigated. Results from a two-dimensional water model showed the importance of atomization pressure, as well as delivery tube and atomizer design. The atomization process at the tip of the delivery tube was photographed. Results from the atomization of a modified 7075 aluminum alloy yielded up to 60 wt pct. powders that were finer than 45 microns in diameter. Two different atomizer designs were evaluated. The amount of fine powders produced was correlated to a calculated gas-power term. An optimal gas-power value existed for maximized fine powder production. Atomization at gas-power greater than or less than this optimal value produced coarser powders.

  16. New Methodology for Natural Gas Production Estimates

    EIA Publications

    2010-01-01

    A new methodology is implemented with the monthly natural gas production estimates from the EIA-914 survey this month. The estimates, to be released April 29, 2010, include revisions for all of 2009. The fundamental changes in the new process include the timeliness of the historical data used for estimation and the frequency of sample updates, both of which are improved.

  17. Bio-gas production from alligator weeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latif, A.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of temperature, sample preparation, reducing agents, light intensity and pH of the media, on bio-gas and methane production from the microbial anaerobic decomposition of alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides. Efforts were also made for the isolation and characterization of the methanogenic bacteria.

  18. Canada`s commercially oriented Radarsat returns SAR data for oil, gas exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Tack, R.E.

    1996-07-15

    Canada in November 1995 launched the world`s first commercially oriented remote sensing satellite to carry a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging system. Radarsat provides the oil and gas industry with a unique variety of exploration and mapping capabilities not previously offered by an operational imaging satellite. Radarsat`s SAR data became commercially available in March 1996 at a cost ranging between 2{cents} to $1.60/sq km for most products--a fraction of the cost of airborne SAR imagery. The paper discusses the exploration and production benefits of SAR (all-weather imaging, varied orbits, and sensitivity to terrain) and Radarsat advantages variable incidence angle, multiple beam modes, onboard tape recorders, processing and delivery, and cost effectiveness.

  19. Decade of exploration in deep lower Tuscaloosa gas trend in southern Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.W.

    1985-02-01

    The deep lower Tuscaloosa gas trend, now in a mature stage of exploration, was discovered in 1975. Production is from lower Tuscaloosa sandstones of Late Cretaceous age. During the past decade, the petroleum industry has drilled approximately 217 new-field wildcats and 232 development wells in the trend. This exploration effort has discovered 24 fields. Most of these fields produce from depths between 15,000 and 20,000 ft. In February 1984, the average daily production was 426.6 mmcf of gas and 18,350 bbl of liquid hydrocarbons from approximately 115 wells. Five fields, False River, Irene, Judge Digby, Moore-Sams, and Port Hudson, all discovered prior to 1980 and concentrated northwest of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, have produced about 72% of the cumulative gas and 80% of the cumulative liquids. Reservoirs in deep lower Tuscaloosa occur in a terrigenous clastic sequence, which thickens rapidly downdip from a carbonate shelf of Early Cretaceous age. Occurrences of commercial hydrocarbons in the trend are primarily dependent on depositional environment, syndepositional tectonics, source rock, original sand mineralogy, and burial diagenesis. Salt diapirism is locally important.

  20. New Thematic Solar System Exploration Products for Scientists and Educators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowes, Lesile; Wessen, Alice; Davis, Phil; Lindstrom, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    The next several years are an exciting time in the exploration of the solar system. NASA and its international partners have a veritable armada of spaceships heading out to the far reaches of the solar system. We'll send the first spacecraft beyond our solar system into interstellar space. We'll launch our first mission to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt and just our second to Mercury (the first in 30 years). We'll continue our intensive exploration of Mars and begin our detailed study of Saturn and its moons. We'll visit asteroids and comets and bring home pieces of the Sun and a comet. This is truly an unprecedented period of exploration and discovery! To facilitate access to information and to provide the thematic context for these missions NASA s Solar System Exploration Program and Solar System Exploration Education Forum have developed several products.

  1. Production Characteristics of Oceanic Natural Gas Hydrate Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max, M. D.; Johnson, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Oceanic natural gas hydrate (NGH) accumulations form when natural gas is trapped thermodynamically within the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ), which extends downward from the seafloor in open ocean depths greater than about 500 metres. As water depths increase, the thickness of the GHSZ thickens, but economic NGH deposits probably occur no deeper than 1 km below the seafloor. Natural gas (mostly methane) appears to emanate mostly from deeper sources and migrates into the GHSZ. The natural gas crystallizes as NGH when the pressure - temperature conditions within the GHSZ are reached and when the chemical condition of dissolved gas concentration in pore water is high enough to favor crystallization. Although NGH can form in both primary and secondary porosity, the principal economic target appears to be turbidite sands on deep continental margins. Because these are very similar to the hosts of more deeply buried conventional gas and oil deposits, industry knows how to explore for them. Recent improvements in a seismic geotechnical approach to NGH identification and valuation have been confirmed by drilling in the northern Gulf of Mexico and allow for widespread exploration for NGH deposits to begin. NGH concentrations occur in the same semi-consolidated sediments in GHSZs worldwide. This provides for a narrow exploration window with low acoustic attenuation. These sediments present the same range of relatively easy drilling conditions and formation pressures that are only slightly greater than at the seafloor and are essentially equalized by water in wellbores. Expensive conventional drilling equipment is not required. NGH is the only hydrocarbon that is stable at its formation pressures and incapable of converting to gas without artificial stimulation. We suggest that specialized, NGH-specific drilling capability will offer opportunities for much less expensive drilling, more complex wellbore layouts that improve reservoir connectivity and in which gas-water separation can begin within the seafloor, and specialized production techniques. NGH is the only oceanic hydrocarbon deposit in which pressure can be controlled within the reservoir by balancing conversion and extraction. Oceanic NGH has a very low environmental risk, which also serves to distinguish it from other deepwater hydrocarbon deposits.

  2. Finding the lost river gas field - Lineament density analysis in hydrocarbon exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    A comparative trial analysis of lineament density in 1:500,000 Landsat and 1:48,000 aerial Landsat-simulator images of a gas-field region in West Virginia is presented. The high-contrast, band 4, 5, 7 color composite Landsat image was interpreted independently by two analysts. The slightly different lineament maps were evaluated in terms of lineament-density variation in 10 x 10-km areas, and the resulting areal-variation maps are found to be statistically equivalent. High lineament density is shown to be associated with productive gas wells. Comparison of ground-based substructural contour maps and lineament-density analyses of the Landsat-simulator images reveals good correlation between density maxima or isopleths and substructural features associated with hydrocarbon formations. A hydrocarbon-exploration strategy using both Landsat and aerial images is proposed.

  3. Anatomy of success in oil and gas exploration in Pakistan, 1915--94

    SciTech Connect

    Quadri, V.N.; Quadri, S.M.G.J.

    1996-05-13

    Pakistan, flanked by Iran, Afghanistan, China, and India, is the size of Texas and Louisiana combined. The Indus and Baluchistan basins cover 80% of Pakistan`s total area. The country also has 230,000 sq km of marine Exclusive Economic Zone. The law regarding E and P activity was promulgated in 1986, replacing the previous Petroleum (Production) Rules of 1949. As a result of the new Petroleum Policy implemented in March 1994 and streamlining of the bid review and award process, acreage leased including reconnaissance during 1994 was 355,541 sq km onshore and 120,640 sq km offshore, with the number of operating groups also a record high of 46. Although complex and disturbed as a result of collision tectonics, Pakistan`s geology is as fascinating as the surface geomorphology, from the complex compressional thrusted to the relatively simple extensional rifted, salt related to transform fault associated, the reefs, too, all impressive traps for petroleum, at times almost textbook examples. However, domestic oil production at yearend 1994 was about 53,251 b/d of oil and 1.7 bcfd of gas. Oil and gas have been found in the Potwar/Upper Indus basin and Lower Indus basin, and mainly gas with one gas/condensate discovery in the Sulaiman/Middle Indus basin. This article attempts to present brief case history outlines of typical, significant oil and gas discoveries of Pakistan 1915--94 with respect to the two main productive basins, their source and reservoir sequences, in order to determine the anatomy of success in exploration in Pakistan.

  4. Riverton Dome Gas Exploration and Stimulation Technology Demonstration, Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald C. Surdam

    1998-11-15

    This project will provide a full demonstration of an entirely new package of exploration technologies that will result in the discovery and development of significant new gas reserves now trapped in unconventional low-permeability reservoirs. This demonstration includes the field application of these technologies, prospect definition and well siting, and a test of this new strategy through wildcat drilling. In addition this project includes a demonstration of a new stimulation technology that will improve completion success in these unconventional low permeability reservoirs which are sensitive to drilling and completion damage. The work includes two test wells to be drilled by Snyder Oil Company on the Shoshone/Arapahoe Tribal Lands in the Wind River Basin. This basin is a foreland basin whose petroleum systems include Paleozoic and Cretaceous source beds and reservoirs which were buried, folded by Laramide compressional folding, and subsequently uplifted asymmetrically. The anomalous pressure boundary is also asymmetric, following differential uplift trends. The Institute for Energy Research has taken a unique approach to building a new exploration strategy for low-permeability gas accumulations in basins characterized by anomalously pressured, compartmentalized gas accumulations. Key to this approach is the determination and three-dimensional evaluation of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalous pressure regimes, and the detection and delineation of areas of enhanced storage capacity and deliverability below this boundary. This new exploration strategy will be demonstrated in the Riverton Dome� Emigrant Demonstration Project (RDEDP) by completing the following tasks: 1) detect and delineate the anomalous pressure boundaries, 2) delineate surface lineaments, fracture and fault distribution, spacing, and orientation through remote sensing investigations, 3) characterize the internal structure of the anomalous pressured volume in the RDEDP and determine the scale of compartmentalization using produced water chemistry, 4) define the prospects and well locations as a result on this new exploration technology, and 5) utilize new completion techniques that will minimize formation damage and optimize production.

  5. 43 CFR 3152.1 - Application for oil and gas geophysical exploration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application for oil and gas geophysical exploration permit. 3152.1 Section 3152.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION...

  6. Manufacturing Production: An Evaluation Report for the Occupational Exploration Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altschuld, James W.; And Others

    The evaluation report is one of seven produced for the Occupational Exploration Program (OEP), a series of simulated occupational experiences designed for junior high school students. Describing the pilot testing of the simulation dealing with manufacturing production, the report contains sections describing the simulation context, evaluation…

  7. A Computer-Assisted Oil Exploration and Production Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Gary John

    1987-01-01

    Describes a computer-assisted oil exploration and production game for students involved in a short course in petroleum geology. Outlines the game and its procedures, and provides sample structure maps generated by the computer in the course of playing the game. (TW)

  8. Exploring enzymes on cotton and their product targets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzyme-active cotton is a functional biocompatible material, and has potential applications as a sustainable material. With this in mind we have explored development of enzyme-active cotton with product potential as a disposable or reusable textile material. Lysozyme, which historically has been a w...

  9. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (Extractive Activities—Oil and Gas Topic). Instruction 5 to Item 1204: The average production cost, not... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false (Item 1204) Oil and gas... Disclosure by Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1204 (Item 1204) Oil and...

  10. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (Extractive Activities—Oil and Gas Topic). Instruction 5 to Item 1204: The average production cost, not... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false (Item 1204) Oil and gas... Disclosure by Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1204 (Item 1204) Oil and...

  11. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (Extractive Activities—Oil and Gas Topic). Instruction 5 to Item 1204: The average production cost, not... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false (Item 1204) Oil and gas... Disclosure by Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1204 (Item 1204) Oil and...

  12. CO Methanation for Synthetic Natural Gas Production.

    PubMed

    Kambolis, Anastasios; Schildhauer, Tilman J; Kröcher, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Energy from woody biomass could supplement renewable energy production towards the replacement of fossil fuels. A multi-stage process involving gasification of wood and then catalytic transformation of the producer gas to synthetic natural gas (SNG) represents progress in this direction. SNG can be transported and distributed through the existing pipeline grid, which is advantageous from an economical point of view. Therefore, CO methanation is attracting a great deal of attention and much research effort is focusing on the understanding of the process steps and its further development. This short review summarizes recent efforts at Paul Scherrer Institute on the understanding of the reaction mechanism, the catalyst deactivation, and the development of catalytic materials with benign properties for CO methanation. PMID:26598405

  13. 21 CFR 173.350 - Combustion product gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Combustion product gas. 173.350 Section 173.350... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.350 Combustion product gas. The food additive combustion product gas may be safely used in the processing and packaging of the foods designated in paragraph (c)...

  14. 21 CFR 173.350 - Combustion product gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Combustion product gas. 173.350 Section 173.350... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.350 Combustion product gas. The food additive combustion product gas may be safely used in the processing and packaging of the foods designated in paragraph (c)...

  15. 21 CFR 173.350 - Combustion product gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Combustion product gas. 173.350 Section 173.350... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.350 Combustion product gas. The food additive combustion product gas may be safely used in the processing and packaging of the foods designated in paragraph (c)...

  16. 21 CFR 173.350 - Combustion product gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Combustion product gas. 173.350 Section 173.350... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.350 Combustion product gas. The food additive combustion product gas may be safely used in the processing and packaging of the foods designated in paragraph (c)...

  17. Bio Gas Oil Production from Waste Lard

    PubMed Central

    Hancsók, Jenő; Baladincz, Péter; Kasza, Tamás; Kovács, Sándor; Tóth, Csaba; Varga, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Besides the second generations bio fuels, one of the most promising products is the bio gas oil, which is a high iso-paraffin containing fuel, which could be produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of different triglycerides. To broaden the feedstock of the bio gas oil the catalytic hydrogenation of waste lard over sulphided NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst, and as the second step, the isomerization of the produced normal paraffin rich mixture (intermediate product) over Pt/SAPO-11 catalyst was investigated. It was found that both the hydrogenation and the decarboxylation/decarbonylation oxygen removing reactions took place but their ratio depended on the process parameters (T = 280–380°C, P = 20–80 bar, LHSV = 0.75–3.0 h−1 and H2/lard ratio: 600 Nm3/m3). In case of the isomerization at the favourable process parameters (T = 360–370°C, P = 40 –50 bar, LHSV = 1.0 h−1 and H2/hydrocarbon ratio: 400 Nm3/m3) mainly mono-branching isoparaffins were obtained. The obtained products are excellent Diesel fuel blending components, which are practically free of heteroatoms. PMID:21403875

  18. Federal Environmental Regulations Impacting Hydrocarbon Exploration, Drilling, and Production Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Waste handling and disposal from hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through federal and state regulations and/or through implementation of federal regulations. Some wastes generated in these operations are exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) but are not exempt under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and other federal environmental laws. Exempt wastes remain exempt only if they are not mixed with hazardous wastes or hazardous substances. Once mixture occurs, the waste must be disposed as a hazardous material in an approved hazardous waste disposal facility. Before the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, air emissions from production, storage, steam generation, and compression facilities associated with hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production industry were not regulated. A critical proposed regulatory change which will significantly effect Class II injection wells for disposal of produced brine and injection for enhanced oil recovery is imminent. Federal regulations affecting hydrocarbon exploration, drilling and production, proposed EPA regulatory changes, and a recent significant US Court of Appeals decision are covered in this report. It appears that this industry will, in the future, fall under more stringent environmental regulations leading to increased costs for operators.

  19. How technology and price affect US tight gas potential. Part 1. Technology of tight gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Veatch, R.W. Jr.; Baker, O.

    1983-01-01

    The tight gas resource in the US currently is estimated at 900 tcf, of which 600 tcf is considered technically recoverable. This gas is found in basins that cover a prospective area of one million square miles (one million sections). Of these, ca 120,000 sections are potentially productive. The tight gas picture is composed of many different and often complex reservoirs, ranging from the shallow horizons of the Northern Great Plains to the deep formations of the Rocky Mountains. These reservoirs range from the blanket-like formations that cover wide geographical areas to the highly lenticular zones such as those common to the Mesa Verde. The one thing they have in common is microdarcy permeabilities. A good perspective of the challenge is obvious when such permeability values are realized to be similar to that of cement normally used for oil and gas well casing strings. The advanced technology presumes improved exploration knowledge, longer fractures, higher fracture conductivity, and a higher density of well development. Advanced technology is particularly necessary for lenticular reservoirs which contain ca 40% of the recoverable gas.

  20. Polish permian basin: Lithofacies traps for gas within the Rotliegende deposits as a new exploration potential

    SciTech Connect

    Karnkowski, P.H. )

    1993-09-01

    Rotliegende deposits are the most prospective reservoir gas rocks in the Polish Permian basin. Thirty years of their exploration have led to location of numerous gas fields in the upper-most part of these series, particularly in the area of the Fore-Sudetic monocline. Up to this time, exploration studies concentrated mainly on structural objects, and most of the structures were positive gas traps. Well and seismic data also indicate an occurrence of lithofacies gas traps; they occur mainly in the sandstone zones within the fanglomerates surrounding the Wolsztyn Ridge. When comparing the facies regularities in the known gas fields in the German Permian basin (interfingering sandstones and claystones) to the facies patterns of the Polish Permian basin, one may suspect similar exploration possibilities. These are the first promising results. Advances in analysis of the Rotliegende depositional systems will enable us to create a new exploration potential.

  1. Coral reef formation theory may apply to oil, gas exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-10

    This paper reports a coral reef formation theory that has implications for hydrocarbon exploration. The theory states that many coral reefs and carbonate buildups from at and are dependent upon nutrient rich fluids seeping through the seabed.

  2. Arizona strip breccia pipe program: exploration, development, and production

    SciTech Connect

    Mathisen, I.W. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    As part of the long-range plans for the Energy Fuels Corporation, they have embarked on one of the most active and aggressive uranium exploration programs in the US. These exploration efforts are located in the northwestern part of Arizona in an area referred to as the Arizona Strip. At a time when the domestic uranium industry is staggering to recover from its worst economic slump, Energy Fuels is spending millions of dollars a year on exploration, development, production, and milling. The reason for Energy Fuels' commitment to uranium exploration and production lies in the ground of Arizona in unique geologic formations called breccia pipes. Some of these structures, generally no more than 300 to 350 ft in diameter, contain uranium that is, on the average, five to ten times richer than ore found elsewhere in the US. The richness of this Arizona ore makes it the only conventionally mined uranium in the US that can compete in today's market of cheaper, high-grade foreign sources. Between January 1980 and December 1986, Energy Fuels has mined more than 10 billion lb of uranium from breccia pipe deposits at an average grade of 0.65% U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Currently, Energy Fuels is operating six breccia pipe mines, and a plan of operations on a seventh mine has been submitted to the appropriate government agencies for the necessary mining permits.

  3. ALMA Explorations of Warm Dense Molecular Gas in Nearby LIRGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C. Kevin

    2015-02-01

    We present results of ALMA (Cycle-0) observations of the CO (6-5) line emission and the 435μm continuum of two nearby luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) NGC 34 (a major merger with an AGN) and NGC 1614 (a minor merger with a circum-nuclear starburst). Using receivers in the highest frequency ALMA band available (Band-9), these observations achieved the best angular resolutions (~0''.25) for ALMA Cycle-0 observations and resolved for the first time distributions of warm dense molecular gas (n > 105 cm-3, T > 100 K) in LIRGs with spatial resolutions better than 100 pc. Our ALMA data show a very tight correlation between the CO (6-5) line emission and the 435μm dust continuum emission, suggesting the warm dense molecular gas dominates the ISM in the central kpc of LIRGs, and gas heating and dust heating in the warm dense gas cores are strongly coupled. On the other hand, we saw very different spatial distributions and kinematic properties of warm dense gas in the two LIRGs, indicating that physical conditions in the ISM can be very different in different LIRGs.

  4. Evaluation of long-term gas hydrate production testing locations on the Alaska north slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.; Boswell, R.; Lee, M.W.; Anderson, B.J.; Rose, K.; Lewis, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    The results of short duration formation tests in northern Alaska and Canada have further documented the energy resource potential of gas hydrates and justified the need for long-term gas hydrate production testing. Additional data acquisition and long-term production testing could improve the understanding of the response of naturally-occurring gas hydrate to depressurization-induced or thermal-, chemical-, and/or mechanical-stimulated dissociation of gas hydrate into producible gas. The Eileen gas hydrate accumulation located in the Greater Prudhoe Bay area in northern Alaska has become a focal point for gas hydrate geologic and production studies. BP Exploration (Alaska) Incorporated and ConocoPhillips have each established research partnerships with U.S. Department of Energy to assess the production potential of gas hydrates in northern Alaska. A critical goal of these efforts is to identify the most suitable site for production testing. A total of seven potential locations in the Prudhoe Bay, Kuparuk, and Milne Point production units were identified and assessed relative to their suitability as a long-term gas hydrate production test site. The test site assessment criteria included the analysis of the geologic risk associated with encountering reservoirs for gas hydrate testing. The site selection process also dealt with the assessment of the operational/logistical risk associated with each of the potential test sites. From this review, a site in the Prudhoe Bay production unit was determined to be the best location for extended gas hydrate production testing. The work presented in this report identifies the key features of the potential test site in the Greater Prudhoe Bay area, and provides new information on the nature of gas hydrate occurrence and potential impact of production testing on existing infrastructure at the most favorable sites. These data were obtained from well log analysis, geological correlation and mapping, and numerical simulation. Copyright 2011, Offshore Technology Conference.

  5. Evaluation of long-term gas hydrate production testing locations on the Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy; Boswell, Ray; Lee, Myung W.; Anderson, Brian J.; Rose, Kelly K.; Lewis, Kristen A.

    2011-01-01

    The results of short duration formation tests in northern Alaska and Canada have further documented the energy resource potential of gas hydrates and justified the need for long-term gas hydrate production testing. Additional data acquisition and long-term production testing could improve the understanding of the response of naturally-occurring gas hydrate to depressurization-induced or thermal-, chemical-, and/or mechanical-stimulated dissociation of gas hydrate into producible gas. The Eileen gas hydrate accumulation located in the Greater Prudhoe Bay area in northern Alaska has become a focal point for gas hydrate geologic and production studies. BP Exploration (Alaska) Incorporated and ConocoPhillips have each established research partnerships with U.S. Department of Energy to assess the production potential of gas hydrates in northern Alaska. A critical goal of these efforts is to identify the most suitable site for production testing. A total of seven potential locations in the Prudhoe Bay, Kuparuk, and Milne Point production units were identified and assessed relative to their suitability as a long-term gas hydrate production test site. The test site assessment criteria included the analysis of the geologic risk associated with encountering reservoirs for gas hydrate testing. The site selection process also dealt with the assessment of the operational/logistical risk associated with each of the potential test sites. From this review, a site in the Prudhoe Bay production unit was determined to be the best location for extended gas hydrate production testing. The work presented in this report identifies the key features of the potential test site in the Greater Prudhoe Bay area, and provides new information on the nature of gas hydrate occurrence and potential impact of production testing on existing infrastructure at the most favorable sites. These data were obtained from well log analysis, geological correlation and mapping, and numerical simulation.

  6. Exploring the thermodynamics of a universal Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimbène, S.; Navon, N.; Jiang, K. J.; Chevy, F.; Salomon, C.

    2010-02-01

    One of the greatest challenges in modern physics is to understand the behaviour of an ensemble of strongly interacting particles. A class of quantum many-body systems (such as neutron star matter and cold Fermi gases) share the same universal thermodynamic properties when interactions reach the maximum effective value allowed by quantum mechanics, the so-called unitary limit. This makes it possible in principle to simulate some astrophysical phenomena inside the highly controlled environment of an atomic physics laboratory. Previous work on the thermodynamics of a two-component Fermi gas led to thermodynamic quantities averaged over the trap, making comparisons with many-body theories developed for uniform gases difficult. Here we develop a general experimental method that yields the equation of state of a uniform gas, as well as enabling a detailed comparison with existing theories. The precision of our equation of state leads to new physical insights into the unitary gas. For the unpolarized gas, we show that the low-temperature thermodynamics of the strongly interacting normal phase is well described by Fermi liquid theory, and we localize the superfluid transition. For a spin-polarized system, our equation of state at zero temperature has a 2 per cent accuracy and extends work on the phase diagram to a new regime of precision. We show in particular that, despite strong interactions, the normal phase behaves as a mixture of two ideal gases: a Fermi gas of bare majority atoms and a non-interacting gas of dressed quasi-particles, the fermionic polarons.

  7. How technology and price affect US tight gas potential. Part 2 (Conclusion). Economics of tight gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Veatch, R.W. Jr.; Baker, O.

    1983-04-01

    The amount of tight gas recoverable in the Lower 48 states depends on both improved technology and the price received for the gas. As either of these factors increases, operators will be able to produce lower quality reservoirs, thereby increasing the economically recoverable gas resources. A model used to estimate three major producing formations in the San Juan basin - the Dakota, Pictured Cliffs, and Mesa Verde - incorporates the physical steps in the exploration and development process for each field in the subbasin; investments, dry holes, production, and sales are properly scheduled to yield financial results as well as ultimate recovery. A second model simulates an exploration play in multiple basins, providing for scheduling investments in a number of basins over a period of years. Output includes annual production, cash flow, and profitability.

  8. High rate of methane leakage from natural gas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-10-01

    Natural gas production is growing as the United States seeks domestic sources of relatively clean energy. Natural gas combustion produces less carbon dioxide emissions than coal or oil for the amount of energy produced. However, one source of concern is that some natural gas leaks to the atmosphere from the extraction point, releasing methane, a potent greenhouse gas.

  9. Environmental legal implications of oil and gas exploration in the Niger Delta of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orubebe, Bibobra Bello

    Nigeria is an African country endowed with a wealth of oil and gas resources, and they are mainly found in the core Niger Delta (home to the Ijaw and Ogoni indigenous, ethnic minorities). Since Great Britain granted Nigeria political independence on October 1, 1960, successive Nigerian governments (military and civilian) have been dominated by the majority ethnic groups (Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, and Ibo). Significantly, the government adopted a socialist-based model of absolute state ownership over oil and gas resources. The socialist model formed the basis of Nigeria's business collaboration with multinational oil and gas corporations from Europe and the United States (notably Shell, Chevron Texaco, Agip, Exxon Mobil, Total, and Elf). This model is fraught with contradictions and has led to unacceptable consequences, including policies that allow exploitation of natural resources without reference to environmental sustainability. When oil was first struck in 1956 at Oloibori (Ijaw area), people thought it would bring prosperity and an improved quality of life. Sadly, the opposite has occurred. Forty-nine years of hardship, agonizing pain, debilitating anger, extreme poverty, poisoned rivers, destroyed occupations, devastated environment, and stunted growth of the youth are the negative impacts of oil and gas exploitation in the Niger Delta. In other words, oil and gas exploration and production have visited a full range of evils---socio-political, economic, and cultural---upon the indigenous Niger Delta people. Furthermore, the wealth extracted from the area is used by the state and multinational corporations to enhance their own wealth and quality of life. Revenue has been conspicuously looted and misappropriated by political leaders at the expense of the Niger Delta environment and its people. This confluence of exploitation and injury has led to social upheavals and armed rebellions, all capable of precipitating the disintegration of the country. In this dissertation, research materials have been used to identify fundamental problems inherent in the current approach to oil and gas exploration and development. Primary research findings were used to develop the recommended shift in environmental paradigm that is critical to achieving sustainable development in Nigeria. Central to the recommendations in this dissertation is a rigorous, participatory Environmental Impact Assessment ("EIA") process.

  10. Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, H.J.

    1992-10-01

    The mechanics of ground movements during hydrate production can be more closely simulated by considering similarities with ground movements associated with subsidence in permafrost regions than with gob compaction in a longwall mine. The purpose of this research work is to investigate the potential strata movements associated with hydrate production by considering similarities with ground movements in permafrost regions. The work primarily involves numerical modeling of subsidence caused by hydrate dissociation. The investigation is based on the theories of continuum mechanics , thermomechanical behavior of frozen geo-materials, and principles of rock mechanics and geomechanics. It is expected that some phases of the investigation will involve the use of finite element method, which is a powerful computer-based method which has been widely used in many areas of science and engineering. Parametric studies will be performed to predict expected strata movements and surface subsidence for different reservoir conditions and properties of geological materials. The results from this investigation will be useful in predicting the magnitude of the subsidence problem associated with gas hydrate production. The analogy of subsidence in permafrost regions may provide lower bounds for subsidence expected in hydrate reservoirs. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the results will provide insight into planning of hydrate recovery operations.

  11. Federal offshore statistics: 1992. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenues as of December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Francois, D.K.

    1993-12-31

    The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, enacted in 1953 and amended several times, charges the Secretary of the Interior with the responsibility for administering and managing mineral exploration and development of the outer continental shelf, as well as for conserving its natural resources. This report documents the following: Federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; Federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from Federal offshore leases; disbursement of Federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. 11 figs., 83 tabs.

  12. Oil and Gas Exploration Planning using VOI Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peskova, D. N.; Sizykh, A. V.; Rukavishnikov, V. S.

    2016-03-01

    Paper deals with actual problem about making decisions during field development. The main aim was to apply method “Value of information” in order to estimate the necessity of field exploration works and show the effectiveness of this method. The object of analysis - field X, which is located in the Eastern Siberia. The reservoir is B13 formation of Vend age. The Field has complex structure, and divided into blocks by faults. During evaluation of the project, main uncertainties and oil in place were obtained for three blocks of the field. According to uncertainty analysis, it was suggested to drill a new exploration well, and value of information method was applied to estimate results from this exploration works. Economic evaluation of the value of information method was made by choosing optimal development strategy. According to the obtained results, drilling of the exploration wells for blocks 1 and 3 of the field X is a good decision, while drilling a well in the second block is risky and not recommended. Also using the value of information, optimal well locations were advised - well l_le for the first block, and well 33 for the third block.

  13. Evaluation of long-term gas hydrate production testing locations on the Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Boswell, Ray; Lee, Myung W.; Anderson, Brian J.; Rose, Kelly K.; Lewis, Kristen A.

    2012-01-01

    The results of short-duration formation tests in northern Alaska and Canada have further documented the energy-resource potential of gas hydrates and have justified the need for long-term gas-hydrate-production testing. Additional data acquisition and long-term production testing could improve the understanding of the response of naturally occurring gas hydrate to depressurization-induced or thermal-, chemical-, or mechanical-stimulated dissociation of gas hydrate into producible gas. The Eileen gashydrate accumulation located in the Greater Prudhoe Bay area in northern Alaska has become a focal point for gas-hydrate geologic and production studies. BP Exploration (Alaska) Incorporated and ConocoPhillips have each established research partnerships with the US Department of Energy to assess the production potential of gas hydrates in northern Alaska. A critical goal of these efforts is to identify the most suitable site for production testing. A total of seven potential locations in the Prudhoe Bay, Kuparuk River, and Milne Point production units were identified and assessed relative to their suitability as a long-term gas-hydrate-production test sites. The test-site-assessment criteria included the analysis of the geologic risk associated with encountering reservoirs for gas-hydrate testing. The site-selection process also dealt with the assessment of the operational/logistical risk associated with each of the potential test sites. From this review, a site in the Prudhoe Bay production unit was determined to be the best location for extended gas-hydrate-production testing. The work presented in this report identifies the key features of the potential test site in the Greater Prudhoe Bay area and provides new information on the nature of gas-hydrate occurrence and the potential impact of production testing on existing infrastructure at the most favorable sites. These data were obtained from well-log analysis, geological correlation and mapping, and numerical simulation.

  14. IRIS DMC products help explore the Tohoku earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabant, C.; Hutko, A. R.; Bahavar, M.; Ahern, T. K.; Benson, R. B.; Casey, R.

    2011-12-01

    Within two hours after the great March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake the IRIS DMC started publishing automated data products through its Searchable Product Depository (SPUD), which provides quick viewing of many aspects of the data and preliminary analysis of this great earthquake. These products are part of the DMC's data product development effort intended to serve many purposes: stepping-stones for future research projects, data visualizations, data characterization, research result comparisons as well as outreach material. Our current and soon-to-be-released products that allow users to explore this and other global M>6.0 events include 1) Event Plots, which are a suite of maps, record sections, regional vespagrams and P-coda stacks 2) US Array Ground Motion Visualizations that show the vertical and horizontal global seismic wavefield sweeping across US Array including minor and major arc surface waves and their polarizations 3) back-projection movies that show the time history of short-period energy from the rupture 4) R1 source-time functions that show approximate duration and source directivity and 5) aftershock sequence maps and statistics movies based on NEIC alerts that self-update every hour in the first few days following the mainshock. Higher order information for the Tohoku event that can be inferred based on our products which will be highlighted include a rupture duration of order 150 sec (P-coda stacks, back-projections, R1 STFs) that ruptured approximately 400 km along strike primarily towards the south (back-projections, R1 STFs, aftershock animation) with a very low rupture velocity (back-projections, R1 STFs). All of our event-based products are automated and consistently produced shortly after the event so that they may serve as familiar baselines for the seismology research community. More details on these and other existing products are available at: http://www.iris.edu/dms/products/

  15. Near surface hydrogeochemical exploration for oil and gas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chongxi, Liu; Xueming, Wu

    Through many years of experiment and study, we have worked out a set of our own methods in hydrogeochemical exploration for hydrocarbons comprising of conducting a regional geochemical survey in order to reduce the target region, using the tested experiences in producing area to evaluate the geochemical data in the frontier area, and applying a comprehensive pattern of multi-indicators to predict the favourable oil-belt. The present paper gives some examples which show that good results can be achieved from hydrogeochemical exploration in China. It has been proved by drilling that some hydrogeochemical anomalies provide good evidence of microseepage from an underlying deep reservoir. Therefore, hydrogeochemical anomalies are very useful in delineating the belts of hydrocarbon accumulation in frontier regions.

  16. Design Exploration of Engineered Materials, Products, and Associated Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Rishabh; Kulkarni, Nagesh H.; Gautham, B. P.; Singh, Amarendra K.; Mistree, Farrokh; Allen, Janet K.; Panchal, Jitesh H.

    2015-01-01

    In the past few years, ICME-related research has been directed towards the study of multi-scale materials design. However, relatively little has been reported on model-based methods that are of relevance to industry for the realization of engineered materials, products, and associated industrial manufacturing processes. Computational models used in the realization of engineered materials and products are fraught with uncertainty, have different levels of fidelity, are incomplete and are even likely to be inaccurate. In light of this, we adopt a robust design strategy that facilitates the exploration of the solution space thereby providing decision support to a design engineer. In this paper, we describe a foundational construct embodied in our method for design exploration, namely, the compromise Decision Support Problem. We introduce a problem that we are using to establish the efficacy of our method. It involves the integrated design of steel and gears, traversing the chain of steel making, mill production, and evolution of the material during these processes, and linking this to the mechanical design and manufacture of the gear. We provide an overview of our method to determine the operating set points for the ladle, tundish and caster operations necessary to manufacture steel of a desired set of properties. Finally, we highlight the efficacy of our method.

  17. Development of a Contingency Gas Analyzer for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niu, Bill; Carney, Kenneth; Steiner, George; OHarra, William; Lewis, John

    2010-01-01

    NASA's experience with electrochemical sensors in a hand-held toxic gas monitor serves as a basis for the development of a fixed on-board instrument, the Contingency Gas Analyzer (CGA), for monitoring selected toxic combustion products as well as oxygen and carbon dioxide on the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Oxygen and carbon dioxide are major components of the cabin environment and accurate measurement of these compounds is critical to maintaining a safe working environment for the crew. Fire or thermal degradation events may produce harmful levels of toxic products, including carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and hydrogen chloride (HCl) in the environment. These three components, besides being toxic in their own right, can serve as surrogates for a panoply of hazardous combustion products. On orbit monitoring of these surrogates provides for crew health and safety by indicating the presence of toxic combustion products in the environment before, during and after combustion or thermal degradation events. Issues identified in previous NASA experiences mandate hardening the instrument and components to endure the mechanical and operational stresses of the CEV environment while maintaining high analytical fidelity. Specific functional challenges involve protecting the sensors from various anticipated events- such as rapid pressure changes, low cabin pressures, and extreme vibration/shock exposures- and extending the sensor lifetime and calibration periods far beyond the current state of the art to avoid the need for on-orbit calibration. This paper focuses on lessons learned from the earlier NASA hardware, current testing results, and engineering solutions to the identified problems. Of particular focus will be the means for protecting the sensors, addressing well known cross-sensitivity issues and the efficacy of a novel self monitoring mechanism for extending sensor calibration periods.

  18. 43 CFR 3151.1 - Notice of intent to conduct oil and gas geophysical exploration operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice of intent to conduct oil and gas geophysical exploration operations. 3151.1 Section 3151.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS...

  19. Crew Exploration Vehicle Environmental Control and Life Support Emergency Gas Consumable Sizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.; Peterso, Laurie

    2007-01-01

    As part of preparing for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) worked on developing the requirements that drive the emergency gas consumables. Emergency gas is required to support Extravehicular Activities (EVA), maintain the cabin pressure during a cabin leak for the crew to don their suits, and to recover the cabin following a toxic even or a fire.

  20. Gas production strategy of underground coal gasification based on multiple gas sources.

    PubMed

    Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

    2014-01-01

    To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method. PMID:25114953

  1. Gas Production Strategy of Underground Coal Gasification Based on Multiple Gas Sources

    PubMed Central

    Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

    2014-01-01

    To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method. PMID:25114953

  2. Development and Demonstration of Mobile, Small Footprint Exploration and Development Well System for Arctic Unconventional Gas Resources (ARCGAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Glavinovich

    2002-11-01

    Traditionally, oil and gas field technology development in Alaska has focused on the high-cost, high-productivity oil and gas fields of the North Slope and Cook Inlet, with little or no attention given to Alaska's numerous shallow, unconventional gas reservoirs (carbonaceous shales, coalbeds, tight gas sands). This is because the high costs associated with utilizing the existing conventional oil and gas infrastructure, combined with the typical remoteness and environmental sensitivity of many of Alaska's unconventional gas plays, renders the cost of exploring for and producing unconventional gas resources prohibitive. To address these operational challenges and promote the development of Alaska's large unconventional gas resource base, new low-cost methods of obtaining critical reservoir parameters prior to drilling and completing more costly production wells are required. Encouragingly, low-cost coring, logging, and in-situ testing technologies have already been developed by the hard rock mining industry in Alaska and worldwide, where an extensive service industry employs highly portable diamond-drilling rigs. From 1998 to 2000, Teck Cominco Alaska employed some of these technologies at their Red Dog Mine site in an effort to quantify a large unconventional gas resource in the vicinity of the mine. However, some of the methods employed were not fully developed and required additional refinement in order to be used in a cost effective manner for rural arctic exploration. In an effort to offset the high cost of developing a new, low-cost exploration methods, the US Department of Energy, National Petroleum Technology Office (DOE-NPTO), partnered with the Nana Regional Corporation and Teck Cominco on a technology development program beginning in 2001. Under this DOE-NPTO project, a team comprised of the NANA Regional Corporation (NANA), Teck Cominco Alaska and Advanced Resources International, Inc. (ARI) have been able to adapt drilling technology developed for the mineral industry for use in the exploration of unconventional gas in rural Alaska. These techniques have included the use of diamond drilling rigs that core small diameter (< 3.0-inch) holes coupled with wireline geophysical logging tools and pressure transient testing units capable of testing in these slimholes.

  3. 30 CFR 250.303 - Facilities described in a new or revised Exploration Plan or Development and Production Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... concentrations established in 40 CFR 52.21 to be exceeded in the attainment or unclassifiable area: Maximum... Exploration Plan or Development and Production Plan. 250.303 Section 250.303 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE...

  4. 30 CFR 250.303 - Facilities described in a new or revised Exploration Plan or Development and Production Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Facilities described in a new or revised Exploration Plan or Development and Production Plan. 250.303 Section 250.303 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER...

  5. 30 CFR 550.303 - Facilities described in a new or revised Exploration Plan or Development and Production Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Facilities described in a new or revised Exploration Plan or Development and Production Plan. 550.303 Section 550.303 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pollution Prevention...

  6. Reservoir controls on the occurrence and production of gas hydrates in nature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy Scott

    2014-01-01

    modeling has shown that concentrated gas hydrate occurrences in sand reservoirs are conducive to existing well-based production technologies. The resource potential of gas hydrate accumulations in sand-dominated reservoirs have been assessed for several polar terrestrial basins. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assigned an in-place resource of 16.7 trillion cubic meters of gas for hydrates in sand-dominated reservoirs on the Alaska North Slope. In a more recent assessment, the USGS indicated that there are about 2.42 trillion cubic meters of technically recoverable gas resources within concentrated, sand-dominated, gas hydrate accumulations in northern Alaska. Estimates of the amount of in-place gas in the sand dominated gas hydrate accumulations of the Mackenzie Delta Beaufort Sea region of the Canadian arctic range from 1.0 to 10 trillion cubic meters of gas. Another prospective gas hydrate resources are those of moderate-to-high concentrations within sandstone reservoirs in marine environments. In 2008, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management estimated that the Gulf of Mexico contains about 190 trillion cubic meters of gas in highly concentrated hydrate accumulations within sand reservoirs. In 2008, the Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation reported on a resource assessment of gas hydrates in which they estimated that the volume of gas within the hydrates of the eastern Nankai Trough at about 1.1 trillion cubic meters, with about half concentrated in sand reservoirs. Because conventional production technologies favor sand-dominated gas hydrate reservoirs, sand reservoirs are considered to be the most viable economic target for gas hydrate production and will be the prime focus of most future gas hydrate exploration and development projects.

  7. Thermal reactor. [liquid silicon production from silane gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, H.; Ford, L. B. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A thermal reactor apparatus and method of pyrolyticaly decomposing silane gas into liquid silicon product and hydrogen by-product gas is disclosed. The thermal reactor has a reaction chamber which is heated well above the decomposition temperature of silane. An injector probe introduces the silane gas tangentially into the reaction chamber to form a first, outer, forwardly moving vortex containing the liquid silicon product and a second, inner, rewardly moving vortex containing the by-product hydrogen gas. The liquid silicon in the first outer vortex deposits onto the interior walls of the reaction chamber to form an equilibrium skull layer which flows to the forward or bottom end of the reaction chamber where it is removed. The by-product hydrogen gas in the second inner vortex is removed from the top or rear of the reaction chamber by a vortex finder. The injector probe which introduces the silane gas into the reaction chamber is continually cooled by a cooling jacket.

  8. Royalty relief, leasing, exploration may help maintain Cook Inlet production

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Cook Inlet production largely held its own in 1995 while Alaska`s overall oil production fell 4%. The Inlet`s seven oil fields produced 15.5 million bbl of oil, or a decline of only 0.6% from 1994`s 15.6 million bbl. Fields and their average production in 1995 compared with 1994 in parentheses, are McArthur River 18,142 b/d (19,427); Middle Ground Shoal 7.753 b/d (7,577); Granite Point 7,069 b/d (6,053); Swanson River 4,738 b/d (4,645); West McArthur River 2,526 b/d (2,522); Trading Bay 1,979 b/d (2,037); and Beaver Creek 362 b/d (383). The paper discusses Unocal`s plans, royalty relief, ARCO`s outlook, sales of Shell, explorations by Marathon, drilling by Stewart, reserves and production, and Cook Inlet leases.

  9. Production of biodiesel using expanded gas solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Ginosar, Daniel M; Fox, Robert V; Petkovic, Lucia M

    2009-04-07

    A method of producing an alkyl ester. The method comprises providing an alcohol and a triglyceride or fatty acid. An expanding gas is dissolved into the alcohol to form a gas expanded solvent. The alcohol is reacted with the triglyceride or fatty acid in a single phase to produce the alkyl ester. The expanding gas may be a nonpolar expanding gas, such as carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, ethylene, propylene, butylene, pentene, isomers thereof, and mixtures thereof, which is dissolved into the alcohol. The gas expanded solvent may be maintained at a temperature below, at, or above a critical temperature of the expanding gas and at a pressure below, at, or above a critical pressure of the expanding gas.

  10. Method and apparatus for the production of liquid gas products

    SciTech Connect

    Brundige, V.L.

    1986-01-07

    This patent describes an apparatus for producing liquified gas with a reduced amount of gas vapor in a liquid gas manufacturing facility. The apparatus consists of: a first flow conduit for receiving a stream of liquid gas from a liquid gas manufacturing facility and passing it directly to a bi-phase rotary separator; a bi-phase rotary separator; a vapor outlet, and a liquid outlet. It also contains means for coupling the liquid outlet of the bi-phase rotary separator directly to a liquid gas storage, contained within the coupling is a direct conduit connection between the liquid outlet and storage with pumping pressure for liquid supplied to the storage being provided by the rotary separator, as well as means for conducting gas vapor from the vapor outlet. The patent also describes a method for producing liquified gas with a reduced amount of gas vapor.

  11. International oil and gas exploration and development: 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This report starts where the previous quarterly publication ended. This first publication of a new annual series contains most of the same data as the quarterly report, plus some new material, through 1991. It also presents historical data covering a longer period of time than the previous quarterly report. Country-level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve-to-production rations (R/P ratios) are listed for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form. The most popular table in the previous quarterly report, a listing of new discoveries, continues in this annual report as Appendix A.

  12. GASCAP: Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model documentation, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model (GASCAP) has been developed by EIA to provide a historical analysis of the monthly productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead and a projection of monthly capacity for 2 years into the future. The impact of drilling, oil and gas price assumptions, and demand on gas productive capacity are examined. Both gas-well gas and oil-well gas are included. Oil-well gas productive capacity is estimated separately and then combined with the gas-well gas productive capacity. This documentation report provides a general overview of the GASCAP Model, describes the underlying data base, provides technical descriptions of the component models, diagrams the system and subsystem flow, describes the equations, and provides definitions and sources of all variables used in the system. This documentation report is provided to enable users of EIA projections generated by GASCAP to understand the underlying procedures used and to replicate the models and solutions. This report should be of particular interest to those in the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas.

  13. Exploring hot gas at junctions of galaxy filaments with Suzaku

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsuishi, I.; Sasaki, S.; Kawahara, H.; Sekiya, N.; Yamasaki, N. Y; Sousbie, T.

    2014-03-10

    We performed five pointing observations with Suzaku to search for hot gases associated with the junctions of galaxy filaments where no significant diffuse X-ray sources were previously detected. We discovered X-ray sources successfully in all five regions including merging groups of galaxies, Suzaku J0957+2610 and Suzaku J1134+2105, and analyzed two bright sources in each field. Spectral analysis indicates that three sources originate from X-ray diffuse halos associated with optically bright galaxies or groups of galaxies with kT ∼ 0.6-0.8 keV. The three other sources are possibly group- and cluster-scale X-ray halos with temperatures of ∼1 keV and ∼4 keV, respectively while the others are compact object origins such as active galactic nuclei. All of the three observed intracluster media within the junctions of the galaxy filaments previously found are involved in ongoing mergers. Thus, we demonstrate that deep X-ray observations at the filament junctions identified by galaxy surveys are a powerful means to explore previously undetected growing halos in a hierarchical structure.

  14. Exploring extrasolar worlds: from gas giants to terrestrial habitable planets.

    PubMed

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Griffith, Caitlin A; Swain, Mark R; Deroo, Pieter; Beaulieu, Jean Philippe; Vasisht, Gautam; Kipping, David; Waldmann, Ingo; Tennyson, Jonathan; Barber, Robert J; Bouwman, Jeroen; Allard, Nicole; Brown, Linda R

    2010-01-01

    Almost 500 extrasolar planets have been found since the discovery of 51 Peg b by Mayor and Queloz in 1995. The traditional field of planetology has thus expanded its frontiers to include planetary environments not represented in our Solar System. We expect that in the next five years space missions (Corot, Kepler and GAIA) or ground-based detection techniques will both increase exponentially the number of new planets discovered and lower the present limit of a approximately 1.9 Earth-mass object [e.g. Mayor et al., Astron. Astrophys., 2009, 507, 487]. While the search for an Earth-twin orbiting a Sun-twin has been one of the major goals pursued by the exoplanet community in the past years, the possibility of sounding the atmospheric composition and structure of an increasing sample of exoplanets with current telescopes has opened new opportunities, unthinkable just a few years ago. As a result, it is possible now not only to determine the orbital characteristics of the new bodies, but moreover to study the exotic environments that lie tens of parsecs away from us. The analysis of the starlight not intercepted by the thin atmospheric limb of its planetary companion (transit spectroscopy), or of the light emitted/reflected by the exoplanet itself, will guide our understanding of the atmospheres and the surfaces of these extrasolar worlds in the next few years. Preliminary results obtained by interpreting current atmospheric observations of transiting gas giants and Neptunes are presented. While the full characterisation of an Earth-twin might requires a technological leap, our understanding of large terrestrial planets (so called super-Earths) orbiting bright, later-type stars is within reach by current space and ground telescopes. PMID:21302557

  15. Recent developments in environmental regulation impacting oil and gas production and refining

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the recent major legal and regulatory developments impacting oil and gas exploration, production, and refining activities. The focus is upon the federal laws governing air, water, and land pollution for the period 1994 to the present.

  16. Exploring Remote Sensing Products Online with Giovanni for Studying Urbanization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina; Kempler, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a Large amount of MODIS land products at multi-spatial resolutions have been integrated into the online system, Giovanni, to support studies on land cover and land use changes focused on Northern Eurasia and Monsoon Asia regions. Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) is a Web-based application developed by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES-DISC) providing a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access Earth science remotely-sensed and modeled data. The customized Giovanni Web portals (Giovanni-NEESPI and Giovanni-MAIRS) are created to integrate land, atmospheric, cryospheric, and social products, that enable researchers to do quick exploration and basic analyses of land surface changes and their relationships to climate at global and regional scales. This presentation documents MODIS land surface products in Giovanni system. As examples, images and statistical analysis results on land surface and local climate changes associated with urbanization over Yangtze River Delta region, China, using data in Giovanni are shown.

  17. Air quality concerns of unconventional oil and natural gas production.

    PubMed

    Field, R A; Soltis, J; Murphy, S

    2014-05-01

    Increased use of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") in unconventional oil and natural gas (O & NG) development from coal, sandstone, and shale deposits in the United States (US) has created environmental concerns over water and air quality impacts. In this perspective we focus on how the production of unconventional O & NG affects air quality. We pay particular attention to shale gas as this type of development has transformed natural gas production in the US and is set to become important in the rest of the world. A variety of potential emission sources can be spread over tens of thousands of acres of a production area and this complicates assessment of local and regional air quality impacts. We outline upstream activities including drilling, completion and production. After contrasting the context for development activities in the US and Europe we explore the use of inventories for determining air emissions. Location and scale of analysis is important, as O & NG production emissions in some US basins account for nearly 100% of the pollution burden, whereas in other basins these activities make up less than 10% of total air emissions. While emission inventories are beneficial to quantifying air emissions from a particular source category, they do have limitations when determining air quality impacts from a large area. Air monitoring is essential, not only to validate inventories, but also to measure impacts. We describe the use of measurements, including ground-based mobile monitoring, network stations, airborne, and satellite platforms for measuring air quality impacts. We identify nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), ozone, hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and methane as pollutants of concern related to O & NG activities. These pollutants can contribute to air quality concerns and they may be regulated in ambient air, due to human health or climate forcing concerns. Close to well pads, emissions are concentrated and exposure to a wide range of pollutants is possible. Public health protection is improved when emissions are controlled and facilities are located away from where people live. Based on lessons learned in the US we outline an approach for future unconventional O & NG development that includes regulation, assessment and monitoring. PMID:24699994

  18. Measuring micro-organism gas production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Pearson, A. O.; Mills, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    Transducer, which senses pressure buildup, is easy to assemble and use, and rate of gas produced can be measured automatically and accurately. Method can be used in research, in clinical laboratories, and for environmental pollution studies because of its ability to detect and quantify rapidly the number of gas-producing microorganisms in water, beverages, and clinical samples.

  19. Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Explorations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is an outcome of lean thinking to eliminate waste and increase productivity. PLM is inextricably tied to the systems engineering business philosophy, coupled with a methodology by which personnel, processes and practices, and information technology combine to form an architecture platform for product design, development, manufacturing, operations, and decommissioning. In this model, which is being implemented by the Engineering Directorate at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center, total lifecycle costs are important variables for critical decision-making. With the ultimate goal to deliver quality products that meet or exceed requirements on time and within budget, PLM is a powerful concept to shape everything from engineering trade studies and testing goals, to integrated vehicle operations and retirement scenarios. This paper will demonstrate how the Engineering Directorate is implementing PLM as part of an overall strategy to deliver safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions. It has been 30 years since the United States fielded the Space Shuttle. The next generation space transportation system requires a paradigm shift such that digital tools and knowledge management, which are central elements of PLM, are used consistently to maximum effect. The outcome is a better use of scarce resources, along with more focus on stakeholder and customer requirements, as a new portfolio of enabling tools becomes second nature to the workforce. This paper will use the design and manufacturing processes, which have transitioned to digital-based activities, to show how PLM supports the comprehensive systems engineering and integration function. It also will go through a launch countdown scenario where an anomaly is detected to show how the virtual vehicle created from paperless processes will help solve technical challenges and improve the likelihood of launching on schedule, with less hands-on labor needed for processing and troubleshooting.

  20. Harsh-Environment Packaging for Downhole Gas and Oil Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Shubhra Bansal; Junghyun Cho; Kevin Durocher; Chris Kapusta; Aaron Knobloch; David Shaddock; Harry Schoeller; Hua Xia

    2007-08-31

    This research into new packaging materials and methods for elevated temperatures and harsh environment electronics focused on gaining a basic understanding of current state-of-the-art in electronics packaging used in industry today, formulating the thermal-mechanical models of the material interactions and developing test structures to confirm these models. Discussions were initiated with the major General Electric (GE) businesses that currently sell into markets requiring high temperature electronics and packaging. They related the major modes of failure they encounter routinely and the hurdles needed to be overcome in order to improve the temperature specifications of these products. We consulted with our GE business partners about the reliability specifications and investigated specifications and guidelines that from IPC and the SAE body that is currently developing guidelines for electronics package reliability. Following this, a risk analysis was conducted for the program to identify the critical risks which need to be mitigated in order to demonstrate a flex-based packaging approach under these conditions. This process identified metal/polyimide adhesion, via reliability for flex substrates and high temperature interconnect as important technical areas for reliability improvement.

  1. Mathematical analysis of intermittent gas injection model in oil production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasmi, Silvya, D. R.; Pudjo, S.; Leksono, M.; Edy, S.

    2016-02-01

    Intermittent gas injection is a method to help oil production process. Gas is injected through choke in surface and then gas into tubing. Gas forms three areas in tubing: gas column area, film area and slug area. Gas column is used to propel slug area until surface. A mathematical model of intermittent gas injection is developed in gas column area, film area and slug area. Model is expanding based on mass and momentum conservation. Using assume film thickness constant in tubing, model has been developed by Tasmi et. al. [14]. Model consists of 10 ordinary differential equations. In this paper, assumption of pressure in gas column is uniform. Model consist of 9 ordinary differential equations. Connection of several variables can be obtained from this model. Therefore, dynamics of all variables that affect to intermittent gas lift process can be seen from four equations. To study the behavior of variables can be analyzed numerically and mathematically. In this paper, simple mathematically analysis approach is used to study behavior of the variables. Variables that affect to intermittent gas injection are pressure in upstream valve and in gas column. Pressure in upstream valve will decrease when gas mass in valve greater than gas mass in choke. Dynamic of the pressure in the gas column will decrease and increase depending on pressure in upstream valve.

  2. Analysis of eastern Devonian gas shales production data

    SciTech Connect

    Gatens, J.M.; Stanley, D.K.; Lancaster, D.E.; Lee, W.J.; Lane, H.S.; Watson, A.T.

    1989-05-01

    Production data from more than 800 Devonian shale wells have been analyzed. Permeability-thickness product and gas in place estimated from production data have been found to correlate with well performance. Empirical performance equations, production type curves, and an analytical dual-porosity model with automatic history-matching scheme were developed for the Devonian shale.

  3. Analysis of the economic benefits and strategy of exploration and development of China`s oil and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Q.; Lei, H.

    1995-12-31

    On one hand, the population of China accounts for one- fifth that of the world, whereas the proved oil reserve for in average person in China makes up less than one nineth that in the world. And the average natural gas reserve per person for China is only one twentieth that of the world. On the other hand, the yearly oil output of China has from 120,000 tons to 139,000,000 tons, which has made China one of the largest oil countries in the world, presenting a striking contrast with the former. This is a problem which is worth noticing. More and more oil and gas are needed for the continued economic development of China, but the oil industry of exploration and development is faced with such contradictions and difficulties as of reserve volume, imbalance of the ratio of reserves and production, shortage of funds, surplus of staffs, low labor productivity, and so on. For this reason it is necessary to analyse the economic benefit and strategy of China`s oil and gas exploration and development. With a series of data and charts this paper analyses the economic benefit of the exploration and development of China`s oil and gas and proceed to study the strategy of {open_quotes}Stabilising the Eastern Part and Developing the Western Part of Oil Zones{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Starting the Second Oil Undertaking and Opening the Second Battlefield for Oil Production{close_quotes}. And in this paper the author comes up with his own points of view.

  4. Possibilities of enhancing gas production from geopressured aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, C.S.

    1981-03-01

    The possibilities of enhancing gas production from geopressured brine formations along the US Gulf Coast were examined. One possibility examined is that of rapid pressure reduction. Other possibilities are depletion to very low pressure and pressure maintenance. The possibility of forming a gas cap is studied in some detail. It is concluded that methane gas evolution from geopressured brines is far too small to ever form a connected gas saturation except very near to the producing well. Thus, no significant gas cap could ever form. Depletion to low pressure is shown to be a good method for enhancing gas production in principle, but impractical to achieve in practice. The final conclusion reached is that none of the presently suggested procedures for enhancing production from geopressured brine reservoirs appear to be superior to the simple process of flowing until natural flow ceases. 11 references.

  5. 77 FR 65547 - Reissuance of the NPDES General Permits for Oil and Gas Exploration Facilities on the Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... AGENCY Reissuance of the NPDES General Permits for Oil and Gas Exploration Facilities on the Outer...) General Permits for Oil and Gas Exploration Facilities on the Outer Continental Shelf and Contiguous State... from facilities engaged in field exploration and exploratory drilling activities under the...

  6. Features of the marketing strategy of oil and gas companies in exploration drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharf, I.; Malanina, V.; Kamynina, L.

    2014-08-01

    The implementation of national and regional programs for the development of new oil and gas provinces of Eastern Siberia poses the challenge of increasing geological exploration. The current drilling service companies' market structure, as well as the strategic task of search and exploration effectiveness requires qualitatively new approaches for choosing a contractor. The proposed strategy to select a contractor based on comprehensive analysis of certain groups of industrial, financial, infrastructural criteria allows not only to optimize the costs of exploration activities, but also to minimize preventively the risks of a poor geological exploration. The authors' SWOT- analysis of the marketing strategy of "Gazprom neft" for choosing a contractor outlined the problem of imperfection of the Russian legislation in the sphere of activities of service companies in the oil and gas sector.

  7. Senate Forum on Shale Gas Development Explores Environmental and Industry Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources brought together industry and environmental leaders for a 23 May forum that focused on industry best practices and environmental concerns related to the current shale gas boom. The boom in shale gas development has been brought about in large part through advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") to increase shale oil and gas production.

  8. Integrated production of fuel gas and oxygenated organic compounds from synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert B.; Hegarty, William P.; Studer, David W.; Tirados, Edward J.

    1995-01-01

    An oxygenated organic liquid product and a fuel gas are produced from a portion of synthesis gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur-containing compounds in a integrated feed treatment and catalytic reaction system. To prevent catalyst poisoning, the sulfur-containing compounds in the reactor feed are absorbed in a liquid comprising the reactor product, and the resulting sulfur-containing liquid is regenerated by stripping with untreated synthesis gas from the reactor. Stripping offgas is combined with the remaining synthesis gas to provide a fuel gas product. A portion of the regenerated liquid is used as makeup to the absorber and the remainder is withdrawn as a liquid product. The method is particularly useful for integration with a combined cycle coal gasification system utilizing a gas turbine for electric power generation.

  9. Integrated production of fuel gas and oxygenated organic compounds from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.B.; Hegarty, W.P.; Studer, D.W.; Tirados, E.J.

    1995-02-28

    An oxygenated organic liquid product and a fuel gas are produced from a portion of synthesis gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur-containing compounds in a integrated feed treatment and catalytic reaction system. To prevent catalyst poisoning, the sulfur-containing compounds in the reactor feed are absorbed in a liquid comprising the reactor product, and the resulting sulfur-containing liquid is regenerated by stripping with untreated synthesis gas from the reactor. Stripping offgas is combined with the remaining synthesis gas to provide a fuel gas product. A portion of the regenerated liquid is used as makeup to the absorber and the remainder is withdrawn as a liquid product. The method is particularly useful for integration with a combined cycle coal gasification system utilizing a gas turbine for electric power generation. 3 figs.

  10. In-Situ Production of Solar Power Systems for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, Peter A.; Criswell, David R.

    1999-01-01

    Current proposals for developing an extended human presence, beyond space stations, on the Moon and Mars increasingly consider the processing of non-terrestrial materials essential for keeping the Earth launch burden reasonable. Utilization of in-situ resources for construction of lunar and Mars bases will initially require assessment of resource availability followed by the development of economically acceptable and technically feasible extractive processes. In regard to materials processing and fabrication the lower gravity level on the Moon (0.125 g) and Mars (0.367 g) will dramatically change the presently accepted hierarchy of materials in terms of specific properties, a factor which must be understood and exploited. Furthermore, significant changes are expected in the behavior of liquid materials during processing. In casting, for example, mold filling and associated solidification processes have to be reevaluated. Finally microstructural development and therefore material properties, presently being documented through on-going research in microgravity science and applications, needs to be understood and scaled to the reduced gravity environments. One of the most important elements of a human planetary base is power production. Lunar samples and geophysical measurements returned by the Apollo missions provide detailed data on the composition and physical characteristics of the lunar materials and environment. Based on this knowledge and extrapolations of terrestrial industrial experience it is clear that several types of solar-to-electric converters can be manufactured on the Moon. It is conceivable that well over 90% of a solar-to- electric power system could be made from lunar materials. Production and utilization of photovoltaic devices for solar energy production on Earth is primarily driven by the market economy. On Earth a production plant for photovoltaic devices is intimately linked to the planets massive industrial base. A selection of off the shelf refined materials are available as well as cheap fast transportation on demand. The processes takes place (except for the few seconds reprieve in shot towers etc.) under one gravity, with solar radiation significantly modulated by weather, and under conditions where one atmosphere is free and high vacuum is cumbersome and expensive. Off Earth, on lunar or Mars bases, the cost of photovoltaic power is driven by transport costs - Earth launch, deep space transport, landing on the planetary surface. Thus there is a premium for processes that are materials self-sufficient or for closed loop in-situ processes. The lack of differentiated ores on the Moon, and lack of explored minerals on Mars and interplanetary space give a premium to universal/non-ore-specific mineral extractive processes. Initially a semiconductor/photovoltaic production facility will build on no conveniently located industrial base, further increasing the premium on closed loop self sufficient processes.

  11. Project Explorer takes its second step: GAS-608 in engineering development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, Philip H.

    1988-01-01

    An a continuation of its Project Explorer series, the Alabama Space and Rocket Center is sponsoring the development of two additional Get Away Special payloads. Details are given of GAS-608, including descriptions of its six experiments in organic crystal growth, roach eggs, yeast, radish seeds, bacterial morphology, and silicon crystals. A brief summary is also presented of GAS-105 and the Space Camp program for stimulating student first hand participation in space flight studies. GAS-608 will carry six student experiments, which will involve biology, crystal growth, and biochemistry in addition to a centralized package for electronics and power supply.

  12. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1996 uses available data from literature, industry, and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on minerals industry direction are drawn from these data.

  13. Process for production desulfurized of synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Wolfenbarger, James K.; Najjar, Mitri S.

    1993-01-01

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1900.degree.-2600.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises a calcium-containing compound portion, a sodium-containing compound portion, and a fluoride-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (1) a sulfur-containing sodium-calcium-fluoride silicate phase; and (2) a sodium-calcium sulfide phase.

  14. Gas-phase terpene oxidation products: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calogirou, A.; Larsen, B. R.; Kotzias, D.

    Terpenes are emitted in large quantities from vegetation into the troposphere, where they react readily with ozone, OH and NO 3 radicals leading to a number of oxidation products. The current knowledge about gas-phase terpene oxidation products is reviewed. Their formation and decomposition pathways, their products and their relevance for the troposphere, and their chemical analysis are discussed. Data on oxidation kinetics, and product yields is presented for 23 terpenes and 65 oxidation products. A total of 84 references are quoted.

  15. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Part of an annual review of mines and mineral resources in the U.S. An overview of nonfuel-mineral exploration in 2000 is presented. Principal exploration target was gold exploration in Latin America, Australia, and the U.S. There was a decrease of 18 percent in the exploration budget for gold as compared with the budget for 1999. Statistical information on nonfuel-mineral exploration worldwide is presented, analyzed, and interpreted.

  16. Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J C; Haut, R; Jahn, G; Goldman, J; Colvin, J; Karpinski, A; Dobley, A; Halfinger, J; Nagley, S; Wolf, K; Shapiro, A; Doucette, P; Hansen, P; Oke, A; Compton, D; Cobb, M; Kopps, R; Chitwood, J; Spence, W; Remacle, P; Noel, C; Vicic, J; Dee, R

    2010-02-19

    An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore, enhances the energy security of the United States in a green and environmentally friendly manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate alternatives and recommend equipment to develop into hybrid energy conversion and storage systems for deep ocean operations. Such power systems will be located on the ocean floor and will be used to power offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations. Such power systems will be located on the oceans floor, and will be used to supply oil and gas exploration activities, as well as drilling operations required to harvest petroleum reserves. The following conceptual hybrid systems have been identified as candidates for powering sub-surface oil and gas production operations: (1) PWR = Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor + Lead-Acid Battery; (2) FC1 = Line for Surface O{sub 2} + Well Head Gas + Reformer + PEMFC + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (3) FC2 = Stored O2 + Well Head Gas + Reformer + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (4) SV1 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (5) SV2 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Engine or Turbine + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (6) SV3 = Submersible Vehicle + Charge at Docking Station + ZEBRA & Li-Ion Batteries; (7) PWR TEG = PWR + Thermoelectric Generator + Lead-Acid Battery; (8) WELL TEG = Thermoelectric Generator + Well Head Waste Heat + Lead-Acid Battery; (9) GRID = Ocean Floor Electrical Grid + Lead-Acid Battery; and (10) DOC = Deep Ocean Current + Lead-Acid Battery.

  17. Environmental policy and regulatory constraints to natural gas production.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    2004-12-17

    For the foreseeable future, most of the demand for natural gas in the United States will be met with domestic resources. Impediments, or constraints, to developing, producing, and delivering these resources can lead to price increases or supply disruptions. Previous analyses have identified lack of access to natural gas resources on federal lands as such an impediment. However, various other environmental constraints, including laws, regulations, and implementation procedures, can limit natural gas development and production on both federal and private lands. This report identifies and describes more than 30 environmental policy and regulatory impediments to domestic natural gas production. For each constraint, the source and type of impact are presented, and when the data exist, the amount of gas affected is also presented. This information can help decision makers develop and support policies that eliminate or reduce the impacts of such constraints, help set priorities for regulatory reviews, and target research and development efforts to help the nation meet its natural gas demands.

  18. Gas hearth products market fact base. Topical report, January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Gas Hearth Products Market Fact Base is an analysis of the U.S. gas log and fireplace markets. The study was undertaken to: determine current usage of and attitudes about fireplaces; identify barriers to acceptance of gas logs and fireplaces; determine the influence of service providers, and; identify important trends that can affect the markets for gas hearth products. The market fact base is based on four studies: a market analysis synthesizing primary and secondary research reports; in-depth interviews with market influencers from across the country (architects, contractors, interior designers, fireplace retailers and installers) and industry experts from gas utilities and trade associations; focus group meetings with consumers who own or intend to buy fireplaces, gas fireplace industry professionals, and editors of fireplace-related trade magazines, and; quantitative interviews with consumers in six U.S. cities.

  19. Methanol production with elemental phosphorus byproduct gas: technical and economic feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using a typical, elemental, phosphorus byproduct gas stream in methanol production is assessed. The purpose of the study is to explore the potential of a substitute for natural gas. The first part of the study establishes economic tradeoffs between several alternative methods of supplying the hydrogen which is needed in the methanol synthesis process to react with CO from the off gas. The preferred alternative is the Battelle Process, which uses natural gas in combination with the off gas in an economically sized methanol plant. The second part of the study presents a preliminary basic design of a plant to (1) clean and compress the off gas, (2) return recovered phosphorus to the phosphorus plant, and (3) produce methanol by the Battelle Process. Use of elemental phosphorus byproduct gas in methanol production appears to be technically feasible. The Battelle Process shows a definite but relatively small economic advantage over conventional methanol manufacture based on natural gas alone. The process would be economically feasible only where natural gas supply and methanol market conditions at a phosphorus plant are not significantly less favorable than at competing methanol plants. If off-gas streams from two or more phosphorus plants could be combined, production of methanol using only offgas might also be economically feasible. The North American methanol market, however, does not seem likely to require another new methanol project until after 1990. The off-gas cleanup, compression, and phosphorus-recovery system could be used to produce a CO-rich stream that could be economically attractive for production of several other chemicals besides methanol.

  20. ESP/rotary gas separator duo found to optimize production

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, G.H.

    1986-11-01

    A field test conducted on a low-volume waterflood well in West Texas equipped with an electric submersible pump (ESP) proved to rotary gas separator (RGS) to be more efficient than conventional reverse flow gas separators, achieving gas separation efficiencies close to 90%. Further, the RGS increased the run time of the ESP, thus lowering the wellbore fluid level and increasing oil production. The one drawback found is that RGSs can be susceptible to fluid erosion.

  1. Tempest gas turbine extends EGT product line

    SciTech Connect

    Chellini, R.

    1995-07-01

    With the introduction of the 7.8 MW (mechanical output) Tempest gas turbine, ECT has extended the company`s line of its small industrial turbines. The new Tempest machine, featuring a 7.5 MW electric output and a 33% thermal efficiency, ranks above the company`s single-shaft Typhoon gas turbine, rated 3.2 and 4.9 MW, and the 6.3 MW Tornado gas turbine. All three machines are well-suited for use in combined heat and power (CHP) plants, as demonstrated by the fact that close to 50% of the 150 Typhoon units sold are for CHP applications. This experience has induced EGT, of Lincoln, England, to announce the introduction of the new gas turbine prior to completion of the testing program. The present single-shaft machine is expected to be used mainly for industrial trial cogeneration. This market segment, covering the needs of paper mills, hospitals, chemical plants, ceramic industry, etc., is a typical local market. Cogeneration plants are engineered according to local needs and have to be assisted by local organizations. For this reason, to efficiently cover the world market, EGT has selected a number of associates that will receive from Lincoln completely engineered machine packages and will engineer the cogeneration system according to custom requirements. These partners will also assist the customer and dispose locally of the spares required for maintenance operations.

  2. Performance of (UNS 8028) production tubing material in sour service environment of Khuff gas formation

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Maslamani, M.

    1995-11-01

    Khuff gas formation is one of the largest reservoirs of non-associated gas in the world. Recent developments in exploration and production from Khuff gas formation at the Qatar North Field required materials of construction with long periods of production without work over and chemical inhibition. Gas produced contains corrosive constituents such as 1% H{sub 2}S, 4% CO{sub 2} and brine at pressures exceeding 300 barg (CITHP). For operational reasons, two of the 16 wells drilled were needed to work over after 2 years of service and showed evidence of crevice pitting corrosion and thread galling on the Corrosion Resistance Alloy (CRA) tubing material. Full inspection and analysis of the problem are addressed in this paper.

  3. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing/Production Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This annual report on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Leasing and Production program summarizes receipts and expenditures, and includes information on OCS safety violations as reported by the US Coast Guard. 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. The Advancement of Geothermal Energy Production through Improved Exploration Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorsteinsson, H.; Klein, K.

    2010-12-01

    Through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technologies Program invested $98 million in the geothermal exploration industry, and continues to encourage further research, development and demonstration in this field. The continued development of innovative exploration technologies is essential for wide adoption of geothermal resources. In 2008, the United States Geological Survey estimated that there are approximately 30,000 MW of undiscovered hydrothermal resources in the western United States alone. Improvements in exploration technologies are necessary to discover and define these hidden resources and to reduce up-front risk and cost through more accurate and efficient exploration. Currently, the surface and subsurface are characterized through combinations of ground-based and airborne geophysical surveys, geochemical surveys, satellite imaging and drilling. However, to increase geothermal exploration well success rates, development of improved and new exploration techniques is required.

  5. Mitigating Accidents In Oil And Gas Production Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsen, Stig

    Integrated operations are increasingly used in oil and gas production facilities to improve yields, reduce costs and maximize profits. They leverage information and communications technology (ICT) to facilitate collaboration between experts at widely dispersed locations. This paper discusses the safety and security consequences of implementing integrated operations for oil and gas production. It examines the increased accident risk arising from the tight coupling of complex ICT and SCADA systems, and proposes technological, organizational and human factors based strategies for mitigating the risk.

  6. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Porter, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  7. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1999 draws upon available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The report documents data on exploration budgets by region and commodity and identifies significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas. It also discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry. And it presents inferences and observations on mineral industry direction based on these data and discussions.

  8. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1997 draws upon available data from literature, industry and US Geological Sulvey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  9. Preliminary report on the commercial viability of gas production from natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, M.R.; Hancock, S.H.; Wilson, S.J.; Patil, S.L.; Moridis, G.J.; Boswell, R.; Collett, T.S.; Koh, C.A.; Sloan, E.D.

    2009-01-01

    Economic studies on simulated gas hydrate reservoirs have been compiled to estimate the price of natural gas that may lead to economically viable production from the most promising gas hydrate accumulations. As a first estimate, $CDN2005 12/Mscf is the lowest gas price that would allow economically viable production from gas hydrates in the absence of associated free gas, while an underlying gas deposit will reduce the viability price estimate to $CDN2005 7.50/Mscf. Results from a recent analysis of the simulated production of natural gas from marine hydrate deposits are also considered in this report; on an IROR basis, it is $US2008 3.50-4.00/Mscf more expensive to produce marine hydrates than conventional marine gas assuming the existence of sufficiently large marine hydrate accumulations. While these prices represent the best available estimates, the economic evaluation of a specific project is highly dependent on the producibility of the target zone, the amount of gas in place, the associated geologic and depositional environment, existing pipeline infrastructure, and local tariffs and taxes. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswell, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Sloan, E.D.; Sum, A.K.; Koh, C.

    2010-11-01

    The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas hydrate petroleum system, to discuss advances, requirement and suggested practices in gas hydrate (GH) prospecting and GH deposit characterization, and to review the associated technical, economic and environmental challenges and uncertainties, including: the accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource, the development of methodologies for identifying suitable production targets, the sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments and sample analysis, the analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs, well testing methods and interpretation of the results, geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns, well design, operation and installation, field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs, monitoring production and geomechanical stability, laboratory investigations, fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior, the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates, and the associated environmental concerns.

  11. Devonian shales of central Appalachian basin: geological controls on gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, P.H.; Hamilton-Smith, T.; Peterson, R.M. )

    1989-03-01

    Gas reserves of the Devonian shales of the Appalachian basin constitute a large, underdeveloped resource producing from fractured reservoirs. As part of ongoing Gas Research Institute research, K and A Energy Consultants, Inc., is identifying geological controls on gas production. Preliminary findings indicate that local gas production is controlled by a combination of structure and stratigraphy. Regional geological review indicates that Devonian sedimentation and structure is influenced by repeated reactivation of basement faults. Site-specific geologic studies indicate that depositional and structural mechanisms vary substantially throughout the basin. Gas production on the eastern margin of the producing area is controlled by an Alleghenian thrust front located by Grenville normal faults. High-capacity wells are associated with tear faults in the thrust sheets. To the southwest, deformation is controlled by both Grenville and Rome trough basement faults. Reactivation of these faults during later orogenic events produced a complex of high-angle reverse and strike-slip faults. Fracturing in the Devonian shales is produced by shearing and flexure associated with these structures. Syndepositional movement of the basement structures influenced the deposition of coarser grained turbidites and tempestites. The combination of fractures and coarser clastic beds provides effective reservoir systems. The shale contains abundant organic material consisting of terrestrial plant debris and marine algal remains. Thermal maturation of this material produced gas which charged the lower reservoir systems. Exploration along reactivated structural trends is an effective strategy for locating Devonian shale gas accumulations. This approach may also apply to other producing strata in the basin.

  12. NOVEL REACTOR FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilis Papavassiliou; Leo Bonnell; Dion Vlachos

    2004-12-01

    Praxair investigated an advanced technology for producing synthesis gas from natural gas and oxygen This production process combined the use of a short-reaction time catalyst with Praxair's gas mixing technology to provide a novel reactor system. The program achieved all of the milestones contained in the development plan for Phase I. We were able to develop a reactor configuration that was able to operate at high pressures (up to 19atm). This new reactor technology was used as the basis for a new process for the conversion of natural gas to liquid products (Gas to Liquids or GTL). Economic analysis indicated that the new process could provide a 8-10% cost advantage over conventional technology. The economic prediction although favorable was not encouraging enough for a high risk program like this. Praxair decided to terminate development.

  13. RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Ronald C. Surdam

    1999-08-01

    A primary objective of the Institute for Energy Research (IER)-Santa Fe Snyder Corporation DOE Riverton Dome project is to test the validity of a new conceptual model and resultant exploration paradigm for so-called ''basin center'' gas accumulations. This paradigm and derivative exploration strategy suggest that the two most important elements crucial to the development of prospects in the deep, gas-saturated portions of Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB) are (1) the determination and, if possible, three-dimensional evaluation of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalous pressure regimes (i.e., this boundary is typically expressed as a significant inversion in both sonic and seismic velocity-depth profiles) , and (2) the detection and delineation of porosity/permeability ''sweet spots'' (i.e., areas of enhanced storage capacity and deliverability) in potential reservoir targets below this boundary. There are other critical aspects in searching for basin center gas accumulations, but completion of these two tasks is essential to the successful exploration for the unconventional gas resources present in anomalously pressured rock/fluid systems in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins. The southern Wind River Basin, in particular the Riverton Dome and Emigrant areas, is a neat location for testing this exploration paradigm. Preliminary work within the Wind River Basin has demonstrated that there is a regionally prominent pressure surface boundary that can be detected by inversions in sonic velocity depth gradients in individual well log profiles and that can be seen as a velocity inversion on seismic lines. Also, the Wind River Basin in general--and the Riverton Dome area specially--is characterized by a significant number of anomalously pressured gas accumulations. Most importantly, Santa Fe Snyder Corporation has provided the study with sonic logs, two 3-D seismic studies (40 mi{sup 2} and 30 mi {sup 2}) and a variety of other necessary geological and geophysical information.

  14. Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-01-31

    The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

  15. Evaluation of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model

    SciTech Connect

    Kuuskraa, V.A.; Hammersheimb, E.; Sawyer, W.

    1985-05-01

    The objective of the work performed under this directive is to assess whether gas hydrates could potentially be technically and economically recoverable. The technical potential and economics of recovering gas from a representative hydrate reservoir will be established using the cyclic thermal injection model, HYDMOD, appropriately modified for this effort, integrated with economics model for gas production on the North Slope of Alaska, and in the deep offshore Atlantic. The results from this effort are presented in this document. In Section 1, the engineering cost and financial analysis model used in performing the economic analysis of gas production from hydrates -- the Hydrates Gas Economics Model (HGEM) -- is described. Section 2 contains a users guide for HGEM. In Section 3, a preliminary economic assessment of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model is presented. Section 4 contains a summary critique of existing hydrate gas recovery models. Finally, Section 5 summarizes the model modification made to HYDMOD, the cyclic thermal injection model for hydrate gas recovery, in order to perform this analysis.

  16. US production of natural gas from tight reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    For the purposes of this report, tight gas reservoirs are defined as those that meet the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC) definition of tight. They are generally characterized by an average reservoir rock permeability to gas of 0.1 millidarcy or less and, absent artificial stimulation of production, by production rates that do not exceed 5 barrels of oil per day and certain specified daily volumes of gas which increase with the depth of the reservoir. All of the statistics presented in this report pertain to wells that have been classified, from 1978 through 1991, as tight according to the FERC; i.e., they are ``legally tight`` reservoirs. Additional production from ``geologically tight`` reservoirs that have not been classified tight according to the FERC rules has been excluded. This category includes all producing wells drilled into legally designated tight gas reservoirs prior to 1978 and all producing wells drilled into physically tight gas reservoirs that have not been designated legally tight. Therefore, all gas production referenced herein is eligible for the Section 29 tax credit. Although the qualification period for the credit expired at the end of 1992, wells that were spudded (began to be drilled) between 1978 and May 1988, and from November 5, 1990, through year end 1992, are eligible for the tax credit for a subsequent period of 10 years. This report updates the EIA`s tight gas production information through 1991 and considers further the history and effect on tight gas production of the Federal Government`s regulatory and tax policy actions. It also provides some high points of the geologic background needed to understand the nature and location of low-permeability reservoirs.

  17. Research on the methods of splitting and prediction point by point in tight sandstone gas reservoir productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng-fu, Wen; Bao-zhi, Pan; Bi-ci, Jiang; Li-hua, Zhang; Dan, Liu; Wen-bin, Liu; Yu-hang, Guo

    2015-06-01

    Single-point productivity evaluation and prediction are of important significance for the exploration and development in a tight sandstone gas field. The method of production splitting, multiple linear regression (MLR), and support vector machine regression (SVR) was used to establish the relationship between logging data and the gas production split point-to-point in tight sandstone gas reservoirs. In this study, the western region of the Sulige area in the Ordos Basin was the object of our research. Compared with the traditional KH splitting, the KHK splitting method was better.

  18. 75 FR 29996 - Review of MMS NEPA Policies, Practices, and Procedures for OCS Oil and Gas Exploration and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... (OCS) oil and gas exploration and development. This review of MMS NEPA policies, practices and procedures is being conducted as a result of the oil spill from the Deepwater Horizon well and drilling rig... QUALITY Review of MMS NEPA Policies, Practices, and Procedures for OCS Oil and Gas Exploration...

  19. 77 FR 4813 - Proposed Reissuance of the NPDES General Permits for Oil and Gas Exploration Facilities on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... AGENCY Proposed Reissuance of the NPDES General Permits for Oil and Gas Exploration Facilities on the... Elimination System (NPDES) General Permits for Oil and Gas Exploration Facilities on the Outer Continental... expired on June 26, 2011 (71 FR 30405). EPA proposes to replace the Arctic GP with two general...

  20. History of gas production from Devonian shale in eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Kemper, J.R.; Frankie, W.T.; Smath, R.A.; Moody, J.R.; Johnston, I.M.; Elkin, R.R.

    1988-08-01

    More than 10,500 wells that penetrate the Devonian shale have been compiled into a data base covering a 25-county area of eastern Kentucky. This area includes the Big Sandy gas field, the largest in the Appalachian basin, and marginal areas to the southwest, west, and northwest. The development of the Big Sandy gas field began in the 1920s in western Floyd County, Kentucky, and moved concentrically outward through 1970. Since 1971, the trend has been for infill and marginal drilling, and fewer companies have been involved. The resulting outline of the Big Sandy gas field covers most of Letcher, Knott, Floyd, Martin, and Pike Counties in Kentucky; it also extends into West Virginia. Outside the Big Sandy gas field, exploration for gas has been inconsistent, with a much higher ratio of dry holes. The results of this study, which was partially supported by the Gas Research Institute (GRI), indicate that certain geologic factors, such as fracture size and spacing, probably determine the distribution of commercial gas reserves as well as the outline of the Big Sandy gas field. Future Big Sandy infill and extension drilling will need to be based on an understanding of these factors.

  1. Report on possible routes to breakdown products of mustard gas

    SciTech Connect

    Luman, F.M.

    1983-10-18

    This paper suggests possible routes to the formation of decontamination and breakdown products of the chemical agent Mustard Gas (HD). The terminal decontamination products, CaSO4 and CO2, are harmless to the environment. Oxathiane is formed by hydrolysis and dehydration reactions. Dithiane is formed with the application of heat in a low oxygen or nitrogen environment. (Author).

  2. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    The worldwide budget for nonferrous, nonfuel mineral exploration was expected to increase by 58 percent in 2004 from the 2003 budget, according to Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia. The increase comes two years after a five-year period of declining spending for mineral exploration (1998 to 2002). Figures suggest a subsequent 27 percent increase in budgeted expenditures from 2002 to 2003. For the second consecutive year, all regional exploration budget estimates were anticipated to increase.

  3. Corrosion inhibition in supersour gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, J.A.; Alink, B.A.; Qui, D.F.H.C.; Gelder, K. van

    1995-01-01

    Inhibitors were tested in the presence of 91% hydrogen sulfide and 4% elemental sulfur in a light chloride brine/oil mixture. Test results from two laboratories using similar test conditions were compared. Based on the combined laboratory test results, an inhibitor was selected for field use. The corrosion rates observed during production confirmed the laboratory test results.

  4. Water Resources and Natural Gas Production from the Marcellus Shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soeder, Daniel J.; Kappel, William M.

    2009-01-01

    The Marcellus Shale is a sedimentary rock formation deposited over 350 million years ago in a shallow inland sea located in the eastern United States where the present-day Appalachian Mountains now stand (de Witt and others, 1993). This shale contains significant quantities of natural gas. New developments in drilling technology, along with higher wellhead prices, have made the Marcellus Shale an important natural gas resource. The Marcellus Shale extends from southern New York across Pennsylvania, and into western Maryland, West Virginia, and eastern Ohio (fig. 1). The production of commercial quantities of gas from this shale requires large volumes of water to drill and hydraulically fracture the rock. This water must be recovered from the well and disposed of before the gas can flow. Concerns about the availability of water supplies needed for gas production, and questions about wastewater disposal have been raised by water-resource agencies and citizens throughout the Marcellus Shale gas development region. This Fact Sheet explains the basics of Marcellus Shale gas production, with the intent of helping the reader better understand the framework of the water-resource questions and concerns.

  5. Canadian offshore oil production solution gas utilization alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.V.

    1999-07-01

    Oil and gas development in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador is in its early stage and the offshore industry emphasis is almost exclusively on oil production. At the Hibernia field, the Gravity Base Structure (GBS) is installed and the first wells are in production. The Terra Nova project, based on a Floating Production Storage Offloading (FPSO) ship shaped concept, is in its engineering and construction stage and first oil is expected by late 2000. Several other projects, such as Husky's White Rose and Chevron's Hebron, have significant potential for future development in the same area. It is highly probably that these projects will employ the FPSO concept. It is also expected that the solution gas disposal issues of such second generation projects will be of more significance in their regulatory approval process and of such second generation projects will be of more significance in their regulatory approval process and the operators may be forced to look for alternatives to gas reinjection. Three gas utilization alternatives for a FPSO concept based project have been considered and evaluated in this paper: liquefied natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG), and gas-to-liquids conversion (GTL). The evaluation and the relative ranking of these alternatives is based on a first pass screening type of study which considers the technical and economical merits of each alternative. Publicly available information and in-house data, compiled within Fluor Daniel's various offices, was used to establish the basic parameters.

  6. On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, Lennart N.

    2004-06-29

    A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed. A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed.

  7. Taxation of oil and gas payments based on production

    SciTech Connect

    Fambrough, J.

    1983-09-01

    Whenever production occurs on leased acreage, the mineral owner may become entitled to three different types of payment: royalties, overriding royalties, and production payments. This article explores the tax consequences to the mineral owner of each. One way for mineral owners to maximize their gross returns and minimize their tax liability is to fully utilize the depletion allowances available. 26 references, 1 table

  8. Valorization of Flue Gas by Combining Photocatalytic Gas Pretreatment with Microalgae Production.

    PubMed

    Eynde, Erik Van; Lenaerts, Britt; Tytgat, Tom; Blust, Ronny; Lenaerts, Silvia

    2016-03-01

    Utilization of flue gas for algae cultivation seems to be a promising route because flue gas from fossil-fuel combustion processes contains the high amounts of carbon (CO2) and nitrogen (NO) that are required for algae growth. NO is a poor nitrogen source for algae cultivation because of its low reactivity and solublilty in water and its toxicity for algae at high concentrations. Here, we present a novel strategy to valorize NO from flue gas as feedstock for algae production by combining a photocatalytic gas pretreatment unit with a microalgal photobioreactor. The photocatalytic air pretreatment transforms NO gas into NO2 gas and thereby enhances the absorption of NOx in the cultivation broth. The absorbed NOx will form NO2(-) and NO3(-) that can be used as a nitrogen source by algae. The effect of photocatalytic air pretreatment on the growth and biomass productivity of the algae Thalassiosira weissflogii in a semicontinuous system aerated with a model flue gas (1% CO2 and 50 ppm of NO) is investigated during a long-term experiment. The integrated system makes it possible to produce algae with NO from flue gas as the sole nitrogen source and reduces the NOx content in the exhaust gas by 84%. PMID:26838336

  9. Mercury in soil gas and air--A potential tool in mineral exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Joseph Howard; Vaughn, W.W.; Learned, R.E.; Meuschke, J.L.

    1969-01-01

    The mercury content in soil gas and in the atmosphere was measured in several mining districts to test the possibility that the mercury content in the atmosphere is higher over ore deposits than over barren ground. At Cortez, Nev., the distribution of anorhalous amounts of mercury in the air collected at ground level (soil gas) correlates well with the distribution of gold-bearing rocks that are covered by as much as 100 feet of gravel. The mercury content in the atmosphere collected at an altitude of 200 feet by an aircraft was 20 times background over a mercury posit and 10 times background over two porphyry copper deposits. Measurement of mercury in soil gas and air may prove to be a valuable exploration tool.

  10. Production of neutral gas by micrometeoroid impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, A.; Sternovsky, Z.; Horanyi, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first direct laboratory measurement of vapor produced by simulated micrometeoroid bombardment. New in situ observations from the Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, and the anticipation of results from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), have highlighted the uncertainty surrounding the role of micrometeoroid impacts in sustaining planetary exospheres. In a recent series of experiments, the quantity of neutral molecules generated by impacts of simulated micrometeorids of 0.1-1 μm radius was measured using a fast ion gauge, over a speed range of 1-10 km/s. The quantity of neutrals released per unit projectile mass, N/m, is consistent with a power law N/m = vβ in the projectile speed v, with β ˜ 2.4. At the highest speeds tested, the number of neutrals liberated is equivalent to 5% of the atoms in the projectile; complete vaporization is projected at speeds exceeding 20 km/s.

  11. Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production

    DOEpatents

    Brown, W.R.; Cassano, A.A.; Dunbobbin, B.R.; Rao, P.; Erickson, D.C.

    1986-10-14

    A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange. 4 figs.

  12. Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production

    DOEpatents

    Brown, William R. (Zionsville, PA); Cassano, Anthony A. (Allentown, PA); Dunbobbin, Brian R. (Allentown, PA); Rao, Pradip (Allentown, PA); Erickson, Donald C. (Annapolis, MD)

    1986-01-01

    A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange.

  13. Exploring Careers in Radio and Television Program Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincinnati Public Schools, OH.

    The career exploration program for grades 9 through 10, as part of a comprehensive K through 10 career development program, attempts to develop an awareness of and appreciation for work, extend knowledge of the variety of career opportunities, and provide experiences in career areas of individual interest. The document, a collection of materials

  14. Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 states 1985 through 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This publication presents information on wellhead productive capacity and a projection of gas production requirements. A history of natural gas production and productive capacity at the wellhead, along with a projection of the same, is illustrated.

  15. Engineering analysis of biomass gasifier product gas cleaning technology

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Moore, R.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Elliott, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    For biomass gasification to make a significant contribution to the energy picture in the next decade, emphasis must be placed on the generation of clean, pollutant-free gas products. This reports attempts to quantify levels of particulated, tars, oils, and various other pollutants generated by biomass gasifiers of all types. End uses for biomass gases and appropriate gas cleaning technologies are examined. Complete systems analysis is used to predit the performance of various gasifier/gas cleanup/end use combinations. Further research needs are identified. 128 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs.

  16. Synthesis gas production by mixed conducting membranes with integrated conversion into liquid products

    DOEpatents

    Nataraj, Shankar; Russek, Steven Lee; Dyer, Paul Nigel

    2000-01-01

    Natural gas or other methane-containing feed gas is converted to a C.sub.5 -C.sub.19 hydrocarbon liquid in an integrated system comprising an oxygenative synthesis gas generator, a non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator, and a hydrocarbon synthesis process such as the Fischer-Tropsch process. The oxygenative synthesis gas generator is a mixed conducting membrane reactor system and the non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator is preferably a heat exchange reformer wherein heat is provided by hot synthesis gas product from the mixed conducting membrane reactor system. Offgas and water from the Fischer-Tropsch process can be recycled to the synthesis gas generation system individually or in combination.

  17. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration budgets fell for a fourth successive year in 2001. These decreases reflected low mineral commodity prices, mineral-market investment reluctance, company failures and a continued trend of company mergers and takeovers.

  18. . Cheminformatic exploration of the chemical landscape of consumer products

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although Consumer products are a primary source of chemical exposures, little information is available on the chemical ingredients of these products and the concentrations at which they are present. To address this data gap, we have created a database of chemicals in consumer pro...

  19. Kinetics study on biomass pyrolysis for fuel gas production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guan-Yi; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Andries, J; Luo, Zhong-Yang; Spliethoff, H; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic knowledge is of great importance in achieving good control of the pyrolysis and gasification process and optimising system design. An overall kinetic pyrolysis scheme is therefore addressed here. The kinetic modelling incorporates the following basic steps: the degradation of the virgin biomass materials into primary products (tar, gas and semi-char), the decomposition of primary tar into secondary products and the continuous interaction between primary gas and char. The last step is disregarded completely by models in the literature. Analysis and comparison of predicted results from different kinetic schemes and experimental data on our fixed bed pyrolyser yielded very positive evidence to support our kinetic scheme. PMID:12861621

  20. Gas phase acetaldehyde production in a continuous bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Soon Ook . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Trantolo, D.J. . Center for Biotechnology Engineering); Wise, D.L. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA . Center for Biotechnology Engineering)

    1993-08-20

    The gas phase continuous production of acetaldehyde was studied with particular emphasis on the development of biocatalyst (alcohol oxidase on solid phase support materials) for a fixed bed reactor. Based on the experimental results in a batch bioreactor, the biocatalysts were prepared by immobilization of alcohol oxidase on Amberlite IRA-400, packed into a column, and the continuous acetaldehyde production in the gas phase by alcohol oxidase was performed. The effects of the reaction temperature, flow rates of gaseous stream, and ethanol vapor concentration on the performance of the continuous bioreactor were investigated.

  1. Gas production from oceanic Class 2 hydrate accumulations

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, G.J.; Reagan, M.T.

    2007-02-01

    Gas hydrates are solid crystalline compounds in which gasmolecules are lodged within the lattices of ice crystals. The vastamounts of hydrocarbon gases that are trapped in hydrate deposits in thepermafrost and in deep ocean sediments may constitute a promising energysource. Class 2 hydrate deposits are characterized by a Hydrate-BearingLayer (HBL) that is underlain by a saturated zone of mobile water. Inthis study we investigated three methods of gas production via verticalwell designs. A long perforated interval (covering the hydrate layer andextending into the underlying water zone) yields the highest gasproduction rates (up to 20 MMSCFD), but is not recommended for long-termproduction because of severe flow blockage caused by secondary hydrateand ice. A short perforated interval entirely within the water zoneallows long-term production, but only at rates of 4.5 7 MMSCFD. A newwell design involving localized heating appears to be the most promising,alleviating possible blockage by secondary hydrate and/or ice near thewellbore) and delivering sustainably large, long-term rates (10-15MMSCFD).The production strategy involves a cyclical process. During eachcycle, gas production continuously increases, while the correspondingwater production continuously decreases. Each cycle is concluded by acavitation event (marked by a precipitous pressure drop at the well),brought about by the inability of thesystem to satisfy the constant massproduction rate QM imposed at the well. This is caused by the increasinggas contribution to the production stream, and/or flow inhibition causedby secondary hydrate and/or ice. In the latter case, short-term thermalstimulation removes the blockage. The results show that gas productionincreases (and the corresponding water-to-gas ratio RWGC decreases) withan increasing(a) QM, (b) hydrate temperature (which defines its stabilityfor a given pressure), and (c) intrinsic permeability. Lower initialhydrate saturations lead initially to higher gas production and a lowerRWGC, but the effect is later reversed as the hydrate is depleted. Thedisposal of the large amounts of produced water does not appear to pose asignificant environmental problem. Production from Class 2 hydrates ischaracterized by (a) the need for confining boundaries, (b) thecontinuously improving RWGC over time (opposite to conventional gasreservoirs), and (c) the development of a free gas zone at the top of thehydrate layer (necessitating the existence of a gas cap forproduction).

  2. Theoretical assessment of 3-D magnetotelluric method for oil and gas exploration: Synthetic examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kun; Wei, Wenbo; Lu, Qingtian; Dong, Hao; Li, Yanqing

    2014-07-01

    In petroleum explorations, seismic reflection technique has been almost always the preferred method for its high exploration depth and resolution. However, with the development of three dimensional (3D) inversion and interpretation schemes, much potential has been shown in MT method dealing with complex geological structures as in oil and gas exploration. In this study, synthetic geophysical models of petroleum reservoir structures are modeled and utilized to demonstrate that feasibility of 3-D MT technique for hydrocarbon exploration. A series of typical reservoir structure models are constructed and used to generate synthetic MT and seismic data to test the capabilities of 2-D/3-D MT and 2-D seismic inversion techniques. According to the inversion comparison, in addition to correctly retrieve the original forward model, the 3-D MT method also has some advantages over the reflective seismology method, which suffered from the lack of reflection wave and multiple wave problems. With the presented 3-D high resolution MT inversion method, MT techniques should be employed as one of the first choices for petroleum explorations.

  3. Some modern notions on oil and gas reservoir production regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lohrenz, J.; Monash, E.A.

    1980-05-21

    The historic rhetoric of oil and gas reservoir production regulations has been burdened with misconceptions. One was that most reservoirs are rate insensitive. Another was that a reservoir's decline is primarily a function of reservoir mechaism rather than a choice unconstrained by the laws of physics. Relieved of old notions like these, we introduce some modern notions, the most basic being that production regulation should have the purpose of obtaining the highest value from production per irreversible diminution of thermodynamically available energy. The laws of thermodynamics determine the available energy. What then is value. Value may include contributions other than production per se and purely monetary economic outcomes.

  4. Ecological Production Functions: A Theoretical and Practical Exploration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological production functions characterize relationships between ecosystem condition, management practices, and the delivery of economically valuable ecosystem services. Many in the ecosystem service research community view ecological research directed toward developing ecolog...

  5. GATEWAY Demonstrations: Exploring SSL Product Performance in the Real World

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Fact sheet that outlines DOE's GATEWAY technology demonstration program, which evaluates high-performance SSL products for general illumination in a variety of real-world exterior and interior applications.

  6. Gas Chemistry of Hydrothermal Systems of the Explorer Ridge, NE Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupton, J.; Lilley, M.; Baker, E.; Butterfield, D.; Embley, R.; Silvers, B.; Resing, J.; Olson, E.; Evans, L.; Lebon, G.; Greene, R.

    2002-12-01

    In June-August, 2002, a 2-leg expedition aboard the R/V Thompson completed an extensive survey of the hydrothermal systems of the Explorer Ridge. The first part of the expedition employed hydrographic casts to detect hydrothermal activity via the presence of water-column plumes. A total of 29 casts were completed, 17 conventional vertical casts and 11 tow-yos, covering the entire length of the Explorer Ridge from 49.5°N to 50.3°N. A total of 288 discrete samples were collected for shorebased analysis of helium isotopes. Preliminary results based on shipboard analysis of CTD data indicated that the strong hydrothermal venting was confined to the Magic Mountain area of the Explorer Ridge at 49.76°N, 130.26°W, where strong temperature and light attenuation signals were detected. However, it is possible that the water-column helium isotope results, when available, will indicate other areas of hydrothermal activity. In the second phase of the exploration, a series of submersible dives were conducted using the Canadian ROV ROPOS. The ROPOS dives were concentrated on the hydrothermal sites of the Magic Mountain area, which are concentrated along a 400-m long zone on the eastern shoulder of the axial valley. A suite of vent fluid samples was collected for analysis of gas chemistry using either discrete titanium gas-tight samplers or using the NOAA hydrothermal fluid sampler (HFS). A total of 11 discrete vent fluid samples were collected for gas chemistry at 7 different vents ranging in temperature from 162°C to 313°C. All of the vents sampled were very gas-rich, with total gas contents ranging from 0.3 ccSTP/g up to 1.4 ccSTP/g at Record Breaker Vent (313°C). Results for vent fluid concentrations of 3He, 4He, Ne, H2, CH4, and CO2 will be presented.

  7. Reactive oxygen species production and discontinuous gas exchange in insects

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S.; Hetz, Stefan K.; Marais, Elrike; Chown, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    While biochemical mechanisms are typically used by animals to reduce oxidative damage, insects are suspected to employ a higher organizational level, discontinuous gas exchange mechanism to do so. Using a combination of real-time, flow-through respirometry and live-cell fluorescence microscopy, we show that spiracular control associated with the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) in Samia cynthia pupae is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hyperoxia fails to increase mean ROS production, although minima are elevated above normoxic levels. Furthermore, a negative relationship between mean and mean ROS production indicates that higher ROS production is generally associated with lower . Our results, therefore, suggest a possible signalling role for ROS in DGC, rather than supporting the idea that DGC acts to reduce oxidative damage by regulating ROS production. PMID:21865257

  8. Production of bio-synthetic natural gas in Canada.

    PubMed

    Hacatoglu, Kevork; McLellan, P James; Layzell, David B

    2010-03-15

    Large-scale production of renewable synthetic natural gas from biomass (bioSNG) in Canada was assessed for its ability to mitigate energy security and climate change risks. The land area within 100 km of Canada's network of natural gas pipelines was estimated to be capable of producing 67-210 Mt of dry lignocellulosic biomass per year with minimal adverse impacts on food and fiber production. Biomass gasification and subsequent methanation and upgrading were estimated to yield 16,000-61,000 Mm(3) of pipeline-quality gas (equivalent to 16-63% of Canada's current gas use). Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of bioSNG-based electricity were calculated to be only 8.2-10% of the emissions from coal-fired power. Although predicted production costs ($17-21 GJ(-1)) were much higher than current energy prices, a value for low-carbon energy would narrow the price differential. A bioSNG sector could infuse Canada's rural economy with $41-130 billion of investments and create 410,000-1,300,000 jobs while developing a nation-wide low-carbon energy system. PMID:20175525

  9. Investigation of gas production and entrapment in granular iron medium

    SciTech Connect

    Kamolpornwijit, Wiwat; Liang, Liyuan

    2006-07-01

    A method for measuring gas entrapment in granular iron (Fe{sup 0}) was developed and used to estimate the impact of gas production on porosity loss during the treatment of a high NO{sub 3}{sup -} groundwater (up to {approx} 10 mM). Over the 400-d study period the trapped gas in laboratory columns was small, with a maximum measured at 1.3% pore volume. Low levels of dissolved H{sub 2}(g) were measured (up to 0.07 {+-} 0.02 M). Free moving gas bubbles were not observed. Thus, porosity loss, which was determined by tracer tests to be 25-30%, is not accounted for by residual gas trapped in the iron. The removal of aqueous species (i.e., NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Ca, and carbonate alkalinity) indicates that mineral precipitation contributed more significantly to porosity loss than did the trapped gases. Using the stoichiometric reactions between Fe{sup 0} and NO{sub 3}{sup -}, an average corrosion rate of 1.7 mmol kg{sup -1} d{sup -1} was derived for the test granular iron. This rate is 10 times greater than Fe{sup 0} oxidation by H{sub 2}O alone, based on H{sub 2} gas production. NO{sub 3}{sup -} ion rather than H{sub 2}O was the major oxidant in the groundwater in the absence of molecular O{sub 2}. The N-mass balance [e.g., N{sub 2}(g) and NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup -}] suggests that abiotic reduction of NO{sub 3}{sup -} dominated at the start of Fe{sup 0} treatment, whereas N{sub 2} production became more important once the microbial activity began. These laboratory results closely predict N{sub 2} gas production in a separated large column experiment that was operated for {approx}2 yr in the field, where a maximum of {approx}600 ml d{sup -1} gas volumes was detected, of which 99.5% (v/v) was N{sub 2}. We conclude that NO{sub 3}{sup -} suppressed the production of H{sub 2}(g) by competing with water for Fe{sup 0} oxidation, especially at the beginning of water treatment when Fe{sup 0} is highly reactive. Depends on the groundwater composition, gas venting may be necessary in maintaining PRB performance in the field.

  10. A semi-empirical photometric theory of cometary gas and dust production: Application to P/Halley's gas production rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newburn, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The semiempirical photometric theory of cometary gas and dust production is recalibrated using UV observations from 14 comets and uniform visual photometry from 8 comets. The calibration is not changed significantly but becomes more secure. The complete theory is presented with all approximations evaluated and explained. Numerical calibration aspects are presented in tables. The theory is applied to P/Halley using a light curve without the artifact caused by the close approach to Earth in 1910. Gas production rates predicted for the 1985/86 apparition are similar to those for 1910.

  11. In situ propellant production: Alternatives for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stancati, Michael L.; Jacobs, Mark K.; Cole, Kevin J.; Collins, John T.

    1991-01-01

    Current planning for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) recognizes the need for extraterrestrial resources to sustain long-term human presence and to attain some degree of self-sufficiency. As a practical matter, reducing the need to carry large supplies of propellant from Earth will make space exploration more economical. For nearly every round trip planned with conventional propulsion, the actual payload is only a small fraction - perhaps 10-15 percent - of the mass launched from Earth. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential application for SEI missions of propellants made exclusively from lunar or martian resources. Using such propellants could minimize or eliminate the cost of carrying propellant for surface excursion vehicles and return transfers through two high-energy maneuvers: Earth launch and trans-Mars injection. Certain chemical mono- and bipropellants are candidates for this approach; they could be recovered entirely from in situ resources on the Moon and Mars, without requiring a continuing Earth-based resupply of propellant constituents (e.g., fuel to mix with a locally obtained oxidizer) and, perhaps, with minimal need to resupply consumables (e.g., reagents or catalyst for process reactions). A complete assessment of the performance potential of these propellants must include the requirements for installation, operations, maintenance, and resupply of the chemical processing facility.

  12. Interpreting Gas Production Decline Curves By Combining Geometry and Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, R. P.; Hu, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Shale gas production forms an increasing fraction of domestic US energy supplies, but individual gas production wells show steep production declines. Better understanding of this production decline would allow better economic forecasting; better understanding of the reasons behind the decline would allow better production management. Yet despite these incentives, production declines curves remain poorly understood, and current analyses range from Arps' purely empirical equation to new sophisticated approaches requiring multiple unavailable parameters. Models often fail to capture salient features: for example, in log-log space many wells decline with an exponent markedly different from the -0.5 expected from diffusion, and often show a transition from one decline mode to another. We propose a new approach based on the assumption that the rate-limiting step is gas movement from the matrix to the induced fracture network. The matrix is represented as an assemblage of equivalent spheres (geometry), with low matrix pore connectivity (topology) that results in a distance-dependent accessible porosity profile given by percolation theory. The basic theory has just 2 parameters: the sphere size distribution (geometry), and the crossover distance (topology) that characterizes the porosity distribution. The theory is readily extended to include e.g. alternative geometries and bi-modal size distributions. Comparisons with historical data are promising.

  13. Low nanopore connectivity limits gas production in Barnett formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P.; Rowe, Harold D.

    2015-12-01

    Gas-producing wells in the Barnett Formation show a steep decline from initial production rates, even within the first year, and only 12-30% of the estimated gas in place is recovered. The underlying causes of these production constraints are not well understood. The rate-limiting step in gas production is likely diffusive transport from matrix storage to the stimulated fracture network. Transport through a porous material such as shale is controlled by both geometry (e.g., pore size distribution) and topology (e.g., pore connectivity). Through an integrated experimental and theoretical approach, this work finds that the Barnett Formation has sparsely connected pores. Evidence of low pore connectivity includes the sparse and heterogeneous presence of trace levels of diffusing solutes beyond a few millimeters from a sample edge, the anomalous behavior of spontaneous water imbibition, the steep decline in edge-accessible porosity observed in tracer concentrations following vacuum saturation, the low (about 0.2-0.4% by volume) level presence of Wood's metal alloy when injected at 600 MPa pressure, and high tortuosity from mercury injection capillary pressure. Results are consistent with an interpretation of pore connectivity based on percolation theory. Low pore connectivity of shale matrix limits its mass transfer interaction with the stimulated fracture network from hydraulic fracturing and serves as an important underlying cause for steep declines in gas production rates and a low overall recovery rate.

  14. Trace gas flux from container production of woody landscape plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agriculture industry is a large source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions which are widely believed to be causing increased global temperatures. Reduction of these emissions has been heavily researched, with most of the work focusing on row crop and animal production sectors. Little attention has...

  15. Derivational Morphophonology: Exploring Errors in Third Graders' Productions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarmulowicz, Linda; Hay, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes a post hoc analysis of segmental, stress, and syllabification errors in third graders' productions of derived English words with the stress-changing suffixes "-ity" and "-ic." We investigated whether (a) derived word frequency influences error patterns, (b) stress and syllabification errors always co-occur, and (c)

  16. Derivational Morphophonology: Exploring Errors in Third Graders' Productions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarmulowicz, Linda; Hay, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes a post hoc analysis of segmental, stress, and syllabification errors in third graders' productions of derived English words with the stress-changing suffixes "-ity" and "-ic." We investigated whether (a) derived word frequency influences error patterns, (b) stress and syllabification errors always co-occur, and (c)…

  17. Exploration and production operations in an environmentally sensitive area

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, G.W.; Steele, E.J.; Robalino, J.; Baldwin, S.J.

    1994-12-31

    The Ecuadorian portion of the Amazon Basin, known locally as the Oriente, is the major oil producing region in Ecuador. The tropical rain forests of the Oriente contain some of the Earth`s most biologically diverse and ecologically sensitive areas. In addition, the rain forest is home to several groups of indigenous peoples.When formulating an exploration plan and prior to beginning E and P activities in the Oriente, operators must understand the environmental and sociocultural issues in the region. These concerns are considered throughout the planning process, from project conception to project closure. An environmental management plan is adopted which addresses environmental and sociocultural concerns, minimizes environmental impact, prevents delays, and limits environmental liability.

  18. Analytical Modeling of Shale Hydraulic Fracturing and Gas Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.

    2012-12-01

    Shale gas is abundant all over the world. Due to its extremely low permeability, extensive stimulation of a shale reservoir is always required for its economic production. Hydraulic fracturing has been the primary method of shale reservoir stimulation. Consequently the design and optimization of a hydraulic fracturing treatment plays a vital role insuring job success and economic production. Due to the many variables involved and the lack of a simple yet robust tool based on fundamental physics, horizontal well placement and fracturing job designs have to certain degree been a guessing game built on previous trial and error experience. This paper presents a method for hydraulic fracturing design and optimization in these environments. The growth of a complex hydraulic fracture network (HFN) during a fracturing job is equivalently represented by a wiremesh fracturing model (WFM) constructed on the basis of fracture mechanics and mass balance. The model also simulates proppant transport and placement during HFN growth. Results of WFM simulations can then be used as the input into a wiremesh production model (WPM) constructed based on WFM. WPM represents gas flow through the wiremesh HFN by an elliptic flow and the flow of gas in shale matrix by a novel analytical solution accounting for contributions from both free and adsorbed gases stored in the pore space. WPM simulation is validated by testing against numerical simulations using a commercially available reservoir production simulator. Due to the analytical nature of WFM and WPM, both hydraulic fracturing and gas production simulations run very fast on a regular personal computer and are suitable for hydraulic fracturing job design and optimization. A case study is presented to demonstrate how a non-optimized hydraulic fracturing job might have been optimized using WFM and WPM simulations.Fig. 1. Ellipsoidal representation of (a) stimulated reservoir and (b) hydraulic fracture network created by hydraulic fracturing treatment. Fig. 2. Gas flow represented by (a) elliptical flow through fracture network and (b) linear flow within reservoir matrix.

  19. Production waters associated with the production, processing, transmission, and storage of natural gas: a literature survey. Topical report, July 1985-March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Fillo, J.P.; Hamacker, T.A.; Koraido, S.M.; Stefanacci, R.G.; Tallon, J.T.

    1987-07-01

    This report presents a review of the available public literature on the sources, characteristics, and management of production waters from natural gas industry operations. Gas exploration, production, processing, transmission, and storage operations generate production waters that must be discharged or disposed in accordance with applicable environmental regulations. Disposal practices and regulations are coming under increased scrutiny by EPA for all industry, and regulatory changes are anticipated in the foreseeable future. Natural gas industry operations will be affected to some degree by potential changes in regulations governing management of production waters under RCRA, the UIC program of the SDWA, and biomonitoring requirements for NPDES discharges under the CWA. The availability of data on production-water composition, biomonitoring, treatment, and disposal practices varies widely in the public literature. While chemical composition data are available for drilling fluids and produced waters, comprehensive detailed chemical analyses generally are not. Biomonitoring data are available only for drilling fluids, with few exceptions.

  20. Alaska North Slope regional gas hydrate production modeling forecasts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, S.J.; Hunter, R.B.; Collett, T.S.; Hancock, S.; Boswell, R.; Anderson, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    A series of gas hydrate development scenarios were created to assess the range of outcomes predicted for the possible development of the "Eileen" gas hydrate accumulation, North Slope, Alaska. Production forecasts for the "reference case" were built using the 2002 Mallik production tests, mechanistic simulation, and geologic studies conducted by the US Geological Survey. Three additional scenarios were considered: A "downside-scenario" which fails to identify viable production, an "upside-scenario" describes results that are better than expected. To capture the full range of possible outcomes and balance the downside case, an "extreme upside scenario" assumes each well is exceptionally productive.Starting with a representative type-well simulation forecasts, field development timing is applied and the sum of individual well forecasts creating the field-wide production forecast. This technique is commonly used to schedule large-scale resource plays where drilling schedules are complex and production forecasts must account for many changing parameters. The complementary forecasts of rig count, capital investment, and cash flow can be used in a pre-appraisal assessment of potential commercial viability.Since no significant gas sales are currently possible on the North Slope of Alaska, typical parameters were used to create downside, reference, and upside case forecasts that predict from 0 to 71??BM3 (2.5??tcf) of gas may be produced in 20 years and nearly 283??BM3 (10??tcf) ultimate recovery after 100 years.Outlining a range of possible outcomes enables decision makers to visualize the pace and milestones that will be required to evaluate gas hydrate resource development in the Eileen accumulation. Critical values of peak production rate, time to meaningful production volumes, and investments required to rule out a downside case are provided. Upside cases identify potential if both depressurization and thermal stimulation yield positive results. An "extreme upside" case captures the full potential of unconstrained development with widely spaced wells. The results of this study indicate that recoverable gas hydrate resources may exist in the Eileen accumulation and that it represents a good opportunity for continued research. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Advanced Exploration Systems Logistics Reduction and Repurposing Trash-to-Gas and Heat Melt Compactor KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccio, Anne J.; Layne, Andrew; Hummerick, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered: 1. Project Structure 2. "Trash to Gas" 3. "Smashing Trash! The Heat Melt Compactor" 4. "Heat Melt Compaction as an Effective Treatment for Eliminating Microorganisms from Solid Waste" Thermal degradation of trash reduces volume while creating water, carbon dioxide and ash. CO2 can be fed to Sabatier reactor for CH4 production to fuel LOX/LCH4 ascent vehicle. Optimal performance: HFWS, full temperature ramp to 500-600 C. Tar challenges exist. Catalysis: Dolomag did eliminate allene byproducts from the product stream. 2nd Gen Reactor Studies. Targeting power, mass, time efficiency. Gas separation, Catalysis to reduce tar formation. Microgravity effects. Downselect in August will determine where we should spend time optimizing the technology.

  2. Elemental Fluorine-18 Gas: Enhanced Production and Availability

    SciTech Connect

    VanBrocklin, Henry F.

    2011-12-01

    The overall objective of this project was to develop an efficient, reproducible and reliable process for the preparation of fluorine-18 labeled fluorine gas ([¹⁸F]F₂) from readily available cyclotron-produced [¹⁸F]fluoride ion. The two step process entailed the production of [¹⁸F]fluoromethane with subsequent conversion to [¹⁸F]F₂ by electric discharge of [¹⁸F]fluoromethane in the presence of carrier nonradioactive F₂ gas. The specific goals of this project were i) to optimize the preparation of [¹⁸F]fluoromethane from [¹⁸F]fluoride ion; ii) to develop a prototype automated system for the production of [¹⁸F]F₂ from [¹⁸F]fluoride ion and iii) develop a compact user friendly automated system for the preparation of [¹⁸F]F₂ with initial synthesis of fluorine-18 labeled radiotracers. Over the last decade there has been an increased interest in the production of "non-standard" positron-emitting isotopes for the preparation of new radiotracers for a variety of applications including medical imaging and therapy. The increased availability of these isotopes from small biomedical cyclotrons has prompted their use in labeling radiotracers. In much the same way the production of [¹⁸F]F₂ gas has been known for several decades. However, access to [¹⁸F]F₂ gas has been limited to those laboratories with the means (e.g. F₂ targetry for the cyclotron) and the project-based need to work with [¹⁸F]F₂ gas. Relatively few laboratories, compared to those that produce [¹⁸F]fluoride ion on a daily basis, possess the capability to produce and use [¹⁸F]F₂ gas. A simplified, reliable system employing [¹⁸F]fluoride ion from cyclotron targetry systems that are already in place coupled with on-demand production of the [¹⁸F]F₂ gas would greatly enhance its availability. This would improve the availability of [¹⁸F]F₂ gas and promote further work with a valuable precursor. The major goals of the project were accomplished over the funding period. The preparation of ¹⁸F]fluoromethane has been automated with reproducible yields greater than 90% conversion from [¹⁸F]fluoride ion. A trap and release system was established for the [¹⁸F]fluoride ion concentration and direct elution of the [¹⁸F]fluoride ion into the reaction vial with the appropriate base and precursor in DMSO. Other solvents were also investigated. The production time for [¹⁸F]fluoromethane is less than 10 minutes. An automated system for the [¹⁸F]F₂ gas production from the [18F]fluoromethane has been developed. The unit coupled to the [¹⁸F]fluoromethane system permits the on demand production of [¹⁸F]F₂ gas. In less than 30 minutes, mCi quantities of [¹⁸F]F₂ gas were produced. Several variables for the [¹⁸F]F₂ gas production were investigated and a set of parameters for reproducible operation were determined. These parameters included discharge chamber size, carrier gas (He, Ne, Ar), discharge time, discharge current, mass of F₂ gas added to the chamber. FDOPA and EF5 were used to test the reactivity of the [¹⁸F]F₂ gas. Both products were produced in low to modest yield. The ready availability of [¹⁸F]F₂ gas has potential impact to advance both DOE mission-driven initiatives and nuclear medicine initiatives through other federally funded agencies such as NIH and DoD. New reactions involving the use of [¹⁸F]F₂ gas will lead to direct labeling of new radiotracers and intermediates as well as new fluorine-18 labeled synthons that may be further reacted with other reagents to provide useful fluorine-18 labeled compounds. New tracers to understand and follow plant and microbial metabolism as well as new tracers for nuclear medicine applications, that have been either difficult to obtain or never produced due to the limited availability of [¹⁸F]F₂ gas, may be prepared using the techniques developed .

  3. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1997-08-31

    A tremendous amount of wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge (estimated 20 million metric tons per year in the US) is currently being landfilled at a huge cost to utility companies. Scrubber sludge is the solid precipitate produced during desulfurization of flue-gas from burning high sulfur coal. The amount of this sludge is expected to increase in the near future due to ever increasing governmental regulation concerning the amount of sulfur emissions. Scrubber sludge is a fine, grey colored powder that contains calcium sulfite hemihydrate (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}), calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O), limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), silicates, and iron oxides. This material can continue to be landfilled at a steadily increasing cost, or an alternative for utilizing this material can be developed. This study explores the characteristics of a naturally oxidized wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge and uses these characteristics to develop alternatives for recycling this material. In order for scrubber sludge to be used as a feed material for various markets, it was necessary to process it to meet the specifications of these markets. A physical separation process was therefore needed to separate the components of this sludge into useful products at a low cost. There are several physical separation techniques available to separate fine particulates. These techniques can be divided into four major groups: magnetic separation, electrostatic separation, physico-chemical separation, and density-based separation. The properties of this material indicated that two methods of separation were feasible: water-only cycloning (density-based separation), and froth flotation (physico-chemical separation). These processes could be used either separately, or in combination. The goal of this study was to reduce the limestone impurity in this scrubber sludge from 5.6% by weight to below 2.0% by weight. The resulting clean calcium sulfite/sulfate material can be oxidized into a synthetic gypsum that can be used in several markets which include: wallboard manufacturing, plaster, portland cement, and as a soil conditioner. Single stage water-only cycloning removed nearly 50% of the limestone by weight from the scrubber sludge and maintained a weight recovery of 76%. Froth flotation produced a calcium sulfite/sulfate that contained 4.30% limestone by weight with a 71% weight recovery. These methods were successful in removing some of the limestone impurity, but were not able to meet the specifications needed. However, the combination of water-only cycloning and froth flotation provided a clean, useful calcium sulfite/sulfate material with a limestone grade of 1.70% by weight and a total weight recovery of nearly 66%.

  4. Federal Offshore Statistics, 1993. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Francois, D.K.

    1994-12-31

    This document contains statistical data on the following: federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from federal offshore leases; disbursement of federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. A glossary is included.

  5. Lunar Thermal Wadis and Exploration Rovers: Outpost Productivity and Participatory Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt; Wegeng, Robert; Suzuki, Nantel

    2009-01-01

    The presentation introduces the concept of a thermal wadi, an engineered source of thermal energy that can be created using native material on the moon or elsewhere to store solar energy for use by various lunar surface assets to survive the extremely cold environment of the lunar night. A principal benefit of this approach to energy storage is the low mass requirement for transportation from Earth derived from the use of the lunar soil, or regolith, as the energy storage medium. The presentation includes a summary of the results of a feasibility study involving the numerical modeling of the performance of a thermal wadi including a manufactured thermal mass, a solar energy reflector, a nighttime thermal energy reflector and a lunar surface rover. The feasibility study shows that sufficient thermal energy can be stored using unconcentrated solar flux to keep a lunar surface rover sufficiently warm throughout a 354 hour lunar night at the lunar equator, and that similar approaches can be used to sustain surface assets during shorter dark periods that occur at the lunar poles. The presentation includes descriptions of a compact lunar rover concept that could be used to manufacture a thermal wadi and could alternatively be used to conduct a variety of high-value tasks on the lunar surface. Such rovers can be produced more easily because the capability for surviving the lunar night is offloaded to the thermal wadi infrastructure. The presentation also includes several concepts for operational scenarios that could be implemented on the moon using the thermal wadi and compact rover concepts in which multiple affordable rovers, operated by multiple terrestrial organizations, can conduct resource prospecting and human exploration site preparation tasks.

  6. Development of hydrate risk quantification in oil and gas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Piyush N.

    Subsea flowlines that transport hydrocarbons from wellhead to the processing facility face issues from solid deposits such as hydrates, waxes, asphaltenes, etc. The solid deposits not only affect the production but also pose a safety concern; thus, flow assurance is significantly important in designing and operating subsea oil and gas production. In most subsea oil and gas operations, gas hydrates form at high pressure and low temperature conditions, causing the risk of plugging flowlines, with a undesirable impact on production. Over the years, the oil and gas industry has shifted their perspective from hydrate avoidance to hydrate management given several parameters such as production facility, production chemistry, economic and environmental concerns. Thus, understanding the level of hydrate risk associated with subsea flowlines is an important in developing efficient hydrate management techniques. In the past, hydrate formation models were developed for various flow-systems (e.g., oil dominated, water dominated, and gas dominated) present in the oil and gas production. The objective of this research is to extend the application of the present hydrate prediction models for assessing the hydrate risk associated with subsea flowlines that are prone to hydrate formation. It involves a novel approach for developing quantitative hydrate risk models based on the conceptual models built from the qualitative knowledge obtained from experimental studies. A comprehensive hydrate risk model, that ranks the hydrate risk associated with the subsea production system as a function of time, hydrates, and several other parameters, which account for inertial, viscous, interfacial forces acting on the flow-system, is developed for oil dominated and condensate systems. The hydrate plugging risk for water dominated systems is successfully modeled using The Colorado School of Mines Hydrate Flow Assurance Tool (CSMHyFAST). It is found that CSMHyFAST can be used as a screening tool in order to reduce the parametric study that may require a long duration of time using The Colorado School of Mines Hydrate Kinetic Model (CSMHyK). The evolution of the hydrate plugging risk along flowline-riser systems is modeled for steady state and transient operations considering the effect of several critical parameters such as oil-hydrate slip, duration of shut-in, and water droplet size on a subsea tieback system. This research presents a novel platform for quantification of the hydrate plugging risk, which in-turn will play an important role in improving and optimizing current hydrate management strategies. The predictive strength of the hydrate risk quantification and hydrate prediction models will have a significant impact on flow assurance engineering and design with respect to building safe and efficient hydrate management techniques for future deep-water developments.

  7. Gas plant economic optimization is more than meeting product specification

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, P.N.; Colwell, L.W.; Gamez, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    Gas plants require a higher level of process control to optimize the process to maximize operating profits. Automation alone does not achieve this objective whereas, on-line dynamic optimization of the control variables based on product pricing, the cost to process the gas and the contracts for gas and liquids is solvable by new control techniques. Daily operations are affected by a paradigm shift in the method of control for the facility. This newly developed and site proven technique has demonstrated how to improve benefits when net processing margins are positive and minimize operating cost when liquids margins are negative. Because ethane recovery versus its rejection is not a binary decision, a better means to operate can be shown to benefit the gas plant operator. Each specification has a cost to meet it or a penalty to exceed it. However, if allowed, exceeding specification may prove beneficial to the net profitability of the operations. With the decision being made on-line every few minutes, the results are more dramatic than previously understood. Gas Research Institute and Continental Controls, Inc. have installed more than 10 such systems in US gas processing plants. Project payout from the use of the MVC{reg_sign} technology has on average been less than six months. Processing savings have ranged from $.0075 to $.024 per Mcf. The authors paper last year showed where the benefits can be derived. This year the results of those facilities are shared along with the methodology to achieve them.

  8. 78 FR 59650 - Subzone 9F, Authorization of Production Activity, The Gas Company, LLC dba Hawai'i Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... inviting public comment (78 FR 33051-33052, June 3, 2013). The FTZ Board has determined that no further... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Subzone 9F, Authorization of Production Activity, The Gas Company, LLC dba Hawai'i Gas, (Synthetic Natural Gas), Kapolei, Hawaii On May 22, 2013, The Gas Company, LLC dba...

  9. Hydrogen and Oxygen Gas Production in the UT TRIGA Reflector

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. O'Kelly

    2000-11-12

    In December 1999, The University of Texas at Austin (UT) reported an unusual condition associated with the annular graphite reflector surrounding the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL) TRIGA reactor. The aluminum container encapsulating the graphite showed signs of bulging or swelling. Further, during an investigation of this occurrence, bubbles were detected coming from a weld in the aluminum. The gas composition was approximately 2:1 hydrogen to oxygen. After safety review and equipment fabrication, the reflector was successfully vented and flooded. The ratio of the gases produced is unusual, and the gas production mechanism has not yet been explained.

  10. 30 CFR 260.116 - How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I measure natural gas production on my... do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease? You must measure natural gas production on... natural gas, measured according to part 250, subpart L of this title, equals one barrel of oil...

  11. Halogens in oil and gas production-associated wastewater.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, J.; Warner, N. R.; Dwyer, G. S.; Mitch, W.; Vengosh, A.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated chloride and bromide in oil and gas wastewaters that are released to the environment are one of the major environmental risks in areas impacted by shale gas development [Olmstead et al.,2013]. In addition to direct contamination of streams, the potential for formation of highly toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water in utilities located downstream from disposal sites poses a serious risk to human health. Here we report on the occurrence of iodide in oil and gas wastewater. We conducted systematic measurements of chloride, bromide, and iodide in (1) produced waters from conventional oil and gas wells from the Appalachian Basin; (2) hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids from unconventional Marcellus and Fayetteville shale gas, (3) effluents from a shale gas spill site in West Virginia; (4) effluents of oil and gas wastewater disposed to surface water from three brine treatment facilities in western Pennsylvania; and (5) surface waters downstream from the brine treatment facilities. Iodide concentration was measured by isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, which allowed for a more accurate measurement of iodide in a salt-rich matrix. Iodide in both conventional and unconventional oil and gas produced and flowback waters varied from 1 mg/L to 55 mg/L, with no systematic enrichment in hydraulic fracturing fluids. The similarity in iodide content between the unconventional Marcellus flowback waters and the conventional Appalachian produced waters clearly indicate that the hydraulic fracturing process does not induce additional iodide and the iodide content is related to natural variations in the host formations. Our data show that effluents from the brine treatment facilities have elevated iodide (mean = 20.9±1 mg/L) compared to local surface waters (0.03± 0.1 mg/L). These results indicate that iodide, in addition to chloride and bromide in wastewater from oil and gas production, poses an additional risk to downstream surface water quality and drinking water utilities given the potential of formation of iodate-DBPs in drinking water. Olmstead, S.M. et al. (2013). Shale gas development impacts on surface water quality in Pennsylvania, PNAS, 110, 4962-4967.

  12. Patterns of partner selection within a network of joint ventures in oil and gas exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Jeffrey Emmet

    Leaders of companies exploring for oil and gas had no means of characterizing the multitude of intercompany associations common to the industry. This study examined the patterns of intercompany associations, based on exploration lease joint ventures, for leases active on December 31, 2005 in the U.S. waters of the Gulf of Mexico. The company attributes examined in this study included company status, company size, lease joint venture network centrality, longevity of company lease ownership, and the extent of company operations. The joint count, network and spatial autocorrelation tests detected the significant patterning of intercompany associations by company status, but no patterning by company attributes including size, centrality, longevity, or extent. This study identified the strong tendency to homophily for major companies and heterophily for nonmajor companies. The overall tendency to heterophily by status remained across all the companies included in the study. Oil and gas company leaders and lease resource administrators can use insights from the observed patterns to inform partner selection decisions or lease administration practices.

  13. Dissolved gas exsolution to enhance gas production and transport during bench-scale electrical resistance heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegele, P. R.; Mumford, K. G.

    2015-05-01

    Condensation of volatile organic compounds in colder zones can be detrimental to the performance of an in situ thermal treatment application for the remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones. A novel method to increase gas production and limit convective heat loss in more permeable, potentially colder, zones involves the injection and liberation of dissolved gas from solution during heating. Bench-scale electrical resistance heating experiments were performed with a dissolved carbon dioxide and sodium chloride solution to investigate exsolved gas saturations and transport regimes at elevated, but sub-boiling, temperatures. At sub-boiling temperatures, maximum exsolved gas saturations of Sg = 0.12 were attained, and could be sustained when the carbon dioxide solution was injected during heating rather than emplaced prior to heating. This gas saturation was estimated to decrease groundwater relative permeability to krw = 0.64. Discontinuous gas transport was observed above saturations of Sg = 0.07, demonstrating the potential of exsolved CO2 to bridge vertical gas transport through colder zones.

  14. Natural gas production and anomalous geothermal gradients of the deep Tuscaloosa Formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, Lauri

    2011-01-01

    For the largest producing natural gas fields in the onshore Gulf of Mexico Basin, the relation between temperature versus depth was investigated. Prolific natural gas reservoirs with the highest temperatures were found in the Upper Cretaceous downdip Tuscaloosa trend in Louisiana. Temperature and production trends from the deepest field, Judge Digby field, in Pointe Coupe Parish, Louisiana, were investigated to characterize the environment of natural gas in the downdip Tuscaloosa trend. The average production depth in the Judge Digby field is approximately 22,000 ft. Temperatures as high as 400 degrees F are typically found at depth in Judge Digby field and are anomalously low when compared to temperature trends extrapolated to similar depths regionally. At 22,000 ft, the minimum and maximum temperatures for all reservoirs in Gulf Coast producing gas fields are 330 and 550 degrees F, respectively; the average temperature is 430 degrees F. The relatively depressed geothermal gradients in the Judge Digby field may be due to high rates of sediment preservation, which may have delayed the thermal equilibration of the sediment package with respect to the surrounding rock. Analyzing burial history and thermal maturation indicates that the deep Tuscaloosa trend in the Judge Digby field is currently in the gas generation window. Using temperature trends as an exploration tool may have important implications for undiscovered hydrocarbons at greater depths in currently producing reservoirs, and for settings that are geologically analogous to the Judge Digby fiel

  15. Multi-strata exploration and production study, October 1,1989--September 24, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K.; Reeves, T.K.; Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.; Johnson, H.R.; Hawkins, H.R. )

    1992-01-01

    The Multi-Strata project is designed to co-develop both natural gas and coal-bed methane produced through a single well bore. Sites were selected based on the total gas resources available for development combined with a sound knowledge of the reservoir parameters that contribute to the accumulation and production of natural gas in the study area of Raleigh County, West Virginia. The project was planned and is being conducted in two phases. Phase I of the project, initiated in October 1989, consisted of compiling and analyzing relevant geological and gas production information in Raleigh County, West Virginia. The Eccles 7-{1/2} Minute . The Phase I analysis identified, by May 1990, five drilling locations with a high potential for economic gas production. Phase II activities included the drilling, coring, logging, testing, and completion of three wells. It is clear from the tests conducted to date, that the three wells will deliver significant quantities of natural gas from the conventional formations, augmented by high-quality methane from the coal intervals. Gas deliverability will be determined in the upcoming production test into a commercial pipeline. Economic analyses of the project will be undertaken when sufficient production data have been obtained.

  16. Multi-strata exploration and production study, October 1,1989--September 24, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K.; Reeves, T.K.; Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.; Johnson, H.R.; Hawkins, H.R.

    1992-09-01

    The Multi-Strata project is designed to co-develop both natural gas and coal-bed methane produced through a single well bore. Sites were selected based on the total gas resources available for development combined with a sound knowledge of the reservoir parameters that contribute to the accumulation and production of natural gas in the study area of Raleigh County, West Virginia. The project was planned and is being conducted in two phases. Phase I of the project, initiated in October 1989, consisted of compiling and analyzing relevant geological and gas production information in Raleigh County, West Virginia. The Eccles 7-{1/2} Minute . The Phase I analysis identified, by May 1990, five drilling locations with a high potential for economic gas production. Phase II activities included the drilling, coring, logging, testing, and completion of three wells. It is clear from the tests conducted to date, that the three wells will deliver significant quantities of natural gas from the conventional formations, augmented by high-quality methane from the coal intervals. Gas deliverability will be determined in the upcoming production test into a commercial pipeline. Economic analyses of the project will be undertaken when sufficient production data have been obtained.

  17. NOBLE GAS PRODUCTION FROM MERCURY SPALLATION AT SNS

    SciTech Connect

    DeVore, Joe R; Lu, Wei; Schwahn, Scott O

    2013-01-01

    Calculations for predicting the distribution of the products of spallation reactions between high energy protons and target materials are well developed and are used for design and operational applications in many projects both within DOE and in other arenas. These calculations are based on theory and limited experimental data that verifies rates of production of some spallation products exist. At the Spallation Neutron Source, a helium stream from the mercury target flows through a system to remove radioactivity from this mercury target offgas. The operation of this system offers a window through which the production of noble gases from mercury spallation by protons may be observed. This paper describes studies designed to measure the production rates of twelve noble gas isotopes within the Spallation Neutron Source mercury target.

  18. Trash to Gas: Converting Space Trash into Useful Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nur, Mononita

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Logistical Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project is a collaborative effort in which NASA is determined to reduce total logistical mass through reduction, reuse and recycling of various wastes and components of long duration space missions and habitats. LRR is focusing on four distinct advanced areas of study: Advanced Clothing System, Logistics-to-Living, Heat Melt Compactor and Trash to Supply Gas (TtSG). The objective of TtSG is to develop technologies that convert material waste, human waste and food waste into high-value products. High-value products include life support oxygen and water, rocket fuels, raw material production feedstocks, and other energy sources. There are multiple pathways for converting waste to products involving single or multi-step processes. This paper discusses thermal oxidation methods of converting waste to methane. Different wastes, including food, food packaging, Maximum Absorbent Garments (MAGs), human waste simulants, and cotton washcloths have been evaluated in a thermal degradation reactor under conditions promoting pyrolysis, gasification or incineration. The goal was to evaluate the degradation processes at varying temperatures and ramp cycles and to maximize production of desirable products and minimize high molecular weight hydrocarbon (tar) production. Catalytic cracking was also evaluated to minimize tar production. The quantities of C02, CO, CH4, and H20 were measured under the different thermal degradation conditions. The conversion efficiencies of these products were used to determine the best methods for producing desired products.

  19. Trash-to-Gas: Converting Space Trash into Useful Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccio, Anne J.; Hintze, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Logistical Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project is a collaborative effort in which NASA is determined to reduce total logistical mass through reduction, reuse and recycling of various wastes and components of long duration space missions and habitats. LRR is focusing on four distinct advanced areas of study: Advanced Clothing System, Logistics-to-Living, Heat Melt Compactor and Trash to Supply Gas (TtSG). The objective of TtSG is to develop technologies that convert material waste, human waste and food waste into high-value products. High-value products include life support oxygen and water, rocket fuels, raw material production feedstocks, and other energy sources. There are multiple pathways for converting waste to products involving single or multi-step processes. This paper discusses thermal oxidation methods of converting waste to methane. Different wastes, including food, food packaging, Maximum Absorbent Garments (MAGs), human waste simulants, and cotton washcloths have been evaluated in a thermal degradation reactor under conditions promoting pyrolysis, gasification or incineration. The goal was to evaluate the degradation processes at varying temperatures and ramp cycles and to maximize production of desirable products and minimize high molecular weight hydrocarbon (tar) production. Catalytic cracking was also evaluated to minimize tar production. The quantities of CO2, CO, CH4, and H2O were measured under the different thermal degradation conditions. The conversion efficiencies of these products were used to determine the best methods for producing desired products.

  20. Value-Added Products from Remote Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle A. Johnson

    2002-03-15

    In Wyoming and throughout the United States, there are natural gas fields that are not producing because of their remoteness from gas pipelines. Some of these fields are ideal candidates for a cogeneration scheme where components suitable for chemical feedstock or direct use, such as propane and butane, are separated. Resulting low- to medium-Btu gas is fired in a gas turbine system to provide power for the separation plant. Excess power is sold to the utility, making the integrated plant a true cogeneration facility. This project seeks to identify the appropriate technologies for various subsystems of an integrated plant to recover value-added products from wet gas and/or retrograde condensate reservoirs. Various vendors and equipment manufacturers will be contacted and a data base consisting of feedstock constraints and output specifications for various subsystems and components will be developed. Based on vendor specifications, gas reservoirs suited for value-added product recovery will be identified. A candidate reservoir will then be selected, and an optimum plant layout will be developed. A facility will then be constructed and operated. The project consists of eight subtasks: Compilation of Reservoir Data; Review of Treatment and Conditioning Technologies; Review of Product Recovery and Separation Technologies; Development of Power Generation System; Integrated Plant Design for Candidate Field; System Fabrication; System Operation and Monitoring; and Economic Evaluation and Reporting. The first five tasks have been completed and the sixth is nearly complete. Systems Operations and Monitoring will start next year. The Economic Evaluation and Reporting task will be a continuous effort for the entire project. The reservoir selected for the initial demonstration of the process is the Burnt Wagon Field, Natrona County, Wyoming. The field is in a remote location with no electric power to the area and no gas transmission line. The design for the gas processing train to produce the liquefied gas products includes three gas compressors, a cryogenic separation unit, and a natural gas powered generator. Based on the equipment specifications, air quality permits for the well field and the gas processing unit were developed and the permits were issued by the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality. Also, to make state and federal reporting easier, three of the four leases that made up the Burnt Wagon were combined. All major equipment has been installed and individual component operability is being conducted. During the next project year, operability testing and the shakedown of the entire system will be completed. Once shakedown is complete, the system will be turned over to the cosponsor for day-to-day operations. During operations, data will be collected through remote linkage to the data acquisition system or analysis of the system performance to develop an economic evaluation of the process.

  1. Study sizes up Iraq`s reserves, exploration status, production potential

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, M.W.

    1996-06-24

    Iraq has a volatile exploration and production history, but unlike more stable OAPEC countries it was National Oil Co. (INOC) rather than foreign oil companies that discovered most of the country`s proved oil reserves. Proved reserves are in Paleozoic, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary reservoirs charged by Silurian and Jurassic and/or Cretaceous source rocks. The pre-gulf war production capacity was 3.5 million b/d, but the country`s current damaged production capacity is about 2.5 million b/d. New discoveries have elevated Iraq`s proved reserves to 120 billion bbl of oil. The paper discusses exploration history, proven reserves, exploration plays, exploration potential, and production potential.

  2. Gas production by accelerated in situ bioleaching of landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.

    1982-04-06

    A process for improved gas production and accelerated stabilization of landfills by accelerated in situ bioleaching of organic wastes by acid forming bacteria in substantially sealed landfills, passing the leachate of hydrolysis and liquefaction products of microbial action of the microorganisms with the organic material to an acid phase digester to regenerate the activated culture of acid forming microorganisms for recirculation to the landfill, passing the supernatant from the acid phase digester to a methane phase digester operated under conditions to produce methane rich gas. The supernatant from the methane phase digester containing nutrients for the acid forming microorganisms and added sewage sludge or other desired nutrient materials are circulated through the landfill. Low Btu gas is withdrawn from the acid phase digester while high Btu gas is withdrawn from the methane phase digester and may be upgraded for use as SNG. The process of this invention is applicable to small as well as large organic waste landfills, provides simultaneous disposal of municipal solid waste and sewage sludge or other aqueous organic waste in a landfill which may be stabilized much more quickly than an uncontrolled landfill as presently utilized.

  3. Production of light oil by injection of hot inert gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruidas, Bidhan C.; Ganguly, Somenath

    2016-05-01

    Hot inert gas, when injected into an oil reservoir is capable of generating a vaporization-condensation drive and as a consequence, a preferential movement of the lighter components to the production well. This form of displacement is an important unit mechanism in hot flue-gas injection, or in thermal recovery from a watered-out oil reservoir. This article presents the movement of heat front vis-à-vis the changes in the saturation profile, and the gas-phase composition. The plateau in the temperature profile due to the exchange of latent heat, and the formation of water bank at the downstream are elaborated. The broadening of the vaporization-condensation zone with continued progression is discussed. The effect of inert gas temperature on the cumulative production of oil is reviewed. The results provide insight to the vaporization-condensation drive as a stand-alone mechanism. The paper underscores the relative importance of this mechanism, when operated in tandem with other processes in improved oil recovery and CO2 sequestration.

  4. Production of light oil by injection of hot inert gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruidas, Bidhan C.; Ganguly, Somenath

    2015-07-01

    Hot inert gas, when injected into an oil reservoir is capable of generating a vaporization-condensation drive and as a consequence, a preferential movement of the lighter components to the production well. This form of displacement is an important unit mechanism in hot flue-gas injection, or in thermal recovery from a watered-out oil reservoir. This article presents the movement of heat front vis-à-vis the changes in the saturation profile, and the gas-phase composition. The plateau in the temperature profile due to the exchange of latent heat, and the formation of water bank at the downstream are elaborated. The broadening of the vaporization-condensation zone with continued progression is discussed. The effect of inert gas temperature on the cumulative production of oil is reviewed. The results provide insight to the vaporization-condensation drive as a stand-alone mechanism. The paper underscores the relative importance of this mechanism, when operated in tandem with other processes in improved oil recovery and CO2 sequestration.

  5. Holistic environmental assessment and offshore oil field exploration and production.

    PubMed

    Salter, E; Ford, J

    2001-01-01

    According to UK Government surveys, concern for the environment is growing. Environmental regulation of the industry is becoming wider in its scope and tougher in its implementation. Various techniques are available to assess how the industry can drive down its environmental impact and comply with environmental regulation. Environmental Assessments (EA) required by European law do not cover the whole life cycle of the project that they are analysing. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) was developed to assess the environmental loadings of a product, process or activity over its entire life cycle. It was the first technique used in environmental analysis that adopted what was described as a holistic approach. It fails this approach by not assessing accidental emissions or environmental impacts other than those that are direct. Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) offers the opportunity to value environmental effects and appraise a project on the basis of costs and benefits. Not all environmental effects can be valued and of those that can there is considerable uncertainty in their valuation and occurrence. CBA cannot satisfactorily measure the total environmental risk of a project. Consequently there is a need for a technique that overcomes the failures of project-level EA, LCA and CBA, and assesses total environmental risk. Many organizations such as, the British Medical Association, the European Oilfield Speciality Chemicals Association, the Royal Ministry of Petroleum and Energy (Norway) and Shell Expro now recognize that a holistic approach is an integral part of assessing total risk. The Brent SPAR case study highlights the interdisciplinary nature required of any environmental analysis. Holistic Environmental Assessment is recommended as such an environmental analysis. PMID:11382983

  6. Challenges, uncertainties, and issues facing gas production from gas-hydrate deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswel, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M.B.; Reagan, M.T.; Sloan, E.D.; Sum, A.K.; Koh, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas-hydrate (GH) petroleum system; to discuss advances, requirements, and suggested practices in GH prospecting and GH deposit characterization; and to review the associated technical, economic, and environmental challenges and uncertainties, which include the following: accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource; development of methods for identifying suitable production targets; sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments (HBS) and sample analysis; analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs; well-testing methods; interpretation of well-testing results; geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns; well design, operation, and installation; field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs; monitoring production and geomechanical stability; laboratory investigations; fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior; the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates; and associated environmental concerns. ?? 2011 Society of Petroleum Engineers.

  7. Identification of productive layers in low-permeability gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, J.L.; Lee, W.J. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper presents new guidelines for determining net pay thickness in low-permeability, multilayered gas wells. These criteria were developed from a sensitivity study performed with an analytical solution for complex multilayered reservoirs. The purpose of this study is to determine whether many layers now considered to contribute to net pay actually have transmissibilities too low for the layer to be productive, causing performance projections from current singly-layer descriptive models to be too optimistic.

  8. Accounting for product financing arrangements by oil and gas producers

    SciTech Connect

    Munter, P.; Ratcliffe, T.A.

    1983-03-01

    The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has developed the Statement of Financial2 Accounting Standards (SFAS) Nos. 47 and 49 to help practitioners in accounting for and disclosing product financing arrangements in the oil and gas industry. SFAS No. 47 is a disclosure document only, while SFAS No. 49 specifies the accounting treatment for certain arrangements. The authors describe and give examples to show how practitioners can implement the substantive provisions of the documents.

  9. Significance of high-wax oil variability to Pacific Rim exploration and production

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.M.K.; Jacobson, S.R.

    1996-12-31

    High-Wax oils are a class of paraffinic crudes that occur widely in Pacific Rim petroleum systems. New analytical technologies, particularly High Temperature Gas Chromatography (HTGC) show unexpected variations in the molecular weight ranges and concentrations of paraffin waxes within this class of crudes. These variations are source and maturity-related, providing paleoenvironmental and generative information useful to exploration. Paleoenvironmental factors revealed by high-wax oil HTGC source signatures can also help interpret the potential for nearby reservoirs. Furthermore, variations in wax compositions affect flow and organic scale-forming properties that impact the production economics of these oils. Lacustrine-sourced high-wax oils contain broad distributions of paraffin waxes ranging from C{sub 20} to C{sub 60} or higher. Various algae appear to be the source of higher molecular weight waxes in these oils. Paleoenvironmental factors, such as water salinities and paleoclimate, affect wax compositions of resulting lacustrine high-wax oils. Other terrestrial-sourced oils generated by paralic or nearshore marine source rocks show high concentrations of C{sub 25} to C{sub 35} waxes, but much lower distributions of higher molecular weight waxes. These high-wax oils appear to. contain waxes derived principally from terrestrial, higher plant materials. Results for high-wax petroleum systems in Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines and China illustrate these conclusions with examples ranging in age from Carboniferous-Permian to late Tertiary.

  10. Significance of high-wax oil variability to Pacific Rim exploration and production

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.M.K. ); Jacobson, S.R. )

    1996-01-01

    High-Wax oils are a class of paraffinic crudes that occur widely in Pacific Rim petroleum systems. New analytical technologies, particularly High Temperature Gas Chromatography (HTGC) show unexpected variations in the molecular weight ranges and concentrations of paraffin waxes within this class of crudes. These variations are source and maturity-related, providing paleoenvironmental and generative information useful to exploration. Paleoenvironmental factors revealed by high-wax oil HTGC source signatures can also help interpret the potential for nearby reservoirs. Furthermore, variations in wax compositions affect flow and organic scale-forming properties that impact the production economics of these oils. Lacustrine-sourced high-wax oils contain broad distributions of paraffin waxes ranging from C[sub 20] to C[sub 60] or higher. Various algae appear to be the source of higher molecular weight waxes in these oils. Paleoenvironmental factors, such as water salinities and paleoclimate, affect wax compositions of resulting lacustrine high-wax oils. Other terrestrial-sourced oils generated by paralic or nearshore marine source rocks show high concentrations of C[sub 25] to C[sub 35] waxes, but much lower distributions of higher molecular weight waxes. These high-wax oils appear to. contain waxes derived principally from terrestrial, higher plant materials. Results for high-wax petroleum systems in Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines and China illustrate these conclusions with examples ranging in age from Carboniferous-Permian to late Tertiary.

  11. Organic Substances from Unconventional Oil and Gas Production in Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orem, W. H.; Varonka, M.; Crosby, L.; Schell, T.; Bates, A.; Engle, M.

    2014-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) production has emerged as an important element in the US and world energy mix. Technological innovations in the oil and gas industry, especially horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, allow for the enhanced release of oil and natural gas from shale compared to conventional oil and gas production. This has made commercial exploitation possible on a large scale. Although UOG is enormously successful, there is surprisingly little known about the effects of this technology on the targeted shale formation and on environmental impacts of oil and gas production at the surface. We examined water samples from both conventional and UOG shale wells to determine the composition, source and fate of organic substances present. Extraction of hydrocarbon from shale plays involves the creation and expansion of fractures through the hydraulic fracturing process. This process involves the injection of large volumes of a water-sand mix treated with organic and inorganic chemicals to assist the process and prop open the fractures created. Formation water from a well in the New Albany Shale that was not hydraulically fractured (no injected chemicals) had total organic carbon (TOC) levels that averaged 8 mg/L, and organic substances that included: long-chain fatty acids, alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds, alkyl benzenes, and alkyl phenols. In contrast, water from UOG production in the Marcellus Shale had TOC levels as high as 5,500 mg/L, and contained a range of organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at thousands of μg/L for individual compounds. These chemicals and TOC decreased rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery as injected fluids were recovered, but residual organic compounds (some naturally-occurring) remained up to 250 days after the start of water recovery (TOC 10-30 mg/L). Results show how hydraulic fracturing changes the organic composition of shale formation water, and that some injected organic substances are retained on the shale and slowly released. Thus, appropriate safe disposal of produced water is needed long into production. Changes in organic substances in formation water may impact microbial communities. Current work is focused on UOG production in the Permian Basin, Texas.

  12. Recent MARS15 developments: nuclide inventory, DPA and gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; /Fermilab

    2010-12-01

    Recent developments in the MARS15 code are described for the critical modules related to demands of hadron and lepton colliders and Megawatt proton and heavy-ion beam facilities. Details of advanced models for particle production and nuclide distributions in nuclear interactions at low and medium energies, energy loss, atomic displacements and gas production are presented along with benchmarking against data. Recent developments in the MARS15 physics models, such as nuclide production, decay and transmutation and all-component DPA modelling for arbitrary projectiles in the 1 keV to 10 TeV energy range, add new capabilities to the code crucial in numerous applications with high-intensity high-power beams. Some discrepancies in DPA rate predictions by several codes, relation of DPA and H/He production rates to changes in material properties, as well as corresponding experimental studies at energies above a hundred of MeV are the areas requiring further efforts.

  13. Simulation of natural gas production from submarine gas hydrate deposits combined with carbon dioxide storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

    2013-04-01

    The recovery of methane from gas hydrate layers that have been detected in several submarine sediments and permafrost regions around the world so far is considered to be a promising measure to overcome future shortages in natural gas as fuel or raw material for chemical syntheses. Being aware that natural gas resources that can be exploited with conventional technologies are limited, research is going on to open up new sources and develop technologies to produce methane and other energy carriers. Thus various research programs have started since the early 1990s in Japan, USA, Canada, South Korea, India, China and Germany to investigate hydrate deposits and develop technologies to destabilize the hydrates and obtain the pure gas. In recent years, intensive research has focussed on the capture and storage of carbon dioxide from combustion processes to reduce climate change. While different natural or manmade reservoirs like deep aquifers, exhausted oil and gas deposits or other geological formations are considered to store gaseous or liquid carbon dioxide, the storage of carbon dioxide as hydrate in former methane hydrate fields is another promising alternative. Due to beneficial stability conditions, methane recovery may be well combined with CO2 storage in form of hydrates. This has been shown in several laboratory tests and simulations - technical field tests are still in preparation. Within the scope of the German research project »SUGAR«, different technological approaches are evaluated and compared by means of dynamic system simulations and analysis. Detailed mathematical models for the most relevant chemical and physical effects are developed. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into simulation programs like CMG STARS and COMSOL Multiphysics. New simulations based on field data have been carried out. The studies focus on the evaluation of the gas production potential from turbidites and their ability for carbon dioxide storage. The effects occurring during gas production and CO2 storage within a hydrate deposit are identified and described for various scenarios. The behaviour of relevant process parameters such as pressure, temperature and phase saturations is discussed and compared for different production strategies: depressurization, CO2 injection after depressurization and simultaneous methane production and CO2 injection.

  14. Exploring Potential U.S. Switchgrass Production for Lignocellulosic Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Gunderson, Carla A; Davis, Ethan; Jager, Yetta; West, Tristram O.; Perlack, Robert D; Brandt, Craig C; Wullschleger, Stan D; Baskaran, Latha Malar; Webb, Erin; Downing, Mark

    2008-08-01

    In response to concerns about oil dependency and the contributions of fossil fuel use to climatic change, the U.S. Department of Energy has begun a research initiative to make 20% of motor fuels biofuel based in 10 years, and make 30% of fuels bio-based by 2030. Fundamental to this objective is developing an understanding of feedstock dynamics of crops suitable for cellulosic ethanol production. This report focuses on switchgrass, reviewing the existing literature from field trials across the United States, and compiling it for the first time into a single database. Data available from the literature included cultivar and crop management information, and location of the field trial. For each location we determined latitude and longitude, and used this information to add temperature and precipitation records from the nearest weather station. Within this broad database we were able to identify the major sources of variation in biomass yield, and to characterize yield as a function of some of the more influential factors, e.g., stand age, ecotype, precipitation and temperature in the year of harvest, site latitude, and fertilization regime. We then used a modeling approach, based chiefly on climatic factors and ecotype, to predict potential yields for a given temperature and weather pattern (based on 95th percentile response curves), assuming the choice of optimal cultivars and harvest schedules. For upland ecotype varieties, potential yields were as high as 18 to 20 Mg/ha, given ideal growing conditions, whereas yields in lowland ecotype varieties could reach 23 to 27 Mg/ha. The predictive equations were used to produce maps of potential yield across the continental United States, based on precipitation and temperature in the long term climate record, using the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) in a Geographic Information System (GIS). Potential yields calculated via this characterization were subsequently compared to the Oak Ridge Energy Crop County Level data base (ORECCL), which was created at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Graham et al. 1996) to predict biofuel crop yields at the county level within a limited geographic area. Mapped output using the model was relatively consistent with known switchgrass distribution. It correctly showed higher yields for lowland switchgrass when compared with upland varieties at most locations. Projections for the most northern parts of the range suggest comparable yields for the two ecotypes, but inadequate data for lowland ecotypes grown at high latitudes make it difficult to fully assess this projection. The final model is a predictor of optimal yields for a given climate scenario, but does not attempt to identify or account for other limiting or interacting factors. The statistical model is nevertheless an improvement over historical efforts, in that it is based on quantifiable climatic differences, and it can be used to extrapolate beyond the historic range of switchgrass. Additional refinement of the current statistical model, or the use of different empirical or process-based models, might improve the prediction of switchgrass yields with respect to climate and interactions with cultivar and management practices, assisting growers in choosing high-yielding cultivars within the context of local environmental growing conditions.

  15. From Paper to Production to Test: An Update on NASA's J-2X Engine for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kynard, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The NASA/industry team responsible for developing the J-2X upper stage engine for the Space Launch System (SLS) Program has made significant progress toward moving beyond the design phase and into production, assembly, and test of development hardware. The J-2X engine exemplifies the SLS Program goal of using proven technology and experience from more than 50 years of United States spaceflight experience combined with modern manufacturing processes and approaches. It will power the second stage of the fully evolved SLS Program launch vehicle that will enable a return to human exploration of space beyond low earth orbit. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is under contract to develop and produce the engine, leveraging its flight-proven LH2/LOX, gas generator cycle J-2 and RS-68 engine capabilities, recent experience with the X-33 aerospike XRS-2200 engine, and development knowledge of the J-2S tap-off cycle engine. The J- 2X employs a gas generator operating cycle designed to produce 294,000 pounds of vacuum thrust in primary operating mode with its full nozzle extension. With a truncated nozzle extension suitable to support engine clustering on the stage, the nominal vacuum thrust level in primary mode is 285,000 pounds. It also has a secondary mode, during which it operates at 80 percent thrust by altering its mixture ratio. The J-2X development philosophy is based on proven hardware, an aggressive development schedule, and early risk reduction. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and PWR began development of the J-2X in June 2006. The government/industry team of more than 600 people within NASA and PWR successfully completed the Critical Design Review (CDR) in November 2008, following extensive risk mitigation testing. Assembly of the first development engine was completed in May 2011 and the first engine test was conducted at the NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC), test stand A2, on 14 July 2011. Testing of the first development engine will continue through the autumn of 2011, be paused for test stand modifications to the passive diffuser, and then restart in the spring of 2012. This testing will be followed by specialized powerpack testing intended to examine the design and operating margins of the engine turbomachinery. The development plan beyond this point leads through more system-level, engine testing of several samples, analytical model validation activities, functional and performance verification, and then ultimate certification to support human spaceflight. This paper will discuss the J-2X development background, provide top-level information on design and development planning, and will explore some of the development challenges and mitigation activities pursued to date.

  16. Gas Sensor Evaluations in Polymer Combustion Product Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Rafael H.; Davis, Dennis D.; Beeson, Harold D.

    1999-01-01

    Toxic gases produced by the combustion or thermo-oxidative degradation of materials such as wire insulation, foam, plastics, or electronic circuit boards in space shuttle or space station crew cabins may pose a significant hazard to the flight crew. Toxic gas sensors are routinely evaluated in pure gas standard mixtures, but the possible interferences from polymer combustion products are not routinely evaluated. The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) has developed a test system that provides atmospheres containing predetermined quantities of target gases combined with the coincidental combustion products of common spacecraft materials. The target gases are quantitated in real time by infrared (IR) spectroscopy and verified by grab samples. The sensor responses are recorded in real time and are compared to the IR and validation analyses. Target gases such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride can be generated by the combustion of poly(vinyl chloride), polyimide-fluoropolymer wire insulation, polyurethane foam, or electronic circuit board materials. The kinetics and product identifications for the combustion of the various materials were determined by thermogravimetric-IR spectroscopic studies. These data were then scaled to provide the required levels of target gases in the sensor evaluation system. Multisensor toxic gas monitors from two manufacturers were evaluated using this system. In general, the sensor responses satisfactorily tracked the real-time concentrations of toxic gases in a dynamic mixture. Interferences from a number of organic combustion products including acetaldehyde and bisphenol-A were minimal. Hydrogen bromide in the products of circuit board combustion registered as hydrogen chloride. The use of actual polymer combustion atmospheres for the evaluation of sensors can provide additional confidence in the reliability of the sensor response.

  17. A Brierf Exploration of Low-Threshold, Gas-Filled Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masood, Kirollos

    2015-10-01

    Low-threshold detectors possess a wide variety of uses, such as detecting inverse β decay. Additionally, with a sufficiently low threshold and low background, they could be sensitive enough for Coherent, Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering (CEvNS) and spin-dependent WIMP searches. Our aim was to explore prototypes and operating conditions of such gas-filled detectors. We have successfully operated at pressures from 1-30 psi (above atmosphere), and biases from 2-4 kV. These settings can be adjusted according to the desired energy range. Using an 55Fe source for calibration, we have achieved a threshold of 150 eV, under preliminary optimal conditions. As a result of moderate shielding, background radiation has been easily reduced to no more than 1000 counts kg-1keV-1day-1. Acknowledgements go to TUNL and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. Harsh-Environment Solid-State Gamma Detector for Down-hole Gas and Oil Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Sandvik; Stanislav Soloviev; Emad Andarawis; Ho-Young Cha; Jim Rose; Kevin Durocher; Robert Lyons; Bob Pieciuk; Jim Williams; David O'Connor

    2007-08-10

    The goal of this program was to develop a revolutionary solid-state gamma-ray detector suitable for use in down-hole gas and oil exploration. This advanced detector would employ wide-bandgap semiconductor technology to extend the gamma sensor's temperature capability up to 200 C as well as extended reliability, which significantly exceeds current designs based on photomultiplier tubes. In Phase II, project tasks were focused on optimization of the final APD design, growing and characterizing the full scintillator crystals of the selected composition, arranging the APD device packaging, developing the needed optical coupling between scintillator and APD, and characterizing the combined elements as a full detector system preparing for commercialization. What follows is a summary report from the second 18-month phase of this program.

  19. Production of bioplastics and hydrogen gas by photosynthetic microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuo, Asada; Masato, Miyake; Jun, Miyake

    1998-03-01

    Our efforts have been aimed at the technological basis of photosynthetic-microbial production of materials and an energy carrier. We report here accumulation of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a raw material of biodegradable plastics and for production of hydrogen gas, and a renewable energy carrier by photosynthetic microorganisms (tentatively defined as cyanobacteria plus photosynthetic bateria, in this report). A thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. MA19 that accumulates PHB at more than 20% of cell dry wt under nitrogen-starved conditions was isolated and microbiologically identified. The mechanism of PHB accumulation was studied. A mesophilic Synechococcus PCC7942 was transformed with the genes encoding PHB-synthesizing enzymes from Alcaligenes eutrophus. The transformant accumulated PHB under nitrogen-starved conditions. The optimal conditions for PHB accumulation by a photosynthetic bacterium grown on acetate were studied. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms was studied. Cyanobacteria can produce hydrogen gas by nitrogenase or hydrogenase. Hydrogen production mediated by native hydrogenase in cyanobacteria was revealed to be in the dark anaerobic degradation of intracellular glycogen. A new system for light-dependent hydrogen production was targeted. In vitro and in vivo coupling of cyanobacterial ferredoxin with a heterologous hydrogenase was shown to produce hydrogen under light conditions. A trial for genetic trasformation of Synechococcus PCC7942 with the hydrogenase gene from Clostridium pasteurianum is going on. The strong hydrogen producers among photosynthetic bacteria were isolated and characterized. Co-culture of Rhodobacter and Clostriumdium was applied to produce hydrogen from glucose. Conversely in the case of cyanobacteria, genetic regulation of photosynthetic proteins was intended to improve conversion efficiency in hydrogen production by the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV. A mutant acquired by UV irradiation will be characterized for the mutation and for hydrogen productivity in comparison with the wild type strain. Some basic studies to develop photobioreactors are also introduced.

  20. Study of Plasma Treatment of Produced Water from Oil and Gas Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Kamau

    Unconventional gas and hydraulic fracturing is helping to increase natural gas production, which is widely viewed in the U.S. as a key asset to bolstering a clean and energy-independent future. Safe and economical management and treatment of water produced during such processes remain of key importance. With the increase of hydrocarbon production and national shale gas production expected to increase threefold and account for nearly half of all natural gas produced by 2035, advanced water treatment and management processes must be investigated, to ensure water conservation and associated economic prudence. The state of the art of produced water treatment technologies is described including the efficacy of plasma to modulate the contents of such aqueous solutions, meeting target parameters and potentially enabling the operation of other treatment technologies. Among other effects, progress is presented on the enhancement of an arc-in-water system to remove bicarbonate ions and prevent the mineral fouling ability of water which causes formation of CaCO3 in heat exchangers and distillation units. Qualitative and quantitative treatment targets of produced water treatment are discussed. Experimental work is conducted to test theories and identify and reproduce favorable effects useful to treating wastewaters. Plasma arc-in-water systems demonstrated capability of producing bicarbonate-depleted wastewaters, with experiments with gas-field produced waters indicating that generation of H+ ions plays a greater role in bicarbonate ion removal than local heating. Tests showed abatement of bicarbonate ions from a range of 684--778 mg/L down to zero. Subsequent scaling/fouling tests with waters ranging from 0 to 500 mg/L bicarbonate ions, in the presence of high calcium ion concentrations, showed that scale thickness, as well as mass on a 1-kW heating element was an order of magnitude less for process water containing 100 mg/L bicarbonate ions compared to process water with 500 mg/L of bicarbonate ions. Water with bicarbonate ion concentration approaching zero resulted in prevention of scale. To enhance this new plasma induced fouling mitigation method, a plasma arc-in-water reactor was re-engineered, using a ground electrode, and two high-voltage electrodes, to stretch the arc discharge in water and increase contact between plasma and water. Results of simultaneous effects were also collected, showing within 5 min, a 4-log reduction in both Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) and Acid Producing Bacteria (APB), bacteria that are characteristic of oil-field produced waters; as well as oxidation of organics, with degradation of visually observable organics within 3 minutes, and decrease of oil and grease from 40 mg/L to under 10 mg/L within one min. With an arc-in-water system utilizing a stretched arc, simultaneous effects were exhibited on fouling ability of produced water, inactivation of bacteria, and degradation of organics. Plasma discharges in water represent a unique option in the treatment of produced waters from oil and gas production. While the water softening capabilities of arc-in-water systems present a new method for fouling mitigation and remediation of scale in heat exchangers, the simultaneous effects, including oxidation of organics and inactivation of bacteria, may allow application of plasma to water, to satisfy treatment targets that allow for the reuse of such waters in oil and gas operations.

  1. Exploring Advanced Technology Gas Turbine Engine Design and Performance for the Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    A Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR) conceptual design was developed as part of the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation in order to establish a consistent basis for evaluating the benefits of advanced technology for large tiltrotors. The concept has since evolved into the second-generation LCTR2, designed to carry 90 passengers for 1,000 nautical miles at 300 knots, with vertical takeoff and landing capability. This paper explores gas turbine component performance and cycle parameters to quantify performance gains possible for additional improvements in component and material performance beyond those identified in previous LCTR2 propulsion studies and to identify additional research areas. The vehicle-level characteristics from this advanced technology generation 2 propulsion architecture will help set performance levels as additional propulsion and power systems are conceived to meet ever-increasing requirements for mobility and comfort, while reducing energy use, cost, noise and emissions. The Large Civil Tiltrotor vehicle and mission will be discussed as a starting point for this effort. A few, relevant engine and component technology studies, including previous LCTR2 engine study results will be summarized to help orient the reader on gas turbine engine architecture, performance and limitations. Study assumptions and methodology used to explore engine design and performance, as well as assess vehicle sizing and mission performance will then be discussed. Individual performance for present and advanced engines, as well as engine performance effects on overall vehicle size and mission fuel usage, will be given. All results will be summarized to facilitate understanding the importance and interaction of various component and system performance on overall vehicle characteristics.

  2. Process for the production of fuel gas from coal

    DOEpatents

    Patel, Jitendra G.; Sandstrom, William A.; Tarman, Paul B.

    1982-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous materials, such as coal, to more valuable gaseous products in a fluidized bed gasification reaction and efficient withdrawal of agglomerated ash from the fluidized bed is disclosed. The improvements are obtained by introducing an oxygen containing gas into the bottom of the fluidized bed through a separate conduit positioned within the center of a nozzle adapted to agglomerate and withdraw the ash from the bottom of the fluidized bed. The conduit extends above the constricted center portion of the nozzle and preferably terminates within and does not extend from the nozzle. In addition to improving ash agglomeration and withdrawal, the present invention prevents sintering and clinkering of the ash in the fluidized bed and permits the efficient recycle of fine material recovered from the product gases by contacting the fines in the fluidized bed with the oxygen as it emanates from the conduit positioned within the withdrawal nozzle. Finally, the present method of oxygen introduction permits the efficient recycle of a portion of the product gases to the reaction zone to increase the reducing properties of the hot product gas.

  3. Oil and gas reservoir exploration based on hyperspectral remote sensing and super-low-frequency electromagnetic detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Qiming; Zhang, Zili; Chen, Li; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Chengye

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a method that combined hyperspectral remote sensing with super-low-frequency (SLF) electromagnetic detection to extract oil and gas reservoir characteristics from surface to underground, for the purpose of determining oil and gas exploration target regions. The study area in Xinjiang Karamay oil-gas field, China, was investigated. First, a Hyperion dataset was used to extract altered minerals (montmorillonite, chlorite, and siderite), which were comparatively verified by field survey and spectral measurement. Second, the SLF electromagnetic datasets were then acquired where the altered minerals were distributed. An inverse distance weighting method was utilized to acquire two-dimensional profiles of the electrical feature distribution of different formations on the subsurface. Finally, existing geological data, field work, and the results derived from Hyperion images and SLF electromagnetic datasets were comprehensively analyzed to confirm the oil and gas exploration target region. The results of both hyperspectral remote sensing and SLF electromagnetic detection had a good consistency with the geological materials in this study. This paper demonstrates that the combination of hyperspectral remote sensing and SLF electromagnetic detection is suitable for the early exploration of oil and gas reservoirs, which is characterized by low exploration costs, large exploration areas, and a high working efficiency.

  4. Production of biofuels from synthesis gas using microbial catalysts.

    PubMed

    Tirado-Acevedo, Oscar; Chinn, Mari S; Grunden, Amy M

    2010-01-01

    World energy consumption is expected to increase 44% in the next 20 years. Today, the main sources of energy are oil, coal, and natural gas, all fossil fuels. These fuels are unsustainable and contribute to environmental pollution. Biofuels are a promising source of sustainable energy. Feedstocks for biofuels used today such as grain starch are expensive and compete with food markets. Lignocellulosic biomass is abundant and readily available from a variety of sources, for example, energy crops and agricultural/industrial waste. Conversion of these materials to biofuels by microorganisms through direct hydrolysis and fermentation can be challenging. Alternatively, biomass can be converted to synthesis gas through gasification and transformed to fuels using chemical catalysts. Chemical conversion of synthesis gas components can be expensive and highly susceptible to catalyst poisoning, limiting biofuel yields. However, there are microorganisms that can convert the CO, H(2), and CO(2) in synthesis gas to fuels such as ethanol, butanol, and hydrogen. Biomass gasification-biosynthesis processing systems have shown promise as some companies have already been exploiting capable organisms for commercial purposes. The discovery of novel organisms capable of higher product yield, as well as metabolic engineering of existing microbial catalysts, makes this technology a viable option for reducing our dependency on fossil fuels. PMID:20359454

  5. Exploring Interacting Quantum Many-Body Systems by Experimentally Creating Continuous Matrix Product States in Superconducting Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, C.; Mlynek, J.; Butscher, J.; Kurpiers, P.; Hammerer, K.; Osborne, T. J.; Wallraff, A.

    2015-10-01

    Improving the understanding of strongly correlated quantum many-body systems such as gases of interacting atoms or electrons is one of the most important challenges in modern condensed matter physics, materials research, and chemistry. Enormous progress has been made in the past decades in developing both classical and quantum approaches to calculate, simulate, and experimentally probe the properties of such systems. In this work, we use a combination of classical and quantum methods to experimentally explore the properties of an interacting quantum gas by creating experimental realizations of continuous matrix product statesa class of states that has proven extremely powerful as a variational ansatz for numerical simulations. By systematically preparing and probing these states using a circuit quantum electrodynamics system, we experimentally determine a good approximation to the ground-state wave function of the Lieb-Liniger Hamiltonian, which describes an interacting Bose gas in one dimension. Since the simulated Hamiltonian is encoded in the measurement observable rather than the controlled quantum system, this approach has the potential to apply to a variety of models including those involving multicomponent interacting fields. Our findings also hint at the possibility of experimentally exploring general properties of matrix product states and entanglement theory. The scheme presented here is applicable to a broad range of systems exploiting strong and tunable light-matter interactions.

  6. Magnetotelluric survey for exploration of a volcanic-rock reservoir in the Yurihara oil and gas field, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsuhata, Yuji; Matsuo, Koichi; Minegishi, Masato

    1999-03-01

    The Yurihara oil and gas field is located on the southern edge of Akita Prefecture, northeastern Japan. In this area, drilling, surface geological surveys and many seismic surveys have been used to investigate the geological structure. Wells drilled into the Nishikurosawa Basalt Group (NBG) of Miocene age found oil and gas reservoirs at depths of 1.5--2 km. Oil and gas are now being produced commercially and further exploration is required in the surrounding areas. However, since the neighboring areas are covered with young volcanic products from the Chokai volcano, and have a rough topography, the subsurface distribution of the NBG must be investigated using other methods in addition to seismic reflection. According to the well data, the resistivity of the NBG is comparatively higher than that of the overlying sedimentary formations, and therefore the magnetotelluric (MT) method is expected to be useful for the estimation of the distribution of the NBG. An MT survey was conducted along three survey lines in this area. Each line trended east-west, perpendicular to the regional geological strike, and was composed of about 25 measurement sites. Induction vectors evaluated from the magnetic field show that this area has a two-dimensional structure. The evaluated resistivity sections are in agreement with the log data. In conclusion, the authors were able to detect resistive layers (the NBG) below conductive layers. The results indicate that the NBG becomes gradually less resistive from north to south. In the center of the northern line, an uplifted resistive area is interpreted as corresponding to the reservoir. By comparison with a seismic section, the authors prove the effectiveness of the integration of seismic and MT surveys for the investigation of the morphology and internal structure of the NBG. On other survey lines, the resistive uplifted zones are interpreted as possible prospective areas.

  7. Nanopowder production by gas-embedded electrical explosion of wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiao-Bing; Mao, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Xin-Xin; Jiang, Wei-Hua

    2013-04-01

    A small electrical explosion of wire (EEW) setup for nanopowder production is constructed. It consists of a low inductance capacitor bank of 2 μF-4 μF typically charged to 8 kV-30 kV, a triggered gas switch, and a production chamber housing the exploding wire load and ambient gas. With the EEW device, nanosize powders of titanium oxides, titanium nitrides, copper oxides, and zinc oxides are successfully synthesized. The average particle size of synthesized powders under different experimental conditions is in a range of 20 nm-80 nm. The pressure of ambient gas or wire vapor can strongly affect the average particle size. The lower the pressure, the smaller the particle size is. For wire material with relatively high resistivity, such as titanium, whose deposited energy Wd is often less than sublimation energy Ws due to the flashover breakdown along the wire prematurely ending the Joule heating process, the synthesized particle size of titanium oxides or titanium nitrides increases with overheat coefficient k (k = Wd/Ws) increasing.

  8. Shape memory alloy actuated accumulator for ultra-deepwater oil and gas exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Devendra; Song, Gangbing

    2016-04-01

    As offshore oil and gas exploration moves further offshore and into deeper waters to reach hydrocarbon reserves, it is becoming essential for the industry to develop more reliable and efficient hydraulic accumulators to supply pressured hydraulic fluid for various control and actuation operations, such as closing rams of blowout preventers and controlling subsea valves on the seafloor. By utilizing the shape memory effect property of nitinol, which is a type of shape memory alloy (SMA), an innovative SMA actuated hydraulic accumulator prototype has been developed and successfully tested at Smart Materials and Structure Laboratory at the University of Houston. Absence of gas in the developed SMA accumulator prototype makes it immune to hydrostatic head loss caused by water depth and thus reduces the number of accumulators required in deep water operations. Experiments with a feedback control have demonstrated that the proposed SMA actuated accumulator can provide precisely regulated pressurized fluids. Furthermore the potential use of ultracapacitors along with an embedded system to control the electric power supplied to SMA allows this accumulator to be an autonomous device for deployment. The developed SMA accumulator will make deepwater oil extraction systems more compact and cost effective.

  9. Gas-inducible product gene expression in bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Weber, Wilfried; Rimann, Markus; de Glutz, François-Nicolas; Weber, Eric; Memmert, Klaus; Fussenegger, Martin

    2005-05-01

    Inducible transgene expression technologies are of unmatched potential for biopharmaceutical manufacturing of unstable, growth-impairing and cytotoxic proteins as well as conditional metabolic engineering to improve desired cell phenotypes. Currently available transgene dosing modalities which rely on physical parameters or small-molecule drugs for transgene fine-tuning compromise downstream processing and/or are difficult to implement technologically. The recently designed gas-inducible acetaldehyde-inducible regulation (AIR) technology takes advantage of gaseous acetaldehyde to modulate product gene expression levels. At regulation effective concentrations gaseous acetaldehyde is physiologically inert and approved as food additive by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA). During standard bioreactor operation, gaseous acetaldehyde could simply be administered using standard/existing gas supply tubing and eventually eliminated by stripping with inducer-free air. We have determined key parameters controlling acetaldehyde transfer in three types of bioreactors and designed a mass balance-based model for optimal product gene expression fine-tuning using gaseous acetaldehyde. Operating a standard stirred-tank bioreactor set-up at 10 L scale we have validated AIR technology using CHO-K1-derived serum-free suspension cultures transgenic for gas-inducible production of human interferon-beta (IFN-beta). Gaseous acetaldehyde-inducible IFN-beta production management was fully reversible while maintaining cell viability at over 95% during the entire process. Compatible with standard bioreactor design and downstream processing procedures AIR-based technology will foster novel opportunities for pilot and large-scale manufacturing of difficult-to-produce protein pharmaceuticals. PMID:15885616

  10. Emissions implications of future natural gas production and use in the U.S. and in the Rocky Mountain region.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Jeffrey D; Brinkman, Gregory L; Milford, Jana B

    2014-11-18

    Enhanced prospects for natural gas production raise questions about the balance of impacts on air quality, as increased emissions from production activities are considered alongside the reductions expected when natural gas is burned in place of other fossil fuels. This study explores how trends in natural gas production over the coming decades might affect emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for the United States and its Rocky Mountain region. The MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) energy system optimization model is used with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's nine-region database to compare scenarios for natural gas supply and demand, constraints on the electricity generation mix, and GHG emissions fees. Through 2050, total energy system GHG emissions show little response to natural gas supply assumptions, due to offsetting changes across sectors. Policy-driven constraints or emissions fees are needed to achieve net reductions. In most scenarios, wind is a less expensive source of new electricity supplies in the Rocky Mountain region than natural gas. U.S. NOx emissions decline in all the scenarios considered. Increased VOC emissions from natural gas production offset part of the anticipated reductions from the transportation sector, especially in the Rocky Mountain region. PMID:25329514

  11. AN ANALYTICAL MODEL OF INTERSTELLAR GAS IN THE HELIOSPHERE TAILORED TO INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Martin A.; Kucharek, Harald; Moebius, Eberhard; Wu Xian; Bzowski, Maciej; McComas, David

    2012-02-01

    The stationary distribution of interstellar neutral gas in the heliosphere subject to solar gravity, solar radiation pressure, photoionization, and charge exchange is investigated analytically assuming ionization rates and radiation pressure that are proportional to R{sup -2}, where R is the heliocentric radius. The collisionless hyperbolic trajectories of the individual atoms including ionization losses are combined with Liouville's Theorem to construct the heliospheric phase-space distribution function of an interstellar gas species in the solar reference frame under the assumption that the distribution is a drifting Maxwellian at large distances from the Sun. The distribution is transformed to the Earth (essentially Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX)) frame as a function of solar longitude. The expression is then tailored to the latitudinal scan of IBEX as a function of longitude using the fact that IBEX detects each atom close to perihelion in its hyperbolic orbit. The distribution is further adapted to IBEX by integrating the differential intensity over the entrance aperture solid angle of the IBEX-Lo collimator, and over energy to predict the IBEX count rate of helium. The major features of the predicted count rate are described, including a peak in longitude, a peak in latitude at each longitude, and the widths of the major peak in both latitude and longitude. Analytical formulae for these features are derived for comparison with IBEX observations in order to determine the temperature and bulk velocity of the gas in interstellar space. Based in part on these formulae, the results for helium are presented in the companion paper by Moebius et al.

  12. Effects of disturbance associated with seismic exploration for oil and gas reserves in coastal marshes.

    PubMed

    Howard, Rebecca J; Wells, Christopher J; Michot, Thomas C; Johnson, Darren J

    2014-07-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances in wetland ecosystems can alter the composition and structure of plant assemblages and affect system functions. Extensive oil and gas extraction has occurred in wetland habitats along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast since the early 1900s. Activities involved with three-dimensional (3D) seismic exploration for these resources cause various disturbances to vegetation and soils. We documented the impact of a 3D seismic survey in coastal marshes in Louisiana, USA, along transects established before exploration began. Two semi-impounded marshes dominated by Spartina patens were in the area surveyed. Vegetation, soil, and water physicochemical data were collected before the survey, about 6 weeks following its completion, and every 3 months thereafter for 2 years. Soil cores for seed bank emergence experiments were also collected. Maximum vegetation height at impact sites was reduced in both marshes 6 weeks following the survey. In one marsh, total vegetation cover was also reduced, and dead vegetation cover increased, at impact sites 6 weeks after the survey. These effects, however, did not persist 3 months later. No effects on soil or water properties were identified. The total number of seeds that germinated during greenhouse studies increased at impact sites 5 months following the survey in both marshes. Although some seed bank effects persisted 1 year, these effects were not reflected in standing vegetation. The marshes studied were therefore resilient to the impacts resulting from 3D seismic exploration because vegetation responses were short term in that they could not be identified a few months following survey completion. PMID:24788940

  13. Effects of disturbance associated with seismic exploration for oil and gas reserves in coastal marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Wells, Christopher J.; Michot, Thomas C.; Johnson, Darren J.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances in wetland ecosystems can alter the composition and structure of plant assemblages and affect system functions. Extensive oil and gas extraction has occurred in wetland habitats along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast since the early 1900s. Activities involved with three-dimensional (3D) seismic exploration for these resources cause various disturbances to vegetation and soils. We documented the impact of a 3D seismic survey in coastal marshes in Louisiana, USA, along transects established before exploration began. Two semi-impounded marshes dominated by Spartina patens were in the area surveyed. Vegetation, soil, and water physicochemical data were collected before the survey, about 6 weeks following its completion, and every 3 months thereafter for 2 years. Soil cores for seed bank emergence experiments were also collected. Maximum vegetation height at impact sites was reduced in both marshes 6 weeks following the survey. In one marsh, total vegetation cover was also reduced, and dead vegetation cover increased, at impact sites 6 weeks after the survey. These effects, however, did not persist 3 months later. No effects on soil or water properties were identified. The total number of seeds that germinated during greenhouse studies increased at impact sites 5 months following the survey in both marshes. Although some seed bank effects persisted 1 year, these effects were not reflected in standing vegetation. The marshes studied were therefore resilient to the impacts resulting from 3D seismic exploration because vegetation responses were short term in that they could not be identified a few months following survey completion.

  14. Exploring the control of land-atmospheric oscillations over terrestrial vegetation productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depoorter, Mathieu; Green, Julia; Gentine, Pierre; Liu, Yi; van Eck, Christel; Regnier, Pierre; Dorigo, Wouter; Verhoest, Niko; Miralles, Diego

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation dynamics play an important role in the climate system due to their control on the carbon, energy and water cycles. The spatiotemporal variability of vegetation is regulated by internal climate variability as well as natural and anthropogenic forcing mechanisms, including fires, land use, volcano eruptions or greenhouse gas emissions. Ocean-atmospheric oscillations, affect the fluxes of heat and water over continents, leading to anomalies in radiation, precipitation or temperature at widely separated locations (i.e. teleconnections); an effect of ocean-atmospheric oscillations on terrestrial primary productivity can therefore be expected. While different studies have shown the general importance of internal climate variability for global vegetation dynamics, the control by particular teleconnections over the regional growth and decay of vegetation is still poorly understood. At continental to global scales, satellite remote sensing offers a feasible approach to enhance our understanding of the main drivers of vegetation variability. Traditional studies of the multi-decadal variability of global vegetation have been usually based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), which extends back to the early '80s. There are, however, some limitations to NDVI observations; arguably the most important of these limitations is that from the plant physiology perspective the index does not have a well-defined meaning, appearing poorly correlated to vegetation productivity. On the other hand, recently developed records from other remotely-sensed properties of vegetation, like fluorescence or microwave vegetation optical depth, have proven a significantly better correspondence to above-ground biomass. To enhance our understanding of the controls of ocean-atmosphere oscillations over vegetation, we propose to explore the link between climate oscillation extremes and net primary productivity over the last two decades. The co-variability of a range of climate oscillation indices and newly-derived records of fluorescence and vegetation optical depth is analyzed using a statistical framework based on correlations, bootstrapping and Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs). Results will enable us to characterize regional hotspots where particular climatic oscillations control vegetation productivity, as well as allowing us to underpin the climatic variables behind this control.

  15. 78 FR 54417 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement 30 CFR Part 250 RIN 1014-AA10 Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf--Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems Correction In proposed rule... hydrocarbons (i.e., natural gas, oil) that are produced, handled, stored, or processed at the facility. (B)...

  16. Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Henderson

    2007-09-30

    The project is titled 'Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations'. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is the principal investigator and the IOGCC has partnered with ALL Consulting, Inc., headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in this project. State agencies that also have partnered in the project are the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, the Montana Board of Oil and Gas Conservation, the Kansas Oil and Gas Conservation Division, the Oklahoma Oil and Gas Conservation Division and the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. The objective is to characterize produced water quality and management practices for the handling, treating, and disposing of produced water from conventional oil and gas operations throughout the industry nationwide. Water produced from these operations varies greatly in quality and quantity and is often the single largest barrier to the economic viability of wells. The lack of data, coupled with renewed emphasis on domestic oil and gas development, has prompted many experts to speculate that the number of wells drilled over the next 20 years will approach 3 million, or near the number of current wells. This level of exploration and development undoubtedly will draw the attention of environmental communities, focusing their concerns on produced water management based on perceived potential impacts to fresh water resources. Therefore, it is imperative that produced water management practices be performed in a manner that best minimizes environmental impacts. This is being accomplished by compiling current best management practices for produced water from conventional oil and gas operations and to develop an analysis tool based on a geographic information system (GIS) to assist in the understanding of watershed-issued permits. That would allow management costs to be kept in line with the specific projects and regions, which increases the productive life of wells and increases the ultimate recoverable reserves in the ground. A case study was conducted in Wyoming to validate the applicability of the GIS analysis tool for watershed evaluations under real world conditions. Results of the partnered research will continue to be shared utilizing proven methods, such as on the IGOCC Web site, preparing hard copies of the results, distribution of documented case studies, and development of reference and handbook components to accompany the interactive internet-based GIS watershed analysis tool. Additionally, there have been several technology transfer seminars and presentations. The goal is to maximize the recovery of our nation's energy reserves and to promote water conservation.

  17. 21 CFR 886.5918 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products... contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens care product is a... rigid gas permeable contact lens. This includes all solutions and tablets used together with rigid...

  18. 30 CFR 260.116 - How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I measure natural gas production on my... Bidding Systems Eligible Leases § 260.116 How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease? You must measure natural gas production on your eligible lease subject to the royalty...

  19. An evaluation of accounting-based finding costs as efficiency measures for oil and gas exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Boynton, C.E. IV; Boone, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    The authors have operationalized firm-specific exploration efficiency as the difference between a firm-specific intercept estimated in a fixed-effects panel data Cobb-Douglas production frontier model and the maximum firm-specific intercept estimated in that model. The production model was estimated during two different time periods, 1982--1985 and 1989--1992, allowing efficiency to vary intertemporally. This efficiency estimate served as a benchmark against which they compared various measures of inverse finding costs. They assumed that the degree of association with an efficiency benchmark is an important attribute of any finding cost measure and that, further, the degree of association may be used as a metric for choosing between alternative finding cost measures. Accordingly, they evaluated the cross-sectional statistical association between estimated efficiency and alternative inverse finding cost measures. They discovered that the inverse finding cost measure that exhibited the strongest association with efficiency during the two time periods was a three-year moving-average finding cost which included exploration plus development expenditures as costs and reserve extensions and additions plus revisions as the units added.

  20. Thermal Flammable Gas Production from Bulk Vitrification Feed

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Bagaasen, Larry M.

    2008-05-21

    The baseline bulk-vitrification (BV) process (also known as in-container vitrification ICV™) includes a mixer/dryer to convert liquid low-activity waste (LAW) into a dried, blended feed for vitrification. Feed preparation includes blending LAW with glass-forming minerals (GFMs) and cellulose and drying the mixture to a suitable dryness, consistency, and particle size for transport to the ICVTM container. The cellulose is to be added to the BV feed at a rate sufficient to destroy 75% of the nitrogen present as nitrate or nitrite. Concern exists that flammable gases may be produced during drying operations at levels that could pose a risk. The drying process is conducted under vacuum in the temperature range of 60 to 80°C. These flammable gases could be produced either through thermal decomposition of cellulose or waste organics or as a by-product of the reaction of cellulose and/or waste organics with nitrate or the postulated small amount of nitrite present in the waste. To help address the concern about flammable gas production during drying, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) performed studies to identify the gases produced at dryer temperatures and at possible process upset conditions. Studies used a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) up to 525°C and isothermal testing up to 120°C to determine flammable gas production resulting from the cellulose and organic constituents in bulk vitrification feed. This report provides the results of those studies to determine the effects of cellulose and waste organics on flammable gas evolution

  1. Trash to Gas: Converting Space Waste into Useful Supply Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsoras, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The cost of sending mass into space with current propulsion technology is very expensive, making every item a crucial element of the space mission. It is essential that all materials be used to their fullest potential. Items like food, packaging, clothing, paper towels, gloves, etc., normally become trash and take up space after use. These waste materials are currently either burned up upon reentry in earth's atmosphere or sent on cargo return vehicles back to earth: a very wasteful method. The purpose of this project was to utilize these materials and create useful products like water and methane gas, which is used for rocket fuel, to further supply a deep space mission. The system used was a thermal degradation reactor with the configuration of a down-draft gasifier. The reactor was loaded with approximately 100g of trash simulant and heated with two external ceramic heaters with separate temperature control in order to create pyrolysis and gasification in one zone and incineration iri a second zone simultaneously. Trash was loaded into the top half of the reactor to undergo pyrolysis while the downdraft gas experienced gasification or incineration to treat tars and maximize the production of carbon dioxide. Minor products included carbon monoxide, methane, and other hydrocarbons. The carbon dioxide produced can be sent to a Sabatier reactor to convert the gas into methane, which can be used as rocket propellant. In order to maximize the carbon dioxide and useful gases produced, and minimize the unwanted tars and leftover ashen material, multiple experiments were performed with altered parameters such as differing temperatures, flow rates, and location of inlet air flow. According to the data received from these experiments, the process will be further scaled up and optimized to ultimately create a system that reduces trash buildup while at the same time providing enough useful gases to potentially fill a methane tank that could fuel a lunar ascent vehicle or other deep space mission.

  2. Development of temporary subtropical wetlands induces higher gas production

    PubMed Central

    Canterle, Eliete B.; da Motta Marques, David; Rodrigues, Lúcia R.

    2013-01-01

    Temporary wetlands are short-term alternative ecosystems formed by flooding for irrigation of areas used for rice farming. The goal of this study is to describe the development cycle of rice fields as temporary wetlands in southern Brazil, evaluating how this process affect the gas production (CH4 and CO2) in soil with difference % carbon and organic matter content. Two areas adjacent to Lake Mangueira in southern Brazil were used during a rice-farming cycle. One area had soil containing 1.1% carbon and 2.4% organic matter, and the second area had soil with 2.4% carbon and 4.4% organic matter. The mean rates of gas production were 0.04 ± 0.02 mg CH4 m−2 d−1 and 1.18 ± 0.30 mg CO2 m−2 d−1 in the soil area with the lower carbon content, and 0.02 ± 0.03 mg CH4 m−2 d−1 and 1.38 ± 0.41 mg CO2 m−2 d−1 in the soil area with higher carbon content. Our results showed that mean rates of CO2 production were higher than those of CH4 in both areas. No statistically significant difference was observed for production of CH4 considering different periods and sites. For carbon dioxide (CO2), however, a Two-Way ANOVA showed statistically significant difference (p = 0.05) considering sampling time, but no difference between areas. The results obtained suggest that the carbon and organic matter contents in the soil of irrigated rice cultivation areas may have been used in different ways by soil microorganisms, leading to variations in CH4 and CO2 production. PMID:23508352

  3. Characterizing tight-gas systems with production data: Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.; Santus, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    The study of produced fluids allows comparisons among tight-gas systems. This paper examines gas, oil, and water production data from vertical wells in 23 fields in five Rocky Mountain basins of the United States, mostly from wells completed before the year 2000. Average daily rates of gas, oil, and water production are determined two years and seven years after production begins in order to represent the interval in which gas production declines exponentially. In addition to the daily rates, results are also presented in terms of oil-to-gas and water-to-gas ratios, and in terms of the five-year decline in gas production rates and water-to-gas ratios. No attempt has been made to estimate the ultimate productivity of wells or fields. The ratio of gas production rates after seven years to gas production rates at two years is about one-half, with median ratios falling within a range of 0.4 to 0.6 in 16 fields. Oil-gas ratios show substantial variation among fields, ranging from dry gas (no oil) to wet gas to retrograde conditions. Among wells within fields, the oil-gas ratios vary by a factor of three to thirty, with the exception of the Lance Formation in Jonah and Pinedale fields, where the oil-gas ratios vary by less than a factor of two. One field produces water-free gas and a large fraction of wells in two other fields produce water-free gas, but most fields have water-gas ratios greater than 1 bbl/mmcf—greater than can be attributed to water dissolved in gas in the reservoir— and as high as 100 bbl/mmcf. The median water-gas ratio for fields increases moderately with time, but in individual wells water influx relative to gas is erratic, increasing greatly with time in many wells while remaining constant or decreasing in others.

  4. Simple, effective models for evaluating portfolios of exploration and production projects

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, L.B.; Davis, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes an approach for evaluating the risk and reward of exploration and production project portfolios. These models allow rapid, reasonably accurate assessment of the risk and reward of different exploration and development project mixes. They facilitate testing sensitivity to price, risk, and data assumptions. The methods described are also useful for evaluation of reserve acquisitions. The methods described in the paper are being used at Equitable Resources Energy Company.

  5. 78 FR 59632 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... proposed rulemaking on production safety systems on August 22, 2013 (78 FR 52240). The proposed rule would... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement 30 CFR Part 250 RIN 1014-AA10 Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf--Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems AGENCY: Bureau of Safety...

  6. Shallow seismic investigations of Devonian-shale gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.T.; Ruotsala, J.E.; Kudla, J.J.; Dunne, W.E.

    1982-06-01

    The foremost conclusion of this study is that fractured Devonian shale gas reservoirs, as exemplified by the Cottageville field, are detectable by seismic reflection methods. Further, the target is not particularly difficult, once the nature of the seismic anomaly is understood. The preferred exploration rationale is based on travel time anomalies related to lowered acoustic velocity within the gas-bearing zone. In the simplest case the travel time anomaly causes an apparent down-warp or sag in a flat-lying reflector. This conclusion is developed in Parts B and C of this report. Concerning the high-resolution extension of the seismic method, which is the subject of Part A, there are essentially two separate conclusions which can be drawn. One is that additional, valuable subsurface information can be obtained by recording seismic data at frequenies higher than those in common use by the petroleum industry at the time of this writing. The other is that it is feasible to obtain seismic reflection data on a smaller scale, using less costly instrumentation, than is typically employed in the petroleum industry. However, it is not yet possible to say whether such small scale surveying will be practical from an industry point of view.

  7. Southeast Asia report. Thai gas production now underway

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    The installation of the B wellhead platform on Union Oil Company's A Structure Field, offshore Thailand, marked the first construction step in the Thai National Gas Development Project. By 1983, this will be bringing 500 mmcfd of gas from 2 offshore fields to the N. Thai mainland, along the longest submarine pipeline in the world. The first phase of pipelaying - a 425-km, 34-in. Line from the A Field to Sattahip on the Thai coast - is due to start in June 1980, to enable production to begin in the second half of 1981. The second phase, a 190-km 32-in. line linking Texas Pacific's planned B development to Union's A Field is scheduled to begin in March 1981. Layouts for the areas are diagrammed and the pipeline route is mapped. The key to the development is the $600 million initiative provided by the Thai government and state company, the petroleum authority of Thailand, in creating a gas market and financing the offshore pipeline and 180-km onshore distribution system.

  8. Agricultural use of a flue gas desulfurization by-product

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, W.; Chen, L.; Nelson, S. Jr.

    1998-12-31

    Few, if any, economical alternatives exist for operators of small coal-fired boilers that require a flue-gas desulfurization system which does not generate wastes. A new duct-injection technology called Fluesorbent has been developed to help fill this gap. Fluesorbent FGD was intentionally designed so that the saturated SO{sub 2}-sorbent materials would be valuable soil amendments for agricultural or turf-grass land. Agricultural and turf grass studies recently commenced using spent Fluesorbent materials from an FGD pilot program at an Ohio power plant. In the first year of testing, alfalfa yields on field plots with the FGD by-products were approximately 250% greater than on plots with no treatment, and about 40% greater than on plots treated with an equivalent amount of agricultural lime. Because the FGD by-products contained trace elements from included fly ash, the chemical composition of the alfalfa was significantly improved. Detailed yield and chemical data are presented.

  9. Agricultural use of a flue gas desulfurization by-product

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S. Jr.; Dick, W.; Chen, L.

    1998-07-01

    Few, if any, economical alternatives exist for operators of small coal-fired boilers that require a flue-gas desulfurization system which does not generate wastes. A new duct-injection technology called Fluesorbent has been developed to help fill this gap. Fluesorbent FGD was intentionally designed so that the saturated SO{sub 2}-sorbent materials would be valuable solid amendments for agricultural or turf-grass land. Agricultural and turf grass studies recently commenced using spent Fluesorbent materials from an FGD pilot program at an Ohio power plant. In the first year of testing, alfalfa yields on field plots with the FGS by-products were approximately 250% greater than on plots with no treatment, and about 40% greater than on plots treated with an equivalent amount of agricultural lime. Because the FGD by-products contained trace elements from included fly ash, the chemical composition of the alfalfa was significantly improved.

  10. Agricultural use of a flue gas desulfurization by-product

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S. Jr.; Dick, W.; Chen, L.

    1998-04-01

    Few, if any, economical alternatives exist for operators of small coal-fired boilers that require a flue-gas desulfurization system which does not generate wastes. A new duct-injection technology called {open_quotes}Fluesorbent{close_quotes} has been developed to help fill this gap. Fluesorbent FGD was intentionally designed so that the saturated SO{sub 2}-sorbent materials would be valuable soil amendments for agricultural or turf-grass land. Agricultural and turf grass studies recently commenced using spent Fluesorbent materials from an FGD pilot program at an Ohio power plant. In the first year of testing, alfalfa yields on field plots with the FGD by-products were approximately 250% greater than on plots with no treatment, and about 40% greater than on plots treated with an equivalent amount of agricultural lime. Because the FGD by-products contained trace elements from included fly ash, the chemical composition of the alfalfa was significantly improved.

  11. Maps showing petroleum exploration intensity and production in major Cambrian to Ordovician reservoir rocks in the Anadarko Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, Mitch; Hester, Tim

    1996-01-01

    The Anadarko basin is a large, deep, two-stage Paleozoic basin (Feinstein, 1981) that is petroleum rich and generally well explored. The Anadarko basin province, a geogrphic area used here mostly for the convenience of mapping and data management, is defined by political boundaries that include the Anadarko basin proper. The boundaries of the province are identical to those used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the 1995 National Assessment of United Stated Oil and Gas Resources. The data in this report, also identical to those used in the national assessment, are from several computerized data bases including Nehring Research Group (NRG) Associates Inc., Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States (1992); Petroleum Information (PI), Inc., Well History Control System (1991); and Petroleum Information (PI), Inc., Petro-ROM: Production data on CD-ROM (1993). Although generated mostly in response to the national assessment, the data presented here arc grouped differently and arc displayed and described in greater detail. In addition, the stratigraphic sequences discussed may not necessarily correlate with the "plays" of the 1995 national assessment. This report uses computer-generated maps to show drilling intensity, producing wells, major fields, and other geologic information relevant to petroleum exploration and production in the lower Paleozoic part of the Anadarko basin province as defined for the U.S. Geological Survey's 1995 national petroleum assessment. Hydrocarbon accumulations must meet a minimum standard of 1 million barrels of oil (MMBO) or 6 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG) estimated ultimate recovery to be included in this report as a major field or revoir. Mapped strata in this report include the Upper Cambrian to Lower Ordovician Arbuckle and Low Ordovician Ellenburger Groups, the Middle Ordovician Simpson Group, and the Middle to Upper Ordovician Viola Group.

  12. Central Africa Energy: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Explore Flared Gas as an Energy Source Alternative to Biomass in Central Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Amber; White, Charles; Castillo, Christopher; Hitimana, Emmanuel; Nguyen, Kenny; Mishra, Shikher; Clark, Walt

    2014-01-01

    Much of Central Africa's economy is centered on oil production. Oil deposits lie below vast amounts of compressed natural gas. The latter is often flared off during oil extraction due to a lack of the infrastructure needed to utilize it for productive energy generation. Though gas flaring is discouraged by many due to its contributions to greenhouse emissions, it represents a waste process and is rarely tracked or recorded in this region. In contrast to this energy waste, roughly 80% of Africa's population lacks access to electricity and in turn uses biomass such as wood for heat and light. In addition to the dangers incurred from collecting and using biomass, the practice commonly leads to ecological change through the acquisition of wood from forests surrounding urban areas. The objective of this project was to gain insight on domestic energy usage in Central Africa, specifically Angola, Gabon, and the Republic of Congo. This was done through an analysis of deforestation, an estimation of gas flared, and a suitability study for the infrastructure needed to realize the natural gas resources. The energy from potential natural gas production was compared to the energy equivalent of the biomass being harvested. A site suitability study for natural gas pipeline routes from flare sites to populous locations was conducted to assess the feasibility of utilizing natural gas for domestic energy needs. Analyses and results were shared with project partners, as well as this project's open source approach to assessing the energy sector. Ultimately, Africa's growth demands energy for its people, and natural gas is already being produced by the flourishing petroleum industry in numerous African countries. By utilizing this gas, Africa could reduce flaring, recuperate the financial and environmental loss that flaring accounts for, and unlock a plentiful domestic energy source for its people. II. Introduction Background Africa is home to numerous burgeoning economies; a significant number rely on oil production as their primary source of revenue. Relative to its size and population density, the continent has a wealth of natural resources, including oil and natural gas deposits. The exploration of these resources is not a new endeavor, but rather one that spans decades, up to a century in some places. Their resources, if realized, could provide a great means of economic and social mobility for the people of Africa. Currently, Africa represents about 12 % of the energy market, yet at the same time, consumes only 3 % of the world's energy (Kasekende 2009). The higher

  13. Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of sugar production. Results According to our calculations, 241 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent were released to the atmosphere per a ton of sugar produced (2406 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a hectare of the cropped area, and 26.5 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a ton of sugarcane processed). The major part of the total emission (44%) resulted from residues burning; about 20% resulted from the use of synthetic fertilizers, and about 18% from fossil fuel combustion. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the most important reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sugarcane areas could be achieved by switching to a green harvest system, that is, to harvesting without burning. PMID:20565736

  14. Storage sizing for embedding of local gas production in a micro gas grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkano, D.; Nefkens, W. J.; Scherpen, J. M. A.; Volkerts, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we study the optimal control of a micro grid of biogas producers. The paper considers the possibility to have a local storage device for each producer, who partly consumes his own production, i.e. prosumer. In addition, connected prosumers can sell stored gas to create revenue from it. An optimization model is employed to derive the size of storage device and to provide a pricing mechanism in an effort to value the stored gas. Taking into account physical grid constraints, the model is constructed in a centralized scheme of model predictive control. Case studies show that there is a relation between the demand and price profiles in terms of peaks and lows. The price profiles generally follow each other. The case studies are employed as well to to study the impacts of model parameters on deriving the storage size.

  15. The Importance of Chemosynthetic Communities and 'Seep-Hunting' to Deepwater Oil and Gas Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, D.; Gharib, J. J.; Orange, D.; Henderson, J.; Danque, H.; Digby, A.

    2007-12-01

    Seafloor surveying techniques have often evolved as the industry's needs have evolved. Oil and gas exploration costs have escalated over the last several years, both as a result of increasing offshore overhead costs as well as the increased demand being met by offshore service-related companies. Consequently, more companies are prospecting using inexpensive techniques that rely on scientific expertise, such as seep-hunting, as a means of identifying reservoirs, and the past few years have seen several large-scale industrial deepwater surveys with locating hydrocarbon seeps as a primary goal. The identification of seeps is also a necessity for many pre-drilling operations, as many potential developers must conform to local regulations protecting chemosynthetic communities (eg MMS NTL 2000-G20 for Gulf of Mexico development). In addition to identifying chemosynthetic communities for permitting issues, as prospecting has moved into deeper water the ability to identify seep-related drilling hazards, such as hardgrounds or shallow gas (and hydrates) has also increased in importance. The specialized field of identifying seeps, and related chemosynthetics, hardgrounds, etc., is rapidly growing, aided by advances in mapping technology, such as multibeam backscatter and interferometry, among others. Today all of the geophysical data can be brought into a common interpretation environment providing multiple perspectives, different data overlays, and/or 3D visualizations. Using these techniques, high resolution multibeam and/or side-scan surveys rapidly cover large swaths of seafloor and identify potential seeps in real- time. These targets can then be examined geochemically with a coring program, potentially working simultaneously with the multibeam program. Modern USBL navigation can position a deepwater core in <10m diameter targets. Much of the geochemistry can be analyzed in near-real time at sea (eg headspace/interstitial gas, trace/minor/major ions in porefluids, etc; only isotopic analyses are restricted to better equipped research vessels). The advantages of integrating these data are considerable, and they can be obtained for a fraction of the cost of exploratory drilling or submersible operations. This presentation intends to outline the recent history of the industry's approach to seep-hunting, its increasing importance to oil prospectivity, and future trends in industrial applications and how this might affect academic study in this field (especially related to the advances in seep-hunting technology and software that are becoming industry-standards).

  16. The Economic Impact of Shale Gas Production in the U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang

    Energy is important to our daily lives. A price change of one energy type may influence our consumption choices, commodities prices and industry production. For the United States, shale gas is becoming a promising source of natural gas because of the rapid increase in its reserve and production capacity. Shale gas production is projected to be a large proportion of U.S. gas production, as predicted by Energy Information Administration (EIA). However, besides knowing the big picture, more details are needed before characterizing shale gas as a "game changer." It is interesting to address questions like to what extent the production of shale gas could affect other industries' production, stabilize commodities' prices, and what are the impacts on factor payments, capital returns, labor payments and household consumption. In this study, I use a CGE model to measure the impact on industry and the change in social welfare associated with shale gas production.

  17. Microbiology of synthesis gas fermentation for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Henstra, Anne M; Sipma, Jan; Rinzema, Arjen; Stams, Alfons J M

    2007-06-01

    A significant portion of biomass sources like straw and wood is poorly degradable and cannot be converted to biofuels by microorganisms. The gasification of this waste material to produce synthesis gas (or syngas) could offer a solution to this problem, as microorganisms that convert CO and H2) (the essential components of syngas) to multicarbon compounds are available. These are predominantly mesophilic microorganisms that produce short-chain fatty acids and alcohols from CO and H2. Additionally, hydrogen can be produced by carboxydotrophic hydrogenogenic bacteria that convert CO and H2O to H2 and CO2. The production of ethanol through syngas fermentation is already available as a commercial process. The use of thermophilic microorganisms for these processes could offer some advantages; however, to date, few thermophiles are known that grow well on syngas and produce organic compounds. The identification of new isolates that would broaden the product range of syngas fermentations is desirable. Metabolic engineering could be employed to broaden the variety of available products, although genetic tools for such engineering are currently unavailable. Nevertheless, syngas fermenting microorganisms possess advantageous characteristics for biofuel production and hold potential for future engineering efforts. PMID:17399976

  18. Producing ammonium sulfate from flue gas desulfurization by-products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Bruinius, J.A.; Benig, V.; Chou, S.-F.J.; Carty, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Emission control technologies using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have been widely adopted by utilities burning high-sulfur fuels. However, these technologies require additional equipment, greater operating expenses, and increased costs for landfill disposal of the solid by-products produced. The financial burdens would be reduced if successful high-volume commercial applications of the FGD solid by-products were developed. In this study, the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate from FGD residues by allowing it to react with ammonium carbonate in an aqueous solution was preliminarily assessed. Reaction temperatures of 60, 70, and 80??C and residence times of 4 and 6 hours were tested to determine the optimal conversion condition and final product evaluations. High yields (up to 83%) of ammonium sulfate with up to 99% purity were achieved under relatively mild conditions. The optimal conversion condition was observed at 60??C and a 4-hour residence time. The results of this study indicate the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate fertilizer from an FGD by-product. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

  19. Federal offshore statistics: 1995 - leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Gaechter, R.A.

    1997-07-01

    This report provides data on federal offshore operations for 1995. Information is included for leasing activities, development, petroleum and natural gas production, sales and royalties, revenue from federal offshore leasing, disbursement of federal revenues, reserves and resource estimates, and oil pollution in U.S. and international waters.

  20. Exploration of the Townsend regime by discharge light emission in a gas discharge device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilal Yucel, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    The Townsend discharge mechanism has been explored in a planar microelectronic gas discharge device (MGDD) with different applied voltages U and interelectrode distance d under various pressures in air. The anode and the cathode of the MGDD are formed by a transparent SnO2 covered glass and a GaAs semiconductor, respectively. In the experiments, the discharge is found to be unstable just below the breakdown voltage Ub, whereas the discharge passes through a homogeneous stable Townsend mode beyond the breakdown voltage. The measurements are made by an electrical circuit and a CCD camera by recording the currents and light emission (LE) intensities. The intensity profiles, which are converted from the 3D light emission images along the semiconductor diameter, have been analysed for different system parameters. Different instantaneous conductivity ?t regimes are found below and beyond the Townsend region. These regimes govern the current and spatio-temporal LE stabilities in the plasma system. It has been proven that the stable LE region increases up to 550 Torr as a function of pressure for small d. If the active area of the semiconductor becomes larger and the interlectrode distance d becomes smaller, the stable LE region stays nearly constant with pressure.

  1. Chemical variability of groundwater samples collected from a coal seam gas exploration well, Maramarua, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Taulis, Mauricio; Milke, Mark

    2013-03-01

    A pilot study has produced 31 groundwater samples from a coal seam gas (CSG) exploration well located in Maramarua, New Zealand. This paper describes sources of CSG water chemistry variations, and makes sampling and analytical recommendations to minimize these variations. The hydrochemical character of these samples is studied using factor analysis, geochemical modelling, and a sparging experiment. Factor analysis unveils carbon dioxide (CO(2)) degassing as the principal cause of sample variation (about 33%). Geochemical modelling corroborates these results and identifies minor precipitation of carbonate minerals with degassing. The sparging experiment confirms the effect of CO(2) degassing by showing a steady rise in pH while maintaining constant alkalinity. Factor analysis correlates variations in the major ion composition (about 17%) to changes in the pumping regime and to aquifer chemistry variations due to cation exchange reactions with argillaceous minerals. An effective CSG water sampling program can be put into practice by measuring pH at the wellhead and alkalinity at the laboratory; these data can later be used to calculate the carbonate speciation at the time the sample was collected. In addition, TDS variations can be reduced considerably if a correct drying temperature of 180 °C is consistently implemented. PMID:23199455

  2. Assessing environmental impact from gas and oil exploration in the SW Barents Sea using benthic foraminiferal assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, N.; Junttila, J.; Husum, K.; Carroll, J.; Hald, M.

    2012-04-01

    During the last decades petroleum industry and shipping activities have increased in the SW Barents Sea. Oil exploration wells were drilled in the 1980s with production starting in 2007. These activities are projected to expand in the coming years. As part of the Northern Environmental Waste Management (EWMA) project, a competence cluster for petroleum industry related waste handling, we investigate the impacts of enhanced anthropogenic activities on benthic foraminiferal assemblages in the SW Barents Sea. Sediment cores (0-20 cm) from sites in proximity to two oil- and gas fields are under investigation. These sediment cores, dated with the 210Pb method, represent the last 90 to 150 years. Both dead and living benthic foraminifera (100 µm-1 mm) were counted to elucidate differences in foraminiferal assemblages between pre-impact and recent conditions. In addition, the heavy metal concentrations, persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, grain size and total organic content (TOC) of the sediment cores have been analyzed. Pollution levels of the surface sediments (0-1 cm) are of background to good level (level I-II) according to the definitions of the Water Framework Directorate (WFD). Patterns in living benthic foraminiferal assemblages identified in the sea floor surface sediments, are the result of natural environmental changes such as depth, water mass and sediment composition. Further downcore (1-20 cm) pollution levels are in general of background environmental status (WFD level I). However, at some depth intervals, especially in sediment cores from the near proximity of the oil- and gas- fields, pollution levels are slightly enhanced (WFD level II). Further work will include statistical comparison of dead and living foraminiferal assemblages with sediment pollution levels, sediment properties, and oceanographic conditions. This research contributes to the development of foraminifera as a useful bio-monitoring technique for the Arctic region as industrial activities increase in the coming years.

  3. Development of an Electrostatic Precipitator to Remove Martian Atmospheric Dust from ISRU Gas Intakes During Planetary Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, J. Sidney; Thompson, Samuel M.; Cox, Nathan D.; Johansen, Michael R.; Williams, Blakeley S.; Hogue, Michael D.; Lowder, M. Loraine; Calle, Carlos I.

    2011-01-01

    Manned exploration missions to Mars will need dependable in situ resource utilization (ISRU) for the production of oxygen and other commodities. One of these resources is the Martian atmosphere itself, which is composed of carbon dioxide (95.3%), nitrogen (2.7%), argon (1.6%), oxygen (0.13%), carbon monoxide (0.07%), and water vapor (0.03%), as well as other trace gases. However, the Martian atmosphere also contains relatively large amounts of dust, uploaded by frequent dust devils and high Winds. To make this gas usable for oxygen extraction in specialized chambers requires the removal of most of the dust. An electrostatic precipitator (ESP) system is an obvious choice. But with an atmospheric pressure just one-hundredth of Earth's, electrical breakdown at low voltages makes the implementation of the electrostatic precipitator technology very challenging. Ion mobility, drag forces, dust particle charging, and migration velocity are also affected because the low gas pressure results in molecular mean free paths that are approximately one hundred times longer than those at Earth .atmospheric pressure. We report here on our efforts to develop this technology at the Kennedy Space Center, using gases with approximately the same composition as the Martian atmosphere in a vacuum chamber at 9 mbars, the atmospheric pressure on Mars. We also present I-V curves and large particle charging data for various versions of wire-cylinder and rod-cylinder geometry ESPs. Preliminary results suggest that use of an ESP for dust collection on Mars may be feasible, but further testing with Martian dust simulant is required.

  4. Determination of ²²⁶Ra, ²²⁸Ra and ²¹⁰Pb in NORM products from oil and gas exploration: problems in activity underestimation due to the presence of metals and self-absorption of photons.

    PubMed

    Landsberger, S; Brabec, C; Canion, B; Hashem, J; Lu, C; Millsap, D; George, G

    2013-11-01

    Typical calibration of solid environmental samples for the determination of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb entails the use of standard reference materials which have a very similar matrix. However, TENORM samples from the oil and gas exploration contain unusually high amounts of calcium, strontium and barium which can severely attenuate the photons of (210)Pb and (226)Ra with their characteristic 46.1 keV and 186.2 keV gamma-rays, respectively and to some extent (228)Ra with the characteristic gamma-rays of 911.2 keV and 969.0 keV. We used neutron activation analysis to evaluate the content of TENORM for calcium, barium and strontium and then used a software program SELABS to determine the self-absorption. Our results confirm that even in Petrie containers with small dimensions the (210)Pb can be underestimated by almost by a factor of four while (226)Ra can be underestimated by 5%. The (228)Ra activities are virtually unaffected due to the higher energy gamma-rays. However, the implications for TENORM studies that employ large Marinelli containers having sample sizes between 0.25 and 1.0 L may be severely compromised by the presence of high Z elements in elevated concentrations. The usual spectral interferences on (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb coming from other radionuclides in the (234)U, (235)U and (238)U decay chains are virtually nonexistent due the very high activity levels of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb in the tens of thousands of Bq/kg. PMID:23514714

  5. Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 states 1984 through 1996, February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-09

    This is the fourth wellhead productive capacity report. The three previous ones were published in 1991, 1993, and 1994. This report should be of particular interest to those in Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas. The EIA Dallas Field Office has prepared five earlier reports regarding natural gas productive capacity. These reports, Gas Deliverability and Flow Capacity of Surveillance Fields, reported deliverability and capacity data for selected gas fields in major gas producing areas. The data in the reports were based on gas-well back-pressure tests and estimates of gas-in-place for each field or reservoir. These reports use proven well testing theory, most of which has been employed by industry since 1936 when the Bureau of Mines first published Monograph 7. Demand for natural gas in the United States is met by a combination of natural gas production, underground gas storage, imported gas, and supplemental gaseous fuels. Natural gas production requirements in the lower 48 States have been increasing during the last few years while drilling has remained at low levels. This has raised some concern about the adequacy of future gas supplies, especially in periods of peak heating or cooling demand. The purpose of this report is to address these concerns by presenting a 3-year projection of the total productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead for the lower 48 States. Alaska is excluded because Alaskan gas does not enter the lower-48 States pipeline system. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) generates this 3-year projection based on historical gas-well drilling and production data from State, Federal, and private sources. In addition to conventional gas-well gas, coalbed gas and oil-well gas are also included.

  6. Exploring Long-Term Productive Vocabulary Development in an EFL Context: The Role of Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yongyan

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports on a longitudinal multiple-case study that probed into four advanced university-level Chinese EFL learners' situated vocabulary learning experiences and explored the role of L2 motivation in their productive vocabulary development. In the study, Lexical Frequency Profile analysis and semi-structured interviews were conducted with…

  7. Twisting Tongues and Memories: Explorations of the Relationship between Language Production and Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2009-01-01

    Many accounts of working memory posit specialized storage mechanisms for the maintenance of serial order. We explore an alternative, that maintenance is achieved through temporary activation in the language production architecture. Four experiments examined the extent to which the phonological similarity effect can be explained as a sublexical

  8. Practical approach to environmental protection in the exploration and production industry

    SciTech Connect

    Emmons, L.N.

    1994-12-31

    Environmental protection is a major issue throughout the world. Effective environmental protection techniques exist that are simple, creative, practical, and often cost effective. The cornerstone of cost effective environmental protection is an environmental management system. Various techniques are also available for reducing wastes, minimizing spills, remediating soils, reducing air emissions, and protecting groundwater and surface water in exploration and production operations.

  9. Twisting Tongues and Memories: Explorations of the Relationship between Language Production and Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2009-01-01

    Many accounts of working memory posit specialized storage mechanisms for the maintenance of serial order. We explore an alternative, that maintenance is achieved through temporary activation in the language production architecture. Four experiments examined the extent to which the phonological similarity effect can be explained as a sublexical…

  10. 25 CFR 211.41 - Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (d) If the leased premises produce gas in excess of the lessee's requirements for the development and... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases. 211... Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases. (a) A lessee shall pay, in advance, beginning...

  11. 25 CFR 211.41 - Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (d) If the leased premises produce gas in excess of the lessee's requirements for the development and... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases. 211... Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases. (a) A lessee shall pay, in advance, beginning...

  12. 25 CFR 211.41 - Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (d) If the leased premises produce gas in excess of the lessee's requirements for the development and... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases. 211... Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases. (a) A lessee shall pay, in advance, beginning...

  13. 25 CFR 211.41 - Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (d) If the leased premises produce gas in excess of the lessee's requirements for the development and... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases. 211... Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases. (a) A lessee shall pay, in advance, beginning...

  14. 30 CFR 1202.550 - How do I determine the royalty due on gas production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I determine the royalty due on gas production? 1202.550 Section 1202.550 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Gas Production From Indian Leases § 1202.550 How do I determine the royalty due on gas...

  15. 30 CFR 560.116 - How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... feet of natural gas, measured according to 30 CFR part 250, subpart L, equals one barrel of oil... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I measure natural gas production on my... § 560.116 How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease? You must measure natural...

  16. 76 FR 67201 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems; Submitted for Office of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas... the paperwork requirements in the regulations under Subpart H, ``Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems... H, Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems. Abstract: The Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Lands Act,...

  17. Common In-Situ Consumable Production Plant for Robotic Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, G. B.; Trevathan, J. R.; Peters, T. A.; Baird, R. S.

    2000-07-01

    Utilization of extraterrestrial resources, or In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), is viewed by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise as an enabling technology for the exploration and commercial development of space. A key subset of ISRU which has significant cost, mass, and risk reduction benefits for robotic and human exploration, and which requires a minimum of infrastructure, is In-Situ Consumable Production (ISCP). ISCP involves acquiring, manufacturing, and storing mission consumables from in situ resources, such as propellants, fuel cell reagents, and gases for crew and life support, inflation, science and pneumatic equipment. One of the four long-term goals for the Space Science Enterprise (SSE) is to 'pursue space science programs that enable and are enabled by future human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - a goal exploiting the synergy with the human exploration of space'. Adequate power and propulsion capabilities are critical for both robotic and human exploration missions. Minimizing the mass and volume of these systems can reduce mission cost or enhance the mission by enabling the incorporation of new science or mission-relevant equipment. Studies have shown that in-situ production of oxygen and methane propellants can enhance sample return missions by enabling larger samples to be returned to Earth or by performing Direct Earth Return (DER) sample return missions instead of requiring a Mars Orbit Rendezvous (MOR). Recent NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) work on oxygen and hydrocarbon-based fuel cell power systems shows the potential of using fuel cell power systems instead of solar arrays and batteries for future rovers and science equipment. The development and use of a common oxygen/methane ISCP plant for propulsion and power generation can extend and enhance the scientific exploration of Mars while supporting the development and demonstration of critical technologies and systems for the human exploration of Mars.

  18. Common In-Situ Consumable Production Plant for Robotic Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, G. B.; Trevathan, J. R.; Peters, T. A.; Baird, R. S.

    2000-01-01

    Utilization of extraterrestrial resources, or In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), is viewed by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise as an enabling technology for the exploration and commercial development of space. A key subset of ISRU which has significant cost, mass, and risk reduction benefits for robotic and human exploration, and which requires a minimum of infrastructure, is In-Situ Consumable Production (ISCP). ISCP involves acquiring, manufacturing, and storing mission consumables from in situ resources, such as propellants, fuel cell reagents, and gases for crew and life support, inflation, science and pneumatic equipment. One of the four long-term goals for the Space Science Enterprise (SSE) is to 'pursue space science programs that enable and are enabled by future human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - a goal exploiting the synergy with the human exploration of space'. Adequate power and propulsion capabilities are critical for both robotic and human exploration missions. Minimizing the mass and volume of these systems can reduce mission cost or enhance the mission by enabling the incorporation of new science or mission-relevant equipment. Studies have shown that in-situ production of oxygen and methane propellants can enhance sample return missions by enabling larger samples to be returned to Earth or by performing Direct Earth Return (DER) sample return missions instead of requiring a Mars Orbit Rendezvous (MOR). Recent NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) work on oxygen and hydrocarbon-based fuel cell power systems shows the potential of using fuel cell power systems instead of solar arrays and batteries for future rovers and science equipment. The development and use of a common oxygen/methane ISCP plant for propulsion and power generation can extend and enhance the scientific exploration of Mars while supporting the development and demonstration of critical technologies and systems for the human exploration of Mars.

  19. Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, H.J.; Kutuk, B.

    1992-03-01

    This report deals with a study directed towards a modeling effort on production related ground movements and subsidence resulting from hydrate dissociation. The goal of this research study was to evaluate whether there could be subsidence related problems that could be an impediment to hydrate production. During the production of gas from a hydrate reservoir, it is expected that porous reservoir matrix becomes more compressible which may cause reservoir compression (compaction) under the influence of overburden weight. The overburden deformations can propagate its influence upwards causing subsidence near the surface where production equipment will be located. In the present study, the reservoir compaction is modeled by using the conventional ``stress equilibrium`` approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ``cavity`` generated by reservoir depletion. The present study is expected to provide a ``lower bound`` solution to the subsidence caused by hydrate reservoir depletion. The reservoir compaction anticipated during hydrate production was modeled by using the finite element method, which is a powerful computer modeling technique. The ground movements at the reservoir roof (i.e. reservoir compression) cause additional stresses and disturbance in the overburden strata. In this study, the reservoir compaction was modeled by using the conventional ``stress equilibrium`` approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ``cavity`` generated by reservoir depletion. The resulting stresses and ground movements were computed by using the finite element method. Based on the parameters used in this investigation, the maximum ground subsidence could vary anywhere from 0.50 to 6.50 inches depending on the overburden depth and the size of the depleted hydrate reservoir.

  20. Optimizing quantum gas production by an evolutionary algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lausch, T.; Hohmann, M.; Kindermann, F.; Mayer, D.; Schmidt, F.; Widera, A.

    2016-05-01

    We report on the application of an evolutionary algorithm (EA) to enhance performance of an ultra-cold quantum gas experiment. The production of a ^{87}rubidium Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) can be divided into fundamental cooling steps, specifically magneto-optical trapping of cold atoms, loading of atoms to a far-detuned crossed dipole trap, and finally the process of evaporative cooling. The EA is applied separately for each of these steps with a particular definition for the feedback, the so-called fitness. We discuss the principles of an EA and implement an enhancement called differential evolution. Analyzing the reasons for the EA to improve, e.g., the atomic loading rates and increase the BEC phase-space density, yields an optimal parameter set for the BEC production and enables us to reduce the BEC production time significantly. Furthermore, we focus on how additional information about the experiment and optimization possibilities can be extracted and how the correlations revealed allow for further improvement. Our results illustrate that EAs are powerful optimization tools for complex experiments and exemplify that the application yields useful information on the dependence of these experiments on the optimized parameters.

  1. Oil and gas exploration system and method for detecting trace amounts of hydrocarbon gases in the atmosphere

    DOEpatents

    Wamsley, Paula R.; Weimer, Carl S.; Nelson, Loren D.; O'Brien, Martin J.

    2003-01-01

    An oil and gas exploration system and method for land and airborne operations, the system and method used for locating subsurface hydrocarbon deposits based upon a remote detection of trace amounts of gases in the atmosphere. The detection of one or more target gases in the atmosphere is used to indicate a possible subsurface oil and gas deposit. By mapping a plurality of gas targets over a selected survey area, the survey area can be analyzed for measurable concentration anomalies. The anomalies are interpreted along with other exploration data to evaluate the value of an underground deposit. The system includes a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system with a spectroscopic grade laser light and a light detector. The laser light is continuously tunable in a mid-infrared range, 2 to 5 micrometers, for choosing appropriate wavelengths to measure different gases and avoid absorption bands of interference gases. The laser light has sufficient optical energy to measure atmospheric concentrations of a gas over a path as long as a mile and greater. The detection of the gas is based on optical absorption measurements at specific wavelengths in the open atmosphere. Light that is detected using the light detector contains an absorption signature acquired as the light travels through the atmosphere from the laser source and back to the light detector. The absorption signature of each gas is processed and then analyzed to determine if a potential anomaly exists.

  2. Screening and characterization of oleaginous Chlorella strains and exploration of photoautotrophic Chlorella protothecoides for oil production.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zheng; Zhou, Zhi-gang; Gerken, Henri; Chen, Feng; Liu, Jin

    2015-05-01

    The growth and oil production of nine Chlorella strains were comparatively assessed and Chlorellaprotothecoides CS-41 demonstrated the greatest lipid production potential. The effects of different nitrogen forms and concentrations, phosphorus concentrations and light intensities on growth and oil production were studied in laboratory columns. C. protothecoides CS-41 accumulated lipids up to 55% of dry weight, with triacylglycerol and oleic acid being 71% of total lipids and 59% of total fatty acids, respectively. High biomass and lipid productivities were achieved in outdoor panel PBRs, up to 1.25 and 0.59 g L(-1) day(-1), or 44. 1 and 16.1 g m(-2) day(-1), respectively. A two-stage cultivation strategy was proposed to enhance the algal biomass and lipid production. This is the first comprehensive investigation of both indoor and outdoor photoautotrophic C. protothecoides cultures for oil production, and C. protothecoides CS-41 represents a promising biofuel feedstock worthy of further exploration. PMID:25266686

  3. Prediction of Gas Leak Tightness of Superplastically Formed Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snippe, Corijn H. C.; Meinders, T.

    2010-06-01

    In some applications, in this case an aluminium box in a subatomic particle detector containing highly sensitive detecting devices, it is important that a formed sheet should show no gas leak from one side to the other. In order to prevent a trial-and-error procedure to make this leak tight box, a method is set up to predict if a formed sheet conforms to the maximum leak constraint. The technique of superplastic forming (SPF) is used in order to attain very high plastic strains before failure. Since only a few of these boxes are needed, this makes, this generally slow, process an attractive production method. To predict the gas leak of a superplastically formed aluminium sheet in an accurate way, finite element simulations are used in combination with a user-defined material model. This constitutive model couples the leak rate with the void volume fraction. This void volume fraction is then dependent on both the equivalent plastic strain and the applied hydrostatic pressure during the bulge process (backpressure).

  4. Prediction of Gas Leak Tightness of Superplastically Formed Products

    SciTech Connect

    Snippe, Corijn H. C.; Meinders, T.

    2010-06-15

    In some applications, in this case an aluminium box in a subatomic particle detector containing highly sensitive detecting devices, it is important that a formed sheet should show no gas leak from one side to the other. In order to prevent a trial-and-error procedure to make this leak tight box, a method is set up to predict if a formed sheet conforms to the maximum leak constraint. The technique of superplastic forming (SPF) is used in order to attain very high plastic strains before failure. Since only a few of these boxes are needed, this makes, this generally slow, process an attractive production method. To predict the gas leak of a superplastically formed aluminium sheet in an accurate way, finite element simulations are used in combination with a user-defined material model. This constitutive model couples the leak rate with the void volume fraction. This void volume fraction is then dependent on both the equivalent plastic strain and the applied hydrostatic pressure during the bulge process (backpressure).

  5. Electrochemical noise monitoring of corrosion in natural gas production plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Meidinger, Brian; Kane, Russell D.; Eden, Dawn C.

    2005-01-01

    A test spool containing two sets of sensors has been inserted in a high pressure environment of a natural gas production plant. The two flange-type sensors are configured so that moisture was more likely to accumulate at one than the other. Electrochemical noise (EN), linear polarization resistance (LPR), and harmonic distortion analysis (HDA) are used in combination to monitor the corrosion occurring in the plant. The 100-day corrosion data for the vertical and horizontal sensors show that corrosion rates were low and averaged {approx}0.0055 mm/yr. The measured B values were 0.035 V for the vertical sensor and 0.033V for the horizontal sensor, higher than the typical assume value of 0.026 V. The pitting factors were similar between the two sensors except that the vertical set had a prolonged higher pitting factor of 0.1 at the initiation of the test.

  6. Orbital remote sensing for geological mapping in southern Tunisia: Implication for oil and gas exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Sherrie A.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.

    2006-02-01

    Southern Tunisia is dominated by early to middle Triassic continental sandstones inter-bedded with shales and conglomerates followed by late Triassic shallow marine carbonates, lower Jurassic evaporates, and upper Jurassic to lower Cretaceous clastic sedimentary rocks. These constitute the Dahar Plateau (which is part of the Ghadames Basin and it is the focus of this study) that was developed in association with regional uplift of the Saharan Platform. Efforts in mapping the details of surface geology in southern Tunisia are hindered by the lack of continuous bedrock outcrops, where some of the formations are buried under the sand of the Sahara Desert. Remote sensing data including multi-spectral optical (Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)), radar (RADARSAT), and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) extracted from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data are used to trace along strike continuity of different lithological units as well as mapping morphologically defined structures in southern Tunisia. Landsat ETM+ and ASTER Red-Green-Blue (RGB) color combination images (both band and band-ratio images) have been used for the identification of various lithological units when they are exposed on the surface. On the other hand, RADARSAT images have been utilized for tracing geological formations and geological structures that are buried under thin (˜1 m) sand. Fusion of optical and radar remote sensing data using Color Normalization Transformation (CNT) has been effectively implemented to further identify lithological units and geological structures. Hill-shading techniques are applied to SRTM DEMs to enhance terrain perspective views and to extract geomorphological features and morphologically defined structures through the means of lineament analysis. Results from remote sensing analysis are in good agreement with results obtained from in situ investigations including geological mapping and seismic exploration. Identifying lithological and structural features using remote sensing studies incorporated with surface and sub-surface geological investigations in southern Tunisia can aid exploration for new oil and gas fields. Such an approach of integrating remote sensing and in situ geological studies can be successfully adopted in other parts of North Africa and arid regions in general.

  7. Atmospheric emissions and air quality impacts from natural gas production and use.

    PubMed

    Allen, David T

    2014-01-01

    The US Energy Information Administration projects that hydraulic fracturing of shale formations will become a dominant source of domestic natural gas supply over the next several decades, transforming the energy landscape in the United States. However, the environmental impacts associated with fracking for shale gas have made it controversial. This review examines emissions and impacts of air pollutants associated with shale gas production and use. Emissions and impacts of greenhouse gases, photochemically active air pollutants, and toxic air pollutants are described. In addition to the direct atmospheric impacts of expanded natural gas production, indirect effects are also described. Widespread availability of shale gas can drive down natural gas prices, which, in turn, can impact the use patterns for natural gas. Natural gas production and use in electricity generation are used as a case study for examining these indirect consequences of expanded natural gas availability. PMID:24498952

  8. Sodic soils reclaimed with by-product from flue gas desulfurization: corn production and soil quality.

    PubMed

    Chun, S; Nishiyama, M; Matsumoto, S

    2001-01-01

    Interest is growing in the use of by-product from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to reclaim sodic soils by controlling the pH and excessive Na+. This study evaluated the effects on corn (Zea mays) production and pH and electrical conductivity (EC) of calcareous sodic soil during four times of cultivation when the by-product was applied once at the first cultivation (Study I) and the impacts on plant and soil quality at first cultivation when the by-product was applied to the soil at 23,000 kg ha-1 (Study II). In Study I, the germination rate and corn production increased by applying the by-product (0, 5,800, 11,600, and 23,100 kg ha-1), and the greatest total amounts of corn production during the four times of cultivation was when the by-product was applied at 23,100 kg ha-1. In Study II, the pH, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), clay dispersion and soluble Na+ in the soil decreased and soluble Mg2+ and soluble K+ in the soil increased. The soil pH was reduced from 9.0 to 7.7 by applying the by-product. However, the by-product decreased the concentrations of total N and P in corn leaves in this study. No significant difference in the concentrations of Mo, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, Mn, Cr, Cu, and Al in corn leaves and the soil was observed between the by-product addition and the control except for B in the soil and Fe in corn leaves. The concentration of B in the soil was reduced from 28.7 mg kg-1 to 25.4 mg kg-1 and the concentration of Fe in corn leaves increased from 17.5 mg kg-1 to 22.6 mg kg-1 by applying the by-product in our study. PMID:11584643

  9. Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) observations of emitting and absorbing gas in the Local Interstellar Chimney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, B. Y.; Sallmen, S.; Sfeir, D.; Shelton, R. L.; Lallement, R.

    2002-11-01

    We present Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite measurements of the absorption and emission characteristics of interstellar gas associated with the Local Interstellar Chimney, which is an extension of the rarefied Local Bubble cavity that extends outward from the galactic disk towards the lower galactic halo. Far ultraviolet (FUV) diffuse background emission has been detected in the high ionization line of O VI (lambda 1032 Å) for two lines-of-sight (l = 162.7deg, b = +57.0deg) and (l = 156.3deg, b = +57.8deg) at emission levels of 2500+/-700 photons cm-2 s-1 sr-1 (LU) and 3300+/-1100 LU respectively. These levels of O VI emission are very similar to those found for four other lines-of-sight sampled thus far by the FUSE satellite, implying a fairly constant level of average O VI surface brightness emission at high galactic latitudes of about 2700 LU with a standard deviation of 450 LU. These emission-line data are supplemented by FUV interstellar absorption line measurements taken towards the hot DA white dwarf star, REJ 1032+532 (l = 157.5deg, b = +53.2deg), whose distance of 116 pc places it within the Local Bubble region. No high ionization interstellar O VI lambda 1032 Å absorption has been detected (N(O VI) < 13.0 cm-2), which is consistent with the non-detections of interstellar C IV and Si IV absorption reported towards this star by Holberg et al. (\\cite{holberg99a}). Taken together, our FUV absorption and emission data may be explained by a scenario in which the O VI emission and absorption lines are both formed at the conductive interface of the neutral boundary to the Local Bubble. For the presently sampled sight-lines we have found no correlation between the OVI emission line intensity and the associated 0.25 keV soft X-ray background flux as measured in the R1 and R2 bands by the ROSAT satellite. The OVI line intensities also show no correlation with the soft X-ray background flux attributable to emission from the million degree K gas of the Local Hot Bubble as modeled by Kuntz & Snowden (\\cite{kuntz00}). Any (new) model of the Local Bubble must now be able to explain (i) the low levels of variability in both the O VI emission-line intensity and the associated soft X-ray background flux for galactic sight-lines >|40|o, (ii) the observed pressure of P/k ~ 10 000 cm-3 K for the local hot interstellar gas, and (iii) the paucity of high ionization absorption lines observed within the local ISM and the sudden increase in their measured column density for distances beyond the Local Bubble neutral boundary.

  10. Evaluation of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model. [Cyclic thermal injection

    SciTech Connect

    Kuuskraa, V.A.; Hammersheimb, E.; Sawyer, W.

    1985-05-01

    The objective of the work performed under this directive is to assess whether gas hydrates could potentially be technically and economically recoverable. The technical potential and economics of recovering gas from a representative hydrate reservoir will be established using the cyclic thermal injection model, HYDMOD, appropriately modified for this effort, integrated with economics model for gas production on the North Slope of Alaska, and in the deep offshore Atlantic. The results from this effort are presented in this document. In Section 1, the engineering cost and financial analysis model used in performing the economic analysis of gas production from hydrates -- the Hydrates Gas Economics Model (HGEM) -- is described. Section 2 contains a users guide for HGEM. In Section 3, a preliminary economic assessment of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model is presented. Section 4 contains a summary critique of existing hydrate gas recovery models. Finally, Section 5 summarizes the model modification made to HYDMOD, the cyclic thermal injection model for hydrate gas recovery, in order to perform this analysis.

  11. Gas phase production and loss of isoprene epoxydiols.

    PubMed

    Bates, Kelvin H; Crounse, John D; St Clair, Jason M; Bennett, Nathan B; Nguyen, Tran B; Seinfeld, John H; Stoltz, Brian M; Wennberg, Paul O

    2014-02-20

    Isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) form in high yields from the OH-initiated oxidation of isoprene under low-NO conditions. These compounds contribute significantly to secondary organic aerosol formation. Their gas-phase chemistry has, however, remained largely unexplored. In this study, we characterize the formation of IEPOX isomers from the oxidation of isoprene by OH. We find that cis-β- and trans-β-IEPOX are the dominant isomers produced, and that they are created in an approximate ratio of 1:2 from the low-NO oxidation of isoprene. Three isomers of IEPOX, including cis-β- and trans-β, were synthesized and oxidized by OH in environmental chambers under high- and low-NO conditions. We find that IEPOX reacts with OH at 299 K with rate coefficients of (0.84 ± 0.07) × 10(-11), (1.52 ± 0.07) × 10(-11), and (0.98 ± 0.05) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for the δ1, cis-β, and trans-β isomers. Finally, yields of the first-generation products of IEPOX + OH oxidation were measured, and a new mechanism of IEPOX oxidation is proposed here to account for the observed products. The substantial yield of glyoxal and methylglyoxal from IEPOX oxidation may help explain elevated levels of those compounds observed in low-NO environments with high isoprene emissions. PMID:24476509

  12. World oil and gas resources-future production realities

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Welcome to uncertainty was the phrase Jack Schanz used to introduce both layman and professionals to the maze of petroleum energy data that must be comprehended to achieve understanding of this critical commodity. Schanz was referring to the variables as he and his colleagues with Resources for the Future saw them in those years soon after the energy-awakening oil embargo of 1973. In some respects, the authors have made progress in removing uncertainty from energy data, but in general, we simply must accept that there are many points of view and many ways for the blindman to describe the elephant. There can be definitive listing of all uncertainties, but for this paper the authors try to underscore those traits of petroleum occurrence and supply that the author's believe bear most heavily on the understanding of production and resource availability. Because oil and gas exist in nature under such variable conditions and because the products themselves are variable in their properties, the authors must first recognize classification divisions of the resource substances, so that the reader might always have a clear perception of just what we are talking about and how it relates to other components of the commodity in question.

  13. 77 FR 59209 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Production Requirements; Proposed Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Production... Production Requirements. DATE: You must submit comments by November 26, 2012. ADDRESSES: You may submit... Part 250, Subpart K, Oil and Gas Production Requirements. OMB Control Number: 1014-0019. Form(s):...

  14. Tight gas sand production from the Almond Formation, Washakie Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, W.P.; Surdam, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    Gas production from the Almond Formation in the Standard Draw trend can only be accounted for by draining numerous layers of tight gas sands via the permeable upper bar sand. Discovery of this field originally focused upon production from this bar sand. But continued development cannot be explained simply by considering depletion of a 30 foot sand. Gas volumetrics verify the need to include lower sands in reservoir analysis. Core obtained from the Almond bar sand confirm petrophysical constants used in the authors` models. Their results imply that economic levels of gas production should be possible wherever a similar horizontal conduit can be tied into gas saturated layers through massive hydraulic fracturing.

  15. Elf Aquitaine, exploration & production: What R&D in a low oil price environment?

    SciTech Connect

    Deliac, E.

    1995-08-01

    Elf Aquitaine, a major international oil and gas company, has recently undergone a thorough reengineering of its research and development in exploration and production division. The aim of this reengineering, was to align the company R&D with its business strategy, and also to give a clear picture of two major features for a R&D portfolio: a duration profile (short, median or long term?) and a partnership profile (do it yourself, cooperate, outsource or let do elsewhere?). In short, we were trying to answer a basic question: How can we adapt our R&D to a durable context of low oil price (eg 15 $/bbl)? In our opinion, two preliminary statements ought to be made when dealing with the above issue. Firstly, R&D does not contribute equally to the factors of increased profitability, although it is certainly a major contributor to some of them (like obtaining new ventures, reducing costs, discovering new reserves out of current acreage, or improving the overall recovery of discovered fields). It cannot be separated from a global set of factors of company efficiency, including for instance its relationship with its contractors. Secondly, it should be stated clearly that R&D mainly serves two purposes: (1) directly enhance the global business strategy of the company, (2) maintain and improve the technical level of company professionals, while allowing new ideas for possible breakthroughs. The first component of our R&D will be called {open_quotes}strategic R&D{close_quotes} hereafter, as it is obviously part of the company strategy and should be tightly linked with our business objectives. The second one is considered very important for the efficiency and the quality of our operations. As a conclusion, we feel that our new R&D portfolio, in spite of a 20% budget reduction compared to 1992, is probably holding more promise than it was at that time, and should give our company a competitive and profitable business at $15 a barrel of oil.

  16. Chemical and physical properties of dry flue gas desulfurization products.

    PubMed

    Kost, David A; Bigham, Jerry M; Stehouwer, Richard C; Beeghly, Joel H; Fowler, Randy; Traina, Samuel J; Wolfe, William E; Dick, Warren A

    2005-01-01

    Beneficial and environmentally safe recycling of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products requires detailed knowledge of their chemical and physical properties. We analyzed 59 dry FGD samples collected from 13 locations representing four major FGD scrubbing technologies. The chemistry of all samples was dominated by Ca, S, Al, Fe, and Si and strong preferential partitioning into the acid insoluble residue (i.e., coal ash residue) was observed for Al, Ba, Be, Cr, Fe, Li, K, Pb, Si, and V. Sulfur, Ca, and Mg occurred primarily in water- or acid-soluble forms associated with the sorbents or scrubber reaction products. Deionized water leachates (American Society for Testing and Materials [ASTM] method) and dilute acetic acid leachates (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure [TCLP] method) had mean pH values of >11.2 and high mean concentrations of S primarily as SO(2-)4 and Ca. Concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se (except for ASTM Se in two samples) were below drinking water standards in both ASTM and TCLP leachates. Total toxicity equivalents (TEQ) of dioxins, for two FGD products used for mine reclamation, were 0.48 and 0.53 ng kg(-1). This was similar to the background level of the mine spoil (0.57 ng kg(-1)). The FGD materials were mostly uniform in particle size. Specific surface area (m2 g(-1)) was related to particle size and varied from 1.3 for bed ash to 9.5 for spray dryer material. Many of the chemical and physical properties of these FGD samples were associated with the quality of the coal rather than the combustion and SO2 scrubbing processes used. PMID:15758120

  17. Process improvement exploration: mapping multimedia production process to CMMI-DEV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, ChienWin; Kamaruddin, Noraida; Daud, Nor Izyani; Zainal Osman, Zosipha

    2013-03-01

    Multimedia takes improvement of multiple computing technologies to incorporate data from a wide variety of resources, without involving users to know how and where the data is encoded and stored. By reason of Multimedia applications interact with users with numerous diverse techniques and incorporate into strong applications that greatly extend the range and strength of applications, the production process are often complicated and complex. Production of such applications requires both process- and product-based quality assurance. Apparently, there are no universally accepted technical production standards. Consequently, Multimedia applications have sometimes diminished the quality of the end product, increased costs, delayed completion and failure. The focus is on the mapping between the current practices of multimedia production process and one of universal process improvement framework, Capability Maturity Model Integration for Development (CMMI-DEV). It shows that how current practices of multimedia production process address the Engineering Process Areas of CMMI-DEV. For each of the relevant process areas, it then explores how current practices can contribute to achieve the specific goals of that process area. This is practical for organizations that have their plan-driven process based on the CMMI-DEV model and are planning to improve the current practices of multimedia production process or to assist organization to define an innovative multimedia production process cycle based on CMMI-DEV practices.

  18. Modeling the Relative GHG Emissions of Conventional and Shale Gas Production

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Recent reports show growing reserves of unconventional gas are available and that there is an appetite from policy makers, industry, and others to better understand the GHG impact of exploiting reserves such as shale gas. There is little publicly available data comparing unconventional and conventional gas production. Existing studies rely on national inventories, but it is not generally possible to separate emissions from unconventional and conventional sources within these totals. Even if unconventional and conventional sites had been listed separately, it would not be possible to eliminate site-specific factors to compare gas production methods on an equal footing. To address this difficulty, the emissions of gas production have instead been modeled. In this way, parameters common to both methods of production can be held constant, while allowing those parameters which differentiate unconventional gas and conventional gas production to vary. The results are placed into the context of power generation, to give a ″well-to-wire″ (WtW) intensity. It was estimated that shale gas typically has a WtW emissions intensity about 1.8–2.4% higher than conventional gas, arising mainly from higher methane releases in well completion. Even using extreme assumptions, it was found that WtW emissions from shale gas need be no more than 15% higher than conventional gas if flaring or recovery measures are used. In all cases considered, the WtW emissions of shale gas powergen are significantly lower than those of coal. PMID:22085088

  19. Modeling the relative GHG emissions of conventional and shale gas production.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Trevor; Valle, Jose Eduardo; Riera-Palou, Xavier

    2011-12-15

    Recent reports show growing reserves of unconventional gas are available and that there is an appetite from policy makers, industry, and others to better understand the GHG impact of exploiting reserves such as shale gas. There is little publicly available data comparing unconventional and conventional gas production. Existing studies rely on national inventories, but it is not generally possible to separate emissions from unconventional and conventional sources within these totals. Even if unconventional and conventional sites had been listed separately, it would not be possible to eliminate site-specific factors to compare gas production methods on an equal footing. To address this difficulty, the emissions of gas production have instead been modeled. In this way, parameters common to both methods of production can be held constant, while allowing those parameters which differentiate unconventional gas and conventional gas production to vary. The results are placed into the context of power generation, to give a ″well-to-wire″ (WtW) intensity. It was estimated that shale gas typically has a WtW emissions intensity about 1.8-2.4% higher than conventional gas, arising mainly from higher methane releases in well completion. Even using extreme assumptions, it was found that WtW emissions from shale gas need be no more than 15% higher than conventional gas if flaring or recovery measures are used. In all cases considered, the WtW emissions of shale gas powergen are significantly lower than those of coal. PMID:22085088

  20. Estimating methane gas production in peat soils of the Florida Everglades using hydrogeophysical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, William; Comas, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    The spatial and temporal variability in production and release of greenhouse gases (such as methane) in peat soils remains uncertain, particularly for low-latitude peatlands like the Everglades. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a hydrogeophysical tool that has been successfully used in the last decade to noninvasively investigate carbon dynamics in peat soils; however, application in subtropical systems is almost non-existent. This study is based on four field sites in the Florida Everglades, where changes in gas content within the soil are monitored using time-lapse GPR measurements and gas releases are monitored using gas traps. A weekly methane gas production rate is estimated using a mass balance approach, considering gas content estimated from GPR, gas release from gas traps and incorporating rates of diffusion, and methanotrophic consumption from previous studies. Resulting production rates range between 0.02 and 0.47 g CH4 m-2 d-1, falling within the range reported in literature. This study shows the potential of combining GPR with gas traps to monitor gas dynamics in peat soils of the Everglades and estimate methane gas production. We also show the enhanced ability of certain peat soils to store gas when compared to others, suggesting that physical properties control biogenic gas storage in the Everglades peat soils. Better understanding biogenic methane gas dynamics in peat soils has implications regarding the role of wetlands in the global carbon cycle, particularly under a climate change scenario.

  1. Flue gas desulfurization by-products additions to acid soil: alfalfa productivity and environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Dick, W A; Nelson, S

    2001-01-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are created when coal is burned and SO2 is removed from the flue gases. These FGD by-products are often alkaline and contain many plant nutrients. Land application of FGD by-products is encouraged but little information is available related to plant responses and environmental impacts concerning such use. Agricultural lime (ag-lime) and several new types of FGD by-products which contain either vermiculite or perlite were applied at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the soil's lime requirement (LR) rate to an acidic soil (Wooster silt loam). The highest FGD by-products application rate was equivalent to 75.2 Mg ha(-1). Growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was significantly increased compared to the untreated control in the second year after treatment with yields for the 1 x LR rate of FGD approximately 7-8 times greater compared to the untreated control and 30% greater than for the commercial ag-lime. Concentrations of Mo in alfalfa were significantly increased by FGD by-products application, compared to the untreated control, while compared to the ag-lime treatment, concentrations of B increased and Ba decreased. No soil contamination problems were observed, even at the 2xLR rate, indicating these materials can be safely applied to agricultural soils. PMID:11504338

  2. Atomic hydrogen production rates for comet P/Halley from observations with Dynamics Explorer I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.

    1987-01-01

    Newly analyzed observations of the Dynamics Explorer I (DE1), launched on August 3, 1981, were used to determine the hydrogen production rate for Comet Halley at heliocentric distances, r, less than about 1.5 AU from measurements of the total Lyman-alpha flux at earth due to the cometary neutral hydrogen distribution. The production rates, determined as a function of r, were found to be consistent with in situ measurements from the Giotto and Vega spacecraft. The calculated rates are also consistent with remote observations using two sounding rockets and with the Pioneer-Venus and IUE spacecraft.

  3. Natural Gas and Cellulosic Biomass: A Clean Fuel Combination? Determining the Natural Gas Blending Wall in Biofuel Production.

    PubMed

    M Wright, Mark; Seifkar, Navid; Green, William H; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2015-07-01

    Natural gas has the potential to increase the biofuel production output by combining gas- and biomass-to-liquids (GBTL) processes followed by naphtha and diesel fuel synthesis via Fischer-Tropsch (FT). This study reflects on the use of commercial-ready configurations of GBTL technologies and the environmental impact of enhancing biofuels with natural gas. The autothermal and steam-methane reforming processes for natural gas conversion and the gasification of biomass for FT fuel synthesis are modeled to estimate system well-to-wheel emissions and compare them to limits established by U.S. renewable fuel mandates. We show that natural gas can enhance FT biofuel production by reducing the need for water-gas shift (WGS) of biomass-derived syngas to achieve appropriate H2/CO ratios. Specifically, fuel yields are increased from less than 60 gallons per ton to over 100 gallons per ton with increasing natural gas input. However, GBTL facilities would need to limit natural gas use to less than 19.1% on a LHV energy basis (7.83 wt %) to avoid exceeding the emissions limits established by the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2) for clean, advanced biofuels. This effectively constitutes a blending limit that constrains the use of natural gas for enhancing the biomass-to-liquids (BTL) process. PMID:26010031

  4. How to rejuvenate interest in exploring an old production area in Gabon

    SciTech Connect

    Fontaine, J.M.; Jones, M.; Ombagho, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    The Mandji peninsula area is the oldest explored petroleum province in Gabon. The Clairette, Lopez North and South, N`Tchengue fields were discovered in the 50`s in Senonian and Tertiary turbidites structured by salt domes. A total of 120 wells have led to a production of 12,5 MT (91 MMbls) oil. However, some gaps in the understanding of reservoir distribution and fluids regime appeared as production went on and could not be resolved with the available seismic data which was old (1974 to 1982) and irregular. A new 3D seismic survey was shot in 1992 (245 km2) over an area fringed with shallow water and mangrove forests, covered with savannah liable to flooding, and including several populated areas. The acquisition set-up was adjusted to every type of environment: Airgun in shallow water, explosive in uninhabited areas, and Vibroseis (TM) through the city of Port-Gentil. A carefully designed processing sequence led to consistently good quality throughout the survey, allowing a complete and detailed review of the area. In addition to building a coherent reference model, multi-disciplinary studies have already unveiled new opportunities : complex structural and stratigraphic components in the old fields together with unexpected structural closures and stratigraphic leads are revealed by the 3D interpretation. They will constitute new targets for further exploring an area at late production stage, and may help build a model for the exploration of the turbidites in the Senonian basin.

  5. How to rejuvenate interest in exploring an old production area in Gabon

    SciTech Connect

    Fontaine, J.M.; Jones, M.; Ombagho, M.L. )

    1996-01-01

    The Mandji peninsula area is the oldest explored petroleum province in Gabon. The Clairette, Lopez North and South, N'Tchengue fields were discovered in the 50's in Senonian and Tertiary turbidites structured by salt domes. A total of 120 wells have led to a production of 12,5 MT (91 MMbls) oil. However, some gaps in the understanding of reservoir distribution and fluids regime appeared as production went on and could not be resolved with the available seismic data which was old (1974 to 1982) and irregular. A new 3D seismic survey was shot in 1992 (245 km2) over an area fringed with shallow water and mangrove forests, covered with savannah liable to flooding, and including several populated areas. The acquisition set-up was adjusted to every type of environment: Airgun in shallow water, explosive in uninhabited areas, and Vibroseis (TM) through the city of Port-Gentil. A carefully designed processing sequence led to consistently good quality throughout the survey, allowing a complete and detailed review of the area. In addition to building a coherent reference model, multi-disciplinary studies have already unveiled new opportunities : complex structural and stratigraphic components in the old fields together with unexpected structural closures and stratigraphic leads are revealed by the 3D interpretation. They will constitute new targets for further exploring an area at late production stage, and may help build a model for the exploration of the turbidites in the Senonian basin.

  6. 40 CFR Table W - 1A of Subpart W-Default Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production W Table W Protection of Environment... Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-1A Table W-1A of Subpart W—Default Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production Onshore petroleum...

  7. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs).

    PubMed

    Xhixha, G; Baldoncini, M; Callegari, I; Colonna, T; Hasani, F; Mantovani, F; Shala, F; Strati, V; Xhixha Kaçeli, M

    2015-11-01

    The Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) that are potentially generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed of without regulations for many decades, and therefore, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) was performed. A total of 52 gamma ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples were performed. We discovered that relatively low activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th and (40)K, with concentrations of 23±2Bq/kg, 23±2Bq/kg, 24±3Bq/kg and 549±12Bq/kg, respectively, came from the oil-sands produced by the hydrocarbon extraction of the molasses formations. The mineralogical characterizations and the (228)Ra/(40)K and (226)Ra/(40)K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirmed the predictions of the geological and geodynamic models of a dismantling of the Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (±standard deviations) of the radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) and of the (228)Th and (40)K radionuclides in soil samples were 20±5Bq/kg, 25±10Bq/kg, 25±9Bq/kg and 326±83Bq/kg, respectively. Based on the measurements in this study, the future radiological assessments of other fields in the region should be strategically planned to focus on the oil-sands from the molasses sediments. Disequilibrium in the (228)Ra decay segment was not observed in the soil, sludge or oil-sand samples within the standard uncertainties. After a detailed radiological characterization of the four primary oil fields, we concluded that the outdoor absorbed dose rate never exceeded the worldwide population weighted average absorbed dose rate in outdoor air from terrestrial gamma radiation. PMID:26037957

  8. Open-source LCA tool for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from crude oil production using field characteristics.

    PubMed

    El-Houjeiri, Hassan M; Brandt, Adam R; Duffy, James E

    2013-06-01

    Existing transportation fuel cycle emissions models are either general and calculate nonspecific values of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil production, or are not available for public review and auditing. We have developed the Oil Production Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE) to provide open-source, transparent, rigorous GHG assessments for use in scientific assessment, regulatory processes, and analysis of GHG mitigation options by producers. OPGEE uses petroleum engineering fundamentals to model emissions from oil and gas production operations. We introduce OPGEE and explain the methods and assumptions used in its construction. We run OPGEE on a small set of fictional oil fields and explore model sensitivity to selected input parameters. Results show that upstream emissions from petroleum production operations can vary from 3 gCO2/MJ to over 30 gCO2/MJ using realistic ranges of input parameters. Significant drivers of emissions variation are steam injection rates, water handling requirements, and rates of flaring of associated gas. PMID:23634761

  9. Gas, water, and oil production from Wattenberg field in the Denver Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.; Santus, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from selected wells in two tight gas reservoirs-the Codell-Niobrara interval, comprised of the Codell Sandstone Member of the Carlile Shale and the Niobrara Formation; and the Dakota J interval, comprised mostly of the Muddy (J) Sandstone of the Dakota Group; both intervals are of Cretaceous age-in the Wattenberg field in the Denver Basin of Colorado. Production from each well is represented by two samples spaced five years apart, the first sample typically taken two years after production commenced, which generally was in the 1990s. For each producing interval, summary diagrams and tables of oil-versus-gas production and water-versus-gas production are shown with fluid-production rates, the change in production over five years, the water-gas and oil-gas ratios, and the fluid type. These diagrams and tables permit well-to-well and field-to-field comparisons. Fields producing water at low rates (water dissolved in gas in the reservoir) can be distinguished from fields producing water at moderate or high rates, and the water-gas ratios are quantified. The Dakota J interval produces gas on a per-well basis at roughly three times the rate of the Codell-Niobrara interval. After five years of production, gas data from the second samples show that both intervals produce gas, on average, at about one-half the rate as the first sample. Oil-gas ratios in the Codell-Niobrara interval are characteristic of a retrograde gas and are considerably higher than oil-gas ratios in the Dakota J interval, which are characteristic of a wet gas. Water production from both intervals is low, and records in many wells are discontinuous, particularly in the Codell-Niobrara interval. Water-gas ratios are broadly variable, with some of the variability possibly due to the difficulty of measuring small production rates. Most wells for which water is reported have water-gas ratios exceeding the amount that could exist dissolved in gas at reservoir pressure and temperature. The Codell-Niobrara interval is reported to be overpressured (that is, pressure greater than hydrostatic) whereas the underlying Dakota J interval is underpressured (less than hydrostatic), demonstrating a lack of hydraulic communication between the two intervals despite their proximity over a broad geographical area. The underpressuring in the Dakota J interval has been attributed by others to outcropping strata east of the basin. We agree with this interpretation and postulate that the gas accumulation also may contribute to hydraulic isolation from outcrops immediately west of the basin.

  10. Exploration for deep gas in the Devonian Chaco Basin of Southern Bolivia: Sequence stratigraphy, predictions, and well results

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.E.; Radovich, B.J.; Brett, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    In mid 1991, a team was assembled in Texaco`s Frontier Exploration Department (FED) to define the hydrocarbon potential of the Chaco Basin of Southern Bolivia. The Miraflores No. 1 was drilled in the fall of 1992, for stratigraphic objectives. The well confirmed the predicted stratigraphic trap in the Mid-Devonian, with gas discovered in two highstand and transgressive sands. They are low contrast and low resistivity sands that are found in a deep basin `tight gas` setting. Testing of the gas sands was complicated by drilling fluid interactions at the well bore. Subsequent analysis indicated that the existing porosity and permeability were reduced, such that a realistic test of reservoir capabilities was prevented.

  11. Separation of Flue-Gas Scrubber Sludge into Marketable Products

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-28

    The reduction of sulfur oxides from high sulfur coal burning utility companies has resulted in the production of huge quantities of wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge. A typical 400 MW power station burning a coal containing 3.5% sulfur by weight and using a limestone absorbent would produce approximately 177,000 tons (dry weight) of scrubber sludge per year. This brownish colored, finely divided material contains calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2 H{sub 2}O), calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O), unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), and various other impurities such as fly-ash and iron oxide particles. The physical separation of the components of scrubber sludge would result in the re-use of this material. The primary use would be conversion to a highly pure synthetic gypsum. This technical report concentrates on the effect of baffle configuration on the separation of calcium sulfite/sulfate from limestone. The position of the baffles as they related to the feed inlet, and the quantity of the baffles were examined. A clean calcium sulfite/sulfate (less than 2.0% limestone by weight) was achieved with the combination of water-only cyclone and horizontally baffled column.

  12. Production of manufactured aggregates from flue gas desulfurization by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.M.; McCoy, D.C.; Fenger, M.L.; Scandrol, R.O.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Statnick, R.M.

    1999-07-01

    CONSOL R and D has developed a disk pelletization process to produce manufactured aggregates from the by-products of various technologies designed to reduce sulfur emissions produced from coal utilization. Aggregates have been produced from the by-products of the Coolside and LIMB sorbent injection, the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), spray dryer absorption (SDA), and lime and limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. The aggregates produced meet the general specifications for use as road aggregate in road construction and for use as lightweight aggregate in concrete masonry units. Small field demonstrations with 1200 lb to 5000 lb of manufactured aggregates were conducted using aggregates produced from FBC ash and lime wet FGD sludge in road construction and using aggregates made from SDA ash and lime wet FGD sludge to manufacture concrete blocks. The aggregates for this work were produced with a bench-scale (200--400 lb batch) unit. In 1999, CONSOL R and D constructed and operated a 500 lb/hr integrated, continuous pilot plant. A variety of aggregate products were produced from lime wet FGD sludge. The pilot plant test successfully demonstrated the continuous, integrated operation of the process. The pilot plant demonstration was a major step toward commercialization of manufactured aggregate production from FGD by-products. In this paper, progress made in the production of aggregates from dry FGD (Coolside, LIMB, SDA) and FBC by-products, and lime wet FGD sludge is discussed. The discussion covers bench-scale and pilot plant aggregate production and aggregate field demonstrations.

  13. 43 CFR 4300.52 - Can other persons use the land in my permit for mineral exploration or production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 CFR Group 3800. Changes in the Size of the Permit Area ... permit for mineral exploration or production? 4300.52 Section 4300.52 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... Can other persons use the land in my permit for mineral exploration or production? Yes. Unless...

  14. 43 CFR 4300.52 - Can other persons use the land in my permit for mineral exploration or production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 CFR Group 3800. Changes in the Size of the Permit Area ... permit for mineral exploration or production? 4300.52 Section 4300.52 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... Can other persons use the land in my permit for mineral exploration or production? Yes. Unless...

  15. 43 CFR 4300.52 - Can other persons use the land in my permit for mineral exploration or production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 CFR Group 3800. Changes in the Size of the Permit Area ... permit for mineral exploration or production? 4300.52 Section 4300.52 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... Can other persons use the land in my permit for mineral exploration or production? Yes. Unless...

  16. 43 CFR 4300.52 - Can other persons use the land in my permit for mineral exploration or production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 CFR Group 3800. Changes in the Size of the Permit Area ... permit for mineral exploration or production? 4300.52 Section 4300.52 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... Can other persons use the land in my permit for mineral exploration or production? Yes. Unless...

  17. Soil biotransformation of thiodiglycol, the hydrolysis product of mustard gas: understanding the factors governing remediation of mustard gas contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Muir, Robert; McFarlane, Neil R; Soilleux, Richard J; Yu, Xiaohong; Thompson, Ian P; Jackman, Simon A

    2013-02-01

    Thiodiglycol (TDG) is both the precursor for chemical synthesis of mustard gas and the product of mustard gas hydrolysis. TDG can also react with intermediates of mustard gas degradation to form more toxic and/or persistent aggregates, or reverse the pathway of mustard gas degradation. The persistence of TDG have been observed in soils and in the groundwater at sites contaminated by mustard gas 60 years ago. The biotransformation of TDG has been demonstrated in three soils not previously exposed to the chemical. TDG biotransformation occurred via the oxidative pathway with an optimum rate at pH 8.25. In contrast with bacteria isolated from historically contaminated soil, which could degrade TDG individually, a consortium of three bacterial strains isolated from the soil never contaminated by mustard gas was able to grow on TDG in minimal medium and in hydrolysate derived from an historical mustard gas bomb. Exposure to TDG had little impacts on the soil microbial physiology or on community structure. Therefore, the persistency of TDG in soils historically contaminated by mustard gas might be attributed to the toxicity of mustard gas to microorganisms and the impact to soil chemistry during the hydrolysis. TDG biodegradation may form part of a remediation strategy for mustard gas contaminated sites, and may be enhanced by pH adjustment and aeration. PMID:22752796

  18. Development of a low flow meter for measuring gas production in bioreactors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate measurement of gas production from biological processes is important in many laboratory experiments. A gas flow rate measurement system, consisting of an embedded controller operating three gas meters, was developed to measure volumetric flows between 0 and 8 ml min-1 (1 atm, 273.15 K). The...

  19. DETERMINATION OF INTERFERING TRIAZINE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Deethyl atrazine (DEA), along with other triazine degradation products, has been added to the US Environmental Protection Agency's Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). In its gas chromatographic (GC) analysis, deethyl atrazine, a degradation product of atrazine, can ...

  20. Remote and Onsite Direct Measurement of Emissions from Oil and Natural Gas Production

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmentally responsible oil and gas production requires accurate knowledge of emissions from long-term production operations1, which can include methane, volatile organic compounds, and hazardous air pollutants. Well pad emissions vary based on the geologically-determined com...

  1. Modeling of Gas Production from Shale Reservoirs Considering Multiple Transport Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chaohua; Wei, Mingzhen; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Gas transport in unconventional shale strata is a multi-mechanism-coupling process that is different from the process observed in conventional reservoirs. In micro fractures which are inborn or induced by hydraulic stimulation, viscous flow dominates. And gas surface diffusion and gas desorption should be further considered in organic nano pores. Also, the Klinkenberg effect should be considered when dealing with the gas transport problem. In addition, following two factors can play significant roles under certain circumstances but have not received enough attention in previous models. During pressure depletion, gas viscosity will change with Knudsen number; and pore radius will increase when the adsorption gas desorbs from the pore wall. In this paper, a comprehensive mathematical model that incorporates all known mechanisms for simulating gas flow in shale strata is presented. The objective of this study was to provide a more accurate reservoir model for simulation based on the flow mechanisms in the pore scale and formation geometry. Complex mechanisms, including viscous flow, Knudsen diffusion, slip flow, and desorption, are optionally integrated into different continua in the model. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of different mechanisms on the gas production. The results showed that adsorption and gas viscosity change will have a great impact on gas production. Ignoring one of following scenarios, such as adsorption, gas permeability change, gas viscosity change, or pore radius change, will underestimate gas production. PMID:26657698

  2. Modeling of Gas Production from Shale Reservoirs Considering Multiple Transport Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chaohua; Wei, Mingzhen; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Gas transport in unconventional shale strata is a multi-mechanism-coupling process that is different from the process observed in conventional reservoirs. In micro fractures which are inborn or induced by hydraulic stimulation, viscous flow dominates. And gas surface diffusion and gas desorption should be further considered in organic nano pores. Also, the Klinkenberg effect should be considered when dealing with the gas transport problem. In addition, following two factors can play significant roles under certain circumstances but have not received enough attention in previous models. During pressure depletion, gas viscosity will change with Knudsen number; and pore radius will increase when the adsorption gas desorbs from the pore wall. In this paper, a comprehensive mathematical model that incorporates all known mechanisms for simulating gas flow in shale strata is presented. The objective of this study was to provide a more accurate reservoir model for simulation based on the flow mechanisms in the pore scale and formation geometry. Complex mechanisms, including viscous flow, Knudsen diffusion, slip flow, and desorption, are optionally integrated into different continua in the model. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of different mechanisms on the gas production. The results showed that adsorption and gas viscosity change will have a great impact on gas production. Ignoring one of following scenarios, such as adsorption, gas permeability change, gas viscosity change, or pore radius change, will underestimate gas production. PMID:26657698

  3. Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Exploration Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Grieves, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is an outcome of lean thinking to eliminate waste and increase productivity. PLM is inextricably tied to the systems engineering business philosophy, coupled with a methodology by which personnel, processes and practices, and information technology combine to form an architecture platform for product design, development, manufacturing, operations, and decommissioning. In this model, which is being implemented by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Engineering Directorate, total lifecycle costs are important variables for critical decision-making. With the ultimate goal to deliver quality products that meet or exceed requirements on time and within budget, PLM is a powerful concept to shape everything from engineering trade studies and testing goals, to integrated vehicle operations and retirement scenarios. This briefing will demonstrate how the MSFC Engineering Directorate is implementing PLM as part of an overall strategy to deliver safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions and how that strategy aligns with the Agency and Center systems engineering policies and processes. Sustainable space exploration solutions demand that all lifecycle phases be optimized, and engineering the next generation space transportation system requires a paradigm shift such that digital tools and knowledge management, which are central elements of PLM, are used consistently to maximum effect. Adopting PLM, which has been used by the aerospace and automotive industry for many years, for spacecraft applications provides a foundation for strong, disciplined systems engineering and accountable return on investment. PLM enables better solutions using fewer resources by making lifecycle considerations in an integrative decision-making process.

  4. Multiple season, field scale exploration of biogenic gas dynamics in two peat soils of the Florida Everglades using hydrogeophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, W. J.; Comas, X.; Mount, G. J.; McClellan, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Peatlands are known to release significant amounts of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. However, uncertainties still remain regarding the spatio-temporal distribution and triggering mechanisms of gas releasing events from peat soils. Furthermore, most research regarding peatland gas dynamics has historically been focused on high latitude peatlands, while recent works have suggested gas production rates from low-latitude peat soils may be higher than those from colder climates. Varying temporal and spatial scales have also shown marked differences in flux rates, thus questioning the appropriate scale for gas flux quantification. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical tool that has successfully been used in the past to non-invasively investigate the release of biogenic gasses from northern peat soils, and has only recently been used in the subtropical Florida Everglades. This study is based on an array of measurements at four field sites, spanning two different peat types (Loxahatchee and Everglades peats) of the Florida Everglades over a period of two years. At each site, gas contents within the soil are monitored using the GPR method, which is supported by direct gas flux measurements using flux chambers and time-lapse photography, and surface deformation is monitored using differential leveling. Resulting data highlight the variability of gas dynamics based on spatial, temporal, and soil compositional differences.

  5. Incineration of biomass and utilization of product gas as a CO_2 source for crop production in closed systems: gas quality and phytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.; Patterson, M.; Wignarajah, K.; Flynn, M.

    1997-01-01

    This study addressed the recycle of carbon from inedible biomass to CO_2 for utilization in crop production. Earlier work identified incineration as an attractive approach to resource recovery from solid wastes because the products are well segregated. Given the effective separation of carbon into the gaseous product stream from the incinerator in the form of CO_2 we captured the gaseous stream produced during incineration of wheat inedible biomass and utilized it as the CO_2 source for crop production. Injection rate was based on maintenance of CO_2 concentration in the growing environment. The crop grown in the closed system was lettuce. Carbon was primarily in the form of CO_2 in the incinerator product gas with less than 8% of carbon compounds appearing as CO. Nitrogen oxides and organic compounds such as toluene, xylene, and benzene were present in the product gas at lower concentrations (<4 mumol mol^-1) sulfur containing compounds were below the detection limits. Direct utilization of the gaseous product of the incinerator as the CO_2 source was toxic to lettuce grown in a closed chamber. Net photosynthetic rates of the crop was suppressed more than 50% and visual injury symptoms were visible within 3 days of the introduction of the incinerator gas. Even the removal of the incinerator gas after two days of crop exposure and replacement with pure CO_2 did not eliminate the toxic effects. Both organic and inorganic components of the incinerator gas are candidates for the toxin.

  6. Incineration of biomass and utilization of product gas as a CO2 source for crop production in closed systems: gas quality and phytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    This study addressed the recycle of carbon from inedible biomass to CO2 for utilization in crop production. Earlier work identified incineration as an attractive approach to resource recovery from solid wastes because the products are well segregated. Given the effective separation of carbon into the gaseous product stream from the incinerator in the form of CO2 we captured the gaseous stream produced during incineration of wheat inedible biomass and utilized it as the CO2 source for crop production. Injection rate was based on maintenance of CO2 concentration in the growing environment. The crop grown in the closed system was lettuce. Carbon was primarily in the form of CO2 in the incinerator product gas with less than 8% of carbon compounds appearing as CO. Nitrogen oxides and organic compounds such as toluene, xylene, and benzene were present in the product gas at lower concentrations (<4 ?mol mol-1) sulfur containing compounds were below the detection limits. Direct utilization of the gaseous product of the incinerator as the CO2 source was toxic to lettuce grown in a closed chamber. Net photosynthetic rates of the crop was suppressed more than 50% and visual injury symptoms were visible within 3 days of the introduction of the incinerator gas. Even the removal of the incinerator gas after two days of crop exposure and replacement with pure CO2 did not eliminate the toxic effects. Both organic and inorganic components of the incinerator gas are candidates for the toxin.

  7. Commercialization of landfill gas based methanol production facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bonny, A.M.

    1995-08-01

    TMI`s technologies provide a new solution for landfill gas abatement, timed to coincide with increasing scrutiny by regulators on landfill gas. We believe that environmental problems are best solved with business-driven solutions provided through technology innovation and demonstration. Consequently, it is a pleasure to be invited to provide details on this new opportunity to entities with interests in landfill gas utilization.

  8. Exploring fungal biodiversity for the production of water-soluble pigments as potential natural food colorants.

    PubMed

    Mapari, Sameer A S; Nielsen, Kristian F; Larsen, Thomas O; Frisvad, Jens C; Meyer, Anne S; Thrane, Ulf

    2005-04-01

    The production of many currently authorized natural food colorants has a number of disadvantages, including a dependence on the supply of raw materials and variations in pigment extraction. Fungi provide a readily available alternative source of naturally derived food colorants that could easily be produced in high yields. The recent authorization of a fungal food colorant has fuelled research to explore the extraordinary chemical diversity and biodiversity of fungi for the biotechnological production of pigments as natural food colorants. These studies require an appropriate use of chemotaxonomic tools and a priori knowledge of fungal metabolites to carry out intelligent screening for known or novel colorants as lead compounds. Such screening would result in the preselection of some potential pigment producers and the deselection of pathogenic strains and toxin producers. With advances in gene technology, in the future it should be possible to employ metabolic engineering to create microbial cell factories for the production of food colorants. PMID:15831392

  9. Detection and quantification of fugitive emissions from Colorado oil and gas production operations using remote monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Western states contain vast amounts of oil and gas production. For example, Weld County Colorado contains approximately 25,000 active oil and gas well sites with associated production operations. There is little information on the air pollutant emission potential from this source...

  10. 25 CFR 212.41 - Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases. 212... LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations, and Appeals § 212.41 Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases. (a) A lessee shall pay, in advance, beginning...

  11. 25 CFR 212.41 - Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases. 212... LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations, and Appeals § 212.41 Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases. (a) A lessee shall pay, in advance, beginning...

  12. 25 CFR 212.41 - Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases. 212... LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations, and Appeals § 212.41 Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases. (a) A lessee shall pay, in advance, beginning...

  13. 25 CFR 212.41 - Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases. 212... LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations, and Appeals § 212.41 Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases. (a) A lessee shall pay, in advance, beginning...

  14. 25 CFR 212.41 - Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases. 212... LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations, and Appeals § 212.41 Rentals and production royalty on oil and gas leases. (a) A lessee shall pay, in advance, beginning...

  15. 78 FR 12772 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Production Requirements; Submitted for Office of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ..., 2012, we published a Federal Register notice (77 FR 59209) announcing that we would submit this ICR to... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Production... requirements in the regulations under Subpart K, Oil and Gas Production Requirements. This notice also...

  16. Gas, Water, and Oil Production from the Wasatch Formation, Greater Natural Buttes Field, Uinta Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.; Hoffman, Eric L.

    2009-01-01

    Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from 38 wells with production commencing during the 1980s from the Wasatch Formation in the Greater Natural Buttes field, Uinta Basin, Utah. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid production from tight gas reservoirs, which are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. The general ranges of production rates after 2 years are 100-1,000 mscf/day for gas, 0.35-3.4 barrel per day for oil, and less than 1 barrel per day for water. The water:gas ratio ranges from 0.1 to10 barrel per million standard cubic feet, indicating that free water is produced along with water dissolved in gas in the reservoir. The oil:gas ratios are typical of a wet gas system. Neither gas nor water rates show dependence upon the number of perforations, although for low gas-flow rates there is some dependence upon the number of sandstone intervals that were perforated. Over a 5-year time span, gas and water may either increase or decrease in a given well, but the changes in production rate do not exhibit any dependence upon well proximity or well location.

  17. Explore GPM IMERG and Other Global Precipitation Products with GES DISC GIOVANNI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, Dana M.; Vollmer, Bruce; MacRitchie, Kyle; Kempler, Steven

    2015-01-01

    New features and capabilities in the newly released GIOVANNI allow exploring GPM IMERG (Integrated Multi-satelliE Retrievals for GPM) Early, Late and Final Run global half-hourly and monthly precipitation products as well as other precipitation products distributed by the GES DISC such as TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications), NLDAS (North American Land Data Assimilation Systems), GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation Systems), etc. GIOVANNI is a web-based tool developed by the GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences and Data Information Services Center) to visualize and analyze Earth science data without having to download data and software. The new interface in GIOVANNI allows searching and filtering precipitation products from different NASA missions and projects and expands the capabilities to inter-compare different precipitation products in one interface. Knowing differences in precipitation products is important to identify issues in retrieval algorithms, biases, uncertainties, etc. Due to different formats, data structures, units and so on, it is not easy to inter-compare precipitation products. Newly added features and capabilities (unit conversion, regridding, etc.) in GIOVANNI make inter-comparisons possible. In this presentation, we will describe these new features and capabilities along with examples.

  18. Gas, Oil, and Water Production in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.; Trainor, Patrick K.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    Gas, oil, and water production data were collected from the Fuller Reservoir, Cooper Reservoir, Frenchie Draw, Cave Gulch, and Madden fields in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming. These fields produce from the Mississippian Madison Limestone, the Upper Cretaceous Cody Shale and Mesaverde Formation, and the Paleocene lower unnamed member and Shotgun Member of the Fort Union Formation. Diagrams of water and gas production from tight gas accumulations in three formations in the Madden field show that (1) water production either increased or decreased with time in all three formations, (2) increases and decreases in water production were greater in the Cody Shale than in either the Mesaverde Formation or the lower unnamed member of the Fort Union Formation, (3) the gas production rate declined more slowly in the lower part of the Fort Union Formation than in the Cody Shale or the Mesaverde Formation, (4) changes in gas and water production were not related to their initial production rates, and (5) there appears to be no relation between well location and the magnitudes or trends of gas and water production. To explain the apparent independence of gas and water production in the Cody Shale and Mesaverde Formation, a two-step scenario is proposed: gas was generated and emplaced under the compressive stress regime resulting from Laramide tectonism; then, fractures formed during a subsequent period of stress relaxation and extension. Gas is produced from the pore and fracture system near the wellbore, whereas water is produced from a larger scale system of extension fractures. The distribution of gas and water in the lower Fort Union resulted from a similar scenario, but continued generation of gas during post-Laramide extension may have allowed its more widespread distribution.

  19. Multidisciplinary investigations exploring indicators of gas hydrate occurrence in the Krishna-Godavari Basin offshore, east coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramana, M. V.; Ramprasad, T.; Paropkari, A. L.; Borole, D. V.; Ramalingeswara Rao, B.; Karisiddaiah, S. M.; Desa, M.; Kocherla, M.; Joao, H. M.; Lokabharati, P.; Gonsalves, Maria-Judith; Pattan, J. N.; Khadge, N. H.; Prakash Babu, C.; Sathe, A. V.; Kumar, P.; Sethi, A. K.

    2009-02-01

    We report some main results of multidisciplinary investigations carried out within the framework of the Indian National Gas Hydrate Program in 2002-2003 in the Krishna-Godavari Basin offshore sector, east coast of India, to explore indicators of likely gas hydrate occurrence suggested by preliminary multi-channel seismic reflection data and estimates of gas hydrate stability zone thickness. Swath bathymetry data reveal new evidence of three distinct geomorphic units representing (1) a delta front incised by several narrow valleys and mass flows, (2) a deep fan in the east and (3) a WNW-ESE-trending sedimentary ridge in the south. Deep-tow digital side-scan sonar, multi-frequency chirp sonar, and sub-bottom profiler records indicate several surface and subsurface gas-escape features with a highly resolved stratification within the upper 50 m sedimentary strata. Multi-channel seismic reflection data show the presence of bottom simulating reflections of continuous to discrete character. Textural analyses of 76 gravity cores indicate that the sediments are mostly silty clay. Geochemical analyses reveal decreasing downcore pore water sulphate (SO4 2-) concentrations (28.7 to <4 mM), increasing downcore methane (CH4) concentrations (0-20 nM) and relatively high total organic carbon contents (1-2.5%), and microbial analyses a high abundance of microbes in top core sediments and a low abundance of sulphate-reducing bacteria in bottom core sediments. Methane-derived authigenic carbonates were identified in some cores. Combined with evidence of gas-escape features in association with bottom simulating reflections, the findings strongly suggest that the physicochemical conditions prevailing in the study area are highly conducive to methane generation and gas hydrate occurrence. Deep drilling from aboard the JOIDES Resolution during 2006 has indeed confirmed the presence of gas hydrate in the Krishna-Godavari Basin offshore.

  20. ANALYSIS OF THERMAL DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS OF FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of reactions of several flue gas conditioning agents in a laboratory-scale facility simulating conditions in the flue gas train of a coal-burning power plant. Primary purposes of the study were to characterize the chemical species resulting fro...

  1. Evaluation of in vitro gas production and rumen bacterial populations fermenting corn milling (co)products.

    PubMed

    Williams, W L; Tedeschi, L O; Kononoff, P J; Callaway, T R; Dowd, S E; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fermentation dynamics of 2 commonly fed corn (co)products in their intact and defatted forms, using the in vitro gas production (IVGP) technique, and to investigate the shifts of the predominant rumen bacterial populations using the 16S rDNA bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) technique. The bTEFAP technique was used to determine the bacterial profile of each fermentation time at 24 and 48 h. Bacterial populations were identified at the species level. Species were grouped by substrate affinities (guilds) for cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, starch, sugars, protein, lipids, and lactate. The 2 (co)products were a dried distillers grain (DDG) plus solubles produced from a low-heat drying process (BPX) and a high-protein DDG without solubles (HP). Chemical analysis revealed that BPX contained about 11.4% ether extract, whereas HP contained only 3.88%. Previous studies have indicated that processing methods, as well as fat content, of corn (co)products directly affect fermentation rate and substrate availability, but little information is available regarding changes in rumen bacterial populations. Fermentation profiles of intact and defatted BPX and HP were compared with alfalfa hay as a standard profile. Defatting before incubation had no effect on total gas production in BPX or HP, but reduced lag time and the fractional rate of fermentation of BPX by at least half, whereas there was no effect for HP. The HP feed supported a greater percentage of fibrolytic and proteolytic bacteria than did BPX. Defatting both DDG increased the fibrolytic (26.8 to 38.7%) and proteolytic (26.1 to 37.2%) bacterial guild populations and decreased the lactate-utilizing bacterial guild (3.06 to 1.44%). Information regarding the fermentation kinetics and bacterial population shifts when feeding corn (co)products may lead to more innovative processing methods that improve feed quality (e.g., deoiling) and consequently allow greater inclusion rates in dairy cow rations. PMID:20855008

  2. Operation database petroleum GIS results: Evaluation and application of geographic information systems to exploration and production

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, C.C. ); Leonard, J.E. )

    1990-05-01

    FACT: Maps are the principle graphic tool used in exploration and production. FACT: The geographic information systems (GTS) industry exceeds $250 million annually providing powerful mapping tools to a variety of disciplines. FACT: Geographic information systems are infrequently used in exploration and production which represents less than 2% of the total GIS sphere. Therefore, Operation Database Petroleum GIS, sponsored by AAPG's Geobyte and the National Computer Graphics Association, was conceived as an information exchange between the petroleum industry and GIS vendors to address this disparity. The objective of the database was to communicate petroleum industry requirements to GIS vendors and to demonstrate the potential of GIS to the petroleum industry. Requirements, in the form of data and problems, were developed by an industry group representing major and independent oil companies. The problems included base map, well, seismic, lease, transportation, topographic, three-dimensional, and remote sensing exercises. Data included scout well data, directional surveys, production histories, seismic shot-point locations and interpretive times, geologic interpretations (tops and structure and isopach maps), leases, topography, well logs, remote sensing images, gravity contours, and geographic reference information. Over 120 GIS vendors were offered a chance to participate, and nearly 20 engaged in the exercises. This talk will focus on the process, results, and conclusions of Operation Database Petroleum GIS.

  3. Prototype Vent Gas Heat Exchanger for Exploration EVA - Performance and Manufacturing Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Gregory J.; Strange, Jeremy; Jennings, Mallory

    2013-01-01

    NASA is developing new portable life support system (PLSS) technologies, which it is demonstrating in an unmanned ground based prototype unit called PLSS 2.0. One set of technologies within the PLSS provides suitable ventilation to an astronaut while on an EVA. A new component within the ventilation gas loop is a liquid-to-gas heat exchanger to transfer excess heat from the gas to the thermal control system s liquid coolant loop. A unique bench top prototype heat exchanger was built and tested for use in PLSS 2.0. The heat exchanger was designed as a counter-flow, compact plate fin type using stainless steel. Its design was based on previous compact heat exchangers manufactured by United Technologies Aerospace Systems (UTAS), but was half the size of any previous heat exchanger model and one third the size of previous liquid-to-gas heat exchangers. The prototype heat exchanger was less than 40 cubic inches and weighed 2.57 lb. Performance of the heat exchanger met the requirements and the model predictions. The water side and gas side pressure drops were less 0.8 psid and 0.5 inches of water, respectively, and an effectiveness of 94% was measured at the nominal air side pressure of 4.1 psia.

  4. Exploring Evolution Through the Effects of Galaxy-Galaxy and Group Interactions on Gas Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fertig, Derek; Rosenberg, J. L.; Patton, D. R.; Ellison, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy-galaxy interactions are a driving force in galaxy evolution, producing changes in color, morphology, metallicity and enhancing star formation. Many factors contributing to these changes have been well studied such as environment and orientation of the interaction, however studies of the gas content have been limited. To address the question of how interactions affect the gas content of galaxy pairs, we present results from two studies taking different approaches to the question. We present results from a combined optical and HI 21 cm study of 102 galaxy pairs with projected separations up to 120 kpc and velocity differences less than 500 km/s. These pairs were selected from the SDSS spectroscopic survey and were also observed by the ALFALFA HI 21 cm survey. We use these data to study how interactions effect the SFE and HI gas content of these systems. From the second study we present initial results from VLA D-array observations of a galaxy group in which interactions appear to be removing much of the cold gas from the galaxies creating a large reservoir in the inter-group medium. We investigate how this removal of gas and subsequent reservoir impact the evolution of the galaxies within the group, particularly two systems which are transitioning through the green valley. This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-000167932 and a George Mason University Presidential Fellowship.

  5. Spatial resolution of gas hydrate and permeability changes from ERT data in LARS simulating the Mallik gas hydrate production test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priegnitz, Mike; Thaler, Jan; Spangenberg, Erik; Schicks, Judith M.; Abendroth, Sven

    2014-05-01

    The German gas hydrate project SUGAR studies innovative methods and approaches to be applied in the production of methane from hydrate-bearing reservoirs. To enable laboratory studies in pilot scale, a large reservoir simulator (LARS) was realized allowing for the formation and dissociation of gas hydrates under simulated in-situ conditions. LARS is equipped with a series of sensors. This includes a cylindrical electrical resistance tomography (ERT) array composed of 25 electrode rings featuring 15 electrodes each. The high-resolution ERT array is used to monitor the spatial distribution of the electrical resistivity during hydrate formation and dissociation experiments over time. As the present phases of poorly conducting sediment, well conducting pore fluid, non-conducting hydrates, and isolating free gas cover a wide range of electrical properties, ERT measurements enable us to monitor the spatial distribution of these phases during the experiments. In order to investigate the hydrate dissociation and the resulting fluid flow, we simulated a hydrate production test in LARS that was based on the Mallik gas hydrate production test (see abstract Heeschen et al., this volume). At first, a hydrate phase was produced from methane saturated saline water. During the two months of gas hydrate production we measured the electrical properties within the sediment sample every four hours. These data were used to establish a routine estimating both the local degrees of hydrate saturation and the resulting local permeabilities in the sediment's pore space from the measured resistivity data. The final gas hydrate saturation filled 89.5% of the total pore space. During hydrate dissociation, ERT data do not allow for a quantitative determination of free gas and remaining gas hydrates since both phases are electrically isolating. However, changes are resolved in the spatial distribution of the conducting liquid and the isolating phase with gas being the only mobile isolating phase. Hence, it is possible to detect areas in the sediment sample where free gas is released due to hydrate dissociation and displaces the liquid phase. Combined with measurements and numerical simulation of the total two-phase fluxes from the sediment sample (see abstract Abendroth et al., this volume), the LARS experiments allow for detailed information on the dissociation process during hydrate production. Here we present the workflow and first results estimating local hydrate saturations and permeabilities during hydrate formation and the movement of liquid and gas phases during hydrate dissociation, respectively.

  6. Volumetric strain associated with methane desorption and its impact on coalbed gas production from deep coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, X.J.; Bustin, R.M.

    2005-09-01

    For deep coal seams, significant reservoir pressure drawdown is required to promote gas desorption because of the Langmuir-type isotherm that typifies coals. Hence, a large permeability decline may occur because of pressure drawdown and the resulting increase in effective stress, depending on coal properties and the stress field during production. However, the permeability decline can potentially be offset by the permeability enhancement caused by the matrix shrinkage associated with methane desorption. The predictability of varying permeability is critical for coalbed gas exploration and production-well management. We have investigated quantitatively the effects of reservoir pressure and sorption-induced volumetric strain on coal-seam permeability with constraints from the adsorption isotherm and associated volumetric strain measured on a Cretaceous Mesaverde Group coal (Piceance basin) and derived a stress-dependent permeability model. Our results suggest that the favorable coal properties that can result in less permeability reduction during earlier production and an earlier strong permeability rebound (increase in permeability caused by coal shrinkage) with methane desorption include (1) large bulk or Young's modulus; (2) large adsorption or Langmuir volume; (3) high Langmuir pressure; (4) high initial permeability and dense cleat spacing; and (5) low initial reservoir pressure and high in-situ gas content. Permeability variation with gas production is further dependent on the orientation of the coal seam, the reservoir stress field, and the cleat structure. Well completion with injection of N2 and displacement of CH{sub 4} only results in short-term enhancement of permeability and does not promote the overall gas production for the coal studied.

  7. The volatile composition of comets as inferred from gas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Adam Joseph

    Comets are small (1-10 km in radius) icy objects that orbit the Sun on highly eccentric orbits. The composition of comets has been relatively unalterred since their formation 4.5 billion years ago due to their small size and their cold storage in the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud. This makes comets "fossils" that can be studied in order to understand the physical conditions and composition of our Solar System during its infancy. Specifically, studying the volatile (ice) composition of comets can place constraints on molecule formation during the planetary formation stage and volatile transport to the inner Solar System. However, for most comets we must infer the volatile composition of the nucleus from gas present in the coma. The composition of the coma is alterred by physical and chemical processes, so the composition of the coma does not exactly reflect that of the nucleus. In this thesis we present analysis of observations of comets 103P/Hartley and C/2009 P1 Garradd in an effort to understand the physical and chemical processes operating in cometary comae. We obtained optical and NIR spectra in an effort to understand the gas production of comets Hartley and Garradd. We employed the ARCES instrument mounted on the ARC 3.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory in Sunspot, NM to acquire optical spectra, while we used the CSHELL instrument mounted on NASA IRTF on Mauna Kea in Hawaii to acquire NIR spectra. We started our analysis with studies of atomic oxygen using the optical spectra and of CO and H2O using the NIR spectra. Specifically, the 5577 A, 6300, and 6300 A lines can potentially used as a proxy for CO2 in comets, which is very imporant because CO2 cannot be observed from the ground directly. Our analysis of the oxygen lines in several comets confirms that analysis of the oxygen line intensities can be employed to obtain quantitative measurements of CO2 in comets, though the accuracy of this method still needs to be firmly established. We also confirmed from observations of CO, H2O, and atomic oxygen in Garradd that CO photodissociation is not an important source of atomic oxygen in cometary comae. Our analysis of comets C/2006 W3 Christensen and C/2009 P1 Garradd at large heliocentric distance showed that the CO2 abundance in comets at heliocentric distances of > 2.5 AU is systematically higher than that of comets that are observed when they are closer to the Sun. Applying our analysis to other comets at heliocentric distances of < 2.5 AU demonstrates that comets have much higher CO2/H20 ratios than previously thought. This may suggest that comets formed in an oxidizing environment. We extended our analysis to the simple molecules CN, C2, CH, and NH2. These molecules are all products of coma photochemistry, and are not inherently present in the nucleus of the comet in ice form. Therefore understanding the progeny of these molecules is important for understanding coma photochemistry. We found that the CN and NH2 abundances in both Hartley and Garradd can be accounted for by HCN and NH 3 photodissociation, respectively. However, the C2 abundance in both comets cannot be accounted for by invoking only C2H 2 photodissociation. Therefore another source is needed. From studies of the rotational variation of C2 production in Hartley and heliocentric distance variation in Garradd, we present the hypothesis that a large fraction of the observed C2 in these comets originates from the sublimation of carbonaceous dust grains. We provide evidence that CH4 photodissociation cannot be the sole source of CH, and that another source, possibly carbonaceous dust grains or PAH's, is required. From analysis of the rotational variation of mixing ratios in Hartley and heliocentric distance variation of mixing ratios in Garradd, we found evidence that the parent of CN (HCN) is spatially correlated with CO 2 in the nucleus and is distinct from the H2O ice. This suggests that two or more phases of ice exist in cometary nuclei, thereby exhibiting small scale compositional heterogeneity. These results have profound consequences for cometary science, and pave the way for future work in the field. These results will prove beneficial to the in-tepretation of cosmogonie parameters, such as isotope and ortho-para ratios, in photodissociation products such as CN and NH2. This,.along with the possibility of atomix oxygen and C2 serving as tracers for CO2 and carbonaceous dust grains, respectively, will provide new avenues for cometary science that have previously been unexplored.

  8. Potential biodefense model applications for portable chlorine dioxide gas production.

    PubMed

    Stubblefield, Jeannie M; Newsome, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    Development of decontamination methods and strategies to address potential infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorism events are pertinent to this nation's biodefense strategies and general biosecurity. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas has a history of use as a decontamination agent in response to an act of bioterrorism. However, the more widespread use of ClO2 gas to meet current and unforeseen decontamination needs has been hampered because the gas is too unstable for shipment and must be prepared at the application site. Newer technology allows for easy, onsite gas generation without the need for dedicated equipment, electricity, water, or personnel with advanced training. In a laboratory model system, 2 unique applications (personal protective equipment [PPE] and animal skin) were investigated in the context of potential development of decontamination protocols. Such protocols could serve to reduce human exposure to bacteria in a decontamination response effort. Chlorine dioxide gas was capable of reducing (2-7 logs of vegetative and spore-forming bacteria), and in some instances eliminating, culturable bacteria from difficult to clean areas on PPE facepieces. The gas was effective in eliminating naturally occurring bacteria on animal skin and also on skin inoculated with Bacillus spores. The culturable bacteria, including Bacillus spores, were eliminated in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Results of these studies suggested portable, easily used ClO2 gas generation systems have excellent potential for protocol development to contribute to biodefense strategies and decontamination responses to infectious disease outbreaks or other biothreat events. PMID:25812425

  9. Prototype Vent Gas Heat Exchanger for Exploration EVA - Performance and Manufacturing Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Mallory; Quinn, Gregory; Strange, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    NASA is developing new portable life support system (PLSS) technologies, which it is demonstrating in an unmanned ground based prototype unit called PLSS 2.0. One set of technologies within the PLSS provides suitable ventilation to an astronaut while on an EVA. A new component within the ventilation gas loop is a liquid-to-gas heat exchanger to transfer excess heat from the gas to the thermal control system's liquid coolant loop. A unique bench top prototype heat exchanger was built and tested for use in PLSS 2.0. The heat exchanger was designed as a counter-flow, compact plate fin type using stainless steel. Its design was based on previous compact heat exchangers manufactured by United Technologies Aerospace Systems, but was half the size of any previous heat exchanger model and one third the size of previous liquid-to-gas heat exchangers. The prototype heat exchanger was less than 40 cubic inches and weighed 2.6 lb. The water side and gas side pressure drops were 0.8 psid and 0.5 inches of water, respectively. Performance of the heat exchanger at the nominal pressure of 4.1 psia was measured at 94%, while a gas inlet pressure of 25 psia resulted in an effectiveness of 84%. These results compared well with the model, which was scaled for the small size. Modeling of certain phenomena that affect performance, such as flow distribution in the headers was particularly difficult due to the small size of the heat exchanger. Data from the tests has confirmed the correction factors that were used in these parts of the model.

  10. Criteria for successful exploration for Miocene reef production in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Downey, M.W. )

    1990-06-01

    An abundance of modern geologic, geophysical, and geochemical data has been provided to interested members of the petroleum industry by the Philippine government, in cooperation with the World Bank. These data have been analyzed to assess whether more, and larger, Miocene reef fields should be expected in the Philippines. In the past decade, exploration by Cities Service (OXY), Amoco, Alcorn, and others has resulted in the discovery of several small Miocene reef and Miocene sandstone oil fields in offshore Palawan. Phillips/Shell also made a significant gas discovery of about 750 bcf in a Palawan Miocene reef that is currently uneconomic to develop given the water depth (1,090 ft) and distance from users. Miocene reefs are commonly buried within Miocene clastics, and, where these impinging clastics are porous, they allow pathways for hydrocarbons to leak from the Miocene reefs. Drape closure is an important positive factor in assessing seal risk for Philippine Miocene reefs. Source rocks to charge middle and upper Miocene reefs are typically restricted to lower Miocene horizons. Geothermal gradients are modest in much of the Philippine offshore, and only select areas provide sufficient burial to mature and expel significant hydrocarbons. It is predicted by the author that additional, larger, and highly profitable Miocene reef fields will be found by future explorers in areas where Miocene reefs have drape closure top seals and are adjacent to deeply buried Miocene source rocks.

  11. Characterizing the role of desorption in gas production from Devonian shales

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, H.S.; Watson, A.T. ); Lancaster, D.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Previous investigators suggest that more than one half of the gas stored in the Devonian Shales may exist in an adsorbed state. However, adsorption is considered to be an unconventional mode of gas storage and is not often accounted for in conventional reservoir engineering analysis. This article examines the role that desorption may play in gas production from Devonian Shale reservoirs. The results suggest that accounting from gas desorption can have a significant effect on production forecasts and estimates of gas reserves. A methodology is presented for detecting the presence of gas desorption and for estimating the parameters that describe the desorption process from Devonian Shale production data. The accuracy of these parameter estimates and the effects of stimulating the desorption mechanisms are also examined.

  12. Measuring and Managing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Production of Livestock in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, A.

    2009-12-01

    Livestock production is the cause of substantial greenhouse gas emissions both through enteric fermentation and land use change. It has been shown that programs to reduce emissions from livestock could be a large and low-cost source of greenhouse gas mitigation. Yet in order to achieve emissions reductions, further research is needed to quantify how the emissions intensity of livestock production varies across the biophysical and socio-economic geographies of production. Particularly large data gaps exist for tropical livestock production even as tropical production expands rapidly. In this poster, I present results of a review of lifecycle greenhouse gas intensity for livestock production systems in Brazil. I also discuss opportunities and challenges in using these data as part of a decision support tool for programs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from livestock.

  13. A review of in situ propellant production techniques for solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    Representative studies done in the area of extraterrestrial chemical production as it applies to solar system exploration are presented. A description of the In Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) system is presented. Various propellant combinations and direct applications along with the previously mentioned benefits and liens are discussed. A series of mission scenarios is presented which is studied in the greatest detail. A general description of the method(s) of analysis used to study each mission is provided. Each section will be closed by an assessment of the performance advantage, if any, that can be provided by ISPP. A final section briefly summarizes those missions which, as a result of the studies completed thus far, should see a sizable benefit from the use of ISPP.

  14. Preventative safety management supported by an emergency response system for sour gas production in North Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Grossmann, U.M.; Schoenbach, H.C.

    1996-12-31

    In general, the onshore production of oil and gas in North place in densely populated areas. Approximately 800 MMSCFD of gas are produced from sour gas reservoirs, with H{sub 2}S-concentrations of up to 20 Vol.-% being involved. Despite a high technical safety standard and different organizational measures in the production of sour gas, emergency cases cannot be absolutely ruled out. H{sub 2}S concentrations of more than 700 ppm will cause immediate death. In Germany the production of hydrocarbons is regulated by the Federal Mining Law. According to these regulations an extensive gas protection plan and gas alarm plan have to be set up for sour gas operations. This includes establishing an emergency response organization and a gas alarm management guide. Beyond the legal requirements Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GmbH (MEEG) has implemented an emergency response management system in compliance with Mobil Oil`s worldwide safety philosophy to minimize the risk for the population, the employees and the environment. The installation of two electronic data systems enables the crisis management team to respond faster, more safely and in a less complicated manner to accidental sour gas releases. The introduction of the Emergency Information and Response System (EMIS) makes possible the display and manipulation of maps in different scales and geographically oriented data. The expansion of the process master computer by installing an H{sub 2}S-Gas alarm system has achieved the online measurements of H{sub 2}S concentrations, wind direction and wind velocity at sour gas production facilities. The system, which is operated at the gas dispatcher center, gives the crisis response team the opportunity to predict the location of sour gas release and the area being impacted. Consequently rescue parties will be directed to the location in a safe manner and, if necessary, measures will be managed for evacuating the residents living in the danger zones around sour gas facilities.

  15. Identifying potential conflict associated with oil and gas exploration in Texas state coastal waters: A multicriteria spatial analysis.

    PubMed

    Brody, Samuel D; Grover, Himanshu; Bernhardt, Sarah; Tang, Zhenghong; Whitaker, Bianca; Spence, Colin

    2006-10-01

    Recent interest in expanding offshore oil production within waters of the United States has been met with opposition by groups concerned with recreational, environmental, and aesthetic values associated with the coastal zone. Although the proposition of new oil platforms off the coast has generated conflict over how coastal resources should be utilized, little research has been conducted on where these user conflicts might be most intense and which sites might be most suitable for locating oil production facilities in light of the multiple, and often times, competing interests. In this article, we develop a multiple-criteria spatial decision support tool that identifies the potential degree of conflict associated with oil and gas production activities for existing lease tracts in the coastal margin of Texas. We use geographic information systems to measure and map a range of potentially competing representative values impacted by establishing energy extraction infrastructure and then spatially identify which leased tracts are the least contentious sites for oil and gas production in Texas state waters. Visual and statistical results indicate that oil and gas lease blocks within the study area vary in their potential to generate conflict among multiple stakeholders. PMID:16933080

  16. Analysis of the product gas from biomass gasification by means of laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karellas, S.; Karl, J.

    2007-09-01

    The use of biomass and waste for decentralised combined heat and power production (CHP) requires highly efficient gasification processes. In the Technische Universität München (TUM), an innovative gasification technology has been developed. This allothermal gasifier is producing a hydrogen- rich, high-calorific gas, that can be further used in a microturbine or a fuel cell producing energy. For the operation of such a system, the online analysis of the composition of the product gas is of high importance, since the efficient working of the machines is linked with the gas quality. For this purpose an optical measurement system based on laser spectroscopy has been applied. This system can measure not only the basic components of the product gas (H 2, CH 4, CO, CO 2, H 2O), but it also gives information concerning the content of high hydrocarbons, the so-called tars, in the product gas.

  17. Enhanced methane emissions from oil and gas exploration areas to the atmosphere--the central Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Hua-de; Zhai, Wei-dong; Zang, Kun-peng; Wang, Ju-ying

    2014-04-15

    The distributions of dissolved methane in the central Bohai Sea were investigated in November 2011, May 2012, July 2012, and August 2012. Methane concentration in surface seawater, determined using an underway measurement system combined with wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy, showed marked spatiotemporal variations with saturation ratio from 107% to 1193%. The central Bohai Sea was thus a source of atmospheric methane during the survey periods. Several episodic oil and gas spill events increased surface methane concentration by up to 4.7 times and raised the local methane outgassing rate by up to 14.6 times. This study demonstrated a method to detect seafloor CH4 leakages at the sea surface, which may have applicability in many shallow sea areas with oil and gas exploration activities around the world. PMID:24602676

  18. Corrosion inhibitor testing and selection for exploration and production: A user`s perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Kapusta, S.D.

    1999-11-01

    The selection of corrosion inhibitors for field use is often based on laboratory and field testing of candidate products. At present, there are no universally accepted tests to compare the performance and other properties of candidate products. This paper describes a test protocol that can help inhibitor users with the testing and selection of inhibitors for use against CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S corrosion in oil and gas production, and that allows the screening of a large number of candidates, in a relatively cost-effective manner. The selection is based on two criteria: performance (effectiveness) against corrosion at the expected conditions, and compatibility with the injection and production systems, and with other chemicals. Performance is mostly affected by two factors: temperature, and to a lesser extent flow velocity. On that basis, three levels of increasing testing requirements have been defined: conditions green, yellow, and red. Under mild or well-established conditions (low pressure and temperature, existing operations) performance testing may not be required; however, compatibility testing is always recommended.

  19. Understanding Ozone: Exploring the Good and Bad Facets of a Famous Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanif, Muhammad

    1995-01-01

    Presents activities that help students distinguish between the beneficial layer of stratospheric ozone and the dangerous ground-level or tropospheric ozone, understand the chemical processes of ozone breakdown in the stratosphere, find the sources of ground-level ozone, and explore the differences in the patterns of ozone concentration over the

  20. Understanding Ozone: Exploring the Good and Bad Facets of a Famous Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanif, Muhammad

    1995-01-01

    Presents activities that help students distinguish between the beneficial layer of stratospheric ozone and the dangerous ground-level or tropospheric ozone, understand the chemical processes of ozone breakdown in the stratosphere, find the sources of ground-level ozone, and explore the differences in the patterns of ozone concentration over the…

  1. A model of crude oil production: The roles of physics, exploration, and site development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldmanis, Maris

    I propose an integrated model of the behavior of a profit-maximizing crude oil producer. I show that the producer's optimization program can be decomposed into an extraction program, which is subject to physical constraints, an investment level program, a development timing program, and an exploration program for new prospects. In the extraction program, I find that it is optimal to extract oil at the maximal feasible rate, unless prices are expected to rise steeply. I also show that such a price process can arise in equilibrium and that prices in such an equilibrium grow at a rate determined by the decrease rate of the maximal feasible extraction rate. In the investment level program, I find that optimal investment is always increasing in the size of the field and, if the current price of oil net of extraction costs is positively related to future net prices, the investment level is also increasing in the net price. In addition, investment increases in the current technology level, unless technological improvements carry very bad news about future prices. Optimal development timing generally has an ambiguous relation to current shock values, and fields are not necessarily developed in a monotonic order by size. However, I establish conditions on the shock process under which development is more likely to occur in higher-price, lower-cost, and higher-technology states and show that the same conditions also ensure that larger fields are developed first. Under the same conditions that ensure monotonic development time dynamics, I show that it is optimal to explore fields in stochastically decreasing order of size and that the total number of prospects explored in a play in a given period responds positively to prices and technology, but is generally declining over the lifetime of the play. The model replicates a number of industry facts. First, crude oil producers respond to price and cost shocks primarily at the extensive margin, by adjusting exploration and development levels. Second, production paths at all levels of aggregation have an inverted-U shape (Hubbert's peak). Third, within each petroleum play the larger deposits tend to be discovered first. Finally, both exploration effort and new discoveries decrease over the lifetime of each exploration region.

  2. Explorations of Stopping Power and Secondary Nuclear Production in OMEGA Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rygg, J. R.; Kurebayshi, S.; Schwartz, B. E.; Deciantis, J.; Burke, S.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Soures, J. M.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Roberts, S.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.; Hoffmann, N.; Wilson, D.

    2002-11-01

    Direct-drive spherical implosions of thin-shell glass capsules filled with D^3He and D2 have been conducted on OMEGA to explore charged-particle stopping relevant to fusion ignition experiments as well as theoretical and experimental tests of secondary nuclear production. For D^3He-filled capsules, and for a variety of different implosion conditions, up to five different lines are used to make inferences about the stopping power. The collection of these lines in different implosions enable refined tests of stopping power to be made. In addition, to test the theoretical foundations of secondary nuclear production, D2 glass capsules were imploded to sufficiently high temperature so that the secondary neutron and proton production should result in similar predictions for the fuel ρR. The line shapes and yields of the primary and secondary nuclear products were used to characterize plasma condition. This work was performed in part at the LLE National Laser Users' Facility (NLUF), and was supported in part by the U.S. DOE Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion (Grant number DE-FG03-99DP00300 and Cooperative Agreement number DE-FC03-92SF19460), LLE (subcontract P0410025G), LLNL (subcontract B313975). (Petrasso: Visiting Senior Scientist at LLE.)

  3. Exploring the energy/beam current parameter space for the isotope production facility (IPF) at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Gulley, Mark S; Bach, Hong; Nortier, Francis M; Pillai, Chandra; Bitteker, Leo J; John, Kevin D; Valdez, Frank O; Seifter, Achim

    2010-09-07

    IPF has recently investigated isotope production with proton beams at energies other than the 100-MeV currently available to the IPF beam line. To maximize the yield of a particular isotope, it is necessary to measure the production rate and cross section versus proton beam energy. Studies were conducted at 800 MeV and 197 MeV to determine the cross section of Tb-159. Also, the ability to irradiate targets at different proton beam energies opens up the possibility of producing other radioisotopes. A proof-of-principle test was conducted to develop a 40-MeV tune in the 100-MeV beam line. Another parameter explored was the beam current, which was raised from the normal limit of 250 {mu}A up to 356 {mu}A via both power and repetition rate increase. This proof-of-principle test demonstrated the capability of the IPF beam line for high current operation with potential for higher isotope yields. For the full production mode, system upgrades will need to be in place to operate at high current and high duty factor. These activities are expected to provide the data needed for the development of a new and unique isotope production capability complementing the existing 100-MeV IPF facility.

  4. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas: Case studies, design, and economics

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This project is a combination of process simulation and catalyst development aimed at identifying the most economical method for converting coal to syngas to linear higher alcohols to be used as oxygenated fuel additives. There are two tasks. The goal of Task 1 is to discover, study, and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas, and to explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. The goal of Task 2 is to simulate, by computer, energy efficient and economically efficient processes for converting coal to energy (fuel alcohols and/or power). The primary focus is to convert syngas to fuel alcohols. This report contains results from Task 2. The first step for Task 2 was to develop computer simulations of alternative coal to syngas to linear higher alcohol processes, to evaluate and compare the economics and energy efficiency of these alternative processes, and to make a preliminary determination as to the most attractive process configuration. A benefit of this approach is that simulations will be debugged and available for use when Task 1 results are available. Seven cases were developed using different gasifier technologies, different methods for altering the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the syngas to the desired 1.1/1, and with the higher alcohol fuel additives as primary products and as by-products of a power generation facility. Texaco, Shell, and Lurgi gasifier designs were used to test gasifying coal. Steam reforming of natural gas, sour gas shift conversion, or pressure swing adsorption were used to alter the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the syngas. In addition, a case using only natural gas was prepared to compare coal and natural gas as a source of syngas.

  5. Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 States, 1980 through 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to analyze monthly natural gas wellhead productive capacity in the lower 48 States from 1980 through 1992 and project this capacity from 1993 through 1995. For decades, natural gas supplies and productive capacity have been adequate to meet demand. In the 1970`s the capacity surplus was small because of market structure (split between interstate and intrastate), increasing demand, and insufficient drilling. In the early 1980`s, lower demand, together with increased drilling, led to a large surplus capacity as new productive capacity came on line. After 1986, this large surplus began to decline as demand for gas increased, gas prices fell, and gas well completions dropped sharply. In late December 1989, the decline in this surplus, accompanied by exceptionally high demand and temporary weather-related production losses, led to concerns about the adequacy of monthly productive capacity for natural gas. These concerns should have been moderated by the gas system`s performance during the unusually severe winter weather in March 1993 and January 1994. The declining trend in wellhead productive capacity is expected to be reversed in 1994 if natural gas prices and drilling meet or exceed the base case assumption. This study indicates that in the low, base, and high drilling cases, monthly productive capacity should be able to meet normal production demands through 1995 in the lower 48 States (Figure ES1). Exceptionally high peak-day or peak-week production demand might not be met because of physical limitations such as pipeline capacity. Beyond 1995, as the capacity of currently producing wells declines, a sufficient number of wells and/or imports must be added each year in order to ensure an adequate gas supply.

  6. Effects of gas bubble production on heat transfer from a volumetrically heated liquid pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, Geoffrey R.

    Aqueous solutions of uranium salts may provide a new supply chain to fill potential shortfalls in the availability of the most common radiopharmaceuticals currently in use worldwide, including Tc99m which is a decay product of Mo99. The fissioning of the uranium in these solutions creates Mo99 but also generates large amounts of hydrogen and oxygen from the radiolysis of the water. When the dissolved gases reach a critical concentration, bubbles will form in the solution. Bubbles in the solution affect both the fission power and the heat transfer out of the solution. As a result, for safety and production calculations, the effects of the bubbles on heat transfer must be understood. A high aspect ratio tank was constructed to simulate a section of an annulus with heat exchangers on the inner and outer steel walls to provide cooling. Temperature measurements via thermocouples inside the tank and along the outside of the steel walls allowed the calculation of overall and local heat transfer coefficients. Different air injection manifolds allowed the exploration of various bubble characteristics and patterns on heat transfer from the pool. The manifold type did not appear to have significant impact on the bubble size distributions in water. However, air injected into solutions of magnesium sulfate resulted in smaller bubble sizes and larger void fractions than those in water at the same injection rates. One dimensional calculations provide heat transfer coefficient values as functions of the superficial gas velocity in the pool.

  7. Lifecycle greenhouse gas implications of US national scenarios for cellulosic ethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scown, Corinne D.; Nazaroff, William W.; Mishra, Umakant; Strogen, Bret; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Masanet, Eric; Santero, Nicholas J.; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E.

    2012-03-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 set an annual US national production goal of 39.7 billion l of cellulosic ethanol by 2020. This paper explores the possibility of meeting that target by growing and processing Miscanthus × giganteus. We define and assess six production scenarios in which active cropland and/or Conservation Reserve Program land are used to grow to Miscanthus. The crop and biorefinery locations are chosen with consideration of economic, land-use, water management and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction objectives. Using lifecycle assessment, the net GHG footprint of each scenario is evaluated, providing insight into the climate costs and benefits associated with each scenario’s objectives. Assuming that indirect land-use change is successfully minimized or mitigated, the results suggest two major drivers for overall GHG impact of cellulosic ethanol from Miscanthus: (a) net soil carbon sequestration or emissions during Miscanthus cultivation and (b) GHG offset credits for electricity exported by biorefineries to the grid. Without these factors, the GHG intensity of bioethanol from Miscanthus is calculated to be 11-13 g CO2-equivalent per MJ of fuel, which is 80-90% lower than gasoline. Including soil carbon sequestration and the power-offset credit results in net GHG sequestration up to 26 g CO2-equivalent per MJ of fuel.

  8. Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Exploration Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is an outcome of lean thinking to eliminate waste and increase productivity. PLM is inextricably tied to the systems engineering business philosophy, coupled with a methodology by which personnel, processes and practices, and information technology combine to form an architecture platform for product design, development, manufacturing, operations, and decommissioning. In this model, which is being implemented by the Engineering Directorate at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center, total lifecycle costs are important variables for critical decisionmaking. With the ultimate goal to deliver quality products that meet or exceed requirements on time and within budget, PLM is a powerful tool to shape everything from engineering trade studies and testing goals, to integrated vehicle operations and retirement scenarios. This paper will demonstrate how the Engineering Directorate is implementing PLM as part of an overall strategy to deliver safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions. It has been 30 years since the United States fielded the Space Shuttle. The next generation space transportation system requires a paradigm shift such that digital tools and knowledge management, which are central elements of PLM, are used consistently to maximum effect. The outcome is a better use of scarce resources, along with more focus on stakeholder and customer requirements, as a new portfolio of enabling tools becomes second nature to the workforce. This paper will use the design and manufacturing processes, which have transitioned to digital-based activities, to show how PLM supports the comprehensive systems engineering and integration function. It also will go through a launch countdown scenario where an anomaly is detected to show how the virtual vehicle created from paperless processes will help solve technical challenges and improve the likelihood of launching on schedule, with less hands-on labor needed for processing and troubleshooting. Sustainable space exploration solutions demand that all lifecycle phases be optimized. Adopting PLM, which has been used by the automotive industry for many years, for aerospace applications provides a foundation for strong, disciplined systems engineering and accountable return on investment by making lifecycle considerations variables in an iterative decision-making process. This paper combines the perspectives of the founding father of PLM, along with the experience of Engineering leaders who are implementing these processes and practices real-time. As the nation moves from an industrial-based society to one where information is a valued commodity, future NASA programs and projects will benefit from the experience being gained today for the exploration missions of tomorrow.

  9. KIGAM Seafloor Observation System (KISOS) for the baseline study in monitoring of gas hydrate test production in the Ulleung Basin, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-rock; Chun, Jong-hwa

    2013-04-01

    For the baseline study in the monitoring gas hydrate test production in the Ulleung Basin, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) has developed the KIGAM Seafloor Observation System (KISOS) for seafloor exploration using unmanned remotely operated vehicle connected with a ship by a cable. The KISOS consists of a transponder of an acoustic positioning system (USBL), a bottom finding pinger, still camera, video camera, water sampler, and measuring devices (methane, oxygen, CTD, and turbidity sensors) mounted on the unmanned ROV, and a sediment collecting device collecting sediment on the seafloor. It is very important to monitoring the environmental risks (gas leakage and production water/drilling mud discharge) which may be occurred during the gas hydrate test production drilling. The KISOS will be applied to solely conduct baseline study with the KIGAM seafloor monitoring system (KIMOS) of the Korean gas hydrate program in the future. The large scale of environmental monitoring program includes the environmental impact assessment such as seafloor disturbance and subsidence, detection of methane gas leakage around well and cold seep, methane bubbles and dissolved methane, change of marine environments, chemical factor variation of water column and seabed, diffusion of drilling mud and production water, and biological factors of biodiversity and marine habitats before and after drilling test well and nearby areas. The design of the baseline survey will be determined based on the result of SIMAP simulation in 2013. The baseline survey will be performed to provide the gas leakage and production water/drilling mud discharge before and after gas hydrate test production. The field data of the baseline study will be evaluated by the simulation and verification of SIMAP simulator in 2014. In the presentation, the authors would like introduce the configuration of KISOS and applicability to the seafloor observation for the gas hydrate test production in the Ulleung Basin. This work was financially supported by the the Ministry of Knowledge Economy(MKE) and Gas Hydrate R/D Organization(GHDO)

  10. Application of industrial hygiene techniques for work-place exposure assessment protocols related to petro-chemical exploration and production field activities

    SciTech Connect

    Koehn, J.

    1995-12-31

    Standard industrial hygiene techniques for recognition, evaluation, and control can be directly applied to development of technical protocols for workplace exposure assessment activities for a variety of field site locations. Categories of occupational hazards include chemical and physical agents. Examples of these types of hazards directly related to oil and gas exploration and production workplaces include hydrocarbons, benzene, oil mist, hydrogen sulfide, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), asbestos-containing materials, and noise. Specific components of well process chemicals include potential hazardous chemical substances such as methanol, acrolein, chlorine dioxide, and hydrochloric acid. Other types of exposure hazards may result from non-routine conduct of sandblasting and painting operations.

  11. Drilling and Production Testing the Methane Hydrate Resource Potential Associated with the Barrow Gas Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Steve McRae; Thomas Walsh; Michael Dunn; Michael Cook

    2010-02-22

    In November of 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Slope Borough (NSB) committed funding to develop a drilling plan to test the presence of hydrates in the producing formation of at least one of the Barrow Gas Fields, and to develop a production surveillance plan to monitor the behavior of hydrates as dissociation occurs. This drilling and surveillance plan was supported by earlier studies in Phase 1 of the project, including hydrate stability zone modeling, material balance modeling, and full-field history-matched reservoir simulation, all of which support the presence of methane hydrate in association with the Barrow Gas Fields. This Phase 2 of the project, conducted over the past twelve months focused on selecting an optimal location for a hydrate test well; design of a logistics, drilling, completion and testing plan; and estimating costs for the activities. As originally proposed, the project was anticipated to benefit from industry activity in northwest Alaska, with opportunities to share equipment, personnel, services and mobilization and demobilization costs with one of the then-active exploration operators. The activity level dropped off, and this benefit evaporated, although plans for drilling of development wells in the BGF's matured, offering significant synergies and cost savings over a remote stand-alone drilling project. An optimal well location was chosen at the East Barrow No.18 well pad, and a vertical pilot/monitoring well and horizontal production test/surveillance well were engineered for drilling from this location. Both wells were designed with Distributed Temperature Survey (DTS) apparatus for monitoring of the hydrate-free gas interface. Once project scope was developed, a procurement process was implemented to engage the necessary service and equipment providers, and finalize project cost estimates. Based on cost proposals from vendors, total project estimated cost is $17.88 million dollars, inclusive of design work, permitting, barging, ice road/pad construction, drilling, completion, tie-in, long-term production testing and surveillance, data analysis and technology transfer. The PRA project team and North Slope have recommended moving forward to the execution phase of this project.

  12. P- and S-wave seismic attenuation for deep natural gas exploration and development

    SciTech Connect

    Walls, Joel; Uden, Richard; Singleton, Scott; Shu, Rone; Mavko, Gary

    2005-04-12

    Using current methods, oil and gas in the subsurface cannot be reliably predicted from seismic data. This causes domestic oil and gas fields to go undiscovered and unexploited, thereby increasing the need to import energy.The general objective of this study was to demonstrate a simple and effective methodology for estimating reservoir properties (gas saturation in particular, but also including lithology, net to gross ratios, and porosity) from seismic attenuation and other attributes using P- and S-waves. Phase I specific technical objectives: Develop Empirical or Theoretical Rock Physics Relations for Qp and Qs; Create P-wave and S-wave Synthetic Seismic Modeling Algorithms with Q; and, Compute P-wave and S-wave Q Attributes from Multi-component Seismic Data. All objectives defined in the Phase I proposal were accomplished. During the course of this project, a new class of seismic analysis was developed based on compressional and shear wave inelastic rock properties (attenuation). This method provides a better link between seismic data and the presence of hydrocarbons. The technique employs both P and S-wave data to better discriminate between attenuation due to hydrocarbons versus energy loss due to other factors such as scattering and geometric spreading. It was demonstrated that P and S attenuation can be computed from well log data and used to generate synthetic seismograms. Rock physics models for P and S attenuation were tested on a well from the Gulf of Mexico. The P- and S-wave Q attributes were computed on multi-component 2D seismic data intersecting this well. These methods generated reasonable results, and most importantly, the Q attributes indicated gas saturation.

  13. Depressurization-induced gas production from Class 1 and Class 2hydrate deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, George J.; Kowalsky, Michael

    2006-05-12

    Class 1 hydrate deposits are characterized by a Hydrate-Bearing Layer (HBL) underlain by a two-phase zone involving mobile gas. Such deposits are further divided to Class 1W (involving water and hydrate in the HBL) and Class 1G (involving gas and hydrate in the HBL). In Class 2 deposits, a mobile water zone underlies the hydrate zone. Methane is the main hydrate-forming gas in natural accumulations. Using TOUGH-FX/HYDRATE to study the depressurization-induced gas production from such deposits, we determine that large volumes of gas could be readily produced at high rates for long times using conventional technology. Dissociation in Class 1W deposits proceeds in distinct stages, but is continuous in Class 1G deposits. Hydrates are shown to contribute significantly to the production rate (up to 65 percent and 75 percent in Class 1W and 1G, respectively) and to the cumulative volume of produced gas (up to 45 percent and 54 percent in Class 1W and 1G, respectively). Large volumes of hydrate-originating CH4 could be produced from Class 2 hydrates, but a relatively long lead time would be needed before gas production (which continuously increases over time) attains a substantial level. The permeability of the confining boundaries plays a significant role in gas production from Class 2 deposits. In general, long-term production is needed to realize the full potential of the very promising Class 1 and Class 2 hydrate deposits.

  14. 30 CFR 250.202 - What criteria must the Exploration Plan (EP), Development and Production Plan (DPP), or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What criteria must the Exploration Plan (EP... Section 250.202 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND... § 250.202 What criteria must the Exploration Plan (EP), Development and Production Plan (DPP),...

  15. Collisional Vaporization of Dust and Production of Gas in the β Pictoris Dust Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czechowski, A.; Mann, I.

    2007-05-01

    The need for replenishment of the stable gas observed in the β Pictoris system raises a question about the origin of the gas. Correlations between the gas and the dust distribution suggest that the source is related to the dust. Spectroscopic observations imply that the gas is rotating at Keplerian velocity: this includes also the species that, in absence of braking, would be accelerated away from the star by the radiation pressure. We examine the possibility that the gas originates from collisional vaporization of the dust in the disk and the consequences for the gas velocity distribution and the line profiles of spectral features generated by the gas. A simple model of dust distribution and a model of individual dust-dust collision are used to calculate the gas production rate in the disk. Comparing with the gas column densities derived from observations, the escape times of the atoms from the disk are estimated. For the dust distribution and collision model considered, the vaporization of dust leads to the gas production rates of the order between 0.5×1012 and 2×1013 g s-1 for the grains with the collisional properties close to those of silicate and ice, respectively. We point out the uncertainties in the collision models. We also found that, for the lines of sight bypassing the star, velocity distributions of gas particles released from orbiting bodies can show a peak at Keplerian velocity even in the absence of braking, despite large acceleration by radiation pressure.

  16. Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content

    DOEpatents

    Najjar, Mitri S.; Corbeels, Roger J.; Kokturk, Uygur

    1989-01-01

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

  17. Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant

    SciTech Connect

    Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W.

    1997-12-31

    Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

  18. Controls of coal fabric on coalbed gas production and compositional shift in both field production and canister desorption tests

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, X.J.; Bustin, R.M.

    2006-03-15

    The production rates of coalbed gas wells commonly vary significantly, even in the same field with similar reservoir permeability and gas content. The compositional variation in produced gas is also not everywhere predictable, although in most fields produced gas becomes progressively enriched in CO, through the production life of a reservoir, such as parts of the San Juan basin. In contrast, it is generally observed that the ratio of CO{sub 2}:CH{sub 4} declines with time during field and laboratory desorption testing of coal cores. In this study, we investigate numerically the importance of coal fabric, namely cleat spacing and aperture width, on the performance of coalbed gas wells and gas compositional shifts during production. Because of the cubic relationship between fracture permeability and fracture aperture width (and thus fracture porosity) for a given cleat permeability, the production profile of coal seams varies depending on whether the permeability is distributed among closely spaced fractures (cleat) with narrower apertures or more widely spaced fractures (cleat) with wider apertures. There is a lower fracture porosity for coal with widely spaced fractures than for coal with closely spaced fractures. Therefore, the relative permeability to gas increases more rapidly for coals with more widely spaced cleats as less dewatering from fractures is required, assuming that the fractures are initially water saturated. The enrichment of CO{sub 2} in the production gas with time occurs because of the stronger adsorption of coals for CO{sub 2} than CH{sub 4}. However, during desorption of coal cores, CO{sub 2} desorbs more rapidly than methane because desorption rate is governed more by diffusion than by sorption affinity, and CO{sub 2} has much higher effective diffusivity in microporous coals than CH{sub 4}.

  19. Geologic and economic case histories of Upper Devonian natural gas production in Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Mangini, K.N.

    1988-08-01

    The Upper Devonian gas sands of western Pennsylvania have been commercially exploited since the turn of the century. The economic success of this exploitation may be attributed to the existence of multiply-stacked or en echelon reservoirs. The serendipity of development drilling coupled with multiple reservoirs made drilling for Upper Devonian gas very attractive to operators. As a result of many years of concentrated drilling, a current shortage of Upper Devonian developmental prospects exists and is forcing operators to explore nearshore more sporadically deposited Devonian sand reservoirs. The depositional modeling of developed areas can, however, help identify new prospective areas for exploration and development and increase economic success.

  20. Exploring the limits of crop productivity: beyond the limits of tipburn in lettuce

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frantz, Jonathan M.; Ritchie, Glen; Cometti, Nilton N.; Robinson, Justin; Bugbee, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    The productivity of lettuce in a combination of high light, high temperature, and elevated CO2 has not been commonly studied because rapid growth usually causes a calcium deficiency in meristems called tipburn, which greatly reduces quality and marketability. We eliminated tipburn by blowing air directly onto the meristem, which allowed us to increase the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) to 1000 micromoles m-2 s-1 (57.6 mol m-2 d-1); two to three times higher than normally used for lettuce. Eliminating tipburn doubled edible yield at the highest PPF level. In addition to high PPF, CO2 was elevated to 1200 micromoles m-2 mol-1, which increased the temperature optimum from 25 to 30 degrees C. The higher temperature increased leaf expansion rate, which improved radiation capture and more than doubled yield. Photosynthetic efficiency, measured as canopy quantum yield in a whole-plant gas exchange system, steadily increased up to the highest temperature of 32 degrees C in high CO2. The highest productivity was 19 g m-2 d-1 of dry biomass (380 g d-1 fresh mass) averaged over the 23 days the plants received light. Without the limitation of tipburn, the combination of high PPF, high temperature, and elevated CO2 resulted in a 4-fold increase in growth rate over productivity in conventional environments.

  1. Gas chromatography: Possible application of advanced instrumentation developed for solar system exploration to space station cabin atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carle, G. C.

    1985-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) technology was developed for flight experiments in solar system exploration. The GC is a powerful analytical technique with simple devices separating individual components from complex mixtures to make very sensitive quantitative and qualitative measurements. It monitors samples containing mixtures of fixed gases and volatile organic molecules. The GC was used on the Viking mission in support of life detection experiments and on the Pioneer Venus Large Probe to determine the composition of the venusian atmosphere. A flight GC is under development to study the progress and extent of STS astronaut denitrogenation prior to extravehicular activity. Advanced flight GC concepts and systems for future solar system exploration are also studied. Studies include miniature ionization detectors and associated control systems capable of detecting from ppb up to 100% concentration levels. Further miniaturization is investigated using photolithography and controlled chemical etching in silicon wafers. Novel concepts such as ion mobility drift spectroscopy and multiplex gas chromatography are also developed for future flight experiments. These powerful analytical concepts and associated hardware are ideal for the monitoring of cabin atmospheres containing potentially dangerous volatile compounds.

  2. Interstellar Neutral Gas Flow Measurements with the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) - Implications on Interstellar Medium and Heliosphere Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moebius, E.; Bochsler, P. A.; Bzowski, M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Heirtzler, D.; Hlond, M.; Kubiak, M.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; Leonard, T.; McComas, D. J.; Saul, L. A.; Schwadron, N. A.; Sokol, J.; Wurz, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observes the interstellar neutral gas flow tra-jectories at their perihelion in Earth's orbit every year from December through late March, when the Earth moves into the oncoming flow. Surprisingly, the initial quantita-tive analysis resulted in a somewhat different interstellar flow vector with noticeably lower speed than obtained previously. In comparison with astronomical observations of the flow vectors of neighboring interstellar clouds, this result locates the solar system within the Local Interstellar Cloud (LIC), contrary to the previous determination, which indicated values between the LIC and the G-Cloud. This year, the fifth season is being accumulated, providing a database over increasing solar activity and with varying view-ing strategies. These recurring observations of the interstellar flow pattern and its spatial distribution allow us to consolidate the derived physical conditions of the surrounding interstellar medium. We can also track variations in the flow at 1 AU that may arise from solar cycle related changes in ionization and radiation pressure for H and explore any other variations of the neutral gas flow. Based on the angular distributions in latitude and longitude, the neutral flow observations also indicate the presence of a secondary compo-nent for most of the species, which most probably stems from charge exchange with ions in the outer heliosheath. We will review our observations and discuss implications for the LIC and its interaction with the heliosphere in the light of a growing data set and improv-ing analysis techniques.

  3. Production of Renewable Natural Gas from Waste Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sachin; Suresh, S.; Arisutha, S.

    2013-03-01

    Biomass energy is expected to make a major contribution to the replacement of fossil fuels. Methane produced from biomass is referred to as bio-methane, green gas, bio-substitute natural gas or renewable natural gas (RNG) when it is used as a transport fuel. Research on upgrading of the cleaned producer gas to RNG is still ongoing. The present study deals with the conversion of woody biomass into fuels, RNG using gasifier. The various effects of parameters like temperature, pressure, and tar formation on conversion were also studied. The complete carbon conversion was observed at 480 °C and tar yield was significantly less. When biomass was gasified with and without catalyst at about 28 s residence time, ~75 % (w/w) and 88 % (w/w) carbon conversion for without and with catalyst was observed. The interest in RNG is growing; several initiatives to demonstrate the thermal-chemical conversion of biomass into methane and/or RNG are under development.

  4. Agricultural By-products as Mercury Adsorbents in Gas Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased emphasis on reduction of mercury emissions from coal fired electric power plans have resulted in environmental regulations that may in the future require application of activated carbons as mercury sorbents. The sorbents could be injected into the flue gas stream where is adsorbs the merc...

  5. 21 CFR 173.350 - Combustion product gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... dispersion tube inserted to the bottom of a covered cylindrical vessel with a suitable outlet on the vessel for effluent gas. The dimensions and arrangement of tube and vessel are such that the inlet tube... outlet. The dimensions of the vessel are such, and both inlet and vessel are so designed, that the...

  6. Regional air quality impacts of increased natural gas production and use in Texas.

    PubMed

    Pacsi, Adam P; Alhajeri, Nawaf S; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Webster, Mort D; Allen, David T

    2013-04-01

    Natural gas use in electricity generation in Texas was estimated, for gas prices ranging from $1.89 to $7.74 per MMBTU, using an optimal power flow model. Hourly estimates of electricity generation, for individual electricity generation units, from the model were used to estimate spatially resolved hourly emissions from electricity generation. Emissions from natural gas production activities in the Barnett Shale region were also estimated, with emissions scaled up or down to match demand in electricity generation as natural gas prices changed. As natural gas use increased, emissions decreased from electricity generation and increased from natural gas production. Overall, NOx and SO2 emissions decreased, while VOC emissions increased as natural gas use increased. To assess the effects of these changes in emissions on ozone and particulate matter concentrations, spatially and temporally resolved emissions were used in a month-long photochemical modeling episode. Over the month-long photochemical modeling episode, decreases in natural gas prices typical of those experienced from 2006 to 2012 led to net regional decreases in ozone (0.2-0.7 ppb) and fine particulate matter (PM) (0.1-0.7 μg/m(3)). Changes in PM were predominantly due to changes in regional PM sulfate formation. Changes in regional PM and ozone formation are primarily due to decreases in emissions from electricity generation. Increases in emissions from increased natural gas production were offset by decreasing emissions from electricity generation for all the scenarios considered. PMID:23441728

  7. AMMONIA REMOVAL AND NITROUS OXIDE PRODUCTION IN GAS-PHASE COMPOST BIOFILTERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofiltration technology is widely utilized for treating ammonia gas (NH3), with one of its potential detrimental by-products being nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas approximately 300 times more reactive to infrared than CO2. The present work intends to provide the relation between NH3 removal d...

  8. 30 CFR 560.116 - How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease? 560.116 Section 560.116 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF OIL AND GAS LEASING Bidding Systems Eligible Leases § 560.116 How do I measure natural...

  9. 30 CFR 560.116 - How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I measure natural gas production on my eligible lease? 560.116 Section 560.116 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF OIL AND GAS LEASING Bidding Systems Eligible Leases § 560.116 How do I measure natural...

  10. Annual report of the origin of natural gas liquids production form EIA-64A

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The collection of basic, verifiable information on the Nation`s reserves and production of natural gas liquids (NGL) is mandated by the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (FEAA) (Public Law 93-275) and the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91). Gas shrinkage volumes reported on Form EIA-64A by natural gas processing plant operators are used with natural gas data collected on a {open_quotes}wet after lease separation{close_quotes} basis on Form EIA-23, Annual Survey of Domestic Oil and Gas Reserves, to estimate {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} natural gas reserves and production volumes regionally and nationally. The shrinkage data are also used, along with the plant liquids production data reported on Form EIA-64A, and lease condensate data reported on Form EIA-23, to estimate regional and national gas liquids reserves and production volumes. This information is the only comprehensive source of credible natural gas liquids data, and is required by DOE to assist in the formulation of national energy policies.

  11. Application of remote geologic analysis to gas exploration in Morgantown Energy Technology Center's Study Area 1, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Beaver, D.E.; Mroz, T.H. )

    1989-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system uses a unique, automated pattern-recognition approach to identify potential fracture zones (of any dip from vertical to < 40{degree}) by coplanar analysis of their geomorphic expression in digital models of topography. For its first oil and gas-related field trial, the authors applied the RGA system to the fracture characterization of Morgantown Energy Technology Center's Study Area 1 in the Big Sandy gas field in southwestern West Virginia. They selected this site to blind test their technology because of the characterization data available from well drilling, gas production, and seismic surveys. The Morgantown staff used these data and performed a geologic analysis of the region coincidentally but separately from their fracture analysis to ensure that they did not introduce bias into their interpretations. Their structure and isopach maps show significant trends in the faulting and folding of the producing formations that control production volumes, which correlate well with the principal interpreted fracture sets from their results. Three fracture sets for the Big Creek, West Virginia, 1:24,000 quadrangle parallel major geologic structures that are associated with basement faulting (steep dip, northeast trend) and thrust faulting (60{degree} dip, northwest trend). These structures appear, in combination with anticlinal folding, to enhance gas production. To date, only the most prominent fracture planes from their analyses have been correlated with the large-scale structural features (basement faulting) in the study area. The next step in this field trial will be to determine if lesser planar features from their analyses correlate with the detailed structural geology and regional geomorphology of the rocks exposed at the surface.

  12. Effect of advective flow in fractures and matrix diffusion on natural gas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karra, Satish; Makedonska, Nataliia; Viswanathan, Hari S.; Painter, Scott L.; Hyman, Jeffrey D.

    2015-10-01

    Although hydraulic fracturing has been used for natural gas production for the past couple of decades, there are significant uncertainties about the underlying mechanisms behind the production curves that are seen in the field. A discrete fracture network-based reservoir-scale work flow is used to identify the relative effect of flow of gas in fractures and matrix diffusion on the production curve. With realistic three-dimensional representations of fracture network geometry and aperture variability, simulated production decline curves qualitatively resemble observed production decline curves. The high initial peak of the production curve is controlled by advective fracture flow of free gas within the network and is sensitive to the fracture aperture variability. Matrix diffusion does not significantly affect the production decline curve in the first few years, but contributes to production after approximately 10 years. These results suggest that the initial flushing of gas-filled background fractures combined with highly heterogeneous flow paths to the production well are sufficient to explain observed initial production decline. These results also suggest that matrix diffusion may support reduced production over longer time frames.

  13. Coalbed natural gas exploration, drilling activities, and geologic test results, 2007-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Arthur C.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in partnership with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, the North Slope Borough, and the Arctic Slope Regional Corporation conducted a four-year study designed to identify, define, and delineate a shallow coalbed natural gas (CBNG) resource with the potential to provide locally produced, affordable power to the community of Wainwright, Alaska. From 2007 through 2010, drilling and testing activities conducted at three sites in or near Wainwright, identified and evaluated an approximately 7.5-ft-thick, laterally continuous coalbed that contained significant quantities of CBNG. This coalbed, subsequently named the Wainwright coalbed, was penetrated at depths ranging from 1,167 ft to 1,300 ft below land surface. Core samples were collected from the Wainwright coalbed at all three drill locations and desorbed-gas measurements were taken from seventeen 1-ft-thick sections of the core. These measurements indicate that the Wainwright coalbed contains enough CBNG to serve as a long-term energy supply for the community. Although attempts to produce viable quantities of CBNG from the Wainwright coalbed proved unsuccessful, it seems likely that with proper well-field design and by utilizing currently available drilling and reservoir stimulation techniques, this CBNG resource could be developed as a long-term economically viable energy source for Wainwright.

  14. C1-carbon sources for chemical and fuel production by microbial gas fermentation.

    PubMed

    Dürre, Peter; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2015-12-01

    Fossil resources for production of fuels and chemicals are finite and fuel use contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. Thus, sustainable fuel supply, security, and prices necessitate the implementation of alternative routes to the production of chemicals and fuels. Much attention has been focussed on use of cellulosic material, particularly through microbial-based processes. However, this is still costly and proving challenging, as are catalytic routes to biofuels from whole biomass. An alternative strategy is to directly capture carbon before incorporation into lignocellulosic biomass. Autotrophic acetogenic, carboxidotrophic, and methanotrophic bacteria are able to capture carbon as CO, CO2, or CH4, respectively, and reuse that carbon in products that displace their fossil-derived counterparts. Thus, gas fermentation represents a versatile industrial platform for the sustainable production of commodity chemicals and fuels from diverse gas resources derived from industrial processes, coal, biomass, municipal solid waste (MSW), and extracted natural gas. PMID:25841103

  15. Device for quickly sensing the amount of O2 in a combustion product gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J. (Inventor); Davis, William T. (Inventor); Puster, Richard L. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensing device comprising an O2 sensor, a pump, a compressor, and a heater is provided to quickly sense the amount of O2 in a combustion product gas. A sample of the combustion product gas is compressed to a pressure slightly above one atmosphere by the compressor. Next, the heater heats the sample between 800 C and 900 C. Next, the pump causes the sample to be flushed against the electrode located in O2 sensor 6000 to 10,000 times per second. Reference air at approximately one atmosphere is provided to the electrode of O2 sensor. Accordingly, the O2 sensor produces a voltage which is proportional to the amount of oxygen in the combustion product gas. This voltage may be used to control the amount of O2 entering into the combustion chamber which produces the combustion product gas.

  16. UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS RESOURCES: AN OVERVIEW COVERING THE RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers natural gas from the following unconventional sources: western tight sands, Devonian shale, coal deposits, geopressured aquifers, and landfills. This report covers the resource base, potential production levels, and associated environmental aspects. Over the pa...

  17. Prospective air pollutant emissions inventory for the development and production of unconventional natural gas in the Karoo basin, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, Katye E.; Stone, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    The increased use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques to produce gas from unconventional deposits has led to concerns about the impacts to local and regional air quality. South Africa has the 8th largest technically recoverable shale gas reserve in the world and is in the early stages of exploration of this resource. This paper presents a prospective air pollutant emissions inventory for the development and production of unconventional natural gas in South Africa's Karoo basin. A bottom-up Monte Carlo assessment of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), and non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions was conducted for major categories of well development and production activities. NOx emissions are estimated to be 68 tons per day (±42; standard deviation), total NMVOC emissions are 39 tons per day (±28), and PM2.5 emissions are 3.0 tons per day (±1.9). NOx and NMVOC emissions from shale gas development and production would dominate all other regional emission sources, and could be significant contributors to regional ozone and local air quality, especially considering the current lack of industrial activity in the region. Emissions of PM2.5 will contribute to local air quality, and are of a similar magnitude as typical vehicle and industrial emissions from a large South African city. This emissions inventory provides the information necessary for regulatory authorities to evaluate emissions reduction opportunities using existing technologies and to implement appropriate monitoring of shale gas-related activities.

  18. Alluvial fans and fan deltas: a guide to exploration for oil and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, G.S.; Suttner, L.

    1986-01-01

    This volume is a result of a series of lectures presented to an oil company in 1985 and is intended for an audience of explorationists. Material is presented in the order in which an exploration program might proceed in a frontier area. The volume is divided into six chapters that cover definitions and tectonic setting, alluvial-fan morphology, processes and facies on alluvial fans, geomorphic controls, effects of extrinsic controls (chiefly tectonism and climate) on alluvial-fan sequences, and diagenesis. Previously published black-and-white line drawings from studies of modern and ancient fans and fan deltas provide almost all the illustrative material; only one photograph is included, an aerial view of fans in part of Death Valley. The authors emphasize the complexity and variability of fan deposits and their resultant architecture. Although the volume contains a useful review of previous literature, it contains little new material, and it is remarkably lacking subsurface examples and data for a volume intended for the exploration community. In addition, fan deltas receive only brief attention; the overwhelming part of the book is devoted to alluvial fans. The volume will be of interest to those involved in studies of modern and ancient alluvial-fan deposits. 165 references.

  19. 30 CFR 250.202 - What criteria must the Exploration Plan (EP), Development and Production Plan (DPP), or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans...), Development and Production Plan (DPP), or Development Operations Coordination Document (DOCD) meet? 250.202...), Development and Production Plan (DPP), or Development Operations Coordination Document (DOCD) meet? Your...

  20. Autonomous ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements for exploring biogenic gas dynamics of peat soils in a northern peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, W. J.; Comas, X.; Heij, G.; Slater, L. D.; Schafer, K. V.; Reeve, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    It is widely accepted that northern peat soils are responsible for up to 10% of methane flux to the atmosphere yet act as a net sink for as much as 75% of the global mass of atmospheric carbon. A better understanding of the processes by which peat soils store and release carbon products must be gained in order to more accurately model the contributions that peatlands make to global atmospheric carbon budgets. Rapid ebullition events of biogenic methane and carbon dioxide gases from peat soils are currently not well understood, particularly since the timing of the releases are poorly constrained. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical tool that has successfully been used in the past to non-invasively investigate the release of biogenic gasses from peat soils. In the work presented here, measurement frequency is expanded by including daily arrays of common offset and common midpoint GPR measurements combined with hourly autonomous GPR measurements to investigate biogenic gas dynamics during times of variable atmospheric pressure in a northern peatland in Maine. Geophysical data were supported by peat matrix deformation measurements using terrestrial LiDAR (TLS) and direct gas flux measurements using gas traps combined with time-lapse cameras at the sub-daily scale. A vertical array of moisture probes was also used to further constrain GPR measurements. Results from this study show the viability of autonomous GPR methods for improving temporal resolution of geophysical data in order to better understand the dynamics of biogenic gas releases from peat soils.

  1. Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya

    2006-06-05

    We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid.

  2. Gas Reactor Plant Analyzer and Simulator for Hydrogen Production

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-01-01

    This software is used to study and analyze various configurations of plant equipment for gas cooled nuclear reactor applications. The user of this software would likely be interested in optimizing the economic, safety, and operating performance of this type of reactor. The code provides the capability for the user through his input to configure networks of nuclear reactor components. The components available include turbine, compressor, heat exchanger, reactor core, coolers, bypass valves, and control systems.

  3. 78 FR 33051 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity, The Gas Company, LLC dba Hawai'i Gas, Subzone 9F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... currently has authority to produce synthetic natural gas, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, hydrocarbon gas mixtures... natural gas, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, hydrocarbon gas mixtures and zinc sulfide (duty rate ranges...

  4. Western Gas Sands Project: production histories of the Piceance and Uinta basins of Colorado and Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.; Kohout, J.

    1980-11-20

    Current United States geological tight sand designations in the Piceance and Uinta Basins' Western Gas Sands Project include the Mesaverde Group, Fort Union and Wasatch Formations. Others, such as the Dakota, Cedar Mountain, Morrison and Mancos may eventually be included. Future production from these formations will probably be closely associated with existing trends. Cumulative gas production through December 1979, of the Mesaverde Group, Fort Union and Wasatch Formations in the Piceance and Uinta Basins is less than 275 billion cubic feet. This contrasts dramatically with potential gas in place estimates of 360 trillion cubic feet. If the geology can be fully understood and engineering problems surmounted, significant potential reserves can be exploited.

  5. Steam noncondensable gas and foam for steam and distillation drive in subsurface petroleum production

    SciTech Connect

    Duerksen, J. H.

    1984-12-18

    A method is disclosed for increased recovery of crude petroleum from a subsurface formation containing petroleum deposits. The method combines steam and gas distillation drive using foam to divert the steam/gas and to establish a thermal barrier against heat loss into the surrounding formations. A noncondensable gas is injected with or after steam to produce a distillate bank which is moved through the formation from an injection well toward a production well. Fluids produced at the production well are monitored to provide information for control of the injected materials at the injection well.

  6. Atmospheric hydrocarbon emissions and concentrations in the barnett shale natural gas production region.

    PubMed

    Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Sullivan, David W; Allen, David T

    2014-05-01

    Hourly ambient hydrocarbon concentration data were collected, in the Barnett Shale Natural Gas Production Region, using automated gas chromatography (auto-GC), for the period from April 2010 to December 2011. Data for three sites were compared: a site in the geographical center of the natural gas production region (Eagle Mountain Lake (EML)); a rural/suburban site at the periphery of the production region (Flower Mound Shiloh), and an urban site (Hinton). The dominant hydrocarbon species observed in the Barnett Shale region were light alkanes. Analyses of daily, monthly, and hourly patterns showed little variation in relative composition. Observed concentrations were compared to concentrations predicted using a dispersion model (AERMOD) and a spatially resolved inventory of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from natural gas production (Barnett Shale Special Emissions Inventory) prepared by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), and other emissions information. The predicted concentrations of VOC due to natural gas production were 0-40% lower than background corrected measurements, after accounting for potential under-estimation of certain emission categories. Hourly and daily variations in observed, background corrected concentrations were primarily explained by variability in meteorology, suggesting that episodic emission events had little impact on hourly averaged concentrations. Total emissions for VOC from natural gas production sources are estimated to be approximately 25,300 tons/yr, when accounting for potential under-estimation of certain emission categories. This region produced, in 2011, approximately 5 bcf/d of natural gas (100 Gg/d) for a VOC to natural gas production ratio (mass basis) of 0.0006. PMID:24712292

  7. Gas production from a cold, stratigraphically-bounded gas hydrate deposit at the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Implications of uncertainties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moridis, G.J.; Silpngarmlert, S.; Reagan, M.T.; Collett, T.; Zhang, K.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an effort to identify suitable targets for a planned long-term field test, we investigate by means of numerical simulation the gas production potential from unit D, a stratigraphically bounded (Class 3) permafrost-associated hydrate occurrence penetrated in the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well on North Slope, Alaska. This shallow, low-pressure deposit has high porosities (?? = 0.4), high intrinsic permeabilities (k = 10-12 m2) and high hydrate saturations (SH = 0.65). It has a low temperature (T = 2.3-2.6 ??C) because of its proximity to the overlying permafrost. The simulation results indicate that vertical wells operating at a constant bottomhole pressure would produce at very low rates for a very long period. Horizontal wells increase gas production by almost two orders of magnitude, but production remains low. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the initial deposit temperature is by the far the most important factor determining production performance (and the most effective criterion for target selection) because it controls the sensible heat available to fuel dissociation. Thus, a 1 ??C increase in temperature is sufficient to increase the production rate by a factor of almost 8. Production also increases with a decreasing hydrate saturation (because of a larger effective permeability for a given k), and is favored (to a lesser extent) by anisotropy. ?? 2010.

  8. Educating students and stakeholders about shale gas production using a physical model of hydraulic fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stute, M.; Garten, L.

    2013-12-01

    Natural gas from shale gas deposits in the United States can potentially help reduce the dependency on foreign energy sources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and improve economic development in currently depressed regions of the country. However, the hydraulic fracturing process (';fracking') employed to release natural gas from formation such as the Marcellus Shale in New York State and Pennsylvania carries significant environmental risks, in particular for local and regional water resources. The current polarized discussion of the topic needs to be informed by sound data and a better understanding of the technical, scientific, social, and economic aspects of hydrofracking. We developed, built and tested an interactive portable physical model of the gas production by hydrofracking that can be used in class rooms and at public events to visualize the procedures and associated risks including the dynamics of water, gas and fracking fluids. Dyes are used to identify shale, fracking fluids and backflow and can be traced in the adjacent groundwater system. Gas production is visualized by a CO2 producing acid/bicarbonate solution reaction. The tank was shown to considerably improve knowledge of environmental issues related to unconventional gas production by hydrofracking in an advanced undergraduate course.

  9. City of North Bonneville, Washington: Geothermal Exploration Project, production test well, Phase II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Based on discussions with the City of North Bonneville, the production test well was drilled to a depth that would also explore for ground water temperatures near 130/sup 0/F (54.4/sup 0/C). Depth projections to a 130/sup 0/F bottom hole temperature were made by assuming a constant ground water temperature rise greater than 50/sup 0/C per kilometer, and by assuming that essentially homogeneous or equivalent conductive rock units would be encountered. Minimum water production requirements were not set, although the City determined that about 800 gpm would be acceptable. Large upper casing diameters of 16 and 12 inches were installed in order to provide the future use of either a vertical turbine or submersible pump, as desired by the city. The scope of work included interpretation of well characteristics, evaluation of ground water as a geothermal resource, geologic analysis of data from drilling and testing, drilling supervision, daily drilling cost accounting, and preparation of a final report. The report includes geologic evaluation of the drilling and test data, ground water and geothermal potential.

  10. Outsourcing of common industry data within a major oil and gas exploration company

    SciTech Connect

    Hude, C.G. ); Glover, S. )

    1993-09-01

    Enhancing user productivity while reducing internal costs through improved accessibility and virtual elimination of data and software maintenance were the initial goals of this project. We achieved these objectives through the outsourcing of common well and production data with a major vendor. In this paper, we outline the changing internal business operations of a major oil company and its associated vendor relationship. The goals of this project were multifold: provide our users with real-time access to nationwide well and production data, eliminate data and system software maintenance and support, redeploy computer system resources and personnel for use elsewhere within the organization, and continue to provide users with the same level of service at less cost. We established a satisfactory interface between the users and the vendor database by employing existing technology. A mainframe-to-mainframe connection was established by installing a leased line between the two host sites. This allowed both companies to use existing network facilities with minimal modifications to each operating environment. This project was begun successfully in a relatively short time. Due to the success of this project, we are evaluating adding company proprietary data. However, because technology and requirements change, relational delivery of the data within a workstation/server environment can be addressed within this framework.

  11. Numerical modeling of the simulated gas hydrate production test at Mallik 2L-38 in the pilot scale pressure reservoir LARS - Applying the "foamy oil" model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abendroth, Sven; Thaler, Jan; Klump, Jens; Schicks, Judith; Uddin, Mafiz

    2014-05-01

    In the context of the German joint project SUGAR (Submarine Gas Hydrate Reservoirs: exploration, extraction and transport) we conducted a series of experiments in the LArge Reservoir Simulator (LARS) at the German Research Centre of Geosciences Potsdam. These experiments allow us to investigate the formation and dissociation of hydrates at large scale laboratory conditions. We performed an experiment similar to the field-test conditions of the production test in the Mallik gas hydrate field (Mallik 2L-38) in the Beaufort Mackenzie Delta of the Canadian Arctic. The aim of this experiment was to study the transport behavior of fluids in gas hydrate reservoirs during depressurization (see also Heeschen et al. and Priegnitz et al., this volume). The experimental results from LARS are used to provide details about processes inside the pressure vessel, to validate the models through history matching, and to feed back into the design of future experiments. In experiments in LARS the amount of methane produced from gas hydrates was much lower than expected. Previously published models predict a methane production rate higher than the one observed in experiments and field studies (Uddin et al. 2010; Wright et al. 2011). The authors of the aforementioned studies point out that the current modeling approach overestimates the gas production rate when modeling gas production by depressurization. They suggest that trapping of gas bubbles inside the porous medium is responsible for the reduced gas production rate. They point out that this behavior of multi-phase flow is not well explained by a "residual oil" model, but rather resembles a "foamy oil" model. Our study applies Uddin's (2010) "foamy oil" model and combines it with history matches of our experiments in LARS. Our results indicate a better agreement between experimental and model results when using the "foamy oil" model instead of conventional models of gas flow in water. References Uddin M., Wright J.F. and Coombe D. (2010) - Numerical Study of gas evolution and transport behaviors in natural gas hydrate reservoirs; CSUG/SPE 137439. Wright J.F., Uddin M., Dallimore S.R. and Coombe D. (2011) - Mechanisms of gas evolution and transport in a producing gas hydrate reservoir: an unconventional basis for successful history matching of observed production flow data; International Conference on Gas Hydrates (ICGH 2011).

  12. Coupling Hydraulic Fracturing Propagation and Gas Well Performance for Simulation of Production in Unconventional Shale Gas Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Winterfeld, P. H.; Wu, Y. S.; Wang, Y.; Chen, D.; Yin, C.; Pan, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing combined with horizontal drilling has made it possible to economically produce natural gas from unconventional shale gas reservoirs. An efficient methodology for evaluating hydraulic fracturing operation parameters, such as fluid and proppant properties, injection rates, and wellhead pressure, is essential for the evaluation and efficient design of these processes. Traditional numerical evaluation and optimization approaches are usually based on simulated fracture properties such as the fracture area. In our opinion, a methodology based on simulated production data is better, because production is the goal of hydraulic fracturing and we can calibrate this approach with production data that is already known. This numerical methodology requires a fully-coupled hydraulic fracture propagation and multi-phase flow model. In this paper, we present a general fully-coupled numerical framework to simulate hydraulic fracturing and post-fracture gas well performance. This three-dimensional, multi-phase simulator focuses on: (1) fracture width increase and fracture propagation that occurs as slurry is injected into the fracture, (2) erosion caused by fracture fluids and leakoff, (3) proppant subsidence and flowback, and (4) multi-phase fluid flow through various-scaled anisotropic natural and man-made fractures. Mathematical and numerical details on how to fully couple the fracture propagation and fluid flow parts are discussed. Hydraulic fracturing and production operation parameters, and properties of the reservoir, fluids, and proppants, are taken into account. The well may be horizontal, vertical, or deviated, as well as open-hole or cemented. The simulator is verified based on benchmarks from the literature and we show its application by simulating fracture network (hydraulic and natural fractures) propagation and production data history matching of a field in China. We also conduct a series of real-data modeling studies with different combinations of hydraulic fracturing parameters and present the methodology to design these operations with feedback of simulated production data. The unified model aids in the optimization of hydraulic fracturing design, operations, and production.

  13. Pyrolysis of glycerol for the production of hydrogen or syn gas.

    PubMed

    Valliyappan, T; Bakhshi, N N; Dalai, A K

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel has high potential as alternative liquid transportation fuel because it is renewable and CO(2) neutral, and has similar properties as diesel fuel. Glycerol is a by-product obtained during the production of biodiesel. Canadian government has planned to produce 500 million litres of biodiesel by 2010. An increase in biodiesel production would decrease the market price of glycerol. The objective of this study is to pyrolyse glycerol for the production of clean fuels such as H(2) or a feedstock such as syn gas for additional transportation fuel via Fisher-Tropsch synthesis. The pyrolysis of glycerol was carried out at various flow rates of N(2) (30-70 mL/min), temperatures (650-800 degrees C) and types and sizes of packing material in a tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure. The products were mostly gas, essentially consisting of CO, H(2), CO(2), CH(4) and C(2)H(4). It was observed that temperature, carrier flow rates and particle diameter of packing material had profound effects on the conversion of glycerol as well as product distribution. Composition of product gas ranged between syn gas 70-93 mol%, CH(4) 3-15 mol% and C(2)H(4) 2-12 mol% and heating value ranged from 13 to 22 MJ/m(3). This study indicates that the bio-glycerol has potential in making syn gas and medium heating value gases. PMID:17951053

  14. Products from pyrolysis of gas-phase propionaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Warner, Brian J; Wright, Emily M; Foreman, Hannah E; Wellman, Courtney D; McCunn, Laura R

    2015-01-01

    A hyperthermal nozzle was utilized to study the thermal decomposition of propionaldehyde, CH3CH2CHO, over a temperature range of 1073-1600 K. Products were identified with two detection methods: matrix-isolation Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and photoionization mass spectrometry. Evidence was observed for four reactions during the breakdown of propionaldehyde: α-C-C bond scission yielding CH3CH2, CO, and H, an elimination reaction forming methylketene and H2, an isomerization pathway leading to propyne via the elimination of H2O, and a β-C-C bond scission channel forming methyl radical and (•)CH2CHO. The products identified during this experiment were CO, HCO, CH3CH2, CH3CH═C═O, H2O, CH3C≡CH, CH3, H2C═C═O, CH2CH2, CH3CH═CH2, HC≡CH, CH2CCH, H2CO, C4H2, C4H4, and CH3CHO. The first eight products result from primary or bimolecular reactions involving propionaldehyde while the remaining products occur from reactions including the initial pyrolysis products. While the pyrolysis of propionaldehyde involves reactions similar to those observed for acetaldehyde and butyraldehyde in recent studies, there are a few unique products observed which highlight the need for further study of the pyrolysis mechanism. PMID:25526259

  15. Geochemical Monitoring Of The Gas Hydrate Production By CO2/CH4 Exchange In The Ignik Sikumi Gas Hydrate Production Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenson, T. D.; Collett, T. S.; Ignik Sikumi, S.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrocarbon gases, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water were collected from production streams at the Ignik Sikumi gas hydrate production test well (TD, 791.6 m), drilled on the Alaska North Slope. The well was drilled to test the feasibility of producing methane by carbon dioxide injection that replaces methane in the solid gas hydrate. The Ignik Sikumi well penetrated a stratigraphically-bounded prospect within the Eileen gas hydrate accumulation. Regionally, the Eileen gas hydrate accumulation overlies the more deeply buried Prudhoe Bay, Milne Point, and Kuparuk River oil fields and is restricted to the up-dip portion of a series of nearshore deltaic sandstone reservoirs in the Sagavanirktok Formation. Hydrate-bearing sandstones penetrated by Ignik Sikumi well occur in three primary horizons; an upper zone, ("E" sand, 579.7 - 597.4 m) containing 17.7 meters of gas hydrate-bearing sands, a middle zone ("D" sand, 628.2 - 648.6 m) with 20.4 m of gas hydrate-bearing sands and a lower zone ("C" sand, 678.8 - 710.8 m), containing 32 m of gas hydrate-bearing sands with neutron porosity log-interpreted average gas hydrate saturations of 58, 76 and 81% respectively. A known volume mixture of 77% nitrogen and 23% carbon dioxide was injected into an isolated section of the upper part of the "C" sand to start the test. Production flow-back part of the test occurred in three stages each followed by a period of shut-in: (1) unassisted flowback; (2) pumping above native methane gas hydrate stability conditions; and (3) pumping below the native methane gas hydrate stability conditions. Methane production occurred immediately after commencing unassisted flowback. Methane concentration increased from 0 to 40% while nitrogen and carbon dioxide concentrations decreased to 48 and 12% respectively. Pumping above the hydrate stability phase boundary produced gas with a methane concentration climbing above 80% while the carbon dioxide and nitrogen concentrations fell to 2 and 18% respectively. Pumping below the gas hydrate stability phase boundary occurred in two periods with the composition of the produced gases continually increasing in methane reaching an excess of 96%, along with carbon dioxide decreasing to <1% and nitrogen to ~3%. The isotopic composition of all the gases was monitored. Methane carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions remained stable throughout the test, while the carbon dioxide carbon became isotopically heavier. Nitrogen isotopic composition remained stable or became slightly isotopically depleted at the later phase of the test. These results imply that the produced methane was not isotopically fractionated, whereas carbon dioxide was fractionated becoming isotopically heavier at the end of each production phase. In addition, water samples were analyzed during the production phase documenting an increase in salinity.

  16. Unconventional Gas Development in the USA: Exploring the Risk Perception Issues.

    PubMed

    Graham, John D; Rupp, John A; Schenk, Olga

    2015-10-01

    Unconventional gas development (UGD) is growing rapidly in the United States. Drawing on insights from risk perception and risk governance theories and recent public opinion surveys, we find that UGD is an emerging technology that is likely to be perceived as risky, even though objective risk assessments suggest that risks are low and controllable through best risk management practices. Perceived risk varies significantly depending on the state and locality but perceptions of risk appear to be increasing as the technology is used more widely in the United States and as organized opponents of the technology intensify their efforts. Risk perceptions are attenuated somewhat because of the perceived benefits of UGD and compensation schemes for individuals and communities. The types of triggering events necessary for large-scale social amplification and stigmatization have not yet occurred but awareness of UGD is growing and organized opposition has been sufficient to cause prohibitions of UGD in some U.S. states and localities. Additional directions for social science research on public reactions to UGD are recommended. PMID:26460730

  17. Atomic hydrogen production rates for comet P/Halley from observations with Dynamics Explorer I

    SciTech Connect

    Craven, J.D.; Frank, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of atomic hydrogen surrounding comet Halley is observed in resonantly scattered solar Lyman-alpha radiation with the imaging photometer for vacuum-ultraviolet wavelengths on the Earth-orbiting spacecraft Dynamics Explorer I. Measurements are made of the total Lyman-alpha flux at Earth due to the cometary neutral-hydrogen distribution and the hydrogen production rate determined as a function of heliocentric distance, r. Corrections are made for the finite field-of-view of the photometer and for the approx 700-R background at the spacecraft arising from the presence of geocoronal, interplanetary, and galactic hydrogen. The distribution of hydrogen surrounding the comet nucleus at time t is dominated by atoms released from the comet in parent molecules at about time t - tau, where the hydrogen lifetime is tau. Corrections are made for this time difference. For distances 1.5 to 0.68 AU before perihelion passage, the hydrogen production rate varies as Q/sub o/r//sup 8/, where n = 2.30 and Q sub 0 = 0.1 x 10/sup 29/ atoms/s. Using the same functional dependence in the post-perihelion period at distances 0.63 to 1.2 AU, preliminary values based on a limited data set are n = 1.62 and Q sub 0 = 1.1 x 10/sup 30/ atoms/s. These production rates are consistent with in-situ measurements from the Giotto and Vega spacecraft, and with the Pioneer-Venus and IUE spacecraft.

  18. Monotoring of mangrove ecosystem in relation with exploration and production activities

    SciTech Connect

    Alamsyah, C.; Dwistiadi, D.

    1996-11-01

    From Indonesia`s initial 13 million hectares of mangrove forests, presently only 2.6 million hectares remains which must be certainly protected. Mangrove swamps are of considerable ecological importance not only because of their use as spawning and feeding grounds for a many variety of fish and shrimps but also of economical importance and last but not least as coastal protection. In such a sensitive ecosystem, i.e. in the mangrove swamp area of Mahakam Delta in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, TOTAL Indonesie, an affiliate of the French oil company {open_quotes}TOTAL{close_quotes} and one of the production sharing contractors of PERTAMINA, the Indonesian owned state oil company, has undertaken its E&P operations since 1974. Realizing the sensitivity of the mangrove area, TOTAL Indonesie has undertaken continuous monitoring of the environment as part of its Environmental Management System. This monitoring is very important not only to measure the impact to the mangrove ecosystem in particular due to TOTAL Indonesie activities but also as a feed back for the environmental management. Physicochemical and biological aspects of the environment are monitored and various measurements are taken covering: (1) Hydrology and hydrodynamics of the water streams i.e. the water quality, productivity and flow characteristic of the region (2) Sedimentation and biodegradation (3) The influence of accidental and chronic pollution mangrove ecosystem (3) Sensitivity of the mangroves. The above monitoring has led to the conclusion that after more than 20 years of operation, there has significant adverse impact to the mangrove ecosystem by the exploration and production activities of Indonesie.

  19. Modeling of Devonian shale gas reservoirs. Task 16. Mathematical modeling of shale gas production (2D model). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has been supporting the development of flow models for Devonian shale gas reservoirs. The broad objectives of this modeling program are to: (1) develop and validate a mathematical model which describes gas flow through Devonian shales; (2) determine the sensitive parameters that affect deliverability and recovery of gas from Devonian shales; (3) recommend laboratory and field measurements for determination of those parameters critical to the productivity and timely recovery of gas from the Devonian shales; (4) analyze pressure and rate transient data from observation and production gas wells to determine reservoir parameters and well performance; and (5) study and determine the overall performance of Devonian shale reservoirs in terms of well stimulation, well spacing, and resource recovery as a function of gross reservoir properties such as anisotropy, porosity and thickness variations, and boundary effects. During the previous annual period, a mathematical model describing gas flow through Devonian shales and the software for a radial one-dimensional numerical model for single well performance were completed and placed into operation. Although the radial flow model is a powerful tool for studying single well behavior, it is inadequate for determining the effects of well spacing, stimulation treatments, and variation in reservoir properties. Hence, it has been necessary to extend the model to two-dimensions, maintaining full capability regarding Klinkerberg effects, desorption, and shale matrix parameters. During the current annual period, the radial flow model has been successfully extended to provide the two-dimensional capability necessary for the attainment of overall program objectives, as described above.

  20. Principal decomposition by-products generated at various abnormalities in gas-insulated transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Mukaiyama, Y.; Takagi, I.; Ishihara, H. ); Kudo, A.; Makino, Y.; Hosokawa, N. )

    1994-10-01

    Gas analysis provides a promising means for a diagnosis of gas-insulated equipment. Although many studies have been concentrated on SF[sub 6] gas decomposition, they were mostly related to the faults in GIS systems and not directly applicable to gas-insulated transformers, who have much complicated material structure. An experimental survey over decomposition by-products at various abnormal conditions was carried out by use of simulating models to develop a diagnostic method for gas-insulated transformers based on gas and ion chromatograph analyses. Major components characteristic to each abnormality, such SO[sub 2] on metal overheat, SO[sub 2]F[sub 2] on partial discharges, etc. were identified by the experiments.

  1. Microbial production of natural gas from coal and organic-rich shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, William

    2013-01-01

    Natural gas is an important component of the energy mix in the United States, producing greater energy yield per unit weight and less pollution compared to coal and oil. Most of the world’s natural gas resource is thermogenic, produced in the geologic environment over time by high temperature and pressure within deposits of oil, coal, and shale. About 20 percent of the natural gas resource, however, is produced by microorganisms (microbes). Microbes potentially could be used to generate economic quantities of natural gas from otherwise unexploitable coal and shale deposits, from coal and shale from which natural gas has already been recovered, and from waste material such as coal slurry. Little is known, however, about the microbial production of natural gas from coal and shale.

  2. Volatile organic compound emissions from unconventional natural gas production: Source signatures and air quality impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarthout, Robert F.

    Advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing over the past two decades have allowed access to previously unrecoverable reservoirs of natural gas and led to an increase in natural gas production. Intensive unconventional natural gas extraction has led to concerns about impacts on air quality. Unconventional natural gas production has the potential to emit vast quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. Many VOCs can be toxic, can produce ground-level ozone or secondary organic aerosols, and can impact climate. This dissertation presents the results of experiments designed to validate VOC measurement techniques, to quantify VOC emission rates from natural gas sources, to identify source signatures specific to natural gas emissions, and to quantify the impacts of these emissions on potential ozone formation and human health. Measurement campaigns were conducted in two natural gas production regions: the Denver-Julesburg Basin in northeast Colorado and the Marcellus Shale region surrounding Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. An informal measurement intercomparison validated the canister sampling methodology used throughout this dissertation for the measurement of oxygenated VOCs. Mixing ratios of many VOCs measured during both campaigns were similar to or higher than those observed in polluted cities. Fluxes of natural gas-associated VOCs in Colorado ranged from 1.5-3 times industry estimates. Similar emission ratios relative to propane were observed for C2-C6 alkanes in both regions, and an isopentane:n-pentane ratio ≈1 was identified as a unique tracer for natural gas emissions. Source apportionment estimates indicated that natural gas emissions were responsible for the majority of C2-C8 alkanes observed in each region, but accounted for a small proportion of alkenes and aromatic compounds. Natural gas emissions in both regions accounted for approximately 20% of hydroxyl radical reactivity, which could hinder federal ozone standard compliance in downwind cities. A health risk assessment showed no increase in cancer or chronic non-cancer risk at locations near natural gas wells in Pennsylvania, but the contribution of natural gas emissions to total risk was 3-6 times higher near wells. These results will assist policy makers, natural gas producers, and citizen stakeholders in crafting effective policies to control VOC emissions from natural gas production activities.

  3. From Paper to Production: An Update on NASA's Upper Stage Engine for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kynard, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The NASA/industry team responsible for developing the J-2X Upper Stage Engine for the Constellation Program's Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles has made significant progress toward moving the design from paper to production during the past year. The J-2X exemplifies the Constellation goal of using proven technology and experience from more than 50 years of United States spaceflight experience and seeking where possible to employ common hardware in the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The J-2X will power the Ares I upper stage to place the Orion crew vehicle in orbit. For the Ares V, the J-2X will place the Earth departure stage (EDS) and lunar lander in orbit and later re-start to send the Orion and lander to the Moon. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is under contract to develop and produce the engine, leveraging its flight-proven LH2/LOX, gas generator cycle J-2 and RS-68 engine capabilities, recent experience with the X-33 aerospike XRS-2200 engine, and development knowledge of the J-2S tap-off cycle engine. The J-2X employs a gas generator operating cycle designed to produce 294,000 pounds of thrust in primary operating mode for the Ares I and Ares V ascent phases. It also has a secondary mode, during which it operates at 80 percent thrust by altering its mixture ratio to perform the TLI burn for the Ares V lunar sortie and lunar cargo missions. The J-2X development philosophy is based on proven hardware, an aggressive development schedule, and early risk reduction. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and PWR began development of the J-2X in June 2006. The government/industry team of more than 600 people within NASA and PWR successfully completed the Critical Design Review (CDR) in November 2008, following extensive risk mitigation testing. The team is working toward a first flight of the J-2X on the Orion 1 mission in 2014. This paper will discuss the J-2X development background and provide top-level information on design and testing to date. Details will be provided on overcoming challenges such as gas generator instability, turbine blade life, and nozzle extension selection and materials.

  4. Production of Gas Bubbles in Reduced Gravity Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oguz, Hasan N.; Takagi, Shu; Misawa, Masaki

    1996-01-01

    In a wide variety of applications such as waste water treatment, biological reactors, gas-liquid reactors, blood oxygenation, purification of liquids, etc., it is necessary to produce small bubbles in liquids. Since gravity plays an essential role in currently available techniques, the adaptation of these applications to space requires the development of new tools. Under normal gravity, bubbles are typically generated by forcing gas through an orifice in a liquid. When a growing bubble becomes large enough, the buoyancy dominates the surface tension force causing it to detach from the orifice. In space, the process is quite different and the bubble may remain attached to the orifice indefinitely. The most practical approach to simulating gravity seems to be imposing an ambient flow to force bubbles out of the orifice. In this paper, we are interested in the effect of an imposed flow in 0 and 1 g. Specifically, we investigate the process of bubble formation subject to a parallel and a cross flow. In the case of parallel flow, we have a hypodermic needle in a tube from which bubbles can be produced. On the other hand, the cross flow condition is established by forcing bubbles through an orifice on a wall in a shear flow. The first series of experiments have been performed under normal gravity conditions and the working fluid was water. A high quality microgravity facility has been used for the second type and silicone oil is used as the host liquid.

  5. Global exploration and production capacity for platinum-group metals from 1995 through 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Platinum-group metals (PGMs) are required in a variety of commercial, industrial, and military applications for many existing and emerging technologies, yet the United States is highly dependent on foreign sources of PGMs. Information on global exploration for PGMs since 1995 has been used in this study as a basis for identifying locations where the industry has determined that exploration has provided data sufficient to warrant development of a new mine or expansion of an existing operation or where a significant increase in capacity for PGMs is anticipated by 2015. Discussions include an overview of the industry and the selected sites, factors affecting mineral supply, and circumstances leading to the development of mineral properties with the potential to affect mineral supply. Of the 52 sites or regional operations that were considered in this analysis, 16 sites were producing before 1995, 28 sites commenced production from 1995 through 2010, and 8 sites were expected to begin production from 2011 through 2015 if development plans came to fruition. The United States imports PGMs primarily from Canada, Russia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe to meet increasing demand for these materials in a variety of specialized and high-tech applications. Feed sources of PGMs are changing in South Africa and Russia, which together accounted for about 89 percent of platinum production and 82 percent of palladium production in 2009. A greater amount of South African PGM capacity is likely to come from deeper, higher cost Upper Group Reef seam 2 deposits and deposits in the Eastern Bushveld area. Future Russian PGM capacity is likely to come from ore zones with generally lower PGM content and different platinum-to-palladium ratios than the nickel-rich ore that dominated PGM supply in the 1990s. Because PGM supply from Canada and Russia is derived as a byproduct of copper and nickel mining, the PGM supply from these countries is influenced by economic, environmental, political, and technological factors affecting exploration for and development of copper and nickel, as well as factors affecting the PGM industry. The recovery of PGMs from mill tailings since 2004 and the recycling of PGMs from catalytic converters, electrical components, and jewelry has increased since 1995 so that recycled PGMs recovered from these products accounted for about 30 percent of the supply of platinum worldwide and 29 percent of the supply of palladium worldwide in 2010. Economic and geopolitical conditions have influenced PGM supply and demand. The global recession of 2008 and 2009 temporarily decreased demand for PGMs and constrained PGM mine exploration and development, at least through 2010. Legislation regulating the structure of the mining sector has affected mining in Russia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. Stricter vehicle emissions standards in established markets since the 1980s have led to mandatory use of pollution control devices, such as catalytic converters, that contain PGMs and are required on vehicles in expanding markets, such as China and India. It is expected that South Africa, Russia, Canada, and Zimbabwe will continue to be the principal sources of PGM at least for the next decade. Based on this review of the PGM industry, the world’s platinum capacity, expressed in terms of recoverable platinum metal, increased from 1995 through 2010 by 77,000 kilograms (kg) in South Africa, 9,000 kg in Zimbabwe, 6,000 kg in Russia, 2,000 kg in Botswana, and 2,000 kg in Canada. For the same period, palladium capacity worldwide increased by 44,000 kg in South Africa, 22,000 kg in Russia, 8,000 kg in Canada, 8,000 kg in the United States, 7,000 kg in Zimbabwe, and 3,000 kg in Botswana. Platinum capacity worldwide is expected to further increase by 24,000 kg in South Africa, 9,000 kg in Russia, 3,000 kg in Canada, and 2,000 kg in Zimbabwe from 2011 through 2015. Palladium capacity worldwide is likewise expected to increase an additional 16,000 kg in Russia, 14,000 kg in South Africa, 4,000 kg in Zimbabwe, and 1,000 kg in Canada if new or expanded mine and associated processing capacity comes into production as planned. It is likely that the magnitude of these changes in PGM capacity has been influenced by such factors as the global economy, electrical capacity shortages and mine safety concerns in South Africa, and geopolitical conditions in the major PGM producing countries.

  6. Effects of preservation conditions of canine feces on in vitro gas production kinetics and fermentation end products.

    PubMed

    Bosch, G; Wrigglesworth, D J; Cone, J W; Pellikaan, W F; Hendriks, W H

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of chilling and freezing (for 24 h) canine feces on in vitro gas production kinetics and fermentation end product profiles from carbohydrate-rich (in vitro run 1) and protein-rich (in vitro run 2) substrates. Feces were collected from 3 adult retriever-type dogs fed a canned diet for at least 2 wk. Each fecal sample was divided into 3 portions: 1 portion was used immediately as an inoculum (fresh) and the other 2 portions were used after either chilling to 5°C for 30 min and storage in crushed ice for 23.5 h (chilling) or freezing to -20°C for 30 min and storage in a prefrozen (-20°C) container for 23.5 h (freezing). The medium solution for run 1 contained N whereas that for run 2 was N free. Substrates included fructooligosaccharide (FOS), sugar beet pulp, and wheat middlings in run 1 and soybean meal, poultry meat meal, and feather meal in run 2. Gas production kinetics were calculated from cumulative gas production data measured for 72 h. After incubation, fermentation liquids were analyzed for short-chain fatty acids, NH3, and aromatic compounds. For both in vitro runs, chilling feces did not affect gas production kinetics and end product profiles of substrates compared with inocula from fresh feces. Freezing feces decreased the maximum rate of gas production in phase 2 for FOS (P<0.001) and across substrates increased gas produced (P≤0.005) and time of maximum gas production in phase 2 (P<0.001). Furthermore, compared with fresh fecal inocula, inocula from frozen feces resulted in increased overall indole concentrations in run 1 (P=0.006) and indole concentrations from soybean meal and poultry meat meal in run 2 (P<0.001). In run 2, phenol concentrations were greater (P=0.015) for frozen feces than for fresh feces (P=0.015). In conclusion, freezing canine feces for 24 h slightly altered fermentative characteristics of fecal inoculum whereas chilling feces in crushed ice for 24 h maintained fermentative characteristics. Chilling feces in crushed ice is a practical method to preserve feces during transport between laboratories within 24 h for in vitro fermentation studies evaluating dietary ingredients. PMID:23048150

  7. Gas-Phase Oxidation Products From the Photooxidation of Fifteen Biogenic Terpenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, A.; Goldstein, A. H.; Ng, N. L.; Kroll, J. H.; Varutbangkul, V.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2005-12-01

    Biogenic emissions of terpene compounds influence atmospheric chemistry through the formation of tropospheric ozone and the production of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We conducted photooxidation experiments at the Caltech Indoor Chamber Facility to examine the gas-phase products and secondary aerosol yields from isoprene, eight monoterpenes, four sesquiterpenes, and three oxygenated C10 terpenes. Terpenes were reacted with OH in the presence of NOx, with hydrocarbon to NOx ratios consistent with ratios typically observed in the ambient forested environments. The real-time formation of gas-phase oxidation products was monitored using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), which identified compounds by their mass to charge ratio and showed multi-step oxidation pathways from these reactions. The photooxidation of terpenes resulted in the formation of numerous gas-phase oxidation products that were not observed from our previous ozonolysis experiments, as well as the formation of gas-phase organic nitrogen compounds. These gas-phase oxidation products can contribute to tropospheric chemistry through further oxidation reactions in the atmosphere, or may influence the biosphere through the deposition of organic nitrogen compounds downwind. Possible reaction mechanisms and products from the photooxidation of these terpene compounds will be presented, and the relevance of these laboratory experiments to recent observations of rapid within-canopy chemistry will be discussed.

  8. 30 CFR 202.550 - How do I determine the royalty due on gas production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... value, the royalty due is the unit value of production for royalty purposes, determined under 30 CFR... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I determine the royalty due on gas production? 202.550 Section 202.550 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  9. Catalytic cracking of a Wilmington vacuum oil gas and selected hydrotreated products: Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, J.W.; Zagula, E.J.

    1987-05-01

    The catalytic cracking of a Wilmington vacuum gas oil and the products from mild hydrotreating and severe hydrotreating of this gas oil was evaluated over a low metal equilibrium catalyst in a microconfined bed unit (MCBU). Two levels of catalytic cracking severity were evaluated for these three samples. The performance and product analysis showed that hydrotreating improves the quality of catalytic cracker feedstock and the resultant products. The results also indicated that a level of hydrotreating exists above which the quality of the liquid products and the yields of coke and heavy oil are not affected significantly by the severity of the catalytic cracking process. As expected, the sulfur and nitrogen content of the liquid products (gasolines, light cycle oil, and heavy cycle oil) were found to decrease as the severity of the feed hydrotreating increased. The distribution of sulfur and nitrogen in the liquid products was found to be independent of cracking conditions or product yields for a given level of hydrogenation. Analysis of the gas products shows that the degree of hydrogen transfer increases with the severity of hydrogenation. As cracking severity increases, the apparent degree of hydrogen transfer decreases, and the concentration of olefinic compounds increases relative to the saturated compounds. In the future, these results will be compared to similar results from a Mayan vacuum gas oil. 10 refs., 17 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Fluctuation theorem for entropy production during effusion of a relativistic ideal gas.

    PubMed

    Cleuren, B; Willaert, K; Engel, A; Van den Broeck, C

    2008-02-01

    The probability distribution of the entropy production for the effusion of a relativistic ideal gas is calculated explicitly. This result is then extended to include particle and antiparticle pair production and annihilation. In both cases, the fluctuation theorem is verified. PMID:18352067

  11. Impact of biochar field aging on laboratory greenhouse gas production potentials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent observations of decreased greenhouse gas (GHG) production from biochar amended soils have been used to further substantiate the environmental benefit of biochar production and soil incorporation strategies. However, the mechanisms behind the “biochar effect” have not been fully elucidated. In...

  12. Potential restrictions for CO2 sequestration sites due to shale and tight gas production.

    PubMed

    Elliot, T R; Celia, M A

    2012-04-01

    Carbon capture and geological sequestration is the only available technology that both allows continued use of fossil fuels in the power sector and reduces significantly the associated CO(2) emissions. Geological sequestration requires a deep permeable geological formation into which captured CO(2)can be injected, and an overlying impermeable formation, called a caprock, that keeps the buoyant CO(2) within the injection formation. Shale formations typically have very low permeability and are considered to be good caprock formations. Production of natural gas from shale and other tight formations involves fracturing the shale with the explicit objective to greatly increase the permeability of the shale. As such, shale gas production is in direct conflict with the use of shale formations as a caprock barrier to CO(2) migration. We have examined the locations in the United States where deep saline aquifers, suitable for CO(2) sequestration, exist, as well as the locations of gas production from shale and other tight formations. While estimated sequestration capacity for CO(2) sequestration in deep saline aquifers is large, up to 80% of that capacity has areal overlap with potential shale-gas production regions and, therefore, could be adversely affected by shale and tight gas production. Analysis of stationary sources of CO(2) shows a similar effect: about two-thirds of the total emissions from these sources are located within 20 miles of a deep saline aquifer, but shale and tight gas production could affect up to 85% of these sources. These analyses indicate that colocation of deep saline aquifers with shale and tight gas production could significantly affect the sequestration capacity for CCS operations. This suggests that a more comprehensive management strategy for subsurface resource utilization should be developed. PMID:22352312

  13. Structural exploration and Frster theory modeling for the interpretation of gas-phase FRET measurements: Chromophore-grafted amyloid-? peptides.

    PubMed

    Kulesza, Alexander; Daly, Steven; MacAleese, Luke; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe

    2015-07-14

    The distance-dependence of excitation energy transfer, e.g., being described by Frster theory (Frster resonance energy transfer (FRET)), allows the use of optical techniques for the direct observation of structural properties. Recently, this technique has been successfully applied in the gas phase. The detailed interpretation of the experimental FRET results, however, relies on the comparison with structural modeling. We therefore present a complete first-principles modeling approach that explores the gas-phase structure of chromophore-grafted peptides and achieves accurate predictions of FRET efficiencies. We apply the approach to amyloid-? 12-28 fragments, known to be involved in amyloid plaque formation connected to Alzheimer's disease. We sample structures of the peptides that are grafted with 5-carboxyrhodamine 575 (Rh575) and QSY-7 chromophores by means of replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations upon an Amber-type forcefield parametrization as a function of the charge state. The generated ensembles provide chromophore-distance and -orientation distributions which are used with the spectral parameters of the Rh575/QSY-7 chromophores to model FRET-efficiencies for the systems. The theoretical values agree with the experimental average "action"-FRET efficiencies and motivate to use the herein reported parametrization, sampling, and FRET-modeling technique in future studies on the structural properties and aggregation-behavior of related systems. PMID:26178129

  14. Using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography to explore the geochemistry of the Santa Barbara oil seeps

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Christopher; Nelson, Robert

    2013-03-27

    The development of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) has expanded the analytical window for studying complex mixtures like oil. Compared to traditional gas chromatography, this technology separates and resolves at least an order of magnitude more compounds, has a much larger signal to noise ratio, and sorts compounds based on their chemical class; hence, providing highly refined inventories of petroleum hydrocarbons in geochemical samples that was previously unattainable. In addition to the increased resolution afforded by GC x GC, the resulting chromatograms have been used to estimate the liquid vapor pressures, aqueous solubilities, octanol-water partition coefficients, and vaporization enthalpies of petroleum hydrocarbons. With these relationships, powerful and incisive analyses of phase-transfer processes affecting petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in the environment are available. For example, GC x GC retention data has been used to quantitatively deconvolve the effects of phase transfer processes such as water washing and evaporation. In short, the positive attributes of GC x GC-analysis have led to a methodology that has revolutionized the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons. Overall, this research has opened numerous fields of study on the biogeochemical "œgenetics" (referred to as petroleomics) of petroleum samples in both subsurface and surface environments. Furthermore, these new findings have already been applied to the behavior of oil at other seeps as well, for petroleum exploration and oil spill studies.

  15. Fast-quench reactor for hydrogen and elemental carbon production from natural gas and other hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Kong, Peter C.

    2006-08-29

    A fast-quench reactor for production of diatomic hydrogen and unsaturated carbons is provided. During the fast quench in the downstream diverging section of the nozzle, such as in a free expansion chamber, the unsaturated hydrocarbons are further decomposed by reheating the reactor gases. More diatomic hydrogen is produced, along with elemental carbon. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The product is a substantially clean-burning hydrogen fuel that leaves no greenhouse gas emissions, and elemental carbon that may be used in powder form as a commodity for several processes.

  16. Enhancement of carbon dioxide reduction and methane production by an obligate anaerobe and gas dissolution device.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungjin; Choi, Kwangkeun; Kim, Jong-Oh; Chung, Jinwook

    2016-01-25

    The use of gas dissolution devices to improve the efficiency of H2 dissolution has enhanced CO2 reduction and CH4 production. In addition, the nutrients that initially existed in anaerobic sludge were exhausted over time, and the activities of anaerobic microorganisms declined. When nutrients were artificially injected, CO2 reduction and CH4 production rates climbed. Thus, assuming that the activity of the obligatory anaerobic microorganisms is maintained, a gas dissolution device will further enhance the efficiency of CO2 reduction and CH4 production. PMID:26044915

  17. Potential energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of hydrogen production from coke oven gas in U.S. Steel Mills.

    SciTech Connect

    Joseck, F.; Wang, M.; Wu, Y.; Energy Systems; DOE

    2008-02-01

    For this study, we examined the energy and emission effects of hydrogen production from coke oven gas (COG) on a well-to-wheels basis and compared these effects with those of other hydrogen production options, as well as with those of conventional gasoline and diesel options. We then estimated the magnitude of hydrogen production from COG in the United States and the number of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) that could potentially be fueled with the hydrogen produced from COG. Our analysis shows that this production pathway can achieve energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction benefits. This pathway is especially worth considering because first, the sources of COG are concentrated in the upper Midwest and in the Northeast United States, which would facilitate relatively cost-effective collection, transportation, and distribution of the produced hydrogen to refueling stations in these regions. Second, the amount of hydrogen that could be produced may fuel about 1.7 million cars, thus providing a vital near-term hydrogen production option for FCV applications.

  18. Polymer mud improves chalk gas production and profits

    SciTech Connect

    Cornett, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A new polymer drilling fluid is being used successfully in the Austin Chalk area of Texas to improve wellbore stability, decrease formation damage and significantly increase production rates. This article discusses development of the fluid, laboratory test results, field performance and benefits to operators.

  19. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products use on agricultural land

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over half of the electricity used in the U.S. is presently produced by burning coal. Currently 114 m mt/year of coal combustion by products (CCP) are produced when coal is burned for generation of electricity. Only about 43% of CCPs currently produced in the U.S. are utilized. Opportunities should b...

  20. METHANOL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS AND NATURAL GAS AS TRANSPORTATION FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two processes are examined for production of methanol. They are assessed against the essential requirements of a future alternative fuel for road transport: that it (i) is producible in amounts comparable to the 19 EJ of motor fuel annually consumed in the U.S., (ii) minimizes em...