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1

Oil and gas taxation in Algeria: exploration and production activities  

SciTech Connect

The Algerian taxation scheme for foreign companies involved in the petroleum sector is profoundly different depending on whether the company is directly involved in exploration and production or is merely acting as a service company or contractor. This article discusses Algerian taxation of foreign companies directly involved in production and exploration.

Frilet, M.

1982-09-01

2

English-Spanish glossary: offshore exploration and production, gas processing, and valves  

SciTech Connect

This series of articles contains 3 different English-Spanish glossaries of related terms used in the oil industry. The glossary of the offshore exploration and production involves a summary of terms used in the offshore oil activity. It also includes names of singular equipment used in offshore drilling, as well as several navigation terms in relation to the floating oil structures. With the help of the Gas Processors Association it was possible to compile a glossary of gas processing with a concise selection of common terms of the industry of gas processing. The glossary of valves includes more than 200 terms of the industry of valves in a specialized glossary, and several explanations about the application and operation of valves.

Not Available

1981-12-01

3

Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed during the initial period of the project 'Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems.' The specific region that is within the scope of this study is the Fayetteville Shale Play. This is an unconventional, tight formation, natural gas play that currently has approximately 1.5 million acres under lease, primarily to Southwestern Energy Incorporated and Chesapeake Energy Incorporated. The currently active play encompasses a region from approximately Fort Smith, AR east to Little Rock, AR approximately 50 miles wide (from North to South). The initial estimates for this field put it almost on par with the Barnett Shale play in Texas. It is anticipated that thousands of wells will be drilled during the next several years; this will entail installation of massive support infrastructure of roads and pipelines, as well as drilling fluid disposal pits and infrastructure to handle millions of gallons of fracturing fluids. This project focuses on gas production in Arkansas as the test bed for application of proactive risk management decision support system for natural gas exploration and production. The activities covered in this report include meetings with representative stakeholders, development of initial content and design for an educational web site, and development and preliminary testing of an interactive mapping utility designed to provide users with information that will allow avoidance of sensitive areas during the development of the Fayetteville Shale Play. These tools have been presented to both regulatory and industrial stakeholder groups, and their feedback has been incorporated into the project.

Greg Thoma; John Veil; Fred Limp; Jackson Cothren; Bruce Gorham; Malcolm Williamson; Peter Smith; Bob Sullivan

2009-05-31

4

Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed during the initial period of the project “Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems.” The specific region that is within the scope of this study is the Fayetteville Shale Play. This is an unconventional, tight formation, natural gas play that currently has approximately 1.5 million acres under lease, primarily to Southwestern Energy Incorporated and Chesapeake Energy Incorporated. The currently active play encompasses a region from approximately Fort Smith, AR east to Little Rock, AR approximately 50 miles wide (from North to South). The initial estimates for this field put it almost on par with the Barnett Shale play in Texas. It is anticipated that thousands of wells will be drilled during the next several years; this will entail installation of massive support infrastructure of roads and pipelines, as well as drilling fluid disposal pits and infrastructure to handle millions of gallons of fracturing fluids. This project focuses on gas production in Arkansas as the test bed for application of proactive risk management decision support system for natural gas exploration and production. The activities covered in this report include meetings with representative stakeholders, development of initial content and design for an educational web site, and development and preliminary testing of an interactive mapping utility designed to provide users with information that will allow avoidance of sensitive areas during the development of the Fayetteville Shale Play. These tools have been presented to both regulatory and industrial stakeholder groups, and their feedback has been incorporated into the project.

Thoma, Greg; Veil, John; Limp, Fred; Cothren, Jackson; Gorham, Bruce; Williamson, Malcolm; Smith, Peter; Sullivan, Bob

2009-10-27

5

78 FR 41768 - Chemical Substances and Mixtures Used in Oil and Gas Exploration or Production; TSCA Section 21...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EPA-HQ-OPPT-2011-0683; FRL-9339-4] Chemical Substances and Mixtures Used in Oil and Gas Exploration...petitioned EPA under section 21 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) to use: TSCA section...exploration and production (E&P) chemical substances and mixtures to maintain certain...

2013-07-11

6

Framework for managing wastes from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) sites.  

SciTech Connect

Oil and gas companies operate in many countries around the world. Their exploration and production (E&P) operations generate many kinds of waste that must be carefully and appropriately managed. Some of these wastes are inherently part of the E&P process; examples are drilling wastes and produced water. Other wastes are generic industrial wastes that are not unique to E&P activities, such as painting wastes and scrap metal. Still other wastes are associated with the presence of workers at the site; these include trash, food waste, and laundry wash water. In some host countries, mature environmental regulatory programs are in place that provide for various waste management options on the basis of the characteristics of the wastes and the environmental settings of the sites. In other countries, the waste management requirements and authorized options are stringent, even though the infrastructure to meet the requirements may not be available yet. In some cases, regulations and/or waste management infrastructure do not exist at all. Companies operating in these countries can be confronted with limited and expensive waste management options.

Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.; Environmental Science Division

2007-09-15

7

Gas pipe explorer robot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas pipe explorer formed of a plurality of connecting elements, and an articulation element between the connected elements. The connected elements include drive capabilities, and the articulation element allows the connected elements to traverse gas pipes of arbitrary shapes and sizes. A sensor may sends the characteristics of the gas pipe, and the communication element may send back those sends characteristics. The communication can be wired, over a tether connecting the device to a remote end. Alternatively, the connection can be wireless, driven by either a generator or a battery.

Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

2004-01-01

8

Devonian shale gas exploration and production studies. Final report, November 1983-April 1986  

SciTech Connect

Ten wells in southwestern West Virginia were selected as potential candidates for in-depth study to identify Devonian-shale-gas production-controlling mechanisms. Wells were studied using geophysical logs, TV log, and flow measurements. Sidewall cores were retrieved for geochemical and geophysical analyses. The well studies were augmented with a seismic survey, production data analysis and data collection for approximately 1400 wells in the study area.

Wallace, J.L.; Koziar, G.; Lemon, J.P.; Akers, M.J.

1986-08-01

9

Noble gas and carbon isotopes in natural gas: a new methodology for oil and gas exploration/production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic measurements of both stables isotopes and noble gases give important clues to reconstruct the geological history of hydrocarbons, from their generation to their accumulation. Recent analytical advances in carbon isotopes of natural gases (methane to butane and carbon dioxide) allowed to characterize some of the physico-chemical processes which affect natural gas, instead of using these signatures as simple fingerprinting of origins as it was the case some decades ago. These reconstructions provide important information on both the origins and the dynamic behavior of hydrocarbon fluids in sedimentary basins. Moreover, correlating this methodology with other natural tracers increases the knowledge of hydrocarbon history. Among them, noble gas isotopes may be the new frontier tool, as their chemical inertness allows to use them as precise tracers of sources and of associated physical processes (phases behavior, migration and leakage). Moreover, because some isotopes are produced by natural radioactivity, they act therefore as geological clocks, giving potentially a quantification of the residence times of hydrocarbons in a reservoir. The parameters one would hope to constrain, and which may be used as boundary conditions for basin modeling, are the age and the residence time of the fluids constituting a petroleum system, the quantitative estimate of the distance of migration of the hydrocarbons from the source rock to the reservoir and from the petroleum system to the atmosphere, and the proportion of hydrocarbons lost through leakage from the time of accumulation to the present. Other parameters associated with hydrocarbon accumulations, and more conventionally studied, include the relations between source rocks and accumulated fluids, the possible bacterial contribution through methanogenesis and/or biodegradation, the range of maturity of the fluids, the possible dysmigration of the gas from a liquid through evaporative fractionation, the characterization of permeability barriers in reservoirs, and the efficiency of accumulation. New geological case studies demonstrate the power of this new methodology, as it is possible in some cases to quantify the absolute amount of hydrocarbons lost through leakage and the relative residence times of fluids in an accumulation for an homogeneous geological setting. Diagnosis on the genesis of hydrocarbons (bacterial activity versus thermal degradation of organic matter) and on the distance of migration from the source rocks to the accumulation are also confirmed combining both stable isotopes and noble gas natural tracing.

Prinzhofer, A.; Battani, A.

2003-04-01

10

Oil and Gas Exploration Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise simulates the geologic, economic, and competitive business conditions usually encountered in oil and gas exploration. Each student is now a geologist with their own exploration and production corporation, and all corporations are competing to find oil and gas resources in the map area provided. Every section in this quadrangle has been drilled by oil companies in the past. Everyone agrees there must be oil and/or gas here, but no one has been successful in bringing in a producing well. Apparently none of the companies bothered to hire a geologist to analyze the data (weird!). They have gone bankrupt and the leases are all available for sale. Suddenly several corporations with geologists (you) appear on the scene, but with limited capital. The principal goal is to make as big a profit as possible for your corporation; therefore you must find the most oil and gas possible in a limited amount of time. To find oil and gas deposits, there are essentially 3 steps: 1) Gather information about the geology of the area and determine areas that are potential traps 2) Make bids on the land that you determine has high potential 3) Drill wells to see if you are correct

Goodliffe, Andrew M.

11

Measurement of atmospheric pollutants associated with oil and natural gas exploration and production activity in Pennsylvania's Allegheny National Forest.  

PubMed

Oil and natural gas exploration and production (E&P) activities generate emissions from diesel engines, compressor stations, condensate tanks, leaks and venting of natural gas, construction of well pads, and well access roads that can negatively impact air quality on both local and regional scales. A mobile, autonomous air quality monitoring laboratory was constructed to collect measurements of ambient concentrations of pollutants associated with oil and natural gas E&P activities. This air-monitoring laboratory was deployed to the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) in northwestern Pennsylvania for a campaign that resulted in the collection of approximately 7 months of data split between three monitoring locations between July 2010 and June 2011. The three monitoring locations were the Kane Experimental Forest (KEF) area in Elk County, which is downwind of the Sackett oilfield; the Bradford Ranger Station (BRS) in McKean County, which is downwind of a large area of historic oil and gas productivity; and the U.S. Forest Service Hearts Content campground (HC) in Warren County, which is in an area relatively unimpacted by oil and gas development and which therefore yielded background pollutant concentrations in the ANF. Concentrations of criteria pollutants ozone and NO2 did not vary significantly from site to site; averages were below National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas (ethane, propane, butane, pentane) were highly correlated. Applying the conditional probability function (CPF) to the ethane data yielded most probable directions of the sources that were coincident with known location of existing wells and activity. Differences between the two impacted and one background site were difficult to discern, suggesting the that the monitoring laboratory was a great enough distance downwind of active areas to allow for sufficient dispersion with background air such that the localized plumes were not detected. Implications: Monitoring of pollutants associated with oil and natural gas exploration and production activity at three sites within the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) showed only slight site-to-site differences even with one site far removed from these activities. However, the impact was evident not in detection of localized plumes but in regional elevated ethane concentrations, as ethane can be considered a tracer species for oil and natural gas activity. The data presented serve as baseline conditions for evaluation of impacts from future development of Marcellus or Utica shale gas reserves. PMID:25283004

Pekney, Natalie J; Veloski, Garret; Reeder, Matthew; Tamilia, Joseph; Rupp, Erik; Wetzel, Alan

2014-09-01

12

The German collaborative project SUGAR Utilization of a natural treasure - Developing innovative techniques for the exploration and production of natural gas from hydrate-bearing sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas hydrates occur in nature at all active and passive continental margins as well as in permafrost regions, and vast amounts of natural gas are bound in those deposits. Geologists estimate that twice as much carbon is bound in gas hydrates than in any other fossil fuel reservoir, such as gas, oil and coal. Hence, natural gas hydrates represent a huge potential energy resource that, in addition, could be utilized in a CO2-neutral and therefore environmentally friendly manner. However, the utilization of this natural treasure is not as easy as the conventional production of oil or natural gas and calls for new and innovative techniques. In the framework of the large-scale collaborative research project SUGAR (Submarine Deposits of Gas Hydrates - Exploration, Production and Transportation), we aim to produce gas from methane hydrates and to sequester carbon dioxide from power plants and other industrial sources as CO2 hydrates in the same host sediments. Thus, the SUGAR project addresses two of the most pressing and challenging topics of our time: development of alternative energy strategies and greenhouse gas mitigation techniques. The SUGAR project is funded by two federal German ministries and the German industry for an initial period of three years. In the framework of this project new technologies starting from gas hydrate exploration techniques over drilling technologies and innovative gas production methods to CO2 storage in gas hydrates and gas transportation technologies will be developed and tested. Beside the performance of experiments, numerical simulation studies will generate data regarding the methane production and CO2 sequestration in the natural environment. Reservoir modelling with respect to gas hydrate formation and development of migration pathways complete the project. This contribution will give detailed information about the planned project parts and first results with focus on the production methods.

Haeckel, M.; Bialas, J.; Wallmann, K. J.

2009-12-01

13

Beyond SHARP-- Primary Formaldehyde from Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the Gulf of Mexico Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formaldehyde has been named by the EPA as a hazardous air pollutant that may be carcinogenic and also cause irritation to the eyes, nose, throat and lung. Moreover, it is a powerful radical and ozone precursor. The 2009 Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors (SHARP) was conceived by the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) on behalf of the Texas Environmental Research Consortium (TERC) to examine the relative importance of primary and secondary formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrous acid (HONO) in ozone formation. SHARP confirmed that primary combustion sources of HCHO, such as flares end engines, may be underestimated (by an order of magnitude or more) in official emission inventories used for the purpose of air quality modeling in highly industrialized areas such as Houston. This presentation provides recently generated modeling and observational evidence that the same may be true in both rural and urban areas with oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) activities, such as the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming and the Barnett Shale of Texas. Oil and gas E&P is increasing in the Gulf of Mexico region, particularly in the Barnett, Haynesville, Eagle Ford, Cana-Woodford, and Fayetteville shale basins. In the Barnett Shale, E&P activities are moving into urban neighborhoods, and may affect the ability to bring the Dallas-Ft. Worth region into attainment of the federal ozone standard. Data concerning formaldehyde emissions from drill rig and pipeline compressor engines, flares, and glycol or amine reboilers, should be obtained in order to more accurately model air quality in the Gulf of Mexico region.

Olaguer, E. P.

2010-12-01

14

Developing Terrestrial Trophic Models for Petroleum and Natural Gas Exploration and Production Sites: The Oklahoma Tallgrass Prairie Preserve Example  

SciTech Connect

This document details procedures to be used when constructing a conceptual terrestrial trophic model for natural gas and oil exploration and production sites. A site conceptual trophic model is intended for use in evaluating ecological impacts of oil and brine releases at E&P sites from a landscape or ecosystem perspective. The terrestrial trophic model protocol was developed using an example site, the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve (TPP) in Oklahoma. The procedure focuses on developing a terrestrial trophic model using information found in the primary literature, and augmented using site-specific research where available. Although the TPP has been the subject of considerable research and public interest since the high-profile reintroduction of bison (Bison bison) in 1993, little formal work has been done to develop a food web for the plant and animal communities found at the preserve. We describe how to divide species into guilds using explicit criteria on the basis of resource use and spatial distribution. For the TPP, sixteen guilds were developed for use in the trophic model, and the relationships among these guilds were analyzed. A brief discussion of the results of this model is provided, along with considerations for its use and areas for further study.

Stevenson, M; Coty, J; Stewart, J; Carlsen, T; Callaham, M

2001-01-26

15

A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. (BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States))

1991-05-01

16

An Exploration on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Production by Insect Species Suitable for Animal or Human Consumption  

PubMed Central

Background Greenhouse gas (GHG) production, as a cause of climate change, is considered as one of the biggest problems society is currently facing. The livestock sector is one of the large contributors of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Also, large amounts of ammonia (NH3), leading to soil nitrification and acidification, are produced by livestock. Therefore other sources of animal protein, like edible insects, are currently being considered. Methodology/Principal Findings An experiment was conducted to quantify production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and average daily gain (ADG) as a measure of feed conversion efficiency, and to quantify the production of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) as well as NH3 by five insect species of which the first three are considered edible: Tenebrio molitor, Acheta domesticus, Locusta migratoria, Pachnoda marginata, and Blaptica dubia. Large differences were found among the species regarding their production of CO2 and GHGs. The insects in this study had a higher relative growth rate and emitted comparable or lower amounts of GHG than described in literature for pigs and much lower amounts of GHG than cattle. The same was true for CO2 production per kg of metabolic weight and per kg of mass gain. Furthermore, also the production of NH3 by insects was lower than for conventional livestock. Conclusions/Significance This study therefore indicates that insects could serve as a more environmentally friendly alternative for the production of animal protein with respect to GHG and NH3 emissions. The results of this study can be used as basic information to compare the production of insects with conventional livestock by means of a life cycle analysis. PMID:21206900

Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; van Itterbeeck, Joost; Heetkamp, Marcel J. W.; van den Brand, Henry; van Loon, Joop J. A.; van Huis, Arnold

2010-01-01

17

Analysis of selected energy security issues related to US crude oil and natural gas exploration, development, production, transportation and processing. Final report, Task 13  

SciTech Connect

In July 1989, President Bush directed the Secretary of Energy to initiate the development of a comprehensive National Energy Strategy (NES) built upon a national consensus. The overall principle for the NES, as defined by the President and articulated by the Economic Policy Council (EPC), is the continuation of the successful policy of market reliance, consistent with the following goals: Balancing of energy, economic, and environmental concerns; and reduced dependence by the US and its friends and allies on potentially unreliable energy suppliers. The analyses presented in this report draw upon a large body of work previously conducted for DOE/Office of Fossil Energy, the US Department of Interior/Minerals Management Service (DOI/MMS), and the Gas Research Institute (GRI), referenced throughout the text of this report. This work includes assessments in the following areas: the potential of advanced oil and gas extraction technologies as improved through R&D, along with the successful transfer of these technologies to the domestic petroleum industry; the economic and energy impacts of environmental regulations on domestic oil and gas exploration, production, and transportation; the potential of tax incentives to stimulate domestic oil and gas development and production; the potential environmental costs associated with various options for leasing for US oil and gas resources in the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS); and the economic impacts of environmental regulations affecting domestic crude oil refining.

Not Available

1990-10-01

18

Exploring Nanotechnology through Consumer Products  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, covers nanotechnology in consumer products. First, the instructor presents an introductory PowerPoint and then "students are given a chance in groups to explore consumer products through an information sheet provided over available consumer products." A Teacher Preparation Guide, Student Guide, PowerPoint presentation, Nano Products Resource Guide, as well as a wide variety of product information sheets are included. 

2014-08-27

19

Oil and gas exploration in southeastern Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1965 discovery of commercial Mississippian oil on the Las Animas arch in SE. Colorado has rejuvenated exploration and drilling activity. Previous exploration dealt largely with Permo-Pennsylvanian objectives similar to the vast and numerous gas and oil reservoirs in SW. Kansas and the panhandles of Texas and Oklahoma. The pay zones in SE. Colorado's 20 oil and gas fields are

R. M. Matson; R. C. Schneider

1968-01-01

20

CHARACTERIZING NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEP WATER GULF OF MEXICO: APPLICATIONS FOR SAFE EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop

Steve Holditch; Emrys Jones

2003-01-01

21

Geology for petroleum exploration, drilling and production  

SciTech Connect

This book provides a non-technical introduction to the subject of oil. The author guides the readers in logical sequence: How oil and gas form and accumulate; how to explore for oil; and how to drill and complete a well and produce the petroleum. The contents are: The earth's crust; identification of common rocks and minerals; weathering, erosion, and unconformities; deformation; geologic time; sandstone reservoirs; limestone reservoirs; subsurface fluids; sedimentary rock patterns; surface and subsurface maps; ocean environment - plate tectonics; hydrocarbons source rocks, generation, migration and accumulation; well logs, traps; petroleum exploration; drilling a well; completing a well; and petroleum production.

Hyne, N.J.

1984-01-01

22

A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1. Volume 2, Geology and engineering  

SciTech Connect

This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. [BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1991-05-01

23

Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration. [Applicability to USA  

SciTech Connect

During the 1970s a number of different exploration and production incentive programs were put in place in Canada, in particular in the Province of Alberta, Canada's principal oil- and gas-producing province. The DOE/RA is evaluating Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration, and this study is intended to provide information that will help guide DOE/RA in determining the applicability of Canadian incentive programs in US energy policy. The study describes and documents the fiscal structure in which the Canadian oil industry operates. The incentive features of pricing policy, taxation policy, and provincial royalty systems are discussed. A principal focus of the study is on one of the most important of Canada's specific incentive programs, the Alberta Exploratory Drilling Incentive Credit Program (EDICP). The study describes and evaluates the effect of the EDICP on increased oil and gas exploration activity. Similarly, the study also reviews and evaluates other specific incentive programs such as the Alberta Geophysical Incentive Program, Frontier Exploration Allowances, and various tar sand and heavy oil development incentives. Finally the study evaluates the applicability of Canadian incentives to US energy policy.

Not Available

1980-04-01

24

Exploration-production studies in newly drilled Devonian-shale gas wells. Annual technical report, February 1, 1987-January 31, 1988  

SciTech Connect

The cooperative program is a continuing field-oriented effort whose objectives are to identify productive gas zones, to develop a comprehensive set of diagnostics, and to determine the effectiveness of various stimulation techniques. To date, the program has encompassed fifty cooperative wells and twelve participating producers, with outside funding in excess of 8 million dollars. The rapport established with these producers resulted in an evolution of the program from one of passive data acquisition to one of active participation. The report focuses on what was accomplished during this period regarding the development of diagnostic tools and evaluation techniques, the acquisition of producer participation and support, and the expansion of data acquisition and use of newly developed evaluation techniques. The report also addresses what has been learned and how this knowledge led to the course corrections in the study to achieve a more effective level of technology. The report illustrates the methods and technology developed and provides the recommended direction for future research.

Graham, R.L.; Foster, J.; Walbe, K.; Worthington, J.

1988-02-01

25

Total outlines world exploration, production challenges, approaches  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the current international picture of exploration/production; expresses the most prominent challenges the author sees emerging from changing conditions, and discusses briefly how the industry can and does answer these challenges. Geologic status---first, oil and gas provinces are obviously maturing. The peak of discoveries in the U.K. North Sea is well past, and if yearly additions still appear more or less stable, this happens at the expense of a larger number of exploratory wells being drilled. This is going on with variations in a number of areas. Second, the world is shrinking in terms of new prospective basins. For instance, the Norwegian Barents Sea looked so promising a few years ago but has yet to yield a major field. The case is not unique, and everyone can make his own list of disappointments: East African rift basins, Paraguay, and so on. One article pointed out that the last decade's reserve addition from wildcat oil discoveries was down by almost 40% from additions registered during 1972-81. This excluded the USSR, Eastern Europe, China, Mexico, and a couple of Middle East countries.

Not Available

1992-07-27

26

Exploring Product Innovativeness Determinants in SMEs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This PhD thesis suggests a shift in emphasis from organisational to product innovativeness (PI), a rather overlooked aspect within the organisational innovation literature. Drawing input from evidence on relations of industry- and firm-specific factors to product innovation along with qualitative information from the Greek context, it adopts a conceptual framework of strategic importance to explore PI determinants in SMEs. Path

Helen E. Salavou

27

Evolution of gas saturation and relative permeability during gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments: Gas invasion vs. gas nucleation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

and both gas and water permeabilities change as a function of gas saturation. Typical trends established in the discipline of unsaturated soil behavior are used when simulating gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments. However, the evolution of gas saturation and water drainage in gas invasion (i.e., classical soil behavior) and gas nucleation (i.e., gas production) is inherently different: micromodel experimental results show that gas invasion forms a continuous flow path while gas nucleation forms isolated gas clusters. Complementary simulations conducted using tube networks explore the implications of the two different desaturation processes. In spite of their distinct morphological differences in fluid displacement, numerical results show that the computed capillarity-saturation curves are very similar in gas invasion and nucleation (the gas-water interface confronts similar pore throat size distribution in both cases); the relative water permeability trends are similar (the mean free path for water flow is not affected by the topology of the gas phase); and the relative gas permeability is slightly lower in nucleation (delayed percolation of initially isolated gas-filled pores that do not contribute to gas conductivity). Models developed for unsaturated sediments can be used for reservoir simulation in the context of gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments, with minor adjustments to accommodate a lower gas invasion pressure Po and a higher gas percolation threshold.

Jang, Jaewon; Santamarina, J. Carlos

2014-01-01

28

GAS EXPLORATION Winter 2006 GasTIPS 5  

E-print Network

Seismic-EM Inversion A method for identification of gas saturation in deep ocean oil-gas reservoirs, which- water-gas mix, the determination of gas satu- ration is inherently non-unique. Seismic technology can

Rubin, Yoram

29

Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions*  

E-print Network

Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions* Francis O Environ. Res. Lett. 7 (2012) 044030 (6pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044030 Shale gas production: potential gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level

30

Perspective of gas exploration in Ying-Qiong Basin  

SciTech Connect

The Yinggehai and Qiongdongnan Basin (Ying-Qiong Basin) in the northwest part of the South China Sea is a Cenozoic sedimentary basin, which has fast-subsiding and thick sediments. The maximum Cenozoic sediments in the center part of the basin is 20,000 m. Six sets of source rocks with prevailing Type III kerogen were developed in the basin, which has a great potential for gas generation. Different types of reservoirs and traps, leading to different assemblages of source rocks, reservoirs, and cap rocks, form good gas pools. Abnormal high temperature and high pressure in the basin resulted in many mud diapirs and made the generation, migration, and accumulation of gas more colorful. Up to now, four gas fields have been discovered in the basin. A large number of anticlines and stratigraphic-lithologic traps in the basin provide an extensive area for gas exploration. The perspective of gas exploration in the basin is vast and bright.

He, Hanyi; Zhongtiang Hu (China Offshore Oil Nanhai West Corp., Zhanjiang, Guangdong Province (China))

1996-01-01

31

Perspective of gas exploration in Ying-Qiong Basin  

SciTech Connect

The Yinggehai and Qiongdongnan Basin (Ying-Qiong Basin) in the northwest part of the South China Sea is a Cenozoic sedimentary basin, which has fast-subsiding and thick sediments. The maximum Cenozoic sediments in the center part of the basin is 20,000 m. Six sets of source rocks with prevailing Type III kerogen were developed in the basin, which has a great potential for gas generation. Different types of reservoirs and traps, leading to different assemblages of source rocks, reservoirs, and cap rocks, form good gas pools. Abnormal high temperature and high pressure in the basin resulted in many mud diapirs and made the generation, migration, and accumulation of gas more colorful. Up to now, four gas fields have been discovered in the basin. A large number of anticlines and stratigraphic-lithologic traps in the basin provide an extensive area for gas exploration. The perspective of gas exploration in the basin is vast and bright.

He, Hanyi; Zhongtiang Hu [China Offshore Oil Nanhai West Corp., Zhanjiang, Guangdong Province (China)

1996-12-31

32

Uranium resources, exploration and production in Australia  

SciTech Connect

The reasonably assured uranium resources of Australia recoverable at less than $US80/kg U (uranium reserves) have increased from 6200 MTU in 1967 to 292,000 MTU in 1979. Additional resources at known deposits and in higher cost categories amount to 151,000 MTU. Exploration programs during this period have been very successful in discovering uranium at low average exploration costs. The potential for further discoveries is high. Only the Mary Kathleen mine and mill were operational in May 1980 with an average production of 600 MTU/yr. The Nabarlek deposit has been mined and stockpiled. The mill at Nabarlek, and the mine and mill at Ranger, are under construction. A pilot plant is being constructed as the first stage of develoment for the Yeelirrie deposit. Initial production from these three new projects is expected to reach about 5600 MTU/yr in 1985. No firm decisions have been taken on expansion of initial capacities of the approved projects or on the approval of other projects in Australia.

Battey, G.C.; Hardy, C.J.

1981-01-01

33

Exploring Increased Productivity Through Employee Engagement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disengaged employees cost U.S. companies billions of dollars annually in lowered productivity, a cost which has been compounded by the difficult economic situations in the country. The potential for increasing productivity through increased employee engagement was examined in this study. Using personal engagement theory and the theory of planned behavior, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore how the experiences of salaried aerospace employees affected productivity and the financial performance of an organization. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 20 aerospace employees whose responses were codified and analyzed to identify themes. The analysis indicated that (a) the lived experiences of employees influenced employee engagement, (b) employee engagement affects organizational commitment and performance, and (c) trust and respect and leadership are essential components to keep employees engaged. Eighty percent of the participants indicated that as employee engagement increases so too does organizational performance. The implications for positive social change include new insights for leaders seeking to increase productivity and financial performance, and to support employee engagement for maintaining sustainability, retaining talent, increasing profits, and improving the economy.

Richards, Wayne K., Jr.

34

Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions  

E-print Network

Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

O’Sullivan, Francis Martin

35

Unconventional methods in exploration for petroleum and natural gas IV  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a symposium on geophysical and geochemical surveys for petroleum and natural gas deposits. Topics considered at the symposium included seismic surveys, electrical techniques in mapping hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon leakage, magnetoelectic exploration, the measurement of rock magnetic susceptibility of drill cuttings, vitrinite reflectance, remote detection, soil concentrations, carbonate prospecting, and the near-surface hydrocarbon gas measurement of vertical migration.

Davidson, M.J.

1986-01-01

36

EXPLOR expert system for oil and gas prospect generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil and gas prospect generation involves three phases: data acquisition, mapping, and evaluation. EXPLOR is an expert system that automates the latter phases. The program's mapping routines are written in a high-level programming language for optimization. A backward chaining PROLOG-based expert system is used in the evaluation phase. Input data consist of well locations, status, target formation structure values, structure

Maslyn

1989-01-01

37

ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

This is the second technical report, covering the period from April 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. The geo-technical component is a shared effort between the State Department of Administration and the US Department of Energy. The Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission is rapidly converting high volumes of paper documents and geo-technical information to formats suitable for search and retrieval over the Internet. The permitting component is under the lead of the DNR Office of Project Management and Permitting. A web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information on-line. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. Structural changes are taking place in terms of organization, statutory authority, and regulatory requirements. Geographic Information Systems are a central component to the organization of information, and the delivery of on-line services. Progress has been made to deploy the foundation system for the shared GIS based on open GIS protocols to the extent feasible. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells.

Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

2003-11-19

38

17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...marketable production of natural gas on an “as sold” basis. Production...include dry, residue, and wet gas, depending on whether liquids have been extracted before the registrant transfers title. Flared gas, injected gas, and gas...

2010-04-01

39

Industry requested exploration/production environmental regulation  

SciTech Connect

California State Review by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission recommends state and regional water boards issue requirements to all pits subject to basin plans and chapter 15. Resources shortfalls have kept production pits from being Water Board priorities. Threat of United States EPA designation of crude oil as hazardous waste and subsequent land use conflicts of buried pits in developing areas have led to the call for full implementation of State regulations. Recommended state improvements include (1) interagency communication, cross training, computer database, and inspections; (2) development of guidance documents and consistency in pit closure policy, permitting, water quality in DOG pit rules, land spreading, road spreading, and minimum construction and operation requirements and; (3) administratively finding additional resources to fully implement requirements, increase records retention time, consider compliance history, revise Water Board/DOG Memorandum of Understanding and adjust DOG financial assurance program to provide incentive for proper and timely well plugging and site reclamation. Industry/Regulatory Agency cooperation can significantly reduce the burden of regulation implementation, Industry willingness to pay appropriate regulatory fees can facilitate regulation execution. Field drilling crew education can minimize regulatory implementation costs. Mud pit Resource Conservation and Recovery Act exemption can be maintained if hazardous substances (e.g., pipe dope and solvents) are kept out of the pit.

Blanck, L. (California Regional Water Quality Control Board, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States))

1994-04-01

40

43 CFR 3152.1 - Application for oil and gas geophysical exploration permit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Application for oil and gas geophysical exploration...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION... § 3152.1 Application for oil and gas geophysical...

2013-10-01

41

43 CFR 3152.1 - Application for oil and gas geophysical exploration permit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Application for oil and gas geophysical exploration...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION... § 3152.1 Application for oil and gas geophysical...

2012-10-01

42

43 CFR 3152.1 - Application for oil and gas geophysical exploration permit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Application for oil and gas geophysical exploration...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION... § 3152.1 Application for oil and gas geophysical...

2011-10-01

43

43 CFR 3151.1 - Notice of intent to conduct oil and gas geophysical exploration operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Notice of intent to conduct oil and gas geophysical exploration...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION... Notice of intent to conduct oil and gas geophysical...

2012-10-01

44

43 CFR 3151.1 - Notice of intent to conduct oil and gas geophysical exploration operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Notice of intent to conduct oil and gas geophysical exploration...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION... Notice of intent to conduct oil and gas geophysical...

2011-10-01

45

43 CFR 3151.1 - Notice of intent to conduct oil and gas geophysical exploration operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Notice of intent to conduct oil and gas geophysical exploration...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION... Notice of intent to conduct oil and gas geophysical...

2013-10-01

46

ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to eliminate three closely inter-related barriers to oil production in Alaska through the use of a geographic information system (GIS) and other information technology strategies. These barriers involve identification of oil development potential from existing wells, planning projects to efficiently avoid conflicts with other interests, and gaining state approvals for exploration and development projects. Each barrier is the result of either current labor-intensive methods or poorly accessible information. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. This web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information online. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. The application will include an on-line diagnostic Coastal Project Questionnaire to determine the suite of permits required for a specific project. The application will also automatically create distribution lists based on the location and type of project, populate document templates for project review start-ups, public notices and findings, allow submission of e-comments, and post project status information on the Internet. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells. Currently, State of Alaska agencies use multiple, independent systems to identify, authenticate, and authorize customers for online transactions. Consumers of online state services may be required to manage multiple online ''profiles,'' and during a permit review process valuable time may be lost verifying identity or reconciling differences in applicant information when agency records disagree. The state's Information Technology Group is developing a shared applicant profile system that will provide an additional opportunity to demonstrate data sharing between agencies.

Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

2003-08-04

47

VSAT: opening new horizons to oil and gas explorations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whether exploring in the Empty Quarter, drilling offshore in the Gulf of Mexico, or monitoring gas pipelines or oil wells in the deserts, communications is a key element to the success of oil and gas operations. Secure, efficient communications is required between remote, isolated locations and head offices to report on work status, dispatch supplies and repairs, report on-site emergencies, transfer geophysical surveys and real-time drilling data. Drilling and exploration firms have traditionally used land-based terrestrial networks that rely on radio transmissions for voice and data communications to offshore platforms and remote deep desert drilling rigs. But these systems are inefficient and have proven inflexible with today's drilling and exploration communications demands, which include high-speed data access, telephone and video conferencing. In response, numerous oil and gas exploration entities working in deep waters and remote deep deserts have all tapped into what is an ideal solution for these needs: Very Small Aperture Terminal Systems (VSAT) for broadband access services. This led to the use of Satellite Communication Systems for a wide range of applications that were difficult to achieve in the past, such as real-time applications transmission of drilling data and seismic information. This paper provides a thorough analysis of opportunities for satellite technology solutions in support of oil and gas operations. Technologies, architecture, service, networking and application developments are discussed based upon real field experience. More specifically, the report addresses: VSAT Opportunities for the Oil and Gas Operations, Corporate Satellite Business Model Findings, Satellite Market Forecasts

Al-Dhamen, Muhammad I.

2002-08-01

48

Petroleum Development Oman gas exploration unlocks major new reserves  

SciTech Connect

Since 1985, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has been exploring for gas on behalf of the Government of Oman under a ten-year agreement signed in June 1984. The aim of the one-rig programme was to find additional non-associated gas reserves (3 TCF) to meet domestic energy requirements for a minimum of 40 years, for which the available reserves at that time (5.6 TCF) were insufficient. Initial results of the campaign, which principally targeted the Permian Khuff Formation, were disappointing, analogues to the major accumulations of the Arabian Gulf failing to materialise. During the second half of the programme, therefore, the strategy was revised to address the prospectivity of higher risk/higher reward plays recognised at greater depths. Well Saih Nihayda-24, drilled in 1989, found gas/condensate-bearing reservoirs in Cambro/Ordovician sandstones of the Andam Formation below 4000 metres. This discovery, in a seismically poorly defined anticline, sparked an intensive effort of 2D, and later 3D, long cable seismic acquisition. This led in 1991 to additional major gas/condensate finds in Saih Rawl and Barik, and a dedicated two-year two-rig appraisal campaign has since proven up sufficient reserves to support an LNG gas export scheme. The ten-year programme has more than tripled Oman`s non-associated gas expectation reserves to some 22 TCF, exceeding-the target more than five-fold. Significant potential for further gas discoveries identified in both North and South Oman provides encouragement for continued successful gas exploration in the future.

Wood, A.; Mozetic, A.

1995-08-01

49

Gas Analysis of Geothermal Fluid Inclusions: A New Technology For Geothermal Exploration  

SciTech Connect

To increase our knowledge of gaseous species in geothermal systems by fluid inclusion analysis in order to facilitate the use of gas analysis in geothermal exploration. The knowledge of gained by this program can be applied to geothermal exploration, which may expand geothermal production. Knowledge of the gas contents in reservoir fluids can be applied to fluid inclusion gas analysis of drill chip cuttings in a similar fashion as used in the petroleum industry. Thus the results of this project may lower exploration costs both in the initial phase and lower drill hole completion costs. Commercial costs for fluid inclusion analysis done on at 20 feet intervals on chip samples for 10,000 ft oil wells is about $6,000, and the turn around time is a few weeks.

David I. Norman; Joseph Moore

2004-03-09

50

Exploring for natural gas using reflectance spectra of surface soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reflectance spectra in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths provide a rapid and inexpensive means for determining the mineralogy of samples and obtaining information on chemical composition. Hydrocarbon microseepage theory establishes a cause-and-effect relation between oil and gas reservoirs and some special surface anomalies, which mainly include surface hydrocarbon microseepage and related alterations. Therefore, we can explore for oil, gas by determining reflectance spectra of surface anomalies. This idea has been applied to the R&D project of exploring for natural gas in Qinghai province of China using NASA EO-1 satellite with the Hyperion sensor (June 2005 to June 2006). In this project, in order to improve the accuracy of exploration targets of natural gas mapped in the field studied, an integrated practical system of exploration of oil and gas was built by the analysis of not only hyperspectral remote sensing data but also data provided from field work. In this paper, our efforts were focused on the analysis of the 799 reflectance spectra provided from the field work. In order to properly define the typical form of hydrocarbon microseepage with spectroscopy and fulfill the data analysis, it was necessary to build a spectral model. In this spectral model the most important features of hydrocarbon microseepage in the surface of our study area, i.e., diagnostic spectral macroscopic features and diagnostic spectral absorption features, were proposed and extracted, respectively. The distribution of coexisting anomalies, which results from both alteration minerals and hydrocarbons, is estimated by the diagnostic macroscopic features mainly using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classifier. On the other hand, the diagnostic absorption features of two main absorption bands presented abundant local information, based on deep analysis of which, we are able to map the anomalies of alteration minerals and hydrocarbons, respectively. Additionally, a general framework of analysis and key classification algorithms applied to the Hyperion data have been introduced briefly. In our work, three exploration targets of natural gas were identified from the study area which covers 2100 km2. In the three exploration targets, three wildcats have been drilled by China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) since July 2006, and all the three wells have been proven some industrial reserves.

Xu, Da-Qi; Ni, Guo-Qiang; Jiang, Li-Li; Shen, Yuan-Ting; Li, Ting; Ge, Shu-Le; Shu, Xian-Biao

51

17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and...S-K Disclosure by Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1204 (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices...

2013-04-01

52

17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and...S-K Disclosure by Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1204 (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices...

2011-04-01

53

17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and...S-K Disclosure by Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1204 (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices...

2012-04-01

54

Exploring changes in world ruminant production systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past 30 years world production of ruminant meat and milk has increased by about 40%, while the global area of grassland has increased by only 4%. This is because most of the increase in ruminant meat and milk production has been achieved by increasing the production in mixed and landless production systems and much less so in pastoral

A. F. Bouwman; K. W. Van der Hoek; B. Eickhout; I. Soenario

2005-01-01

55

Uranium resources, exploration and production in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reasonably assured uranium resources of Australia recoverable at less than $US80\\/kg U (uranium reserves) have increased from 6200 MTU in 1967 to 292,000 MTU in 1979. Additional resources at known deposits and in higher cost categories amount to 151,000 MTU. Exploration programs during this period have been very successful in discovering uranium at low average exploration costs. The potential

G. C. Battey; C. J. Hardy

1981-01-01

56

Construction guidelines for oil and gas exploration in northern Alaska  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the unique problems associated with oil and gas explorations in northern Alaska and provides background information on the climate and environment, including the permanently frozen ground that exists throughout the area. Information on exploration efforts in the 1940s and 1950s is also included to demonstrate what happens when summertime operations disturb the surface vegetation and thermal regime of the frozen tundra, being the basis for why such operations are no longer permitted. Separate chapters are provided on the design, construction and operation of winter trails, roads, airfields and drill pads, including a separate chapter on their abandonment. Emphasis is placed on how, why and when to accomplish the various tasks to successfully accomplish an exploration.

Crory, F.E.

1991-11-01

57

Product grammar : construction and exploring solution spaces  

E-print Network

Developing a design methodology that accounts for system- and component-level parameters in the design of products is a challenge for design and manufacturing organizations. Designed products like automobiles, personal ...

Chin, Ryan C. C., 1974-

2004-01-01

58

Gas production in distant comets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular spectroscopy at radio wavelengths is a tool well suited for studying the composition and outgassing kinematics of cometary comae. This is particularly true for distant comets, i.e. comets at heliocentric distances greater than a few AU, where the excitation of molecules is inefficient other than for rotational energy levels. At these distances, water sublimation is inefficient, and cometary activity is dominated by outgassing of carbon monoxide. An observing campaign is presented, where the millimeter- wave emission from CO in comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 has been studied in detail using the Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST). Coma models have been used to analyse the spectra. The production of CO is found to have two separate sources, one releasing CO gas on the nuclear dayside, and one extended source, where CO is produced from coma material, proposed to be icy dust grains. Radio observations of many molecules in comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) have been carried out in a long-term international effort using several radio telescopes. An overview of the results is presented, describing the evolution of the gas production as the comet passed through the inner Solar system. Spectra recorded using the SEST, primarily of CO, for heliocentric distances from 3 to 11 AU are analysed in detail, also using coma models. The concept of icy grains constituting the extended source discovered in comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 is examined by theoretical modelling of micrometre-sized ice/dust particles at 6 AU from the Sun. It is shown that that such grains can release their content of volatiles on timescales similar to that found for the extended source.

Gunnarsson, Marcus

59

Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface

Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

2008-01-01

60

International oil and gas exploration and development activities  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of an ongoing series of quarterly publications that monitors discoveries of oil and natural gas in foreign countries and provides an analysis of the reserve additions that result. The report is prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). It presents a summary of discoveries and reserve additions that result from recent international exploration and development activities. It is intended for use by petroleum industry analysts, various government agencies, and political leaders in the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy plans, policy, and legislation. 25 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Not Available

1990-10-29

61

Lunar lander propellant production for a multiple site exploration mission  

E-print Network

A model has been developed to analyze the benefit of utilizing a processing plant architecture so that a lunar oxygen production demonstration mission can also provide a significant exploration and scientific return. This ...

Neubert, Joshua, 1981-

2004-01-01

62

Natural gas hydrates - issues for gas production and geomechanical stability  

E-print Network

Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Co-Chairs of Committee, Stephen A Holditch George J Moridis Committee Members, William D McCain Maria Barrufet... that the hydraulic fracture gets plugged by the formation of secondary hydrates during gas production. I used the coupled fluid flow and geomechanical model “TOUGH+Hydrate- FLAC3D” to model geomechanical performance during gas production from hydrates...

Grover, Tarun

2008-10-10

63

Advancing New 3D Seismic Interpretation Methods for Exploration and Development of Fractured Tight Gas Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

In a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and GeoSpectrum, Inc., new P-wave 3D seismic interpretation methods to characterize fractured gas reservoirs are developed. A data driven exploratory approach is used to determine empirical relationships for reservoir properties. Fractures are predicted using seismic lineament mapping through a series of horizon and time slices in the reservoir zone. A seismic lineament is a linear feature seen in a slice through the seismic volume that has negligible vertical offset. We interpret that in regions of high seismic lineament density there is a greater likelihood of fractured reservoir. Seismic AVO attributes are developed to map brittle reservoir rock (low clay) and gas content. Brittle rocks are interpreted to be more fractured when seismic lineaments are present. The most important attribute developed in this study is the gas sensitive phase gradient (a new AVO attribute), as reservoir fractures may provide a plumbing system for both water and gas. Success is obtained when economic gas and oil discoveries are found. In a gas field previously plagued with poor drilling results, four new wells were spotted using the new methodology and recently drilled. The wells have estimated best of 12-months production indicators of 2106, 1652, 941, and 227 MCFGPD. The latter well was drilled in a region of swarming seismic lineaments but has poor gas sensitive phase gradient (AVO) and clay volume attributes. GeoSpectrum advised the unit operators that this location did not appear to have significant Lower Dakota gas before the well was drilled. The other three wells are considered good wells in this part of the basin and among the best wells in the area. These new drilling results have nearly doubled the gas production and the value of the field. The interpretation method is ready for commercialization and gas exploration and development. The new technology is adaptable to conventional lower cost 3D seismic surveys.

James Reeves

2005-01-31

64

Exploring the consumption of charity-linked products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the motivations to consume charity-linked products. We consider charity-linked products as all the consumer\\u000a goods that may help a social cause or a nonprofit organization. The research was done in Portugal and used focus groups. We\\u000a find three types of charity-linked product consumers: the proactive consumers which look and buy products that help nonprofit\\u000a organizations, the reactive

João F. Proença; Inês V. Pereira

2008-01-01

65

Exploring the Limits of Crop Productivity 1  

PubMed Central

The long-term vegetative and reproductive growth rates of a wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L.) were determined in three separate studies (24, 45, and 79 days) in response to a wide range of photosynthetic photon fluxes (PPF, 400-2080 micromoles per square meter per second; 22-150 moles per square meter per day; 16-20-hour photoperiod) in a near-optimum, controlled-environment. The CO2 concentration was elevated to 1200 micromoles per mole, and water and nutrients were supplied by liquid hydroponic culture. An unusually high plant density (2000 plants per square meter) was used to obtain high yields. Crop growth rate and grain yield reached 138 and 60 grams per square meter per day, respectively; both continued to increase up to the highest integrated daily PPF level, which was three times greater than a typical daily flux in the field. The conversion efficiency of photosynthesis (energy in biomass/energy in photosynthetic photons) was over 10% at low PPF but decreased to 7% as PPF increased. Harvest index increased from 41 to 44% as PPF increased. Yield components for primary, secondary, and tertiary culms were analyzed separately. Tillering produced up to 7000 heads per square meter at the highest PPF level. Primary and secondary culms were 10% more efficient (higher harvest index) than tertiary culms; hence cultural, environmental, or genetic changes that increase the percentage of primary and secondary culms might increase harvest index and thus grain yield. Wheat is physiologically and genetically capable of much higher productivity and photosynthetic efficiency than has been recorded in a field environment. PMID:11537442

Bugbee, Bruce G.; Salisbury, Frank B.

1988-01-01

66

Measurement of gas production of microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple apparatus and method is disclosed for measuring gas production by microorganisms using a pressure transducer to sense pressure buildup by members of the Enterobacteriaceae group of bacteria. The test system consists of a 5.0 psid pressure transducer and a pressure equalizer valve attached to the metal cap of a 20 x 150 mm test tube. Gas pressure is

J. R. Wilkins; A. O. Pearson; S. M. Mills

1975-01-01

67

Monthly Natural Gas Gross Production Report  

EIA Publications

Monthly natural gas gross withdrawals estimated from data collected on Form EIA-914 (Monthly Natural Gas Production Report) for Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico, Texas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Wyoming, other states and lower 48 states. Alaska data are from the Alaska state government and included to obtain a U.S. total.

2014-01-01

68

Lake Erie gas production posed unique problems  

SciTech Connect

Thick, soft bottom sediments plus the presence of H/sub 2/S, CO/sub 2/ and hydrates required application of special gas production techniques. Wellheads needed modification, flexible flowline connections were used and potential dangers from sour gas were handled with inhibitors and a safety shut-down system.

Sangster, R.B.

1981-09-01

69

ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrate Production Test  

SciTech Connect

Work began on the ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrates Production Test (DOE award number DE-NT0006553) on October 1, 2008. This final report summarizes the entire project from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2013.

Schoderbek, David; Farrell, Helen; Howard, James; Raterman, Kevin; Silpngarmlert, Suntichai; Martin, Kenneth; Smith, Bruce; Klein, Perry

2013-06-30

70

Bio-Gas Production from Alligator Weeds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of temperature, sample preparation, reducing agents, light intensity and pH of the media, on bio-gas and methane production from the microbial anaerobic decomposition of alligator weeds (Alternanth...

A. Latif

1976-01-01

71

Exploring the Environmental Effects of Shale Gas Development in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed  

E-print Network

Exploring the Environmental Effects of Shale Gas Development in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed STAC Committee). 2013. Exploring the environmental effects of shale gas development in the Chesapeake Bay of shale gas development in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. The purpose of this workshop was to engage

72

SkyHunter: A Multi-Surface Environment for Supporting Oil and Gas Exploration  

E-print Network

SkyHunter: A Multi-Surface Environment for Supporting Oil and Gas Exploration Teddy Seyed, Mario}@ucalgary.ca ABSTRACT The process of oil and gas exploration and its result, the decision to drill for oil in a specific show in this paper, many of the existing technologies and practices that support the oil and gas

Maurer, Frank

73

Production Trends of Shale Gas Wells  

E-print Network

PRODUCTION TRENDS OF SHALE GAS WELLS A Thesis by WAQAR ALI KHAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December... 2008 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering PRODUCTION TRENDS OF SHALE GAS WELLS A Thesis by WAQAR ALI KHAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

Khan, Waqar A.

2010-01-14

74

Greenhouse gas budgets of crop production current  

E-print Network

land use change 16 2.7 Indirect emissions from crop production 16 2.7.1 Emissions from fertilizer and increased cover 42 4.8.2 Crop selection and rotation 42 4.9 Mitigation potential in rice production 43 4 negotiations on climate change. It provides an up-to-date state of the scientific knowledge on greenhouse gas

Levi, Ran

75

Determination of ²²?Ra, ²²?Ra and ²¹?Pb in NORM products from oil and gas exploration: problems in activity underestimation due to the presence of metals and self-absorption of photons.  

PubMed

Typical calibration of solid environmental samples for the determination of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb entails the use of standard reference materials which have a very similar matrix. However, TENORM samples from the oil and gas exploration contain unusually high amounts of calcium, strontium and barium which can severely attenuate the photons of (210)Pb and (226)Ra with their characteristic 46.1 keV and 186.2 keV gamma-rays, respectively and to some extent (228)Ra with the characteristic gamma-rays of 911.2 keV and 969.0 keV. We used neutron activation analysis to evaluate the content of TENORM for calcium, barium and strontium and then used a software program SELABS to determine the self-absorption. Our results confirm that even in Petrie containers with small dimensions the (210)Pb can be underestimated by almost by a factor of four while (226)Ra can be underestimated by 5%. The (228)Ra activities are virtually unaffected due to the higher energy gamma-rays. However, the implications for TENORM studies that employ large Marinelli containers having sample sizes between 0.25 and 1.0 L may be severely compromised by the presence of high Z elements in elevated concentrations. The usual spectral interferences on (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb coming from other radionuclides in the (234)U, (235)U and (238)U decay chains are virtually nonexistent due the very high activity levels of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb in the tens of thousands of Bq/kg. PMID:23514714

Landsberger, S; Brabec, C; Canion, B; Hashem, J; Lu, C; Millsap, D; George, G

2013-11-01

76

Manufacturing Production: An Evaluation Report for the Occupational Exploration Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evaluation report is one of seven produced for the Occupational Exploration Program (OEP), a series of simulated occupational experiences designed for junior high school students. Describing the pilot testing of the simulation dealing with manufacturing production, the report contains sections describing the simulation context, evaluation…

Altschuld, James W.; And Others

77

An Economic Exploration of Biofuel basedAn Economic Exploration of Biofuel based Greenhouse Gas Emission MitigationGreenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation  

E-print Network

An Economic Exploration of Biofuel basedAn Economic Exploration of Biofuel based Greenhouse Gas Afforestation, Forest management, Biofuels, Ag soil, Animals, Fertilization, Rice, Grassland expansion, Manure of Biofuel strategies Examine the dynamics of mitigation strategies #12;PolicyPolicy ContextContext U

McCarl, Bruce A.

78

Antrim gas play, production expanding in Michigan  

SciTech Connect

Devonian Antrim shale gas, the Michigan basin's dominant hydrocarbon play in terms of number of wells drilled for several years, shows every sign of continuing at a busy pace. About 3,500 Antrim completions now yield 350 MMcfd, more than 60% of Michigan's gas production. The outlook is for Antrim production to climb in the next 2--3 years to 500--600 MMcfd, about 1% of US gas output. These delivery numbers, slow decline rates, and expected producing life of 20--30 years has snagged pipelines attention. The growing production overtaxed local gathering facilities last fall, and the play recently got its first interstate outlet. Completion and production technology advances are improving well performance and trimming costs. Several hundred wells a year are likely to be drilled during the next few years. Production increases are coming from new wells, deepenings, and workovers. Numerous pipeline/gathering projects are planned in the area to handle the growing Antrim volumes. The paper discusses the development of this resource, efforts to extend the play, geology and production, drilling programs, and gas transportation.

Not Available

1994-05-30

79

State taxation of oil and gas production  

SciTech Connect

Detailed information on state oil and gas production taxes reports the level of taxes paid in recent years and demonstrates the effect of prices, tax rates, and levels of production on these amounts. The report also describes the implementation of the production taxes, including details of who pays them, at what rate, how tax revenues are distributed, and other features. The states use these taxes as a source of general funds, and allocate some fraction to local governments if the taxes preempt local property taxes. Historically, movements in oil and gas prices had the most impact on tax collections, but economists note that the five new production taxes and 10 increases in tax rates since 1979 reduce the incentives for investment, which leads to decreased future production. 1 figure, 3 tables.

Smith, F.H.

1985-01-01

80

Methane hydrate gas production by thermal stimulation  

SciTech Connect

Two models have been developed to bracket the expected gas production from a methane hydrate reservoir. The frontal-sweep model represents the upper bound on the gas production, and the fracture-flow model represents the lower bound. Parametric studies were made to determine the importance of a number of variables, including porosity, bed thickness, injection temperature, and fracture length. These studies indicate that the hydrate-filled porosity should be at least 15%, reservoir thickness should be about 25 ft or more, and well spacing should be fairly large (maybe 40 acres/well), if possible. Injection temperatures should probably be between 150 and 250/sup 0/F to achieve an acceptable balance between high heat losses and unrealistically high injection rates. Numerous important questions about hydrate gas production remain unanswered.

McGuire, P.L.

1981-01-01

81

Metal powder production by gas atomization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The confined liquid, gas-atomization process was investigated. Results from a two-dimensional water model showed the importance of atomization pressure, as well as delivery tube and atomizer design. The atomization process at the tip of the delivery tube was photographed. Results from the atomization of a modified 7075 aluminum alloy yielded up to 60 wt pct. powders that were finer than 45 microns in diameter. Two different atomizer designs were evaluated. The amount of fine powders produced was correlated to a calculated gas-power term. An optimal gas-power value existed for maximized fine powder production. Atomization at gas-power greater than or less than this optimal value produced coarser powders.

Ting, E. Y.; Grant, N. J.

1986-01-01

82

Bio-gas production from alligator weeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of temperature, sample preparation, reducing agents, light intensity and pH of the media, on bio-gas and methane production from the microbial anaerobic decomposition of alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides. Efforts were also made for the isolation and characterization of the methanogenic bacteria.

Latif, A.

1976-01-01

83

Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions  

E-print Network

Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan and Sergey Paltsev://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan* and Sergey Paltsev* Abstract Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use

84

Eco-efficient environmental policy in oil and gas production in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the quantitative eco-efficiency method developed for prioritising environmental investments in NOGEPA, The Netherlands Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Association involving all major oil and gas producers in The Netherlands. They are committed to a high level of environmental improvement in a Covenant with Dutch central government. Quantitative assessment of eco-efficiency in terms of cost per unit

G. Huppes; M. D. Davidson; J. Kuyper; L. van Oers; H. A. Udo de Haes; G. Warringa

2007-01-01

85

Gas production in the MEGAPIE spallation target  

SciTech Connect

The Megawatt Pilot Experiment (MEGAPIE) project was started in 2000 to design, build and operate a liquid Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) spallation neutron target at the power level of 1 MW. The target was irradiated for four months in 2006 at the Paul Scherrer Inst. in Switzerland. Gas samples were extracted in various phases of operation and analyzed by {gamma} spectroscopy leading to the determination of the main radioactive isotopes released from the LBE. Comparison with calculations performed using several validated codes (MCNPX2.5.0/CINDER'90, FLUKA/ORIHET and SNT) yields the ratio between simulated in-target isotope production rates and experimental amount released at any given time. This work underlines the weak points of spallation models for some released isotopes. Also, results provide relevant information for safety and radioprotection in an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) and more particularly for the gas management in a spallation target dedicated to neutron production facilities. (authors)

Thiolliere, N. [SUBATECH, EMN-IN2P3/CNRS-Universite, Nantes, F-44307 (France); Zanini, L. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); David, J. C. [CEA Saclay, Irfu/SPhN, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Eikenberg, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Guertin, A. [SUBATECH, EMN-IN2P3/CNRS-Universite, Nantes, F-44307 (France); Konobeyev, A. Y. [Institut fuer Reaktorsicherheit, FZK GmbH, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Lemaire, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DAM Ile de France, 91297 Arpajon Cedex (France); Panebianco, S. [CEA Saclay, Irfu/SPhN, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France)

2011-07-01

86

New gas geothermometers for geothermal exploration—calibration and application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calibration of five gas geothermometers is presented, three of which used CO 2, H 2S and H 2 concentrations in fumarole steam, respectively. The remaining two use CO 2/H 2 and H 2S /H 2 ratios. The calibration is based on the relation between gas content of drillhole discharges and measured aquifer temperatures. After establishing the gas content in the aquifer, gas concentrations were calculated in steam formed by adiabatic boiling of this water to atmospheric pressure to obtain the gas geothermometry functions. It is shown that the concentrations of CO 2, H 2S and H 2 in geothermal reservoir waters are fixed through equilibria with mineral buffers. At temperatures above 230°C epidote + prehnite + calcite + quartz are considered to buffer CO 2. Two buffers are involved for H 2S and H 2 and two functions are, therefore, presented for the geothermometers involving these gases. For waters containing less than about 500 ppm chloride and in the range 230-300°C pyrite + pyrrholite + epidote + prehnite seem to be involved, but pyrite + epidote + prehnite + magnetite or chlorite for waters above 300°C and waters in the range 230-300°C, if containing over about 500 ppm. The gas geothermometers are useful for predicting subsurface temperatures in high-temperature geothermal systems. They are applicable to systems in basaltic to acidic rocks and in sediments with similar composition, but should be used with reservation for systems located in rocks which differ much in composition from the basaltic to acidic ones. The geothermometry results may be used to obtain information on steam condensation in upflow zones, or phase separation at elevated pressures. Measured aquifer temperatures in drillholes and gas geothermometry temperatures, based on data from nearby fumaroles, compare well in the five fields in Iceland considered specifically for the present study as well as in several fields in other countries for which data were inspected. The results of the gas geothermometers also compare well with the results of solute geothermometers and mixing models in three undrilled Icelandic fields.

Arnórsson, Stefán; Gunnlaugsson, Einar

1985-06-01

87

Exploring Occupations for Electronics Technicians in the Natural Gas Industry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide presents a lesson on the electronics technician career path in the natural gas industry. Students will answer the question: "Is a career as an electronics technician in the natural gas industry a good choice for me?" The class will write a one-page paper on this topic. The unit is intended for grades 7-9 and would take three to four 45 minute class periods to complete in full. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft Word file format.

2012-10-16

88

Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions  

E-print Network

Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

O'Sullivan, Francis

89

Environmental legal implications of oil and gas exploration in the Niger Delta of Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nigeria is an African country endowed with a wealth of oil and gas resources, and they are mainly found in the core Niger Delta (home to the Ijaw and Ogoni indigenous, ethnic minorities). Since Great Britain granted Nigeria political independence on October 1, 1960, successive Nigerian governments (military and civilian) have been dominated by the majority ethnic groups (Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, and Ibo). Significantly, the government adopted a socialist-based model of absolute state ownership over oil and gas resources. The socialist model formed the basis of Nigeria's business collaboration with multinational oil and gas corporations from Europe and the United States (notably Shell, Chevron Texaco, Agip, Exxon Mobil, Total, and Elf). This model is fraught with contradictions and has led to unacceptable consequences, including policies that allow exploitation of natural resources without reference to environmental sustainability. When oil was first struck in 1956 at Oloibori (Ijaw area), people thought it would bring prosperity and an improved quality of life. Sadly, the opposite has occurred. Forty-nine years of hardship, agonizing pain, debilitating anger, extreme poverty, poisoned rivers, destroyed occupations, devastated environment, and stunted growth of the youth are the negative impacts of oil and gas exploitation in the Niger Delta. In other words, oil and gas exploration and production have visited a full range of evils---socio-political, economic, and cultural---upon the indigenous Niger Delta people. Furthermore, the wealth extracted from the area is used by the state and multinational corporations to enhance their own wealth and quality of life. Revenue has been conspicuously looted and misappropriated by political leaders at the expense of the Niger Delta environment and its people. This confluence of exploitation and injury has led to social upheavals and armed rebellions, all capable of precipitating the disintegration of the country. In this dissertation, research materials have been used to identify fundamental problems inherent in the current approach to oil and gas exploration and development. Primary research findings were used to develop the recommended shift in environmental paradigm that is critical to achieving sustainable development in Nigeria. Central to the recommendations in this dissertation is a rigorous, participatory Environmental Impact Assessment ("EIA") process.

Orubebe, Bibobra Bello

90

An air quality emission inventory of offshore operations for the exploration and production of petroleum by the Mexican oil industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air quality screening study was performed to assess the impacts of emissions from the offshore operations of the oil and gas exploration and production by Mexican industry in the Campeche Sound, which includes the states of Tabasco and Campeche in southeast Mexico. The major goal of this study was the compilation of an emission inventory (EI) for elevated, boom

R. Villasenor; M. Magdaleno; A. Quintanar; J. c. Gallardo; M. T López; R. Jurado; A. Miranda; M. Aguilar; L. a. Melgarejo; E Palmer??n; C. j. Vallejo; W. r. Barchet

2003-01-01

91

Development of a Contingency Gas Analyzer for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's experience with electrochemical sensors in a hand-held toxic gas monitor serves as a basis for the development of a fixed on-board instrument, the Contingency Gas Analyzer (CGA), for monitoring selected toxic combustion products as well as oxygen and carbon dioxide on the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Oxygen and carbon dioxide are major components of the cabin environment and accurate measurement of these compounds is critical to maintaining a safe working environment for the crew. Fire or thermal degradation events may produce harmful levels of toxic products, including carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and hydrogen chloride (HCl) in the environment. These three components, besides being toxic in their own right, can serve as surrogates for a panoply of hazardous combustion products. On orbit monitoring of these surrogates provides for crew health and safety by indicating the presence of toxic combustion products in the environment before, during and after combustion or thermal degradation events. Issues identified in previous NASA experiences mandate hardening the instrument and components to endure the mechanical and operational stresses of the CEV environment while maintaining high analytical fidelity. Specific functional challenges involve protecting the sensors from various anticipated events- such as rapid pressure changes, low cabin pressures, and extreme vibration/shock exposures- and extending the sensor lifetime and calibration periods far beyond the current state of the art to avoid the need for on-orbit calibration. This paper focuses on lessons learned from the earlier NASA hardware, current testing results, and engineering solutions to the identified problems. Of particular focus will be the means for protecting the sensors, addressing well known cross-sensitivity issues and the efficacy of a novel self monitoring mechanism for extending sensor calibration periods.

Niu, Bill; Carney, Kenneth; Steiner, George; OHarra, William; Lewis, John

2010-01-01

92

Landfill course: managing gas and leachate production on landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlling gas and leachate production is a primary objective of sound landfill management. Gases, composed mainly of carbon dioxide and methane, are formed during the decomposition of solid wastes. Leachate forms as water passes through the refuse, dissolving out chemicals. Three basic methods for controlling gas and leachate production are presented: managing production; directing gas or leachate movement; and treating

Reinfl

1977-01-01

93

78 FR 59650 - Subzone 9F, Authorization of Production Activity, The Gas Company, LLC dba Hawai'i Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Subzone 9F, Authorization of Production Activity, The Gas Company, LLC dba Hawai'i Gas, (Synthetic Natural Gas), Kapolei, Hawaii On May 22, 2013, The Gas Company, LLC dba Hawai'i Gas submitted a notification of proposed production...

2013-09-27

94

Principal geological results of oil and gas exploration in southern Sakhalin. [USSR  

SciTech Connect

The results of gas and oil exploration in southern Sakhalin, USSR are discussed in three aspects: 1) oil and gas fields revealed; 2) new data on geological cross sections, and 3) tectonic position of Upper Cretaceous and Cenozic deposits. Commercial oil deposits have been located in the lower and middle Miocene deposits of the Progranichnyy trough, and commercial gas presence has been discovered in the upper Miocene deposits of the Aniva Gulf trough. (JMT)

Tyutrin, I.I.; Dunichev, V.M.; Taboyakov, A.Y.

1982-09-01

95

Bio Gas Oil Production from Waste Lard  

PubMed Central

Besides the second generations bio fuels, one of the most promising products is the bio gas oil, which is a high iso-paraffin containing fuel, which could be produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of different triglycerides. To broaden the feedstock of the bio gas oil the catalytic hydrogenation of waste lard over sulphided NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst, and as the second step, the isomerization of the produced normal paraffin rich mixture (intermediate product) over Pt/SAPO-11 catalyst was investigated. It was found that both the hydrogenation and the decarboxylation/decarbonylation oxygen removing reactions took place but their ratio depended on the process parameters (T = 280–380°C, P = 20–80 bar, LHSV = 0.75–3.0?h?1 and H2/lard ratio: 600?Nm3/m3). In case of the isomerization at the favourable process parameters (T = 360–370°C, P = 40 –50 bar, LHSV = 1.0?h?1 and H2/hydrocarbon ratio: 400?Nm3/m3) mainly mono-branching isoparaffins were obtained. The obtained products are excellent Diesel fuel blending components, which are practically free of heteroatoms. PMID:21403875

Hancsok, Jeno; Baladincz, Peter; Kasza, Tamas; Kovacs, Sandor; Toth, Csaba; Varga, Zoltan

2011-01-01

96

Bio gas oil production from waste lard.  

PubMed

Besides the second generations bio fuels, one of the most promising products is the bio gas oil, which is a high iso-paraffin containing fuel, which could be produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of different triglycerides. To broaden the feedstock of the bio gas oil the catalytic hydrogenation of waste lard over sulphided NiMo/Al(2)O(3) catalyst, and as the second step, the isomerization of the produced normal paraffin rich mixture (intermediate product) over Pt/SAPO-11 catalyst was investigated. It was found that both the hydrogenation and the decarboxylation/decarbonylation oxygen removing reactions took place but their ratio depended on the process parameters (T = 280-380°C, P = 20-80 bar, LHSV = 0.75-3.0? h(-1) and H(2)/lard ratio: 600 ?Nm(3)/m(3)). In case of the isomerization at the favourable process parameters (T = 360-370°C, P = 40-50 bar, LHSV = 1.0? h(-1) and H(2)/hydrocarbon ratio: 400? Nm(3)/m(3)) mainly mono-branching isoparaffins were obtained. The obtained products are excellent Diesel fuel blending components, which are practically free of heteroatoms. PMID:21403875

Hancsók, Jeno; Baladincz, Péter; Kasza, Tamás; Kovács, Sándor; Tóth, Csaba; Varga, Zoltán

2011-01-01

97

Comet Encke - Gas production and lightcurve  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive set of observations, both from the ground and with the IUE, was planned for the 1984 apparition of Comet Encke. The observations were intended to confirm the behavior seen in 1980 and to study the behavior of the comet after perihelion. The results of the observations indicate that all the measured trace species display an asymmetry around the perihelion that is consistent with the visual light curve (VLC). But the total gas production as monitored by OH (the dominant species) displays a behavior that has no relation to the VLC.

Ahearn, M. F.; Birch, P. V.; Feldman, P. D.; Millis, R. L.

1985-01-01

98

Exploring Remote Sensing Products Online with Giovanni for Studying Urbanization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently, a Large amount of MODIS land products at multi-spatial resolutions have been integrated into the online system, Giovanni, to support studies on land cover and land use changes focused on Northern Eurasia and Monsoon Asia regions. Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) is a Web-based application developed by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES-DISC) providing a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access Earth science remotely-sensed and modeled data. The customized Giovanni Web portals (Giovanni-NEESPI and Giovanni-MAIRS) are created to integrate land, atmospheric, cryospheric, and social products, that enable researchers to do quick exploration and basic analyses of land surface changes and their relationships to climate at global and regional scales. This presentation documents MODIS land surface products in Giovanni system. As examples, images and statistical analysis results on land surface and local climate changes associated with urbanization over Yangtze River Delta region, China, using data in Giovanni are shown.

Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina; Kempler, Steve

2012-01-01

99

International oil and gas exploration and development: 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report starts where the previous quarterly publication ended. This first publication of a new annual series contains most of the same data as the quarterly report, plus some new material, through 1991. It also presents historical data covering a longer period of time than the previous quarterly report. Country-level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve-to-production rations (R/P ratios) are listed for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form. The most popular table in the previous quarterly report, a listing of new discoveries, continues in this annual report as Appendix A.

Not Available

1993-12-01

100

Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is an outcome of lean thinking to eliminate waste and increase productivity. PLM is inextricably tied to the systems engineering business philosophy, coupled with a methodology by which personnel, processes and practices, and information technology combine to form an architecture platform for product design, development, manufacturing, operations, and decommissioning. In this model, which is being implemented by the Engineering Directorate at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center, total lifecycle costs are important variables for critical decision-making. With the ultimate goal to deliver quality products that meet or exceed requirements on time and within budget, PLM is a powerful concept to shape everything from engineering trade studies and testing goals, to integrated vehicle operations and retirement scenarios. This paper will demonstrate how the Engineering Directorate is implementing PLM as part of an overall strategy to deliver safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions. It has been 30 years since the United States fielded the Space Shuttle. The next generation space transportation system requires a paradigm shift such that digital tools and knowledge management, which are central elements of PLM, are used consistently to maximum effect. The outcome is a better use of scarce resources, along with more focus on stakeholder and customer requirements, as a new portfolio of enabling tools becomes second nature to the workforce. This paper will use the design and manufacturing processes, which have transitioned to digital-based activities, to show how PLM supports the comprehensive systems engineering and integration function. It also will go through a launch countdown scenario where an anomaly is detected to show how the virtual vehicle created from paperless processes will help solve technical challenges and improve the likelihood of launching on schedule, with less hands-on labor needed for processing and troubleshooting.

Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.

2010-01-01

101

Interaction of Shale Gas Production and Potential CO2 Sequestration Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon sequestration may be seen as a needed bridge technology between the current energy portfolio with high carbon emissions and a future portfolio based on low-carbon energy sources. A path to the low-carbon future would also include exploration and production of unconventional gas reserves, especially shale gas. However, the production of shale gas could interact with potential CO2 storage because the shale formations that are fractured could otherwise act as caprock formations in CO2 storage operation. Because of the large zone of influence resulting from the pressure perturbation associated with large-scale CO2 injection, there is potential for a large spatial extent of CO2 storage interaction with unconventional gas production. For this presentation we identify areas where shale gas production occurs in formations that are suitable for use as caprock formations in CO2 storage operations. We subsequently discuss the interaction of gas production activity and a CO2 sequestration project, in an area such as the Barnett Shale. We then examine concentrated leakage pathways in the caprock to simulate a localized increase in permeability, due to induced fractures, of an otherwise confining unit. Furthermore, we examine how a CO2 plume would encounter a hydraulic zone perturbed by exploration, and if there would be direct interruption of both the CO2 storage program and gas production.

Elliot, T. R.; Celia, M. A.

2011-12-01

102

A hybrid economic–engineering model for natural gas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimal control model which generalizes the traditional economic theory of exhaustible resource production is developed and applied to natural gas wells. These generalizations, which are empirically relevant for the natural gas resources we analyze, allow (1) decreasing marginal production costs, (2) physical bounds on periodic production and (3) interdependencies between the stock of the resource, the periodic production bounds,

Janie M. Chermak; James Crafton; Suzanne M. Norquist; Robert H. Patrick

1999-01-01

103

Exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

Wilburn, D. R.; Porter, K. E.

1999-01-01

104

Exploring extrasolar worlds: from gas giants to terrestrial habitable planets.  

PubMed

Almost 500 extrasolar planets have been found since the discovery of 51 Peg b by Mayor and Queloz in 1995. The traditional field of planetology has thus expanded its frontiers to include planetary environments not represented in our Solar System. We expect that in the next five years space missions (Corot, Kepler and GAIA) or ground-based detection techniques will both increase exponentially the number of new planets discovered and lower the present limit of a approximately 1.9 Earth-mass object [e.g. Mayor et al., Astron. Astrophys., 2009, 507, 487]. While the search for an Earth-twin orbiting a Sun-twin has been one of the major goals pursued by the exoplanet community in the past years, the possibility of sounding the atmospheric composition and structure of an increasing sample of exoplanets with current telescopes has opened new opportunities, unthinkable just a few years ago. As a result, it is possible now not only to determine the orbital characteristics of the new bodies, but moreover to study the exotic environments that lie tens of parsecs away from us. The analysis of the starlight not intercepted by the thin atmospheric limb of its planetary companion (transit spectroscopy), or of the light emitted/reflected by the exoplanet itself, will guide our understanding of the atmospheres and the surfaces of these extrasolar worlds in the next few years. Preliminary results obtained by interpreting current atmospheric observations of transiting gas giants and Neptunes are presented. While the full characterisation of an Earth-twin might requires a technological leap, our understanding of large terrestrial planets (so called super-Earths) orbiting bright, later-type stars is within reach by current space and ground telescopes. PMID:21302557

Tinetti, Giovanna; Griffith, Caitlin A; Swain, Mark R; Deroo, Pieter; Beaulieu, Jean Philippe; Vasisht, Gautam; Kipping, David; Waldmann, Ingo; Tennyson, Jonathan; Barber, Robert J; Bouwman, Jeroen; Allard, Nicole; Brown, Linda R

2010-01-01

105

Robust MEMS gyroscope for oil and gas exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To satisfy the performance and reliability requirement of a MEMS based harsh environment sensor, the sensor development needs to depart from the classic method of single-discipline technology improvement. In this paper, the authors will describe a Microsystem-based design methodology which considers simultaneous multiple technology domain interaction and achieves performance optimization at the system level to address the harsh environment sensing challenge. This is demonstrated through specific examples of investigating a robust MEMS gyroscope suitable for high temperature and high vibration environments such as down-hole drilling for Oil and Gas applications. In particular, the different mechanisms of temperature-induced errors in MEMS gyroscope are discussed. The error sources include both the direct impact of the gyroscope dynamics by temperature and the indirect perturbation by temperature-induced package stress. For vibration and shock induced failure, the error contributions from the low frequency and high frequency contents are discussed. Different transducer designs with equivalent rate sensitivity can vary with several orders of magnitude in terms of the susceptibility to mechanical vibration. Also shown are the complex interactions among the gyroscopic transducer, packaging and the control electronics, resulting from these temperature and vibration error sources. The microsystem-based design methodology is able to capture such complex interactions and improve the gyroscope temperature and vibration performance. In contrast to other efforts in harsh environment sensing which focus on specific technology domains, the authors strive to demonstrate the need and advantage of addressing MEMS performance and reliability in harsh environment from a microsystem perspective.

Lin, David; Miller, Todd

2014-06-01

106

Measurements of Methane Emissions at Natural Gas Production Sites  

E-print Network

· Sponsors were an environmental group and nine natural gas producers ­ Environmental Defense Fund (EDFMeasurements of Methane Emissions at Natural Gas Production Sites in the United States #12;Why = 21 #12;Need for Study · Estimates of methane emissions from natural gas production , from academic

Lightsey, Glenn

107

Study of gas production potential of New Albany Shale (group) in the Illinois basin  

SciTech Connect

The New Albany Shale (Devonian and Mississippian) is recognized as both a source rock and gas-producing reservoir in the Illinois basin. The first gas discovery was made in 1885, and was followed by the development of several small fields in Harrison County, Indiana, and Meade County, Kentucky. Recently, exploration for and production of New Albany gas has been encouraged by the IRS Section 29 tax credit. To identify technology gaps that have restricted the development of gas production form the shale gas resource in the basin, the Illinois Basin Consortium (IBC), composed of the Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky geological surveys, is conducting a cooperative research project with the Gas Research Institute (GRI). An earlier study of the geological and geochemical aspects of the New Albany was conducted during 1976-1978 as part of the Eastern Gas Shales Project (EGSP) sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The current IBC/GRI study is designed to update and reinterpret EGSP data and incorporate new data obtained since 1978. During the project, relationships between gas production and basement structures are being emphasized by constructing cross sections and maps showing thickness, structure, basement features, and thermal maturity. The results of the project will be published in a comprehensive final report in 1992. The information will provide a sound geological basis for ongoing shale-gas research, exploration, and development in the basin.

Hasenmueller, N.R.; Boberg, W.S.; Comer, J.; Smidchens, Z. (Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington (United States)); Frankie, W.T.; Lumm, D.K. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign (United States)); Hamilton-Smith, T.; Walker, J.D. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington (United States))

1991-08-01

108

Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production  

SciTech Connect

The mechanics of ground movements during hydrate production can be more closely simulated by considering similarities with ground movements associated with subsidence in permafrost regions than with gob compaction in a longwall mine. The purpose of this research work is to investigate the potential strata movements associated with hydrate production by considering similarities with ground movements in permafrost regions. The work primarily involves numerical modeling of subsidence caused by hydrate dissociation. The investigation is based on the theories of continuum mechanics , thermomechanical behavior of frozen geo-materials, and principles of rock mechanics and geomechanics. It is expected that some phases of the investigation will involve the use of finite element method, which is a powerful computer-based method which has been widely used in many areas of science and engineering. Parametric studies will be performed to predict expected strata movements and surface subsidence for different reservoir conditions and properties of geological materials. The results from this investigation will be useful in predicting the magnitude of the subsidence problem associated with gas hydrate production. The analogy of subsidence in permafrost regions may provide lower bounds for subsidence expected in hydrate reservoirs. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the results will provide insight into planning of hydrate recovery operations.

Siriwardane, H.J.

1992-10-01

109

Corrosion inhibition in oil and gas production  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses practical aspects of the design and implementation of a corrosion inhibition program for oil and gas production, including choice of system, inhibitor testing and selection, performance monitoring, and inhibition problems. Corrosion inhibition is used to ensure safe operations and to improve profits. This paper focuses on the economic aspects of inhibition. The type of failures discussed here involve loss of production or assets, but not catastrophic failures (eg, well blow-out) where safety or environmental factors predominate. Corrosion failures must be economically significant to justify the implementation of a downhole corrosion inhibition program. Inhibition is one of several alternative methods for controlling corrosion. The choice of method is driven by both economical and technical considerations. The criteria include: technical competence, feasibility of implementation, compatibility with the rest of the production system, and initial and maintenance costs. The design of a corrosion inhibition program involves several steps from inhibitor selection to performance monitoring. Each step of the process must be carefully addressed to ensure the success of the program.

Kapusta, S.D. [Shell Western E and P Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Place, M.C. [Project Associates, Metairie, LA (United States)

1994-12-31

110

Features of the marketing strategy of oil and gas companies in exploration drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The implementation of national and regional programs for the development of new oil and gas provinces of Eastern Siberia poses the challenge of increasing geological exploration. The current drilling service companies' market structure, as well as the strategic task of search and exploration effectiveness requires qualitatively new approaches for choosing a contractor. The proposed strategy to select a contractor based on comprehensive analysis of certain groups of industrial, financial, infrastructural criteria allows not only to optimize the costs of exploration activities, but also to minimize preventively the risks of a poor geological exploration. The authors' SWOT- analysis of the marketing strategy of "Gazprom neft" for choosing a contractor outlined the problem of imperfection of the Russian legislation in the sphere of activities of service companies in the oil and gas sector.

Sharf, I.; Malanina, V.; Kamynina, L.

2014-08-01

111

Exploring the Deep... Exploring the Ocean Environment Unit 4Marine Productivity  

E-print Network

worms at hydrothermal vents consume chemosynthetic bacteria. NOAA Figure 4. Marine food web. sharksGEO/OC 103 Exploring the Deep... Lab 8 #12;Exploring the Ocean Environment Unit 4­Marine into carbohydrates (Figure at left). The amount of carbon converted to food by autotrophs is referred to as primary

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

112

Gas Production Strategy of Underground Coal Gasification Based on Multiple Gas Sources  

PubMed Central

To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method. PMID:25114953

Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

2014-01-01

113

Senate Forum on Shale Gas Development Explores Environmental and Industry Issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources brought together industry and environmental leaders for a 23 May forum that focused on industry best practices and environmental concerns related to the current shale gas boom. The boom in shale gas development has been brought about in large part through advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") to increase shale oil and gas production.

Showstack, Randy

2013-06-01

114

Project Explorer takes its second step: GAS-608 in engineering development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An a continuation of its Project Explorer series, the Alabama Space and Rocket Center is sponsoring the development of two additional Get Away Special payloads. Details are given of GAS-608, including descriptions of its six experiments in organic crystal growth, roach eggs, yeast, radish seeds, bacterial morphology, and silicon crystals. A brief summary is also presented of GAS-105 and the Space Camp program for stimulating student first hand participation in space flight studies. GAS-608 will carry six student experiments, which will involve biology, crystal growth, and biochemistry in addition to a centralized package for electronics and power supply.

Kitchens, Philip H.

1988-01-01

115

78 FR 17661 - Proposed Reissuance of a General NPDES Permit for Oil and Gas Exploration Facilities in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exploration Facilities in Federal Waters of Cook Inlet (AKG 31-5000...pollutants into Cook Inlet Federal Waters from oil and gas exploration facilities...to minimize pollution and protect water quality. DATES: Comments. Interested...

2013-03-22

116

Oil and Gas CDT Are non-marine organic-rich shales suitable exploration  

E-print Network

Oil and Gas CDT Are non-marine organic-rich shales suitable exploration targets? The University Hesselbo, University of Exeter http://emps.exeter.ac.uk/csm/staff/sph216 Key Words Shales, depositional environments, diagenesis, sedimentology, geochemistry Overview Shales are of increasing interest not only

Henderson, Gideon

117

Accounting for Adsorbed gas and its effect on production bahavior of Shale Gas Reservoirs  

E-print Network

ACCOUNTING FOR ADSORBED GAS AND ITS EFFECT ON PRODUCTION BEHAVIOR OF SHALE GAS RESERVOIRS A Thesis by SALMAN AKRAM MENGAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2010 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering ACCOUNTING FOR ADSORBED GAS AND ITS EFFECT ON PRODUCTION BEHAVIOR OF SHALE GAS RESERVOIRS A Thesis by SALMAN AKRAM MENGAL...

Mengal, Salman Akram

2010-10-12

118

GASCAP: Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model documentation, June 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model (GASCAP) has been developed by EIA to provide a historical analysis of the monthly productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead and a projection of monthly capacity for 2 years into the future. The impact of drilling, oil and gas price assumptions, and demand on gas productive capacity are examined. Both gas-well gas and oil-well gas are included. Oil-well gas productive capacity is estimated separately and then combined with the gas-well gas productive capacity. This documentation report provides a general overview of the GASCAP Model, describes the underlying data base, provides technical descriptions of the component models, diagrams the system and subsystem flow, describes the equations, and provides definitions and sources of all variables used in the system. This documentation report is provided to enable users of EIA projections generated by GASCAP to understand the underlying procedures used and to replicate the models and solutions. This report should be of particular interest to those in the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas.

Not Available

1993-07-01

119

Exploration for natural gas in Northern Germany and in the Alpine area  

SciTech Connect

During the sixties, natural gas fields in carbonate reservoirs of the Zechstein formation (Upper Permian), in particular, were developed in the North German basin at depths of 2,000 - 4,000 m (about 6,500' 13,000'). Current exploration is focused on Rotliegendes sandstones (Lower Permian) at about 5,000 m (16,400'). Successful discoveries are being developed. In some places natural gas has been discovered below the Permian in sandstones of the Upper Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian), the coal bearing source formation for the gas. With the development of gas bearing Paleozoic and deeply buried sandstones, the problems of tight reservoir rocks became evident. Stimulation of these rocks requires super-frac operations. Throughout the present phase of active development, exploration geologists have in mind that exploration in future decades will be looking out for potential natural gas prospects in Devonian and/or Lower Carboniferous (Mississippian) of the North German basin. This has already happened in the eastern part of Germany. Such targets occur at depths of about 7 - 8,000 m (23,000' 27,000'). Geophysical surveys and some wildcat drilling, partly supported by governmental funds, have been carried out, some of which by major joint ventures. Similar subsidies are given for exploration of deep targets (6 - 8,000 m, 2,027,000') in the area of the Northern Alpine thrust zone in Bavaria. In the Northern Alpine Foreland, however, only small to medium natural gas fields at depths of between 1,000 and 3,000 m (About 3,000 10,000') have so far been developed. Below the intermountane Alpine basins (Austria) and in the Southern Alpine Foreland (Italy) discoveries have been made at depths of up to 7,000 m (23,000').

Hedemann, H.A.

1982-11-01

120

Production of biodiesel using expanded gas solvents  

SciTech Connect

A method of producing an alkyl ester. The method comprises providing an alcohol and a triglyceride or fatty acid. An expanding gas is dissolved into the alcohol to form a gas expanded solvent. The alcohol is reacted with the triglyceride or fatty acid in a single phase to produce the alkyl ester. The expanding gas may be a nonpolar expanding gas, such as carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, ethylene, propylene, butylene, pentene, isomers thereof, and mixtures thereof, which is dissolved into the alcohol. The gas expanded solvent may be maintained at a temperature below, at, or above a critical temperature of the expanding gas and at a pressure below, at, or above a critical pressure of the expanding gas.

Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID; Fox, Robert V [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-04-07

121

Windowless gas targets for neutron production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A windowless deuterium gas target has been constructed for high yield production of either monoenergetic or white fast neutrons. The operation of this target has been demonstrated on a 900 keV deuteron accelerator. The target is capable of operation at 100 mbar target pressure, and can admit a low duty factor beam of 5 mm transverse extent. The target employs an intermittent valve arrangement to reduce the flow rates in the higher pressure stages of a differentially pumped vacuum system. This valve allows operation at much greater target pressures for low duty factor beams than would otherwise be the case. Neutron yield measurements validated the functionality of the target system. This target will make possible considerable advances in methods of non-destructive testing and evaluation which employ fast neutrons, whether mono-energetic or otherwise. It is further suited to use as a thermal neutron source, with the addition of an appropriate moderator. The development of this target system has not only provided a functioning and valuable piece of equipment for use in further research, but has also investigated the technological limitations and functional requirements of implementing such a system in a practical setting. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14- 0551, Cambridge, MA 2139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617- 253-1690.)

Iverson, Erik B.

122

Air quality concerns of unconventional oil and natural gas production.  

PubMed

Increased use of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") in unconventional oil and natural gas (O & NG) development from coal, sandstone, and shale deposits in the United States (US) has created environmental concerns over water and air quality impacts. In this perspective we focus on how the production of unconventional O & NG affects air quality. We pay particular attention to shale gas as this type of development has transformed natural gas production in the US and is set to become important in the rest of the world. A variety of potential emission sources can be spread over tens of thousands of acres of a production area and this complicates assessment of local and regional air quality impacts. We outline upstream activities including drilling, completion and production. After contrasting the context for development activities in the US and Europe we explore the use of inventories for determining air emissions. Location and scale of analysis is important, as O & NG production emissions in some US basins account for nearly 100% of the pollution burden, whereas in other basins these activities make up less than 10% of total air emissions. While emission inventories are beneficial to quantifying air emissions from a particular source category, they do have limitations when determining air quality impacts from a large area. Air monitoring is essential, not only to validate inventories, but also to measure impacts. We describe the use of measurements, including ground-based mobile monitoring, network stations, airborne, and satellite platforms for measuring air quality impacts. We identify nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), ozone, hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and methane as pollutants of concern related to O & NG activities. These pollutants can contribute to air quality concerns and they may be regulated in ambient air, due to human health or climate forcing concerns. Close to well pads, emissions are concentrated and exposure to a wide range of pollutants is possible. Public health protection is improved when emissions are controlled and facilities are located away from where people live. Based on lessons learned in the US we outline an approach for future unconventional O & NG development that includes regulation, assessment and monitoring. PMID:24699994

Field, R A; Soltis, J; Murphy, S

2014-05-01

123

A protocol for assessing the biotreatability of hydrocarbon contaminated exploration and production site soils  

SciTech Connect

It is estimated that there are over 260,000 natural gas production wells in the continental United States. Production or reserve pits exist which ma require remediation depending on several conditions such as: the manner in which they were initially closed; whether or not they were lined; and the local climate, soil type, and depth to groundwater. As part of the Gas Research Institute (GRI) research program on exploration and production (E&P) site remediation, a treatability Protocol is being developed to facilitate the rapid assessment of the amenability of the contaminated soils to remediation by biological processes. This paper describes the treatability protocol and the results of a series of treatability tests on a spectrum of hydrocarbon contaminated E&P soils collected from various operating locations throughout the United States. The soils are subjected to physical and chemical characterization prior to treatability testing. Potential biotoxic characteristics of the soils are determined by a respirometry screening technique. Presuming that the soils are not toxic to aerobic soil microorganisms, 20 percent by weight aqueous slurries of the soils are prepared and subjected to continuous batch aeration for a six week period. Conditions favorable to microbial growth are maintained in the reactors by monitoring and augmentation is needed of pH, microbial nutrients and oxygen for microbial respiration. The extent of microbial degradation of the contaminant hydrocarbons is monitored by periodic measurement of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), oil and grease, and individual hydrocarbon compounds as determined by gas chromatography. Microbial plate counts are prepared to document the biological viability of the treatment process. The factors influencing the amenability of these soils to bioremediation as determined from the test results are discussed.

Tezak, J.; Miller, J.A.; Lawrence, A.W. [and others

1995-12-01

124

30 CFR 202.550 - How do I determine the royalty due on gas production?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...determine the royalty due on gas production? 202.550 Section 202...REVENUE MANAGEMENT ROYALTIES Gas Production From Indian Leases § 202.550...determine the royalty due on gas production? If you produce gas...

2010-07-01

125

Gas production and migration in landfills and geological materials.  

PubMed

Landfill gas, originating from the anaerobic biodegradation of the organic content of waste, consists mainly of methane and carbon dioxide, with traces of volatile organic compounds. Pressure, concentration and temperature gradients that develop within the landfill result in gas emissions to the atmosphere and in lateral migration through the surrounding soils. Environmental and safety issues associated with the landfill gas require control of off-site gas migration. The numerical model TOUGH2-LGM (Transport of Unsaturated Groundwater and Heat-Landfill Gas Migration) has been developed to simulate landfill gas production and migration processes within and beyond landfill boundaries. The model is derived from the general non-isothermal multiphase flow simulator TOUGH2, to which a new equation of state module is added. It simulates the migration of five components in partially saturated media: four fluid components (water, atmospheric air, methane and carbon dioxide) and one energy component (heat). The four fluid components are present in both the gas and liquid phases. The model incorporates gas-liquid partitioning of all fluid components by means of dissolution and volatilization. In addition to advection in the gas and liquid phase, multi-component diffusion is simulated in the gas phase. The landfill gas production rate is proportional to the organic substrate and is modeled as an exponentially decreasing function of time. The model is applied to the Montreal's CESM landfill site, which is located in a former limestone rock quarry. Existing data were used to characterize hydraulic properties of the waste and the limestone. Gas recovery data at the site were used to define the gas production model. Simulations in one and two dimensions are presented to investigate gas production and migration in the landfill, and in the surrounding limestone. The effects of a gas recovery well and landfill cover on gas migration are also discussed. PMID:11695741

Nastev, M; Therrien, R; Lefebvre, R; Gélinas, P

2001-11-01

126

Development and Demonstration of Mobile, Small Footprint Exploration and Development Well System for Arctic Unconventional Gas Resources (ARCGAS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, oil and gas field technology development in Alaska has focused on the high-cost, high-productivity oil and gas fields of the North Slope and Cook Inlet, with little or no attention given to Alaska's numerous shallow, unconventional gas reservoirs (carbonaceous shales, coalbeds, tight gas sands). This is because the high costs associated with utilizing the existing conventional oil and gas

Paul Glavinovich

2002-01-01

127

[Study on exploring for oil and gas using reflectance spectra of surface soils].  

PubMed

Reflectance spectra in the visible and near-infrared wavelength region provide a rapid and inexpensive means for determining the mineralogy of samples and obtaining information on chemical composition. Hydrocarbon microseepage theory sets up a cause-and-effect relation between oil and gas reservoirs and some special surface alterations. Therefore the authors can explore for oil and gas by determining the reflectance spectra of surface alterations. This determination can be fulfilled by means of field work and hyperspectral remote sensing. In the present paper, firstly a macroscopical feature of reflectance spectra of typical observation points in gas fields is presented. Then a method is proposed in order to provide surface distribution information (e.g., classification) of alterations based on the reflectance spectra determined from the field, and obtain anomaly zones of the special alterations. This method has been applied to the analysis of the reflectance spectra determined in the field of Qinghai X X area, and the classification results tally with the existent gas fields in this area. A robustness analysis of the method shows that good results can be obtained when different combinations of parameters, such as samples, study band regions and thresholds, have been chosen in the process of classification. The valid classification samples and algorithms can be provided for the oil and gas exploration in progress in this area using NASA experimental hyperion hyperspectral satellite. PMID:17554913

Xu, Da-qi; Ni, Guo-qiang; Shen, Yuan-ting; He, Jin-ping; Jiang, Li-li

2007-03-01

128

Explore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by the Tata Energy Research Institute, the EduGreen Explore Web site allows kids to learn about energy, water, climate change, solid waste, and more. Besides giving good descriptions on these various subjects, students will also gain a global perspective on these issues since the Institute, which is located in India, gives specific information for the country. The site also contains quizzes, maps, activities, and more worth checking out.

2002-01-01

129

78 FR 59632 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production Safety...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DAQ000 EEEE500000] RIN 1014-AA10 Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf--Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems AGENCY...20170-4817. Please reference ``Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems,...

2013-09-27

130

Exploration and development of oil and gas field on the shelf of Sakhalin  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes the level of investigation of Sakhalin shelf for 17 years of prospecting and exploration. 8 oil and gas fields have been discovered with the total recoverable reserves ca. 272 million tons of crude oil and 819 billion m{sup 3} of gas. In the nearest 5--7 years the intensive exploration of these sectors by the companies-winners of tenders is expected. The volumes of drilling can reach 45,000-50,000 m/year. The deterrents are severe environmental conditions on the Sakhalin shelf, which are characterized by a short summer season and complicated ice conditions in winter. Offshore fields of Sakhalin can become one of the most promising sources of import of crude oil and LNG to the countries of Asia Pacific region.

Bogdanchikov, S.M.; Astafiev, V.N.; Bojarshin, E.K. [JSC Sakhalinmorneftegas, Okha (Russian Federation)

1995-12-31

131

Gas well operation with liquid production  

SciTech Connect

Prediction of liquid loading in gas wells is discussed in terms of intersecting tubing or system performance curves with IPR curves and by using a more simplified critical velocity relationship. Different methods of liquid removal are discussed including such methods as intermittent lift, plunger lift, use of foam, gas lift, and rod, jet, and electric submersible pumps. Advantages, disadvantages, and techniques for design and application of the methods of liquid removal are discussed.

Lea, J.F.; Tighe, R.E.

1983-02-01

132

40 CFR Table W - 1A of Subpart W-Default Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production W Table... MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions...Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production...

2012-07-01

133

Structure and shale gas production patterns from eastern Kentucky field  

SciTech Connect

Computer-derived subsurface structure, isopach, and gas-flow maps, based on 4000 drillers logs, have been generated for eastern Kentucky under a project sponsored by the Gas Research Institute. Structure maps show low-relief flextures related to basement structure. Some structures have been mapped at the surface, others have not. Highest final open-flow (fof) of shale gas from wells in Martin County follow a structural low between (basement) anticlines. From there, elevated gas flows (fof) extend westward along the Warfield monocline to Floyd County where the high flow (fof) trend extends southward along the Floyd County channel. In Knott County, the number of wells with high gas flow (fof) decreases abruptly. The center of highest gas flow (fof) in Floyd County spreads eastward to Pike County, forming a triangular shaped area of high production (fof). The center of highest gas flow (fof) is in an area where possible (basement) structure trends intersect and where low-relief surface folds (probably detached structure) were mapped and shown on the 1922 version of the Floyd County structure map. Modern regional maps, based on geophysical logs from widely spaced wells, do not define the low-relief structures that have been useful in predicting gas flow trends. Detailed maps based on drillers logs can be misleading unless carefully edited. Comparative analysis of high gas flows (fof) and 10-year cumulative production figures in a small area confirms that there is a relationship between gas flow (fof) values and long-term cumulative production.

Shumaker, R.C.

1987-09-01

134

Ecological Production Functions: A Theoretical and Practical Exploration  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecological production functions characterize relationships between ecosystem condition, management practices, and the delivery of economically valuable ecosystem services. Many in the ecosystem service research community view ecological research directed toward developing ecolog...

135

Exploring the Deep... Exploring the Ocean Environment Unit 4Marine Productivity  

E-print Network

photosynthesis (Figure at left). Photosynthesis is the process by which plant cells containing the green pigment-celled plants in the ocean's surface layer, from which we can estimate primary productivity. Food chains (Figure, microscopic single-celled plants that drift near the ocean surface. The remaining organisms in food webs

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

136

Computer model for production forecasting of oil and gas  

SciTech Connect

In nature, gas generally is found in combination with oil. To make the situation even more complicated, the gas-oil ratio of the crude may vary from well to well, and from time to time within the same well. Without a computer program, the production manager must decide arbitrarily, from past experience and by trial and error, how much crude and gas should be produced by each gas-oil separator (GOSP) to satisfy all demands and constraints. This approach involves numerous staff meetings. The GOSP model described was developed as a means of finding production guidelines that could either maximize or minimize gas production while maintaining a fixed amount of crude output, and vice versa. Each month the guidelines for this model have to be adjusted to meet changing market requirements, surface facility limitations, reservoir constraints, scheduled equipment shutdowns, and other variables.

Hahn, K.W.; Turaiki, S.A.; Al-Mishari, A.S.

1983-07-01

137

Process for production desulfurized of synthesis gas  

DOEpatents

A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1900.degree.-2600.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises a calcium-containing compound portion, a sodium-containing compound portion, and a fluoride-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (1) a sulfur-containing sodium-calcium-fluoride silicate phase; and (2) a sodium-calcium sulfide phase.

Wolfenbarger, James K. (Torrance, CA); Najjar, Mitri S. (Wappingers Falls, NY)

1993-01-01

138

Explore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created "to champion the selfless acts of others" and "to create a portal into the soul of humanity" the Explore website was created in part with support from the Annenberg Foundation. On this website, visitors can view films that cover themes such as animal rights, poverty, the environment, and spirituality. Clicking on the "Films" tab brings up a grid of recently added films, complete with another section that divides them up by "Places" and Causes". The films range in length from a two to thirty minutes, and visitors can also create their own playlist of films for their own use. Some of the more recently added films of note include "Fish Out of Water" and "Gorillas 98.6% Human". Also, visitors can connect with other parties by using the "Discussions" section to talk about travel, philanthropy, or filmmaking. The "Minds" area features profiles of the filmmakers and others profiled throughout the site, and visitors can filter them by countries and causes.

139

U-GAS process for production of hydrogen from coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, hydrogen is produced mainly from natural gas and petroleum fractions. Tomorrow, because reserves of natural gas and oil are declining while demand continues to increase, they cannot be considered available for long-term, large-scale production of hydrogen. Hydrogen obtained from coal is expected to be the lowest cost, large-scale source of hydrogen in the future. The U-GAS coal gasification process

R. J. Dihu; J. G. Patel

1982-01-01

140

In situ propellant production: Alternatives for Mars exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current planning for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) recognizes the need for extraterrestrial resources to sustain long-term human presence and to attain some degree of self-sufficiency. As a practical matter, reducing the need to carry large supplies of propellant from Earth will make space exploration more economical. For nearly every round trip planned with conventional propulsion, the actual payload is only a small fraction - perhaps 10-15 percent - of the mass launched from Earth. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential application for SEI missions of propellants made exclusively from lunar or martian resources. Using such propellants could minimize or eliminate the cost of carrying propellant for surface excursion vehicles and return transfers through two high-energy maneuvers: Earth launch and trans-Mars injection. Certain chemical mono- and bipropellants are candidates for this approach; they could be recovered entirely from in situ resources on the Moon and Mars, without requiring a continuing Earth-based resupply of propellant constituents (e.g., fuel to mix with a locally obtained oxidizer) and, perhaps, with minimal need to resupply consumables (e.g., reagents or catalyst for process reactions). A complete assessment of the performance potential of these propellants must include the requirements for installation, operations, maintenance, and resupply of the chemical processing facility.

Stancati, Michael L.; Jacobs, Mark K.; Cole, Kevin J.; Collins, John T.

1991-01-01

141

Theoretical assessment of 3-D magnetotelluric method for oil and gas exploration: Synthetic examples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In petroleum explorations, seismic reflection technique has been almost always the preferred method for its high exploration depth and resolution. However, with the development of three dimensional (3D) inversion and interpretation schemes, much potential has been shown in MT method dealing with complex geological structures as in oil and gas exploration. In this study, synthetic geophysical models of petroleum reservoir structures are modeled and utilized to demonstrate that feasibility of 3-D MT technique for hydrocarbon exploration. A series of typical reservoir structure models are constructed and used to generate synthetic MT and seismic data to test the capabilities of 2-D/3-D MT and 2-D seismic inversion techniques. According to the inversion comparison, in addition to correctly retrieve the original forward model, the 3-D MT method also has some advantages over the reflective seismology method, which suffered from the lack of reflection wave and multiple wave problems. With the presented 3-D high resolution MT inversion method, MT techniques should be employed as one of the first choices for petroleum explorations.

Zhang, Kun; Wei, Wenbo; Lu, Qingtian; Dong, Hao; Li, Yanqing

2014-07-01

142

Computer model for production forecasting of oil and gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nature, gas generally is found in combination with oil. To make the situation even more complicated, the gas-oil ratio of the crude may vary from well to well, and from time to time within the same well. Without a computer program, the production manager must decide arbitrarily, from past experience and by trial and error, how much crude and

K. W. Hahn; S. A. Turaiki; A. S. Al-Mishari

1983-01-01

143

Relationship between hydrogen gas and butanol production by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two simultaneous fermentations were performed at 26 degrees C with simultaneous inocula using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum. Fermentation 1 prevented the gas formed by the biomass from escaping the fermentor while 2 allowed the gas formed to escape. Fermentor 1 provided for the production of butanol, acetone, and ethanol, while when the Hâ formed was allowed to escape with fermentor 2, neither

James D. Brosseau; Jwo-Yee Yan; K. Victor Lo

1986-01-01

144

21 CFR 173.350 - Combustion product gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...isooctane. The absorbance of the solution of combustion product gas shall not exceed that of the isooctane solvent at any wavelength in the specified range by more than one-third of the standard reference...

2011-04-01

145

Inert gas ups viscous oil production  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the newest heavy oil-recovery techniques is that of cyclic injecting an inert gas of carbon dioxide and nitrogen in a producing well. This method has increased producing rates substantially in recent field tests. The experimental project is located in the Taylor Ina Field of Medina County in Southwest Texas. The wells previously pumped a few barrels per day,

Davison

1965-01-01

146

Tempest gas turbine extends EGT product line  

SciTech Connect

With the introduction of the 7.8 MW (mechanical output) Tempest gas turbine, ECT has extended the company`s line of its small industrial turbines. The new Tempest machine, featuring a 7.5 MW electric output and a 33% thermal efficiency, ranks above the company`s single-shaft Typhoon gas turbine, rated 3.2 and 4.9 MW, and the 6.3 MW Tornado gas turbine. All three machines are well-suited for use in combined heat and power (CHP) plants, as demonstrated by the fact that close to 50% of the 150 Typhoon units sold are for CHP applications. This experience has induced EGT, of Lincoln, England, to announce the introduction of the new gas turbine prior to completion of the testing program. The present single-shaft machine is expected to be used mainly for industrial trial cogeneration. This market segment, covering the needs of paper mills, hospitals, chemical plants, ceramic industry, etc., is a typical local market. Cogeneration plants are engineered according to local needs and have to be assisted by local organizations. For this reason, to efficiently cover the world market, EGT has selected a number of associates that will receive from Lincoln completely engineered machine packages and will engineer the cogeneration system according to custom requirements. These partners will also assist the customer and dispose locally of the spares required for maintenance operations.

Chellini, R.

1995-07-01

147

Powering the World: Offshore Oil & Gas Production  

E-print Network

A ir, water, soil, food, biomas s Energy Solar,wi nd, geothermal, fossil, nucle ar,hydro Economy oil&gas supply Shale plays will also be producing an increasing part of global hydrocarbon supply Energy flow-based solutions (wind turbines, photovoltaics, and biofuels) will require most radical

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

148

Mitigating Accidents In Oil And Gas Production Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated operations are increasingly used in oil and gas production facilities to improve yields, reduce costs and maximize\\u000a profits. They leverage information and communications technology (ICT) to facilitate collaboration between experts at widely\\u000a dispersed locations. This paper discusses the safety and security consequences of implementing integrated operations for oil\\u000a and gas production. It examines the increased accident risk arising from

Stig Johnsen

2009-01-01

149

Mitigating Accidents In Oil And Gas Production Facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated operations are increasingly used in oil and gas production facilities to improve yields, reduce costs and maximize profits. They leverage information and communications technology (ICT) to facilitate collaboration between experts at widely dispersed locations. This paper discusses the safety and security consequences of implementing integrated operations for oil and gas production. It examines the increased accident risk arising from the tight coupling of complex ICT and SCADA systems, and proposes technological, organizational and human factors based strategies for mitigating the risk.

Johnsen, Stig

150

Dynamics explorer observations of the production of electron conics  

SciTech Connect

Here the author analyzes data collected from the Dynamics Explorer satellites DE-1 and DE-2 to interpret observations of electron conics. DE-1 was at altitudes around 10,000 km over the auroral oval, while DE-2 was at an altitude of roughly 1000 km in the same latitude and local time. The author compares the observations made from both platforms of the distribution functions of electron conics and beams seen in their environments. The DE-2 observations occasionally show a broadly spread electron beam accelerated downward, wihin a pitch angle of about 55{degrees}, and a conic distribution propagating upward with a similar pitch angle. The latter is interpreted as the mirroring of downward beam electrons which fall in the loss cone.

Burch, J.L. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1995-10-15

151

Exploring children's choice: The reminder effect of product placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been little attempt to understand the influence on children of branded products that appear in television programs and movies. A study exposed children of two different age groups (6-7 and 11-12) in classrooms to a brief film clip. They were then individually asked to demonstrate their witness skills by describing in as much detail as pos- sible what

Susan Auty; Charlie Lewis

2004-01-01

152

Exploring the contributions of human and social capital to productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we investigate how human and social capital contribute to individual productivity. We study three firms that complete all their tasks as projects. The employees in all firms initiate and organise their projects. We collected archival data from the firms on performance, human capital, tenure, gender and their project activities. Social network data are generated from interviews and

Arent Greve; Mario Benassi; Arne Dag Sti

2010-01-01

153

Derivational Morphophonology: Exploring Errors in Third Graders' Productions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study describes a post hoc analysis of segmental, stress, and syllabification errors in third graders' productions of derived English words with the stress-changing suffixes "-ity" and "-ic." We investigated whether (a) derived word frequency influences error patterns, (b) stress and syllabification errors always co-occur, and (c)…

Jarmulowicz, Linda; Hay, Sarah E.

2009-01-01

154

Bioinformatic analysis for exploring relationships between genes and gene products  

Microsoft Academic Search

To carry out their specific roles in the cell, genes and gene products often work together in groups, forming many relationships among themselves and with other molecules. Such relationships include physical protein-protein interaction relationships, regulatory relationships, metabolic relationships, genetic relationships, and much more. With advances in science and technology, some high throughput technologies have been developed to simultaneously detect tens

Erliang Zeng

2008-01-01

155

Heat Production as a Tool in Geothermal Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat flow data (together with knowledge, or assumptions, of stratigraphy, thermal conductivity and heat production) provide the prime parameter for estimating the potential of geothermal resources. Unfortunately this information is expensive to obtain as it requires deep boreholes. Consequently it is sparse or lacking in areas not traditionally considered as having geothermal potential. New England (and most of the northeastern U.S.A.) is one such area. However, in the absence of volcano-derived hydrothermal activity with its attendant high heat flow, granitic plutons provide an alternative geothermal resource. Compared with other crustal rocks, granites contain higher concentrations of heat-producing elements (K, U, Th). Additionally, they are relatively homogeneous, compared to surrounding country rock, allowing for stimulation through hydro-fracking of large (>1 km3) geothermal reservoirs. Consequently we have adopted a different approach, obtaining heat production data rather then relying on the very sparse heat flow data. Birch and colleagues long since recognized the relationship between heat flow and heat production as an integral part of their concept of Heat Flow Provinces. Heat production is readily determined in the laboratory by measuring the density of a sample and the concentrations of its heat-producing elements potassium, uranium and thorium. We have determined the heat production for 570 samples from most of the major granitic and gneissic bodies in Massachusetts and Connecticut. We have also measured these parameters for 70 sedimentary rocks that cover granites and gneiss in the Connecticut and Narragansett Basins. This data is being used to calculate inferred heat flow data for these localities. Comparison of these inferred heat flow values with the sparse number of those measured directly in boreholes in the two States is encouraging, indicating that this approach has merit. We have also measured thermal conductivity on all of these samples. This, together with the measured heat production and the inferred heat flow allow the calculation of inferred temperature - depth profiles for these localities, from which we have produced maps showing the distribution of heat production, thermal conductivity, inferred heat flow and inferred temperatures at depths of 2, 4 and 6 km in the two States. We believe that this is a rapid and relatively cheap approach for evaluating the geothermal potential of a region lacking in heat flow data allowing identification of areas that warrant more detailed investigation which would include geophysical surveys and drilling. In Massachusetts and Connecticut such areas include the Fitchburg pluton, Permian granites and the Narragansett and Hartford Basins, where gneiss and granites are buried beneath Carboniferous and Triassic sediments respectively. This project is funded by the Department of Energy through an award to the Association of American State Geologists.

Rhodes, J. M.; Koteas, C.; Mabee, S. B.; Thomas, M.; Gagnon, T.

2012-12-01

156

21 CFR 886.5918 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. 886.5918 Section...5918 Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens care product is a device...

2011-04-01

157

21 CFR 886.5918 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. 886.5918 Section...5918 Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens care product is a device...

2010-04-01

158

Lunar Thermal Wadis and Exploration Rovers: Outpost Productivity and Participatory Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation introduces the concept of a thermal wadi, an engineered source of thermal energy that can be created using native material on the moon or elsewhere to store solar energy for use by various lunar surface assets to survive the extremely cold environment of the lunar night. A principal benefit of this approach to energy storage is the low mass requirement for transportation from Earth derived from the use of the lunar soil, or regolith, as the energy storage medium. The presentation includes a summary of the results of a feasibility study involving the numerical modeling of the performance of a thermal wadi including a manufactured thermal mass, a solar energy reflector, a nighttime thermal energy reflector and a lunar surface rover. The feasibility study shows that sufficient thermal energy can be stored using unconcentrated solar flux to keep a lunar surface rover sufficiently warm throughout a 354 hour lunar night at the lunar equator, and that similar approaches can be used to sustain surface assets during shorter dark periods that occur at the lunar poles. The presentation includes descriptions of a compact lunar rover concept that could be used to manufacture a thermal wadi and could alternatively be used to conduct a variety of high-value tasks on the lunar surface. Such rovers can be produced more easily because the capability for surviving the lunar night is offloaded to the thermal wadi infrastructure. The presentation also includes several concepts for operational scenarios that could be implemented on the moon using the thermal wadi and compact rover concepts in which multiple affordable rovers, operated by multiple terrestrial organizations, can conduct resource prospecting and human exploration site preparation tasks.

Sacksteder, Kurt; Wegeng, Robert; Suzuki, Nantel

2009-01-01

159

Application of the Stretched Exponential Production Decline Model to Forecast Production in Shale Gas Reservoirs  

E-print Network

Production forecasting in shale (ultra-low permeability) gas reservoirs is of great interest due to the advent of multi-stage fracturing and horizontal drilling. The well renowned production forecasting model, Arps? Hyperbolic Decline Model...

Statton, James Cody

2012-07-16

160

Preliminary report on the commercial viability of gas production from natural gas hydrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Economic studies on simulated gas hydrate reservoirs have been compiled to estimate the price of natural gas that may lead to economically viable production from the most promising gas hydrate accumulations. As a first estimate, $CDN2005 12/Mscf is the lowest gas price that would allow economically viable production from gas hydrates in the absence of associated free gas, while an underlying gas deposit will reduce the viability price estimate to $CDN2005 7.50/Mscf. Results from a recent analysis of the simulated production of natural gas from marine hydrate deposits are also considered in this report; on an IROR basis, it is $US2008 3.50-4.00/Mscf more expensive to produce marine hydrates than conventional marine gas assuming the existence of sufficiently large marine hydrate accumulations. While these prices represent the best available estimates, the economic evaluation of a specific project is highly dependent on the producibility of the target zone, the amount of gas in place, the associated geologic and depositional environment, existing pipeline infrastructure, and local tariffs and taxes. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Walsh, M. R.; Hancock, S. H.; Wilson, S. J.; Patil, S. L.; Moridis, G. J.; Boswell, R.; Collett, T. S.; Koh, C. A.; Sloan, E. D.

2009-01-01

161

Application of production management principles to engineering processes: An explorative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability to develop high quality products and processes constitutes the competitive advantage of many engineering companies. In production management, numerous tools exist for improving both effectiveness and efficiency. This study explores the applicability of these production management principles to engineering management. An academic focus group and engineering managers in seven German companies were interviewed and the application of several

Johannes Hinckeldeyn; Rob Dekkers; Jochen Kreutzfeldt

2010-01-01

162

NOVEL REACTOR FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

Praxair investigated an advanced technology for producing synthesis gas from natural gas and oxygen This production process combined the use of a short-reaction time catalyst with Praxair's gas mixing technology to provide a novel reactor system. The program achieved all of the milestones contained in the development plan for Phase I. We were able to develop a reactor configuration that was able to operate at high pressures (up to 19atm). This new reactor technology was used as the basis for a new process for the conversion of natural gas to liquid products (Gas to Liquids or GTL). Economic analysis indicated that the new process could provide a 8-10% cost advantage over conventional technology. The economic prediction although favorable was not encouraging enough for a high risk program like this. Praxair decided to terminate development.

Vasilis Papavassiliou; Leo Bonnell; Dion Vlachos

2004-12-01

163

Production of low BTU gas from biomass  

E-print Network

) reported on gasification of coconut waste in the Philippines. Table 2 illustrates various gasifi- cation products that were obtained by different inves- tigators. Table 2. Comparison of Gasification Results from Various Sources (t)aterials Coconut...) reported on gasification of coconut waste in the Philippines. Table 2 illustrates various gasifi- cation products that were obtained by different inves- tigators. Table 2. Comparison of Gasification Results from Various Sources (t)aterials Coconut...

Lee, Yung N.

2012-06-07

164

NASA EG-2000-03-002-GSFC Exploring the Aurora and the Ionosphere 1 Educational Product  

E-print Network

NASA EG-2000-03-002-GSFC Exploring the Aurora and the Ionosphere 1 Educational Product Educators#DQG#Aurora and the Ionosphere An Educator Guide with Activities in Space Science #12;NASA EG-2000-03-002-GSFC Exploring the Aurora and the Ionosphere 2 Solar Storms and You! is available in electronic for

165

Exploring a Financial Product Model with a Two-Population Genetic Algorithm  

E-print Network

Exploring a Financial Product Model with a Two-Population Genetic Algorithm Steven O. Kimbrough two-population genetic algorithm (GA) has been remarkably successful in finding good, feasible for presenting this case study is that we wish to explore the effectiveness of the two- population genetic

Kimbrough, Steven Orla

166

NASA EG-2000-03-002-GSFC Exploring Magnetic Storms 1 Educational Product  

E-print Network

NASA EG-2000-03-002-GSFC Exploring Magnetic Storms 1 Educational Product Educators & Students#DQG#Magnetic Storms An Educator Guide with Activities in Space Science #12;NASA EG-2000-03-002-GSFC Exploring Magnetic Storms 2 Solar Storms and You! is available in electronic for- mat through NASA Spacelink

167

Evaluation of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the work performed under this directive is to assess whether gas hydrates could potentially be technically and economically recoverable. The technical potential and economics of recovering gas from a representative hydrate reservoir will be established using the cyclic thermal injection model, HYDMOD, appropriately modified for this effort, integrated with economics model for gas production on the North Slope of Alaska, and in the deep offshore Atlantic. The results from this effort are presented in this document. In Section 1, the engineering cost and financial analysis model used in performing the economic analysis of gas production from hydrates -- the Hydrates Gas Economics Model (HGEM) -- is described. Section 2 contains a users guide for HGEM. In Section 3, a preliminary economic assessment of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model is presented. Section 4 contains a summary critique of existing hydrate gas recovery models. Finally, Section 5 summarizes the model modification made to HYDMOD, the cyclic thermal injection model for hydrate gas recovery, in order to perform this analysis.

Kuuskraa, V.A.; Hammersheimb, E.; Sawyer, W.

1985-05-01

168

Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

Andrew Lucero

2009-01-31

169

Federal Offshore Statistics, 1993. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This document contains statistical data on the following: federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from federal offshore leases; disbursement of federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. A glossary is included.

Francois, D.K.

1994-12-31

170

Production of neutral gas by micrometeoroid impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first direct laboratory measurement of vapor produced by simulated micrometeoroid bombardment. New in situ observations from the Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, and the anticipation of results from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), have highlighted the uncertainty surrounding the role of micrometeoroid impacts in sustaining planetary exospheres. In a recent series of experiments, the quantity of neutral molecules generated by impacts of simulated micrometeorids of 0.1-1 ?m radius was measured using a fast ion gauge, over a speed range of 1-10 km/s. The quantity of neutrals released per unit projectile mass, N/m, is consistent with a power law N/m = v? in the projectile speed v, with ? ˜ 2.4. At the highest speeds tested, the number of neutrals liberated is equivalent to 5% of the atoms in the projectile; complete vaporization is projected at speeds exceeding 20 km/s.

Collette, A.; Sternovsky, Z.; Horanyi, M.

2014-01-01

171

Exploring dyslexics' phonological deficit III: foreign speech perception and production.  

PubMed

This study investigates French dyslexic and control adult participants' ability to perceive and produce two different non-native contrasts (one segmental and one prosodic), across several conditions varying short-term memory load. For this purpose, we selected Korean plosive voicing (whose categories conflict with French ones) as the segmental contrast and lexical stress as the prosodic contrast (French does not use contrastive lexical stress). We also used a French (native) segmental contrast as a control. Tasks were either auditory discrimination or repetition of CVCV nonsense words. Short-term memory load was varied by presenting the stimuli either in isolation, in sequences of two, or in sequences of three. Our results show overall few differences between dyslexic and control participants. In particular, dyslexic participants performed similarly to controls in all tasks involving Korean plosives, whether in discrimination or in production, and regardless of short-term memory load. However, some group differences emerged with respect to lexical stress, in the discrimination task at greater short-term memory load. Various analyses suggest that dyslexic participants' difficulties are due to the meta-phonological nature of the task and to short-term memory load. PMID:20957686

Soroli, Efstathia; Szenkovits, Gayaneh; Ramus, Franck

2010-11-01

172

Workshop of Arc By-Products in Gas Insulated Equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A chemical data base was developed on the generation of arc by-products in gas insulated type equipment. Various aspects of arc induced decomposition of SF6, such as identification and quantitation of by-products, mechanisms of their formation and analytical methods used for their determination were reviewed. Users were made aware of the type of arc by-products encountered in SF6 insulated equipment, and to solicit their input with regard to the direction of any future work.

Tahiliani, V.; Vouros, P.

1980-12-01

173

Pumps, refracturing hike production from tight shale gas wells  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that downhole pumps and refracturing are two ways to significantly improve production rates from the Antrim shale, a tight formation in the Michigan basin (U.S.) and the objective of a major natural gas play. Candidate wells for restimulation can be identified by pressure build-up tests and specifically productivity index-vs.-permeability plots based on these tests. The work in the Bagley East B4-10 well illustrates the possible production improvement.

Reeves, S.R. (Advanced Resources International Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)); Morrisson, W.K. (Nomeco Oil and Gas Co., Jackson, CO (United States)); Hill, D.G. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States))

1993-02-01

174

Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 states 1985 through 1997  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents information on wellhead productive capacity and a projection of gas production requirements. A history of natural gas production and productive capacity at the wellhead, along with a projection of the same, is illustrated.

NONE

1996-12-01

175

Significance of high-wax oil variability to Pacific Rim exploration and production  

SciTech Connect

High-Wax oils are a class of paraffinic crudes that occur widely in Pacific Rim petroleum systems. New analytical technologies, particularly High Temperature Gas Chromatography (HTGC) show unexpected variations in the molecular weight ranges and concentrations of paraffin waxes within this class of crudes. These variations are source and maturity-related, providing paleoenvironmental and generative information useful to exploration. Paleoenvironmental factors revealed by high-wax oil HTGC source signatures can also help interpret the potential for nearby reservoirs. Furthermore, variations in wax compositions affect flow and organic scale-forming properties that impact the production economics of these oils. Lacustrine-sourced high-wax oils contain broad distributions of paraffin waxes ranging from C[sub 20] to C[sub 60] or higher. Various algae appear to be the source of higher molecular weight waxes in these oils. Paleoenvironmental factors, such as water salinities and paleoclimate, affect wax compositions of resulting lacustrine high-wax oils. Other terrestrial-sourced oils generated by paralic or nearshore marine source rocks show high concentrations of C[sub 25] to C[sub 35] waxes, but much lower distributions of higher molecular weight waxes. These high-wax oils appear to. contain waxes derived principally from terrestrial, higher plant materials. Results for high-wax petroleum systems in Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines and China illustrate these conclusions with examples ranging in age from Carboniferous-Permian to late Tertiary.

Carlson, R.M.K. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)); Jacobson, S.R. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States))

1996-01-01

176

Significance of high-wax oil variability to Pacific Rim exploration and production  

SciTech Connect

High-Wax oils are a class of paraffinic crudes that occur widely in Pacific Rim petroleum systems. New analytical technologies, particularly High Temperature Gas Chromatography (HTGC) show unexpected variations in the molecular weight ranges and concentrations of paraffin waxes within this class of crudes. These variations are source and maturity-related, providing paleoenvironmental and generative information useful to exploration. Paleoenvironmental factors revealed by high-wax oil HTGC source signatures can also help interpret the potential for nearby reservoirs. Furthermore, variations in wax compositions affect flow and organic scale-forming properties that impact the production economics of these oils. Lacustrine-sourced high-wax oils contain broad distributions of paraffin waxes ranging from C{sub 20} to C{sub 60} or higher. Various algae appear to be the source of higher molecular weight waxes in these oils. Paleoenvironmental factors, such as water salinities and paleoclimate, affect wax compositions of resulting lacustrine high-wax oils. Other terrestrial-sourced oils generated by paralic or nearshore marine source rocks show high concentrations of C{sub 25} to C{sub 35} waxes, but much lower distributions of higher molecular weight waxes. These high-wax oils appear to. contain waxes derived principally from terrestrial, higher plant materials. Results for high-wax petroleum systems in Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines and China illustrate these conclusions with examples ranging in age from Carboniferous-Permian to late Tertiary.

Carlson, R.M.K. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States); Jacobson, S.R. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

177

Forecasting Gas Production in Organic Shale with the Combined Numerical Simulation of Gas Diffusion in Kerogen, Langmuir Desorption from  

E-print Network

SPE 159250 Forecasting Gas Production in Organic Shale with the Combined Numerical Simulation algorithm to forecast gas production in organic shale that simultaneously takes into account gas diffusion-than-expected permeability in shale-gas formations, while Langmuir desorption maintains pore pressure. Simulations confirm

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

178

Shale Gas Production Theory and Case Analysis We researched the process of oil recovery and shale gas  

E-print Network

Shale Gas Production Theory and Case Analysis (Siemens) We researched the process of oil recovery and shale gas recovery and compare the difference between conventional and unconventional gas reservoir and recovery technologies. Then we did theoretical analysis on the shale gas production. According

Ge, Zigang

179

Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production  

DOEpatents

A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange. 4 figs.

Brown, W.R.; Cassano, A.A.; Dunbobbin, B.R.; Rao, P.; Erickson, D.C.

1986-10-14

180

30 CFR 550.303 - Facilities described in a new or revised Exploration Plan or Development and Production Plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...review any Exploration Plan or Development and Production Plan...revised Exploration Plans and Development and Production Plans shall...revised Exploration Plan or Development and Production Plan is exempt...monoxide (CO); and E=33.3D for total suspended...

2012-07-01

181

30 CFR 550.303 - Facilities described in a new or revised Exploration Plan or Development and Production Plan.  

...review any Exploration Plan or Development and Production Plan...revised Exploration Plans and Development and Production Plans shall...revised Exploration Plan or Development and Production Plan is exempt...monoxide (CO); and E=33.3D for total suspended...

2014-07-01

182

Synthesis gas production by mixed conducting membranes with integrated conversion into liquid products  

DOEpatents

Natural gas or other methane-containing feed gas is converted to a C.sub.5 -C.sub.19 hydrocarbon liquid in an integrated system comprising an oxygenative synthesis gas generator, a non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator, and a hydrocarbon synthesis process such as the Fischer-Tropsch process. The oxygenative synthesis gas generator is a mixed conducting membrane reactor system and the non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator is preferably a heat exchange reformer wherein heat is provided by hot synthesis gas product from the mixed conducting membrane reactor system. Offgas and water from the Fischer-Tropsch process can be recycled to the synthesis gas generation system individually or in combination.

Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Russek, Steven Lee (Allentown, PA); Dyer, Paul Nigel (Allentown, PA)

2000-01-01

183

Exploring regional irrigation water demand using typologies of farms and production units: an example from Tunisia.  

E-print Network

Exploring regional irrigation water demand using typologies of farms and production units. BENMIHOUB, IRD Tunis (Tunisie), Abstract Most methods used to predict irrigation water consumption of irrigation water and of other inputs, as well as the production of outputs. The framework can also be used

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

184

Gas phase acetaldehyde production in a continuous bioreactor  

SciTech Connect

The gas phase continuous production of acetaldehyde was studied with particular emphasis on the development of biocatalyst (alcohol oxidase on solid phase support materials) for a fixed bed reactor. Based on the experimental results in a batch bioreactor, the biocatalysts were prepared by immobilization of alcohol oxidase on Amberlite IRA-400, packed into a column, and the continuous acetaldehyde production in the gas phase by alcohol oxidase was performed. The effects of the reaction temperature, flow rates of gaseous stream, and ethanol vapor concentration on the performance of the continuous bioreactor were investigated.

Hwang, Soon Ook (Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Trantolo, D.J. (Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Center for Biotechnology Engineering); Wise, D.L. (Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Center for Biotechnology Engineering)

1993-08-20

185

Organic Sulfur Gas Production in Sulfidic Caves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lower Kane Cave, Big Horn Basin, WY, permits access to an environment where anaerobic sulfide-rich groundwater meets the aerobic vadose zone. At this interface microorganisms thrive on diverse metabolic pathways including autotrophic sulfur oxidation, sulfate reduction, and aerobic heterotrophy. Springs introduce groundwater rich in H2S to the cave where it both degasses into the cave atmosphere and is used by chemautotrophic sulfur oxidizing bacteria in the cave spring and stream habitat. The cave atmosphere in the immediate vicinity of the springs has elevated levels of CO2, H2S and methane, mirroring the higher concentration of H2S and methane in the spring water. The high CO2 concentrations are attenuated toward the two main sources of fresh air, the cave entrance and breathing holes at the rear of the cave. Conventional toxic gas monitors permit estimations of H2S concentrations, but they have severe cross sensitivity with other reduced sulfur gases, and thus are inadequate for characterization of sulfur cave gases. However employment of a field-based GC revealed elevated concentrations of carbonyl sulfide in cave atmosphere. Cultures of microorganisms collected from the cave optimized for enriching fermenters and autotrophic and heterophic sulfate reducing bacteria each produced carbonyl sulfide suggesting a biogenic in origin of the COS in addition to H2S. Enrichment cultures also produced methanethiol (methyl mercaptan) and an additional as yet undetermined volatile organic sulfur compound. In culture, the organo-sulfur compounds were less abundant than H2S, whereas in the cave atmosphere the organo-sulfur compounds were the dominant sulfur gases. Thus, these organo-sulfur gases may prove to be important sources of both reduced sulfur and organic carbon to microorganisms living on the cave wall in a subaerial habitat. Moreover groundwater has not yet been recognized as a source of sulfur gases to the atmosphere, but with the abundance of sulfidic groundwater, this environment may prove to be important to the global sulfur cycle and its influence of the global radiation budget.

Stern, L. A.; Engel, A. S.; Bennett, P. C.

2001-12-01

186

Use of computer-generated maps of oil and gas development and exploration intensity for delineating producing trends, Denver basin, Colorado, Nebraska, and Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Exploration intensity maps were used in conjunction with existing or generated maps of depositional environment, structure, thermal maturity, core porosity, and production data to delineate trends and assess oil and gas resources for the Denver basin as part of the US Geological Survey's Federal Lands Assessment Program. Maps illustrating oil and gas production, shows, and dry holes were constructed for the Denver basin using the Petroleum Information WHCS data base, with mapping and statistical software developed by the US Geological Survey. Data from more than 36,000 drill hoes in the Denver basin were entered into a program that divides the basin into 1/2 mi/sup 2/ grid cells and analyzes show and production data for drill holes within each grid cell.

Higley, D.K.; Mast, R.F.; Gautier, D.L.

1986-05-01

187

Production of bio-synthetic natural gas in Canada.  

PubMed

Large-scale production of renewable synthetic natural gas from biomass (bioSNG) in Canada was assessed for its ability to mitigate energy security and climate change risks. The land area within 100 km of Canada's network of natural gas pipelines was estimated to be capable of producing 67-210 Mt of dry lignocellulosic biomass per year with minimal adverse impacts on food and fiber production. Biomass gasification and subsequent methanation and upgrading were estimated to yield 16,000-61,000 Mm(3) of pipeline-quality gas (equivalent to 16-63% of Canada's current gas use). Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of bioSNG-based electricity were calculated to be only 8.2-10% of the emissions from coal-fired power. Although predicted production costs ($17-21 GJ(-1)) were much higher than current energy prices, a value for low-carbon energy would narrow the price differential. A bioSNG sector could infuse Canada's rural economy with $41-130 billion of investments and create 410,000-1,300,000 jobs while developing a nation-wide low-carbon energy system. PMID:20175525

Hacatoglu, Kevork; McLellan, P James; Layzell, David B

2010-03-15

188

Clay mineralogy of the malmian source rock of the Vienna Basin: Effects on shale gas exploration?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an unique opportunity the diagenetic changes of clay minerals of a marlstone formation with only minor differences in provenance and depositional environment was studied from shallow (1400 m) to very deep (8550 m) burial. The clay mineralogy of 46 core samples from ten wells was quantified with X-ray diffraction in applying the mineral intensity factor (MIF)-method of Moore and Reynolds (1997). The clay fraction of the marlstone contains a prominent illite/smectite (I/S) mixed-layer mineral (20 to 70 wt%), illite (20 to 70 wt%), chlorite (0.5 to 12 wt%) and kaolinite (2 to 17 wt%). The amounts of I/S and kaolinite decrease with depth, whereas illite and chlorite increase. A gradual transformation of smectite to illite through mixed-layer I/S intermediates is recognized. With increasing depth the illite content in I/S intermediates increases from 25% to 90% in parallel the ordering of the mixed layer I/S changes from R0 (25% illite in I/S) to R1 (60-80% illite in I/S) to R3 (90% illite in I/S). R3 ordering prevails at depths greater than 4000 m and implies that the effect of the expandable mineral smectite is negligible. This paper covers a part of a shale gas feasibility study on the main Vienna Basin hydrocarbon source rock (Mikulov Formation, a Malmian marlstone) recently performed by OMV. Shale gas production usually is enabled by pumping fluids (mainly water) into a gas-mature source rock in order to generate fracture permeability. Expandable clays within the source rock can dramatically reduce stimulation effectiveness and gas production. Moore and Reynolds (1997) X-ray diffraction and the identification and analysis of clay minerals. Oxford University Press, New York, 378 p.

Schicker, Andrea; Gier, Susanne; Herzog, Ulrich

2010-05-01

189

Harsh-Environment Solid-State Gamma Detector for Down-hole Gas and Oil Exploration  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this program was to develop a revolutionary solid-state gamma-ray detector suitable for use in down-hole gas and oil exploration. This advanced detector would employ wide-bandgap semiconductor technology to extend the gamma sensor's temperature capability up to 200 C as well as extended reliability, which significantly exceeds current designs based on photomultiplier tubes. In Phase II, project tasks were focused on optimization of the final APD design, growing and characterizing the full scintillator crystals of the selected composition, arranging the APD device packaging, developing the needed optical coupling between scintillator and APD, and characterizing the combined elements as a full detector system preparing for commercialization. What follows is a summary report from the second 18-month phase of this program.

Peter Sandvik; Stanislav Soloviev; Emad Andarawis; Ho-Young Cha; Jim Rose; Kevin Durocher; Robert Lyons; Bob Pieciuk; Jim Williams; David O'Connor

2007-08-10

190

Devonian shale gas production; Mechanisms and simple models  

SciTech Connect

This paper shows that, even without consideration of their special storage and flow properties, Devonian shales are special cases of dual porosity. The authors show that wile neglecting these properties in the short term is appropriate, such neglect in the long term will result in an under-estimation of shale gas production.

Carlson, E.S. (Univ. of Alabama (US)); Mercer, J.C. (Dept. of Energy (US))

1991-04-01

191

Hydrogeology of a coal-seam gas exploration area, southeastern British Columbia, Canada: Part 1. Groundwater flow systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovery of high contents of methane gas in coals of the Mist Mountain Formation in the Elk River valley, southeastern British Columbia, Canada, has led to increased exploration activity for coal-seam gas (CSG). CSG production requires groundwater abstraction to depressurize the coal beds and to facilitate methane flow to the production wells. Groundwater abstraction will have hydrodynamic effects on the flow system, and an understanding of the groundwater flow system is needed to evaluate these effects. The purpose of this paper is to describe the groundwater flow system in the area by means of a groundwater flow model and interpretation of hydrochemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater and surface water. Groundwater flow for the Weary Creek exploration area is modeled in two vertical sections. The model domains, based on classic upland-lowland conceptual flow models, are approximately 10,000 m long and 4,000 m deep. Each consists of a fixed water-table boundary and no-flow boundaries along the traces of major faults. Steady-state groundwater flow is calibrated to hydraulic-head, streamflow, and groundwater-recharge data. Simulated steady-state velocity fields define regional and local flow components consistent with the conceptual model. The results are consistent with regional trends in ?2H, ?18O, tritium, and TDS, which define two distinct groundwater groups (A and B) and a third of intermediate composition. An active, shallow, local flow component (group A) is recharged in beds cropping out along subdued ridges; this component discharges as seeps along lower and mid-slope positions in the southern part of the study area. The waters are tritiated, relatively enriched in ?2H and ?18O, and have low TDS. A deeper regional flow component (group B), which originates at a higher altitude and which discharges to the Elk River valley bottom, is characterized by non-tritiated groundwater with relatively depleted ?2H and ?18O, and higher TDS. Groundwater contributes less than 10% of the total direct flow to the Elk River, as indicated by flow measurements and by the absence of group A and group B characteristics in the river water. Thus it is hypothesized that groundwater extraction during CSG production will have little impact on the river. The groundwater flow model developed in this work is used in a companion paper to further test this hypothesis.

Harrison, S.; Molson, J.; Abercrombie, H.; Barker, J.; Rudolph, D.; Aravena, R.

2000-12-01

192

Effects of disturbance associated with seismic exploration for oil and gas reserves in coastal marshes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anthropogenic disturbances in wetland ecosystems can alter the composition and structure of plant assemblages and affect system functions. Extensive oil and gas extraction has occurred in wetland habitats along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast since the early 1900s. Activities involved with three-dimensional (3D) seismic exploration for these resources cause various disturbances to vegetation and soils. We documented the impact of a 3D seismic survey in coastal marshes in Louisiana, USA, along transects established before exploration began. Two semi-impounded marshes dominated by Spartina patens were in the area surveyed. Vegetation, soil, and water physicochemical data were collected before the survey, about 6 weeks following its completion, and every 3 months thereafter for 2 years. Soil cores for seed bank emergence experiments were also collected. Maximum vegetation height at impact sites was reduced in both marshes 6 weeks following the survey. In one marsh, total vegetation cover was also reduced, and dead vegetation cover increased, at impact sites 6 weeks after the survey. These effects, however, did not persist 3 months later. No effects on soil or water properties were identified. The total number of seeds that germinated during greenhouse studies increased at impact sites 5 months following the survey in both marshes. Although some seed bank effects persisted 1 year, these effects were not reflected in standing vegetation. The marshes studied were therefore resilient to the impacts resulting from 3D seismic exploration because vegetation responses were short term in that they could not be identified a few months following survey completion.

Howard, Rebecca J.; Wells, Christopher J.; Michot, Thomas C.; Johnson, Darren J.

2014-01-01

193

AN ANALYTICAL MODEL OF INTERSTELLAR GAS IN THE HELIOSPHERE TAILORED TO INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The stationary distribution of interstellar neutral gas in the heliosphere subject to solar gravity, solar radiation pressure, photoionization, and charge exchange is investigated analytically assuming ionization rates and radiation pressure that are proportional to R{sup -2}, where R is the heliocentric radius. The collisionless hyperbolic trajectories of the individual atoms including ionization losses are combined with Liouville's Theorem to construct the heliospheric phase-space distribution function of an interstellar gas species in the solar reference frame under the assumption that the distribution is a drifting Maxwellian at large distances from the Sun. The distribution is transformed to the Earth (essentially Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX)) frame as a function of solar longitude. The expression is then tailored to the latitudinal scan of IBEX as a function of longitude using the fact that IBEX detects each atom close to perihelion in its hyperbolic orbit. The distribution is further adapted to IBEX by integrating the differential intensity over the entrance aperture solid angle of the IBEX-Lo collimator, and over energy to predict the IBEX count rate of helium. The major features of the predicted count rate are described, including a peak in longitude, a peak in latitude at each longitude, and the widths of the major peak in both latitude and longitude. Analytical formulae for these features are derived for comparison with IBEX observations in order to determine the temperature and bulk velocity of the gas in interstellar space. Based in part on these formulae, the results for helium are presented in the companion paper by Moebius et al.

Lee, Martin A.; Kucharek, Harald; Moebius, Eberhard; Wu Xian [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Bzowski, Maciej [Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); McComas, David, E-mail: marty.lee@unh.edu [Engineering and Space Science Division, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States)

2012-02-01

194

Alaska North Slope regional gas hydrate production modeling forecasts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A series of gas hydrate development scenarios were created to assess the range of outcomes predicted for the possible development of the "Eileen" gas hydrate accumulation, North Slope, Alaska. Production forecasts for the "reference case" were built using the 2002 Mallik production tests, mechanistic simulation, and geologic studies conducted by the US Geological Survey. Three additional scenarios were considered: A "downside-scenario" which fails to identify viable production, an "upside-scenario" describes results that are better than expected. To capture the full range of possible outcomes and balance the downside case, an "extreme upside scenario" assumes each well is exceptionally productive.Starting with a representative type-well simulation forecasts, field development timing is applied and the sum of individual well forecasts creating the field-wide production forecast. This technique is commonly used to schedule large-scale resource plays where drilling schedules are complex and production forecasts must account for many changing parameters. The complementary forecasts of rig count, capital investment, and cash flow can be used in a pre-appraisal assessment of potential commercial viability.Since no significant gas sales are currently possible on the North Slope of Alaska, typical parameters were used to create downside, reference, and upside case forecasts that predict from 0 to 71??BM3 (2.5??tcf) of gas may be produced in 20 years and nearly 283??BM3 (10??tcf) ultimate recovery after 100 years.Outlining a range of possible outcomes enables decision makers to visualize the pace and milestones that will be required to evaluate gas hydrate resource development in the Eileen accumulation. Critical values of peak production rate, time to meaningful production volumes, and investments required to rule out a downside case are provided. Upside cases identify potential if both depressurization and thermal stimulation yield positive results. An "extreme upside" case captures the full potential of unconstrained development with widely spaced wells. The results of this study indicate that recoverable gas hydrate resources may exist in the Eileen accumulation and that it represents a good opportunity for continued research. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Wilson, S. J.; Hunter, R. B.; Collett, T. S.; Hancock, S.; Boswell, R.; Anderson, B. J.

2011-01-01

195

Natural gas production and anomalous geothermal gradients of the deep Tuscaloosa Formation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For the largest producing natural gas fields in the onshore Gulf of Mexico Basin, the relation between temperature versus depth was investigated. Prolific natural gas reservoirs with the highest temperatures were found in the Upper Cretaceous downdip Tuscaloosa trend in Louisiana. Temperature and production trends from the deepest field, Judge Digby field, in Pointe Coupe Parish, Louisiana, were investigated to characterize the environment of natural gas in the downdip Tuscaloosa trend. The average production depth in the Judge Digby field is approximately 22,000 ft. Temperatures as high as 400 degrees F are typically found at depth in Judge Digby field and are anomalously low when compared to temperature trends extrapolated to similar depths regionally. At 22,000 ft, the minimum and maximum temperatures for all reservoirs in Gulf Coast producing gas fields are 330 and 550 degrees F, respectively; the average temperature is 430 degrees F. The relatively depressed geothermal gradients in the Judge Digby field may be due to high rates of sediment preservation, which may have delayed the thermal equilibration of the sediment package with respect to the surrounding rock. Analyzing burial history and thermal maturation indicates that the deep Tuscaloosa trend in the Judge Digby field is currently in the gas generation window. Using temperature trends as an exploration tool may have important implications for undiscovered hydrocarbons at greater depths in currently producing reservoirs, and for settings that are geologically analogous to the Judge Digby fiel

Burke, Lauri

2011-01-01

196

Maps showing petroleum exploration intensity and production in major Cambrian to Ordovician reservoir rocks in the Anadarko Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Anadarko basin is a large, deep, two-stage Paleozoic basin (Feinstein, 1981) that is petroleum rich and generally well explored. The Anadarko basin province, a geogrphic area used here mostly for the convenience of mapping and data management, is defined by political boundaries that include the Anadarko basin proper. The boundaries of the province are identical to those used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the 1995 National Assessment of United Stated Oil and Gas Resources. The data in this report, also identical to those used in the national assessment, are from several computerized data bases including Nehring Research Group (NRG) Associates Inc., Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States (1992); Petroleum Information (PI), Inc., Well History Control System (1991); and Petroleum Information (PI), Inc., Petro-ROM: Production data on CD-ROM (1993). Although generated mostly in response to the national assessment, the data presented here arc grouped differently and arc displayed and described in greater detail. In addition, the stratigraphic sequences discussed may not necessarily correlate with the "plays" of the 1995 national assessment. This report uses computer-generated maps to show drilling intensity, producing wells, major fields, and other geologic information relevant to petroleum exploration and production in the lower Paleozoic part of the Anadarko basin province as defined for the U.S. Geological Survey's 1995 national petroleum assessment. Hydrocarbon accumulations must meet a minimum standard of 1 million barrels of oil (MMBO) or 6 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG) estimated ultimate recovery to be included in this report as a major field or revoir. Mapped strata in this report include the Upper Cambrian to Lower Ordovician Arbuckle and Low Ordovician Ellenburger Groups, the Middle Ordovician Simpson Group, and the Middle to Upper Ordovician Viola Group.

Henry, Mitch; Hester, Tim

1996-01-01

197

Gas plant economic optimization is more than meeting product specification  

SciTech Connect

Gas plants require a higher level of process control to optimize the process to maximize operating profits. Automation alone does not achieve this objective whereas, on-line dynamic optimization of the control variables based on product pricing, the cost to process the gas and the contracts for gas and liquids is solvable by new control techniques. Daily operations are affected by a paradigm shift in the method of control for the facility. This newly developed and site proven technique has demonstrated how to improve benefits when net processing margins are positive and minimize operating cost when liquids margins are negative. Because ethane recovery versus its rejection is not a binary decision, a better means to operate can be shown to benefit the gas plant operator. Each specification has a cost to meet it or a penalty to exceed it. However, if allowed, exceeding specification may prove beneficial to the net profitability of the operations. With the decision being made on-line every few minutes, the results are more dramatic than previously understood. Gas Research Institute and Continental Controls, Inc. have installed more than 10 such systems in US gas processing plants. Project payout from the use of the MVC{reg_sign} technology has on average been less than six months. Processing savings have ranged from $.0075 to $.024 per Mcf. The authors paper last year showed where the benefits can be derived. This year the results of those facilities are shared along with the methodology to achieve them.

Berkowitz, P.N.; Colwell, L.W. [Continental Controls, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Gamez, J.P. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

198

NOBLE GAS PRODUCTION FROM MERCURY SPALLATION AT SNS  

SciTech Connect

Calculations for predicting the distribution of the products of spallation reactions between high energy protons and target materials are well developed and are used for design and operational applications in many projects both within DOE and in other arenas. These calculations are based on theory and limited experimental data that verifies rates of production of some spallation products exist. At the Spallation Neutron Source, a helium stream from the mercury target flows through a system to remove radioactivity from this mercury target offgas. The operation of this system offers a window through which the production of noble gases from mercury spallation by protons may be observed. This paper describes studies designed to measure the production rates of twelve noble gas isotopes within the Spallation Neutron Source mercury target.

DeVore, Joe R [ORNL; Lu, Wei [ORNL; Schwahn, Scott O [ORNL

2013-01-01

199

Trash-to-Gas: Converting Space Trash into Useful Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Logistical Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project is a collaborative effort in which NASA is determined to reduce total logistical mass through reduction, reuse and recycling of various wastes and components of long duration space missions and habitats. LRR is focusing on four distinct advanced areas of study: Advanced Clothing System, Logistics-to-Living, Heat Melt Compactor and Trash to Supply Gas (TtSG). The objective of TtSG is to develop technologies that convert material waste, human waste and food waste into high-value products. High-value products include life support oxygen and water, rocket fuels, raw material production feedstocks, and other energy sources. There are multiple pathways for converting waste to products involving single or multi-step processes. This paper discusses thermal oxidation methods of converting waste to methane. Different wastes, including food, food packaging, Maximum Absorbent Garments (MAGs), human waste simulants, and cotton washcloths have been evaluated in a thermal degradation reactor under conditions promoting pyrolysis, gasification or incineration. The goal was to evaluate the degradation processes at varying temperatures and ramp cycles and to maximize production of desirable products and minimize high molecular weight hydrocarbon (tar) production. Catalytic cracking was also evaluated to minimize tar production. The quantities of CO2, CO, CH4, and H2O were measured under the different thermal degradation conditions. The conversion efficiencies of these products were used to determine the best methods for producing desired products.

Caraccio, Anne J.; Hintze, Paul E.

2013-01-01

200

Product Services Module: An Evaluation Report for the Occupational Exploration Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evaluation report is one of seven produced for the Occupational Exploration Program (OEP), a series of simulated occupational experiences designed for junior high school students. Describing the pilot testing of the simulation dealing with product services, the report contains sections describing the simulation context, evaluation procedures,…

Altschuld, James W.; And Others

201

Operationalizing sustainability: exploring options for environmentally friendly flower bulb production systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current production systems for flower bulbs in the Netherlands employ considerable quantities of pesticides and nutrients per unit area. In 1993, an association of growers and environmentalists set out to design new farming systems that meet environmental objectives in addition to economic objectives. To support the design process, an explorative study was carried out to bring together the fragmented agronomic

Walter A. H. Rossing; Jan Eelco Jansma; Frank J. De Ruijter; Jan Schans

1997-01-01

202

Consumer Responses to Mattel Product Recalls Posted on Online Bulletin Boards: Exploring Two Types of Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawn from attribution theory, this article introduces two types of emotion (i.e., attribution independent and attribution dependent emotion) and explores their role in the situational crisis communication theory (SCCT) model. A content analysis of consumer responses to the Mattel product recalls posted on online bulletin boards revealed that consumers experience a range of emotions from a crisis. A regression analysis

Yoonhyeung Choi; Ying-Hsuan Lin

2009-01-01

203

Strong Fields, Integrability and Strings A productive avenue explored in analytic app-  

E-print Network

____ 4 Strong Fields, Integrability and Strings A productive avenue explored in analytic app between different branches of mathematical physics and mathematics. In recent years a recurring theme. It seems that integrability plays a ubiquitous and powerful role in fundamental physics. Theme

204

Automated generation of image products for Mars Exploration Rover mission tactical operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the period of development prior to the January, 2004 landing of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project's twin robotic vehicles on Mars, mission operations personnel recognized the need for timely generation and delivery of camera image products for rover traverse planning purposes. The task was assigned to the Multimission Image Processing Laboratory (MIPL), an element of the Jet Propulsion

Doug Alexander; Payam Zamani; Robert Deen; Paul Andres; Helen Mortensen

2005-01-01

205

Affinity Credit Cards as Relationship Marketing Tools: A Conjoint Analytic Exploration of Combined Product  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this exploratory research was to gain a greater understanding of the importance consumers assign to the product attributes of one of the most visi- ble relationship marketing programs: affinity credit cards. Drawing on relationship marketing, symbolic consumption, and social identity, the authors explore the importance of attributes when choosing an affinity credit card. Three studies at different

Scott A. Jones; Tracy A. Suter; Eric Koch

2006-01-01

206

Industrial Food Animal Production and Global Health Risks: Exploring the Ecosystems and Economics of Avian Influenza  

E-print Network

Industrial Food Animal Production and Global Health Risks: Exploring the Ecosystems and Economics of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 2 Animal are associated with zoonotic origins. Attention has often focused on wild animal reservoirs, but most zoonotic

Kammen, Daniel M.

207

Common In-Situ Consumable Production Plant for Robotic Mars Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilization of extraterrestrial resources, or In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), is viewed by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise as an enabling technology for the exploration and commercial development of space. A key subset of ISRU which has significant cost, mass, and risk reduction benefits for robotic and human exploration, and which requires a minimum of infrastructure, is In-Situ Consumable Production (ISCP). ISCP involves acquiring, manufacturing, and storing mission consumables from in situ resources, such as propellants, fuel cell reagents, and gases for crew and life support, inflation, science and pneumatic equipment. One of the four long-term goals for the Space Science Enterprise (SSE) is to 'pursue space science programs that enable and are enabled by future human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - a goal exploiting the synergy with the human exploration of space'. Adequate power and propulsion capabilities are critical for both robotic and human exploration missions. Minimizing the mass and volume of these systems can reduce mission cost or enhance the mission by enabling the incorporation of new science or mission-relevant equipment. Studies have shown that in-situ production of oxygen and methane propellants can enhance sample return missions by enabling larger samples to be returned to Earth or by performing Direct Earth Return (DER) sample return missions instead of requiring a Mars Orbit Rendezvous (MOR). Recent NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) work on oxygen and hydrocarbon-based fuel cell power systems shows the potential of using fuel cell power systems instead of solar arrays and batteries for future rovers and science equipment. The development and use of a common oxygen/methane ISCP plant for propulsion and power generation can extend and enhance the scientific exploration of Mars while supporting the development and demonstration of critical technologies and systems for the human exploration of Mars.

Sanders, G. B.; Trevathan, J. R.; Peters, T. A.; Baird, R. S.

2000-07-01

208

Common In-Situ Consumable Production Plant for Robotic Mars Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Utilization of extraterrestrial resources, or In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), is viewed by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise as an enabling technology for the exploration and commercial development of space. A key subset of ISRU which has significant cost, mass, and risk reduction benefits for robotic and human exploration, and which requires a minimum of infrastructure, is In-Situ Consumable Production (ISCP). ISCP involves acquiring, manufacturing, and storing mission consumables from in situ resources, such as propellants, fuel cell reagents, and gases for crew and life support, inflation, science and pneumatic equipment. One of the four long-term goals for the Space Science Enterprise (SSE) is to 'pursue space science programs that enable and are enabled by future human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - a goal exploiting the synergy with the human exploration of space'. Adequate power and propulsion capabilities are critical for both robotic and human exploration missions. Minimizing the mass and volume of these systems can reduce mission cost or enhance the mission by enabling the incorporation of new science or mission-relevant equipment. Studies have shown that in-situ production of oxygen and methane propellants can enhance sample return missions by enabling larger samples to be returned to Earth or by performing Direct Earth Return (DER) sample return missions instead of requiring a Mars Orbit Rendezvous (MOR). Recent NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) work on oxygen and hydrocarbon-based fuel cell power systems shows the potential of using fuel cell power systems instead of solar arrays and batteries for future rovers and science equipment. The development and use of a common oxygen/methane ISCP plant for propulsion and power generation can extend and enhance the scientific exploration of Mars while supporting the development and demonstration of critical technologies and systems for the human exploration of Mars.

Sanders, G. B.; Trevathan, J. R.; Peters, T. A.; Baird, R. S.

2000-01-01

209

Value-Added Products from Remote Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

In Wyoming and throughout the United States, there are natural gas fields that are not producing because of their remoteness from gas pipelines. Some of these fields are ideal candidates for a cogeneration scheme where components suitable for chemical feedstock or direct use, such as propane and butane, are separated. Resulting low- to medium-Btu gas is fired in a gas turbine system to provide power for the separation plant. Excess power is sold to the utility, making the integrated plant a true cogeneration facility. This project seeks to identify the appropriate technologies for various subsystems of an integrated plant to recover value-added products from wet gas and/or retrograde condensate reservoirs. Various vendors and equipment manufacturers will be contacted and a data base consisting of feedstock constraints and output specifications for various subsystems and components will be developed. Based on vendor specifications, gas reservoirs suited for value-added product recovery will be identified. A candidate reservoir will then be selected, and an optimum plant layout will be developed. A facility will then be constructed and operated. The project consists of eight subtasks: Compilation of Reservoir Data; Review of Treatment and Conditioning Technologies; Review of Product Recovery and Separation Technologies; Development of Power Generation System; Integrated Plant Design for Candidate Field; System Fabrication; System Operation and Monitoring; and Economic Evaluation and Reporting. The first five tasks have been completed and the sixth is nearly complete. Systems Operations and Monitoring will start next year. The Economic Evaluation and Reporting task will be a continuous effort for the entire project. The reservoir selected for the initial demonstration of the process is the Burnt Wagon Field, Natrona County, Wyoming. The field is in a remote location with no electric power to the area and no gas transmission line. The design for the gas processing train to produce the liquefied gas products includes three gas compressors, a cryogenic separation unit, and a natural gas powered generator. Based on the equipment specifications, air quality permits for the well field and the gas processing unit were developed and the permits were issued by the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality. Also, to make state and federal reporting easier, three of the four leases that made up the Burnt Wagon were combined. All major equipment has been installed and individual component operability is being conducted. During the next project year, operability testing and the shakedown of the entire system will be completed. Once shakedown is complete, the system will be turned over to the cosponsor for day-to-day operations. During operations, data will be collected through remote linkage to the data acquisition system or analysis of the system performance to develop an economic evaluation of the process.

Lyle A. Johnson

2002-03-15

210

Safe gas handling and system design for the large scale production of amorphous silicon based solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solarex is one of the leaders in amorphous silicon based photovoltaic production and research. The large scale production environment presents unique safety concerns related to the quantity of dangerous materials as well as the number of personnel handling these materials. The safety measures explored by this work include gas detection systems, training, and failure resistant gas handling systems. Our experiences with flow restricting orifices in the CGA connections and the use of steel cylinders is reviewed. The hazards and efficiency of wet scrubbers for silane exhausts are examined. We have found it to be useful to provide the scrubbler with temperature alarms.

Fortmann, C. M.; Farley, M. V.; Smoot, M. A.; Fieselmann, B. F.

1988-07-01

211

Federal offshore statistics: 1995 - leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report provides data on federal offshore operations for 1995. Information is included for leasing activities, development, petroleum and natural gas production, sales and royalties, revenue from federal offshore leasing, disbursement of federal revenues, reserves and resource estimates, and oil pollution in U.S. and international waters.

Gaechter, R.A.

1997-07-01

212

Central Africa Energy: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Explore Flared Gas as an Energy Source Alternative to Biomass in Central Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Much of Central Africa's economy is centered on oil production. Oil deposits lie below vast amounts of compressed natural gas. The latter is often flared off during oil extraction due to a lack of the infrastructure needed to utilize it for productive energy generation. Though gas flaring is discouraged by many due to its contributions to greenhouse emissions, it represents a waste process and is rarely tracked or recorded in this region. In contrast to this energy waste, roughly 80% of Africa's population lacks access to electricity and in turn uses biomass such as wood for heat and light. In addition to the dangers incurred from collecting and using biomass, the practice commonly leads to ecological change through the acquisition of wood from forests surrounding urban areas. The objective of this project was to gain insight on domestic energy usage in Central Africa, specifically Angola, Gabon, and the Republic of Congo. This was done through an analysis of deforestation, an estimation of gas flared, and a suitability study for the infrastructure needed to realize the natural gas resources. The energy from potential natural gas production was compared to the energy equivalent of the biomass being harvested. A site suitability study for natural gas pipeline routes from flare sites to populous locations was conducted to assess the feasibility of utilizing natural gas for domestic energy needs. Analyses and results were shared with project partners, as well as this project's open source approach to assessing the energy sector. Ultimately, Africa's growth demands energy for its people, and natural gas is already being produced by the flourishing petroleum industry in numerous African countries. By utilizing this gas, Africa could reduce flaring, recuperate the financial and environmental loss that flaring accounts for, and unlock a plentiful domestic energy source for its people. II. Introduction Background Africa is home to numerous burgeoning economies; a significant number rely on oil production as their primary source of revenue. Relative to its size and population density, the continent has a wealth of natural resources, including oil and natural gas deposits. The exploration of these resources is not a new endeavor, but rather one that spans decades, up to a century in some places. Their resources, if realized, could provide a great means of economic and social mobility for the people of Africa. Currently, Africa represents about 12 % of the energy market, yet at the same time, consumes only 3 % of the world's energy (Kasekende 2009). The higher

Jones, Amber; White, Charles; Castillo, Christopher; Hitimana, Emmanuel; Nguyen, Kenny; Mishra, Shikher; Clark, Walt

2014-01-01

213

Accounting for product financing arrangements by oil and gas producers  

SciTech Connect

The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has developed the Statement of Financial2 Accounting Standards (SFAS) Nos. 47 and 49 to help practitioners in accounting for and disclosing product financing arrangements in the oil and gas industry. SFAS No. 47 is a disclosure document only, while SFAS No. 49 specifies the accounting treatment for certain arrangements. The authors describe and give examples to show how practitioners can implement the substantive provisions of the documents.

Munter, P.; Ratcliffe, T.A.

1983-03-01

214

Continuous ethanol production in the gas-lift tower fermenter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly flocculent strain of Saccharomyces uvarum was used to convert glucose to ethanol and CO2 in a single stage, continuous, gas-lift tower fermenter. Satisfactory operation was maintained in prolonged runs with yeast concentrations in excess of 100 g\\/L (d.w.) and hydraulic retention times less than 0.4 h. Maximum ethanol concentration and productivity were 88 g\\/L and 44.5 g\\/Lh respectively.

D. Martin Comberbach; John D. Bu'Lock

1984-01-01

215

The Importance of Chemosynthetic Communities and 'Seep-Hunting' to Deepwater Oil and Gas Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seafloor surveying techniques have often evolved as the industry's needs have evolved. Oil and gas exploration costs have escalated over the last several years, both as a result of increasing offshore overhead costs as well as the increased demand being met by offshore service-related companies. Consequently, more companies are prospecting using inexpensive techniques that rely on scientific expertise, such as seep-hunting, as a means of identifying reservoirs, and the past few years have seen several large-scale industrial deepwater surveys with locating hydrocarbon seeps as a primary goal. The identification of seeps is also a necessity for many pre-drilling operations, as many potential developers must conform to local regulations protecting chemosynthetic communities (eg MMS NTL 2000-G20 for Gulf of Mexico development). In addition to identifying chemosynthetic communities for permitting issues, as prospecting has moved into deeper water the ability to identify seep-related drilling hazards, such as hardgrounds or shallow gas (and hydrates) has also increased in importance. The specialized field of identifying seeps, and related chemosynthetics, hardgrounds, etc., is rapidly growing, aided by advances in mapping technology, such as multibeam backscatter and interferometry, among others. Today all of the geophysical data can be brought into a common interpretation environment providing multiple perspectives, different data overlays, and/or 3D visualizations. Using these techniques, high resolution multibeam and/or side-scan surveys rapidly cover large swaths of seafloor and identify potential seeps in real- time. These targets can then be examined geochemically with a coring program, potentially working simultaneously with the multibeam program. Modern USBL navigation can position a deepwater core in <10m diameter targets. Much of the geochemistry can be analyzed in near-real time at sea (eg headspace/interstitial gas, trace/minor/major ions in porefluids, etc; only isotopic analyses are restricted to better equipped research vessels). The advantages of integrating these data are considerable, and they can be obtained for a fraction of the cost of exploratory drilling or submersible operations. This presentation intends to outline the recent history of the industry's approach to seep-hunting, its increasing importance to oil prospectivity, and future trends in industrial applications and how this might affect academic study in this field (especially related to the advances in seep-hunting technology and software that are becoming industry-standards).

McConnell, D.; Gharib, J. J.; Orange, D.; Henderson, J.; Danque, H.; Digby, A.

2007-12-01

216

Relationship between hydrogen gas and butanol production by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum  

SciTech Connect

Two simultaneous fermentations were performed at 26 degrees C with simultaneous inocula using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum. Fermentation 1 prevented the gas formed by the biomass from escaping the fermentor while 2 allowed the gas formed to escape. Fermentor 1 provided for the production of butanol, acetone, and ethanol, while when the H/sub 2/ formed was allowed to escape with fermentor 2, neither butanol nor acetone were produced. Ethanol was also formed in both fermentors and began along with the initial growth of biomass and continued until the fermentations were complete. Butanol and acetone production began after biomass growth had reached a maximum and began to subside. The butanol-acetone-ethanol millimolar yields and ratios were 38:1:14 respectively. The fermentor 2 results show that a yield of 2.1 l H/sub 2/, 93 or 370 mmol H/sub 2//mol glucose, was formed only during the growing stage of growth; neither butanol nor acetone were produced; ethanol was formed throughout the fermentation, reaching a yield of 15.2 mmolar. It appears that hydrogen gas is required for butanol production during the resting stage of growth. 16 references.

Brosseau, J.D.; Yan, J.Y.; Lo, K.V.

1986-03-01

217

Assessing environmental impact from gas and oil exploration in the SW Barents Sea using benthic foraminiferal assemblages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decades petroleum industry and shipping activities have increased in the SW Barents Sea. Oil exploration wells were drilled in the 1980s with production starting in 2007. These activities are projected to expand in the coming years. As part of the Northern Environmental Waste Management (EWMA) project, a competence cluster for petroleum industry related waste handling, we investigate the impacts of enhanced anthropogenic activities on benthic foraminiferal assemblages in the SW Barents Sea. Sediment cores (0-20 cm) from sites in proximity to two oil- and gas fields are under investigation. These sediment cores, dated with the 210Pb method, represent the last 90 to 150 years. Both dead and living benthic foraminifera (100 µm-1 mm) were counted to elucidate differences in foraminiferal assemblages between pre-impact and recent conditions. In addition, the heavy metal concentrations, persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, grain size and total organic content (TOC) of the sediment cores have been analyzed. Pollution levels of the surface sediments (0-1 cm) are of background to good level (level I-II) according to the definitions of the Water Framework Directorate (WFD). Patterns in living benthic foraminiferal assemblages identified in the sea floor surface sediments, are the result of natural environmental changes such as depth, water mass and sediment composition. Further downcore (1-20 cm) pollution levels are in general of background environmental status (WFD level I). However, at some depth intervals, especially in sediment cores from the near proximity of the oil- and gas- fields, pollution levels are slightly enhanced (WFD level II). Further work will include statistical comparison of dead and living foraminiferal assemblages with sediment pollution levels, sediment properties, and oceanographic conditions. This research contributes to the development of foraminifera as a useful bio-monitoring technique for the Arctic region as industrial activities increase in the coming years.

Dijkstra, N.; Junttila, J.; Husum, K.; Carroll, J.; Hald, M.

2012-04-01

218

Development of an Electrostatic Precipitator to Remove Martian Atmospheric Dust from ISRU Gas Intakes During Planetary Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Manned exploration missions to Mars will need dependable in situ resource utilization (ISRU) for the production of oxygen and other commodities. One of these resources is the Martian atmosphere itself, which is composed of carbon dioxide (95.3%), nitrogen (2.7%), argon (1.6%), oxygen (0.13%), carbon monoxide (0.07%), and water vapor (0.03%), as well as other trace gases. However, the Martian atmosphere also contains relatively large amounts of dust, uploaded by frequent dust devils and high Winds. To make this gas usable for oxygen extraction in specialized chambers requires the removal of most of the dust. An electrostatic precipitator (ESP) system is an obvious choice. But with an atmospheric pressure just one-hundredth of Earth's, electrical breakdown at low voltages makes the implementation of the electrostatic precipitator technology very challenging. Ion mobility, drag forces, dust particle charging, and migration velocity are also affected because the low gas pressure results in molecular mean free paths that are approximately one hundred times longer than those at Earth .atmospheric pressure. We report here on our efforts to develop this technology at the Kennedy Space Center, using gases with approximately the same composition as the Martian atmosphere in a vacuum chamber at 9 mbars, the atmospheric pressure on Mars. We also present I-V curves and large particle charging data for various versions of wire-cylinder and rod-cylinder geometry ESPs. Preliminary results suggest that use of an ESP for dust collection on Mars may be feasible, but further testing with Martian dust simulant is required.

Clements, J. Sidney; Thompson, Samuel M.; Cox, Nathan D.; Johansen, Michael R.; Williams, Blakeley S.; Hogue, Michael D.; Lowder, M. Loraine; Calle, Carlos I.

2011-01-01

219

Emissions implications of future natural gas production and use in the u.s. And in the rocky mountain region.  

PubMed

Enhanced prospects for natural gas production raise questions about the balance of impacts on air quality, as increased emissions from production activities are considered alongside the reductions expected when natural gas is burned in place of other fossil fuels. This study explores how trends in natural gas production over the coming decades might affect emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for the United States and its Rocky Mountain region. The MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) energy system optimization model is used with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's nine-region database to compare scenarios for natural gas supply and demand, constraints on the electricity generation mix, and GHG emissions fees. Through 2050, total energy system GHG emissions show little response to natural gas supply assumptions, due to offsetting changes across sectors. Policy-driven constraints or emissions fees are needed to achieve net reductions. In most scenarios, wind is a less expensive source of new electricity supplies in the Rocky Mountain region than natural gas. U.S. NOx emissions decline in all the scenarios considered. Increased VOC emissions from natural gas production offset part of the anticipated reductions from the transportation sector, especially in the Rocky Mountain region. PMID:25329514

McLeod, Jeffrey D; Brinkman, Gregory L; Milford, Jana B

2014-11-18

220

Simulation of natural gas production from submarine gas hydrate deposits combined with carbon dioxide storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recovery of methane from gas hydrate layers that have been detected in several submarine sediments and permafrost regions around the world so far is considered to be a promising measure to overcome future shortages in natural gas as fuel or raw material for chemical syntheses. Being aware that natural gas resources that can be exploited with conventional technologies are limited, research is going on to open up new sources and develop technologies to produce methane and other energy carriers. Thus various research programs have started since the early 1990s in Japan, USA, Canada, South Korea, India, China and Germany to investigate hydrate deposits and develop technologies to destabilize the hydrates and obtain the pure gas. In recent years, intensive research has focussed on the capture and storage of carbon dioxide from combustion processes to reduce climate change. While different natural or manmade reservoirs like deep aquifers, exhausted oil and gas deposits or other geological formations are considered to store gaseous or liquid carbon dioxide, the storage of carbon dioxide as hydrate in former methane hydrate fields is another promising alternative. Due to beneficial stability conditions, methane recovery may be well combined with CO2 storage in form of hydrates. This has been shown in several laboratory tests and simulations - technical field tests are still in preparation. Within the scope of the German research project »SUGAR«, different technological approaches are evaluated and compared by means of dynamic system simulations and analysis. Detailed mathematical models for the most relevant chemical and physical effects are developed. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into simulation programs like CMG STARS and COMSOL Multiphysics. New simulations based on field data have been carried out. The studies focus on the evaluation of the gas production potential from turbidites and their ability for carbon dioxide storage. The effects occurring during gas production and CO2 storage within a hydrate deposit are identified and described for various scenarios. The behaviour of relevant process parameters such as pressure, temperature and phase saturations is discussed and compared for different production strategies: depressurization, CO2 injection after depressurization and simultaneous methane production and CO2 injection.

Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

2013-04-01

221

Production of bioplastics and hydrogen gas by photosynthetic microorganisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our efforts have been aimed at the technological basis of photosynthetic-microbial production of materials and an energy carrier. We report here accumulation of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a raw material of biodegradable plastics and for production of hydrogen gas, and a renewable energy carrier by photosynthetic microorganisms (tentatively defined as cyanobacteria plus photosynthetic bateria, in this report). A thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. MA19 that accumulates PHB at more than 20% of cell dry wt under nitrogen-starved conditions was isolated and microbiologically identified. The mechanism of PHB accumulation was studied. A mesophilic Synechococcus PCC7942 was transformed with the genes encoding PHB-synthesizing enzymes from Alcaligenes eutrophus. The transformant accumulated PHB under nitrogen-starved conditions. The optimal conditions for PHB accumulation by a photosynthetic bacterium grown on acetate were studied. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms was studied. Cyanobacteria can produce hydrogen gas by nitrogenase or hydrogenase. Hydrogen production mediated by native hydrogenase in cyanobacteria was revealed to be in the dark anaerobic degradation of intracellular glycogen. A new system for light-dependent hydrogen production was targeted. In vitro and in vivo coupling of cyanobacterial ferredoxin with a heterologous hydrogenase was shown to produce hydrogen under light conditions. A trial for genetic trasformation of Synechococcus PCC7942 with the hydrogenase gene from Clostridium pasteurianum is going on. The strong hydrogen producers among photosynthetic bacteria were isolated and characterized. Co-culture of Rhodobacter and Clostriumdium was applied to produce hydrogen from glucose. Conversely in the case of cyanobacteria, genetic regulation of photosynthetic proteins was intended to improve conversion efficiency in hydrogen production by the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV. A mutant acquired by UV irradiation will be characterized for the mutation and for hydrogen productivity in comparison with the wild type strain. Some basic studies to develop photobioreactors are also introduced.

Yasuo, Asada; Masato, Miyake; Jun, Miyake

1998-03-01

222

Nanopowder production by gas-embedded electrical explosion of wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small electrical explosion of wire (EEW) setup for nanopowder production is constructed. It consists of a low inductance capacitor bank of 2 ?F-4 ?F typically charged to 8 kV-30 kV, a triggered gas switch, and a production chamber housing the exploding wire load and ambient gas. With the EEW device, nanosize powders of titanium oxides, titanium nitrides, copper oxides, and zinc oxides are successfully synthesized. The average particle size of synthesized powders under different experimental conditions is in a range of 20 nm-80 nm. The pressure of ambient gas or wire vapor can strongly affect the average particle size. The lower the pressure, the smaller the particle size is. For wire material with relatively high resistivity, such as titanium, whose deposited energy Wd is often less than sublimation energy Ws due to the flashover breakdown along the wire prematurely ending the Joule heating process, the synthesized particle size of titanium oxides or titanium nitrides increases with overheat coefficient k (k = Wd/Ws) increasing.

Zou, Xiao-Bing; Mao, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Xin-Xin; Jiang, Wei-Hua

2013-04-01

223

Modifications of a gas production technique for assessing in vitro rumen methane production from feedstuffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to modify an in vitro rumen gas production technique (GPT) so that CH4 production from feeds with contrasting compositions would better reflect in vivo findings. A phosphate-bicarbonate saline solution was mixed with citric acid and used as the buffer. Varying quantities (i.e., 0.3, 0.5, 0.7g) of each of three contrasting feeds (i.e., barley grain, grass silage, barley

A. Navarro-Villa; M. O’Brien; S. López; T. M. Boland; P. O’Kiely

2011-01-01

224

Twisting tongues and memories: Explorations of the relationship between language production and verbal working memory  

PubMed Central

Many accounts of working memory posit specialized storage mechanisms for the maintenance of serial order. We explore an alternative, that maintenance is achieved through temporary activation in the language production architecture. Four experiments examined the extent to which the phonological similarity effect can be explained as a sublexical speech error. Phonologically similar nonword stimuli were ordered to create tongue twister or control materials used in four tasks: reading aloud, immediate spoken recall, immediate typed recall, and serial recognition. Dependent measures from working memory (recall accuracy) and language production (speech errors) fields were used. Even though lists were identical except for item order, robust effects of tongue twisters were observed. Speech error analyses showed that errors were better described as phoneme rather than item ordering errors. The distribution of speech errors was comparable across all experiments and exhibited syllable-position effects, suggesting an important role for production processes. Implications for working memory and language production are discussed. PMID:21165150

Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

2010-01-01

225

Interstellar neutral gas flow measurements with the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) - implications on heliospheric boundary diagnostic (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interstellar neutral gas flow distribution in the inner heliosphere carries information on the surrounding interstellar gas and the heliospheric interface. The interstellar neutral gas flow trajectories are observed very close to their perihelion by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) in Earth's orbit every year from December through late March, when the Earth moves into the oncoming flow. Over the past five years and into the future, a database with increasing solar activity and varying viewing strategies is becoming available. This allows tracking of variations in the flow at 1 AU as it may arise from solar cycle related changes in ionization (also radiation pressure for H) and exploration of other changes of the neutral gas flow distribution. The IBEX interstellar gas flow observations suggest a different flow vector than previously deduced, with lower speed and different direction. These differences have led to a reevaluation of the heliospheric boundary in the sense that there is no strong bow shock, but rather a bow wave. Based on angular distributions in latitude and longitude, most interstellar gas species have a secondary population in addition to the primary interstellar gas population. This secondary population very likely stems from charge exchange of the primary population with ions in the outer heliosheath. Although long-term observations are becoming available and analysis tools for calculating the gas trajectories into the inner heliosphere are being refined, observational results and heliospheric modeling of the boundary interaction still await closure. We will review the observations and discuss implications for the interaction of the local interstellar cloud with the heliosphere in the light of a growing data set and improving analysis techniques.

Bzowski, M.; Moebius, E.; Fuselier, S.; Heirtzler, D.; Kubiak, M. A.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; McComas, D. J.; Park, J.; Schwadron, N.; Sokol, J. M.; Wurz, P.

2013-12-01

226

Development of temporary subtropical wetlands induces higher gas production  

PubMed Central

Temporary wetlands are short-term alternative ecosystems formed by flooding for irrigation of areas used for rice farming. The goal of this study is to describe the development cycle of rice fields as temporary wetlands in southern Brazil, evaluating how this process affect the gas production (CH4 and CO2) in soil with difference % carbon and organic matter content. Two areas adjacent to Lake Mangueira in southern Brazil were used during a rice-farming cycle. One area had soil containing 1.1% carbon and 2.4% organic matter, and the second area had soil with 2.4% carbon and 4.4% organic matter. The mean rates of gas production were 0.04 ± 0.02 mg CH4 m?2 d?1 and 1.18 ± 0.30 mg CO2 m?2 d?1 in the soil area with the lower carbon content, and 0.02 ± 0.03 mg CH4 m?2 d?1 and 1.38 ± 0.41 mg CO2 m?2 d?1 in the soil area with higher carbon content. Our results showed that mean rates of CO2 production were higher than those of CH4 in both areas. No statistically significant difference was observed for production of CH4 considering different periods and sites. For carbon dioxide (CO2), however, a Two-Way ANOVA showed statistically significant difference (p = 0.05) considering sampling time, but no difference between areas. The results obtained suggest that the carbon and organic matter contents in the soil of irrigated rice cultivation areas may have been used in different ways by soil microorganisms, leading to variations in CH4 and CO2 production. PMID:23508352

Canterle, Eliete B.; da Motta Marques, David; Rodrigues, Lucia R.

2013-01-01

227

Characterizing tight-gas systems with production data: Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The study of produced fluids allows comparisons among tight-gas systems. This paper examines gas, oil, and water production data from vertical wells in 23 fields in five Rocky Mountain basins of the United States, mostly from wells completed before the year 2000. Average daily rates of gas, oil, and water production are determined two years and seven years after production begins in order to represent the interval in which gas production declines exponentially. In addition to the daily rates, results are also presented in terms of oil-to-gas and water-to-gas ratios, and in terms of the five-year decline in gas production rates and water-to-gas ratios. No attempt has been made to estimate the ultimate productivity of wells or fields. The ratio of gas production rates after seven years to gas production rates at two years is about one-half, with median ratios falling within a range of 0.4 to 0.6 in 16 fields. Oil-gas ratios show substantial variation among fields, ranging from dry gas (no oil) to wet gas to retrograde conditions. Among wells within fields, the oil-gas ratios vary by a factor of three to thirty, with the exception of the Lance Formation in Jonah and Pinedale fields, where the oil-gas ratios vary by less than a factor of two. One field produces water-free gas and a large fraction of wells in two other fields produce water-free gas, but most fields have water-gas ratios greater than 1 bbl/mmcf—greater than can be attributed to water dissolved in gas in the reservoir— and as high as 100 bbl/mmcf. The median water-gas ratio for fields increases moderately with time, but in individual wells water influx relative to gas is erratic, increasing greatly with time in many wells while remaining constant or decreasing in others.

Nelson, Philip H.; Santus, Stephen L.

2013-01-01

228

Energy (Oil and Gas) Exploration (and Development) on the U.S.  

E-print Network

Technically Recoverable OCS Planning Area Oil and Gas Estimates 95% Mean 5% Beaufort Sea Oil (bbo) 0.4 8.2 23.2 Gas (tcf) 0.7 27.7 72.2 Chukchi Sea Oil (bbo) 2.3 15.4 40.1 Gas (tcf) 10.3 76.8 209.5 North Aleutian Basin Oil (bbo) 0.02 0.75 2.5 Gas (tcf) 0.4 8.6 23.3 Cook Inlet Oil (bbo) 0.06 1.0 2.9 Gas (tcf) 0.03 1

Kuligowski, Bob

229

40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2...GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table...Part 98—Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1...

2013-07-01

230

40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2...GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table...Part 98—Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1...

2012-07-01

231

40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2  

... true Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2...GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table...Part 98—Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1...

2014-07-01

232

40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2...GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table...Part 98—Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1...

2011-07-01

233

Review on the gas hydrate development and production as a new energy resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas hydrates consist of guest gas molecules inside hydrogen-bonded water lattices. Natural gas hydrates are found in offshore\\u000a and permafrost regions. The large amounts of gas hydrate reserves suggest the potential of gas hydrates as an energy resource\\u000a if economically viable production methods were developed. The proper understandings of hydrate formation\\/dissociation are\\u000a important for the drilling and oil production applications.

Joo Yong Lee; Byung Jae Ryu; Tae Sup Yun; Jaehyung Lee; Gye-Chun Cho

2011-01-01

234

SynGas Production from Catalytic Steam Gasification of Municipal Solid Wastes in a Combined Fixed Bed Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalytic steam gasification of municipal solid wastes (MSW) for syn-gas production was experimentally investigated in a combined fixed bed reactor using the newly developed tri-metallic catalyst. A series of experiments have been performed to explore the effects of catalyst presence, catalytic temperature, catalyst to MSW weight ratio (C\\/M) and steam to MSW ratio (S\\/M) on the composition and yield

Jianfen Li; Jianjun Liu; Shiyan Liao; Xiaorong Zhou; Rong Yan

2010-01-01

235

Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Exploration Solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is an outcome of lean thinking to eliminate waste and increase productivity. PLM is inextricably tied to the systems engineering business philosophy, coupled with a methodology by which personnel, processes and practices, and information technology combine to form an architecture platform for product design, development, manufacturing, operations, and decommissioning. In this model, which is being implemented by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Engineering Directorate, total lifecycle costs are important variables for critical decision-making. With the ultimate goal to deliver quality products that meet or exceed requirements on time and within budget, PLM is a powerful concept to shape everything from engineering trade studies and testing goals, to integrated vehicle operations and retirement scenarios. This briefing will demonstrate how the MSFC Engineering Directorate is implementing PLM as part of an overall strategy to deliver safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions and how that strategy aligns with the Agency and Center systems engineering policies and processes. Sustainable space exploration solutions demand that all lifecycle phases be optimized, and engineering the next generation space transportation system requires a paradigm shift such that digital tools and knowledge management, which are central elements of PLM, are used consistently to maximum effect. Adopting PLM, which has been used by the aerospace and automotive industry for many years, for spacecraft applications provides a foundation for strong, disciplined systems engineering and accountable return on investment. PLM enables better solutions using fewer resources by making lifecycle considerations in an integrative decision-making process.

Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Grieves, Michael

2011-01-01

236

Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of sugar production. Results According to our calculations, 241 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent were released to the atmosphere per a ton of sugar produced (2406 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a hectare of the cropped area, and 26.5 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a ton of sugarcane processed). The major part of the total emission (44%) resulted from residues burning; about 20% resulted from the use of synthetic fertilizers, and about 18% from fossil fuel combustion. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the most important reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sugarcane areas could be achieved by switching to a green harvest system, that is, to harvesting without burning. PMID:20565736

2010-01-01

237

HiPACT–advanced CO 2 capture technology for green natural gas exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tens of millions of tons per year of CO2 are being captured from raw feed gas by natural gas plants using solvent-based technologies comprising a pair of absorber and regenerator, and this CO2 is then being released to the environment. As interest in reducing CO2 emissions from natural gas plants has increased in recent years, CO2 capture and storage (CCS)

Tsukasa Kumagai; Koji Tanaka; Yasushi Fujimura; Takuya Ono; Fumihiro Ito; Torsten Katz; Oliver Spuhl; AikMeam Tan

2011-01-01

238

Hydrogen production and delivery analysis in US markets : cost, energy and greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen production cost conclusions are: (1) Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) is the least-cost production option at current natural gas prices and for initial hydrogen vehicle penetration rates, at high production rates, SMR may not be the least-cost option; (2) Unlike coal and nuclear technologies, the cost of natural gas feedstock is the largest contributor to SMR production cost; (3) Coal-

M. Mintz; J. Gillette; A. Elgowainy

2009-01-01

239

Producing ammonium sulfate from flue gas desulfurization by-products  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Emission control technologies using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have been widely adopted by utilities burning high-sulfur fuels. However, these technologies require additional equipment, greater operating expenses, and increased costs for landfill disposal of the solid by-products produced. The financial burdens would be reduced if successful high-volume commercial applications of the FGD solid by-products were developed. In this study, the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate from FGD residues by allowing it to react with ammonium carbonate in an aqueous solution was preliminarily assessed. Reaction temperatures of 60, 70, and 80??C and residence times of 4 and 6 hours were tested to determine the optimal conversion condition and final product evaluations. High yields (up to 83%) of ammonium sulfate with up to 99% purity were achieved under relatively mild conditions. The optimal conversion condition was observed at 60??C and a 4-hour residence time. The results of this study indicate the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate fertilizer from an FGD by-product. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

Chou, I.-M.; Bruinius, J.A.; Benig, V.; Chou, S.-F.J.; Carty, R.H.

2005-01-01

240

Ocean Exploration: Exploring Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson serves as an introduction to the discoveries and benefits that have resulted from exploration of the Earth's deep oceans. Students will be able to describe at least three human benefits from and identify separate examples of deep ocean exploration. All of the lessons emphasize hands-on activities using online data resources, and each inquiry-based activity includes focus questions, learning objectives, teaching time, background information, evaluations and extensions, as well as resources and student handouts.

241

The elimination of liquid loading problems in low productivity gas wells  

E-print Network

Productivity Gas Wells 78 Figure 26 - Gas Lift Schematic (continuous) Figure 27 - Gas Lift Schematic (intermittent) 83 84 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The presence of a liquid phase during gas production has long been recognized as a... the final stages of the flowing life of a gas well. This phenomenon is evident at the surface due to production of intermittent slugs of liquid and gas, and may also be confirmed by noting irregular changes in casing and tubing pressures. As discussed...

Neves, Toby Roy

2012-06-07

242

Which Complementary Product Do You Like? Exploring the Effects of Complementary Products on the Patronage of Main Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The market of complementary products, also known as third-party products, is becoming a type of industry and economy. According to The Fiscal Times (Oct 18, 2011), the global market for mobile phone accessories is expected to rake in an estimated $34 billion in revenue in 2011 and is predicted to hit an estimated $50.2 billion by 2015. Beyond being simply

Seong-Yeon Park; Ku Yun Chung

2011-01-01

243

Prediction of Gas Leak Tightness of Superplastically Formed Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In some applications, in this case an aluminium box in a subatomic particle detector containing highly sensitive detecting devices, it is important that a formed sheet should show no gas leak from one side to the other. In order to prevent a trial-and-error procedure to make this leak tight box, a method is set up to predict if a formed sheet conforms to the maximum leak constraint. The technique of superplastic forming (SPF) is used in order to attain very high plastic strains before failure. Since only a few of these boxes are needed, this makes, this generally slow, process an attractive production method. To predict the gas leak of a superplastically formed aluminium sheet in an accurate way, finite element simulations are used in combination with a user-defined material model. This constitutive model couples the leak rate with the void volume fraction. This void volume fraction is then dependent on both the equivalent plastic strain and the applied hydrostatic pressure during the bulge process (backpressure).

Snippe, Corijn H. C.; Meinders, T.

2010-06-01

244

Exploring interaction effects in two-component gas mixtures using orthogonal signal correction of ultrasound pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within Sweden and the EU, an increased use of biogas gas and natural gas is encouraged to decrease emission of carbon dioxide. To support more effective manufacturing, distribution, and consumption of energy gases, new methods for the measurement of the calorimetric value or the gas composition are needed. This paper presents a method to extract and visualize variations in ultrasound pulse shape, caused by interaction effects between the constituents of a two-component gas mixture. The method is based on a combination of principal component analysis and orthogonal signal correction. Pulse-echo ultrasound experiments on mixtures of oxygen and ethane in the concentration range from 20% to 80% ethane show that the extracted information could be correlated with the molar fraction of ethane in the mixture. .

Carlson, Johan E.; Martinsson, Pär-Erik

2005-05-01

245

Atmospheric emissions and air quality impacts from natural gas production and use.  

PubMed

The US Energy Information Administration projects that hydraulic fracturing of shale formations will become a dominant source of domestic natural gas supply over the next several decades, transforming the energy landscape in the United States. However, the environmental impacts associated with fracking for shale gas have made it controversial. This review examines emissions and impacts of air pollutants associated with shale gas production and use. Emissions and impacts of greenhouse gases, photochemically active air pollutants, and toxic air pollutants are described. In addition to the direct atmospheric impacts of expanded natural gas production, indirect effects are also described. Widespread availability of shale gas can drive down natural gas prices, which, in turn, can impact the use patterns for natural gas. Natural gas production and use in electricity generation are used as a case study for examining these indirect consequences of expanded natural gas availability. PMID:24498952

Allen, David T

2014-01-01

246

Exploring the dynamic behaviors and transport properties of gas molecules in a transmembrane cyclic peptide nanotube.  

PubMed

The dynamic behaviors and transport properties of O2, CO2, and NH3 molecules through a transmembrane cyclic peptide nanotube (CPNT) of 8×cyclo-(WL)4/POPE have been investigated by steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations and adaptive biasing force (ABF) samplings. Different external forces are needed for three gas molecules to enter the channel. The periodic change of the pulling force curve for a gas traveling through the channel mainly arises from the regular and periodic arrangement of the composed CP subunits of the CPNT. Radial distribution functions (RDFs) between gas and water disclose the density decrease of channel water, which strongly aggravates the discontinuity of H-bond formation between a gas molecule and the neighboring water. Compared to hardly any H-bond formation between CO2 (or O2) and the framework of the CPNT, NH3 can form abundant H-bonds with the carbonyl/amide groups of the CPNT, leading to a fierce competition to NH3-water H-bonded interactions. In addition to direct H-bonded interactions, all three gases can form water bridges with the tube. The potential profile of mean force coincides with the occurring probability of a gas molecule along the tube axis. The energy barriers at two mouths of the CPNT elucidate the phenomenon that CO2 and O2 are thoroughly confined in the narrow lumen while NH3 can easily go outside the tube. Intermolecular interactions of each gas with channel water and the CPNT framework and the formation of H-bonds and water bridges illuminate the different gas translocation behaviors. The results uncover interesting and comprehensive mechanisms underlying the permeation characteristics of three gas molecules traveling through a transmembrane CPNT. PMID:24245847

Li, Rui; Fan, Jianfen; Li, Hui; Yan, Xiliang; Yu, Yi

2013-12-01

247

The Impact of Biofuel and Greenhouse Gas Policies on Land Management, Agricultural Production, and Environmental Quality  

E-print Network

This dissertation explores the combined effects of biofuel mandates and terrestrial greenhouse gas GHG mitigation incentives on land use, management intensity, commodity markets, welfare, and the full costs of GHG abatement through conceptual...

Baker, Justin Scott

2012-10-19

248

Different shake flask closures alter gas phase composition and ajmalicine production in Catharanthus roseus cell suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The type of closure chosen for plant cell cultures can significantly alter the headspace gas composition of a culture, leading to major differences in the production of secondary metabolites. In cell suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus, ethylene accumulated in cultures with limited gas exchange and appeared to inhibit the production of ajmalicine. The variability in product yields between replicates can

Carolyn W. T. Lee; Michael L. Shuler

1991-01-01

249

Exploring the energy/beam current parameter space for the isotope production facility (IPF) at LANSCE  

SciTech Connect

IPF has recently investigated isotope production with proton beams at energies other than the 100-MeV currently available to the IPF beam line. To maximize the yield of a particular isotope, it is necessary to measure the production rate and cross section versus proton beam energy. Studies were conducted at 800 MeV and 197 MeV to determine the cross section of Tb-159. Also, the ability to irradiate targets at different proton beam energies opens up the possibility of producing other radioisotopes. A proof-of-principle test was conducted to develop a 40-MeV tune in the 100-MeV beam line. Another parameter explored was the beam current, which was raised from the normal limit of 250 {mu}A up to 356 {mu}A via both power and repetition rate increase. This proof-of-principle test demonstrated the capability of the IPF beam line for high current operation with potential for higher isotope yields. For the full production mode, system upgrades will need to be in place to operate at high current and high duty factor. These activities are expected to provide the data needed for the development of a new and unique isotope production capability complementing the existing 100-MeV IPF facility.

Gulley, Mark S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bach, Hong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nortier, Francis M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bitteker, Leo J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; John, Kevin D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdez, Frank O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seifter, Achim [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-07

250

Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Exploration Solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is an outcome of lean thinking to eliminate waste and increase productivity. PLM is inextricably tied to the systems engineering business philosophy, coupled with a methodology by which personnel, processes and practices, and information technology combine to form an architecture platform for product design, development, manufacturing, operations, and decommissioning. In this model, which is being implemented by the Engineering Directorate at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center, total lifecycle costs are important variables for critical decisionmaking. With the ultimate goal to deliver quality products that meet or exceed requirements on time and within budget, PLM is a powerful tool to shape everything from engineering trade studies and testing goals, to integrated vehicle operations and retirement scenarios. This paper will demonstrate how the Engineering Directorate is implementing PLM as part of an overall strategy to deliver safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions. It has been 30 years since the United States fielded the Space Shuttle. The next generation space transportation system requires a paradigm shift such that digital tools and knowledge management, which are central elements of PLM, are used consistently to maximum effect. The outcome is a better use of scarce resources, along with more focus on stakeholder and customer requirements, as a new portfolio of enabling tools becomes second nature to the workforce. This paper will use the design and manufacturing processes, which have transitioned to digital-based activities, to show how PLM supports the comprehensive systems engineering and integration function. It also will go through a launch countdown scenario where an anomaly is detected to show how the virtual vehicle created from paperless processes will help solve technical challenges and improve the likelihood of launching on schedule, with less hands-on labor needed for processing and troubleshooting. Sustainable space exploration solutions demand that all lifecycle phases be optimized. Adopting PLM, which has been used by the automotive industry for many years, for aerospace applications provides a foundation for strong, disciplined systems engineering and accountable return on investment by making lifecycle considerations variables in an iterative decision-making process. This paper combines the perspectives of the founding father of PLM, along with the experience of Engineering leaders who are implementing these processes and practices real-time. As the nation moves from an industrial-based society to one where information is a valued commodity, future NASA programs and projects will benefit from the experience being gained today for the exploration missions of tomorrow.

Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.

2010-01-01

251

Calculation of CO2 column heights in depleted gas fields from known pre-production gas column heights  

E-print Network

Calculation of CO2 column heights in depleted gas fields from known pre-production gas column that the CO2 is in a dense phase (either liquid or supercritical). Accurate assessment of the storage capacity also requires an estimation of the amount of CO2 that can be safely stored beneath the reservoir seal

252

An evaluation of hydrogen production from the perspective of using blast furnace gas and coke oven gas as feedstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace (BF) is a large-scale reactor for producing hot metal where coke and coal are consumed as reducing agent and fuel, respectively. As a result, a large amount of CO2 is liberated into the atmosphere. The blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke oven gas (COG) from the ironmaking process can be used for H2 production in association with carbon

Wei-Hsin Chen; Mu-Rong Lin; Tzong-Shyng Leu; Shan-Wen Du

2011-01-01

253

Evaluation of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model. [Cyclic thermal injection  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the work performed under this directive is to assess whether gas hydrates could potentially be technically and economically recoverable. The technical potential and economics of recovering gas from a representative hydrate reservoir will be established using the cyclic thermal injection model, HYDMOD, appropriately modified for this effort, integrated with economics model for gas production on the North Slope of Alaska, and in the deep offshore Atlantic. The results from this effort are presented in this document. In Section 1, the engineering cost and financial analysis model used in performing the economic analysis of gas production from hydrates -- the Hydrates Gas Economics Model (HGEM) -- is described. Section 2 contains a users guide for HGEM. In Section 3, a preliminary economic assessment of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model is presented. Section 4 contains a summary critique of existing hydrate gas recovery models. Finally, Section 5 summarizes the model modification made to HYDMOD, the cyclic thermal injection model for hydrate gas recovery, in order to perform this analysis.

Kuuskraa, V.A.; Hammersheimb, E.; Sawyer, W.

1985-05-01

254

Gas phase production and loss of isoprene epoxydiols.  

PubMed

Isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) form in high yields from the OH-initiated oxidation of isoprene under low-NO conditions. These compounds contribute significantly to secondary organic aerosol formation. Their gas-phase chemistry has, however, remained largely unexplored. In this study, we characterize the formation of IEPOX isomers from the oxidation of isoprene by OH. We find that cis-?- and trans-?-IEPOX are the dominant isomers produced, and that they are created in an approximate ratio of 1:2 from the low-NO oxidation of isoprene. Three isomers of IEPOX, including cis-?- and trans-?, were synthesized and oxidized by OH in environmental chambers under high- and low-NO conditions. We find that IEPOX reacts with OH at 299 K with rate coefficients of (0.84 ± 0.07) × 10(-11), (1.52 ± 0.07) × 10(-11), and (0.98 ± 0.05) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for the ?1, cis-?, and trans-? isomers. Finally, yields of the first-generation products of IEPOX + OH oxidation were measured, and a new mechanism of IEPOX oxidation is proposed here to account for the observed products. The substantial yield of glyoxal and methylglyoxal from IEPOX oxidation may help explain elevated levels of those compounds observed in low-NO environments with high isoprene emissions. PMID:24476509

Bates, Kelvin H; Crounse, John D; St Clair, Jason M; Bennett, Nathan B; Nguyen, Tran B; Seinfeld, John H; Stoltz, Brian M; Wennberg, Paul O

2014-02-20

255

COORDINATING SPECIAL USE PERMIT APPLICATION FOR OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION ON FEDERAL LANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application for a Special Use Permit to conduct a 3D seismic exploration program is often frustrating to both the applicant and the grantor. Each has an obligation to their organization that is often in conflict. So much time and effort are required to prepare and evaluate the project's requirements and impacts, that the participation of a third party consultant may

B. Wayne Hoskins

256

Open-source LCA tool for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from crude oil production using field characteristics.  

PubMed

Existing transportation fuel cycle emissions models are either general and calculate nonspecific values of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil production, or are not available for public review and auditing. We have developed the Oil Production Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE) to provide open-source, transparent, rigorous GHG assessments for use in scientific assessment, regulatory processes, and analysis of GHG mitigation options by producers. OPGEE uses petroleum engineering fundamentals to model emissions from oil and gas production operations. We introduce OPGEE and explain the methods and assumptions used in its construction. We run OPGEE on a small set of fictional oil fields and explore model sensitivity to selected input parameters. Results show that upstream emissions from petroleum production operations can vary from 3 gCO2/MJ to over 30 gCO2/MJ using realistic ranges of input parameters. Significant drivers of emissions variation are steam injection rates, water handling requirements, and rates of flaring of associated gas. PMID:23634761

El-Houjeiri, Hassan M; Brandt, Adam R; Duffy, James E

2013-06-01

257

Enhanced methane emissions from oil and gas exploration areas to the atmosphere--the central Bohai Sea.  

PubMed

The distributions of dissolved methane in the central Bohai Sea were investigated in November 2011, May 2012, July 2012, and August 2012. Methane concentration in surface seawater, determined using an underway measurement system combined with wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy, showed marked spatiotemporal variations with saturation ratio from 107% to 1193%. The central Bohai Sea was thus a source of atmospheric methane during the survey periods. Several episodic oil and gas spill events increased surface methane concentration by up to 4.7 times and raised the local methane outgassing rate by up to 14.6 times. This study demonstrated a method to detect seafloor CH4 leakages at the sea surface, which may have applicability in many shallow sea areas with oil and gas exploration activities around the world. PMID:24602676

Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Hua-de; Zhai, Wei-dong; Zang, Kun-peng; Wang, Ju-ying

2014-04-15

258

Industrial emergy evaluation for hydrogen production systems from biomass and natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil fuel resources are the main source for hydrogen production, and hydrogen production by renewable energy, such as biomass, is under development. To compare the performance in natural resource utilization for different hydrogen production systems, in this paper, two laboratorial hydrogen production systems from biomass and one industrial hydrogen production system from natural gas are analyzed by using industrial emergy

Xiao Feng; Li Wang; Shuling Min

2009-01-01

259

Optimization of protein production by Micrococcus luteus for exploring pollutant-degrading uncultured bacteria.  

PubMed

The screening of pollutant-degrading bacteria are limited due to most of bacteria in the natural environment cannot be cultivated. For the purpose of resuscitating and stimulating "viable but non-culturable" (VBNC) or uncultured bacteria, Micrococcus luteus proteins are more convenient and cost-effective than purified resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf) protein. In this study, medium composition and culture conditions were optimized by using statistical experimental design and analysis to enhance protein production by M. luteus. The most important variables influencing protein production were determined using the Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and then central composite design (CCD) was adopted to optimize medium composition and culture conditions to achieve maximum protein yield. Results showed that the maximum protein yield of 25.13 mg/L (vs. 25.66 mg/L predicted) was obtained when the mineral solution, Lithium L-lactate, initial pH and incubation time were set at 1.5 ml/L, 8.75 g/L, 7.5 and 48 h, respectively. The predicated values calculated with the model were very close to the experimental values. Protein production was obviously increased with optimization fitting well with the observed fluorescence intensity. These results verified the feasibility and accuracy of this optimization strategy. This study provides promising information for exploring highly desirable pollutant-degrading microorganisms. PMID:24616844

Su, Xiaomei; Liu, Yindong; Hu, Jinxing; Ding, Linxian; Shen, Chaofeng

2014-01-01

260

Forecasting long-term gas production from shale  

E-print Network

Oil and natural gas from deep shale formations are transforming the United States economy and its energy outlook. Back in 2005, the US Energy Information Administration published projections of United States natural gas ...

Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis

261

Exploring the limits of crop productivity: beyond the limits of tipburn in lettuce  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The productivity of lettuce in a combination of high light, high temperature, and elevated CO2 has not been commonly studied because rapid growth usually causes a calcium deficiency in meristems called tipburn, which greatly reduces quality and marketability. We eliminated tipburn by blowing air directly onto the meristem, which allowed us to increase the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) to 1000 micromoles m-2 s-1 (57.6 mol m-2 d-1); two to three times higher than normally used for lettuce. Eliminating tipburn doubled edible yield at the highest PPF level. In addition to high PPF, CO2 was elevated to 1200 micromoles m-2 mol-1, which increased the temperature optimum from 25 to 30 degrees C. The higher temperature increased leaf expansion rate, which improved radiation capture and more than doubled yield. Photosynthetic efficiency, measured as canopy quantum yield in a whole-plant gas exchange system, steadily increased up to the highest temperature of 32 degrees C in high CO2. The highest productivity was 19 g m-2 d-1 of dry biomass (380 g d-1 fresh mass) averaged over the 23 days the plants received light. Without the limitation of tipburn, the combination of high PPF, high temperature, and elevated CO2 resulted in a 4-fold increase in growth rate over productivity in conventional environments.

Frantz, Jonathan M.; Ritchie, Glen; Cometti, Nilton N.; Robinson, Justin; Bugbee, Bruce

2004-01-01

262

Abstract--A concept of a bi-population scheme for real-coded GAs consisting of an explorer sub-GA and an exploiter sub-GA is proposed. The explorer sub-GA mainly does exploration so as to avoid being trapped in  

E-print Network

Abstract--A concept of a bi-population scheme for real-coded GAs consisting of an explorer sub-GA and an exploiter sub-GA is proposed. The explorer sub-GA mainly does exploration so as to avoid being trapped in local optima by means of restart mechanism; and the exploiter sub-GA does exploitation by which search

Tsutsui, Shigeyoshi

263

Exploration of gas sensing possibilities with edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrodes: nitrogen dioxide detection.  

PubMed

The voltammetric response of nitrogen dioxide in aqueous sulfuric acid using an edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrode has been explored and contrasted with that from basal plane pyrolytic graphite, glassy carbon or boron-doped diamond electrodes. Edge plane graphite electrode is found to produce an excellent voltammetric signal in comparison with other carbon-based electrodes exhibiting a well-defined analytically useful voltammetric redox couple in 2.5 M sulfuric acid which is absent on the alternative electrodes. PMID:15724153

Banks, Craig E; Goodwin, Alexander; Heald, Charles G R; Compton, Richard G

2005-03-01

264

Gas, water, and oil production from Wattenberg field in the Denver Basin, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from selected wells in two tight gas reservoirs-the Codell-Niobrara interval, comprised of the Codell Sandstone Member of the Carlile Shale and the Niobrara Formation; and the Dakota J interval, comprised mostly of the Muddy (J) Sandstone of the Dakota Group; both intervals are of Cretaceous age-in the Wattenberg field in the Denver Basin of Colorado. Production from each well is represented by two samples spaced five years apart, the first sample typically taken two years after production commenced, which generally was in the 1990s. For each producing interval, summary diagrams and tables of oil-versus-gas production and water-versus-gas production are shown with fluid-production rates, the change in production over five years, the water-gas and oil-gas ratios, and the fluid type. These diagrams and tables permit well-to-well and field-to-field comparisons. Fields producing water at low rates (water dissolved in gas in the reservoir) can be distinguished from fields producing water at moderate or high rates, and the water-gas ratios are quantified. The Dakota J interval produces gas on a per-well basis at roughly three times the rate of the Codell-Niobrara interval. After five years of production, gas data from the second samples show that both intervals produce gas, on average, at about one-half the rate as the first sample. Oil-gas ratios in the Codell-Niobrara interval are characteristic of a retrograde gas and are considerably higher than oil-gas ratios in the Dakota J interval, which are characteristic of a wet gas. Water production from both intervals is low, and records in many wells are discontinuous, particularly in the Codell-Niobrara interval. Water-gas ratios are broadly variable, with some of the variability possibly due to the difficulty of measuring small production rates. Most wells for which water is reported have water-gas ratios exceeding the amount that could exist dissolved in gas at reservoir pressure and temperature. The Codell-Niobrara interval is reported to be overpressured (that is, pressure greater than hydrostatic) whereas the underlying Dakota J interval is underpressured (less than hydrostatic), demonstrating a lack of hydraulic communication between the two intervals despite their proximity over a broad geographical area. The underpressuring in the Dakota J interval has been attributed by others to outcropping strata east of the basin. We agree with this interpretation and postulate that the gas accumulation also may contribute to hydraulic isolation from outcrops immediately west of the basin.

Nelson, Philip H.; Santus, Stephen L.

2011-01-01

265

Proposed oil and gas exploration within the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

The draft environmental impact statement describes the procedures and probable effects of aerial and geological surveying for oil and gas in the coastal area of Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The procedures provide for the protection of caribou caving areas and the avoidance of duplication in the survey activities. Temporary disturbances from seismic surveys would interfere with wildlife breeding and migration due to changes in the habitat. The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980 provides the legal mandate for environmental assessment.

Not Available

1982-11-01

266

ANALYSIS OF GAS PRODUCTION FROM HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED WELLS IN THE HAYNESVILLE SHALE USING SCALING METHODS  

E-print Network

ANALYSIS OF GAS PRODUCTION FROM HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED WELLS IN THE HAYNESVILLE SHALE USING. The reservoir temperature is also high, up to 3000 F. These pressures are uniquely high among shale gas gas from the Haynesville Shale without horizontal wells and massive hydrofractures. In addition

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

267

Research of Production Synthesized Gas from Biomass and Glycerol by Steam Reforming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using biomass for energy generation is getting increasing attention. At present, gasification of biomass is taken as a popular technical route to produce synthesized gas for application in boiler, engine, gas turbine or fuel cell. In this study, a new approach of steam reforming of biomass and glycerol for synthesized gas production has been primarily investigated in a fixed-bed reactor.

Lixia Zhao; Guanyi Chen; Xiao Zhao

2011-01-01

268

Gas chromatography: Possible application of advanced instrumentation developed for solar system exploration to space station cabin atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gas chromatography (GC) technology was developed for flight experiments in solar system exploration. The GC is a powerful analytical technique with simple devices separating individual components from complex mixtures to make very sensitive quantitative and qualitative measurements. It monitors samples containing mixtures of fixed gases and volatile organic molecules. The GC was used on the Viking mission in support of life detection experiments and on the Pioneer Venus Large Probe to determine the composition of the venusian atmosphere. A flight GC is under development to study the progress and extent of STS astronaut denitrogenation prior to extravehicular activity. Advanced flight GC concepts and systems for future solar system exploration are also studied. Studies include miniature ionization detectors and associated control systems capable of detecting from ppb up to 100% concentration levels. Further miniaturization is investigated using photolithography and controlled chemical etching in silicon wafers. Novel concepts such as ion mobility drift spectroscopy and multiplex gas chromatography are also developed for future flight experiments. These powerful analytical concepts and associated hardware are ideal for the monitoring of cabin atmospheres containing potentially dangerous volatile compounds.

Carle, G. C.

1985-01-01

269

Interstellar Neutral Gas Flow Measurements with the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) - Implications on Interstellar Medium and Heliosphere Diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observes the interstellar neutral gas flow tra-jectories at their perihelion in Earth's orbit every year from December through late March, when the Earth moves into the oncoming flow. Surprisingly, the initial quantita-tive analysis resulted in a somewhat different interstellar flow vector with noticeably lower speed than obtained previously. In comparison with astronomical observations of the flow vectors of neighboring interstellar clouds, this result locates the solar system within the Local Interstellar Cloud (LIC), contrary to the previous determination, which indicated values between the LIC and the G-Cloud. This year, the fifth season is being accumulated, providing a database over increasing solar activity and with varying view-ing strategies. These recurring observations of the interstellar flow pattern and its spatial distribution allow us to consolidate the derived physical conditions of the surrounding interstellar medium. We can also track variations in the flow at 1 AU that may arise from solar cycle related changes in ionization and radiation pressure for H and explore any other variations of the neutral gas flow. Based on the angular distributions in latitude and longitude, the neutral flow observations also indicate the presence of a secondary compo-nent for most of the species, which most probably stems from charge exchange with ions in the outer heliosheath. We will review our observations and discuss implications for the LIC and its interaction with the heliosphere in the light of a growing data set and improv-ing analysis techniques.

Moebius, E.; Bochsler, P. A.; Bzowski, M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Heirtzler, D.; Hlond, M.; Kubiak, M.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; Leonard, T.; McComas, D. J.; Saul, L. A.; Schwadron, N. A.; Sokol, J.; Wurz, P.

2013-05-01

270

Join Shell and Purdue for a series of discussions that will explore preventative measures to minimize risk of oil spills, the future of natural gas infrastructure, and  

E-print Network

to minimize risk of oil spills, the future of natural gas infrastructure, and the challenges we face in our (refreshments served) 8:00am ­ 8:15am Opening 8:15am ­ 9:15am Panel Discussion: "Offshore Oil Spill Containment ENERGY DAY A Symposium on the New Frontiers in Oil and Natural Gas Exploration #12;

Ginzel, Matthew

271

Soil biotransformation of thiodiglycol, the hydrolysis product of mustard gas: understanding the factors governing remediation of mustard gas contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Thiodiglycol (TDG) is both the precursor for chemical synthesis of mustard gas and the product of mustard gas hydrolysis. TDG can also react with intermediates of mustard gas degradation to form more toxic and/or persistent aggregates, or reverse the pathway of mustard gas degradation. The persistence of TDG have been observed in soils and in the groundwater at sites contaminated by mustard gas 60 years ago. The biotransformation of TDG has been demonstrated in three soils not previously exposed to the chemical. TDG biotransformation occurred via the oxidative pathway with an optimum rate at pH 8.25. In contrast with bacteria isolated from historically contaminated soil, which could degrade TDG individually, a consortium of three bacterial strains isolated from the soil never contaminated by mustard gas was able to grow on TDG in minimal medium and in hydrolysate derived from an historical mustard gas bomb. Exposure to TDG had little impacts on the soil microbial physiology or on community structure. Therefore, the persistency of TDG in soils historically contaminated by mustard gas might be attributed to the toxicity of mustard gas to microorganisms and the impact to soil chemistry during the hydrolysis. TDG biodegradation may form part of a remediation strategy for mustard gas contaminated sites, and may be enhanced by pH adjustment and aeration. PMID:22752796

Li, Hong; Muir, Robert; McFarlane, Neil R; Soilleux, Richard J; Yu, Xiaohong; Thompson, Ian P; Jackman, Simon A

2013-02-01

272

Incineration of biomass and utilization of product gas as a CO_2 source for crop production in closed systems: gas quality and phytotoxicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study addressed the recycle of carbon from inedible biomass to CO_2 for utilization in crop production. Earlier work identified incineration as an attractive approach to resource recovery from solid wastes because the products are well segregated. Given the effective separation of carbon into the gaseous product stream from the incinerator in the form of CO_2 we captured the gaseous stream produced during incineration of wheat inedible biomass and utilized it as the CO_2 source for crop production. Injection rate was based on maintenance of CO_2 concentration in the growing environment. The crop grown in the closed system was lettuce. Carbon was primarily in the form of CO_2 in the incinerator product gas with less than 8% of carbon compounds appearing as CO. Nitrogen oxides and organic compounds such as toluene, xylene, and benzene were present in the product gas at lower concentrations (<4 mumol mol^-1) sulfur containing compounds were below the detection limits. Direct utilization of the gaseous product of the incinerator as the CO_2 source was toxic to lettuce grown in a closed chamber. Net photosynthetic rates of the crop was suppressed more than 50% and visual injury symptoms were visible within 3 days of the introduction of the incinerator gas. Even the removal of the incinerator gas after two days of crop exposure and replacement with pure CO_2 did not eliminate the toxic effects. Both organic and inorganic components of the incinerator gas are candidates for the toxin.

Bubenheim, D. L.; Patterson, M.; Wignarajah, K.; Flynn, M.

1997-01-01

273

Incineration of biomass and utilization of product gas as a CO2 source for crop production in closed systems: gas quality and phytotoxicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study addressed the recycle of carbon from inedible biomass to CO2 for utilization in crop production. Earlier work identified incineration as an attractive approach to resource recovery from solid wastes because the products are well segregated. Given the effective separation of carbon into the gaseous product stream from the incinerator in the form of CO2 we captured the gaseous stream produced during incineration of wheat inedible biomass and utilized it as the CO2 source for crop production. Injection rate was based on maintenance of CO2 concentration in the growing environment. The crop grown in the closed system was lettuce. Carbon was primarily in the form of CO2 in the incinerator product gas with less than 8% of carbon compounds appearing as CO. Nitrogen oxides and organic compounds such as toluene, xylene, and benzene were present in the product gas at lower concentrations (<4 ?mol mol-1) sulfur containing compounds were below the detection limits. Direct utilization of the gaseous product of the incinerator as the CO2 source was toxic to lettuce grown in a closed chamber. Net photosynthetic rates of the crop was suppressed more than 50% and visual injury symptoms were visible within 3 days of the introduction of the incinerator gas. Even the removal of the incinerator gas after two days of crop exposure and replacement with pure CO2 did not eliminate the toxic effects. Both organic and inorganic components of the incinerator gas are candidates for the toxin.

1997-01-01

274

A case for international exploration and production operations by independent operators  

SciTech Connect

If reserve replacement goals are not being achieved domestically, foreign consideration must follow. The United States petroleum production has spiraled downward from a high in 1970 of 9.6 MMBO/D to current production of 6.6 MMBO/D. Prudhoe Bay Field (discovered in 1968) is the last major reserve developed. It is now declining. At the best, recovery from this field equals less than two years of present demand in the United States. Independents as well as majors have a distinct economic role to play in the international theater. Evaluation is no different from analyzing any financial endeavor. As with any play/prospect, knowledge of the territory is tantamount to success. This includes the geology, tectonics, history of the area, data and data sources, and an exploration, commercial and political risk/reward evaluation. Further, internalize the organization`s GOALS, IMPLEMENTATION of these goals and the KEY PROCESSES used. This introspection includes, but is not limited to: corporate strengths and weaknesses, financial and staff resources, and accompanied flexibilities and stick-to-it approach. The decision made. International interest high. Then what? FOCUS on the organization`s expertise to evaluate target types. Consider alliances that complement your own. A decision tree template can be constructed to aid in the process. International decisions are not unlike ones made domestically; and without realistic prospects for growth, the international scene is the theater of choice. With this approach, many competitors are positioning themselves for the 21st Century.

Krueger, W.C. [BlackThorn Consultancy, Tulsa, OK (United States)

1995-09-01

275

City of North Bonneville, Washington: Geothermal Exploration Project, production test well, Phase II. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Based on discussions with the City of North Bonneville, the production test well was drilled to a depth that would also explore for ground water temperatures near 130/sup 0/F (54.4/sup 0/C). Depth projections to a 130/sup 0/F bottom hole temperature were made by assuming a constant ground water temperature rise greater than 50/sup 0/C per kilometer, and by assuming that essentially homogeneous or equivalent conductive rock units would be encountered. Minimum water production requirements were not set, although the City determined that about 800 gpm would be acceptable. Large upper casing diameters of 16 and 12 inches were installed in order to provide the future use of either a vertical turbine or submersible pump, as desired by the city. The scope of work included interpretation of well characteristics, evaluation of ground water as a geothermal resource, geologic analysis of data from drilling and testing, drilling supervision, daily drilling cost accounting, and preparation of a final report. The report includes geologic evaluation of the drilling and test data, ground water and geothermal potential.

Not Available

1982-06-01

276

Multivariate data base for the solution of geologic problems in exploring for oil and gas in West Siberia  

SciTech Connect

Exploration data bases are distinguished in that many data elements change continuously over geologic time. Also, for maximum practical utility in exploration, the data base must be distributed. The data base developed by Tyumengeologiya on the West Siberian basin is composed of three fundamental elements. The first elemental covers the overall geologic structure of the basin, including tectonic, stratigraphic, and geomorphologic entities. This contains primary data and the results of analysis, which provide a geologic framework for the other two elements of the data base. The second block contains temporally stable data (e.g., identification numbers for wells, reservoirs, fields, etc.). The third block provides the mechanism for updating the other blocks with the newest observations from wells, laboratory analysis, seismic, and other sources. Ability to update not only primary data, but the tectonic and stratigraphic framework in the first block, is the key to successful, practical operation. There is a large degree of coincidence between the principles and architecture of the data base developed in West Siberia and those used by western oil and gas companies. This extends not only to the interdependence between elements of the data base, but also reflects a common understanding of the nature of the geologic problems that are analyzed through the use of computer data bases in the exploration for oil and gases.

Shpil'Man, V.I.; Yakovlev, V.M. (West Siberian Geologic Research Institute, Tyumen (Russian Federation))

1991-03-01

277

Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced

David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

2006-01-01

278

Fluctuation theorem for entropy production during effusion of a relativistic ideal gas B. Cleuren,1  

E-print Network

Fluctuation theorem for entropy production during effusion of a relativistic ideal gas B. Cleuren,1 production for the effusion of a relativistic ideal gas is calculated explicitly. This result of the fundamental laws of nature: time revers- ibility and time translational invariance. The effusion of gases

Engel, Andreas

279

Increasing Well Productivity in Gas Condensate Wells in Qatar's North Field  

E-print Network

to the natural gas company, which can either store the gas as liquefied natural gas, or deliver the final product to the consumer. In 2008, 23 Tcf of natural gas was consumed in the United States in the following manner (Energy Information... development. 1.4.1. The Arun Field The Arun Field is located on the northern coast of Aceh Province in North Sumatra, Indonesia. The Arun reservoir had an initial gas in place of 16.8 TCF of dry gas and an initial condensate in place...

Miller, Nathan

2010-07-14

280

Recovery of gas from hydrate deposits using conventional production technology. [Salt-frac technique  

SciTech Connect

Methane hydrate gas could be a sizeable energy resource if methods can be devised to produce this gas economically. This paper examines two methods of producing gas from hydrate deposits by the injection of hot water or steam, and also examines the feasibility of hydraulic fracturing and pressure reduction as a hydrate gas production technique. A hydraulic fracturing technique suitable for hydrate reservoirs is also described.

McGuire, P.L.

1982-01-01

281

Biological production of liquid and gaseous fuels from synthesis gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid and gaseous fuels may be produced biologically from coal by the indirect conversion of coal synthesis gas. Methane\\u000a has been produced from synthesis gas using acetate and CO2\\/H2 as intermediates, utilizing a number of CO-utilizing and methanogenic bacteria. Also, a bacterium that is capable of producing\\u000a ethanol from synthesis gas through indirect liquefaction has been isolated fron natural inocula.

K. T. Klasson; B. B. Elmore; J. L. Vega; M. D. Ackerson; E. C. Clausen; J. L. Gaddy

1990-01-01

282

Process development of hydrogenous gas production for PEFC from biogas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory-scale gas processor that integrates four successive catalytic reactions: steam reforming of methane, high- and low-temperature water gas shifts and selective oxidation of carbon monoxide, was designed and tested in this study to produce hydrogen-rich gas with CO<10 ppm from a clean model biogas having a constant molar ratio of CH4\\/CO2=1.5:1.0 for a 50-W class polymer electrolyte fuel cell

Zhan-Guo Zhang; Guangwen Xu; Xin Chen; Kazunori Honda; Tadashi Yoshida

2004-01-01

283

Health, safety and environmental risk of a gas pipeline in an oil exploring area of Gachsaran.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was assessing health, safety and environmental risk of a gas transfer pipeline in an oily area of Gachsaran. In this method, we used the Kent's pipeline risk assessment method except that to facilitate using the method more practically some changes were exerted into Kent's method. A pipeline with 16 kilometers length was selected considering surrounding nature of the pipeline. It was divided into two sections. Analogous to Kent's method, in this method, parameters included: interested party's injuries, corrosion, design factor, incorrect operation index and consequence scoring. The difference here was that for consequence scoring we used ALOHA 5.6 software instead of Kent's pattern. Results showed that health, safety and environmental risks of section 2 (the next 13 kilometers of outgoing pipeline from gas station after the first 3 kilometers) were greater. It seems the main cause of gaining a bigger risk number was related to more activities of interested parties around section 2. Because all figures gathered from indexes are almost close to gather except third parties activity. PMID:21173529

Kalatpoor, Omid; Goshtasp, Kambiz; Khavaji, Solieman

2011-01-01

284

Coalbed natural gas exploration, drilling activities, and geologic test results, 2007-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in partnership with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, the North Slope Borough, and the Arctic Slope Regional Corporation conducted a four-year study designed to identify, define, and delineate a shallow coalbed natural gas (CBNG) resource with the potential to provide locally produced, affordable power to the community of Wainwright, Alaska. From 2007 through 2010, drilling and testing activities conducted at three sites in or near Wainwright, identified and evaluated an approximately 7.5-ft-thick, laterally continuous coalbed that contained significant quantities of CBNG. This coalbed, subsequently named the Wainwright coalbed, was penetrated at depths ranging from 1,167 ft to 1,300 ft below land surface. Core samples were collected from the Wainwright coalbed at all three drill locations and desorbed-gas measurements were taken from seventeen 1-ft-thick sections of the core. These measurements indicate that the Wainwright coalbed contains enough CBNG to serve as a long-term energy supply for the community. Although attempts to produce viable quantities of CBNG from the Wainwright coalbed proved unsuccessful, it seems likely that with proper well-field design and by utilizing currently available drilling and reservoir stimulation techniques, this CBNG resource could be developed as a long-term economically viable energy source for Wainwright.

Clark, Arthur C.

2014-01-01

285

Gas, Water, and Oil Production from the Wasatch Formation, Greater Natural Buttes Field, Uinta Basin, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from 38 wells with production commencing during the 1980s from the Wasatch Formation in the Greater Natural Buttes field, Uinta Basin, Utah. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid production from tight gas reservoirs, which are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. The general ranges of production rates after 2 years are 100-1,000 mscf/day for gas, 0.35-3.4 barrel per day for oil, and less than 1 barrel per day for water. The water:gas ratio ranges from 0.1 to10 barrel per million standard cubic feet, indicating that free water is produced along with water dissolved in gas in the reservoir. The oil:gas ratios are typical of a wet gas system. Neither gas nor water rates show dependence upon the number of perforations, although for low gas-flow rates there is some dependence upon the number of sandstone intervals that were perforated. Over a 5-year time span, gas and water may either increase or decrease in a given well, but the changes in production rate do not exhibit any dependence upon well proximity or well location.

Nelson, Philip H.; Hoffman, Eric L.

2009-01-01

286

A best practice regulatory proposal for shale gas production.  

E-print Network

??[Truncated abstract] Unconventional gas reserves are typically characterised by relatively low permeability, making these reserves more challenging — technically and commercially — to exploit than… (more)

Robb, Simon Alexander

2014-01-01

287

Application of remote geologic analysis to gas exploration in Morgantown Energy Technology Center's Study Area 1, West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system uses a unique, automated pattern-recognition approach to identify potential fracture zones (of any dip from vertical to < 40{degree}) by coplanar analysis of their geomorphic expression in digital models of topography. For its first oil and gas-related field trial, the authors applied the RGA system to the fracture characterization of Morgantown Energy Technology Center's Study Area 1 in the Big Sandy gas field in southwestern West Virginia. They selected this site to blind test their technology because of the characterization data available from well drilling, gas production, and seismic surveys. The Morgantown staff used these data and performed a geologic analysis of the region coincidentally but separately from their fracture analysis to ensure that they did not introduce bias into their interpretations. Their structure and isopach maps show significant trends in the faulting and folding of the producing formations that control production volumes, which correlate well with the principal interpreted fracture sets from their results. Three fracture sets for the Big Creek, West Virginia, 1:24,000 quadrangle parallel major geologic structures that are associated with basement faulting (steep dip, northeast trend) and thrust faulting (60{degree} dip, northwest trend). These structures appear, in combination with anticlinal folding, to enhance gas production. To date, only the most prominent fracture planes from their analyses have been correlated with the large-scale structural features (basement faulting) in the study area. The next step in this field trial will be to determine if lesser planar features from their analyses correlate with the detailed structural geology and regional geomorphology of the rocks exposed at the surface.

Foley, M.G.; Beaver, D.E.; Mroz, T.H. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1989-09-01

288

Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits  

E-print Network

temperature conditions suitable for the formation of gas hydrate under various conditions of permafrost depth, geothermal gradient, gasgradient and the gas-hydrate stability curve. For example, in Figure 1, the temperature

Moridis, G.J.

2011-01-01

289

Field-Scale, Massively Parallel Simulation of Production from Oceanic Gas Hydrate Deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantity of hydrocarbon gases trapped in natural hydrate accumulations is enormous, leading to significant interest in the evaluation of their potential as an energy source. It has been shown that large volumes of gas can be readily produced at high rates for long times from some types of methane hydrate accumulations by means of depressurization-induced dissociation, and using conventional technologies with horizontal or vertical well configurations. However, these systems are currently assessed using simplified or reduced-scale 3D or even 2D production simulations. In this study, we use the massively parallel TOUGH+HYDRATE code (pT+H) to assess the production potential of a large, deep-ocean hydrate reservoir and develop strategies for effective production. The simulations model a full 3D system of over 24 km2 extent, examining the productivity of vertical and horizontal wells, single or multiple wells, and explore variations in reservoir properties. Systems of up to 2.5M gridblocks, running on thousands of supercomputing nodes, are required to simulate such large systems at the highest level of detail. The simulations reveal the challenges inherent in producing from deep, relatively cold systems with extensive water-bearing channels and connectivity to large aquifers, including the difficulty of achieving depressurizing, the challenges of high water removal rates, and the complexity of production design. Also highlighted are new frontiers in large-scale reservoir simulation of coupled flow, transport, thermodynamics, and phase behavior, including the construction of large meshes, the use parallel numerical solvers and MPI, and large-scale, parallel 3D visualization of results.

Reagan, M. T.; Moridis, G. J.; Freeman, C. M.; Pan, L.; Boyle, K. L.; Johnson, J. N.; Husebo, J. A.

2012-12-01

290

The CoRoT exoplanet programme: exploring the gas-giant/terrestrial planet transition  

E-print Network

CoRoT, which was launched successfully on the 27th of December 2006, is the first space mission to have the search for planetary transits at the heart of its science programme. It is expected to be able to detect transits of planets with radii down to approximately two Earth radii and periods up to approximately a month. Thus, CoRoT will explore the hereto uncharted area of parameter space which spans the transition between the gaseous giant planets discovered in large numbers from the ground, and terrestrial planets more akin to our own. This papers briefly sketches out the main technical characteristics of the mission before summarising estimates of its detection potential and presenting the data analysis and follow-up strategy.

S. Aigrain; P. Barge; M. Deleuil; F. Fressin; C. Moutou; D. Queloz; M. Auvergne; A. Baglin; the CoRoT Exoplanet Science Team

2007-02-02

291

Prediction of gas production using well logs, Cretaceous of north-central Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cretaceous gas sands underlie much of east-central Alberta and southern Saskatchewan, eastern Montana, western North Dakota, and parts of South Dakota and Wyoming. Estimates of recoverable biogenic methane from these rocks in the United States are as high as 91 TCF. In northern Montana, current production is localized around a few major structural features, while vast areas in between these structures are not being exploited. Although the potential for production exists, the lack of commercial development is due to three major factors: 1) the lack of pipeline infrastructure; 2) the lack of predictable and reliable rates of production; and 3) the difficulty in recognizing and selecting potentially productive gas-charged intervals. Unconventional (tight), continuous-type reservoirs, such as those in the Cretaceous of the northern Great Plains, are not well suited for conventional methods of formation evaluation. Pay zones frequently consist only of thinly laminated intervals of sandstone, silt, shale stringers, and disseminated clay. Potential producing intervals are commonly unrecognizable on well logs, and thus are overlooked. To aid in the identification and selection of potential producing intervals, a calibration system is developed here that empirically links the 'gas effect' to gas production. The calibration system combines the effects of porosity, water saturation, and clay content into a single 'gas-production index' (GPI) that relates the in-situ rock with production potential. The fundamental method for isolating the gas effect for calibration is a crossplot of neutron porosity minus density porosity vs gamma-ray intensity. Well-log and gas-production data used for this study consist of 242 perforated intervals from 53 gas-producing wells. Interval depths range from about 250 to 2400 ft. Gas volumes in the peak calendar year of production range from about 4 to 136 MMCF. Nine producing formations are represented. Producing-interval data show that porosity and gas production are closely linked to clay volume. Highest porosities and maximum gas production occur together at an intermediate clay content of about 12% (60 API). As clay volume exceeds 35% (130 API), minimum porosity required for production increases rapidly, and the number of potential producing intervals declines. Gas production from intervals where clay volume exceeds 50% is rare. Effective porosities of less than about 8% are probably inadequate for commercial gas production in these rocks regardless of clay content.

Hester, T. C.

1999-01-01

292

ANALYSIS OF THERMAL DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS OF FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AGENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of reactions of several flue gas conditioning agents in a laboratory-scale facility simulating conditions in the flue gas train of a coal-burning power plant. Primary purposes of the study were to characterize the chemical species resulting fro...

293

Forecasting long-term gas production Luis Cueto-Felguerosoa  

E-print Network

to feel that a disruptive technology has emerged since. Natural gas consumption is expected to increase, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 Oil and natural gas from deep shale forma- tions the large-scale deployment of a set of synergetic technologies that allows us to produce oil, and especially

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

294

From Paper to Production: An Update on NASA's Upper Stage Engine for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/industry team responsible for developing the J-2X Upper Stage Engine for the Constellation Program's Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles has made significant progress toward moving the design from paper to production during the past year. The J-2X exemplifies the Constellation goal of using proven technology and experience from more than 50 years of United States spaceflight experience and seeking where possible to employ common hardware in the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The J-2X will power the Ares I upper stage to place the Orion crew vehicle in orbit. For the Ares V, the J-2X will place the Earth departure stage (EDS) and lunar lander in orbit and later re-start to send the Orion and lander to the Moon. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is under contract to develop and produce the engine, leveraging its flight-proven LH2/LOX, gas generator cycle J-2 and RS-68 engine capabilities, recent experience with the X-33 aerospike XRS-2200 engine, and development knowledge of the J-2S tap-off cycle engine. The J-2X employs a gas generator operating cycle designed to produce 294,000 pounds of thrust in primary operating mode for the Ares I and Ares V ascent phases. It also has a secondary mode, during which it operates at 80 percent thrust by altering its mixture ratio to perform the TLI burn for the Ares V lunar sortie and lunar cargo missions. The J-2X development philosophy is based on proven hardware, an aggressive development schedule, and early risk reduction. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and PWR began development of the J-2X in June 2006. The government/industry team of more than 600 people within NASA and PWR successfully completed the Critical Design Review (CDR) in November 2008, following extensive risk mitigation testing. The team is working toward a first flight of the J-2X on the Orion 1 mission in 2014. This paper will discuss the J-2X development background and provide top-level information on design and testing to date. Details will be provided on overcoming challenges such as gas generator instability, turbine blade life, and nozzle extension selection and materials.

Kynard, Mike

2010-01-01

295

Spatial resolution of gas hydrate and permeability changes from ERT data in LARS simulating the Mallik gas hydrate production test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German gas hydrate project SUGAR studies innovative methods and approaches to be applied in the production of methane from hydrate-bearing reservoirs. To enable laboratory studies in pilot scale, a large reservoir simulator (LARS) was realized allowing for the formation and dissociation of gas hydrates under simulated in-situ conditions. LARS is equipped with a series of sensors. This includes a cylindrical electrical resistance tomography (ERT) array composed of 25 electrode rings featuring 15 electrodes each. The high-resolution ERT array is used to monitor the spatial distribution of the electrical resistivity during hydrate formation and dissociation experiments over time. As the present phases of poorly conducting sediment, well conducting pore fluid, non-conducting hydrates, and isolating free gas cover a wide range of electrical properties, ERT measurements enable us to monitor the spatial distribution of these phases during the experiments. In order to investigate the hydrate dissociation and the resulting fluid flow, we simulated a hydrate production test in LARS that was based on the Mallik gas hydrate production test (see abstract Heeschen et al., this volume). At first, a hydrate phase was produced from methane saturated saline water. During the two months of gas hydrate production we measured the electrical properties within the sediment sample every four hours. These data were used to establish a routine estimating both the local degrees of hydrate saturation and the resulting local permeabilities in the sediment's pore space from the measured resistivity data. The final gas hydrate saturation filled 89.5% of the total pore space. During hydrate dissociation, ERT data do not allow for a quantitative determination of free gas and remaining gas hydrates since both phases are electrically isolating. However, changes are resolved in the spatial distribution of the conducting liquid and the isolating phase with gas being the only mobile isolating phase. Hence, it is possible to detect areas in the sediment sample where free gas is released due to hydrate dissociation and displaces the liquid phase. Combined with measurements and numerical simulation of the total two-phase fluxes from the sediment sample (see abstract Abendroth et al., this volume), the LARS experiments allow for detailed information on the dissociation process during hydrate production. Here we present the workflow and first results estimating local hydrate saturations and permeabilities during hydrate formation and the movement of liquid and gas phases during hydrate dissociation, respectively.

Priegnitz, Mike; Thaler, Jan; Spangenberg, Erik; Schicks, Judith M.; Abendroth, Sven

2014-05-01

296

Hydrogeology of a coal-seam gas exploration area, southeastern British Columbia, Canada: Part 2. Modeling potential hydrogeological impacts associated with depressurizing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional, finite-element flow model was used to assess the hydrogeological effects of depressurizing coalbeds lying in the Weary Creek exploration block, Elk River valley, southeastern British Columbia, Canada. The simulation results permit, at an early stage, assessment of the environmental and economic implications of how the flow system may respond to depressurization. Estimated reservoir conditions for the coal-seam gas targets lying within the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Mist Mountain Formation indicate that the coalbeds must be depressurized by up to 350 m to attain the critical gas desorption pressure. The simulations suggest that depressurizing has little effect on groundwater flux to the Elk River. Simulated water production for three depressurizing wells operating under steady-state, single-phase flow for initial reservoir conditions of 13 and 16.5 cm3/g is 645 m3/d (4,057 barrels/d) and 355 m3/d (2,233 barrels/d), respectively. Groundwaters collected from monitoring wells have relatively low salinity, ranging from about 250-1,300 mg/L. The groundwater is supersaturated with respect to Ca-Mg-Fe carbonates (calcite, dolomite, and siderite) and Al-bearing silicates, including kaolinite and illite. Dissolved trace-metal concentrations are low; only Fe, Cd, Cr, and Zn exceed Canadian water-quality guidelines for aquatic life. Groundwaters were devoid of the more soluble monocyclic aromatic organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and polycyclic aromatic compounds, including naphthalene.

Harrison, S.; Molson, J.; Abercrombie, H.; Barker, J.

2000-12-01

297

Outsourcing of common industry data within a major oil and gas exploration company  

SciTech Connect

Enhancing user productivity while reducing internal costs through improved accessibility and virtual elimination of data and software maintenance were the initial goals of this project. We achieved these objectives through the outsourcing of common well and production data with a major vendor. In this paper, we outline the changing internal business operations of a major oil company and its associated vendor relationship. The goals of this project were multifold: provide our users with real-time access to nationwide well and production data, eliminate data and system software maintenance and support, redeploy computer system resources and personnel for use elsewhere within the organization, and continue to provide users with the same level of service at less cost. We established a satisfactory interface between the users and the vendor database by employing existing technology. A mainframe-to-mainframe connection was established by installing a leased line between the two host sites. This allowed both companies to use existing network facilities with minimal modifications to each operating environment. This project was begun successfully in a relatively short time. Due to the success of this project, we are evaluating adding company proprietary data. However, because technology and requirements change, relational delivery of the data within a workstation/server environment can be addressed within this framework.

Hude, C.G. (Amoco Production Company, Houston, TX (United States)); Glover, S. (Petroleum Information Corp., Denver, CO (United States))

1993-09-01

298

Analysis of the product gas from biomass gasification by means of laser spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of biomass and waste for decentralised combined heat and power production (CHP) requires highly efficient gasification processes. In the Technische Universität München (TUM), an innovative gasification technology has been developed. This allothermal gasifier is producing a hydrogen- rich, high-calorific gas, that can be further used in a microturbine or a fuel cell producing energy. For the operation of such a system, the online analysis of the composition of the product gas is of high importance, since the efficient working of the machines is linked with the gas quality. For this purpose an optical measurement system based on laser spectroscopy has been applied. This system can measure not only the basic components of the product gas (H 2, CH 4, CO, CO 2, H 2O), but it also gives information concerning the content of high hydrocarbons, the so-called tars, in the product gas.

Karellas, S.; Karl, J.

2007-09-01

299

Geomechanical Development of Fractured Reservoirs During Gas Production  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................... 1 1.1 Overview .................................................................................................................. 1 1.2 Motivation... ................................................................................................................ 21 CHAPTER II FULLY COUPLED POROELASTIC MODEL ...................................... 23 2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 24 2.2 Gas adsorption...

Huang, Jian

2013-04-05

300

21 CFR 173.350 - Combustion product gas.  

...following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is manufactured by the controlled combustion in air of butane, propane, or natural gas. The combustion equipment shall be provided with an absorption-type filter capable of removing...

2014-04-01

301

The simulation of nature gas production from ocean gas hydrate reservoir by depressurization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vast amount of hydrocarbon gas encaged in gas hydrates is regarded as a kind of future potential energy supply due to\\u000a its wide deposition and cleanness. How to exploit gas hydrate with safe, effective and economical methods is being pursued.\\u000a In this paper, a mathematical model is developed to simulate the hydrate dissociation by depressurization in hydrate-bearing\\u000a porous medium.

YuHu Bai; QingPing Li; XiangFang Li; Yan Du

2008-01-01

302

Using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography to explore the geochemistry of the Santa Barbara oil seeps  

SciTech Connect

The development of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) has expanded the analytical window for studying complex mixtures like oil. Compared to traditional gas chromatography, this technology separates and resolves at least an order of magnitude more compounds, has a much larger signal to noise ratio, and sorts compounds based on their chemical class; hence, providing highly refined inventories of petroleum hydrocarbons in geochemical samples that was previously unattainable. In addition to the increased resolution afforded by GC x GC, the resulting chromatograms have been used to estimate the liquid vapor pressures, aqueous solubilities, octanol-water partition coefficients, and vaporization enthalpies of petroleum hydrocarbons. With these relationships, powerful and incisive analyses of phase-transfer processes affecting petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in the environment are available. For example, GC x GC retention data has been used to quantitatively deconvolve the effects of phase transfer processes such as water washing and evaporation. In short, the positive attributes of GC x GC-analysis have led to a methodology that has revolutionized the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons. Overall, this research has opened numerous fields of study on the biogeochemical "?genetics" (referred to as petroleomics) of petroleum samples in both subsurface and surface environments. Furthermore, these new findings have already been applied to the behavior of oil at other seeps as well, for petroleum exploration and oil spill studies.

Reddy, Christopher; Nelson, Robert

2013-03-27

303

Interstellar Neutral Gas Inside and Outside the Heliosphere as Viewed from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observes the interstellar neutral gas flow trajectories very close to their perihelion in Earth's orbit for several species every year from December through late March, when the Earth moves into the oncoming flow. Surprisingly, the first quantitative analysis of the IBEX data resulted in a different interstellar flow vector, with lower speed and different inflow direction than obtained previously. In comparison with astronomical observations of the flow vectors of neighboring interstellar clouds, this result locates the solar system within the Local Interstellar Cloud (LIC), contrary to the previous determination, which suggested a location between the LIC and the G-Cloud. In conjunction with new evidence on the interstellar magnetic field around the heliosphere, the lower speed led to the conclusion that the heliosphere has a bow wave, but no strong bow shock. IBEX has recorded five years of interstellar flow observations, providing a database over increasing solar activity and with varying viewing strategies. These recurring observations of the interstellar flow pattern, which have lead to remarkably repeatable results, allow us to consolidate the derived physical parameters. They include flow direction, speed, and temperature of the surrounding interstellar medium. Additional constraints are obtained in connection with astronomical observations of the LIC, which tend to narrow the range of the physical parameters even further. We will review the IBEX observations in the light of a growing IBEX data set along with improving analysis techniques and other observations of the interstellar gas in the inner heliosphere.

Moebius, E.; Bzowski, M.; Frisch, P. C.; Fuselier, S.; Heirtzler, D.; Hlond, M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; Leonard, T.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N.; Sokol, J. M.; Wurz, P.

2013-12-01

304

Depressurization-induced gas production from Class 1 and Class 2hydrate deposits  

SciTech Connect

Class 1 hydrate deposits are characterized by a Hydrate-Bearing Layer (HBL) underlain by a two-phase zone involving mobile gas. Such deposits are further divided to Class 1W (involving water and hydrate in the HBL) and Class 1G (involving gas and hydrate in the HBL). In Class 2 deposits, a mobile water zone underlies the hydrate zone. Methane is the main hydrate-forming gas in natural accumulations. Using TOUGH-FX/HYDRATE to study the depressurization-induced gas production from such deposits, we determine that large volumes of gas could be readily produced at high rates for long times using conventional technology. Dissociation in Class 1W deposits proceeds in distinct stages, but is continuous in Class 1G deposits. Hydrates are shown to contribute significantly to the production rate (up to 65 percent and 75 percent in Class 1W and 1G, respectively) and to the cumulative volume of produced gas (up to 45 percent and 54 percent in Class 1W and 1G, respectively). Large volumes of hydrate-originating CH4 could be produced from Class 2 hydrates, but a relatively long lead time would be needed before gas production (which continuously increases over time) attains a substantial level. The permeability of the confining boundaries plays a significant role in gas production from Class 2 deposits. In general, long-term production is needed to realize the full potential of the very promising Class 1 and Class 2 hydrate deposits.

Moridis, George J.; Kowalsky, Michael

2006-05-12

305

43 CFR 3280.6 - When may BLM require a unit operator to modify the rate of exploration, development, or production?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... When may BLM require a unit operator to modify the rate of exploration, development... When may BLM require a unit operator to modify the rate of exploration, development...or production quantity or rate, under the unit...

2013-10-01

306

43 CFR 3280.6 - When may BLM require a unit operator to modify the rate of exploration, development, or production?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... When may BLM require a unit operator to modify the rate of exploration, development... When may BLM require a unit operator to modify the rate of exploration, development...or production quantity or rate, under the unit...

2011-10-01

307

43 CFR 3280.6 - When may BLM require a unit operator to modify the rate of exploration, development, or production?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... When may BLM require a unit operator to modify the rate of exploration, development... When may BLM require a unit operator to modify the rate of exploration, development...or production quantity or rate, under the unit...

2012-10-01

308

Controls of coal fabric on coalbed gas production and compositional shift in both field production and canister desorption tests  

SciTech Connect

The production rates of coalbed gas wells commonly vary significantly, even in the same field with similar reservoir permeability and gas content. The compositional variation in produced gas is also not everywhere predictable, although in most fields produced gas becomes progressively enriched in CO, through the production life of a reservoir, such as parts of the San Juan basin. In contrast, it is generally observed that the ratio of CO{sub 2}:CH{sub 4} declines with time during field and laboratory desorption testing of coal cores. In this study, we investigate numerically the importance of coal fabric, namely cleat spacing and aperture width, on the performance of coalbed gas wells and gas compositional shifts during production. Because of the cubic relationship between fracture permeability and fracture aperture width (and thus fracture porosity) for a given cleat permeability, the production profile of coal seams varies depending on whether the permeability is distributed among closely spaced fractures (cleat) with narrower apertures or more widely spaced fractures (cleat) with wider apertures. There is a lower fracture porosity for coal with widely spaced fractures than for coal with closely spaced fractures. Therefore, the relative permeability to gas increases more rapidly for coals with more widely spaced cleats as less dewatering from fractures is required, assuming that the fractures are initially water saturated. The enrichment of CO{sub 2} in the production gas with time occurs because of the stronger adsorption of coals for CO{sub 2} than CH{sub 4}. However, during desorption of coal cores, CO{sub 2} desorbs more rapidly than methane because desorption rate is governed more by diffusion than by sorption affinity, and CO{sub 2} has much higher effective diffusivity in microporous coals than CH{sub 4}.

Cui, X.J.; Bustin, R.M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2006-03-15

309

A product of “his” time? Exploring the construct of the ideal manager in the Cold War era  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the idea that the ideal manager is a social construct that is a product of the context within which it exists. The context chosen to illustrate this idea is that of the first two decades of the Cold War (1945-1965) in the USA. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The methodology used is an

Patricia Genoe McLaren; Albert J. Mills

2008-01-01

310

EXPLORING A VIBRATORY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT PRODUCTION* J A@ Scott Kel and Kenneth G Holt+  

E-print Network

EXPLORING A VIBRATORY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT PRODUCTION* J A@ Scott Kel and Kenneth G Holt+ the most desirable attributes of the human motor system are that of the limbs accurately in space ished certain parame~ ters--' tuning t the spr ior to movement account, the nervous system sets the val

311

Workbook for prioritizing petroleum industry exploration and production sites for remediation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Workbook is to provide a screening-level method for prioritizing petroleum exploration and production sites for remediation that is based on readily available information, but which does not require a full characterization of the sites being evaluated. The process draws heavily from the Canadian National Classification System for Contaminated Sites, and fits into the framework for ecological risk assessment provided in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Using this approach, scoring guidelines are provided for a number of Evaluation Factors relating to: (1) the contaminants present at the site; (2) the potential exposure pathways for these contaminants; and (3) the potential receptors of those contaminants. The process therefore incorporates a risk-based corrective action (RBCA) framework to estimate the relative threat posed by a site to human health and to ecological systems. Physical (non-toxic) disturbance factors have also been incorporated into the process. It should also be noted that the process described in this Workbook has not yet been field tested at petroleum E and P sites. The first logical step in the field testing of this process is to apply the method at a small number of sites to assess the availability of the information that is needed to score each evaluation factor. Following this evaluation, the Workbook process should be applied at a series of sites to determine the effectiveness of the process at ranking sites according to their relative need for remediation. Upon completion of these tests, the Workbook should be revised to reflect the findings of the field tests.

White, G.J.

1998-08-03

312

Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content  

DOEpatents

A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

Najjar, Mitri S. (Hopewell Junction, NY); Corbeels, Roger J. (Wappingers Falls, NY); Kokturk, Uygur (Wappingers Falls, NY)

1989-01-01

313

NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF VARIOUS FEEDSTUFFS FOR LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION USING IN VITRO GAS METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional quality of some conventional and non-conventional feed resources by using in vitro gas method. Samples of various feedstuffs were analyzed chemically, as well as by in vitro gas method. The feedstuffs having different digestibilities showed significant (P<0.05) differences in the rate and amount of gas production, metabolizable energy (ME) and digestibility of

S. A. KHANUM; T. YAQOOB; S. SADAF; M. HUSSAIN; M. A. JABBAR; H. N. HUSSAIN; R. KAUSAR; S. REHMAN

314

Gas phase reaction products during tungsten atomic layer deposition using WF6 and Si2H6  

E-print Network

Gas phase reaction products during tungsten atomic layer deposition using WF6 and Si2H6 R. K; published 23 July 2004 The gas phase reaction products during tungsten W atomic layer deposition ALD using WF6 and Si2H6 were studied using quadrupole mass spectrometry. The gas phase reactions products were

George, Steven M.

315

Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project is titled 'Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations'. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is the principal investigator and the IOGCC has partnered with ALL Consulting, Inc., headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in this project. State agencies that also have partnered in

Rachel Henderson

2007-01-01

316

Dual gas and oil dispersions in water: production and stability of foamulsion Anniina Salonen,*a  

E-print Network

Dual gas and oil dispersions in water: production and stability of foamulsion Anniina Salonen of oil droplets and gas bubbles and show that the oil can have two very different roles, either suppressing foaming or stabilising the foam. We have foamed emulsions made from two different oils (rapeseed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

317

Influence of electrolytes and membranes on cell operation for syn-gas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of membrane type and electrolyte composition for the electrochemical generation of synthesis gas (CO + H2) using a Ag gas diffusion electrode are presented. Changing from a cation exchange membrane to an anion exchange membrane (AEM) extended the cell operational time at low Ecell values (up to 4x) without impacting product composition. The use of KOH as the

Eric J. Dufek; Tedd E. Lister; Michael E. McIlwain

2012-01-01

318

CO 2 capture by means of dolomite in hydrogen production from syn gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of pure hydrogen from renewable or fossil energy sources can be achieved by purifying the syn gas obtained as a result of a steam gasification process. Depleting of the syn gas carbon-containing compounds by means of CO2 capture on calcined dolomite has been carried out. The dolomite behavior as CO2 sorbent and its regeneration has been investigated by

Katia Gallucci; Stefano Stendardo; Pier Ugo Foscolo

2008-01-01

319

Device for quickly sensing the amount of O2 in a combustion product gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sensing device comprising an O2 sensor, a pump, a compressor, and a heater is provided to quickly sense the amount of O2 in a combustion product gas. A sample of the combustion product gas is compressed to a pressure slightly above one atmosphere by the compressor. Next, the heater heats the sample between 800 C and 900 C. Next, the pump causes the sample to be flushed against the electrode located in O2 sensor 6000 to 10,000 times per second. Reference air at approximately one atmosphere is provided to the electrode of O2 sensor. Accordingly, the O2 sensor produces a voltage which is proportional to the amount of oxygen in the combustion product gas. This voltage may be used to control the amount of O2 entering into the combustion chamber which produces the combustion product gas.

Singh, Jag J. (inventor); Davis, William T. (inventor); Puster, Richard L. (inventor)

1990-01-01

320

Minimizing Water Production from Unconventional Gas Wells Using a Novel Environmentally Benign Polymer Gel System  

E-print Network

Excess water production is a major economic and environmental problem for the oil and gas industry. The cost of processing excess water runs into billions of dollars. Polymer gel technology has been successfully used in controlling water influx...

Gakhar, Kush

2012-02-14

321

Evidence of Pressure Dependent Permeability in Long-Term Shale Gas Production and Pressure Transient Responses  

E-print Network

The current state of shale gas reservoir dynamics demands understanding long-term production, and existing models that address important parameters like fracture half-length, permeability, and stimulated shale volume assume constant permeability...

Vera Rosales, Fabian 1986-

2012-12-11

322

CO2 gas production understanding above a partly flooded coal post-mining area  

E-print Network

and can enter houses, flowing along cracks. Keywords: Noxious gas production ; Water ; Pyrite ; Marcasite: they are constituted by conglomerates, shales and sandstones whose thickness reaches 200 m. Permian is constituted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

323

Catalyst for the selective production of ethanol and methanol directly from synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect

Alkanols are selectively produced as the major product directly from synthesis gas under mild conditions using a homogeneous ruthenium catalyst, a halogen or halide promoter and a phosphine oxide compound as solvent.

Warren, B.K.

1982-06-08

324

Supplying FCC lift gas directly from product vapors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a process for the fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) of hydrocarbons in a riser conversion zone. It comprises: contacting regenerated catalyst in an upstream portion of the riser conversion zone with a lift gas; discharging an effluent mixture; collecting the effluent mixture in a separator, separating spent catalyst from the effluent mixture and withdrawing the rest of the

P. A. Sechrist; D. A. Lomas; D. N. Myers

1991-01-01

325

Water alternating enriched gas injection to enhance oil production and recovery from San Francisco Field, Colombia  

E-print Network

) using Kulin oil (21 'API oil Irom Indonesia). ' The same effect of production acceleration was observed in these experiments and steam injectivity was improved with the addition of propane to the steam. Rivero and Mamora (2002) conducted several steam... studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil. ' With steam-propane injection no improvement on production and oil recovery was obtained. Enriched gas injection increase the oil recovery in 13'/o, (74'/o OOIP with 5...

Rueda Silva, Carlos Fernando

2012-06-07

326

Numerical modeling of the simulated gas hydrate production test at Mallik 2L-38 in the pilot scale pressure reservoir LARS - Applying the "foamy oil" model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of the German joint project SUGAR (Submarine Gas Hydrate Reservoirs: exploration, extraction and transport) we conducted a series of experiments in the LArge Reservoir Simulator (LARS) at the German Research Centre of Geosciences Potsdam. These experiments allow us to investigate the formation and dissociation of hydrates at large scale laboratory conditions. We performed an experiment similar to the field-test conditions of the production test in the Mallik gas hydrate field (Mallik 2L-38) in the Beaufort Mackenzie Delta of the Canadian Arctic. The aim of this experiment was to study the transport behavior of fluids in gas hydrate reservoirs during depressurization (see also Heeschen et al. and Priegnitz et al., this volume). The experimental results from LARS are used to provide details about processes inside the pressure vessel, to validate the models through history matching, and to feed back into the design of future experiments. In experiments in LARS the amount of methane produced from gas hydrates was much lower than expected. Previously published models predict a methane production rate higher than the one observed in experiments and field studies (Uddin et al. 2010; Wright et al. 2011). The authors of the aforementioned studies point out that the current modeling approach overestimates the gas production rate when modeling gas production by depressurization. They suggest that trapping of gas bubbles inside the porous medium is responsible for the reduced gas production rate. They point out that this behavior of multi-phase flow is not well explained by a "residual oil" model, but rather resembles a "foamy oil" model. Our study applies Uddin's (2010) "foamy oil" model and combines it with history matches of our experiments in LARS. Our results indicate a better agreement between experimental and model results when using the "foamy oil" model instead of conventional models of gas flow in water. References Uddin M., Wright J.F. and Coombe D. (2010) - Numerical Study of gas evolution and transport behaviors in natural gas hydrate reservoirs; CSUG/SPE 137439. Wright J.F., Uddin M., Dallimore S.R. and Coombe D. (2011) - Mechanisms of gas evolution and transport in a producing gas hydrate reservoir: an unconventional basis for successful history matching of observed production flow data; International Conference on Gas Hydrates (ICGH 2011).

Abendroth, Sven; Thaler, Jan; Klump, Jens; Schicks, Judith; Uddin, Mafiz

2014-05-01

327

Taxation of United States investment in oil and gas exploration, development, and production in selected countries  

SciTech Connect

The tax and licensing systems utilized by several countries (including the US are described, and the relative success of each of these systems as a mechanism for capturing the maximum share of the economic rent (the income after allowing for all factor costs, including a return to capital) is noted. The tax laws of these countries are then reexamined to see whether these payments would be creditable under the recently issued temporary (and proposed final) Treasury regulations (T.D. 7739). Results illustrate the basic dilemma faced by many foreign governments. If the host government seeks a system that uniformly captures almost all the economic rents attributable to its resources (such as Saudi Arabia), the income tax imposed is almost certain to be one that provides for a greater charge on those drilling for oil than on those engaged in other activities, and would thus be noncreditable under the temporary regulations. If, on the other hand, the host government modifies its tax and licensing system (as did Indonesia) so as to ensure creditability, the result is a system which overly taxes marginal fields and fails to capture the full benefits from the more-successful fields. This uneven treatment adds to the intrinsic variance in expected return, and thus increases the risk premium which a producer might require to drill in the country. 19 references, 1 figure, 8 tables.

Dworin, L.

1981-06-01

328

A non-syn-gas catalytic route to methanol production.  

PubMed

Methanol is an important platform molecule for chemical synthesis and its high energy density also renders it a good candidate as a cleaner transportation fuel. At present, methanol is manufactured from natural gas via the indirect syn-gas route. Here we show that ethylene glycol, a versatile chemical derived from biomass or fossil fuels, can be directly converted to methanol in hydrogen with high selectivity over a Pd/Fe(2)O(3) co-precipitated catalyst. This opens up a possibility for diversification in natural resources for energy-starved countries. The working catalyst contains extremely small 'PdFe' clusters and metal adatoms on defective iron oxide to give the required metal-support interaction for the novel synthesis. PMID:22968696

Wu, Cheng-Tar; Yu, Kai Man Kerry; Liao, Fenglin; Young, Neil; Nellist, Peter; Dent, Andrew; Kroner, Anna; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman

2012-01-01

329

Exploring productivity and collaboration in Australian Indigenous health research, 1995-2008  

PubMed Central

Background Building research capacity in Indigenous health has been recognised as integral in efforts to reduce the significant health disparities between Indigenous and other Australian populations. The past few decades have seen substantial changes in funding policy for Australian Indigenous health research, including increases in overall expenditure and a greater focus on collaborative and priority-driven research. However, whether these policy shifts have resulted in any change to the structure of the research workforce in this field is unclear. We examine research publications in Australian Indigenous health from 1995–2008 to explore trends in publication output, key themes investigated, and research collaborations. Methods A comprehensive literature search was undertaken to identify research publications about Australian Indigenous health from 1995–2008. Abstracts of all publications identified were reviewed by two investigators for relevance. Eligible publications were classified according to key themes. Social network analyses of co-authorship patterns were used to examine collaboration in the periods 1995–1999, 2000–2004 and 2005–2008. Results Nine hundred and fifty three publications were identified. Over time, the number of publications per year increased, particularly after 2005, and there was a substantial increase in assessment of health service-related issues. Network analyses revealed a highly collaborative core group of authors responsible for the majority of outputs, in addition to a series of smaller separate groups. In the first two periods there was a small increase in the overall network size (from n?=?583 to n?=?642 authors) due to growth in collaborations around the core. In the last period, the network size increased considerably (n?=?1,083), largely due to an increase in the number and size of separate groups. The general size of collaborations also increased in this period. Conclusions In the past few decades there has been substantial development of the research workforce in Indigenous health, characterised by an increase in authors and outputs, a greater focus on some identified priority areas and sustained growth in collaborations. This has occurred in conjunction with significant changes to funding policy for Indigenous health research, suggesting that both productivity and collaboration may be sensitive to reform, including the provision of dedicated funding. PMID:24209979

2013-01-01

330

Production of commodity chemicals from natural gas by methane chlorination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method for converting methane into at least one higher molecular weight hydrocarbon is described, which comprises reacting in a reaction zone a mixture of chlorine and a gas comprising methane in a mole ratio of methane to chlorine of about 1.5:1 to 5:1 under conditions to provide a reaction pressure of about 3 atmospheres and a reaction temperature of

R. G. Minet; S. C. Che

1989-01-01

331

General screening criteria for shale gas reservoirs and production data analysis of Barnett shale  

E-print Network

). As we notice in Figure 6, there is an important production potential for Shale gas in the US. Gas- in-place resource estimates for the five main plays total 581 Tcf, and recoverable resource estimates range from 31 to 76 Tcf 7 . Because estimates..., and is the most productive gas shale in Texas, with 1.6 Tcf 23 produced as of September 2005, see Figure 22. Permeability ranges from 7 to 50 nanodarcies 24 and porosity from 4 to 6%. Figure 20: General Stratigraphy of the Fort worth...

Deshpande, Vaibhav Prakashrao

2009-05-15

332

Pyrolysis of glycerol for the production of hydrogen or syn gas.  

PubMed

Biodiesel has high potential as alternative liquid transportation fuel because it is renewable and CO(2) neutral, and has similar properties as diesel fuel. Glycerol is a by-product obtained during the production of biodiesel. Canadian government has planned to produce 500 million litres of biodiesel by 2010. An increase in biodiesel production would decrease the market price of glycerol. The objective of this study is to pyrolyse glycerol for the production of clean fuels such as H(2) or a feedstock such as syn gas for additional transportation fuel via Fisher-Tropsch synthesis. The pyrolysis of glycerol was carried out at various flow rates of N(2) (30-70 mL/min), temperatures (650-800 degrees C) and types and sizes of packing material in a tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure. The products were mostly gas, essentially consisting of CO, H(2), CO(2), CH(4) and C(2)H(4). It was observed that temperature, carrier flow rates and particle diameter of packing material had profound effects on the conversion of glycerol as well as product distribution. Composition of product gas ranged between syn gas 70-93 mol%, CH(4) 3-15 mol% and C(2)H(4) 2-12 mol% and heating value ranged from 13 to 22 MJ/m(3). This study indicates that the bio-glycerol has potential in making syn gas and medium heating value gases. PMID:17951053

Valliyappan, T; Bakhshi, N N; Dalai, A K

2008-07-01

333

Gas Production From a Class 3 Hydrate Deposit at the Mount Elbert Site, North Slope, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amounts of hydrocarbon gases trapped in natural hydrate accumulations are enormous, leading to a recent interest in the evaluation of their potential as an energy source. Recent studies have provided strong indications that it is possible to produce large volumes of gas from natural hydrate deposits at high rates for long times from gas hydrate accumulations by means of depressurization-induced dissociation using conventional technology. In this study we investigate by means of numerical simulation the gas production potential from Unit D, a Class 3 permafrost hydrate deposit at the Mount Elbert Site in North Slope, Alaska. Class 3 deposits are characterized by the absence of hydrate-free zones of mobile reservoir fluids. The hydrate-bearing formation in Unit D begins at a depth of 616 m, is about 11 m thick, is bounded by nearly impermeable shale layers, and has a high porosity, permeability and hydrate saturation. Because of its proximity to the permafrost, its temperature is low, i.e., 2.3 - 2.6 °C. Our numerical simulation studies indicate that gas production using vertical wells is seriously inhibited by the low temperature and the limited thickness of the deposit, resulting in low production rates and very long times (several years) before production rates reach levels of commercial viability. Conversely, the use of appropriately placed horizontal wells leads to dramatic increases in gas production from this deposit, and appears to be the only practical alternative for viable gas production from this hydrate accumulation. The sensitivity of gas production to various properties and parameters is also analyzed. These include the magnitude of the hydraulic properties (permeability and porosity), the anisotropy and heterogeneity in their spatial distribution, the heterogeneity in the distribution of the hydrate saturation, the effect of nonzero permeability is the shale boundaries, and operational parameters defining the production strategy.

Moridis, G. J.; Reagan, M. T.; Silpngarmlert, S.; Zhang, K.

2008-12-01

334

Arachidonic acid-rich oil production by Mortierella alpina with different gas distributors.  

PubMed

Arachidonic acid (ARA)-rich oil production by Mortierella alpina is a high oxygen demand and shear-sensitive process. In the aerobic fermentation process, oxygen supply is usually a limiting factor owing to the low solubility of oxygen in the fermentation broth. Two kinds of perforated ring gas distributors and a novel microporous ceramic membrane gas distributor were designed and applied to improve oxygen supply. With the decrease of the orifice diameter of perforated ring gas distributors, dry cell weight (DCW), lipids concentration, and ARA content in total fatty acid increased from 17.86 g/L, 7.08 g/L, and 28.08 % to 25.67 g/L, 11.94 g/L, and 36.99 %, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of different dissolved oxygen (DO) on ARA-rich oil production with membrane gas distributor was also studied. The maximum DCW, lipid concentration, and ARA content using membrane gas distributor with DO controlled at 40 % reached 29.67 g/L, 16.74 g/L, and 49.53 %, respectively. The ARA titer increased from 1.99 to 8.29 g/L using the membrane gas distributor to substitute the perforated ring gas distributor. In the further experiment, a novel tubular titanium metal membrane gas distributor was successfully applied in a 7,000 L bioreactor and the results demonstrated that membrane gas distributor was industrially practical. PMID:24374968

Nie, Zhi-Kui; Ji, Xiao-Jun; Shang, Jing-Sheng; Zhang, Ai-Hui; Ren, Lu-Jing; Huang, He

2014-06-01

335

Oil and Gas Exploration  

E-print Network

11. Hazen diatomite mine 12. Huck salt mine 13. IMV-Floridin - clay 14. Mackie perlite mine 15. Moltan diatomite mine 16. New Discovery montmorillonite mine 17. PABCO Gypsum 18. Popcorn perlite mine 19

Tingley, Joseph V.

336

Geochemical Monitoring Of The Gas Hydrate Production By CO2/CH4 Exchange In The Ignik Sikumi Gas Hydrate Production Test Well, Alaska North Slope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrocarbon gases, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water were collected from production streams at the Ignik Sikumi gas hydrate production test well (TD, 791.6 m), drilled on the Alaska North Slope. The well was drilled to test the feasibility of producing methane by carbon dioxide injection that replaces methane in the solid gas hydrate. The Ignik Sikumi well penetrated a stratigraphically-bounded prospect within the Eileen gas hydrate accumulation. Regionally, the Eileen gas hydrate accumulation overlies the more deeply buried Prudhoe Bay, Milne Point, and Kuparuk River oil fields and is restricted to the up-dip portion of a series of nearshore deltaic sandstone reservoirs in the Sagavanirktok Formation. Hydrate-bearing sandstones penetrated by Ignik Sikumi well occur in three primary horizons; an upper zone, ("E" sand, 579.7 - 597.4 m) containing 17.7 meters of gas hydrate-bearing sands, a middle zone ("D" sand, 628.2 - 648.6 m) with 20.4 m of gas hydrate-bearing sands and a lower zone ("C" sand, 678.8 - 710.8 m), containing 32 m of gas hydrate-bearing sands with neutron porosity log-interpreted average gas hydrate saturations of 58, 76 and 81% respectively. A known volume mixture of 77% nitrogen and 23% carbon dioxide was injected into an isolated section of the upper part of the "C" sand to start the test. Production flow-back part of the test occurred in three stages each followed by a period of shut-in: (1) unassisted flowback; (2) pumping above native methane gas hydrate stability conditions; and (3) pumping below the native methane gas hydrate stability conditions. Methane production occurred immediately after commencing unassisted flowback. Methane concentration increased from 0 to 40% while nitrogen and carbon dioxide concentrations decreased to 48 and 12% respectively. Pumping above the hydrate stability phase boundary produced gas with a methane concentration climbing above 80% while the carbon dioxide and nitrogen concentrations fell to 2 and 18% respectively. Pumping below the gas hydrate stability phase boundary occurred in two periods with the composition of the produced gases continually increasing in methane reaching an excess of 96%, along with carbon dioxide decreasing to <1% and nitrogen to ~3%. The isotopic composition of all the gases was monitored. Methane carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions remained stable throughout the test, while the carbon dioxide carbon became isotopically heavier. Nitrogen isotopic composition remained stable or became slightly isotopically depleted at the later phase of the test. These results imply that the produced methane was not isotopically fractionated, whereas carbon dioxide was fractionated becoming isotopically heavier at the end of each production phase. In addition, water samples were analyzed during the production phase documenting an increase in salinity.

Lorenson, T. D.; Collett, T. S.; Ignik Sikumi, S.

2012-12-01

337

Medical Grade Water Generation for Intravenous Fluid Production on Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document describes the intravenous (IV) fluids requirements for medical care during NASA s future Exploration class missions. It further discusses potential methods for generating such fluids and the challenges associated with different fluid generation technologies. The current Exploration baseline mission profiles are introduced, potential medical conditions described and evaluated for fluidic needs, and operational issues assessed. Conclusions on the fluid volume requirements are presented, and the feasibility of various fluid generation options are discussed. A separate report will document a more complete trade study on the options to provide the required fluids.At the time this document was developed, NASA had not yet determined requirements for medical care during Exploration missions. As a result, this study was based on the current requirements for care onboard the International Space Station (ISS). While we expect that medical requirements will be different for Exploration missions, this document will provide a useful baseline for not only developing hardware to generate medical water for injection (WFI), but as a foundation for meeting future requirements. As a final note, we expect WFI requirements for Exploration will be higher than for ISS care, and system capacity may well need to be higher than currently specified.

Niederhaus, Charles E.; Barlow, Karen L.; Griffin, DeVon W.; Miller, Fletcher J.

2008-01-01

338

Volatile organic compound emissions from unconventional natural gas production: Source signatures and air quality impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing over the past two decades have allowed access to previously unrecoverable reservoirs of natural gas and led to an increase in natural gas production. Intensive unconventional natural gas extraction has led to concerns about impacts on air quality. Unconventional natural gas production has the potential to emit vast quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. Many VOCs can be toxic, can produce ground-level ozone or secondary organic aerosols, and can impact climate. This dissertation presents the results of experiments designed to validate VOC measurement techniques, to quantify VOC emission rates from natural gas sources, to identify source signatures specific to natural gas emissions, and to quantify the impacts of these emissions on potential ozone formation and human health. Measurement campaigns were conducted in two natural gas production regions: the Denver-Julesburg Basin in northeast Colorado and the Marcellus Shale region surrounding Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. An informal measurement intercomparison validated the canister sampling methodology used throughout this dissertation for the measurement of oxygenated VOCs. Mixing ratios of many VOCs measured during both campaigns were similar to or higher than those observed in polluted cities. Fluxes of natural gas-associated VOCs in Colorado ranged from 1.5-3 times industry estimates. Similar emission ratios relative to propane were observed for C2-C6 alkanes in both regions, and an isopentane:n-pentane ratio ?1 was identified as a unique tracer for natural gas emissions. Source apportionment estimates indicated that natural gas emissions were responsible for the majority of C2-C8 alkanes observed in each region, but accounted for a small proportion of alkenes and aromatic compounds. Natural gas emissions in both regions accounted for approximately 20% of hydroxyl radical reactivity, which could hinder federal ozone standard compliance in downwind cities. A health risk assessment showed no increase in cancer or chronic non-cancer risk at locations near natural gas wells in Pennsylvania, but the contribution of natural gas emissions to total risk was 3-6 times higher near wells. These results will assist policy makers, natural gas producers, and citizen stakeholders in crafting effective policies to control VOC emissions from natural gas production activities.

Swarthout, Robert F.

339

Microbial production of natural gas from coal and organic-rich shale  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural gas is an important component of the energy mix in the United States, producing greater energy yield per unit weight and less pollution compared to coal and oil. Most of the world’s natural gas resource is thermogenic, produced in the geologic environment over time by high temperature and pressure within deposits of oil, coal, and shale. About 20 percent of the natural gas resource, however, is produced by microorganisms (microbes). Microbes potentially could be used to generate economic quantities of natural gas from otherwise unexploitable coal and shale deposits, from coal and shale from which natural gas has already been recovered, and from waste material such as coal slurry. Little is known, however, about the microbial production of natural gas from coal and shale.

Orem, William

2013-01-01

340

Adolescent boys’ grooming product use and perceived health risks: An exploration of parental influence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate parental influence on adolescent boys’ use and risk-perceptions of using appearance-related products.Design: Using appearance-enhancing products can present a health threat to adolescents, as these products are not only applied to the body, but can also be ingested. Adolescents may look to their parents for information about products, or they may make inferences based on observing their parents’

Jeong-Ju Yoo; John Jacob; Margaret Baier

2012-01-01

341

Faculty Research Productivity: Exploring the Role of Gender and Family-Related Factors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the role of marriage, children, and aging parents on research productivity of a large national sample of college faculty. Found that factors affecting research productivity are nearly identical for men and women and that family-related variables exhibit little or no effects on productivity. (EV)

Sax, Linda J.; Hagedorn, Linda Serra; Arredondo, Marisol; DiCrisi, Frank A., III

2002-01-01

342

Effects of preservation conditions of canine feces on in vitro gas production kinetics and fermentation end products.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of chilling and freezing (for 24 h) canine feces on in vitro gas production kinetics and fermentation end product profiles from carbohydrate-rich (in vitro run 1) and protein-rich (in vitro run 2) substrates. Feces were collected from 3 adult retriever-type dogs fed a canned diet for at least 2 wk. Each fecal sample was divided into 3 portions: 1 portion was used immediately as an inoculum (fresh) and the other 2 portions were used after either chilling to 5°C for 30 min and storage in crushed ice for 23.5 h (chilling) or freezing to -20°C for 30 min and storage in a prefrozen (-20°C) container for 23.5 h (freezing). The medium solution for run 1 contained N whereas that for run 2 was N free. Substrates included fructooligosaccharide (FOS), sugar beet pulp, and wheat middlings in run 1 and soybean meal, poultry meat meal, and feather meal in run 2. Gas production kinetics were calculated from cumulative gas production data measured for 72 h. After incubation, fermentation liquids were analyzed for short-chain fatty acids, NH3, and aromatic compounds. For both in vitro runs, chilling feces did not affect gas production kinetics and end product profiles of substrates compared with inocula from fresh feces. Freezing feces decreased the maximum rate of gas production in phase 2 for FOS (P<0.001) and across substrates increased gas produced (P?0.005) and time of maximum gas production in phase 2 (P<0.001). Furthermore, compared with fresh fecal inocula, inocula from frozen feces resulted in increased overall indole concentrations in run 1 (P=0.006) and indole concentrations from soybean meal and poultry meat meal in run 2 (P<0.001). In run 2, phenol concentrations were greater (P=0.015) for frozen feces than for fresh feces (P=0.015). In conclusion, freezing canine feces for 24 h slightly altered fermentative characteristics of fecal inoculum whereas chilling feces in crushed ice for 24 h maintained fermentative characteristics. Chilling feces in crushed ice is a practical method to preserve feces during transport between laboratories within 24 h for in vitro fermentation studies evaluating dietary ingredients. PMID:23048150

Bosch, G; Wrigglesworth, D J; Cone, J W; Pellikaan, W F; Hendriks, W H

2013-01-01

343

Buffered flue gas scrubbing system using adipic acid by-product stream  

SciTech Connect

A by-product stream from the production of adipic acid from cyclohexane, containing glutaric acid, succinic acid and adipic acid, is employed as a buffer in lime or limestone flue gas scrubbing for the removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion gases.

Lester, J.H. Jr.; Danly, D.E.

1983-12-27

344

Separation of phytosterol oxidation products by combination of different polarity gas chromatography capillary columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of characterized phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) from both ring- and side-chain structures has increased during recent decades, resulting in difficulties in the separation of POPs on different gas chromatography (GC) capillary columns. The main objective of this study was to separate a mixture of 29 purified and characterized oxidation products from sito-, campe- and stigmasterol using GC capillary

Lars Johnsson; Paresh C. Dutta

2005-01-01

345

Process design of oil and gas production facilities using expert systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expert system known as the Automated Project Design System (APDS#8482;) has been developed to assist process and facilities engineers in performing preliminary feasibility studies, optimization studies, and provide the basic information required for the initiation of the detailed design for offshore oil and gas production facilities.Given the feedstock and product specifications, the expert system produces a preliminary process flow

Hafez Aghili; George Montgomery; Al Amlani; Jatin Shah II

1988-01-01

346

Enhanced production from a slightly geopressured water-drive gas condensate field  

SciTech Connect

The production history of a Texas Gulf Coast Frio water drive gas field is presented, including performance data from a well which was recently restored to commercial production after having been abandoned six years. Areas of additional study which would help forecast future performance are discussed.

Anderson, L.L.; Parisi, W.A.; Peterson, K.P.

1984-05-01

347

Co-production of gas and water, fourth year. Annual report, November 1984-October 1985  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the research effort were to locate, evaluate, acquire and test one or more co-production prospects. A prospect identification program was developed to locate prospective co-production reservoirs on the Texas Gulf Coast. The reservoirs identified were ranked according to their potential for enhanced gas recovery and are monitored and updated from industry activity on or near the prospects.

Howell, R.W.; Peterson, K.P.; Anderson, L.L.; Parisi, W.A.

1985-11-01

348

Fluctuation theorem for entropy production during effusion of an ideal gas with momentum transfer  

E-print Network

Fluctuation theorem for entropy production during effusion of an ideal gas with momentum transfer December 2006; published 19 June 2007 We derive an exact expression for entropy production during effusion are presented in appendices. II. FLUCTUATION THEOREM FOR EFFUSION WITH MOMENTUM TRANSFER We begin by

Kawai, Ryoichi

349

Life cycle assessment of the conventional and solar thermal production of zinc and synthesis gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current industrial productions of zinc and synthesis gas are characterized by their high energy consumption and their concomitant environmental pollution. Emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) could be reduced substantially by combining both productions and by replacing fossil fuels with concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat. The extent of such a GHG mitigation has been quantified

Miriam Werder; Aldo Steinfeld

2000-01-01

350

Synthesis Gas Production from Partial Oxidation of Methane with Air in AC Electric Gas Discharge  

E-print Network

methane conversion to more valuable chemicals and liquid fuels is the most interesting,1-6 so far depending on the ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide. Most synthesis gas is produced by the steam reform. Fuel Sci. Technol. Int. 1986, 4, 365. (3) Han, S.; Martenak, D. J.; Palermo, R. E.; Pearson, J. A

Mallinson, Richard

351

Production of Gas Bubbles in Reduced Gravity Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a wide variety of applications such as waste water treatment, biological reactors, gas-liquid reactors, blood oxygenation, purification of liquids, etc., it is necessary to produce small bubbles in liquids. Since gravity plays an essential role in currently available techniques, the adaptation of these applications to space requires the development of new tools. Under normal gravity, bubbles are typically generated by forcing gas through an orifice in a liquid. When a growing bubble becomes large enough, the buoyancy dominates the surface tension force causing it to detach from the orifice. In space, the process is quite different and the bubble may remain attached to the orifice indefinitely. The most practical approach to simulating gravity seems to be imposing an ambient flow to force bubbles out of the orifice. In this paper, we are interested in the effect of an imposed flow in 0 and 1 g. Specifically, we investigate the process of bubble formation subject to a parallel and a cross flow. In the case of parallel flow, we have a hypodermic needle in a tube from which bubbles can be produced. On the other hand, the cross flow condition is established by forcing bubbles through an orifice on a wall in a shear flow. The first series of experiments have been performed under normal gravity conditions and the working fluid was water. A high quality microgravity facility has been used for the second type and silicone oil is used as the host liquid.

Oguz, Hasan N.; Takagi, Shu; Misawa, Masaki

1996-01-01

352

Escherichia coli variants for gas and indole production at elevated incubation temperatures.  

PubMed Central

Two strains of Escherichia coli were subjected to heat and cold-storage treatments to determine the stability of the fecal E. coli characteristics of gas production from lactose and indole production at elevated incubation temperatures. No variants were detected with repeated sublethal heat treatment. A high incidence of variants was observed with extended cold storage of the organisms in liquid and semisolid media, especially with poor nutrient composition, and in the absence of cryoprotective agents. The indole characteristic at elevated temperature was more stable than the production of gas from lactose. The critical temperature at which both gas production from lactose and the indole characteristic were lost was 44.5 degrees C. It appeared that the variants resulted from increased temperature sensitivity of the formic hydrogen lyase and tryptophanase enzymes, respectively. PMID:6388502

Bueschkens, D H; Stiles, M E

1984-01-01

353

Process for providing a feed gas for a chemical reaction and for the separation of a gaseous reaction product  

SciTech Connect

A process is claimed for providing a feed gas for a chemical reaction and for separating a gaseous reaction product from the gaseous mixture obtained by the reaction. The feed gas is obtained by the fractionation of a crude gas mixture containing this feed gas proper, as well as a carrier gas or carrier gas mixture, and is reacted only incompletely in the reaction, and the unreacted proportion is recycled into the reaction. The improvement is obtained by conducting the fractionation of the crude gas mixture and the separation of the gaseous reaction product in a single adsorption plant operating by the pressure swing method and containing cyclically reversible adsorbers.

Benkmann, C.; Lassmann, E.

1981-07-28

354

Analysis of eastern Devonian gas shales production data. Final report, July 1984-May 1987  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the final results, conclusions, and recommendations from a study of well-test and production data from over 1600 Devonian Shale gas wells. The key accomplishment of the study was the development of a number of new analytical tools for well test and production data analysis including (1) an analytical production data analysis model, (2) an analytical well test analysis model, (3) an automatic history matching algorithm, (4) a set of production data anlysis type curves, and (5) the SUGARIII reservoir simulator. Although developed primarily for analyzing data from Devonian Shale gas wells, these tools are generally applicable to the analysis of well test and production data from a variety of reservoirs. From a systematic analysis of long-term production data, the permeability-thickness product was found to be the only reservoir property which can be accurately and uniquely determined from history-matching production data. Gas in place can also be determined provided that sufficient production data are available. Empirical equations were developed for predicting well performance from kh and GIP and from past production data when available.

Lancaster, D.E.; Lee, W.J.; Gatens, J.M.

1987-05-01

355

A1. SHALE GAS PRODUCTION GROWTH IN THE UNITED STATES..............................1 A2. VARIABILITY IN SHALE WELL PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE ............................1  

E-print Network

and Oklahoma, the Haynesville shale on the Texas Louisiana boarder, the Marcellus shale in the Appalachian and Marcellus shale plays (Source: Authors' calculations based on HPDI, 2012). IP Rate: 1x103 m3 /day Shale Play1 APPENDIX1 Contents A1. SHALE GAS PRODUCTION GROWTH IN THE UNITED STATES

356

Towards Efficient Dominant Relationship Exploration of the Product Items on the Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been a prevalence of search engines being employed to find useful information in the Web as they efficiently explore hyperlinks between web pages which define a natural graph structure that yields a good ranking. Unfortunately, current search engines cannot effectively rank those relational data, which exists on dynamic websites supported by online databases. In this

Zhenglu Yang; Lin Li; Botao Wang; Masaru Kitsuregawa

2007-01-01

357

Exploring the Complexities of Children's Inquiries in Science: Knowledge Production through Participatory Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beginning with the assumption that young children are capable of producing unprecedented knowledges about science phenomena, this paper explores the complexities of children's inquiries within open-ended investigations. I ask two central questions: (1) how can we (teachers, researchers, and children themselves) use and build upon…

Siry, Christina

2013-01-01

358

Exploring Ovulation & Pregnancy Using Over-the-Counter Products: A Novel Guided Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this guided inquiry, students explore the complex hormonal regulation of the female reproductive cycle using inexpensive ovulation and pregnancy detection kits that are readily available over the counter. This hands-on activity engages students in the practice of doing science as highlighted by the "National Science Education Standards." The…

Venditti, Jennifer J.; Surmacz, Cynthia A.

2012-01-01

359

Production of biodiesel using a continuous gas-liquid reactor.  

PubMed

A novel continuous reactor process has been developed for the production of biodiesel from fats and oils. The key feature of the process is its ability to operate continuously with a high reaction rate, potentially requiring less post reaction cleaning and product/reactant separation than currently established processes. This was achieved by atomising the heated oil/fat and then spraying it into a reaction chamber filled with methanol vapor in a counter current flow arrangement. This allows the continuous separation of product and the excess methanol stream in the reactor. The overall conversion based on a single cycle of this process has been between 50% and 96% of the feed stock materials. Conversions of 94-96% were achieved while operating with 5-7 g of sodium methoxide/L of methanol at methanol flow rate of 17.2 L/h and oil flow rate of 10 L/h. Additional variations in the reactant stoichiometry (i.e. reactant flow rates), catalyst type/concentration, and reaction temperature on the overall product conversion were investigated. PMID:18672363

Behzadi, Sam; Farid, Mohammed M

2009-01-01

360

Gas chromatographic properties of common cholesterol and phytosterol oxidation products.  

PubMed

The most common cholesterol and phytosterol oxidation products found in foodstuffs or biological matrices are the 7alpha- and 7beta-hydroxysterol, 7-ketosterol, 5alpha,6alpha- and 5beta,6beta-epoxysterol, and triol derivatives of sterols. This study focused on the preparation and purification of such products derived from campesterol, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol. The identity of the substances was confirmed by mass spectroscopic analysis. The elution order of a complex mixture composed of the 7alpha- and 7beta-hydroxysterol, 7-ketosterol, 5alpha,6alpha- and 5beta,6beta-epoxysterol, and triol derivatives of cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol was recorded on an apolar as well as a medium-polarity capillary column in relation to two commonly used internal standards, i.e. alpha-cholestane and 19-hydroxy cholesterol. Flame-ionization detector as well as mass spectrometry response factors were derived from a gravimetrically prepared mixture of commercially available cholesterol oxide standards. It was proven that the ionization efficiency of cholesterol and phytosterol oxides are very similar and that response factors obtained for cholesterol oxidation products are also valid for quantitative work regarding phytosterol oxidation products. PMID:15560493

Apprich, Silvia; Ulberth, Franz

2004-11-01

361

Use of gas turbine exhaust for the direct drying of food products: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program was to evaluate the merits of using natural gas-fired gas turbine exhaust to directly dry food products. A survey of drying practices utilized in the food industry and a detailed review of worldwide regulatory drying practices were completed. An investigation of the economic advantages associated with direct drying was also considered. Four drying scenarios were used as part of the analysis: Dilution - hot turbine exhaust gases were diluted with ambient air to achieve temperatures suitable for food product drying; Indirect Heat Exchanger - gas turbine exhaust was directed through an intermediate heat exchanger to avoid flue-gas contamination of the ambient air; Tri-Generation - exhaust gases from the gas turbine were first directed to a heat recovery boiler and then through the drying system to dry the food product; and Conventional Cogeneration - the most conventional simple cycle gas turbine cogeneration (this scenario served as the baseline for all evaluations). Although the economics associated with direct drying appear attractive, the principal concern of any potential use would be the extraordinarily high NO/sub x/ levels and the potential nitrate and nitrosamine (potential carcinogens and carcinogenic precursors) contamination in food products. 21 refs., 21 figs., 17 tabs.

Not Available

1988-06-01

362

The Use of Horizontal Wells in Gas Production from Hydrate Accumulations  

SciTech Connect

The amounts of hydrocarbon gases trapped in natural hydrate accumulations are enormous, leading to a recent interest in the evaluation of their potential as an energy source. Earlier studies have demonstrated that large volumes of gas can be readily produced at high rates for long times from gas hydrate accumulations by means of depressurization-induced dissociation, using conventional technology and vertical wells. The results of this numerical study indicate that the use of horizontal wells does not confer any practical advantages to gas production from Class 1 deposits. This is because of the large disparity in permeabilities between the hydrate layer (HL) and the underlying free gas zone, leading to a hydrate dissociation that proceeds in a horizontally dominant direction and is uniform along the length of the reservoir. When horizontal wells are placed near the base of the HL in Class 2 deposits, the delay in the evolution of a significant gas production rate outweighs their advantages, which include higher rates and the prevention of flow obstruction problems that often hamper the performance of vertical wells. Conversely, placement of a horizontal well near to top of the HL can lead to dramatic increases in gas production from Class 2 and Class 3 deposits over the corresponding production from vertical wells.

Reagan, Matthew; Moridis, George J.; Reagan, Matthew T.; Zhang, Keni

2008-04-15

363

Low permeability gas reservoir production using large hydraulic fractures  

E-print Network

IN 700 ? 4IB. G PSI/DAY DRAW DOWN 04 ~ 4332. 4 MCF / OAY + d 5 PSI/ OAY DRAW DOWN Qq ~ 627. B MCF/OAY 600 0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I 0 I I I 2 I 3 l4 I 5 l6 I 7 i8 TIME ( HRS) lP Z C X IO IL 0 cn ~ M O lal g M IO Is 20 0 IOOO 2000 3000 4000... at the end of the ten years monitored. The income is not discounted and assumes s. gas price of 20 cents per MCF. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 7 Using the concept of fracturing presented by Wiisey and s. 12 numerical model by Morse, the effect of long...

Holditch, Stephen A

2012-06-07

364

Batch and continuous butanol fermentations with free cells: integration with product recovery by gas-stripping  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a butanol batch fermentation the substrate consumption was increased threefold using in-situ product recovery by gas-stripping, in comparison with a control fermentation without product recovery. In a continuous fermentation in-situ recovery led to an increase in the biomass concentration, resulting in a threefold increase in productivity. The substrate consumption was increased by 10%. An external stripper was used as

W. J. Groot; R. G. J. M. van der Lans; K. Ch. A. M. Luyben

1989-01-01

365

Early production from some Devonian Shale gas wells stimulated with several kinds of explosive charge  

SciTech Connect

Early cumulative production from Devonian Shale gas wells stimulated with a high energy water gel explosive averaged 2 times that from nearby wells stimulated with dynamite. From an estimate of production loss due to well damage done by post-shot drilling in the shot zone, it is concluded that production from the wells stimulated with water gel would have averaged 5 times that from dynamite stimulations if no such drilling had been done.

Coursen, D.L.

1983-11-01

366

Biohydrogen gas production from food processing and domestic wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food processing industry produces highly concentrated, carbohydrate-rich wastewaters, but their potential for biological hydrogen production has not been extensively studied. Wastewaters were obtained from four different food-processing industries that had chemical oxygen demands of 9g\\/L (apple processing), 21g\\/L (potato processing), and 0.6 and 20g\\/L (confectioners A and B). Biogas produced from all four food processing wastewaters consistently contained 60%

Steven W. Van Ginkel; Sang-Eun Oh; Bruce E. Logan

2005-01-01

367

Atomic iodine production in a gas flow by decomposing methyl iodide in a dc glow discharge  

SciTech Connect

The production of atomic iodine for an oxygen - iodine laser is studied by decomposing methyl iodide in a dc glow discharge in a vortex gas flow. The concentration of iodine atoms in discharge products was measured from the atomic iodine absorption of the radiation of a single-frequency tunable diode laser at a wavelength of 1.315 {mu}m. Atomic iodine concentrations sufficient for the operation of an oxygen - iodine laser were obtained. The concentration of atomic iodine amounted to 3.6 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} for a pressure of the carrying argon gas of 15 Torr. The discharge stabilisation by a vortex gas flow allowed the glow discharge to be sustained in a strongly electronegative halogen-containing gas mixture for pressures up to 20 Torr. (active media)

Mikheyev, P A; Shepelenko, A A; Voronov, A I; Kupryaev, Nikolai V [Samara Branch of the P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Samara (Russian Federation)

2002-01-31

368

Exploring Robust Design Capabilities, Their Role in Creating Global Products, and Their Relationship to Firm Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing desire for products suitable for widely varying markets world- wide, this study offers insight into capabilities associated with successful robust design in global product markets. These robust design capabilities (i.e., the possi- bility for success under varying circumstances or scenarios) are a potential organ- izational response to rapid change and uncertainty, which also improve the likelihood of

K. Scott Swan; Masaaki Kotabe; Brent B. Allred

2005-01-01

369

Exploring the Complexities of Children's Inquiries in Science: Knowledge Production Through Participatory Practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beginning with the assumption that young children are capable of producing unprecedented knowledges about science phenomena, this paper explores the complexities of children's inquiries within open-ended investigations. I ask two central questions: (1) how can we (teachers, researchers, and children themselves) use and build upon children's explorations in science in practice? and (2) what pedagogical approaches can position children as experts on their experiences to facilitate children's sense of ownership in the process of learning science? Six vignettes from a Kindergarten classroom are analyzed to elaborate the central claim of this work, which is that when children are engaged in collaborative open-ended activities, science emerges from their interactions. Open-ended structures allowed for teachers and children to facilitate further investigations collaboratively, and participatory structures mediated children's representations and explanations of their investigations. Evidence of children's interactions is used to illustrate the complexities of children's explorations, and pedagogical approaches that create the spaces for children to create knowledge are highlighted.

Siry, Christina

2013-12-01

370

Laboratory investigation of Hg release from flue gas desulfurization products.  

PubMed

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a process applied to remove acid deposition precursors from the coal combustion air stream. This process also removes mercury (Hg) resulting in accumulation of this element in FGD produced solids. This project investigated Hg release from FGD materials to the air and water. Hg concentrations in the synthetic leaching precipitation procedure extracts, designed to simulate rainwater pH conditions, were in general <10 ng L(-1). Unlike coal fly ash, which has been found to adsorb Hg from the air, FGD materials were found to release Hg to the air over time with the addition of water a dominant environmental factor promoting release. The chemistry of the atmosphere to which the FGD materials were exposed (i.e., air Hg concentration and presence of oxidants), as well as that of the material (i.e., salts removed), was found to influence the magnitude of emissions. Although this work showed a component of the Hg captured by the FGD process could be released to the air under laboratory conditions, the potential for release under disposal and beneficial use conditions needs to be determined. PMID:20420364

Gustin, Mae; Ladwig, Ken

2010-05-15

371

Simultaneous flue gas bioremediation and reduction of microalgal biomass production costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flue gas originating from a municipal waste incinerator was used as a source of CO2 for the cultivation of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris, in order to decrease the biomass production costs and to bioremediate CO2 simultaneously. The utilization of the flue gas containing 10–13% (v\\/v) CO2 and 8–10% (v\\/v) O2 for the photobioreactor agitation and CO2 supply was proven

I. Douskova; J. Doucha; K. Livansky; J. Machat; P. Novak; D. Umysova; V. Zachleder; M. Vitova

2009-01-01

372

Development of catalysts suitable for hydrogen or syn-gas production from biomass gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tri-metallic and ternary oxide structures were prepared, characterised and tested for two fixed-bed catalytic applications: the reforming of methane with steam and CO2; and for conditioning the gas produced by biomass steam gasification in a fluidised bed of olivine particles, with the aim of drastically reducing high and low molecular weight hydrocarbon concentrations in the product gas. Methane conversions higher

S. Rapagná; H. Provendier; C. Petit; A. Kiennemann; P. U. Foscolo

2002-01-01

373

Gas and Particle Products Distribution from the Reaction of ?-Caryophyllene with Ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas and particulate reaction products from the ozonolysis of ß -caryophyllene (I) in the presence of atmospheric air were investigated using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer system (3936, TSI) and a Condensation Particle Counter (3025A, TSI) were used to study secondary organic aerosol formation. The nighttime oxidation

M. Jaoui; S. Leungsakul; R. M. Kamens

2003-01-01

374

Prudhoe Bay field oil and gas production facilities  

SciTech Connect

Development of the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field on the Alaskan North Slope has been a continuing challenge to the ingenuity and perseverance of the field's owners and operators. The unique size and geographical location of Prudhoe Bay has required innovative technology to solve the unusual problems that confront the oil-production industry in the Arctic. The learning curve has frequently been steep. More important, however, is that the development of Prudhoe Bay has clearly demonstrated that arctic oil fields can be produced safely, economically, and within the constraints necessary to protect the fragile arctic environment.

Swyter, J.P.

1982-12-01

375

LOW COST METHODOLOGIES TO ANALYZE AND CORRECT ABNORMAL PRODUCTION DECLINE IN STRIPPER GAS WELLS  

SciTech Connect

A study group of 376 Clinton Sand wells in Ohio provided data to determine the historic frequency of the problem of abnormal production declines in stripper gas wells and the causes of the abnormal production decline. Analysis of the historic frequency of the problem indicates over 70% of the wells experienced abnormal production decline. The most frequently occurring causes of abnormal production declines were determined to be fluid accumulation (46%), gas gathering restrictions (24%), and mechanical failures (23%). Data collection forms and decision trees were developed to cost-effectively diagnose the abnormal production declines and suggest corrective action. The decision trees and data collection sheets were incorporated into a procedure guide to provide stripper gas well operators with a methodology to analyze and correct abnormal production declines. The systematic methodologies and techniques developed should increase the efficiency of problem well assessment and implementation of solutions for stripper gas wells. This eight quarterly technical progress report provides a summary of the deliverables completed to date, including the results of the remediations, the procedure guide, and the technology transfer. Due to the successful results of the study to date and the efficiency of the methodology development, two to three additional wells will be selected for remediation for inclusion into the study. The results of the additional remediations will be included in the final report.

Jerry James; Gene Huck; Tim Knobloch

2001-10-01

376

LOW COST METHODOLOGIES TO ANALYZE AND CORRECT ABNORMAL PRODUCTION DECLINE IN STRIPPER GAS WELLS  

SciTech Connect

A study group of 376 Clinton Sand wells in Ohio provided data to determine the historic frequency of the problem of abnormal production declines in stripper gas wells and the causes of the abnormal production decline. Analysis of the historic frequency of the problem indicates over 70% of the wells experienced abnormal production decline. The most frequently occurring causes of abnormal production declines were determined to be fluid accumulation (46%), gas gathering restrictions (24%), and mechanical failures (23%). Data collection forms and decision trees were developed to cost-effectively diagnose the abnormal production declines and suggest corrective action. The decision trees and data collection sheets were incorporated into a procedure guide to provide stripper gas well operators with a methodology to analyze and correct abnormal production declines. The systematic methodologies and techniques developed should increase the efficiency of problem well assessment and implementation of solutions for stripper gas wells. This final technical progress report provides a summary of the deliverables completed to date, including the results of the remediations, the procedure guide, and the technology transfer. Due to the successful results of the study to date and the efficiency of the methodology development, two additional wells were selected for remediation and included into the study. Furthermore, the remediation results of wells that were a part of the study group of wells are also described.

Jerry James; Gene Huck; Tim Knobloch

2001-12-01

377

Gas production and transport during bench-scale electrical resistance heating of water and trichloroethene.  

PubMed

The effective remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones using in situ thermal treatment requires successful capture of gas that is produced. Replicate electrical resistance heating experiments were performed in a thin bench-scale apparatus, where water was boiled and pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) trichloroethene (TCE) and water were co-boiled in unconsolidated silica sand. Quantitative light transmission visualization was used to assess gas production and transport mechanisms. In the water boiling experiments, nucleation, growth and coalescence of the gas phase into connected channels were observed at critical gas saturations of Sgc=0.233±0.017, which allowed for continuous gas transport out of the sand. In experiments containing a colder region above a target heated zone, condensation prevented the formation of steam channels and discrete gas clusters that mobilized into colder regions were trapped soon after discontinuous transport began. In the TCE-water experiments, co-boiling at immiscible fluid interfaces resulted in discontinuous gas transport above the DNAPL pool. Redistribution of DNAPL was also observed above the pool and at the edge of the vapor front that propagated upwards through colder regions. These results suggest that the subsurface should be heated to water boiling temperatures to facilitate gas transport from specific locations of DNAPL to extraction points and reduce the potential for DNAPL redistribution. Decreases in electric current were observed at the onset of gas phase production, which suggests that coupled electrical current and temperature measurements may provide a reliable metric to assess gas phase development. PMID:25084057

Hegele, P R; Mumford, K G

2014-09-01

378

Flat-plate, gas-to-gas heat exchanger recovers 1. 5 million Btu/hr from perlite production  

SciTech Connect

Calshake, a mineral shake shingle manufacturer in Irwindale, CA started having problems with a carbon steel, gas-to-gas process heat exchanger when the plant changed their perlite popping process from a three shift to a two shift operation. The first evidence of trouble was a loss of air volume throughput. Then the heat transfer efficiency of the stationary flatplate heat exchanger was reduced. The economy of the operation continued to diminish as fans drawing gases through the exchanger had to work harder. Finally the plant was forced to shut down the processing line. Calshake replaced the single, 20' long carbon steel, flat-plate heat exchanger with two, 10' long, modular, stainless steel units from the same manufacturer. The new exchangers were installed vertically in series to provide basically the same 20' long heat transfer surface. The flow path on the hot side was made continuous. The flow path on the cold side was interrupted by a duct joining the top and bottom units. Counterflow conditions were maintained just as they were in the original unit. The flat-plate, gas-to-gas heat exchanger recovers 1.5 million Btu/hr from perlite production. The new exchanger gives nearly twice the recovery of the system it replaced. Since installation in August 1985 it has required only minor maintenance (total downtime of 9 hours) and has performed above expectations.

Hench, R.; Hodel, A.E.; Regan, J.T.

1986-08-01

379

Sources of biogenic methane to form marine gas hydrates: In situ production or upward migration?  

SciTech Connect

Potential sources of biogenic methane in the Carolina Continental Rise -- Blake Ridge sediments have been examined. Two models were used to estimate the potential for biogenic methane production: (1) construction of sedimentary organic carbon budgets, and (2) depth extrapolation of modern microbial production rates. While closed-system estimates predict some gas hydrate formation, it is unlikely that >3% of the sediment volume could be filled by hydrate from methane produced in situ. Formation of greater amounts requires migration of methane from the underlying continental rise sediment prism. Methane may be recycled from below the base of the gas hydrate stability zone by gas hydrate decomposition, upward migration of the methane gas, and recrystallization of gas hydrate within the overlying stability zone. Methane bubbles may also form in the sediment column below the depth of gas hydrate stability because the methane saturation concentration of the pore fluids decreases with increasing depth. Upward migration of methane bubbles from these deeper sediments can add methane to the hydrate stability zone. From these models it appears that recycling and upward migration of methane is essential in forming significant gas hydrate concentrations. In addition, the depth distribution profiles of methane hydrate will differ if the majority of the methane has migrated upward rather than having been produced in situ.

Paull, C.K.; Ussler, W. III; Borowski, W.S.

1993-09-01

380

Gas-phase products and secondary aerosol yields from the ozonolysis of ten different terpenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ozonolyses of six monoterpenes (?-pinene, ?-pinene, 3-carene, terpinolene, ?-terpinene, and myrcene), two sesquiterpenes (?-humulene and ?-caryophyllene), and two oxygenated terpenes (methyl chavicol and linalool) were conducted individually in Teflon chambers to examine the gas-phase oxidation product and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields from these reactions. Particle size distribution and number concentration were monitored and allowed for the calculation of the SOA yield from each experiment, which ranged from 1 to 54%. A proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was used to monitor the evolution of gas-phase products, identified by their mass to charge ratio (m/z). Several gas-phase oxidation products, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, acetic acid, and nopinone, were identified and calibrated. Aerosol yields, and the yields of these identified and calibrated oxidation products, as well as many higher m/z oxidation products observed with the PTR-MS, varied significantly between the different parent terpene compounds. The sum of measured oxidation products in the gas and particle phase ranged from 33 to 77% of the carbon in the reacted terpenes, suggesting there are still unmeasured products from these reactions. The observations of the higher molecular weight oxidation product ions provide evidence of previously unreported compounds and their temporal evolution in the smog chamber from multistep oxidation processes. Many of the observed ions, including m/z 111 and 113, have also been observed in ambient air above a Ponderosa pine forest canopy, and our results confirm they are consistent with products from terpene + O3 reactions. Many of these products are stable on the timescale of our experiments and can therefore be monitored in field campaigns as evidence for ozone oxidative chemistry.

Lee, Anita; Goldstein, Allen H.; Keywood, Melita D.; Gao, Song; Varutbangkul, Varuntida; Bahreini, Roya; Ng, Nga L.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

2006-04-01

381

New Topographic Products and Rover Localization Results for the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

For over two years of MER surface operations, topographic maps, rover traverse maps, and updated rover locations of Spirit and Opportunity have supported tactical and strategic mission operations. Here we present the recent topographic products and the latest localization results.

R. Li; R. E. Arvidson; S. Agarwal; J. F. Bell III; E. Brodyagina; L. S. Crumpler; D. J. Des Marais; K. di; M. Golombek; J. Grant; R. L. Kirk; M. Maimone; L. H. Matthies; M. Malin; T. Parker; L. A. Soderblom; S. W. Squyres; J. Wang; L. Yan

2006-01-01

382

Gas and Particle Oxidation Products from Ozone Aging of Airborne Diesel Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diesel exhaust emissions contain fine particulate matter (PM2.5) composed of carbon-based particles with adsorbed compounds, including water soluble and insoluble substances. Many nonpolar organic compounds associated with diesel particulate matter (DPM) are known to be mutagenic and carcinogenic. In the presence of ozone, these DPM compounds can be transformed into polar species that are more toxic and poorly characterized. Understanding the gas and particle reaction products from DPM aging in the presence of tropospheric ozone is important for air quality, climate change and aerosol health effects. Aging experiments were conducted in a flow reactor to identify gas and particle-phase reaction products of DPM exposed to ambient levels of ozone. Diesel bus exhaust particles were collected on filters and then exposed to 0.1 - 0.5 ppm O3 for 0 to 72 h. Gaseous polar organic products formed during the aging experiments were collected on Tenax TA adsorbent coated with PFBHA derivatization agent. A thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) method was developed to determine gas-phase and particle-phase organic compounds. PFBHA and BSTFA derivatization agents converted polar species into less polar analogues prior to analysis. Preliminary results indicate that DPM hydrocarbons react with O3 to form many gas-phase polar products containing C=O (carbonyl) and COOH (carboxy) functional groups. Particle-phase PAH and alkane concentrations decreased significantly depending on time of exposure.

Holmen, B. A.; Chen, Z.

2005-12-01

383

Hydrogen production and delivery analysis in US markets : cost, energy and greenhouse gas emissions.  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen production cost conclusions are: (1) Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) is the least-cost production option at current natural gas prices and for initial hydrogen vehicle penetration rates, at high production rates, SMR may not be the least-cost option; (2) Unlike coal and nuclear technologies, the cost of natural gas feedstock is the largest contributor to SMR production cost; (3) Coal- and nuclear-based hydrogen production have significant penalties at small production rates (and benefits at large rates); (4) Nuclear production of hydrogen is likely to have large economies of scale, but because fixed O&M costs are uncertain, the magnitude of these effects may be understated; and (5) Given H2A default assumptions for fuel prices, process efficiencies and labor costs, nuclear-based hydrogen is likely to be more expensive to produce than coal-based hydrogen. Carbon taxes and caps can narrow the gap. Hydrogen delivery cost conclusions are: (1) For smaller urban markets, compressed gas delivery appears most economic, although cost inputs for high-pressure gas trucks are uncertain; (2) For larger urban markets, pipeline delivery is least costly; (3) Distance from hydrogen production plant to city gate may change relative costs (all results shown assume 100 km); (4) Pipeline costs may be reduced with system 'rationalization', primarily reductions in service pipeline mileage; and (5) Liquefier and pipeline capital costs are a hurdle, particularly at small market sizes. Some energy and greenhouse gas Observations: (1) Energy use (per kg of H2) declines slightly with increasing production or delivery rate for most components (unless energy efficiency varies appreciably with scale, e.g., liquefaction); (2) Energy use is a strong function of production technology and delivery mode; (3) GHG emissions reflect the energy efficiency and carbon content of each component in a production-delivery pathway; (4) Coal and natural gas production pathways have high energy consumption and significant GHG emissions (in the absence of carbon caps, taxes or sequestration); (5) Nuclear pathway is most favorable from energy use and GHG emissions perspective; (6) GH2 Truck and Pipeline delivery have much lower energy use and GHG emissions than LH2 Truck delivery; and (7) For LH2 Truck delivery, the liquefier accounts for most of the energy and GHG emissions.

Mintz, M.; Gillette, J.; Elgowainy, A. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( ES)

2009-01-01

384

Estimating the full costs of oil and gas production  

SciTech Connect

Methods for calculating the full-cycle, economic costs of new oil production are compared and tested for accuracy. The method pioneered by M. A. Adelman is generalized and shown to be accurate over a wide range of conditions. The estimated {open_quotes}costs{close_quotes} are most accurate where reliable data on reserves are available, but useful results are still obtainable as long as the reservoir decline rates can be approximately determined. Even where data on expenditures in the given area are not published, synthetic costs can still be estimated by extrapolation as long as the drilling data are believed to be reliable. The methodology is illustrated for the case of the PDO concessions in Oman.

Stauffer, T.R.

1995-12-31

385

Exploring the chemical fate of the sulfate radical anion by reaction with sulfur dioxide in the gas phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas phase reaction between SO4-(H2O)n and SO2, n = 0-2, is investigated using ab initio calculations and kinetic modeling. Structures of reactants, transition states and products are reported. Our calculations predict that the SO2SO4-(H2O)n cluster ion, formed upon SO2 and SO4-(H2O)n collision, can isomerize to SO3SO3-(H2O)n. The overall reaction is SO2 oxidation by the SO4-(H2O)n anionic cluster. The results show that SO4-(H2O)n is a good SO2 oxidant, especially at low relative humidity, with a~reaction rate constant up to 1.1 × 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. At high relative humidity, instead, the re-evaporation of SO2 from the SO2SO4-(H2O)n cluster ion is favoured.

Tsona, N. T.; Bork, N.; Vehkamäki, H.

2014-05-01

386

Hydrogen and elemental carbon production from natural gas and other hydrocarbons  

DOEpatents

Diatomic hydrogen and unsaturated hydrocarbons are produced as reactor gases in a fast quench reactor. During the fast quench, the unsaturated hydrocarbons are further decomposed by reheating the reactor gases. More diatomic hydrogen is produced, along with elemental carbon. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The product is a substantially clean-burning hydrogen fuel that leaves no greenhouse gas emissions, and elemental carbon that may be used in powder form as a commodity for several processes.

Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01

387

Oil production from thin oil columns subject to water and gas coning  

E-print Network

OIL PRODUCTION FROM THIN OIL COLUMNS SUBJECT TO MATER AND GAS CONING A Thesis by KMOK KIT CHAI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1981... Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering OIL PRODUCTION FROM THIN OIL COLUMNS SUBJECT TO WATER AND GAS CONING A Thesis by KWOK KIT CHAI Approved as to style and content by airman of o t ee Member Member Head o Department May 1981 ABSTRACT Oil...

Chai, Kwok Kit

2012-06-07

388

The production characteristics of a solution gas-drive reservoir as measured on a centrifugal model  

E-print Network

. recoveries were obtained vhen the fluid was produced through a central weAl than when production was through a well in the extreme end of the reservoir. Lower viscosity gave substantially higher recoveries~ but larger amounts of gas in solution had.... recoveries were obtained vhen the fluid was produced through a central weAl than when production was through a well in the extreme end of the reservoir. Lower viscosity gave substantially higher recoveries~ but larger amounts of gas in solution had...

Goodwin, Robert Jennings

2012-06-07

389

Impact of offshore oil exploration and production on the Social Institutions of Coastal Louisiana. University research initiative. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The research contained in the report considers the relationship of oil production--a primary economic activity--to five social institutions: the family; poverty and social service provision; communities; government; and the political economy. Findings suggest a direct impact of offshore oil and gas production on these institutions. The impact is both positive and negative. It is long-term as well as short-term. It affects different institutions and sub-populations differently. The effects are on the entire state, not just the area directly involved with oil production. Mitigation recommendations range from research, data collection, impact monitoring, a national policy requiring the use of American contractors, the sharing of severance taxes with the affected area, the escrowing of monies by oil companies, and the expansion of government assistance to mitigate impacts.

Laska, S.; Baxter, V.K.; Seydlitz, R.; Thayer, R.E.; Brabant, S.

1993-08-01

390

A Tropical Marine Microbial Natural Products Geobibliography as an Example of Desktop Exploration of Current Research Using Web Visualisation Tools  

PubMed Central

Microbial marine biodiscovery is a recent scientific endeavour developing at a time when information and other technologies are also undergoing great technical strides. Global visualisation of datasets is now becoming available to the world through powerful and readily available software such as Worldwind™, ArcGIS Explorer™ and Google Earth™. Overlaying custom information upon these tools is within the hands of every scientist and more and more scientific organisations are making data available that can also be integrated into these global visualisation tools. The integrated global view that these tools enable provides a powerful desktop exploration tool. Here we demonstrate the value of this approach to marine microbial biodiscovery by developing a geobibliography that incorporates citations on tropical and near-tropical marine microbial natural products research with Google Earth™ and additional ancillary global data sets. The tools and software used are all readily available and the reader is able to use and install the material described in this article. PMID:19172194

Mukherjee, Joydeep; Llewellyn, Lyndon E; Evans-Illidge, Elizabeth A

2008-01-01

391

Enterprise, Shell scheduled to explore Romanian acreage  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the pace of exploration is packing up in Romania's offshore and onshore sectors. Enterprise Oil Exploration Ltd., London, signed an exploration and production sharing agreement with state owned Rompetrol SA for two Black Sea blocks, Nos. XIII and XV, covering 3,000 sq km and 4,000 sq km, respectively. Shell Romania Exploration BV agreed with Rompetrol on an exploration and production sharing agreement for onshore Block 10. This covers 6,150 sq km in northern Transylvania. Shell's target will be deep formations underlying producing gas zones. Enterprise has a 65% share as operator of Blocks XIII and XV, while partner CanadianOxy (Romania) Ltd. holds the remaining 35%. Exploration and development costs will be borne by the license partners, while Rompetrol will take a share of any production.

Not Available

1992-08-17

392

Explorer-II: Wireless Self-Powered Visual and NDE Robotic Inspection System for Live Gas Distribution Mains  

SciTech Connect

Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) under contract from Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DoE/NETL) and co-funding from the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), has completed the overall system design, field-trial and Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) sensor evaluation program for the next-generation Explorer-II (X-II) live gas main Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) and visual inspection robot platform. The design is based on the Explorer-I prototype which was built and field-tested under a prior (also DoE- and NGA co-funded) program, and served as the validation that self-powered robots under wireless control could access and navigate live natural gas distribution mains. The X-II system design ({approx}8 ft. and 66 lbs.) was heavily based on the X-I design, yet was substantially expanded to allow the addition of NDE sensor systems (while retaining its visual inspection capability), making it a modular system, and expanding its ability to operate at pressures up to 750 psig (high-pressure and unpiggable steel-pipe distribution mains). A new electronics architecture and on-board software kernel were added to again improve system performance. A locating sonde system was integrated to allow for absolute position-referencing during inspection (coupled with external differential GPS) and emergency-locating. The power system was upgraded to utilize lithium-based battery-cells for an increase in mission-time. The resulting robot-train system with CAD renderings of the individual modules. The system architecture now relies on a dual set of end camera-modules to house the 32-bit processors (Single-Board Computer or SBC) as well as the imaging and wireless (off-board) and CAN-based (on-board) communication hardware and software systems (as well as the sonde-coil and -electronics). The drive-module (2 ea.) are still responsible for bracing (and centering) to drive in push/pull fashion the robot train into and through the pipes and obstacles. The steering modules and their arrangement, still allow the robot to configure itself to perform any-angle (up to 90 deg) turns in any orientation (incl. vertical), and enable the live launching and recovery of the system using custom fittings and a (to be developed) launch-chamber/-tube. The battery modules are used to power the system, by providing power to the robot's bus. The support modules perform the functions of centration for the rest of the train as well as odometry pickups using incremental encoding schemes. The electronics architecture is based on a distributed (8-bit) microprocessor architecture (at least 1 in ea. module) communicating to a (one of two) 32-bit SBC, which manages all video-processing, posture and motion control as well as CAN and wireless communications. The operator controls the entire system from an off-board (laptop) controller, which is in constant wireless communication with the robot train in the pipe. The sensor modules collect data and forward it to the robot operator computer (via the CAN-wireless communications chain), who then transfers it to a dedicated NDE data-storage and post-processing computer for further (real-time or off-line) analysis. The prototype robot system was built and tested indoors and outdoors, outfitted with a Remote-Field Eddy Current (RFEC) sensor integrated as its main NDE sensor modality. An angled launcher, allowing for live launching and retrieval, was also built to suit custom angled launch-fittings from TDW. The prototype vehicle and launcher systems are shown. The complete system, including the in-pipe robot train, launcher, integrated NDE-sensor and real-time video and control console and NDE-data collection and -processing and real-time display, were demonstrated to all sponsors prior to proceeding into final field-trials--the individual components and setting for said acceptance demonstration are shown. The launcher-tube was also used to verify that the vehicle system is capable of operating in high-pressure environments, and is safely deployable using proper evacuating/purging techniques for operation in the po

Carnegie Mellon University

2008-09-30

393

Monitoring of Emissions from Natural Gas Production Facilities in Barnett Shale Area for Population Exposure Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Barnett Shale study was conducted in April-May 2010 to provide a better understanding of population exposure to air toxics associated with gas production operations in the Barnett Shale region of North Texas. The Barnett Shale is a geological formation that stretches form Dallas to west of Fort Worth and southward, covering 5,000 square miles and 18 counties in the Fort Worth Basin. Oil and gas experts have suggested that it may be the largest onshore natural gas field in the US, containing not only natural gas but also condensate and light oil. Gas production wells in the Barnett Shale area number in the thousands and are spread over a large areas of North Texas. Emissions can occur during various stages in the life of any single well and along various points of the production stream from extraction of raw gas at the well to distribution of commercial grade natural gas at central gathering and processing plants. In the first phase of this study we characterized the emissions from major gas production facilities in the area. An initial survey was performed using a mobile sampling vehicle to identify facilities with measurable emissions. Source-oriented volatile organic compounds (VOC) samples were collected at several facilities with confirmed emissions measured with our continuous survey monitors. In the second phase we conducted saturation monitoring (multiple fixed-ambient sampling locations using passive sampling systems) downwind of gas production areas. One location was near a well with emissions from condensate tanks that were well characterized during Phase 1. A single private residence was located a short distance downwind of this well and was away from other emission sources that might interfere with the measured gradient of emissions from the well. The measurement at this site serves as a case study of the pollutant gradient from a well characterized emission source at various distances downwind of the source relative to the upwind pollutant concentrations. The second facility was a gas compressor station located near a small community. The spatial variations in pollutant concentrations were determined at various distances and directions from the source, sites adjacent to nearby roadways and a background site located upwind of the community. The measured volatile organic compounds were apportioned to sources using the Chemical Mass Balance receptor model. The study results are placed in context by comparing the measured pollutant concentrations to comparable data from elsewhere is the Barnett Shale area and from urban areas of the Dallas-Fort Worth.

Zielinska, B.; Fujita, E.; Campbell, D.; Samburova, V.; Hendler, E.; Beskid, C. S.

2010-12-01

394

Hydrogen-Rich Gas Production by Cogasification of Coal and Biomass in an Intermittent Fluidized Bed  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the experimental results of cogasification of coal and biomass in an intermittent fluidized bed reactor, aiming to investigate the influences of operation parameters such as gasification temperature (T), steam to biomass mass ratio (SBMR), and biomass to coal mass ratio (BCMR) on hydrogen-rich (H2-rich) gas production. The results show that H2-rich gas free of N2 dilution is produced and the H2 yield is in the range of 18.25~68.13?g/kg. The increases of T, SBMR, and BCMR are all favorable for promoting the H2 production. Higher temperature contributes to higher CO and H2 contents, as well as H2 yield. The BCMR has a weak influence on gas composition, but the yield and content of H2 increase with BCMR, reaching a peak at the BCMR of 4. The H2 content and yield in the product gas increase with SBMR, whilst the content of CO increases first and then decreases correspondingly. At a typical case, the relative linear sensitivity coefficients of H2 production efficiency to T, SBMR, and BCMR were calculated. The results reveal that the order of the influence of the operation parameters on H2 production efficiency is T > SBMR > BCMR. PMID:24174911

Wang, Li-Qun; Chen, Zhao-Sheng

2013-01-01

395

Transport time of volatile and nonvolatile fission products in a gas jet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport times for volatile and nonvolatile fission products in a gas jet were determined using the facility at the Ford Nuclear Reactor of the University of Michigan. A mixture of ethylene and nitrogen was used to sweep the fission products from the target chamber in the gas jet. Activated charcoal traps [C] and quartz wool traps [QW] were used to collect the volatile and nonvolatile fission products respectively. The trap was positioned in front of a HPGe detector. A "stopped-flow" technique was used for the transport time measurement. The gas flow was controlled with electrically operated valves; the application of power to the valves also triggered the counting in multiscaler mode. Measurements were carried out for two target pressures. For each pressure a number of measurements were done with the charcoal and the quartz wool traps. For a target pressure of 4 psi above atmosphere transport times of 432 ± 41 and 432 ± 23 ms were obtained for the volatile [C] and nonvolatile [QW] fission products respectively; at about atmospheric pressure the corresponding values were 458 ± 33 and 443 ± 38 ms. The values indicated that there is no significant difference in the transport time for the volatile and nonvolatile fission products in a gas jet.

Davis, N.; Contis, E. T.; Rengan, K.; Griffin, H. C.

1994-12-01

396

A Hybrid Gas Cleaning Process for Production of Ultraclean Syngas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to develop technologies for cleaning/conditioning IGCC generated syngas to meet contaminant tolerance limits for fuel cell and chemical production applications. The specific goals are to develop processes for (1) removal of reduced sulfur species to sub-ppm levels using a hybrid process consisting of a polymer membrane and a regenerable ZnO-coated monolith or a mixed metal oxide sorbent; (2) removal of hydrogen chloride vapors to sub-ppm levels using an inexpensive, high-surface-area material; and (3) removal of NH3 with acidic adsorbents followed by conversion of this NH3 into nitrogen and water. Existing gasification technologies can effectively and efficiently convert a wide variety of carbonaceous feedstocks (coal, petcoke, resids, biomass, etc.) into syngas, which predominantly contains carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Unfortunately, the impurities present in these carbonaceous feedstocks are converted to gaseous contaminants such as H2S, COS, HCl, NH3, alkali macromolecules and heavy metal compounds (such as Hg) during the gasification process. Removal of these contaminants using conventional processes is thermally inefficient and capital intensive. This research and development effort is focused on investigation of modular processes for removal of sulfur, chlorine, nitrogen and mercury compounds from syngas at elevated temperature and pressures at significantly lower costs than conventional technologies.

Merkel, T.C.; Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.; Cicero, D.C.; Jain, S.C.

2002-09-20

397

Exploring Resonant di-Higgs production in the Higgs Singlet Model  

E-print Network

We study the enhancement of the di-Higgs production cross section resulting from the resonant decay of a heavy Higgs boson at hadron colliders in a model with a Higgs singlet. This enhancement of the double Higgs production rate is crucial in understanding the structure of the scalar potential and we determine the maximum allowed enhancement such that the electroweak minimum is a global minimum. The di-Higgs production enhancement can be as large as a factor of ~ 18 (13) for the mass of the heavy Higgs around 270 (420) GeV relative to the Standard Model rate at 14 TeV for parameters corresponding to a global electroweak minimum.

Chen, Chien-Yi; Lewis, I M

2014-01-01

398

Exploring Perception of Indians about Plain Packaging of Tobacco Products: A Mixed Method Research  

PubMed Central

This study assessed perceptions and support among the Indian populace about plain packaging for all tobacco products. Twelve focus group discussions (n?=?124), stakeholder analysis with 24 officials and an opinion poll with 346 participants were conducted between December 2011 and May 2012, Delhi. Plain packages for tobacco products were favored by majority of participants (69%) and key stakeholders (92%). The majority of participants perceived that plain packaging would reduce the appeal and promotional value of the tobacco pack (>80%), prevent initiation of tobacco use among children and youth (>60%), motivate tobacco users to quit (>80%), increase notice ability, and effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on tobacco packs (>90%), reduce tobacco usage (75% of key stakeholders). Majority of participants favored light gray color for plain packaging. This study provides key evidence to advocate with Indian Government and other countries in South Asia region to introduce plain packaging legislation for all tobacco products. PMID:24350204

Arora, Monika; Tewari, Abha; Grills, Nathan; Nazar, Gaurang P.; Sonrexa, Juhi; Gupta, Vinay K.; Moodie, Rob; Reddy, K. S.

2013-01-01

399

Predicting natural product value, an exploration of anti-TB drug space.  

PubMed

Covering: January 1990 to December 2012. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) still remains a deadly pathogen two decades after the announcement of tuberculosis (TB) as a global health emergency by the World Health Organization. In last few years new drug combinations have shown promising potential to significantly shorten TB treatment times. However there are very few new chemical entities being developed to treat this global threat. From January 1990 to December 2012, 949 anti-mycobacterium natural products were reported in the literature. Here we present a perspective based on an analysis of the drug-like properties of the reported anti-mycobacterium natural products in order to assess drug potential. PMID:24881816

Dashti, Yousef; Grkovic, Tanja; Quinn, Ronald J

2014-08-01

400

78 FR 33051 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity, The Gas Company, LLC dba Hawai'i Gas, Subzone 9F...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...authority to produce synthetic natural gas, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, hydrocarbon gas mixtures and zinc sulfide using certain...synthetic natural gas, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, hydrocarbon gas mixtures and zinc sulfide (duty rate...

2013-06-03

401

Simulating the gas hydrate production test at Mallik using the pilot scale pressure reservoir LARS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LARS, the LArge Reservoir Simulator, allows for one of the few pilot scale simulations of gas hydrate formation and dissociation under controlled conditions with a high resolution sensor network to enable the detection of spatial variations. It was designed and built within the German project SUGAR (submarine gas hydrate reservoirs) for sediment samples with a diameter of 0.45 m and a length of 1.3 m. During the project, LARS already served for a number of experiments simulating the production of gas from hydrate-bearing sediments using thermal stimulation and/or depressurization. The latest test simulated the methane production test from gas hydrate-bearing sediments at the Mallik test site, Canada, in 2008 (Uddin et al., 2011). Thus, the starting conditions of 11.5 MPa and 11°C and environmental parameters were set to fit the Mallik test site. The experimental gas hydrate saturation of 90% of the total pore volume (70 l) was slightly higher than volumes found in gas hydrate-bearing formations in the field (70 - 80%). However, the resulting permeability of a few millidarcy was comparable. The depressurization driven gas production at Mallik was conducted in three steps at 7.0 MPa - 5.0 MPa - 4.2 MPa all of which were used in the laboratory experiments. In the lab the pressure was controlled using a back pressure regulator while the confining pressure was stable. All but one of the 12 temperature sensors showed a rapid decrease in temperature throughout the sediment sample, which accompanied the pressure changes as a result of gas hydrate dissociation. During step 1 and 2 they continued up to the point where gas hydrate stability was regained. The pressure decreases and gas hydrate dissociation led to highly variable two phase fluid flow throughout the duration of the simulated production test. The flow rates were measured continuously (gas) and discontinuously (liquid), respectively. Next to being discussed here, both rates were used to verify a model of gas hydrate dissociation applying the foamy oil approach, a method earlier adopted to model the Mallik production test (see abstract Abendroth et al., this volume). Combined with a dense set of data from a cylindrical electrical resistance tomography (ERT) array (see abstract Priegnitz et al., this volume), very valuable information were gained on the spatial as well as temporal formation and dissociation of gas hydrates as well as changes in permeability and resulting pathways for the fluid flow. Here we present the set-up and execution of the experiment and discuss the results from temperature and flow measurements with respect to the gas hydrate dissociation and characteristics of resulting fluid flow. Uddin, M., Wright, F., and Coombe, D. 2011. Numerical Study of Gas Evolution and Transport Behaviours in Natural Gas-Hydrate Reservoirs. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology 50, 70-89.

Heeschen, Katja; Spangenberg, Erik; Schicks, Judith M.; Priegnitz, Mike; Giese, Ronny; Luzi-Helbing, Manja

2014-05-01

402

Environmental Damage, Abandoned Treaties, and Fossil-Fuel Dependence: The Coming Costs of Oil-and-Gas Exploration in the “1002 Area” of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to claims from American politicians, lobbyists, and oil and gas executives, allowing energy development in the Alaskan\\u000a Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) will harm the environment, compromise international law, erode the social significance\\u000a of wilderness protection, and ultimately fail to?increase the energy security of the United States. After exploring a brief\\u000a history of the ANWR controversy, this piece argues

Benjamin K. Sovacool

2007-01-01

403

Co-production of gas and water, fifth year. Annual report, August 1985-July 1986  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this research effort were to locate, evaluate, acquire and test one or more co-production prospects. A prospect identification program was developed to locate prospective co-production reservoirs on the Texas Gulf Coast. The reservoirs identified were ranked according to their potential for enhanced gas recovery, monitored and updated from industry activity at or near the prospects. N.E. Hitchcock, one of the two highest ranked prospects, was recommended to and approved by GRI as a co-production test project. The project, currently in progress, proceeded in two distinct areas, (1) research on water treatment of brine produced in conjunction with gas, and (2) a field wide test of the Frio 9100 reservoir. The water treatment study has been completed and the co-production testing is currently in progress. The second prospect, Port Arthur, recently initiated testing of the Frio Hackberry C reservoir.

Howell, R.W.; Peterson, K.P.; Anderson, L.L.; Parisi, W.A.

1986-08-01

404

The Interface between Morphology and Phonology: Exploring a Morpho-Phonological Deficit in Spoken Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a…

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-01-01

405

Exploration of Lexical-Semantic Factors Affecting Stress Production in Derived Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined whether lexical frequency, semantic knowledge, or sentence context affect children's production of primary stress in derived words with stress-changing suffixes (e.g., "-ity"). Method: Thirty children (M[subscript age] = 9;1 [years;months]) produced a limited set of high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) derived…

Jarmulowicz, Linda; Taran, Valentina L.

2007-01-01

406

Public services co-production: exploring the role of citizen orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Since the introduction of “new public management” in the 1980s, public officials have looked for solutions to increase citizen participation in services planning and provision. Despite recent advancements in co-production and value-creation literature, the public sector is still lagging behind. A few studies have recently tried to investigate factors leading to public officials' resistance to adopting these new

Fabio Cassia; Francesca Magno

2009-01-01

407

Exploring the perceived influence of South African adolescents on product purchases by family communication type  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the effect of family communication types on the perceived purchase influence of South African adolescents (13–18 years) across 34 product groups. The research builds on previous research in developed countries such as America and Israel, but represents only one of a few in a developing country such as South Africa that integrates family communication and consumer purchase

Deon Tustin

2009-01-01

408

Exploring consumers' adoption of highly technological fashion products : The role of extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study seeks to develop and test a model of consumers' adoption of highly technological fashion products (HTFPs) through modifying the technology acceptance model (TAM). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Using a convenience sampling method, students between 18 to 26 years old were chosen as the sample population from a mid-size southern university in the USA. The final sample consisted of

Kittichai Watchravesringkan; Nancy Nelson Hodges; Yun-Hee Kim

2010-01-01

409

Exploring the Facial Expression Perception-Production Link Using Real-time  

E-print Network

interacting with a production training video game called the Emotion Mirror or playing a control video game. Consistent with the prediction that perceptual benefits are tied to expression produc- tion, individuals learning is a theme that has become widespread in cognitive science, dating back to the motor theory

Bartlett, Marian Stewart

410

Exploring the Limits of Crop Productivity: Beyond the Limits of Tipburn in Lettuce  

Microsoft Academic Search

The productivity of lettuce in a combination of high light, high temperature, and elevated CO2 has not been commonly studied because rapid growth usually causes a calcium defi ciency in meristems called tipburn, which greatly reduces quality and marketability. We eliminated tipburn by blowing air directly onto the meristem, which allowed us to increase the photosynthetic photon fl ux (PPF)

Jonathan M. Frantz; Glen Ritchie; Nilton N. Cometti; Justin Robinson; Bruce Bugbee

2004-01-01

411

From SuperGoo to Scratch: exploring creative digital media production in informal learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on work in media studies, new literacy studies, applied linguistics, the arts and empirical research on the experiences of urban youths' informal media arts practices, we articulate a new vision for media education in the digital age that encompasses new genres, convergence, media mixes and participation. We first outline the history of how students' creative production has been used

Kylie A. Peppler; Yasmin B. Kafai

2007-01-01

412

Gas-use tax a poor alternative to deregulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federal policies and regulations, especially proposed taxes and existing wellhead price controls, are seen as counterproductive to the exploration and production of new natural gas supplies and as effectively encouraging greater consumption of imported oil. A U.S. policy of not providing financial incentives for natural gas exploration has prompted the natural gas industry to recommend a better climate for the

1977-01-01

413

Energy Data Reports: crude petroleum, petroleum products, and natural gas liquids, 1979. Final summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are presented on crude oil, refined petroleum products and natural gas liquids supply, disposition and stocks in the US for 1979. Production of crude petroleum (including lease condensate) in the US in 1979 averaged 8,552,000 barrels\\/day, a decrease of 155,000 barrels\\/day, or 1.8%, below the 1978 level, reports the Energy Information Administration, United States Department of Energy. Of the

1980-01-01

414

Multivariate data base for the solution of geologic problems in exploring for oil and gas in West Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploration data bases are distinguished in that many data elements change continuously over geologic time. Also, for maximum practical utility in exploration, the data base must be distributed. The data base developed by Tyumengeologiya on the West Siberian basin is composed of three fundamental elements. The first elemental covers the overall geologic structure of the basin, including tectonic, stratigraphic, and

V. I. ShpilMan; V. M. Yakovlev

1991-01-01

415

Exploring the roles of temperature and NOx on ozone production in the Sacramento urban plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the role of temperature and NOx (NOx = NO+NO2) on ozone (O3) production in the Sacramento urban plume over a stretch of seven years (2001-2007) using data collected at UC Blodgett Forest Research Station (a forested site in the Sierra Nevadas about 80 km downwind of Sacramento, CA) and at a series of California Air Resources Board (CARB) sites along the Sacramento-Blodgett transect. The consistent daytime wind patterns between the Central Valley of California and the foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains permits the assumption of plume transport from downtown Sacramento, over the CARB monitoring sites in the eastern suburbs, and past the Blodgett Forest research site. While NOx emissions are limited primarily to the urban and suburban regions of the transect, biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are significant throughout the transect, thus there is a fast transition from VOC-limited to NOx-limited as the plume travels away from the urban center, and we have the opportunity to analyze the differences in ozone production across these two chemical regimes. For this analysis, the Sacramento-Blodgett transect is separated into three segments: urban, suburban, and rural, defined by the locations of selected monitoring sites. Ozone concentrations across each segment are controlled by chemical production (Pchem) and loss (Lchem), deposition to surfaces (Ldep), and mixing with background air (Lmix). At an assumed deposition rate, mixing rate, and background O3 concentration, the net chemical flux of ozone (Pchem - Lchem) can be inferred from differences in ozone concentrations between adjacent monitoring sites. We show that ozone production rates, in general, increase with temperature. We also show that decreases in NOx emissions over the period from 2001-2007 have been effective at reducing ozone production at all points along the transect, but only on days where temperatures are highest. At low temperatures, this decrease is less apparent, and in the urban transect, ozone production is observed to increase as NOx concentrations decrease. This is attributed to the high NOx/VOC ratio that results from reduced biogenic emissions and strong local inputs of NOx, thus driving the chemical environment into a NOx-saturated regime. From these results, we give predictions of future ozone exceedences for various emissions and climate scenarios.

Lafranchi, B. W.; Cohen, R. C.

2009-12-01

416

Microbial electrolysis cells for high yield hydrogen gas production from organic matter.  

PubMed

The use of electrochemically active bacteria to break down organic matter, combined with the addition of a small voltage (> 0.2 V in practice) in specially designed microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), can result in a high yield of hydrogen gas. While microbial electrolysis was invented only a few years ago, rapid developments have led to hydrogen yields approaching 100%, energy yields based on electrical energy input many times greater than that possible by water electrolysis, and increased gas production rates. MECs used to make hydrogen gas are similar in design to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) that produce electricity, but there are important differences in architecture and analytical methods used to evaluate performance. We review here the materials, architectures, performance, and energy efficiencies of these MEC systems that show promise as a method for renewable and sustainable energy production, and wastewater treatment. PMID:19192774

Logan, Bruce E; Call, Douglas; Cheng, Shaoan; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Sleutels, Tom H J A; Jeremiasse, Adriaan W; Rozendal, René A

2008-12-01

417

Swarm intelligence for multi-objective optimization of synthesis gas production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the chemical industry, the production of methanol, ammonia, hydrogen and higher hydrocarbons require synthesis gas (or syn gas). The main three syn gas production methods are carbon dioxide reforming (CRM), steam reforming (SRM) and partial-oxidation of methane (POM). In this work, multi-objective (MO) optimization of the combined CRM and POM was carried out. The empirical model and the MO problem formulation for this combined process were obtained from previous works. The central objectives considered in this problem are methane conversion, carbon monoxide selectivity and the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio. The MO nature of the problem was tackled using the Normal Boundary Intersection (NBI) method. Two techniques (Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)) were then applied in conjunction with the NBI method. The performance of the two algorithms and the quality of the solutions were gauged by using two performance metrics. Comparative studies and results analysis were then carried out on the optimization results.

Ganesan, T.; Vasant, P.; Elamvazuthi, I.; Ku Shaari, Ku Zilati

2012-11-01

418

Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB)  

E-print Network

Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Overview Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB) to cool process syngas. The gas enters satisfies all 3 design criteria. · Correlations relating our experimental results to a waste heat boiler

Demirel, Melik C.

419

Designing inhibitors against fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase: exploring natural products for novel inhibitor scaffolds.  

PubMed

Natural products often contain unusual scaffold structures that may be elaborated by combinatorial methods to develop new drug-like molecules. Visual inspection of more than 128 natural products with some type of anti-diabetic activity suggested that a subset might provide novel scaffolds for designing potent inhibitors against fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), an enzyme critical in the control of gluconeogenesis. Using in silico docking methodology, these were evaluated to determine those that exhibited affinity for the AMP binding site. Achyrofuran from the South American plant Achyrocline satureoides, was selected for further investigation. Using the achyrofuran scaffold, inhibitors against FBPase were developed. Compounds 15 and 16 inhibited human liver and pig kidney FBPases at IC50 values comparable to that of AMP, the natural allosteric inhibitor. PMID:20116906

Heng, Sabrina; Harris, Katharine M; Kantrowitz, Evan R

2010-04-01

420

Advancements in Ti Alloy Powder Production by Close-Coupled Gas Atomization  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the technology for titanium metal injection molding (Ti-MIM) becomes more readily available, efficient Ti alloy fine powder production methods are required. An update on a novel close-coupled gas atomization system has been given. Unique features of the melting apparatus are shown to have measurable effects on the efficiency and ability to fully melt within the induction skull melting system

Andy Heidloff; Joel Rieken; Iver Anderson; David Byrd

2011-01-01

421

Heat-shield for gas-burning flare in oil production installations, particularly platforms at sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is disclosed to protect oil production installations from heat radiation given off by the flame of a gas-burning flare. In said process, a heat-shield is installed a short distance below the flare nozzle, to protect installations from at least part of the heat radiated by the flare flame.

G. Chaudot; R. Ombret; P. Zimmerman

1982-01-01

422

Feasibility of monitoring gas hydrate production with time-lapse VSP  

SciTech Connect

In this work we begin to examine the feasibility of using time-lapse seismic methods-specifically the vertical seismic profiling (VSP) method-for monitoring changes in hydrate accumulations that are predicted to occur during production of natural gas.

Kowalsky, M.B.; Nakagawa, S.; Moridis, G.J.

2009-11-01

423

Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas and Energy Analyses of Algae Biofuels Production  

E-print Network

Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas and Energy Analyses of Algae Biofuels Production Transportation Energy The Issue Algae biofuels directly address the Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research the sustainability of algae biofuels suggests that the lifecycle performance of these fuels is a critical

424

Development of a method for estimating emissions from oil and gas production sites utilizing remote observations  

EPA Science Inventory

There is a lack of information on emissions of ozone precursors, hazardous air pollutants, and greenhouse gases from oil and gas production operations, and measurement of these emissions presents many challenges. Assessment is complicated by the fugitive nature ofthe emissions, v...

425

Title: Using acidic electrolyzed water to reduce objectionable gas emissions from poultry production facilities in Texas.  

E-print Network

the ammonia and the resulting product can be used for fertilizer. However, sulfuric acid costs more facilities that uses sulfuric acid to scrub ammonia out of the air. It has been effective in removingTitle: Using acidic electrolyzed water to reduce objectionable gas emissions from poultry

Mukhtar, Saqib

426

MERCURY IN PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS: ESTIMATION OF EMISSIONS FROM PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an examination of mercury (Hg) in liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons that are produced and/or processed in the U.S. The Hg associated with petroleum and natural gas production and processing enters the environment primarily via solid waste streams (drilli...

427

The use of expert systems in process design for offshore oil and gas production systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the details of the development effort which is currently underway at Hudson Engineering Corporation to automate the design of conventional offshore gas and oil production facilities. A front-end design engineering expert system has been developed which utilizes artificial intelligence techniques to assist process and facility engineers in performing feasibility studies to allow for quick development of a

H. Agnili; G. Montgomery; A. Amlani; J. Shah

1987-01-01

428

Monitoring of Emissions from Natural Gas Production Facilities in Barnett Shale Area for Population Exposure Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Barnett Shale study was conducted in April-May 2010 to provide a better understanding of population exposure to air toxics associated with gas production operations in the Barnett Shale region of North Texas. The Barnett Shale is a geological formation that stretches form Dallas to west of Fort Worth and southward, covering 5,000 square miles and 18 counties in the

B. Zielinska; E. Fujita; D. Campbell; V. Samburova; E. Hendler; C. S. Beskid

2010-01-01

429

Fibrous illite controls productivity in frontier gas sandstones, Moxa Arch, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that core, log, and well-test analyses from two wells recently completed in the Frontier sandstone in the Moxa Arch area of Wyoming revealed that fibrous illite severely reduced gas productivity. In this study area, presence of fibrous illite currently cannot be predicted and effects can be recognized only through laboratory tests on preserved cores.

Luffel, D.L. (ResTech Houston, Inc., TX (United States)); Herrington. K.L. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)); Harrison, C.W. (AGIP Petroleum Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1992-12-01

430

DESULFURIZATION OF HOT BIOMASS PRODUCT GAS WITH REGENERATIVE ADSORBENTS FOR SOFC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing need for sustainable energy and the independency from fossil fuels makes biomass an important energy source. The gasification of biomass with a subsequent use of the product gas in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) can achieve a higher overall efficiency compared to conventional combined heat and power plants (CHP). Impurities like dust, alkali, heavy metal, sulfur and halogenous

G. Bamberger; A. Schweiger; U. Hohenwarter

431

GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIPHASE FLOW NETWORKS IN OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

the production. The problem has been studied by many people, including Fang and Lo [1]. In that paper, a scheme, the introduction of new sub sea technologies has changed this f will in such configurations be affected by the flow from the wells. The commonly used models based on gas lift performance

Johansen, Tor Arne

432

Thermo-economic process model for thermochemical production of Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) from lignocellulosic biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed thermo-economic model considering different technological alternatives for thermochemical production of Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) from lignocellulosic biomass is presented. First, candidate technology for processes based on biomass gasification and subsequent methanation is discussed and assembled in a general superstructure. Both energetic and economic models for biomass drying with air or steam, thermal pretreatment by torrefaction or pyrolysis, indirectly

Martin Gassner; François Maréchal

2009-01-01

433

Methane hydrates as potential energy resource: Part 2 – Methane production processes from gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three processes have been proposed for dissociation of methane hydrates: thermal stimulation, depressurization, and inhibitor injection. The obvious production approaches involve depressurization, heating and their combinations. The depressurization method is lowering the pressure inside the well and encouraging the methane hydrate to dissociate. Its objective is to lower the pressure in the free-gas zone immediately beneath the hydrate stability zone,

Ayhan Demirbas

2010-01-01