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1

Environmental Compliance for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production  

SciTech Connect

The Appalachian/Illinois Basin Directors is a group devoted to increasing communication among the state oil and gas regulatory agencies within the Appalachian and Illinois Basin producing region. The group is comprised of representatives from the oil and gas regulatory agencies from states in the basin (Attachment A). The directors met to discuss regulatory issues common to the area, organize workshops and seminars to meet the training needs of agencies dealing with the uniqueness of their producing region and perform other business pertinent to this area of oil and gas producing states. The emphasis of the coordinated work was a wide range of topics related to environmental compliance for natural gas and oil exploration and production.

Hansen, Christine

1999-10-26

2

Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed during the initial period of the project 'Probabilistic Risk Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems.' The specific region that is within the scope of this study is the Fayetteville Shale Play. This is an unconventional, tight formation, natural gas play that currently has approximately 1.5 million acres under lease, primarily to Southwestern Energy Incorporated and Chesapeake Energy Incorporated. The currently active play encompasses a region from approximately Fort Smith, AR east to Little Rock, AR approximately 50 miles wide (from North to South). The initial estimates for this field put it almost on par with the Barnett Shale play in Texas. It is anticipated that thousands of wells will be drilled during the next several years; this will entail installation of massive support infrastructure of roads and pipelines, as well as drilling fluid disposal pits and infrastructure to handle millions of gallons of fracturing fluids. This project focuses on gas production in Arkansas as the test bed for application of proactive risk management decision support system for natural gas exploration and production. The activities covered in this report include meetings with representative stakeholders, development of initial content and design for an educational web site, and development and preliminary testing of an interactive mapping utility designed to provide users with information that will allow avoidance of sensitive areas during the development of the Fayetteville Shale Play. These tools have been presented to both regulatory and industrial stakeholder groups, and their feedback has been incorporated into the project.

Greg Thoma; John Veil; Fred Limp; Jackson Cothren; Bruce Gorham; Malcolm Williamson; Peter Smith; Bob Sullivan

2009-05-31

3

Offsite commercial disposal of oil and gas exploration and production waste :availability, options, and cost.  

SciTech Connect

A survey conducted in 1995 by the American Petroleum Institute (API) found that the U.S. exploration and production (E&P) segment of the oil and gas industry generated more than 149 million bbl of drilling wastes, almost 18 billion bbl of produced water, and 21 million bbl of associated wastes. The results of that survey, published in 2000, suggested that 3% of drilling wastes, less than 0.5% of produced water, and 15% of associated wastes are sent to offsite commercial facilities for disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) collected information on commercial E&P waste disposal companies in different states in 1997. While the information is nearly a decade old, the report has proved useful. In 2005, Argonne began collecting current information to update and expand the data. This report describes the new 2005-2006 database and focuses on the availability of offsite commercial disposal companies, the prevailing disposal methods, and estimated disposal costs. The data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, state oil and gas regulatory officials in 31 states were contacted to determine whether their agency maintained a list of permitted commercial disposal companies dedicated to oil. In the second stage, individual commercial disposal companies were interviewed to determine disposal methods and costs. The availability of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities falls into three categories. The states with high oil and gas production typically have a dedicated network of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities in place. In other states, such an infrastructure does not exist and very often, commercial disposal companies focus on produced water services. About half of the states do not have any industry-specific offsite commercial disposal infrastructure. In those states, operators take their wastes to local municipal landfills if permitted or haul the wastes to other states. This report provides state-by-state summaries of the types of offsite commercial disposal facilities that are found in each state. In later sections, data are presented by waste type and then by disposal method.

Puder, M. G.; Veil, J. A.

2006-09-05

4

Framework for managing wastes from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) sites.  

SciTech Connect

Oil and gas companies operate in many countries around the world. Their exploration and production (E&P) operations generate many kinds of waste that must be carefully and appropriately managed. Some of these wastes are inherently part of the E&P process; examples are drilling wastes and produced water. Other wastes are generic industrial wastes that are not unique to E&P activities, such as painting wastes and scrap metal. Still other wastes are associated with the presence of workers at the site; these include trash, food waste, and laundry wash water. In some host countries, mature environmental regulatory programs are in place that provide for various waste management options on the basis of the characteristics of the wastes and the environmental settings of the sites. In other countries, the waste management requirements and authorized options are stringent, even though the infrastructure to meet the requirements may not be available yet. In some cases, regulations and/or waste management infrastructure do not exist at all. Companies operating in these countries can be confronted with limited and expensive waste management options.

Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.; Environmental Science Division

2007-09-15

5

Devonian shale gas exploration and production studies. Final report, November 1983-April 1986  

SciTech Connect

Ten wells in southwestern West Virginia were selected as potential candidates for in-depth study to identify Devonian-shale-gas production-controlling mechanisms. Wells were studied using geophysical logs, TV log, and flow measurements. Sidewall cores were retrieved for geochemical and geophysical analyses. The well studies were augmented with a seismic survey, production data analysis and data collection for approximately 1400 wells in the study area.

Wallace, J.L.; Koziar, G.; Lemon, J.P.; Akers, M.J.

1986-08-01

6

Devonian shale gas exploration and production studies. Final report, November 1983April 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten wells in southwestern West Virginia were selected as potential candidates for in-depth study to identify Devonian-shale-gas production-controlling mechanisms. Wells were studied using geophysical logs, TV log, and flow measurements. Sidewall cores were retrieved for geochemical and geophysical analyses. The well studies were augmented with a seismic survey, production data analysis and data collection for approximately 1400 wells in the

J. L. Wallace; G. Koziar; J. P. Lemon; M. J. Akers

1986-01-01

7

Oil and Gas Exploration Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise simulates the geologic, economic, and competitive business conditions usually encountered in oil and gas exploration. Each student is now a geologist with their own exploration and production corporation, and all corporations are competing to find oil and gas resources in the map area provided. Every section in this quadrangle has been drilled by oil companies in the past. Everyone agrees there must be oil and/or gas here, but no one has been successful in bringing in a producing well. Apparently none of the companies bothered to hire a geologist to analyze the data (weird!). They have gone bankrupt and the leases are all available for sale. Suddenly several corporations with geologists (you) appear on the scene, but with limited capital. The principal goal is to make as big a profit as possible for your corporation; therefore you must find the most oil and gas possible in a limited amount of time. To find oil and gas deposits, there are essentially 3 steps: 1) Gather information about the geology of the area and determine areas that are potential traps 2) Make bids on the land that you determine has high potential 3) Drill wells to see if you are correct

Goodliffe, Andrew M.

8

Measurement of atmospheric pollutants associated with oil and natural gas exploration and production activity in Pennsylvania's Allegheny National Forest.  

PubMed

Oil and natural gas exploration and production (E&P) activities generate emissions from diesel engines, compressor stations, condensate tanks, leaks and venting of natural gas, construction of well pads, and well access roads that can negatively impact air quality on both local and regional scales. A mobile, autonomous air quality monitoring laboratory was constructed to collect measurements of ambient concentrations of pollutants associated with oil and natural gas E&P activities. This air-monitoring laboratory was deployed to the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) in northwestern Pennsylvania for a campaign that resulted in the collection of approximately 7 months of data split between three monitoring locations between July 2010 and June 2011. The three monitoring locations were the Kane Experimental Forest (KEF) area in Elk County, which is downwind of the Sackett oilfield; the Bradford Ranger Station (BRS) in McKean County, which is downwind of a large area of historic oil and gas productivity; and the U.S. Forest Service Hearts Content campground (HC) in Warren County, which is in an area relatively unimpacted by oil and gas development and which therefore yielded background pollutant concentrations in the ANF. Concentrations of criteria pollutants ozone and NO2 did not vary significantly from site to site; averages were below National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas (ethane, propane, butane, pentane) were highly correlated. Applying the conditional probability function (CPF) to the ethane data yielded most probable directions of the sources that were coincident with known location of existing wells and activity. Differences between the two impacted and one background site were difficult to discern, suggesting the that the monitoring laboratory was a great enough distance downwind of active areas to allow for sufficient dispersion with background air such that the localized plumes were not detected. Implications: Monitoring of pollutants associated with oil and natural gas exploration and production activity at three sites within the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) showed only slight site-to-site differences even with one site far removed from these activities. However, the impact was evident not in detection of localized plumes but in regional elevated ethane concentrations, as ethane can be considered a tracer species for oil and natural gas activity. The data presented serve as baseline conditions for evaluation of impacts from future development of Marcellus or Utica shale gas reserves. PMID:25283004

Pekney, Natalie J; Veloski, Garret; Reeder, Matthew; Tamilia, Joseph; Rupp, Erik; Wetzel, Alan

2014-09-01

9

Reducing Onshore Natural Gas and Oil Exploration and Production Impacts Using a Broad-Based Stakeholder Approach  

SciTech Connect

Never before has the reduction of oil and gas exploration and production impacts been as important as it is today for operators, regulators, non-governmental organizations and individual landowners. Collectively, these stakeholders are keenly interested in the potential benefits from implementing effective environmental impact reducing technologies and practices. This research project strived to gain input and insight from such a broad array of stakeholders in order to identify approaches with the potential to satisfy their diverse objectives. The research team examined three of the most vital issue categories facing onshore domestic production today: (1) surface damages including development in urbanized areas, (2) impacts to wildlife (specifically greater sage grouse), and (3) air pollution, including its potential contribution to global climate change. The result of the research project is a LINGO (Low Impact Natural Gas and Oil) handbook outlining approaches aimed at avoiding, minimizing, or mitigating environmental impacts. The handbook identifies technical solutions and approaches which can be implemented in a practical and feasible manner to simultaneously achieve a legitimate balance between environmental protection and fluid mineral development. It is anticipated that the results of this research will facilitate informed planning and decision making by management agencies as well as producers of oil and natural gas. In 2008, a supplemental task was added for the researchers to undertake a 'Basin Initiative Study' that examines undeveloped and/or underdeveloped oil and natural gas resources on a regional or geologic basin scope to stimulate more widespread awareness and development of domestic resources. Researchers assessed multi-state basins (or plays), exploring state initiatives, state-industry partnerships and developing strategies to increase U.S. oil and gas supplies while accomplishing regional economic and environmental goals.

Amy Childers

2011-03-30

10

Exploring Products: Nano Fabrics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how the application of nano-sized "whiskers" can protect clothing from stains. Learners investigate the hydrophobic properties of pants made from nano fabric and ordinary fabric. Use this activity to talk about products that we can already buy that use nanotechnology, like treated fabrics, water filters, sunscreen and stuffed animals that have silver nanoparticles.

Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network

2010-01-01

11

Characterizing Natural Gas Hydrates in the Deep Water Gulf of Mexico: Applications for Safe Exploration and Production Activities  

SciTech Connect

In 2000 Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deep water portion of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Chevron is an active explorer and operator in the Gulf of Mexico and is aware that natural gas hydrates need to be understood to operate safely in deep water. In August 2000 Chevron worked closely with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and held a workshop in Houston, Texas to define issues concerning the characterization of natural gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, the workshop was meant to clearly show where research, the development of new technologies, and new information sources would be of benefit to the DOE and to the oil and gas industry in defining issues and solving gas hydrate problems in deep water.

Bent, Jimmy

2014-05-31

12

A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. (BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States))

1991-05-01

13

Exploration-production studies in newly drilled Devonian shale gas wells. Annual report, February1988January 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cooperative program is part of a continuing field-oriented effort whose objectives are to identify productive gas zones, to develop a comprehensive set of diagnostics, and to determine the effectiveness of various stimulation techniques. To date, the program has encompassed 71 cooperative wells and 15 participating producers with outside funding in excess of 10 million dollars. The program has progressed

R. L. Graham; J. Foster; P. Amick; J. Worthington

1989-01-01

14

Conference on the topic: {open_quotes}Exploration and production of petroleum and gas from chalk reservoirs worldwide{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect

More than 170 delegates from 14 countries in Europe, North America, Africa, and Asia took part in a conference on the topic: Exploration and Production of Petroleum and Gas from Chalk Reservoirs Worldwide. The conference was held in Copenhagen, Denmark in September,1994, and was a joint meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the European Association of Petroleum Geoscientists and Engineers (EAPG). In addition to the opening remarks, 25 oral and nine poster reports were presented. The topics included chalk deposits as reservoir rocks, the occurrence of chalk deposits worldwide, the North Sea oil and gas fields, and other related topics.

Kuznetsov, V.G.

1995-07-01

15

An Exploration on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Production by Insect Species Suitable for Animal or Human Consumption  

PubMed Central

Background Greenhouse gas (GHG) production, as a cause of climate change, is considered as one of the biggest problems society is currently facing. The livestock sector is one of the large contributors of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Also, large amounts of ammonia (NH3), leading to soil nitrification and acidification, are produced by livestock. Therefore other sources of animal protein, like edible insects, are currently being considered. Methodology/Principal Findings An experiment was conducted to quantify production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and average daily gain (ADG) as a measure of feed conversion efficiency, and to quantify the production of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) as well as NH3 by five insect species of which the first three are considered edible: Tenebrio molitor, Acheta domesticus, Locusta migratoria, Pachnoda marginata, and Blaptica dubia. Large differences were found among the species regarding their production of CO2 and GHGs. The insects in this study had a higher relative growth rate and emitted comparable or lower amounts of GHG than described in literature for pigs and much lower amounts of GHG than cattle. The same was true for CO2 production per kg of metabolic weight and per kg of mass gain. Furthermore, also the production of NH3 by insects was lower than for conventional livestock. Conclusions/Significance This study therefore indicates that insects could serve as a more environmentally friendly alternative for the production of animal protein with respect to GHG and NH3 emissions. The results of this study can be used as basic information to compare the production of insects with conventional livestock by means of a life cycle analysis. PMID:21206900

Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; van Itterbeeck, Joost; Heetkamp, Marcel J. W.; van den Brand, Henry; van Loon, Joop J. A.; van Huis, Arnold

2010-01-01

16

Exploring Products: Nano Sand  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how water behaves differently when it comes in contact with "nano sand" and regular sand. Learners learn about the hydrophobic properties of "nano sand." Use this activity to talk about how many materials behave differently at the nanoscale.

2014-06-16

17

A Novel Geotechnical/Geostatistical Approach for Exploration and Production of Natural Gas from Multiple Geologic Strata: Quarterly report, January 1-March 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses dewatering and production extension test periods, and the demonstration of newly developed technologies for multi-strata gas and water production to enhance commercial applications.

NONE

1997-12-31

18

A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1. Volume 2, Geology and engineering  

SciTech Connect

This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. [BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1991-05-01

19

Exploration-production studies in newly drilled Devonian-shale gas wells. Annual technical report, February 1, 1987January 31, 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cooperative program is a continuing field-oriented effort whose objectives are to identify productive gas zones, to develop a comprehensive set of diagnostics, and to determine the effectiveness of various stimulation techniques. To date, the program has encompassed fifty cooperative wells and twelve participating producers, with outside funding in excess of 8 million dollars. The rapport established with these producers

R. L. Graham; J. Foster; K. Walbe; J. Worthington

1988-01-01

20

Investigations Into Devonian Shale Gas Production Mechanisms in Southern Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic gas production from the Devonian Shale requires permeable pathways combined with matrix storage. These pathways may include fractures, bedding planes or silt layers. The Gas Research Institute is sponsoring a research project to evaluate the relationships these geologic features and productive gas flows have with the eventual aim of developing better exploration, stimulation and production strategies. This study will

T. W. Thompson; R. A. McBane; Gary Sitler; Jon Strawn; Mark Moody

1984-01-01

21

Exploring Careers. Industrial Production Occupations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Exploring Careers" is a career education resource program, presented in fifteen separate booklets, for junior high school-age students. It provides information about the world of work and offers its readers a way of learning about themselves and relating that information to career choices. The publications aim to build career awareness by means…

Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

22

Evolution of gas saturation and relative permeability during gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments: Gas invasion vs. gas nucleation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

and both gas and water permeabilities change as a function of gas saturation. Typical trends established in the discipline of unsaturated soil behavior are used when simulating gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments. However, the evolution of gas saturation and water drainage in gas invasion (i.e., classical soil behavior) and gas nucleation (i.e., gas production) is inherently different: micromodel experimental results show that gas invasion forms a continuous flow path while gas nucleation forms isolated gas clusters. Complementary simulations conducted using tube networks explore the implications of the two different desaturation processes. In spite of their distinct morphological differences in fluid displacement, numerical results show that the computed capillarity-saturation curves are very similar in gas invasion and nucleation (the gas-water interface confronts similar pore throat size distribution in both cases); the relative water permeability trends are similar (the mean free path for water flow is not affected by the topology of the gas phase); and the relative gas permeability is slightly lower in nucleation (delayed percolation of initially isolated gas-filled pores that do not contribute to gas conductivity). Models developed for unsaturated sediments can be used for reservoir simulation in the context of gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments, with minor adjustments to accommodate a lower gas invasion pressure Po and a higher gas percolation threshold.

Jang, Jaewon; Santamarina, J. Carlos

2014-01-01

23

Geology of marine evaporites favorable for oil, gas exploration  

SciTech Connect

Significant petroleum production related to carbonate-evaporite sequences has been found in many areas such as the Delaware, Paradox, and Michigan basins of North America and the Phanerozoic oil-bearing sediments of the Middle East and the North Sea. The regular association of petroleum and evaporites long has been recognized in almost all major oil-producing chemical and biochemical reservoir rocks of the world. A geologic approach to an exploration strategy may illustrate the facies relationships and hydrocarbon occurrences that provide a model for discovering the physical and chemical aspects of petroleum generation, migration, and accumulation, as well as the stratigraphic-tectonic relations necessary for entrapping oil and gas. This article endeavors to review exploration to date on the productive potential of evaporite basins, to appraise basic requirements for evaporitic environments to contain potential hydrocarbons, and to assess the significance of marine evaporites in petroleum geology.

Billo, S.M. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

1996-02-05

24

Exploration-production studies in newly drilled Devonian-shale gas wells. Annual technical report, February 1, 1987-January 31, 1988  

SciTech Connect

The cooperative program is a continuing field-oriented effort whose objectives are to identify productive gas zones, to develop a comprehensive set of diagnostics, and to determine the effectiveness of various stimulation techniques. To date, the program has encompassed fifty cooperative wells and twelve participating producers, with outside funding in excess of 8 million dollars. The rapport established with these producers resulted in an evolution of the program from one of passive data acquisition to one of active participation. The report focuses on what was accomplished during this period regarding the development of diagnostic tools and evaluation techniques, the acquisition of producer participation and support, and the expansion of data acquisition and use of newly developed evaluation techniques. The report also addresses what has been learned and how this knowledge led to the course corrections in the study to achieve a more effective level of technology. The report illustrates the methods and technology developed and provides the recommended direction for future research.

Graham, R.L.; Foster, J.; Walbe, K.; Worthington, J.

1988-02-01

25

Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions*  

E-print Network

Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions* Francis O Environ. Res. Lett. 7 (2012) 044030 (6pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044030 Shale gas production: potential gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level

26

GAS-007: First step in a series of Explorer payloads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the NASA Get Away Special program for flying small, self-contained payloads onboard the Space Shuttle, the Alabama Space and Rocket Center (ASRC) in Huntsville has sponsored three such payloads for its Project Explorer. One of these is GAS-007, which was carried originally on STS mission 41-G in early October 1984. Due to an operational error it was not turned on and was, therefore, subsequently rescheduled and flown on mission 61-C. This paper will review Explorer's history, outline its experiments, present some preliminary experimental results, and describe future ASRC plans for Get Away Special activities, including follow-on Explorers GAS-105 and GAS-608.

Kitchens, Philip H.

1987-01-01

27

Industry requested exploration\\/production environmental regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

California State Review by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission recommends state and regional water boards issue requirements to all pits subject to basin plans and chapter 15. Resources shortfalls have kept production pits from being Water Board priorities. Threat of United States EPA designation of crude oil as hazardous waste and subsequent land use conflicts of buried pits

Blanck

1994-01-01

28

Geologging in Oil and Gas Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geologging, which is usually referred to in the oil industry as mud logging, is a continuous monitoring system of various parameters during drilling of exploratory-assessment wells aimed for geological, gas logging, drilling, and overpressure studies. Inasmuch as it is a formation evaluation tool, monitoring of the various parameters must be carried out by geologists, who keep round-the-clock watch and plot

Bhagwan Sahay

1986-01-01

29

Exploration & development: US Rockies gas focus points up need for access, risk takers, infrastructure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The last 20 yr of the Rocky Mountains oil and gas exploration and production business have been turbulent. Most of the major companies have left; they have been replaced with, independents and small to larger private and public companies. Natural gas become the primary focus of exploration. A discussion covers the shift of interest from drilling for oil to gas exploration and development in the Rockies since 1980; resource pyramid, showing relative volumes, reserves, resources, and undiscovered gas; the Wyoming fields that boost US gas supply, i.e., Jonah (6-12 tcf), Pinedale Anticline (10-20 tcf); Big Piney-LaBarge (15-25 tcf), Madden (3-5 tcf), and Powder river (24-27 tcf); and the future.

Thomasson, M.R.; Belanger, P.E.; Cook, L.

2004-01-01

30

Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions  

E-print Network

Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

O’Sullivan, Francis Martin

31

Improving oil and gas production with the Beam-Mounted Gas Compressor  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores parameters involved in and advantages obtained by use of the Beam-Mounted Gas Compressor (BMGC), a single-acting gas compressor operated by the walking beam of a rod pumping unit. Its main function is to draw gas from the casing side of an oil well and to discharge the gas into the flow line. By doing so, the BMGC operation actually reduces the backpressure on the formation face, thus allowing additional oil to enter the wellbore for production.

Al-Khatib, A.M.

1984-02-01

32

Characterization and geographic location of sources of radioactivity lost downhole in the course of oil and gas exploration and production activities in Texas, 1956 to 2001.  

PubMed

Case reports describing sources of radioactivity lost downhole in Texas from 1956 to 2001 were obtained from the Texas Department of Health Bureau of Radiation Control and entered into a computerized database. The events of the 45-y period of analysis were characterized, examining aspects such as source type, amount of activity, location of loss, depth, and date of occurrence. Results of the study found that 316 downhole source incidents were reported to the agency during this period of time, representing a total of 426 distinct sources of radioactivity lost downhole within the boundaries of the State of Texas. The sources lost were predominantly AmBe, accounting for 74 TBq of radioactivity at the time of loss, and Cs, accounting for 16.3 TBq of radioactivity. A longitudinal analysis of the data showed the average loss per active oil and gas rig in Texas (known as "rig count") at approximately 24 losses per 1,000 rigs. Specific geographic information was largely missing from many of the records, which prevented the geolocation of wells described to contain lost radioactive sources. As a result, most wells could only be located to the county level, and no comprehensive geographical information system (GIS) map could be accurately created from the data. However, when available, source location information was standardized to permit the characterization of the sources reported as lost. This effort produced the first dedicated compendium of lost downhole sources for the State of Texas and provides an important source of information for regulatory agencies. The ability to provide prompt information about the fate and location of sources of radioactivity is important to regulatory officials, given the recent concerns about radiation source inventory control in the post 9/11 world as it relates to the possible creation of radiological dispersal devices. PMID:16224264

Patlovich, S; Emery, R J; Whitehead, L W

2005-11-01

33

Alaska Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, and Permitting Project  

SciTech Connect

This is the final technical report for Project 15446, covering the grant period of October 2002 through March 2006. This project connects three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for an advanced information technology infrastructure to better support resource development and resource conservation. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells. The broad goal of this grant is to increase domestic production from Alaska's known producing fields through the implementation of preferred upstream management practices. (PUMP). Internet publication of extensive and detailed geotechnical data is the first task, improving the permitting process is the second task, and building an advanced geographical information system to offer continuing support and public access of the first two goals is the third task. Excellent progress has been made on all three tasks; the technical objectives as defined by the approved grant sub-tasks have been met. The end date for the grant was March 31, 2006.

Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall

2006-03-31

34

75 FR 29996 - Review of MMS NEPA Policies, Practices, and Procedures for OCS Oil and Gas Exploration and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...e. from leasing decisions to drilling and production. In line with CEQ's...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: NEPA and Offshore Drilling Enacted in 1970, NEPA mandates...Federal decision making related to offshore oil and gas exploration and...

2010-05-28

35

ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

This is the second technical report, covering the period from April 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. The geo-technical component is a shared effort between the State Department of Administration and the US Department of Energy. The Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission is rapidly converting high volumes of paper documents and geo-technical information to formats suitable for search and retrieval over the Internet. The permitting component is under the lead of the DNR Office of Project Management and Permitting. A web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information on-line. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. Structural changes are taking place in terms of organization, statutory authority, and regulatory requirements. Geographic Information Systems are a central component to the organization of information, and the delivery of on-line services. Progress has been made to deploy the foundation system for the shared GIS based on open GIS protocols to the extent feasible. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells.

Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

2003-11-19

36

Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas  

SciTech Connect

The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD participants believe that the platform concept could have far-reaching applications in the Arctic as a drilling and production platform, as originally intended, and as a possible staging area. The overall objective of this project was to document various potential applications, locations, and conceptual designs for the inland platform serving oil and gas operations on the Alaska North Slope. The University of Alaska Fairbanks assisted the HARC/TerraPlatforms team with the characterization of potential resource areas, geotechnical conditions associated with continuous permafrost terrain, and the potential end-user evaluation process. The team discussed the various potential applications with industry, governmental agencies, and environmental organizations. The benefits and concerns associated with industry's use of the technology were identified. In this discussion process, meetings were held with five operating companies (22 people), including asset team leaders, drilling managers, HSE managers, and production and completion managers. Three other operating companies and two service companies were contacted by phone to discuss the project. A questionnaire was distributed and responses were provided, which will be included in the report. Meetings were also held with State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources officials and U.S. Bureau of Land Management regulators. The companies met with included ConcoPhillips, Chevron, Pioneer Natural Resources, Fairweather E&P, BP America, and the Alaska Oil and Gas Association.

Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

2008-12-31

37

17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and...Disclosure by Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1204 (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices...

2010-04-01

38

Gas Analysis of Geothermal Fluid Inclusions: A New Technology For Geothermal Exploration  

SciTech Connect

To increase our knowledge of gaseous species in geothermal systems by fluid inclusion analysis in order to facilitate the use of gas analysis in geothermal exploration. The knowledge of gained by this program can be applied to geothermal exploration, which may expand geothermal production. Knowledge of the gas contents in reservoir fluids can be applied to fluid inclusion gas analysis of drill chip cuttings in a similar fashion as used in the petroleum industry. Thus the results of this project may lower exploration costs both in the initial phase and lower drill hole completion costs. Commercial costs for fluid inclusion analysis done on at 20 feet intervals on chip samples for 10,000 ft oil wells is about $6,000, and the turn around time is a few weeks.

David I. Norman; Joseph Moore

2004-03-09

39

ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to eliminate three closely inter-related barriers to oil production in Alaska through the use of a geographic information system (GIS) and other information technology strategies. These barriers involve identification of oil development potential from existing wells, planning projects to efficiently avoid conflicts with other interests, and gaining state approvals for exploration and development projects. Each barrier is the result of either current labor-intensive methods or poorly accessible information. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. This web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information online. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. The application will include an on-line diagnostic Coastal Project Questionnaire to determine the suite of permits required for a specific project. The application will also automatically create distribution lists based on the location and type of project, populate document templates for project review start-ups, public notices and findings, allow submission of e-comments, and post project status information on the Internet. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells. Currently, State of Alaska agencies use multiple, independent systems to identify, authenticate, and authorize customers for online transactions. Consumers of online state services may be required to manage multiple online ''profiles,'' and during a permit review process valuable time may be lost verifying identity or reconciling differences in applicant information when agency records disagree. The state's Information Technology Group is developing a shared applicant profile system that will provide an additional opportunity to demonstrate data sharing between agencies.

Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

2003-08-04

40

Edinburgh Research Explorer Effective sourcing strategies for perishable product supply  

E-print Network

, Product Quality Information, Food Waste Reduction 1. Problem description In the past decades, food supplyEdinburgh Research Explorer Effective sourcing strategies for perishable product supply chains strategies for perishable product supply chains' International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics

Millar, Andrew J.

41

VSAT: opening new horizons to oil and gas explorations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whether exploring in the Empty Quarter, drilling offshore in the Gulf of Mexico, or monitoring gas pipelines or oil wells in the deserts, communications is a key element to the success of oil and gas operations. Secure, efficient communications is required between remote, isolated locations and head offices to report on work status, dispatch supplies and repairs, report on-site emergencies, transfer geophysical surveys and real-time drilling data. Drilling and exploration firms have traditionally used land-based terrestrial networks that rely on radio transmissions for voice and data communications to offshore platforms and remote deep desert drilling rigs. But these systems are inefficient and have proven inflexible with today's drilling and exploration communications demands, which include high-speed data access, telephone and video conferencing. In response, numerous oil and gas exploration entities working in deep waters and remote deep deserts have all tapped into what is an ideal solution for these needs: Very Small Aperture Terminal Systems (VSAT) for broadband access services. This led to the use of Satellite Communication Systems for a wide range of applications that were difficult to achieve in the past, such as real-time applications transmission of drilling data and seismic information. This paper provides a thorough analysis of opportunities for satellite technology solutions in support of oil and gas operations. Technologies, architecture, service, networking and application developments are discussed based upon real field experience. More specifically, the report addresses: VSAT Opportunities for the Oil and Gas Operations, Corporate Satellite Business Model Findings, Satellite Market Forecasts

Al-Dhamen, Muhammad I.

2002-08-01

42

Petroleum Development Oman gas exploration unlocks major new reserves  

SciTech Connect

Since 1985, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has been exploring for gas on behalf of the Government of Oman under a ten-year agreement signed in June 1984. The aim of the one-rig programme was to find additional non-associated gas reserves (3 TCF) to meet domestic energy requirements for a minimum of 40 years, for which the available reserves at that time (5.6 TCF) were insufficient. Initial results of the campaign, which principally targeted the Permian Khuff Formation, were disappointing, analogues to the major accumulations of the Arabian Gulf failing to materialise. During the second half of the programme, therefore, the strategy was revised to address the prospectivity of higher risk/higher reward plays recognised at greater depths. Well Saih Nihayda-24, drilled in 1989, found gas/condensate-bearing reservoirs in Cambro/Ordovician sandstones of the Andam Formation below 4000 metres. This discovery, in a seismically poorly defined anticline, sparked an intensive effort of 2D, and later 3D, long cable seismic acquisition. This led in 1991 to additional major gas/condensate finds in Saih Rawl and Barik, and a dedicated two-year two-rig appraisal campaign has since proven up sufficient reserves to support an LNG gas export scheme. The ten-year programme has more than tripled Oman`s non-associated gas expectation reserves to some 22 TCF, exceeding-the target more than five-fold. Significant potential for further gas discoveries identified in both North and South Oman provides encouragement for continued successful gas exploration in the future.

Wood, A.; Mozetic, A.

1995-08-01

43

Production Trends of Shale Gas Wells  

E-print Network

To obtain better well performance and improved production from shale gas reservoirs, it is important to understand the behavior of shale gas wells and to identify different flow regions in them over a period of time. It is also important...

Khan, Waqar A.

2010-01-14

44

Gas production in distant comets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular spectroscopy at radio wavelengths is a tool well suited for studying the composition and outgassing kinematics of cometary comae. This is particularly true for distant comets, i.e. comets at heliocentric distances greater than a few AU, where the excitation of molecules is inefficient other than for rotational energy levels. At these distances, water sublimation is inefficient, and cometary activity is dominated by outgassing of carbon monoxide. An observing campaign is presented, where the millimeter- wave emission from CO in comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 has been studied in detail using the Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST). Coma models have been used to analyse the spectra. The production of CO is found to have two separate sources, one releasing CO gas on the nuclear dayside, and one extended source, where CO is produced from coma material, proposed to be icy dust grains. Radio observations of many molecules in comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) have been carried out in a long-term international effort using several radio telescopes. An overview of the results is presented, describing the evolution of the gas production as the comet passed through the inner Solar system. Spectra recorded using the SEST, primarily of CO, for heliocentric distances from 3 to 11 AU are analysed in detail, also using coma models. The concept of icy grains constituting the extended source discovered in comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 is examined by theoretical modelling of micrometre-sized ice/dust particles at 6 AU from the Sun. It is shown that that such grains can release their content of volatiles on timescales similar to that found for the extended source.

Gunnarsson, Marcus

45

Construction guidelines for oil and gas exploration in northern Alaska  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the unique problems associated with oil and gas explorations in northern Alaska and provides background information on the climate and environment, including the permanently frozen ground that exists throughout the area. Information on exploration efforts in the 1940s and 1950s is also included to demonstrate what happens when summertime operations disturb the surface vegetation and thermal regime of the frozen tundra, being the basis for why such operations are no longer permitted. Separate chapters are provided on the design, construction and operation of winter trails, roads, airfields and drill pads, including a separate chapter on their abandonment. Emphasis is placed on how, why and when to accomplish the various tasks to successfully accomplish an exploration.

Crory, F.E.

1991-11-01

46

Gas Mixtures and Ozone Production in an Electrical Discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantitative production of ozone (O3) with N2, O2, and Ar gas mixtures in an atmospheric pressure corona discharge (CD) is investigated. A five-part model is presented that explores the discharge conditions needed for optimum ozone production. One part of the model is the well-known relationship that correlates the discharge's voltage, frequency, gap, dielectric material, etc with the generator's yield.

Thomas J. Manning; Jerry Hedden

2001-01-01

47

International oil and gas exploration and development activities  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of an ongoing series of quarterly publications that monitors discoveries of oil and natural gas in foreign countries and provides an analysis of the reserve additions that result. The report is prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). It presents a summary of discoveries and reserve additions that result from recent international exploration and development activities. It is intended for use by petroleum industry analysts, various government agencies, and political leaders in the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy plans, policy, and legislation. 25 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Not Available

1990-10-29

48

Investigations into devonian shale gas production mechanisms in southern Ohio  

SciTech Connect

Economic gas production from the Devonian Shale requires permeable pathways combined with matrix storage. These pathways may include fractures, bedding planes or silt layers. The Gas Research Institute is sponsoring a research project to evaluate the relationships these geologic features and productive gas flows have with the eventual aim of developing better exploration, stimulation and production strategies. This study will investigate wells throughout the basin, with a wide range of potential productivity in order to determine what variations in geology result in marginal versus good producers. As a first phase of this project, detailed data on the geology and reservoir parameters are being collected on four wells in southern Ohio, which are being recompleted in the Devonian Shale. Two additional wells have been investigated in a pilot study, the remainder are currently under investigation.

Thompson, T.W.; McBane, R.A.; Moody, M.; Sitler, G.; Strawn, J.A.

1984-09-01

49

RIVERTON DOME GAS EXPLORATION AND STIMULATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION, WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING  

SciTech Connect

The new exploration technology for basin center gas accumulations developed by R.C. Surdam and Associates at the Institute for Energy Research, University of Wyoming, was applied to the Riverton Dome 3-D seismic area. Application of the technology resulted in the development of important new exploration leads in the Frontier, Muddy, and Nugget formations. The new leads are adjacent to a major north-south trending fault, which is downdip from the crest of the major structure in the area. In a blind test, the drilling results from six new Muddy test wells were accurately predicted. The initial production values, IP, for the six test wells ranged from < one mmcf/day to four mmcf/day. The three wells with the highest IP values (i.e., three to four mmcf/day) were drilled into an intense velocity anomaly (i.e., anomalously slow velocities). The well drilled at the end of the velocity anomaly had an IP value of one mmcf/day, and the two wells drilled outside of the velocity anomaly had IP values of < one mmcf/day and are presently shut in. Based on these test results, it is concluded that the new IER exploration strategy for detecting and delineating commercial, anomalously pressured gas accumulation is valid in the southwestern portions of the Wind River Basin, and can be utilized to significantly reduce exploration risk and to increase profitability of so-called basin center gas accumulations.

Ronald C. Surdam; Zunsheng Jiao; Nicholas K. Boyd

1999-11-01

50

A New Technology for the Exploration of Shale Gas Reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy consumption in the world increases 5.6% every year, and alternative resources like shale gas, coal-bed methane (CBM), tar sand, and so on are strongly needed. Shale gas is an unconventional natural gas of enormous potential. Abundant shale gas resides in the form of adsorption gas. Desorption of shale gas is an important mechanism and power source of shale gas

W. Jing; L. Huiqing; G. Rongna; K. Aihong; Z. Mi

2011-01-01

51

77 FR 59209 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Production Requirements; Proposed Collection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...preserve and maintain free enterprise competition. Section 5...efficient exploration and development of a lease area.'' Section...lessee shall produce such oil or gas, or both, at rates...ultimate recovery of oil or gas, or both, under sound engineering...regulations governing oil and gas production at 30 CFR Part...OCS Oil and......

2012-09-26

52

Lunar lander propellant production for a multiple site exploration mission  

E-print Network

A model has been developed to analyze the benefit of utilizing a processing plant architecture so that a lunar oxygen production demonstration mission can also provide a significant exploration and scientific return. This ...

Neubert, Joshua, 1981-

2004-01-01

53

ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrate Production Test  

SciTech Connect

Work began on the ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrates Production Test (DOE award number DE-NT0006553) on October 1, 2008. This final report summarizes the entire project from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2013.

Schoderbek, David; Farrell, Helen; Howard, James; Raterman, Kevin; Silpngarmlert, Suntichai; Martin, Kenneth; Smith, Bruce; Klein, Perry

2013-06-30

54

Caspian Oil and Gas: Production and Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary There is a likelihood of relatively large reserves of crude oil and natural gas in the Caspian Sea region, and a consequent large increase in oil and natural gas production from that area. Because diversity of energy sources and energy security are considerations in Congressional deliberations on energy policy, this prospect could play a role in such discussions. However,

Bernard A. Gelb

55

Monthly Natural Gas Gross Production Report  

EIA Publications

Monthly natural gas gross withdrawals estimated from data collected on Form EIA-914 (Monthly Natural Gas Production Report) for Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico, Texas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Wyoming, other states and lower 48 states. Alaska data are from the Alaska state government and included to obtain a U.S. total.

2014-01-01

56

Oil and gas exploration and development in Arizona  

SciTech Connect

Recent oil and gas exploration activity has been widespread throughout Arizona. Development drilling has continued in the Dineh-bi-keyah and Teec-nos-Pos fields in the northeastern corner, and exploratory drilling continues to test potential Paleozoic reservoirs elsewhere on the plateau. Several shallow wells north of the Grand Canyon encountered shows and limited recoveries of oil from Permian and Triassic rocks. The greatest activity has occurred along the Overthrust trend from northwestern to southeastern Arizona. Several million acres were leased and eight exploratory wells drilled along this trend. None were discoveries, but the presence of a Laramide thrust fault in the vicinity of Tombstone was established. The other tests have neither proved nor disproved the concept of the Overthrust belt in southern Arizona. Recent discoveries in the nonmarine Tertiary and marine Paleozoic of southern Nevada have stimulated interest in the oil potential of similar rocks and structures in the Basin and Range province of Arizona, which are coincident with the Overthrust trend. Reported gas discoveries by Pemex in Miocene marine sediments of the Gulf of California have stimulated leasing in the Yuma area, where one uncompleted well is reported to be a potential producer. The Pedregosa basin of extreme southeastern Arizona remains an area of great interest to explorationists because of the presence of a 25,000-ft (7600-m) sequence of Paleozoic marine sediments similar to those of the Permian basin, and Cretaceous marine rocks, including coral-rudist reefs, similar to those that produce in Texas and Mexico.

Nations, D.; Doss, A.K.; Ubarra, R.

1984-07-01

57

Exploring the Potential Business Case for Synergies Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas and renewable energy each contribute to economic growth, energy independence, and carbon mitigation, sometimes independently and sometimes collectively. Often, natural gas and renewables are considered competitors in markets, such as those for bulk electricity. This paper attempts to address the question, 'Given near- and long-term needs for abundant, cleaner energy sources and decarbonization, how can more compelling business models be created so that these two domestic forms of energy work in greater concert?' This paper explores revenue opportunities that emerge from systems-level perspectives in 'bulk energy' (large-scale electricity and natural gas production, transmission, and trade) and four 'distribution edge' subsectors: industrial, residential, commercial, and transportation end uses.

Cochran, J.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.; Arent, D.

2014-02-01

58

Exploring the Environmental Effects of Shale Gas Development in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed  

E-print Network

Exploring the Environmental Effects of Shale Gas Development in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed STAC Committee). 2013. Exploring the environmental effects of shale gas development in the Chesapeake Bay of shale gas development in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. The purpose of this workshop was to engage

59

Petroleum exploration and production in Nebraska: Historical and Geological Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nebraska recently celebrated petroleum anniversaries: 100 years of exploration and 50 years of production. The Forest City basin recorded the state's first production in 1939. Shale-to-carbonate facies change occurs for both Devonian- and Ordovician-age reservoirs in a belt transverse to anticlinal structures which represent basement reactivation. Cumulative production from the Nebraska portion of the Forest City basin is almost 11

1991-01-01

60

Theoretical approach to explore the production routes of astatine radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

To fulfill the recent thrust of astatine radionuclides in the field of nuclear medicine, various production routes have been explored in the present work. The possible production routes of At209-211 comprise both light- and heavy-ion-induced reactions at the bombarding energy range starting from threshold to a maximum of 100 MeV. Excitation functions of those radionuclides, produced through various production routes,

Moumita Maiti; Susanta Lahiri

2009-01-01

61

Antrim gas play, production expanding in Michigan  

SciTech Connect

Devonian Antrim shale gas, the Michigan basin's dominant hydrocarbon play in terms of number of wells drilled for several years, shows every sign of continuing at a busy pace. About 3,500 Antrim completions now yield 350 MMcfd, more than 60% of Michigan's gas production. The outlook is for Antrim production to climb in the next 2--3 years to 500--600 MMcfd, about 1% of US gas output. These delivery numbers, slow decline rates, and expected producing life of 20--30 years has snagged pipelines attention. The growing production overtaxed local gathering facilities last fall, and the play recently got its first interstate outlet. Completion and production technology advances are improving well performance and trimming costs. Several hundred wells a year are likely to be drilled during the next few years. Production increases are coming from new wells, deepenings, and workovers. Numerous pipeline/gathering projects are planned in the area to handle the growing Antrim volumes. The paper discusses the development of this resource, efforts to extend the play, geology and production, drilling programs, and gas transportation.

Not Available

1994-05-30

62

BUILDING MATERIALS MADE FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION BY-PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect

Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) materials are produced in abundant quantities by coal burning utilities. Due to environmental restrains, flue gases must be ''cleaned'' prior to release to the atmosphere. They are two general methods to ''scrub'' flue gas: wet and dry. The choice of scrubbing material is often defined by the type of coal being burned, i.e. its composition. Scrubbing is traditionally carried out using a slurry of calcium containing material (slaked lime or calcium carbonate) that is made to contact exiting flue gas as either a spay injected into the gas or in a bubble tower. The calcium combined with the SO{sub 2} in the gas to form insoluble precipitates. Some plants have been using dry injection of these same materials or their own Class C fly ash to scrub. In either case the end product contains primarily hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}O) with smaller amounts of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O). These materials have little commercial use. Experiments were carried out that were meant to explore the feasibility of using blends of hannebachite and fly ash mixed with concentrated sodium hydroxide to make masonry products. The results suggest that some of these mixtures could be used in place of conventional Portland cement based products such as retaining wall bricks and pavers.

Michael W. Grutzeck; Maria DiCola; Paul Brenner

2006-03-30

63

Determination of ²²?Ra, ²²?Ra and ²¹?Pb in NORM products from oil and gas exploration: problems in activity underestimation due to the presence of metals and self-absorption of photons.  

PubMed

Typical calibration of solid environmental samples for the determination of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb entails the use of standard reference materials which have a very similar matrix. However, TENORM samples from the oil and gas exploration contain unusually high amounts of calcium, strontium and barium which can severely attenuate the photons of (210)Pb and (226)Ra with their characteristic 46.1 keV and 186.2 keV gamma-rays, respectively and to some extent (228)Ra with the characteristic gamma-rays of 911.2 keV and 969.0 keV. We used neutron activation analysis to evaluate the content of TENORM for calcium, barium and strontium and then used a software program SELABS to determine the self-absorption. Our results confirm that even in Petrie containers with small dimensions the (210)Pb can be underestimated by almost by a factor of four while (226)Ra can be underestimated by 5%. The (228)Ra activities are virtually unaffected due to the higher energy gamma-rays. However, the implications for TENORM studies that employ large Marinelli containers having sample sizes between 0.25 and 1.0 L may be severely compromised by the presence of high Z elements in elevated concentrations. The usual spectral interferences on (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb coming from other radionuclides in the (234)U, (235)U and (238)U decay chains are virtually nonexistent due the very high activity levels of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb in the tens of thousands of Bq/kg. PMID:23514714

Landsberger, S; Brabec, C; Canion, B; Hashem, J; Lu, C; Millsap, D; George, G

2013-11-01

64

Survey of price elasticities from economic exploration models of US oil and gas supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploration for oil or gas reserves consists of searching for and finding new reserves. It begins with the study of the geology of an area followed by exploratory or wildcat drilling in promising areas. How much oil or gas is found or the supply of new reserves is a function of exploration, the geology of the area drilled along with

Carol Dahl; Thomas E. Duggan

1998-01-01

65

Exploring enzymes on cotton and their product targets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Enzyme-active cotton is a functional biocompatible material, and has potential applications as a sustainable material. With this in mind we have explored development of enzyme-active cotton with product potential as a disposable or reusable textile material. Lysozyme, which historically has been a w...

66

Metal powder production by gas atomization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The confined liquid, gas-atomization process was investigated. Results from a two-dimensional water model showed the importance of atomization pressure, as well as delivery tube and atomizer design. The atomization process at the tip of the delivery tube was photographed. Results from the atomization of a modified 7075 aluminum alloy yielded up to 60 wt pct. powders that were finer than 45 microns in diameter. Two different atomizer designs were evaluated. The amount of fine powders produced was correlated to a calculated gas-power term. An optimal gas-power value existed for maximized fine powder production. Atomization at gas-power greater than or less than this optimal value produced coarser powders.

Ting, E. Y.; Grant, N. J.

1986-01-01

67

Powering the World: Offshore Oil & Gas Production  

E-print Network

Powering the World: Offshore Oil & Gas Production Macondo post-blowout operations Tad Patzek;Talk Outline. . . Fuels that run the U.S. and world Drilling and fracturing primer Complexity and risks, not resources or energy potentially available Offshore fields will be producing an increasing portion of global

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

68

Bio-gas production from alligator weeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of temperature, sample preparation, reducing agents, light intensity and pH of the media, on bio-gas and methane production from the microbial anaerobic decomposition of alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides. Efforts were also made for the isolation and characterization of the methanogenic bacteria.

Latif, A.

1976-01-01

69

Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions  

E-print Network

Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan and Sergey Paltsev://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan* and Sergey Paltsev* Abstract Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use

70

Gas extrusion in natural products total synthesis.  

PubMed

The thermodynamic driving force from the release of a gaseous molecule drives a broad range of synthetic transformations. This review focuses on gas expulsion in key reactions within natural products total syntheses, selected from the past two decades. The highlighted examples survey transformations that generate sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbonyl sulfide, or nitrogen through polar, radical, pericyclic, photochemical, or organometallic mechanisms. Of particular interest are applications wherein the gas extrusion enables formation of a synthetically challenging motif, such as an unusually hindered or strained bond. PMID:22940671

Jiang, Xuefeng; Shi, Lei; Liu, Hui; Khan, Akbar H; Chen, Jason S

2012-11-14

71

Federal Environmental Regulations Impacting Hydrocarbon Exploration, Drilling, and Production Operations  

SciTech Connect

Waste handling and disposal from hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through federal and state regulations and/or through implementation of federal regulations. Some wastes generated in these operations are exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) but are not exempt under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and other federal environmental laws. Exempt wastes remain exempt only if they are not mixed with hazardous wastes or hazardous substances. Once mixture occurs, the waste must be disposed as a hazardous material in an approved hazardous waste disposal facility. Before the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, air emissions from production, storage, steam generation, and compression facilities associated with hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production industry were not regulated. A critical proposed regulatory change which will significantly effect Class II injection wells for disposal of produced brine and injection for enhanced oil recovery is imminent. Federal regulations affecting hydrocarbon exploration, drilling and production, proposed EPA regulatory changes, and a recent significant US Court of Appeals decision are covered in this report. It appears that this industry will, in the future, fall under more stringent environmental regulations leading to increased costs for operators.

Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

1999-04-27

72

Metal Production in Quasars Through Jet-Gas Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission lines studies of the gas surrounding many high redshift quasars indicate a high concentration of CNO nuclides. Relative abundance ratios may even exceed solar levels in some objects with redshifts near 5.0, indicating a rapid buildup of metals within one billion years after the big bang. Models explaining these high concentrations through standard stellar processing are pressed by the short time requirement. We explore a non-stellar nucleosynthesis mechanism in quasars based on the interaction of a high energy particle jet with hot, relatively dense gas. Although temperatures in the hot gas are high enough to support (thermalized) thermonuclear reactions, this mechanism alone is too slow to allow a rapid buildup of CNO nuclides. The collision of (non-thermal) jet particles with gas particles allows creation of unique nuclides which can boost the nucleosynthesis over traditional mass gaps at A = 5 and A = 8. The temperature and initial particle density range from T9=0.2 to T9=5.0, and 1011 to 1018 particles/cm3, respectively, while the jet intensity varies from 0.1 to 10 solar masses per year. The maximum final density allowed is 1023 particles/cm3. Substantial metal production in just 100 days can occur for temperatures near T9=0.6 and final densities of 1021 particles/cm3. Production at other temperatures and densities varies greatly. If the temperature is much above or below T9=0.6, or if the density cannot reach 1021 particles/cm3, then metal production is limited. Although the simple jet-clump model by itself does not seem capable of fully explaining the solar abundances in quasar gas, the low level production occurs on sufficiently short time scales so that it is still interesting. Also, a simplistic exploration of the production resulting from gas which evolves from high to low temperatures seems to indicate that at least 1/100th of solar levels can be obtained if the density can climb to 1021 particles/cm3 in a single processing episode of about 200 days. Multiple processing episodes and more complicated cooling scenarios may indicate larger nucleosynthesis possibilities. Therefore, the jet-clump model offers an exciting possibility for generating metals in quasars.

Vandegriff, Jon D.

73

Arizona strip breccia pipe program: exploration, development, and production  

SciTech Connect

As part of the long-range plans for the Energy Fuels Corporation, they have embarked on one of the most active and aggressive uranium exploration programs in the US. These exploration efforts are located in the northwestern part of Arizona in an area referred to as the Arizona Strip. At a time when the domestic uranium industry is staggering to recover from its worst economic slump, Energy Fuels is spending millions of dollars a year on exploration, development, production, and milling. The reason for Energy Fuels' commitment to uranium exploration and production lies in the ground of Arizona in unique geologic formations called breccia pipes. Some of these structures, generally no more than 300 to 350 ft in diameter, contain uranium that is, on the average, five to ten times richer than ore found elsewhere in the US. The richness of this Arizona ore makes it the only conventionally mined uranium in the US that can compete in today's market of cheaper, high-grade foreign sources. Between January 1980 and December 1986, Energy Fuels has mined more than 10 billion lb of uranium from breccia pipe deposits at an average grade of 0.65% U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Currently, Energy Fuels is operating six breccia pipe mines, and a plan of operations on a seventh mine has been submitted to the appropriate government agencies for the necessary mining permits.

Mathisen, I.W. Jr.

1987-05-01

74

Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions  

E-print Network

Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

O'Sullivan, Francis

75

Coral reef formation theory may apply to oil, gas exploration  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports a coral reef formation theory that has implications for hydrocarbon exploration. The theory states that many coral reefs and carbonate buildups from at and are dependent upon nutrient rich fluids seeping through the seabed.

Not Available

1990-12-10

76

Environmental legal implications of oil and gas exploration in the Niger Delta of Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nigeria is an African country endowed with a wealth of oil and gas resources, and they are mainly found in the core Niger Delta (home to the Ijaw and Ogoni indigenous, ethnic minorities). Since Great Britain granted Nigeria political independence on October 1, 1960, successive Nigerian governments (military and civilian) have been dominated by the majority ethnic groups (Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, and Ibo). Significantly, the government adopted a socialist-based model of absolute state ownership over oil and gas resources. The socialist model formed the basis of Nigeria's business collaboration with multinational oil and gas corporations from Europe and the United States (notably Shell, Chevron Texaco, Agip, Exxon Mobil, Total, and Elf). This model is fraught with contradictions and has led to unacceptable consequences, including policies that allow exploitation of natural resources without reference to environmental sustainability. When oil was first struck in 1956 at Oloibori (Ijaw area), people thought it would bring prosperity and an improved quality of life. Sadly, the opposite has occurred. Forty-nine years of hardship, agonizing pain, debilitating anger, extreme poverty, poisoned rivers, destroyed occupations, devastated environment, and stunted growth of the youth are the negative impacts of oil and gas exploitation in the Niger Delta. In other words, oil and gas exploration and production have visited a full range of evils---socio-political, economic, and cultural---upon the indigenous Niger Delta people. Furthermore, the wealth extracted from the area is used by the state and multinational corporations to enhance their own wealth and quality of life. Revenue has been conspicuously looted and misappropriated by political leaders at the expense of the Niger Delta environment and its people. This confluence of exploitation and injury has led to social upheavals and armed rebellions, all capable of precipitating the disintegration of the country. In this dissertation, research materials have been used to identify fundamental problems inherent in the current approach to oil and gas exploration and development. Primary research findings were used to develop the recommended shift in environmental paradigm that is critical to achieving sustainable development in Nigeria. Central to the recommendations in this dissertation is a rigorous, participatory Environmental Impact Assessment ("EIA") process.

Orubebe, Bibobra Bello

77

Federal offshore statistics: 1992. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenues as of December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, enacted in 1953 and amended several times, charges the Secretary of the Interior with the responsibility for administering and managing mineral exploration and development of the outer continental shelf, as well as for conserving its natural resources. This report documents the following: Federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; Federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from Federal offshore leases; disbursement of Federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. 11 figs., 83 tabs.

Francois, D.K.

1993-12-31

78

ALMA Explorations of Warm Dense Molecular Gas in Nearby LIRGs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of ALMA (Cycle-0) observations of the CO (6-5) line emission and the 435?m continuum of two nearby luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) NGC 34 (a major merger with an AGN) and NGC 1614 (a minor merger with a circum-nuclear starburst). Using receivers in the highest frequency ALMA band available (Band-9), these observations achieved the best angular resolutions (~0''.25) for ALMA Cycle-0 observations and resolved for the first time distributions of warm dense molecular gas (n > 105 cm-3, T > 100 K) in LIRGs with spatial resolutions better than 100 pc. Our ALMA data show a very tight correlation between the CO (6-5) line emission and the 435?m dust continuum emission, suggesting the warm dense molecular gas dominates the ISM in the central kpc of LIRGs, and gas heating and dust heating in the warm dense gas cores are strongly coupled. On the other hand, we saw very different spatial distributions and kinematic properties of warm dense gas in the two LIRGs, indicating that physical conditions in the ISM can be very different in different LIRGs.

Xu, C. Kevin

2015-02-01

79

78 FR 17661 - Proposed Reissuance of a General NPDES Permit for Oil and Gas Exploration Facilities in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...General NPDES Permit for Oil and Gas Exploration Facilities in the Federal Waters of...Elimination System (NPDES) for Oil and Gas Exploration Facilities in Federal Waters of Cook...Inlet Federal Waters from oil and gas exploration facilities subject to limits and...

2013-03-22

80

Theoretical approach to explore the production routes of astatine radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

To fulfill the recent thrust of astatine radionuclides in the field of nuclear medicine, various production routes have been explored in the present work. The possible production routes of {sup 209-211}At comprise both light- and heavy-ion-induced reactions at the bombarding energy range starting from threshold to a maximum of 100 MeV. Excitation functions of those radionuclides, produced through various production routes, have been calculated by using nuclear reaction model codes TALYS, ALICE91, and PACE-II and are compared with the available measured data. Contributions of various reaction mechanisms, such as direct, pre-equilibrium, and equilibrium reactions, to the total reaction cross section have been studied using the codes. Results show that the equilibrium reaction dominates in all cases over other reaction mechanisms.

Maiti, Moumita; Lahiri, Susanta [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

2009-02-15

81

Theoretical approach to explore the production routes of astatine radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To fulfill the recent thrust of astatine radionuclides in the field of nuclear medicine, various production routes have been explored in the present work. The possible production routes of At209-211 comprise both light- and heavy-ion-induced reactions at the bombarding energy range starting from threshold to a maximum of 100 MeV. Excitation functions of those radionuclides, produced through various production routes, have been calculated by using nuclear reaction model codes TALYS, ALICE91, and PACE-II and are compared with the available measured data. Contributions of various reaction mechanisms, such as direct, pre-equilibrium, and equilibrium reactions, to the total reaction cross section have been studied using the codes. Results show that the equilibrium reaction dominates in all cases over other reaction mechanisms.

Maiti, Moumita; Lahiri, Susanta

2009-02-01

82

Design Exploration of Engineered Materials, Products, and Associated Manufacturing Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past few years, ICME-related research has been directed towards the study of multi-scale materials design. However, relatively little has been reported on model-based methods that are of relevance to industry for the realization of engineered materials, products, and associated industrial manufacturing processes. Computational models used in the realization of engineered materials and products are fraught with uncertainty, have different levels of fidelity, are incomplete and are even likely to be inaccurate. In light of this, we adopt a robust design strategy that facilitates the exploration of the solution space thereby providing decision support to a design engineer. In this paper, we describe a foundational construct embodied in our method for design exploration, namely, the compromise Decision Support Problem. We introduce a problem that we are using to establish the efficacy of our method. It involves the integrated design of steel and gears, traversing the chain of steel making, mill production, and evolution of the material during these processes, and linking this to the mechanical design and manufacture of the gear. We provide an overview of our method to determine the operating set points for the ladle, tundish and caster operations necessary to manufacture steel of a desired set of properties. Finally, we highlight the efficacy of our method.

Shukla, Rishabh; Kulkarni, Nagesh H.; Gautham, B. P.; Singh, Amarendra K.; Mistree, Farrokh; Allen, Janet K.; Panchal, Jitesh H.

2015-01-01

83

Evaluation of long-term gas hydrate production testing locations on the Alaska north slope  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The results of short duration formation tests in northern Alaska and Canada have further documented the energy resource potential of gas hydrates and justified the need for long-term gas hydrate production testing. Additional data acquisition and long-term production testing could improve the understanding of the response of naturally-occurring gas hydrate to depressurization-induced or thermal-, chemical-, and/or mechanical-stimulated dissociation of gas hydrate into producible gas. The Eileen gas hydrate accumulation located in the Greater Prudhoe Bay area in northern Alaska has become a focal point for gas hydrate geologic and production studies. BP Exploration (Alaska) Incorporated and ConocoPhillips have each established research partnerships with U.S. Department of Energy to assess the production potential of gas hydrates in northern Alaska. A critical goal of these efforts is to identify the most suitable site for production testing. A total of seven potential locations in the Prudhoe Bay, Kuparuk, and Milne Point production units were identified and assessed relative to their suitability as a long-term gas hydrate production test site. The test site assessment criteria included the analysis of the geologic risk associated with encountering reservoirs for gas hydrate testing. The site selection process also dealt with the assessment of the operational/logistical risk associated with each of the potential test sites. From this review, a site in the Prudhoe Bay production unit was determined to be the best location for extended gas hydrate production testing. The work presented in this report identifies the key features of the potential test site in the Greater Prudhoe Bay area, and provides new information on the nature of gas hydrate occurrence and potential impact of production testing on existing infrastructure at the most favorable sites. These data were obtained from well log analysis, geological correlation and mapping, and numerical simulation. Copyright 2011, Offshore Technology Conference.

Collett, T.S.; Boswell, R.; Lee, M.W.; Anderson, B.J.; Rose, K.; Lewis, K.A.

2011-01-01

84

Crew Exploration Vehicle Environmental Control and Life Support Emergency Gas Consumable Sizing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of preparing for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) worked on developing the requirements that drive the emergency gas consumables. Emergency gas is required to support Extravehicular Activities (EVA), maintain the cabin pressure during a cabin leak for the crew to don their suits, and to recover the cabin following a toxic even or a fire.

Lewis, John F.; Peterso, Laurie

2007-01-01

85

Developing geochemical methods for marine exploration of oil and gas  

SciTech Connect

Experimental-methodological oil exploration geochemical investigations have been carried out in the Caspian and Black seas. The bottom deposits were selected according to a differential grid, the type of which depended on geologic structure and morphology of the bottom, Lithology, and other factors. Bottom sediments were collected by scientific-research vessels using coring devices. This paper reviews the results of this testing for hydrocarbon distribution, bituminous and organic matter composition; and methane content in marine sediments.

Bagirov, V.I.; Zor'kin, L.M.; Zubayrayev, S.L.; Lopatin, N.V.

1983-01-01

86

Gas lift design and production optimisation offshore Trinidad  

SciTech Connect

By means of a variety of field examples, this paper describes how increased production rates were obtained from gas lift wells. These results were achieved through a wide range of activities including, special training for production operators, optimising gas injection rates, modifying surface piping systems, identifying and replacing defective wireline-retrievable gas lift valves, and improving gas lift design techniques. A major modification of a standard gas lift design technique is discussed in detail. The modification optimizes the depth of gas injection throughout the life of a well. An empirically derived chart, which relates valve spacing to the productivity index of a well, is also presented.

Laing, C.M.

1986-01-01

87

Study of gas production potential of New Albany Shale (group) in the Illinois basin  

SciTech Connect

The New Albany Shale (Devonian and Mississippian) is recognized as both a source rock and gas-producing reservoir in the Illinois basin. The first gas discovery was made in 1885, and was followed by the development of several small fields in Harrison County, Indiana, and Meade County, Kentucky. Recently, exploration for and production of New Albany gas has been encouraged by the IRS Section 29 tax credit. To identify technology gaps that have restricted the development of gas production form the shale gas resource in the basin, the Illinois Basin Consortium (IBC), composed of the Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky geological surveys, is conducting a cooperative research project with the Gas Research Institute (GRI). An earlier study of the geological and geochemical aspects of the New Albany was conducted during 1976-1978 as part of the Eastern Gas Shales Project (EGSP) sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The current IBC/GRI study is designed to update and reinterpret EGSP data and incorporate new data obtained since 1978. During the project, relationships between gas production and basement structures are being emphasized by constructing cross sections and maps showing thickness, structure, basement features, and thermal maturity. The results of the project will be published in a comprehensive final report in 1992. The information will provide a sound geological basis for ongoing shale-gas research, exploration, and development in the basin.

Hasenmueller, N.R.; Boberg, W.S.; Comer, J.; Smidchens, Z. (Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington (United States)); Frankie, W.T.; Lumm, D.K. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign (United States)); Hamilton-Smith, T.; Walker, J.D. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington (United States))

1991-08-01

88

International oil and gas exploration and development: 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report starts where the previous quarterly publication ended. This first publication of a new annual series contains most of the same data as the quarterly report, plus some new material, through 1991. It also presents historical data covering a longer period of time than the previous quarterly report. Country-level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve-to-production rations (R/P ratios) are listed for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form. The most popular table in the previous quarterly report, a listing of new discoveries, continues in this annual report as Appendix A.

Not Available

1993-12-01

89

Geology of marine evaporites favorable for oil, gas exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant petroleum production related to carbonate-evaporite sequences has been found in many areas such as the Delaware, Paradox, and Michigan basins of North America and the Phanerozoic oil-bearing sediments of the Middle East and the North Sea. The regular association of petroleum and evaporites long has been recognized in almost all major oil-producing chemical and biochemical reservoir rocks of the

Billo

1996-01-01

90

Exploring Remote Sensing Products Online with Giovanni for Studying Urbanization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently, a Large amount of MODIS land products at multi-spatial resolutions have been integrated into the online system, Giovanni, to support studies on land cover and land use changes focused on Northern Eurasia and Monsoon Asia regions. Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) is a Web-based application developed by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES-DISC) providing a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access Earth science remotely-sensed and modeled data. The customized Giovanni Web portals (Giovanni-NEESPI and Giovanni-MAIRS) are created to integrate land, atmospheric, cryospheric, and social products, that enable researchers to do quick exploration and basic analyses of land surface changes and their relationships to climate at global and regional scales. This presentation documents MODIS land surface products in Giovanni system. As examples, images and statistical analysis results on land surface and local climate changes associated with urbanization over Yangtze River Delta region, China, using data in Giovanni are shown.

Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina; Kempler, Steve

2012-01-01

91

Robust MEMS gyroscope for oil and gas exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To satisfy the performance and reliability requirement of a MEMS based harsh environment sensor, the sensor development needs to depart from the classic method of single-discipline technology improvement. In this paper, the authors will describe a Microsystem-based design methodology which considers simultaneous multiple technology domain interaction and achieves performance optimization at the system level to address the harsh environment sensing challenge. This is demonstrated through specific examples of investigating a robust MEMS gyroscope suitable for high temperature and high vibration environments such as down-hole drilling for Oil and Gas applications. In particular, the different mechanisms of temperature-induced errors in MEMS gyroscope are discussed. The error sources include both the direct impact of the gyroscope dynamics by temperature and the indirect perturbation by temperature-induced package stress. For vibration and shock induced failure, the error contributions from the low frequency and high frequency contents are discussed. Different transducer designs with equivalent rate sensitivity can vary with several orders of magnitude in terms of the susceptibility to mechanical vibration. Also shown are the complex interactions among the gyroscopic transducer, packaging and the control electronics, resulting from these temperature and vibration error sources. The microsystem-based design methodology is able to capture such complex interactions and improve the gyroscope temperature and vibration performance. In contrast to other efforts in harsh environment sensing which focus on specific technology domains, the authors strive to demonstrate the need and advantage of addressing MEMS performance and reliability in harsh environment from a microsystem perspective.

Lin, David; Miller, Todd

2014-06-01

92

Exploring extrasolar worlds: from gas giants to terrestrial habitable planets.  

PubMed

Almost 500 extrasolar planets have been found since the discovery of 51 Peg b by Mayor and Queloz in 1995. The traditional field of planetology has thus expanded its frontiers to include planetary environments not represented in our Solar System. We expect that in the next five years space missions (Corot, Kepler and GAIA) or ground-based detection techniques will both increase exponentially the number of new planets discovered and lower the present limit of a approximately 1.9 Earth-mass object [e.g. Mayor et al., Astron. Astrophys., 2009, 507, 487]. While the search for an Earth-twin orbiting a Sun-twin has been one of the major goals pursued by the exoplanet community in the past years, the possibility of sounding the atmospheric composition and structure of an increasing sample of exoplanets with current telescopes has opened new opportunities, unthinkable just a few years ago. As a result, it is possible now not only to determine the orbital characteristics of the new bodies, but moreover to study the exotic environments that lie tens of parsecs away from us. The analysis of the starlight not intercepted by the thin atmospheric limb of its planetary companion (transit spectroscopy), or of the light emitted/reflected by the exoplanet itself, will guide our understanding of the atmospheres and the surfaces of these extrasolar worlds in the next few years. Preliminary results obtained by interpreting current atmospheric observations of transiting gas giants and Neptunes are presented. While the full characterisation of an Earth-twin might requires a technological leap, our understanding of large terrestrial planets (so called super-Earths) orbiting bright, later-type stars is within reach by current space and ground telescopes. PMID:21302557

Tinetti, Giovanna; Griffith, Caitlin A; Swain, Mark R; Deroo, Pieter; Beaulieu, Jean Philippe; Vasisht, Gautam; Kipping, David; Waldmann, Ingo; Tennyson, Jonathan; Barber, Robert J; Bouwman, Jeroen; Allard, Nicole; Brown, Linda R

2010-01-01

93

Gas production strategy of underground coal gasification based on multiple gas sources.  

PubMed

To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method. PMID:25114953

Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

2014-01-01

94

Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is an outcome of lean thinking to eliminate waste and increase productivity. PLM is inextricably tied to the systems engineering business philosophy, coupled with a methodology by which personnel, processes and practices, and information technology combine to form an architecture platform for product design, development, manufacturing, operations, and decommissioning. In this model, which is being implemented by the Engineering Directorate at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center, total lifecycle costs are important variables for critical decision-making. With the ultimate goal to deliver quality products that meet or exceed requirements on time and within budget, PLM is a powerful concept to shape everything from engineering trade studies and testing goals, to integrated vehicle operations and retirement scenarios. This paper will demonstrate how the Engineering Directorate is implementing PLM as part of an overall strategy to deliver safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions. It has been 30 years since the United States fielded the Space Shuttle. The next generation space transportation system requires a paradigm shift such that digital tools and knowledge management, which are central elements of PLM, are used consistently to maximum effect. The outcome is a better use of scarce resources, along with more focus on stakeholder and customer requirements, as a new portfolio of enabling tools becomes second nature to the workforce. This paper will use the design and manufacturing processes, which have transitioned to digital-based activities, to show how PLM supports the comprehensive systems engineering and integration function. It also will go through a launch countdown scenario where an anomaly is detected to show how the virtual vehicle created from paperless processes will help solve technical challenges and improve the likelihood of launching on schedule, with less hands-on labor needed for processing and troubleshooting.

Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.

2010-01-01

95

30 CFR 206.174 - How do I value gas production when an index-based method cannot be used?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...any other gas production that cannot be...as well as gas plant products, and...Minimum value of production. (1) For...gas, and gas plant products valued...minimum value of production for each gas plant product is...

2010-07-01

96

A field gas chromatograph using technology developed for solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trace gas analysis is an integral part of biospheric studies. Analytical instruments, primarily gas chromatographs (GC), are capable of measuring gases and volatiles to the ppb-level in real time. Trace gases significant in the study of biocycles include nitrous oxide, hydrogen sulfide, other nitrogen and sulfur species, as well as methane and ethylene. The concept of a field gas chromatograph is derived from technology being pursued in the design of ultra-compact instruments for solar system exploration. The instrument breadboard incorporates the specialized porous column packings and the highly sensitive metastable ionization detector developed by the Solar System Exploration Office. These parts ensure a broad capability for which the analysis of ambient N2O is one example. A commercial, portable gas chromatograph is currently being extensively modified to incorporate analytical concepts and components derived from flight GC technology. Data storage devices suitable for field use are presently being studied.

Woeller, F. H.; Lehwalt, M. E.; Carle, Glenn C.

1985-01-01

97

Thermal reactor. [liquid silicon production from silane gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal reactor apparatus and method of pyrolyticaly decomposing silane gas into liquid silicon product and hydrogen by-product gas is disclosed. The thermal reactor has a reaction chamber which is heated well above the decomposition temperature of silane. An injector probe introduces the silane gas tangentially into the reaction chamber to form a first, outer, forwardly moving vortex containing the liquid silicon product and a second, inner, rewardly moving vortex containing the by-product hydrogen gas. The liquid silicon in the first outer vortex deposits onto the interior walls of the reaction chamber to form an equilibrium skull layer which flows to the forward or bottom end of the reaction chamber where it is removed. The by-product hydrogen gas in the second inner vortex is removed from the top or rear of the reaction chamber by a vortex finder. The injector probe which introduces the silane gas into the reaction chamber is continually cooled by a cooling jacket.

Levin, H.; Ford, L. B. (inventors)

1982-01-01

98

In-Situ Production of Solar Power Systems for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current proposals for developing an extended human presence, beyond space stations, on the Moon and Mars increasingly consider the processing of non-terrestrial materials essential for keeping the Earth launch burden reasonable. Utilization of in-situ resources for construction of lunar and Mars bases will initially require assessment of resource availability followed by the development of economically acceptable and technically feasible extractive processes. In regard to materials processing and fabrication the lower gravity level on the Moon (0.125 g) and Mars (0.367 g) will dramatically change the presently accepted hierarchy of materials in terms of specific properties, a factor which must be understood and exploited. Furthermore, significant changes are expected in the behavior of liquid materials during processing. In casting, for example, mold filling and associated solidification processes have to be reevaluated. Finally microstructural development and therefore material properties, presently being documented through on-going research in microgravity science and applications, needs to be understood and scaled to the reduced gravity environments. One of the most important elements of a human planetary base is power production. Lunar samples and geophysical measurements returned by the Apollo missions provide detailed data on the composition and physical characteristics of the lunar materials and environment. Based on this knowledge and extrapolations of terrestrial industrial experience it is clear that several types of solar-to-electric converters can be manufactured on the Moon. It is conceivable that well over 90% of a solar-to- electric power system could be made from lunar materials. Production and utilization of photovoltaic devices for solar energy production on Earth is primarily driven by the market economy. On Earth a production plant for photovoltaic devices is intimately linked to the planets massive industrial base. A selection of off the shelf refined materials are available as well as cheap fast transportation on demand. The processes takes place (except for the few seconds reprieve in shot towers etc.) under one gravity, with solar radiation significantly modulated by weather, and under conditions where one atmosphere is free and high vacuum is cumbersome and expensive. Off Earth, on lunar or Mars bases, the cost of photovoltaic power is driven by transport costs - Earth launch, deep space transport, landing on the planetary surface. Thus there is a premium for processes that are materials self-sufficient or for closed loop in-situ processes. The lack of differentiated ores on the Moon, and lack of explored minerals on Mars and interplanetary space give a premium to universal/non-ore-specific mineral extractive processes. Initially a semiconductor/photovoltaic production facility will build on no conveniently located industrial base, further increasing the premium on closed loop self sufficient processes.

Curreri, Peter A.; Criswell, David R.

1999-01-01

99

Explorers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

WEbsites to use for 5th grade Explorers study. Explorers of the Americas - Enchanted Learning'); Explorers of the Americas - Enchanted Learning Lewis Clark - The Journey of the Corps of Discovery Lewis and Clark - The Journey of the Corps of Discovery Gale Group Biography Resources Center Gale Group - Biography Resource Center Discoverer s Web Discoverer's Web The Conquistadors The Conquistadors ...

Laz, Mrs.

2007-11-07

100

Senate Forum on Shale Gas Development Explores Environmental and Industry Issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources brought together industry and environmental leaders for a 23 May forum that focused on industry best practices and environmental concerns related to the current shale gas boom. The boom in shale gas development has been brought about in large part through advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") to increase shale oil and gas production.

Showstack, Randy

2013-06-01

101

Project Explorer takes its second step: GAS-608 in engineering development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An a continuation of its Project Explorer series, the Alabama Space and Rocket Center is sponsoring the development of two additional Get Away Special payloads. Details are given of GAS-608, including descriptions of its six experiments in organic crystal growth, roach eggs, yeast, radish seeds, bacterial morphology, and silicon crystals. A brief summary is also presented of GAS-105 and the Space Camp program for stimulating student first hand participation in space flight studies. GAS-608 will carry six student experiments, which will involve biology, crystal growth, and biochemistry in addition to a centralized package for electronics and power supply.

Kitchens, Philip H.

1988-01-01

102

Cryogenic production of ammonia synthesis gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved cryogenic separation process is provided for forming a substantially CO-free and lower hydrocarbon-free hydrogen-rich gas, suitable for use in producing an ammonia synthesis gas, from a hydrogen-containing gas stream also containing carbon monoxide and lower hydrocarbon impurities, wherein the hydrogen containing gas is subject to a two-stage autorefrigerated cryogenic flash treatment to remove concentrated methane-containing and carbon monoxide-containing

Traficante

1985-01-01

103

GASCAP: Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model documentation, June 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model (GASCAP) has been developed by EIA to provide a historical analysis of the monthly productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead and a projection of monthly capacity for 2 years into the future. The impact of drilling, oil and gas price assumptions, and demand on gas productive capacity are examined. Both gas-well gas and oil-well gas are included. Oil-well gas productive capacity is estimated separately and then combined with the gas-well gas productive capacity. This documentation report provides a general overview of the GASCAP Model, describes the underlying data base, provides technical descriptions of the component models, diagrams the system and subsystem flow, describes the equations, and provides definitions and sources of all variables used in the system. This documentation report is provided to enable users of EIA projections generated by GASCAP to understand the underlying procedures used and to replicate the models and solutions. This report should be of particular interest to those in the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas.

Not Available

1993-07-01

104

Air quality concerns of unconventional oil and natural gas production.  

PubMed

Increased use of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") in unconventional oil and natural gas (O & NG) development from coal, sandstone, and shale deposits in the United States (US) has created environmental concerns over water and air quality impacts. In this perspective we focus on how the production of unconventional O & NG affects air quality. We pay particular attention to shale gas as this type of development has transformed natural gas production in the US and is set to become important in the rest of the world. A variety of potential emission sources can be spread over tens of thousands of acres of a production area and this complicates assessment of local and regional air quality impacts. We outline upstream activities including drilling, completion and production. After contrasting the context for development activities in the US and Europe we explore the use of inventories for determining air emissions. Location and scale of analysis is important, as O & NG production emissions in some US basins account for nearly 100% of the pollution burden, whereas in other basins these activities make up less than 10% of total air emissions. While emission inventories are beneficial to quantifying air emissions from a particular source category, they do have limitations when determining air quality impacts from a large area. Air monitoring is essential, not only to validate inventories, but also to measure impacts. We describe the use of measurements, including ground-based mobile monitoring, network stations, airborne, and satellite platforms for measuring air quality impacts. We identify nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), ozone, hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and methane as pollutants of concern related to O & NG activities. These pollutants can contribute to air quality concerns and they may be regulated in ambient air, due to human health or climate forcing concerns. Close to well pads, emissions are concentrated and exposure to a wide range of pollutants is possible. Public health protection is improved when emissions are controlled and facilities are located away from where people live. Based on lessons learned in the US we outline an approach for future unconventional O & NG development that includes regulation, assessment and monitoring. PMID:24699994

Field, R A; Soltis, J; Murphy, S

2014-05-01

105

Oil and Gas CDT Are non-marine organic-rich shales suitable exploration  

E-print Network

Oil and Gas CDT Are non-marine organic-rich shales suitable exploration targets? The University Hesselbo, University of Exeter http://emps.exeter.ac.uk/csm/staff/sph216 Key Words Shales, depositional environments, diagenesis, sedimentology, geochemistry Overview Shales are of increasing interest not only

Henderson, Gideon

106

Production of biodiesel using expanded gas solvents  

SciTech Connect

A method of producing an alkyl ester. The method comprises providing an alcohol and a triglyceride or fatty acid. An expanding gas is dissolved into the alcohol to form a gas expanded solvent. The alcohol is reacted with the triglyceride or fatty acid in a single phase to produce the alkyl ester. The expanding gas may be a nonpolar expanding gas, such as carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, ethylene, propylene, butylene, pentene, isomers thereof, and mixtures thereof, which is dissolved into the alcohol. The gas expanded solvent may be maintained at a temperature below, at, or above a critical temperature of the expanding gas and at a pressure below, at, or above a critical pressure of the expanding gas.

Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID; Fox, Robert V [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-04-07

107

Gas production and migration in landfills and geological materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landfill gas, originating from the anaerobic biodegradation of the organic content of waste, consists mainly of methane and carbon dioxide, with traces of volatile organic compounds. Pressure, concentration and temperature gradients that develop within the landfill result in gas emissions to the atmosphere and in lateral migration through the surrounding soils. Environmental and safety issues associated with the landfill gas require control of off-site gas migration. The numerical model TOUGH2-LGM (Transport of Unsaturated Groundwater and Heat-Landfill Gas Migration) has been developed to simulate landfill gas production and migration processes within and beyond landfill boundaries. The model is derived from the general non-isothermal multiphase flow simulator TOUGH2, to which a new equation of state module is added. It simulates the migration of five components in partially saturated media: four fluid components (water, atmospheric air, methane and carbon dioxide) and one energy component (heat). The four fluid components are present in both the gas and liquid phases. The model incorporates gas-liquid partitioning of all fluid components by means of dissolution and volatilization. In addition to advection in the gas and liquid phase, multi-component diffusion is simulated in the gas phase. The landfill gas production rate is proportional to the organic substrate and is modeled as an exponentially decreasing function of time. The model is applied to the Montreal's CESM landfill site, which is located in a former limestone rock quarry. Existing data were used to characterize hydraulic properties of the waste and the limestone. Gas recovery data at the site were used to define the gas production model. Simulations in one and two dimensions are presented to investigate gas production and migration in the landfill, and in the surrounding limestone. The effects of a gas recovery well and landfill cover on gas migration are also discussed.

Nastev, Miroslav; Therrien, René; Lefebvre, René; Gélinas, Pierre

2001-11-01

108

Offshore LNG (liquefied natural gas) production and storage systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A barge, outfitted with gas liquefaction processing equipment and liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks, is suggested as a possible way to exploit remote offshore gas production. A similar study with a barge-mounted methanol plant was conducted several years ago, also using remote offshore feed gas. This barge-mounted, LNG system is bow-moored to a single point mooring through which feed

Barden

1982-01-01

109

Data Mining Techniques for Complex Formation Evaluation in Petroleum Exploration and Production: A Comparison of Feature Selection and Classification Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data mining techniques, especially classification methods, are receiving increasing attention from researchers and practitioners in the domain of petroleum exploration and production (E&P) in China. To extensively investigate the effects of feature selection and learning algorithms on the hydrocarbon reservoir prediction performance, taking three real-world multiclass problems as examples, namely formation evaluation of water-flooding interval, low resistivity reservoir, and gas

Hongqi Li; Haifeng Guo; Haimin Guo; Zhaoxu Meng

2008-01-01

110

Exploration and Exploitation Alliances in Biotechnology: A System of New Product Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We link the exploration--exploitation framework of organizational learning to a technology venture's strategic alliances and argue that the causal relationship between the venture's alliances and its new product development depends on the type of the alliance. In particular, we propose a product development path beginning with exploration alliances predicting products in development, which in turn predict exploitation alliances, and that

Frank T. Rothaermel; David L. Deeds

2004-01-01

111

Biomass pyrolysis\\/gasification for product gas production: the overall investigation of parametric effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional biomass pyrolysis\\/gasification process for production of medium heating value gas for industrial or civil applications faces two disadvantages, i.e. low gas productivity and the accompanying corrosion of downstream equipment caused by the high content of tar vapour contained in the gas phase. The objective of this paper is to overcome these disadvantages, and therefore, the effects of the

G Chen; J Andries; Z Luo; H Spliethoff

2003-01-01

112

Measuring micro-organism gas production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transducer, which senses pressure buildup, is easy to assemble and use, and rate of gas produced can be measured automatically and accurately. Method can be used in research, in clinical laboratories, and for environmental pollution studies because of its ability to detect and quantify rapidly the number of gas-producing microorganisms in water, beverages, and clinical samples.

Wilkins, J. R.; Pearson, A. O.; Mills, S. M.

1973-01-01

113

Integrated production of fuel gas and oxygenated organic compounds from synthesis gas  

DOEpatents

An oxygenated organic liquid product and a fuel gas are produced from a portion of synthesis gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur-containing compounds in a integrated feed treatment and catalytic reaction system. To prevent catalyst poisoning, the sulfur-containing compounds in the reactor feed are absorbed in a liquid comprising the reactor product, and the resulting sulfur-containing liquid is regenerated by stripping with untreated synthesis gas from the reactor. Stripping offgas is combined with the remaining synthesis gas to provide a fuel gas product. A portion of the regenerated liquid is used as makeup to the absorber and the remainder is withdrawn as a liquid product. The method is particularly useful for integration with a combined cycle coal gasification system utilizing a gas turbine for electric power generation.

Moore, Robert B. (Allentown, PA); Hegarty, William P. (State College, PA); Studer, David W. (Wescosville, PA); Tirados, Edward J. (Easton, PA)

1995-01-01

114

Gas Chemistry of Hydrothermal Systems of the Explorer Ridge, NE Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In June-August, 2002, a 2-leg expedition aboard the R/V Thompson completed an extensive survey of the hydrothermal systems of the Explorer Ridge. The first part of the expedition employed hydrographic casts to detect hydrothermal activity via the presence of water-column plumes. A total of 29 casts were completed, 17 conventional vertical casts and 11 tow-yos, covering the entire length of the Explorer Ridge from 49.5°N to 50.3°N. A total of 288 discrete samples were collected for shorebased analysis of helium isotopes. Preliminary results based on shipboard analysis of CTD data indicated that the strong hydrothermal venting was confined to the Magic Mountain area of the Explorer Ridge at 49.76°N, 130.26°W, where strong temperature and light attenuation signals were detected. However, it is possible that the water-column helium isotope results, when available, will indicate other areas of hydrothermal activity. In the second phase of the exploration, a series of submersible dives were conducted using the Canadian ROV ROPOS. The ROPOS dives were concentrated on the hydrothermal sites of the Magic Mountain area, which are concentrated along a 400-m long zone on the eastern shoulder of the axial valley. A suite of vent fluid samples was collected for analysis of gas chemistry using either discrete titanium gas-tight samplers or using the NOAA hydrothermal fluid sampler (HFS). A total of 11 discrete vent fluid samples were collected for gas chemistry at 7 different vents ranging in temperature from 162°C to 313°C. All of the vents sampled were very gas-rich, with total gas contents ranging from 0.3 ccSTP/g up to 1.4 ccSTP/g at Record Breaker Vent (313°C). Results for vent fluid concentrations of 3He, 4He, Ne, H2, CH4, and CO2 will be presented.

Lupton, J.; Lilley, M.; Baker, E.; Butterfield, D.; Embley, R.; Silvers, B.; Resing, J.; Olson, E.; Evans, L.; Lebon, G.; Greene, R.

2002-12-01

115

40 CFR Table W - 1A of Subpart W-Default Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production W Table... MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions...Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production...

2012-07-01

116

Methane hydrate gas production: evaluating and exploiting the solid gas resource  

SciTech Connect

Methane hydrate gas could be a tremendous energy resource if methods can be devised to produce this gas economically. This paper examines two methods of producing gas from hydrate deposits by the injection of hot water or steam, and also examines the feasibility of hydraulic fracturing and pressure reduction as a hydrate gas production technique. A hydraulic fracturing technique suitable for hydrate reservoirs and a system for coring hydrate reservoirs are also described.

McGuire, P.L.

1981-01-01

117

Methanol production with elemental phosphorus byproduct gas: technical and economic feasibility  

SciTech Connect

The technical and economic feasibility of using a typical, elemental, phosphorus byproduct gas stream in methanol production is assessed. The purpose of the study is to explore the potential of a substitute for natural gas. The first part of the study establishes economic tradeoffs between several alternative methods of supplying the hydrogen which is needed in the methanol synthesis process to react with CO from the off gas. The preferred alternative is the Battelle Process, which uses natural gas in combination with the off gas in an economically sized methanol plant. The second part of the study presents a preliminary basic design of a plant to (1) clean and compress the off gas, (2) return recovered phosphorus to the phosphorus plant, and (3) produce methanol by the Battelle Process. Use of elemental phosphorus byproduct gas in methanol production appears to be technically feasible. The Battelle Process shows a definite but relatively small economic advantage over conventional methanol manufacture based on natural gas alone. The process would be economically feasible only where natural gas supply and methanol market conditions at a phosphorus plant are not significantly less favorable than at competing methanol plants. If off-gas streams from two or more phosphorus plants could be combined, production of methanol using only offgas might also be economically feasible. The North American methanol market, however, does not seem likely to require another new methanol project until after 1990. The off-gas cleanup, compression, and phosphorus-recovery system could be used to produce a CO-rich stream that could be economically attractive for production of several other chemicals besides methanol.

Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

1981-01-01

118

30 CFR 250.303 - Facilities described in a new or revised Exploration Plan or Development and Production Plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Facilities described in a new or revised Exploration Plan or Development and Production...Facilities described in a new or revised Exploration Plan or Development and Production Plan. (a) New plans. All Exploration Plans and Development and...

2010-07-01

119

Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report deals with a study directed towards a modeling effort on production related ground movements and subsidence resulting from hydrate dissociation. The goal of this research study was to evaluate whether there could be subsidence related problems that could be an impediment to hydrate production. During the production of gas from a hydrate reservoir, it is expected that porous

H. J. Siriwardane; B. Kutuk

1992-01-01

120

Strategies for gas production from oceanic Class 3 hydrateaccumulations  

SciTech Connect

Gas hydrates are solid crystalline compounds in which gasmolecules are lodged within the lattices of ice crystals. Vast amounts ofCH4 are trapped in gas hydrates, and a significant effort has recentlybegun to evaluate hydrate deposits as a potential energy source. Class 3hydrate deposits are characterized by an isolated Hydrate-Bearing Layer(HBL) that is not in contact with any hydrate-free zone of mobile fluids.The base of the HBL in Class 3 deposits may occur within or at the edgeof the zone of thermodynamic hydrate stability.In this numerical study oflong-term gas production from typical representatives of unfracturedClass 3 deposits, we determine that simple thermal stimulation appears tobe a slow and inefficient production method. Electrical heating and warmwater injection result in very low production rates (4 and 12 MSCFD,respectively) that are orders of magnitude lower than generallyacceptable standards of commercial viability of gas production fromoceanic reservoirs. However, production from depressurization-baseddissociation based on a constant well pressure appears to be a promisingapproach even in deposits characterized by high hydrate saturations. Thisapproach allows the production of very large volumes ofhydrate-originating gas at high rates (>15 MMSCFD, with a long-termaverage of about 8.1 MMSCFD for the reference case) for long times usingconventional technology. Gas production from hydrates is accompanied by asignificant production of water. However, unlike conventional gasreservoirs, the water production rate declines with time. The lowsalinity of the produced water may require care in its disposal. Becauseof the overwhelming advantage of depressurization-based methods, thesensitivity analysis was not extendedto thermal stimulation methods. Thesimulation results indicate that depressurization-induced gas productionfrom oceanic Class 3 deposits increases (and the corresponding waterto-gas ratio decreases) with increasing hydrate temperature (whichdefines the hydrate stability), increasing intrinsic permeability of theHBL, and decreasing hydrate saturation although depletion of the hydratemay complicate the picture in the latter case.

Moridis, George J.; Reagan, Matthew T.

2007-05-01

121

Verification of capillary functions and relative permeability equations for gas production from hydrate bearing sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several studies of numerical simulation on predicting long-term behavior of hydrate-bearing sediments during gas production. Numerical simulators explore coupled processes that require numerous equations and parameters. Important equations for the estimation of gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments are soil-water characteristic curves and relative permeability equations. These equations require empirical parameters, laboratory and in-situ experiments which are very difficult and expensive. In this research, pore-network model simulation is performed to obtain the fitting parameters for capillary pressure functions and relative permeability equations. First, several sediment packings similar to in-situ sediment are generated by discrete element method. Then, the pore-network model is extracted from the pore space of sediment packing as a system of pores connected at throats. Numerical algorithm to simulate gas hydrate dissociation and gas expansion, and calculate gas and water relative permeability at every saturation is developed for the pore-network model. The assessment of water pore connectivity and the identification of gas clusters are performed using Hoshen-Kopelman algorithm. Finally, reliable fitting parameters for capillary pressure functions and relative permeability equations during gas production will be suggested for further use.

Mahabadi Mahabad, N.; Jang, J.

2013-12-01

122

New economics of natural gas production in the Appalachian states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since at least 1920, production of natural gas in the Appalachian states has fluctuated between 400 and 500 billion cu ft\\/yr. Among the factors limiting expansion in drilling, recompletion of old wells, and introduction of new technology is the adverse wellhead prices paid to producers by purchasers under regulations applied by the federal government under the US Natural Gas Act

Jaworek

1979-01-01

123

Forecasting long-term gas production Luis Cueto-Felguerosoa  

E-print Network

and hydraulic fracturing. Hori- zontal drilling enhances the spatial access to the hydrocarbon resource formations. Current shale gas production relies on two quickly evolving technologies: horizon- tal drilling by increasing the length of a single well within the gas-bearing shale. Hydraulic fracturing, or "fracking" (9

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

124

Process for production desulfurized of synthesis gas  

DOEpatents

A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1900.degree.-2600.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises a calcium-containing compound portion, a sodium-containing compound portion, and a fluoride-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (1) a sulfur-containing sodium-calcium-fluoride silicate phase; and (2) a sodium-calcium sulfide phase.

Wolfenbarger, James K. (Torrance, CA); Najjar, Mitri S. (Wappingers Falls, NY)

1993-01-01

125

Competence exploration and exploitation in new product development : The moderating effects of environmental dynamism and competitiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to extend research on exploration and exploitation by investigating the effects of competence exploration and exploitation on new product development outcomes in China. Premised from the perspective of environment-performance relationship and the fit-as-moderation view, the authors argue that exploration and exploitation have curvilinear effects on new product development performance due to external environmental factors. Design\\/methodology\\/approach

Tsau-Tang Yang; Ci-Rong Li

2011-01-01

126

Mercury in soil gas and air--A potential tool in mineral exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mercury content in soil gas and in the atmosphere was measured in several mining districts to test the possibility that the mercury content in the atmosphere is higher over ore deposits than over barren ground. At Cortez, Nev., the distribution of anorhalous amounts of mercury in the air collected at ground level (soil gas) correlates well with the distribution of gold-bearing rocks that are covered by as much as 100 feet of gravel. The mercury content in the atmosphere collected at an altitude of 200 feet by an aircraft was 20 times background over a mercury posit and 10 times background over two porphyry copper deposits. Measurement of mercury in soil gas and air may prove to be a valuable exploration tool.

McCarthy, Joseph Howard; Vaughn, W.W.; Learned, R.E.; Meuschke, J.L.

1969-01-01

127

Mitigating Accidents In Oil And Gas Production Facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated operations are increasingly used in oil and gas production facilities to improve yields, reduce costs and maximize profits. They leverage information and communications technology (ICT) to facilitate collaboration between experts at widely dispersed locations. This paper discusses the safety and security consequences of implementing integrated operations for oil and gas production. It examines the increased accident risk arising from the tight coupling of complex ICT and SCADA systems, and proposes technological, organizational and human factors based strategies for mitigating the risk.

Johnsen, Stig

128

Tempest gas turbine extends EGT product line  

SciTech Connect

With the introduction of the 7.8 MW (mechanical output) Tempest gas turbine, ECT has extended the company`s line of its small industrial turbines. The new Tempest machine, featuring a 7.5 MW electric output and a 33% thermal efficiency, ranks above the company`s single-shaft Typhoon gas turbine, rated 3.2 and 4.9 MW, and the 6.3 MW Tornado gas turbine. All three machines are well-suited for use in combined heat and power (CHP) plants, as demonstrated by the fact that close to 50% of the 150 Typhoon units sold are for CHP applications. This experience has induced EGT, of Lincoln, England, to announce the introduction of the new gas turbine prior to completion of the testing program. The present single-shaft machine is expected to be used mainly for industrial trial cogeneration. This market segment, covering the needs of paper mills, hospitals, chemical plants, ceramic industry, etc., is a typical local market. Cogeneration plants are engineered according to local needs and have to be assisted by local organizations. For this reason, to efficiently cover the world market, EGT has selected a number of associates that will receive from Lincoln completely engineered machine packages and will engineer the cogeneration system according to custom requirements. These partners will also assist the customer and dispose locally of the spares required for maintenance operations.

Chellini, R.

1995-07-01

129

Preliminary report on the commercial viability of gas production from natural gas hydrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Economic studies on simulated gas hydrate reservoirs have been compiled to estimate the price of natural gas that may lead to economically viable production from the most promising gas hydrate accumulations. As a first estimate, $CDN2005 12/Mscf is the lowest gas price that would allow economically viable production from gas hydrates in the absence of associated free gas, while an underlying gas deposit will reduce the viability price estimate to $CDN2005 7.50/Mscf. Results from a recent analysis of the simulated production of natural gas from marine hydrate deposits are also considered in this report; on an IROR basis, it is $US2008 3.50-4.00/Mscf more expensive to produce marine hydrates than conventional marine gas assuming the existence of sufficiently large marine hydrate accumulations. While these prices represent the best available estimates, the economic evaluation of a specific project is highly dependent on the producibility of the target zone, the amount of gas in place, the associated geologic and depositional environment, existing pipeline infrastructure, and local tariffs and taxes. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Walsh, M.R.; Hancock, S.H.; Wilson, S.J.; Patil, S.L.; Moridis, G.J.; Boswell, R.; Collett, T.S.; Koh, C.A.; Sloan, E.D.

2009-01-01

130

Application of the Stretched Exponential Production Decline Model to Forecast Production in Shale Gas Reservoirs  

E-print Network

Production forecasting in shale (ultra-low permeability) gas reservoirs is of great interest due to the advent of multi-stage fracturing and horizontal drilling. The well renowned production forecasting model, Arps? Hyperbolic Decline Model...

Statton, James Cody

2012-07-16

131

Theoretical assessment of 3-D magnetotelluric method for oil and gas exploration: Synthetic examples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In petroleum explorations, seismic reflection technique has been almost always the preferred method for its high exploration depth and resolution. However, with the development of three dimensional (3D) inversion and interpretation schemes, much potential has been shown in MT method dealing with complex geological structures as in oil and gas exploration. In this study, synthetic geophysical models of petroleum reservoir structures are modeled and utilized to demonstrate that feasibility of 3-D MT technique for hydrocarbon exploration. A series of typical reservoir structure models are constructed and used to generate synthetic MT and seismic data to test the capabilities of 2-D/3-D MT and 2-D seismic inversion techniques. According to the inversion comparison, in addition to correctly retrieve the original forward model, the 3-D MT method also has some advantages over the reflective seismology method, which suffered from the lack of reflection wave and multiple wave problems. With the presented 3-D high resolution MT inversion method, MT techniques should be employed as one of the first choices for petroleum explorations.

Zhang, Kun; Wei, Wenbo; Lu, Qingtian; Dong, Hao; Li, Yanqing

2014-07-01

132

NOVEL REACTOR FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

Praxair investigated an advanced technology for producing synthesis gas from natural gas and oxygen This production process combined the use of a short-reaction time catalyst with Praxair's gas mixing technology to provide a novel reactor system. The program achieved all of the milestones contained in the development plan for Phase I. We were able to develop a reactor configuration that was able to operate at high pressures (up to 19atm). This new reactor technology was used as the basis for a new process for the conversion of natural gas to liquid products (Gas to Liquids or GTL). Economic analysis indicated that the new process could provide a 8-10% cost advantage over conventional technology. The economic prediction although favorable was not encouraging enough for a high risk program like this. Praxair decided to terminate development.

Vasilis Papavassiliou; Leo Bonnell; Dion Vlachos

2004-12-01

133

Explore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by the Tata Energy Research Institute, the EduGreen Explore Web site allows kids to learn about energy, water, climate change, solid waste, and more. Besides giving good descriptions on these various subjects, students will also gain a global perspective on these issues since the Institute, which is located in India, gives specific information for the country. The site also contains quizzes, maps, activities, and more worth checking out.

2002-01-01

134

US production of natural gas from tight reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

For the purposes of this report, tight gas reservoirs are defined as those that meet the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC) definition of tight. They are generally characterized by an average reservoir rock permeability to gas of 0.1 millidarcy or less and, absent artificial stimulation of production, by production rates that do not exceed 5 barrels of oil per day and certain specified daily volumes of gas which increase with the depth of the reservoir. All of the statistics presented in this report pertain to wells that have been classified, from 1978 through 1991, as tight according to the FERC; i.e., they are ``legally tight`` reservoirs. Additional production from ``geologically tight`` reservoirs that have not been classified tight according to the FERC rules has been excluded. This category includes all producing wells drilled into legally designated tight gas reservoirs prior to 1978 and all producing wells drilled into physically tight gas reservoirs that have not been designated legally tight. Therefore, all gas production referenced herein is eligible for the Section 29 tax credit. Although the qualification period for the credit expired at the end of 1992, wells that were spudded (began to be drilled) between 1978 and May 1988, and from November 5, 1990, through year end 1992, are eligible for the tax credit for a subsequent period of 10 years. This report updates the EIA`s tight gas production information through 1991 and considers further the history and effect on tight gas production of the Federal Government`s regulatory and tax policy actions. It also provides some high points of the geologic background needed to understand the nature and location of low-permeability reservoirs.

Not Available

1993-10-18

135

Report on possible routes to breakdown products of mustard gas  

SciTech Connect

This paper suggests possible routes to the formation of decontamination and breakdown products of the chemical agent Mustard Gas (HD). The terminal decontamination products, CaSO4 and CO2, are harmless to the environment. Oxathiane is formed by hydrolysis and dehydration reactions. Dithiane is formed with the application of heat in a low oxygen or nitrogen environment. (Author).

Luman, F.M.

1983-10-18

136

Chemical and Physical Properties of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

be out of compliance without remedial action. This prob- lemhasspurredthedevelopmentofvarioustypesofscrub- Beneficial and environmentally safe recycling of flue gas desulfur- bing processes to convert SO2 from flue gases into solid ization (FGD) products requires detailed knowledge of their chemical and physical properties. We analyzed 59 dry FGD samples collected products for disposal or beneficial reuse. These FGD from 13 locations representing

David A. Kost; Jerry M. Bigham; Richard C. Stehouwer; Joel H. Beeghly; Randy Fowler; Samuel J. Traina; William E. Wolfe; Warren A. Dick

2005-01-01

137

Optimal exploration and production of a nonrenewable resource  

E-print Network

Earlier studies of exhaustible resource production and pricing usually assume that there is a fixed reserve base that can be exploited over time. In reality there is no "fixed" reserve base (in an economically meaningful ...

Pindyck, Robert S.

138

Ecological Production Functions: A Theoretical and Practical Exploration  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecological production functions characterize relationships between ecosystem condition, management practices, and the delivery of economically valuable ecosystem services. Many in the ecosystem service research community view ecological research directed toward developing ecolog...

139

Water Resources and Natural Gas Production from the Marcellus Shale  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Marcellus Shale is a sedimentary rock formation deposited over 350 million years ago in a shallow inland sea located in the eastern United States where the present-day Appalachian Mountains now stand (de Witt and others, 1993). This shale contains significant quantities of natural gas. New developments in drilling technology, along with higher wellhead prices, have made the Marcellus Shale an important natural gas resource. The Marcellus Shale extends from southern New York across Pennsylvania, and into western Maryland, West Virginia, and eastern Ohio (fig. 1). The production of commercial quantities of gas from this shale requires large volumes of water to drill and hydraulically fracture the rock. This water must be recovered from the well and disposed of before the gas can flow. Concerns about the availability of water supplies needed for gas production, and questions about wastewater disposal have been raised by water-resource agencies and citizens throughout the Marcellus Shale gas development region. This Fact Sheet explains the basics of Marcellus Shale gas production, with the intent of helping the reader better understand the framework of the water-resource questions and concerns.

Soeder, Daniel J.; Kappel, William M.

2009-01-01

140

77 FR 65547 - Reissuance of the NPDES General Permits for Oil and Gas Exploration Facilities on the Outer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...permits authorize thirteen types of discharges from facilities engaged in field exploration and exploratory drilling activities under the Offshore Subcategory of the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category (40 CFR part 425, Subpart A), as...

2012-10-29

141

On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines  

DOEpatents

A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed. A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed.

Johansson, Lennart N. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2004-06-29

142

Pumps, refracturing hike production from tight shale gas wells  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that downhole pumps and refracturing are two ways to significantly improve production rates from the Antrim shale, a tight formation in the Michigan basin (U.S.) and the objective of a major natural gas play. Candidate wells for restimulation can be identified by pressure build-up tests and specifically productivity index-vs.-permeability plots based on these tests. The work in the Bagley East B4-10 well illustrates the possible production improvement.

Reeves, S.R. (Advanced Resources International Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)); Morrisson, W.K. (Nomeco Oil and Gas Co., Jackson, CO (United States)); Hill, D.G. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States))

1993-02-01

143

Forecasting Gas Production in Organic Shale with the Combined Numerical Simulation of Gas Diffusion in Kerogen, Langmuir Desorption from  

E-print Network

SPE 159250 Forecasting Gas Production in Organic Shale with the Combined Numerical Simulation algorithm to forecast gas production in organic shale that simultaneously takes into account gas diffusion-than-expected permeability in shale-gas formations, while Langmuir desorption maintains pore pressure. Simulations confirm

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

144

Shale Gas Production Theory and Case Analysis We researched the process of oil recovery and shale gas  

E-print Network

Shale Gas Production Theory and Case Analysis (Siemens) We researched the process of oil recovery and shale gas recovery and compare the difference between conventional and unconventional gas reservoir and recovery technologies. Then we did theoretical analysis on the shale gas production. According

Ge, Zigang

145

Explore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created "to champion the selfless acts of others" and "to create a portal into the soul of humanity" the Explore website was created in part with support from the Annenberg Foundation. On this website, visitors can view films that cover themes such as animal rights, poverty, the environment, and spirituality. Clicking on the "Films" tab brings up a grid of recently added films, complete with another section that divides them up by "Places" and Causes". The films range in length from a two to thirty minutes, and visitors can also create their own playlist of films for their own use. Some of the more recently added films of note include "Fish Out of Water" and "Gorillas 98.6% Human". Also, visitors can connect with other parties by using the "Discussions" section to talk about travel, philanthropy, or filmmaking. The "Minds" area features profiles of the filmmakers and others profiled throughout the site, and visitors can filter them by countries and causes.

146

A1. SHALE GAS PRODUCTION GROWTH IN THE UNITED STATES..............................1 A2. VARIABILITY IN SHALE WELL PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE ............................1  

E-print Network

1 APPENDIX1 Contents A1. SHALE GAS PRODUCTION GROWTH IN THE UNITED STATES FOR FLOWBACK GAS CAPTURE IN SHALE PLAYS..9 A5. REFERENCES...................................................................................................................13 A1. SHALE GAS PRODUCTION GROWTH IN THE UNITED STATES Natural gas production in the United States

147

Greenhouse gas budgets of crop production current  

E-print Network

of agricultural output 13 2.3.3 Soil N2 O emissions from crop residue incorporation and N-fixing crops 13 2.4 CH4 4.7.3 Residue management 41 4.8 Mitigation potential of agronomy measures 42 4.8.1 Catch crops and increased cover 42 4.8.2 Crop selection and rotation 42 4.9 Mitigation potential in rice production 43 4

Levi, Ran

148

Bioinformatic analysis for exploring relationships between genes and gene products  

Microsoft Academic Search

To carry out their specific roles in the cell, genes and gene products often work together in groups, forming many relationships among themselves and with other molecules. Such relationships include physical protein-protein interaction relationships, regulatory relationships, metabolic relationships, genetic relationships, and much more. With advances in science and technology, some high throughput technologies have been developed to simultaneously detect tens

Erliang Zeng

2008-01-01

149

Exploration and production operations in an environmentally sensitive area  

SciTech Connect

The Ecuadorian portion of the Amazon Basin, known locally as the Oriente, is the major oil producing region in Ecuador. The tropical rain forests of the Oriente contain some of the Earth`s most biologically diverse and ecologically sensitive areas. In addition, the rain forest is home to several groups of indigenous peoples.When formulating an exploration plan and prior to beginning E and P activities in the Oriente, operators must understand the environmental and sociocultural issues in the region. These concerns are considered throughout the planning process, from project conception to project closure. An environmental management plan is adopted which addresses environmental and sociocultural concerns, minimizes environmental impact, prevents delays, and limits environmental liability.

Barker, G.W.; Steele, E.J.; Robalino, J.; Baldwin, S.J.

1994-12-31

150

NASA EG-2000-03-002-GSFC Exploring the Aurora and the Ionosphere 1 Educational Product  

E-print Network

NASA EG-2000-03-002-GSFC Exploring the Aurora and the Ionosphere 1 Educational Product Educators#DQG#Aurora and the Ionosphere An Educator Guide with Activities in Space Science #12;NASA EG-2000-03-002-GSFC Exploring the Aurora and the Ionosphere 2 Solar Storms and You! is available in electronic for

151

30 CFR 250.1629 - Additional production and fuel gas system requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Additional production and fuel gas system requirements. 250.1629...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER...1629 Additional production and fuel gas system requirements. (a)...

2010-07-01

152

Advanced Exploration Systems Logistics Reduction and Repurposing Trash-to-Gas and Heat Melt Compactor KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics covered: 1. Project Structure 2. "Trash to Gas" 3. "Smashing Trash! The Heat Melt Compactor" 4. "Heat Melt Compaction as an Effective Treatment for Eliminating Microorganisms from Solid Waste" Thermal degradation of trash reduces volume while creating water, carbon dioxide and ash. CO2 can be fed to Sabatier reactor for CH4 production to fuel LOX/LCH4 ascent vehicle. Optimal performance: HFWS, full temperature ramp to 500-600 C. Tar challenges exist. Catalysis: Dolomag did eliminate allene byproducts from the product stream. 2nd Gen Reactor Studies. Targeting power, mass, time efficiency. Gas separation, Catalysis to reduce tar formation. Microgravity effects. Downselect in August will determine where we should spend time optimizing the technology.

Caraccio, Anne J.; Layne, Andrew; Hummerick, Mary

2013-01-01

153

Natural gas production from hydrate dissociation: An axisymmetric model  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an axisymmetric model for natural gas production from the dissociation of methane hydrate in a confined reservoir by a depressurizing well. During the hydrate dissociation, heat and mass transfer in the reservoir are analyzed. The system of governing equations is solved by a finite difference scheme. For different well pressures and reservoir temperatures, distributions of temperature and pressure in the reservoir, as well as the natural gas production from the well are evaluated. The numerical results are compared with those obtained by a linearization method. It is shown that the gas production rate is a sensitive function of well pressure. The simulation results are compared with the linearization approach and the shortcomings of the earlier approach are discussed.

Ahmadi, G. (Clarkson Univ., Pottsdam, NY); Ji, Chuang (Clarkson Univ., Pottsdam, NY); Smith, D.H.

2007-08-01

154

Gas seepage as an indicator of deeper prospective reservoirs. A study based on exploration 3D seismic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three periods of sustained gas seepage in geological time have been revealed in Danish block 5604\\/26 in the North Sea by the use of exploration 3D seismic data. The most recent period is indicated by a cluster of seismic chimneys which ties in to buried craters near the seabed, and possible present gas escape through the seabed, along with amplitude

Roar Heggland

1998-01-01

155

Engineering analysis of biomass gasifier product gas cleaning technology  

SciTech Connect

For biomass gasification to make a significant contribution to the energy picture in the next decade, emphasis must be placed on the generation of clean, pollutant-free gas products. This reports attempts to quantify levels of particulated, tars, oils, and various other pollutants generated by biomass gasifiers of all types. End uses for biomass gases and appropriate gas cleaning technologies are examined. Complete systems analysis is used to predit the performance of various gasifier/gas cleanup/end use combinations. Further research needs are identified. 128 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs.

Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Moore, R.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Elliott, D.C.

1986-08-01

156

Lunar Thermal Wadis and Exploration Rovers: Outpost Productivity and Participatory Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation introduces the concept of a thermal wadi, an engineered source of thermal energy that can be created using native material on the moon or elsewhere to store solar energy for use by various lunar surface assets to survive the extremely cold environment of the lunar night. A principal benefit of this approach to energy storage is the low mass requirement for transportation from Earth derived from the use of the lunar soil, or regolith, as the energy storage medium. The presentation includes a summary of the results of a feasibility study involving the numerical modeling of the performance of a thermal wadi including a manufactured thermal mass, a solar energy reflector, a nighttime thermal energy reflector and a lunar surface rover. The feasibility study shows that sufficient thermal energy can be stored using unconcentrated solar flux to keep a lunar surface rover sufficiently warm throughout a 354 hour lunar night at the lunar equator, and that similar approaches can be used to sustain surface assets during shorter dark periods that occur at the lunar poles. The presentation includes descriptions of a compact lunar rover concept that could be used to manufacture a thermal wadi and could alternatively be used to conduct a variety of high-value tasks on the lunar surface. Such rovers can be produced more easily because the capability for surviving the lunar night is offloaded to the thermal wadi infrastructure. The presentation also includes several concepts for operational scenarios that could be implemented on the moon using the thermal wadi and compact rover concepts in which multiple affordable rovers, operated by multiple terrestrial organizations, can conduct resource prospecting and human exploration site preparation tasks.

Sacksteder, Kurt; Wegeng, Robert; Suzuki, Nantel

2009-01-01

157

Research and exploration of product innovative design for function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Products innovation is under the prerequisite of realizing the new function, the realization of the new function must solve the contradiction. A new process model of new product innovative design was proposed based on Axiomatic Design (AD) Theory and Functional Structure Analysis (FSA), imbedded Principle of Solving Contradiction. In this model, employ AD Theory to guide FSA, determine the contradiction for the realization of the principle solution. To provide powerful support for innovative design tools in principle solution, Principle of Solving Contradiction in the model were imbedded, so as to boost up the innovation of principle solution. As a case study, an innovative design of button battery separator paper punching machine has been achieved with application of the proposed model.

Wang, Donglin; Wei, Zihui; Wang, Youjiang; Tan, Runhua

2009-07-01

158

Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production  

DOEpatents

A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange.

Brown, William R. (Zionsville, PA); Cassano, Anthony A. (Allentown, PA); Dunbobbin, Brian R. (Allentown, PA); Rao, Pradip (Allentown, PA); Erickson, Donald C. (Annapolis, MD)

1986-01-01

159

Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production  

DOEpatents

A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange. 4 figs.

Brown, W.R.; Cassano, A.A.; Dunbobbin, B.R.; Rao, P.; Erickson, D.C.

1986-10-14

160

Patterns of partner selection within a network of joint ventures in oil and gas exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaders of companies exploring for oil and gas had no means of characterizing the multitude of intercompany associations common to the industry. This study examined the patterns of intercompany associations, based on exploration lease joint ventures, for leases active on December 31, 2005 in the U.S. waters of the Gulf of Mexico. The company attributes examined in this study included company status, company size, lease joint venture network centrality, longevity of company lease ownership, and the extent of company operations. The joint count, network and spatial autocorrelation tests detected the significant patterning of intercompany associations by company status, but no patterning by company attributes including size, centrality, longevity, or extent. This study identified the strong tendency to homophily for major companies and heterophily for nonmajor companies. The overall tendency to heterophily by status remained across all the companies included in the study. Oil and gas company leaders and lease resource administrators can use insights from the observed patterns to inform partner selection decisions or lease administration practices.

Cooke, Jeffrey Emmet

161

Gas production from oceanic Class 2 hydrate accumulations  

SciTech Connect

Gas hydrates are solid crystalline compounds in which gasmolecules are lodged within the lattices of ice crystals. The vastamounts of hydrocarbon gases that are trapped in hydrate deposits in thepermafrost and in deep ocean sediments may constitute a promising energysource. Class 2 hydrate deposits are characterized by a Hydrate-BearingLayer (HBL) that is underlain by a saturated zone of mobile water. Inthis study we investigated three methods of gas production via verticalwell designs. A long perforated interval (covering the hydrate layer andextending into the underlying water zone) yields the highest gasproduction rates (up to 20 MMSCFD), but is not recommended for long-termproduction because of severe flow blockage caused by secondary hydrateand ice. A short perforated interval entirely within the water zoneallows long-term production, but only at rates of 4.5 7 MMSCFD. A newwell design involving localized heating appears to be the most promising,alleviating possible blockage by secondary hydrate and/or ice near thewellbore) and delivering sustainably large, long-term rates (10-15MMSCFD).The production strategy involves a cyclical process. During eachcycle, gas production continuously increases, while the correspondingwater production continuously decreases. Each cycle is concluded by acavitation event (marked by a precipitous pressure drop at the well),brought about by the inability of thesystem to satisfy the constant massproduction rate QM imposed at the well. This is caused by the increasinggas contribution to the production stream, and/or flow inhibition causedby secondary hydrate and/or ice. In the latter case, short-term thermalstimulation removes the blockage. The results show that gas productionincreases (and the corresponding water-to-gas ratio RWGC decreases) withan increasing(a) QM, (b) hydrate temperature (which defines its stabilityfor a given pressure), and (c) intrinsic permeability. Lower initialhydrate saturations lead initially to higher gas production and a lowerRWGC, but the effect is later reversed as the hydrate is depleted. Thedisposal of the large amounts of produced water does not appear to pose asignificant environmental problem. Production from Class 2 hydrates ischaracterized by (a) the need for confining boundaries, (b) thecontinuously improving RWGC over time (opposite to conventional gasreservoirs), and (c) the development of a free gas zone at the top of thehydrate layer (necessitating the existence of a gas cap forproduction).

Moridis, G.J.; Reagan, M.T.

2007-02-01

162

Federal Offshore Statistics, 1993. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This document contains statistical data on the following: federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from federal offshore leases; disbursement of federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. A glossary is included.

Francois, D.K.

1994-12-31

163

Some modern notions on oil and gas reservoir production regulation  

SciTech Connect

The historic rhetoric of oil and gas reservoir production regulations has been burdened with misconceptions. One was that most reservoirs are rate insensitive. Another was that a reservoir's decline is primarily a function of reservoir mechaism rather than a choice unconstrained by the laws of physics. Relieved of old notions like these, we introduce some modern notions, the most basic being that production regulation should have the purpose of obtaining the highest value from production per irreversible diminution of thermodynamically available energy. The laws of thermodynamics determine the available energy. What then is value. Value may include contributions other than production per se and purely monetary economic outcomes.

Lohrenz, J.; Monash, E.A.

1980-05-21

164

Hazardous Gas Production by Alpha Particles  

SciTech Connect

This project focused on the production of hazardous gases in the radiolysis of solid organic matrices, such as polymers and resins, that may be associated with transuranic waste material. Self-radiolysis of radioactive waste is a serious environmental problem because it can lead to a change in the composition of the materials in storage containers and possibly jeopardize their integrity. Experimental determination of gaseous yields is of immediate practical importance in the engineering and maintenance of containers for waste materials. Fundamental knowledge on the radiation chemical processes occurring in these systems allows one to predict outcomes in materials or mixtures not specifically examined, which is a great aid in the management of the variety of waste materials currently overseen by Environmental Management.

Jay A. LaVerne, Principal Investigator

2001-11-26

165

Producing Ammonium Sulfate from Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emission control technologies using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have been widely adopted by utilities burning high-sulfur fuels. However, these technologies require additional equipment, greater operating expenses, and increased costs for landfill disposal of the solid by-products produced. The financial burdens would be reduced if successful high-volume commercial applications of the FGD solid by-products were developed. In this study, the technical

Mei-In M. Chou; Joshua A. Bruinius; Vincent Benig; Sheng-Fu J. Chou; Ronald H. Carty

2005-01-01

166

Pumps, refracturing hike production from tight shale gas wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that downhole pumps and refracturing are two ways to significantly improve production rates from the Antrim shale, a tight formation in the Michigan basin (U.S.) and the objective of a major natural gas play. Candidate wells for restimulation can be identified by pressure build-up tests and specifically productivity index-vs.-permeability plots based on these tests. The work in

S. R. Reeves; W. K. Morrisson; D. G. Hill

1993-01-01

167

Entropy Production and Thermal Conductivity of A Dilute Gas  

E-print Network

It is known that the thermal conductivity of a dilute gas can be derived by using kinetic theory. We present here a new derivation by starting with two known entropy production principles: the steepest entropy ascent (SEA) principle and the maximum entropy production (MEP) principle. A remarkable feature of the new derivation is that it does not require the specification of the existence of the temperature gradient. The known result is reproduced in a similar form.

Yong-Jun Zhang

2011-02-16

168

Significance of high-wax oil variability to Pacific Rim exploration and production  

SciTech Connect

High-Wax oils are a class of paraffinic crudes that occur widely in Pacific Rim petroleum systems. New analytical technologies, particularly High Temperature Gas Chromatography (HTGC) show unexpected variations in the molecular weight ranges and concentrations of paraffin waxes within this class of crudes. These variations are source and maturity-related, providing paleoenvironmental and generative information useful to exploration. Paleoenvironmental factors revealed by high-wax oil HTGC source signatures can also help interpret the potential for nearby reservoirs. Furthermore, variations in wax compositions affect flow and organic scale-forming properties that impact the production economics of these oils. Lacustrine-sourced high-wax oils contain broad distributions of paraffin waxes ranging from C{sub 20} to C{sub 60} or higher. Various algae appear to be the source of higher molecular weight waxes in these oils. Paleoenvironmental factors, such as water salinities and paleoclimate, affect wax compositions of resulting lacustrine high-wax oils. Other terrestrial-sourced oils generated by paralic or nearshore marine source rocks show high concentrations of C{sub 25} to C{sub 35} waxes, but much lower distributions of higher molecular weight waxes. These high-wax oils appear to. contain waxes derived principally from terrestrial, higher plant materials. Results for high-wax petroleum systems in Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines and China illustrate these conclusions with examples ranging in age from Carboniferous-Permian to late Tertiary.

Carlson, R.M.K. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States); Jacobson, S.R. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

169

Significance of high-wax oil variability to Pacific Rim exploration and production  

SciTech Connect

High-Wax oils are a class of paraffinic crudes that occur widely in Pacific Rim petroleum systems. New analytical technologies, particularly High Temperature Gas Chromatography (HTGC) show unexpected variations in the molecular weight ranges and concentrations of paraffin waxes within this class of crudes. These variations are source and maturity-related, providing paleoenvironmental and generative information useful to exploration. Paleoenvironmental factors revealed by high-wax oil HTGC source signatures can also help interpret the potential for nearby reservoirs. Furthermore, variations in wax compositions affect flow and organic scale-forming properties that impact the production economics of these oils. Lacustrine-sourced high-wax oils contain broad distributions of paraffin waxes ranging from C[sub 20] to C[sub 60] or higher. Various algae appear to be the source of higher molecular weight waxes in these oils. Paleoenvironmental factors, such as water salinities and paleoclimate, affect wax compositions of resulting lacustrine high-wax oils. Other terrestrial-sourced oils generated by paralic or nearshore marine source rocks show high concentrations of C[sub 25] to C[sub 35] waxes, but much lower distributions of higher molecular weight waxes. These high-wax oils appear to. contain waxes derived principally from terrestrial, higher plant materials. Results for high-wax petroleum systems in Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines and China illustrate these conclusions with examples ranging in age from Carboniferous-Permian to late Tertiary.

Carlson, R.M.K. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)); Jacobson, S.R. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States))

1996-01-01

170

Depressurization-induced gas production from Class 1 hydratedeposits  

SciTech Connect

Class 1 hydrate deposits are characterized by ahydratebearing layer underlain by a two-phase zone involving mobile gas.Two kinds of deposits are investigated. The first involves water andhydrate in the hydrate zone (Class 1W), while the second involves gas andhydrate (Class 1G). We introduce new models to describe the effect of thepresence of hydrates on the wettability properties of porous media. Wedetermine that large volumes of gas can be readily produced at high ratesfor long times from Class 1 gas hydrate accumulations by means ofdepressurization-induced dissociation using conventional technology.Dissociation in Class 1W deposits proceeds in distinct stages, while itis continuous in Class 1G deposits. To avoid blockage caused by hydrateformation in the vicinity of the well, wellbore heating is a necessity inproduction from Class 1 hydrates. Class 1W hydrates are shown tocontribute up to 65 percent of the production rate and up to 45 percentof the cumulative volume of produced gas; the corresponding numbers forClass 1G hydrates are 75 percent and 54 percent. Production from bothClass 1W and Class 1G deposits leads to the emergence of a seconddissociation front (in addition to the original ascending hydrateinterface) that forms at the top of the hydrate interval and advancesdownward. Inboth kinds of deposits, capillary pressure effects lead tohydrate lensing, i.e., the emergence of distinct banded structures ofalternating high-low hydrate saturation, which form channels and shellsand have a significant effect on production.

Moridis, George J.; Kowalsky, Michael B.; Pruess, Karsten

2005-11-01

171

Production of bio-synthetic natural gas in Canada.  

PubMed

Large-scale production of renewable synthetic natural gas from biomass (bioSNG) in Canada was assessed for its ability to mitigate energy security and climate change risks. The land area within 100 km of Canada's network of natural gas pipelines was estimated to be capable of producing 67-210 Mt of dry lignocellulosic biomass per year with minimal adverse impacts on food and fiber production. Biomass gasification and subsequent methanation and upgrading were estimated to yield 16,000-61,000 Mm(3) of pipeline-quality gas (equivalent to 16-63% of Canada's current gas use). Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of bioSNG-based electricity were calculated to be only 8.2-10% of the emissions from coal-fired power. Although predicted production costs ($17-21 GJ(-1)) were much higher than current energy prices, a value for low-carbon energy would narrow the price differential. A bioSNG sector could infuse Canada's rural economy with $41-130 billion of investments and create 410,000-1,300,000 jobs while developing a nation-wide low-carbon energy system. PMID:20175525

Hacatoglu, Kevork; McLellan, P James; Layzell, David B

2010-03-15

172

From Paper to Production to Test: An Update on NASA's J-2X Engine for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/industry team responsible for developing the J-2X upper stage engine for the Space Launch System (SLS) Program has made significant progress toward moving beyond the design phase and into production, assembly, and test of development hardware. The J-2X engine exemplifies the SLS Program goal of using proven technology and experience from more than 50 years of United States spaceflight experience combined with modern manufacturing processes and approaches. It will power the second stage of the fully evolved SLS Program launch vehicle that will enable a return to human exploration of space beyond low earth orbit. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is under contract to develop and produce the engine, leveraging its flight-proven LH2/LOX, gas generator cycle J-2 and RS-68 engine capabilities, recent experience with the X-33 aerospike XRS-2200 engine, and development knowledge of the J-2S tap-off cycle engine. The J- 2X employs a gas generator operating cycle designed to produce 294,000 pounds of vacuum thrust in primary operating mode with its full nozzle extension. With a truncated nozzle extension suitable to support engine clustering on the stage, the nominal vacuum thrust level in primary mode is 285,000 pounds. It also has a secondary mode, during which it operates at 80 percent thrust by altering its mixture ratio. The J-2X development philosophy is based on proven hardware, an aggressive development schedule, and early risk reduction. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and PWR began development of the J-2X in June 2006. The government/industry team of more than 600 people within NASA and PWR successfully completed the Critical Design Review (CDR) in November 2008, following extensive risk mitigation testing. Assembly of the first development engine was completed in May 2011 and the first engine test was conducted at the NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC), test stand A2, on 14 July 2011. Testing of the first development engine will continue through the autumn of 2011, be paused for test stand modifications to the passive diffuser, and then restart in the spring of 2012. This testing will be followed by specialized powerpack testing intended to examine the design and operating margins of the engine turbomachinery. The development plan beyond this point leads through more system-level, engine testing of several samples, analytical model validation activities, functional and performance verification, and then ultimate certification to support human spaceflight. This paper will discuss the J-2X development background, provide top-level information on design and development planning, and will explore some of the development challenges and mitigation activities pursued to date.

Kynard, Michael

2011-01-01

173

Devonian shale gas production; Mechanisms and simple models  

SciTech Connect

This paper shows that, even without consideration of their special storage and flow properties, Devonian shales are special cases of dual porosity. The authors show that wile neglecting these properties in the short term is appropriate, such neglect in the long term will result in an under-estimation of shale gas production.

Carlson, E.S. (Univ. of Alabama (US)); Mercer, J.C. (Dept. of Energy (US))

1991-04-01

174

PRODUCTION OF SYNTHETIC NATURAL GAS FROM BIOMASS - PROCESS INTEGRATED DRYING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opportunities for process integrated feedstock drying in connection with the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) from wet biomass via indirect gasification are investigated in this study. Drying is a very energy-intensive process step - corresponding to about 10% of the dry fuel lower heating value for woody biomass. Process integrated drying offers opportunities for reducing the external energy supply

Stefan Heyne; Simon Harvey

175

Exploring Exploring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners will investigate, discuss, and determine why humans have always explored the world (and now space) around them. Students determine these reasons for exploration through a class discussion. In the first activity, students use the Internet to examine the characteristics of past explorers and why they conducted their exploration. The students then examine why current explorers - including the students themselves - want to explore other worlds in the Solar System. By the end of the lesson, the students can conclude that no matter what or when we explore - past, present, or future - the reasons for exploration are the same; the motivation for exploration is universal.

176

Natural gas production and anomalous geothermal gradients of the deep Tuscaloosa Formation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For the largest producing natural gas fields in the onshore Gulf of Mexico Basin, the relation between temperature versus depth was investigated. Prolific natural gas reservoirs with the highest temperatures were found in the Upper Cretaceous downdip Tuscaloosa trend in Louisiana. Temperature and production trends from the deepest field, Judge Digby field, in Pointe Coupe Parish, Louisiana, were investigated to characterize the environment of natural gas in the downdip Tuscaloosa trend. The average production depth in the Judge Digby field is approximately 22,000 ft. Temperatures as high as 400 degrees F are typically found at depth in Judge Digby field and are anomalously low when compared to temperature trends extrapolated to similar depths regionally. At 22,000 ft, the minimum and maximum temperatures for all reservoirs in Gulf Coast producing gas fields are 330 and 550 degrees F, respectively; the average temperature is 430 degrees F. The relatively depressed geothermal gradients in the Judge Digby field may be due to high rates of sediment preservation, which may have delayed the thermal equilibration of the sediment package with respect to the surrounding rock. Analyzing burial history and thermal maturation indicates that the deep Tuscaloosa trend in the Judge Digby field is currently in the gas generation window. Using temperature trends as an exploration tool may have important implications for undiscovered hydrocarbons at greater depths in currently producing reservoirs, and for settings that are geologically analogous to the Judge Digby fiel

Burke, Lauri

2011-01-01

177

Analytical Modeling of Shale Hydraulic Fracturing and Gas Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shale gas is abundant all over the world. Due to its extremely low permeability, extensive stimulation of a shale reservoir is always required for its economic production. Hydraulic fracturing has been the primary method of shale reservoir stimulation. Consequently the design and optimization of a hydraulic fracturing treatment plays a vital role insuring job success and economic production. Due to the many variables involved and the lack of a simple yet robust tool based on fundamental physics, horizontal well placement and fracturing job designs have to certain degree been a guessing game built on previous trial and error experience. This paper presents a method for hydraulic fracturing design and optimization in these environments. The growth of a complex hydraulic fracture network (HFN) during a fracturing job is equivalently represented by a wiremesh fracturing model (WFM) constructed on the basis of fracture mechanics and mass balance. The model also simulates proppant transport and placement during HFN growth. Results of WFM simulations can then be used as the input into a wiremesh production model (WPM) constructed based on WFM. WPM represents gas flow through the wiremesh HFN by an elliptic flow and the flow of gas in shale matrix by a novel analytical solution accounting for contributions from both free and adsorbed gases stored in the pore space. WPM simulation is validated by testing against numerical simulations using a commercially available reservoir production simulator. Due to the analytical nature of WFM and WPM, both hydraulic fracturing and gas production simulations run very fast on a regular personal computer and are suitable for hydraulic fracturing job design and optimization. A case study is presented to demonstrate how a non-optimized hydraulic fracturing job might have been optimized using WFM and WPM simulations.Fig. 1. Ellipsoidal representation of (a) stimulated reservoir and (b) hydraulic fracture network created by hydraulic fracturing treatment. Fig. 2. Gas flow represented by (a) elliptical flow through fracture network and (b) linear flow within reservoir matrix.

Xu, W.

2012-12-01

178

Relative water and gas permeability for gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

water and gas permeability equations are important for estimating gas and water production from hydrate-bearing sediments. However, experimental or numerical study to determine fitting parameters of those equations is not available in the literature. In this study, a pore-network model is developed to simulate gas expansion and calculate relative water and gas permeability. Based on the simulation results, fitting parameters for modified Stone equation are suggested for a distributed hydrate system where initial hydrate saturations range from Sh = 0.1 to 0.6. The suggested fitting parameter for relative water permeability is nw ? 2.4 regardless of initial hydrate saturation while the suggested fitting parameter for relative gas permeability is increased from ng = 1.8 for Sh = 0.1 to ng = 3.5 for Sh = 0.6. Results are relevant to other systems that experience gas exsolution such as pockmark formation due to sea level change, CO2 gas formation during geological CO2 sequestration, and gas bubble accumulation near the downstream of dams.

Mahabadi, Nariman; Jang, Jaewon

2014-06-01

179

Alaska North Slope regional gas hydrate production modeling forecasts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A series of gas hydrate development scenarios were created to assess the range of outcomes predicted for the possible development of the "Eileen" gas hydrate accumulation, North Slope, Alaska. Production forecasts for the "reference case" were built using the 2002 Mallik production tests, mechanistic simulation, and geologic studies conducted by the US Geological Survey. Three additional scenarios were considered: A "downside-scenario" which fails to identify viable production, an "upside-scenario" describes results that are better than expected. To capture the full range of possible outcomes and balance the downside case, an "extreme upside scenario" assumes each well is exceptionally productive.Starting with a representative type-well simulation forecasts, field development timing is applied and the sum of individual well forecasts creating the field-wide production forecast. This technique is commonly used to schedule large-scale resource plays where drilling schedules are complex and production forecasts must account for many changing parameters. The complementary forecasts of rig count, capital investment, and cash flow can be used in a pre-appraisal assessment of potential commercial viability.Since no significant gas sales are currently possible on the North Slope of Alaska, typical parameters were used to create downside, reference, and upside case forecasts that predict from 0 to 71??BM3 (2.5??tcf) of gas may be produced in 20 years and nearly 283??BM3 (10??tcf) ultimate recovery after 100 years.Outlining a range of possible outcomes enables decision makers to visualize the pace and milestones that will be required to evaluate gas hydrate resource development in the Eileen accumulation. Critical values of peak production rate, time to meaningful production volumes, and investments required to rule out a downside case are provided. Upside cases identify potential if both depressurization and thermal stimulation yield positive results. An "extreme upside" case captures the full potential of unconstrained development with widely spaced wells. The results of this study indicate that recoverable gas hydrate resources may exist in the Eileen accumulation and that it represents a good opportunity for continued research. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Wilson, S.J.; Hunter, R.B.; Collett, T.S.; Hancock, S.; Boswell, R.; Anderson, B.J.

2011-01-01

180

78 FR 59632 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production Safety...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...regarding oil and natural gas production by addressing issues such...equipment lifecycle analysis, production safety systems, subsurface safety devices...for operating dry tree and subsea tree production systems on the Outer...

2013-09-27

181

Exploring Advanced Technology Gas Turbine Engine Design and Performance for the Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR) conceptual design was developed as part of the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation in order to establish a consistent basis for evaluating the benefits of advanced technology for large tiltrotors. The concept has since evolved into the second-generation LCTR2, designed to carry 90 passengers for 1,000 nautical miles at 300 knots, with vertical takeoff and landing capability. This paper explores gas turbine component performance and cycle parameters to quantify performance gains possible for additional improvements in component and material performance beyond those identified in previous LCTR2 propulsion studies and to identify additional research areas. The vehicle-level characteristics from this advanced technology generation 2 propulsion architecture will help set performance levels as additional propulsion and power systems are conceived to meet ever-increasing requirements for mobility and comfort, while reducing energy use, cost, noise and emissions. The Large Civil Tiltrotor vehicle and mission will be discussed as a starting point for this effort. A few, relevant engine and component technology studies, including previous LCTR2 engine study results will be summarized to help orient the reader on gas turbine engine architecture, performance and limitations. Study assumptions and methodology used to explore engine design and performance, as well as assess vehicle sizing and mission performance will then be discussed. Individual performance for present and advanced engines, as well as engine performance effects on overall vehicle size and mission fuel usage, will be given. All results will be summarized to facilitate understanding the importance and interaction of various component and system performance on overall vehicle characteristics.

Snyder, Christopher A.

2014-01-01

182

Exploring Potential U.S. Switchgrass Production for Lignocellulosic Ethanol  

SciTech Connect

In response to concerns about oil dependency and the contributions of fossil fuel use to climatic change, the U.S. Department of Energy has begun a research initiative to make 20% of motor fuels biofuel based in 10 years, and make 30% of fuels bio-based by 2030. Fundamental to this objective is developing an understanding of feedstock dynamics of crops suitable for cellulosic ethanol production. This report focuses on switchgrass, reviewing the existing literature from field trials across the United States, and compiling it for the first time into a single database. Data available from the literature included cultivar and crop management information, and location of the field trial. For each location we determined latitude and longitude, and used this information to add temperature and precipitation records from the nearest weather station. Within this broad database we were able to identify the major sources of variation in biomass yield, and to characterize yield as a function of some of the more influential factors, e.g., stand age, ecotype, precipitation and temperature in the year of harvest, site latitude, and fertilization regime. We then used a modeling approach, based chiefly on climatic factors and ecotype, to predict potential yields for a given temperature and weather pattern (based on 95th percentile response curves), assuming the choice of optimal cultivars and harvest schedules. For upland ecotype varieties, potential yields were as high as 18 to 20 Mg/ha, given ideal growing conditions, whereas yields in lowland ecotype varieties could reach 23 to 27 Mg/ha. The predictive equations were used to produce maps of potential yield across the continental United States, based on precipitation and temperature in the long term climate record, using the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) in a Geographic Information System (GIS). Potential yields calculated via this characterization were subsequently compared to the Oak Ridge Energy Crop County Level data base (ORECCL), which was created at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Graham et al. 1996) to predict biofuel crop yields at the county level within a limited geographic area. Mapped output using the model was relatively consistent with known switchgrass distribution. It correctly showed higher yields for lowland switchgrass when compared with upland varieties at most locations. Projections for the most northern parts of the range suggest comparable yields for the two ecotypes, but inadequate data for lowland ecotypes grown at high latitudes make it difficult to fully assess this projection. The final model is a predictor of optimal yields for a given climate scenario, but does not attempt to identify or account for other limiting or interacting factors. The statistical model is nevertheless an improvement over historical efforts, in that it is based on quantifiable climatic differences, and it can be used to extrapolate beyond the historic range of switchgrass. Additional refinement of the current statistical model, or the use of different empirical or process-based models, might improve the prediction of switchgrass yields with respect to climate and interactions with cultivar and management practices, assisting growers in choosing high-yielding cultivars within the context of local environmental growing conditions.

Gunderson, Carla A [ORNL; Davis, Ethan [ORNL; Jager, Yetta [ORNL; West, Tristram O. [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Baskaran, Latha Malar [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL

2008-08-01

183

Effects of Disturbance Associated With Seismic Exploration for Oil and Gas Reserves in Coastal Marshes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic disturbances in wetland ecosystems can alter the composition and structure of plant assemblages and affect system functions. Extensive oil and gas extraction has occurred in wetland habitats along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast since the early 1900s. Activities involved with three-dimensional (3D) seismic exploration for these resources cause various disturbances to vegetation and soils. We documented the impact of a 3D seismic survey in coastal marshes in Louisiana, USA, along transects established before exploration began. Two semi-impounded marshes dominated by Spartina patens were in the area surveyed. Vegetation, soil, and water physicochemical data were collected before the survey, about 6 weeks following its completion, and every 3 months thereafter for 2 years. Soil cores for seed bank emergence experiments were also collected. Maximum vegetation height at impact sites was reduced in both marshes 6 weeks following the survey. In one marsh, total vegetation cover was also reduced, and dead vegetation cover increased, at impact sites 6 weeks after the survey. These effects, however, did not persist 3 months later. No effects on soil or water properties were identified. The total number of seeds that germinated during greenhouse studies increased at impact sites 5 months following the survey in both marshes. Although some seed bank effects persisted 1 year, these effects were not reflected in standing vegetation. The marshes studied were therefore resilient to the impacts resulting from 3D seismic exploration because vegetation responses were short term in that they could not be identified a few months following survey completion.

Howard, Rebecca J.; Wells, Christopher J.; Michot, Thomas C.; Johnson, Darren J.

2014-07-01

184

NOBLE GAS PRODUCTION FROM MERCURY SPALLATION AT SNS  

SciTech Connect

Calculations for predicting the distribution of the products of spallation reactions between high energy protons and target materials are well developed and are used for design and operational applications in many projects both within DOE and in other arenas. These calculations are based on theory and limited experimental data that verifies rates of production of some spallation products exist. At the Spallation Neutron Source, a helium stream from the mercury target flows through a system to remove radioactivity from this mercury target offgas. The operation of this system offers a window through which the production of noble gases from mercury spallation by protons may be observed. This paper describes studies designed to measure the production rates of twelve noble gas isotopes within the Spallation Neutron Source mercury target.

DeVore, Joe R [ORNL; Lu, Wei [ORNL; Schwahn, Scott O [ORNL

2013-01-01

185

AN ANALYTICAL MODEL OF INTERSTELLAR GAS IN THE HELIOSPHERE TAILORED TO INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The stationary distribution of interstellar neutral gas in the heliosphere subject to solar gravity, solar radiation pressure, photoionization, and charge exchange is investigated analytically assuming ionization rates and radiation pressure that are proportional to R{sup -2}, where R is the heliocentric radius. The collisionless hyperbolic trajectories of the individual atoms including ionization losses are combined with Liouville's Theorem to construct the heliospheric phase-space distribution function of an interstellar gas species in the solar reference frame under the assumption that the distribution is a drifting Maxwellian at large distances from the Sun. The distribution is transformed to the Earth (essentially Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX)) frame as a function of solar longitude. The expression is then tailored to the latitudinal scan of IBEX as a function of longitude using the fact that IBEX detects each atom close to perihelion in its hyperbolic orbit. The distribution is further adapted to IBEX by integrating the differential intensity over the entrance aperture solid angle of the IBEX-Lo collimator, and over energy to predict the IBEX count rate of helium. The major features of the predicted count rate are described, including a peak in longitude, a peak in latitude at each longitude, and the widths of the major peak in both latitude and longitude. Analytical formulae for these features are derived for comparison with IBEX observations in order to determine the temperature and bulk velocity of the gas in interstellar space. Based in part on these formulae, the results for helium are presented in the companion paper by Moebius et al.

Lee, Martin A.; Kucharek, Harald; Moebius, Eberhard; Wu Xian [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Bzowski, Maciej [Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); McComas, David, E-mail: marty.lee@unh.edu [Engineering and Space Science Division, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States)

2012-02-01

186

Trash-to-Gas: Converting Space Trash into Useful Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Logistical Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project is a collaborative effort in which NASA is determined to reduce total logistical mass through reduction, reuse and recycling of various wastes and components of long duration space missions and habitats. LRR is focusing on four distinct advanced areas of study: Advanced Clothing System, Logistics-to-Living, Heat Melt Compactor and Trash to Supply Gas (TtSG). The objective of TtSG is to develop technologies that convert material waste, human waste and food waste into high-value products. High-value products include life support oxygen and water, rocket fuels, raw material production feedstocks, and other energy sources. There are multiple pathways for converting waste to products involving single or multi-step processes. This paper discusses thermal oxidation methods of converting waste to methane. Different wastes, including food, food packaging, Maximum Absorbent Garments (MAGs), human waste simulants, and cotton washcloths have been evaluated in a thermal degradation reactor under conditions promoting pyrolysis, gasification or incineration. The goal was to evaluate the degradation processes at varying temperatures and ramp cycles and to maximize production of desirable products and minimize high molecular weight hydrocarbon (tar) production. Catalytic cracking was also evaluated to minimize tar production. The quantities of CO2, CO, CH4, and H2O were measured under the different thermal degradation conditions. The conversion efficiencies of these products were used to determine the best methods for producing desired products.

Caraccio, Anne J.; Hintze, Paul E.

2013-01-01

187

Effects of gas chamber geometry and gas flow on the neutron production in a fast plasma focus neutron source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports that gas chamber geometry and gas flow management substantially affect the neutron production of a repetitive fast plasma focus. The gas flow rate is the most sensitive parameter. An appropriate design of the gas chamber combined with a suitable flow-rate management can lead to improvements in the neutron production of one order of magnitude working in a fast repetitive mode.

Tarifeño-Saldivia, Ariel; Soto, Leopoldo

2014-12-01

188

Value-Added Products from Remote Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

In Wyoming and throughout the United States, there are natural gas fields that are not producing because of their remoteness from gas pipelines. Some of these fields are ideal candidates for a cogeneration scheme where components suitable for chemical feedstock or direct use, such as propane and butane, are separated. Resulting low- to medium-Btu gas is fired in a gas turbine system to provide power for the separation plant. Excess power is sold to the utility, making the integrated plant a true cogeneration facility. This project seeks to identify the appropriate technologies for various subsystems of an integrated plant to recover value-added products from wet gas and/or retrograde condensate reservoirs. Various vendors and equipment manufacturers will be contacted and a data base consisting of feedstock constraints and output specifications for various subsystems and components will be developed. Based on vendor specifications, gas reservoirs suited for value-added product recovery will be identified. A candidate reservoir will then be selected, and an optimum plant layout will be developed. A facility will then be constructed and operated. The project consists of eight subtasks: Compilation of Reservoir Data; Review of Treatment and Conditioning Technologies; Review of Product Recovery and Separation Technologies; Development of Power Generation System; Integrated Plant Design for Candidate Field; System Fabrication; System Operation and Monitoring; and Economic Evaluation and Reporting. The first five tasks have been completed and the sixth is nearly complete. Systems Operations and Monitoring will start next year. The Economic Evaluation and Reporting task will be a continuous effort for the entire project. The reservoir selected for the initial demonstration of the process is the Burnt Wagon Field, Natrona County, Wyoming. The field is in a remote location with no electric power to the area and no gas transmission line. The design for the gas processing train to produce the liquefied gas products includes three gas compressors, a cryogenic separation unit, and a natural gas powered generator. Based on the equipment specifications, air quality permits for the well field and the gas processing unit were developed and the permits were issued by the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality. Also, to make state and federal reporting easier, three of the four leases that made up the Burnt Wagon were combined. All major equipment has been installed and individual component operability is being conducted. During the next project year, operability testing and the shakedown of the entire system will be completed. Once shakedown is complete, the system will be turned over to the cosponsor for day-to-day operations. During operations, data will be collected through remote linkage to the data acquisition system or analysis of the system performance to develop an economic evaluation of the process.

Lyle A. Johnson

2002-03-15

189

Challenges, uncertainties, and issues facing gas production from gas-hydrate deposits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas-hydrate (GH) petroleum system; to discuss advances, requirements, and suggested practices in GH prospecting and GH deposit characterization; and to review the associated technical, economic, and environmental challenges and uncertainties, which include the following: accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource; development of methods for identifying suitable production targets; sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments (HBS) and sample analysis; analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs; well-testing methods; interpretation of well-testing results; geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns; well design, operation, and installation; field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs; monitoring production and geomechanical stability; laboratory investigations; fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior; the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates; and associated environmental concerns. ?? 2011 Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswel, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M.B.; Reagan, M.T.; Sloan, E.D.; Sum, A.K.; Koh, C.A.

2011-01-01

190

Sodic soils reclaimed with by-product from flue gas desulfurization: corn production and soil quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest is growing in the use of by-product from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to reclaim sodic soils by controlling the pH and excessive Na+. This study evaluated the effects on corn (Zea mays) production and pH and electrical conductivity (EC) of calcareous sodic soil during four times of cultivation when the by-product was applied once at the first cultivation (Study

S Chun; M Nishiyama; S Matsumoto

2001-01-01

191

Flue gas desulfurization by-products additions to acid soil: alfalfa productivity and environmental quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are created when coal is burned and SO2 is removed from the flue gases. These FGD by-products are often alkaline and contain many plant nutrients. Land application of FGD by-products is encouraged but little information is available related to plant responses and environmental impacts concerning such use. Agricultural lime (ag-lime) and several new types of

L Chen; W. A Dick; S Nelson

2001-01-01

192

Maps showing petroleum exploration intensity and production in major Cambrian to Ordovician reservoir rocks in the Anadarko Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Anadarko basin is a large, deep, two-stage Paleozoic basin (Feinstein, 1981) that is petroleum rich and generally well explored. The Anadarko basin province, a geogrphic area used here mostly for the convenience of mapping and data management, is defined by political boundaries that include the Anadarko basin proper. The boundaries of the province are identical to those used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the 1995 National Assessment of United Stated Oil and Gas Resources. The data in this report, also identical to those used in the national assessment, are from several computerized data bases including Nehring Research Group (NRG) Associates Inc., Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States (1992); Petroleum Information (PI), Inc., Well History Control System (1991); and Petroleum Information (PI), Inc., Petro-ROM: Production data on CD-ROM (1993). Although generated mostly in response to the national assessment, the data presented here arc grouped differently and arc displayed and described in greater detail. In addition, the stratigraphic sequences discussed may not necessarily correlate with the "plays" of the 1995 national assessment. This report uses computer-generated maps to show drilling intensity, producing wells, major fields, and other geologic information relevant to petroleum exploration and production in the lower Paleozoic part of the Anadarko basin province as defined for the U.S. Geological Survey's 1995 national petroleum assessment. Hydrocarbon accumulations must meet a minimum standard of 1 million barrels of oil (MMBO) or 6 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG) estimated ultimate recovery to be included in this report as a major field or revoir. Mapped strata in this report include the Upper Cambrian to Lower Ordovician Arbuckle and Low Ordovician Ellenburger Groups, the Middle Ordovician Simpson Group, and the Middle to Upper Ordovician Viola Group.

Henry, Mitch; Hester, Tim

1996-01-01

193

Natural biodegradation may suffice at natural gas production sites  

SciTech Connect

Biodegradation of organic contaminants in soil and ground water by indigenous microbes is very common, but the contribution of this intrinsic process to site remediation has sometimes been overlooked as too slow or ineffective. Some recent RCRA corrective measure studies and CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility studies are challenging this mentality. One recent investigation evaluated the potential for intrinsic bioremediation to act as the sole remedial measure at a natural gas production site, possibly supporting a no-intervention decision. The site in question is contaminated with hydrocarbon condensate from natural gas production wells. Amoco Oil (Tulsa, Oklahoma), which operates the wells, evaluated intrinsic aerobic and anaerobic bioremediation at that location. Preliminary results are promising. This evaluation is described in this paper. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

NONE

1996-05-01

194

Emissions implications of future natural gas production and use in the U.S. and in the Rocky Mountain region.  

PubMed

Enhanced prospects for natural gas production raise questions about the balance of impacts on air quality, as increased emissions from production activities are considered alongside the reductions expected when natural gas is burned in place of other fossil fuels. This study explores how trends in natural gas production over the coming decades might affect emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for the United States and its Rocky Mountain region. The MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) energy system optimization model is used with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's nine-region database to compare scenarios for natural gas supply and demand, constraints on the electricity generation mix, and GHG emissions fees. Through 2050, total energy system GHG emissions show little response to natural gas supply assumptions, due to offsetting changes across sectors. Policy-driven constraints or emissions fees are needed to achieve net reductions. In most scenarios, wind is a less expensive source of new electricity supplies in the Rocky Mountain region than natural gas. U.S. NOx emissions decline in all the scenarios considered. Increased VOC emissions from natural gas production offset part of the anticipated reductions from the transportation sector, especially in the Rocky Mountain region. PMID:25329514

McLeod, Jeffrey D; Brinkman, Gregory L; Milford, Jana B

2014-11-18

195

21 CFR 886.5918 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...rigid gas permeable contact lens care product is a device...storing of a rigid gas permeable contact lens. This includes all solutions and tablets used together with rigid gas permeable contact lenses. (b)...

2010-04-01

196

Production of bioplastics and hydrogen gas by photosynthetic microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our efforts have been aimed at the technological basis of photosynthetic-microbial production of materials and an energy carrier.\\u000a We report here accumulation of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a raw material of biodegradable plastics and for production\\u000a of hydrogen gas, and a renewable energy carrier by photosynthetic microorganisms (tentatively defined as cyanobacteria plus\\u000a photosynthetic bateria, in this report).\\u000a \\u000a A thermophilic cyanobacterium,Synechococcus sp. MA19

Asada Yasuo; Miyake Masato; Miyake Jun

1998-01-01

197

Mineralogical and engineering characteristics of dry flue gas desulfurization products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-nine coal combustion products were collected from coal-fired power plants using various dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes to remove SO2. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed duct injection and spray dryer processes created products that primarily contained Ca(OH)2 (portlandite) and CaSO3·0.5H2O (hannebachite). Most samples from the lime injection multistage burners process contained significant amounts of CaO (lime), CaSO4 (anhydrite), and CaCO3

Jerry M. Bigham; David A. Kost; Richard C. Stehouwer; Joel H. Beeghly; Randy Fowler; Samuel J. Traina; William E. Wolfe; Warren A. Dick

2005-01-01

198

Central Africa Energy: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Explore Flared Gas as an Energy Source Alternative to Biomass in Central Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Much of Central Africa's economy is centered on oil production. Oil deposits lie below vast amounts of compressed natural gas. The latter is often flared off during oil extraction due to a lack of the infrastructure needed to utilize it for productive energy generation. Though gas flaring is discouraged by many due to its contributions to greenhouse emissions, it represents a waste process and is rarely tracked or recorded in this region. In contrast to this energy waste, roughly 80% of Africa's population lacks access to electricity and in turn uses biomass such as wood for heat and light. In addition to the dangers incurred from collecting and using biomass, the practice commonly leads to ecological change through the acquisition of wood from forests surrounding urban areas. The objective of this project was to gain insight on domestic energy usage in Central Africa, specifically Angola, Gabon, and the Republic of Congo. This was done through an analysis of deforestation, an estimation of gas flared, and a suitability study for the infrastructure needed to realize the natural gas resources. The energy from potential natural gas production was compared to the energy equivalent of the biomass being harvested. A site suitability study for natural gas pipeline routes from flare sites to populous locations was conducted to assess the feasibility of utilizing natural gas for domestic energy needs. Analyses and results were shared with project partners, as well as this project's open source approach to assessing the energy sector. Ultimately, Africa's growth demands energy for its people, and natural gas is already being produced by the flourishing petroleum industry in numerous African countries. By utilizing this gas, Africa could reduce flaring, recuperate the financial and environmental loss that flaring accounts for, and unlock a plentiful domestic energy source for its people. II. Introduction Background Africa is home to numerous burgeoning economies; a significant number rely on oil production as their primary source of revenue. Relative to its size and population density, the continent has a wealth of natural resources, including oil and natural gas deposits. The exploration of these resources is not a new endeavor, but rather one that spans decades, up to a century in some places. Their resources, if realized, could provide a great means of economic and social mobility for the people of Africa. Currently, Africa represents about 12 % of the energy market, yet at the same time, consumes only 3 % of the world's energy (Kasekende 2009). The higher

Jones, Amber; White, Charles; Castillo, Christopher; Hitimana, Emmanuel; Nguyen, Kenny; Mishra, Shikher; Clark, Walt

2014-01-01

199

Simulation of natural gas production from submarine gas hydrate deposits combined with carbon dioxide storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recovery of methane from gas hydrate layers that have been detected in several submarine sediments and permafrost regions around the world so far is considered to be a promising measure to overcome future shortages in natural gas as fuel or raw material for chemical syntheses. Being aware that natural gas resources that can be exploited with conventional technologies are limited, research is going on to open up new sources and develop technologies to produce methane and other energy carriers. Thus various research programs have started since the early 1990s in Japan, USA, Canada, South Korea, India, China and Germany to investigate hydrate deposits and develop technologies to destabilize the hydrates and obtain the pure gas. In recent years, intensive research has focussed on the capture and storage of carbon dioxide from combustion processes to reduce climate change. While different natural or manmade reservoirs like deep aquifers, exhausted oil and gas deposits or other geological formations are considered to store gaseous or liquid carbon dioxide, the storage of carbon dioxide as hydrate in former methane hydrate fields is another promising alternative. Due to beneficial stability conditions, methane recovery may be well combined with CO2 storage in form of hydrates. This has been shown in several laboratory tests and simulations - technical field tests are still in preparation. Within the scope of the German research project »SUGAR«, different technological approaches are evaluated and compared by means of dynamic system simulations and analysis. Detailed mathematical models for the most relevant chemical and physical effects are developed. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into simulation programs like CMG STARS and COMSOL Multiphysics. New simulations based on field data have been carried out. The studies focus on the evaluation of the gas production potential from turbidites and their ability for carbon dioxide storage. The effects occurring during gas production and CO2 storage within a hydrate deposit are identified and described for various scenarios. The behaviour of relevant process parameters such as pressure, temperature and phase saturations is discussed and compared for different production strategies: depressurization, CO2 injection after depressurization and simultaneous methane production and CO2 injection.

Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

2013-04-01

200

Development of an Electrostatic Precipitator to Remove Martian Atmospheric Dust from ISRU Gas Intakes During Planetary Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Manned exploration missions to Mars will need dependable in situ resource utilization (ISRU) for the production of oxygen and other commodities. One of these resources is the Martian atmosphere itself, which is composed of carbon dioxide (95.3%), nitrogen (2.7%), argon (1.6%), oxygen (0.13%), carbon monoxide (0.07%), and water vapor (0.03%), as well as other trace gases. However, the Martian atmosphere also contains relatively large amounts of dust, uploaded by frequent dust devils and high Winds. To make this gas usable for oxygen extraction in specialized chambers requires the removal of most of the dust. An electrostatic precipitator (ESP) system is an obvious choice. But with an atmospheric pressure just one-hundredth of Earth's, electrical breakdown at low voltages makes the implementation of the electrostatic precipitator technology very challenging. Ion mobility, drag forces, dust particle charging, and migration velocity are also affected because the low gas pressure results in molecular mean free paths that are approximately one hundred times longer than those at Earth .atmospheric pressure. We report here on our efforts to develop this technology at the Kennedy Space Center, using gases with approximately the same composition as the Martian atmosphere in a vacuum chamber at 9 mbars, the atmospheric pressure on Mars. We also present I-V curves and large particle charging data for various versions of wire-cylinder and rod-cylinder geometry ESPs. Preliminary results suggest that use of an ESP for dust collection on Mars may be feasible, but further testing with Martian dust simulant is required.

Clements, J. Sidney; Thompson, Samuel M.; Cox, Nathan D.; Johansen, Michael R.; Williams, Blakeley S.; Hogue, Michael D.; Lowder, M. Loraine; Calle, Carlos I.

2011-01-01

201

A comparison of Solar Mesosphere Explorer and Stratosphere Aerosol and Gas Experiment II ozone densities near the stratopause  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone measurements made by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer on the Solar Mesosphere Explorer and those from the Stratosphere Aerosol and Gas Experiment 2 are compared at 1.0 mbar for the time period from October 1984, to December 1986. A model of the diurnal variation of ozone is used to correct for the difference in local times of the two measurements. The

D. W. Rusch; R. T. Clancy; M. P. McCormick; J. M. Zawodny

1990-01-01

202

The Importance of Chemosynthetic Communities and 'Seep-Hunting' to Deepwater Oil and Gas Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seafloor surveying techniques have often evolved as the industry's needs have evolved. Oil and gas exploration costs have escalated over the last several years, both as a result of increasing offshore overhead costs as well as the increased demand being met by offshore service-related companies. Consequently, more companies are prospecting using inexpensive techniques that rely on scientific expertise, such as seep-hunting, as a means of identifying reservoirs, and the past few years have seen several large-scale industrial deepwater surveys with locating hydrocarbon seeps as a primary goal. The identification of seeps is also a necessity for many pre-drilling operations, as many potential developers must conform to local regulations protecting chemosynthetic communities (eg MMS NTL 2000-G20 for Gulf of Mexico development). In addition to identifying chemosynthetic communities for permitting issues, as prospecting has moved into deeper water the ability to identify seep-related drilling hazards, such as hardgrounds or shallow gas (and hydrates) has also increased in importance. The specialized field of identifying seeps, and related chemosynthetics, hardgrounds, etc., is rapidly growing, aided by advances in mapping technology, such as multibeam backscatter and interferometry, among others. Today all of the geophysical data can be brought into a common interpretation environment providing multiple perspectives, different data overlays, and/or 3D visualizations. Using these techniques, high resolution multibeam and/or side-scan surveys rapidly cover large swaths of seafloor and identify potential seeps in real- time. These targets can then be examined geochemically with a coring program, potentially working simultaneously with the multibeam program. Modern USBL navigation can position a deepwater core in <10m diameter targets. Much of the geochemistry can be analyzed in near-real time at sea (eg headspace/interstitial gas, trace/minor/major ions in porefluids, etc; only isotopic analyses are restricted to better equipped research vessels). The advantages of integrating these data are considerable, and they can be obtained for a fraction of the cost of exploratory drilling or submersible operations. This presentation intends to outline the recent history of the industry's approach to seep-hunting, its increasing importance to oil prospectivity, and future trends in industrial applications and how this might affect academic study in this field (especially related to the advances in seep-hunting technology and software that are becoming industry-standards).

McConnell, D.; Gharib, J. J.; Orange, D.; Henderson, J.; Danque, H.; Digby, A.

2007-12-01

203

Automated generation of image products for Mars Exploration Rover mission tactical operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the period of development prior to the January, 2004 landing of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project's twin robotic vehicles on Mars, mission operations personnel recognized the need for timely generation and delivery of camera image products for rover traverse planning purposes. The task was assigned to the Multimission Image Processing Laboratory (MIPL), an element of the Jet Propulsion

Doug Alexander; Payam Zamani; Robert Deen; Paul Andres; Helen Mortensen

2005-01-01

204

Developing an Ecological Framework to Evaluate the Impacts of Releases at Upstream Exploration and Production Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an ecological framework to evaluate the impacts of releases at petroleum exploration and production sites. The project team at ORNL is headed by Rebecca Efroymson and is using a case study at the Nature Conservancy's Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in Oklahoma. We collaborated with Tina Carlsen and Tanya Kostova at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We developed a landscape model

Yetta Jager

205

Exploring a Financial Product Model with a Two-Population Genetic Algorithm  

E-print Network

Exploring a Financial Product Model with a Two-Population Genetic Algorithm Steven O. Kimbrough two-population genetic algorithm (GA) has been remarkably successful in finding good, feasible is motivated by the fact that, while evolution programs (EPs) in general and genetic algorithms in particular

Kimbrough, Steven Orla

206

Process for the production of fuel gas from coal  

DOEpatents

An improved apparatus and process for the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous materials, such as coal, to more valuable gaseous products in a fluidized bed gasification reaction and efficient withdrawal of agglomerated ash from the fluidized bed is disclosed. The improvements are obtained by introducing an oxygen containing gas into the bottom of the fluidized bed through a separate conduit positioned within the center of a nozzle adapted to agglomerate and withdraw the ash from the bottom of the fluidized bed. The conduit extends above the constricted center portion of the nozzle and preferably terminates within and does not extend from the nozzle. In addition to improving ash agglomeration and withdrawal, the present invention prevents sintering and clinkering of the ash in the fluidized bed and permits the efficient recycle of fine material recovered from the product gases by contacting the fines in the fluidized bed with the oxygen as it emanates from the conduit positioned within the withdrawal nozzle. Finally, the present method of oxygen introduction permits the efficient recycle of a portion of the product gases to the reaction zone to increase the reducing properties of the hot product gas.

Patel, Jitendra G. (Bolingbrook, IL); Sandstrom, William A. (Chicago, IL); Tarman, Paul B. (Elmhurst, IL)

1982-01-01

207

Common In-Situ Consumable Production Plant for Robotic Mars Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Utilization of extraterrestrial resources, or In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), is viewed by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise as an enabling technology for the exploration and commercial development of space. A key subset of ISRU which has significant cost, mass, and risk reduction benefits for robotic and human exploration, and which requires a minimum of infrastructure, is In-Situ Consumable Production (ISCP). ISCP involves acquiring, manufacturing, and storing mission consumables from in situ resources, such as propellants, fuel cell reagents, and gases for crew and life support, inflation, science and pneumatic equipment. One of the four long-term goals for the Space Science Enterprise (SSE) is to 'pursue space science programs that enable and are enabled by future human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - a goal exploiting the synergy with the human exploration of space'. Adequate power and propulsion capabilities are critical for both robotic and human exploration missions. Minimizing the mass and volume of these systems can reduce mission cost or enhance the mission by enabling the incorporation of new science or mission-relevant equipment. Studies have shown that in-situ production of oxygen and methane propellants can enhance sample return missions by enabling larger samples to be returned to Earth or by performing Direct Earth Return (DER) sample return missions instead of requiring a Mars Orbit Rendezvous (MOR). Recent NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) work on oxygen and hydrocarbon-based fuel cell power systems shows the potential of using fuel cell power systems instead of solar arrays and batteries for future rovers and science equipment. The development and use of a common oxygen/methane ISCP plant for propulsion and power generation can extend and enhance the scientific exploration of Mars while supporting the development and demonstration of critical technologies and systems for the human exploration of Mars.

Sanders, G. B.; Trevathan, J. R.; Peters, T. A.; Baird, R. S.

2000-01-01

208

Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations  

SciTech Connect

The project is titled 'Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations'. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is the principal investigator and the IOGCC has partnered with ALL Consulting, Inc., headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in this project. State agencies that also have partnered in the project are the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, the Montana Board of Oil and Gas Conservation, the Kansas Oil and Gas Conservation Division, the Oklahoma Oil and Gas Conservation Division and the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. The objective is to characterize produced water quality and management practices for the handling, treating, and disposing of produced water from conventional oil and gas operations throughout the industry nationwide. Water produced from these operations varies greatly in quality and quantity and is often the single largest barrier to the economic viability of wells. The lack of data, coupled with renewed emphasis on domestic oil and gas development, has prompted many experts to speculate that the number of wells drilled over the next 20 years will approach 3 million, or near the number of current wells. This level of exploration and development undoubtedly will draw the attention of environmental communities, focusing their concerns on produced water management based on perceived potential impacts to fresh water resources. Therefore, it is imperative that produced water management practices be performed in a manner that best minimizes environmental impacts. This is being accomplished by compiling current best management practices for produced water from conventional oil and gas operations and to develop an analysis tool based on a geographic information system (GIS) to assist in the understanding of watershed-issued permits. That would allow management costs to be kept in line with the specific projects and regions, which increases the productive life of wells and increases the ultimate recoverable reserves in the ground. A case study was conducted in Wyoming to validate the applicability of the GIS analysis tool for watershed evaluations under real world conditions. Results of the partnered research will continue to be shared utilizing proven methods, such as on the IGOCC Web site, preparing hard copies of the results, distribution of documented case studies, and development of reference and handbook components to accompany the interactive internet-based GIS watershed analysis tool. Additionally, there have been several technology transfer seminars and presentations. The goal is to maximize the recovery of our nation's energy reserves and to promote water conservation.

Rachel Henderson

2007-09-30

209

Multiphasic analysis of gas production kinetics for in vitro fermentation of ruminant feeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently developed time-related gas production techniques to quantify the kinetics of ruminant feed fermentation have a high resolution. Consequently, fermentation processes with clearly contrasting gas production kinetics can be identified. Parameterization of the separate processes is possible with a suitable multiphasic model and modelling method. A flexible, empirical, multiphasic model was proposed for parameterization of gas production profiles. This equation

Jeroen C. J. Groot; John W. Cone; Barbara A. Williams; Filip M. A. Debersaques; Egbert A. Lantinga

1996-01-01

210

Production of biofuels from synthesis gas using microbial catalysts.  

PubMed

World energy consumption is expected to increase 44% in the next 20 years. Today, the main sources of energy are oil, coal, and natural gas, all fossil fuels. These fuels are unsustainable and contribute to environmental pollution. Biofuels are a promising source of sustainable energy. Feedstocks for biofuels used today such as grain starch are expensive and compete with food markets. Lignocellulosic biomass is abundant and readily available from a variety of sources, for example, energy crops and agricultural/industrial waste. Conversion of these materials to biofuels by microorganisms through direct hydrolysis and fermentation can be challenging. Alternatively, biomass can be converted to synthesis gas through gasification and transformed to fuels using chemical catalysts. Chemical conversion of synthesis gas components can be expensive and highly susceptible to catalyst poisoning, limiting biofuel yields. However, there are microorganisms that can convert the CO, H(2), and CO(2) in synthesis gas to fuels such as ethanol, butanol, and hydrogen. Biomass gasification-biosynthesis processing systems have shown promise as some companies have already been exploiting capable organisms for commercial purposes. The discovery of novel organisms capable of higher product yield, as well as metabolic engineering of existing microbial catalysts, makes this technology a viable option for reducing our dependency on fossil fuels. PMID:20359454

Tirado-Acevedo, Oscar; Chinn, Mari S; Grunden, Amy M

2010-01-01

211

75 FR 20271 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...by the cost recovery program at budget for MMS in...will commit to the development of a information to...quantities within the oil and gas these into our regulations...reporting is required for developments in the Alaska OCS Region...the requirements for oil and gas production...produce the oil and gas at the rates that......

2010-04-19

212

[Determination of thiocyanate in dairy products by headspace gas chromatography].  

PubMed

A method for the determination of thiocyanate in dairy products by headspace gas chromatography was established. At first, the thiocyanate in dairy products was extracted by water. Then, the zinc acetate solution was added to the crude product for protein precipitation. The extract obtained above was centrifuged and the supernatant was added with chloramine T, which derivatized the thiocyanate ions to cyanogen chloride. The head-space vapor of the final extract was injected into a BP10 (14% cyanopropyl phenyl polysiloxane) gas chromatographic column, and detected by an electron capture detector (ECD). The target compound was quantified by external standard. The results showed that there was a good linearity between 0.005 mg/L and 0.1 mg/L with the correlation coefficient (r) of 0.997, and the limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) > or = 10) was 0.1 mg/kg. The recoveries were 90.0%-110.0% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) (n = 10) of 4.98%-7.89% at the three spiked levels of 1.0, 2.0, 10.0 mg/kg. In conclusion, this method is simple, rapid and accurate. It can be applied in the determination of thiocyanate in dairy products, and meets the requirements of the daily testing. The method has been successfully used to test 18 kinds of commercially available dairy products and it was found that all the dairy products tested contained thiocyanate about 0.5-10 mg/kg PMID:23189673

Song, Jie; Fu, Yingwen; Du, Lijun; Yao, Yating; Mu, Xiajie; Kang, Lihua; Zhao, Youyou

2012-07-01

213

Federal offshore statistics: 1995 - leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report provides data on federal offshore operations for 1995. Information is included for leasing activities, development, petroleum and natural gas production, sales and royalties, revenue from federal offshore leasing, disbursement of federal revenues, reserves and resource estimates, and oil pollution in U.S. and international waters.

Gaechter, R.A.

1997-07-01

214

Production of manufactured aggregates from flue gas desulfurization by-products  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONSOL R and D has developed a disk pelletization process to produce manufactured aggregates from the by-products of various technologies designed to reduce sulfur emissions produced from coal utilization. Aggregates have been produced from the by-products of the Coolside and LIMB sorbent injection, the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), spray dryer absorption (SDA), and lime and limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD)

M. M. Wu; D. C. McCoy; M. L. Fenger; R. O. Scandrol; R. A. Winschel; J. A. Withum; R. M. Statnick

1999-01-01

215

Characterizing tight-gas systems with production data: Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The study of produced fluids allows comparisons among tight-gas systems. This paper examines gas, oil, and water production data from vertical wells in 23 fields in five Rocky Mountain basins of the United States, mostly from wells completed before the year 2000. Average daily rates of gas, oil, and water production are determined two years and seven years after production begins in order to represent the interval in which gas production declines exponentially. In addition to the daily rates, results are also presented in terms of oil-to-gas and water-to-gas ratios, and in terms of the five-year decline in gas production rates and water-to-gas ratios. No attempt has been made to estimate the ultimate productivity of wells or fields. The ratio of gas production rates after seven years to gas production rates at two years is about one-half, with median ratios falling within a range of 0.4 to 0.6 in 16 fields. Oil-gas ratios show substantial variation among fields, ranging from dry gas (no oil) to wet gas to retrograde conditions. Among wells within fields, the oil-gas ratios vary by a factor of three to thirty, with the exception of the Lance Formation in Jonah and Pinedale fields, where the oil-gas ratios vary by less than a factor of two. One field produces water-free gas and a large fraction of wells in two other fields produce water-free gas, but most fields have water-gas ratios greater than 1 bbl/mmcf—greater than can be attributed to water dissolved in gas in the reservoir— and as high as 100 bbl/mmcf. The median water-gas ratio for fields increases moderately with time, but in individual wells water influx relative to gas is erratic, increasing greatly with time in many wells while remaining constant or decreasing in others.

Nelson, Philip H.; Santus, Stephen L.

2013-01-01

216

Trash to Gas: Converting Space Waste into Useful Supply Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cost of sending mass into space with current propulsion technology is very expensive, making every item a crucial element of the space mission. It is essential that all materials be used to their fullest potential. Items like food, packaging, clothing, paper towels, gloves, etc., normally become trash and take up space after use. These waste materials are currently either burned up upon reentry in earth's atmosphere or sent on cargo return vehicles back to earth: a very wasteful method. The purpose of this project was to utilize these materials and create useful products like water and methane gas, which is used for rocket fuel, to further supply a deep space mission. The system used was a thermal degradation reactor with the configuration of a down-draft gasifier. The reactor was loaded with approximately 100g of trash simulant and heated with two external ceramic heaters with separate temperature control in order to create pyrolysis and gasification in one zone and incineration iri a second zone simultaneously. Trash was loaded into the top half of the reactor to undergo pyrolysis while the downdraft gas experienced gasification or incineration to treat tars and maximize the production of carbon dioxide. Minor products included carbon monoxide, methane, and other hydrocarbons. The carbon dioxide produced can be sent to a Sabatier reactor to convert the gas into methane, which can be used as rocket propellant. In order to maximize the carbon dioxide and useful gases produced, and minimize the unwanted tars and leftover ashen material, multiple experiments were performed with altered parameters such as differing temperatures, flow rates, and location of inlet air flow. According to the data received from these experiments, the process will be further scaled up and optimized to ultimately create a system that reduces trash buildup while at the same time providing enough useful gases to potentially fill a methane tank that could fuel a lunar ascent vehicle or other deep space mission.

Tsoras, Alexandra

2013-01-01

217

Shallow seismic investigations of Devonian-shale gas production  

SciTech Connect

The foremost conclusion of this study is that fractured Devonian shale gas reservoirs, as exemplified by the Cottageville field, are detectable by seismic reflection methods. Further, the target is not particularly difficult, once the nature of the seismic anomaly is understood. The preferred exploration rationale is based on travel time anomalies related to lowered acoustic velocity within the gas-bearing zone. In the simplest case the travel time anomaly causes an apparent down-warp or sag in a flat-lying reflector. This conclusion is developed in Parts B and C of this report. Concerning the high-resolution extension of the seismic method, which is the subject of Part A, there are essentially two separate conclusions which can be drawn. One is that additional, valuable subsurface information can be obtained by recording seismic data at frequenies higher than those in common use by the petroleum industry at the time of this writing. The other is that it is feasible to obtain seismic reflection data on a smaller scale, using less costly instrumentation, than is typically employed in the petroleum industry. However, it is not yet possible to say whether such small scale surveying will be practical from an industry point of view.

Williams, R.T.; Ruotsala, J.E.; Kudla, J.J.; Dunne, W.E.

1982-06-01

218

Process improvement exploration: mapping multimedia production process to CMMI-DEV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multimedia takes improvement of multiple computing technologies to incorporate data from a wide variety of resources, without involving users to know how and where the data is encoded and stored. By reason of Multimedia applications interact with users with numerous diverse techniques and incorporate into strong applications that greatly extend the range and strength of applications, the production process are often complicated and complex. Production of such applications requires both process- and product-based quality assurance. Apparently, there are no universally accepted technical production standards. Consequently, Multimedia applications have sometimes diminished the quality of the end product, increased costs, delayed completion and failure. The focus is on the mapping between the current practices of multimedia production process and one of universal process improvement framework, Capability Maturity Model Integration for Development (CMMI-DEV). It shows that how current practices of multimedia production process address the Engineering Process Areas of CMMI-DEV. For each of the relevant process areas, it then explores how current practices can contribute to achieve the specific goals of that process area. This is practical for organizations that have their plan-driven process based on the CMMI-DEV model and are planning to improve the current practices of multimedia production process or to assist organization to define an innovative multimedia production process cycle based on CMMI-DEV practices.

Lim, ChienWin; Kamaruddin, Noraida; Daud, Nor Izyani; Zainal Osman, Zosipha

2013-03-01

219

Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of sugar production. Results According to our calculations, 241 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent were released to the atmosphere per a ton of sugar produced (2406 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a hectare of the cropped area, and 26.5 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a ton of sugarcane processed). The major part of the total emission (44%) resulted from residues burning; about 20% resulted from the use of synthetic fertilizers, and about 18% from fossil fuel combustion. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the most important reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sugarcane areas could be achieved by switching to a green harvest system, that is, to harvesting without burning. PMID:20565736

2010-01-01

220

Storage sizing for embedding of local gas production in a micro gas grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study the optimal control of a micro grid of biogas producers. The paper considers the possibility to have a local storage device for each producer, who partly consumes his own production, i.e. prosumer. In addition, connected prosumers can sell stored gas to create revenue from it. An optimization model is employed to derive the size of storage device and to provide a pricing mechanism in an effort to value the stored gas. Taking into account physical grid constraints, the model is constructed in a centralized scheme of model predictive control. Case studies show that there is a relation between the demand and price profiles in terms of peaks and lows. The price profiles generally follow each other. The case studies are employed as well to to study the impacts of model parameters on deriving the storage size.

Alkano, D.; Nefkens, W. J.; Scherpen, J. M. A.; Volkerts, M.

2014-12-01

221

Producing ammonium sulfate from flue gas desulfurization by-products  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Emission control technologies using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have been widely adopted by utilities burning high-sulfur fuels. However, these technologies require additional equipment, greater operating expenses, and increased costs for landfill disposal of the solid by-products produced. The financial burdens would be reduced if successful high-volume commercial applications of the FGD solid by-products were developed. In this study, the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate from FGD residues by allowing it to react with ammonium carbonate in an aqueous solution was preliminarily assessed. Reaction temperatures of 60, 70, and 80??C and residence times of 4 and 6 hours were tested to determine the optimal conversion condition and final product evaluations. High yields (up to 83%) of ammonium sulfate with up to 99% purity were achieved under relatively mild conditions. The optimal conversion condition was observed at 60??C and a 4-hour residence time. The results of this study indicate the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate fertilizer from an FGD by-product. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

Chou, I.-M.; Bruinius, J.A.; Benig, V.; Chou, S.-F.J.; Carty, R.H.

2005-01-01

222

How to rejuvenate interest in exploring an old production area in Gabon  

SciTech Connect

The Mandji peninsula area is the oldest explored petroleum province in Gabon. The Clairette, Lopez North and South, N`Tchengue fields were discovered in the 50`s in Senonian and Tertiary turbidites structured by salt domes. A total of 120 wells have led to a production of 12,5 MT (91 MMbls) oil. However, some gaps in the understanding of reservoir distribution and fluids regime appeared as production went on and could not be resolved with the available seismic data which was old (1974 to 1982) and irregular. A new 3D seismic survey was shot in 1992 (245 km2) over an area fringed with shallow water and mangrove forests, covered with savannah liable to flooding, and including several populated areas. The acquisition set-up was adjusted to every type of environment: Airgun in shallow water, explosive in uninhabited areas, and Vibroseis (TM) through the city of Port-Gentil. A carefully designed processing sequence led to consistently good quality throughout the survey, allowing a complete and detailed review of the area. In addition to building a coherent reference model, multi-disciplinary studies have already unveiled new opportunities : complex structural and stratigraphic components in the old fields together with unexpected structural closures and stratigraphic leads are revealed by the 3D interpretation. They will constitute new targets for further exploring an area at late production stage, and may help build a model for the exploration of the turbidites in the Senonian basin.

Fontaine, J.M.; Jones, M.; Ombagho, M.L. [Elf Gabon, Port-Gentil (Gabon)] [and others

1996-12-31

223

How to rejuvenate interest in exploring an old production area in Gabon  

SciTech Connect

The Mandji peninsula area is the oldest explored petroleum province in Gabon. The Clairette, Lopez North and South, N'Tchengue fields were discovered in the 50's in Senonian and Tertiary turbidites structured by salt domes. A total of 120 wells have led to a production of 12,5 MT (91 MMbls) oil. However, some gaps in the understanding of reservoir distribution and fluids regime appeared as production went on and could not be resolved with the available seismic data which was old (1974 to 1982) and irregular. A new 3D seismic survey was shot in 1992 (245 km2) over an area fringed with shallow water and mangrove forests, covered with savannah liable to flooding, and including several populated areas. The acquisition set-up was adjusted to every type of environment: Airgun in shallow water, explosive in uninhabited areas, and Vibroseis (TM) through the city of Port-Gentil. A carefully designed processing sequence led to consistently good quality throughout the survey, allowing a complete and detailed review of the area. In addition to building a coherent reference model, multi-disciplinary studies have already unveiled new opportunities : complex structural and stratigraphic components in the old fields together with unexpected structural closures and stratigraphic leads are revealed by the 3D interpretation. They will constitute new targets for further exploring an area at late production stage, and may help build a model for the exploration of the turbidites in the Senonian basin.

Fontaine, J.M.; Jones, M.; Ombagho, M.L. (Elf Gabon, Port-Gentil (Gabon)) (and others)

1996-01-01

224

Notes on Sable Natural Gas Production December 1999 to November 2005  

E-print Network

, as well as its embracing of the proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities at Bear Head and GuysboroERG/200601 Notes on Sable Natural Gas Production December 1999 to November 2005 Larry Hughes Energy;Hughes: Notes on Sable Natural Gas Production 1 1. Background The Sable Offshore Energy Project consists

Hughes, Larry

225

Total greenhouse gas emissions related to the Dutch crop production system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) related to Dutch agricultural crop production. Emissions occur during agricultural processes (direct emissions) as well as in the life cycle of the required inputs (indirect emissions). An integrated approach assesses the total greenhouse gas emissions related to Dutch agricultural crop production. The results show differences in total greenhouse gas emissions

Henri C. Moll; Sanderine Nonhebel

1999-01-01

226

Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 states 1984 through 1996, February 1996  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourth wellhead productive capacity report. The three previous ones were published in 1991, 1993, and 1994. This report should be of particular interest to those in Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas. The EIA Dallas Field Office has prepared five earlier reports regarding natural gas productive capacity. These reports, Gas Deliverability and Flow Capacity of Surveillance Fields, reported deliverability and capacity data for selected gas fields in major gas producing areas. The data in the reports were based on gas-well back-pressure tests and estimates of gas-in-place for each field or reservoir. These reports use proven well testing theory, most of which has been employed by industry since 1936 when the Bureau of Mines first published Monograph 7. Demand for natural gas in the United States is met by a combination of natural gas production, underground gas storage, imported gas, and supplemental gaseous fuels. Natural gas production requirements in the lower 48 States have been increasing during the last few years while drilling has remained at low levels. This has raised some concern about the adequacy of future gas supplies, especially in periods of peak heating or cooling demand. The purpose of this report is to address these concerns by presenting a 3-year projection of the total productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead for the lower 48 States. Alaska is excluded because Alaskan gas does not enter the lower-48 States pipeline system. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) generates this 3-year projection based on historical gas-well drilling and production data from State, Federal, and private sources. In addition to conventional gas-well gas, coalbed gas and oil-well gas are also included.

NONE

1996-02-09

227

Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report deals with a study directed towards a modeling effort on production related ground movements and subsidence resulting from hydrate dissociation. The goal of this research study was to evaluate whether there could be subsidence related problems that could be an impediment to hydrate production. During the production of gas from a hydrate reservoir, it is expected that porous reservoir matrix becomes more compressible which may cause reservoir compression (compaction) under the influence of overburden weight. The overburden deformations can propagate its influence upwards causing subsidence near the surface where production equipment will be located. In the present study, the reservoir compaction is modeled by using the conventional ``stress equilibrium`` approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ``cavity`` generated by reservoir depletion. The present study is expected to provide a ``lower bound`` solution to the subsidence caused by hydrate reservoir depletion. The reservoir compaction anticipated during hydrate production was modeled by using the finite element method, which is a powerful computer modeling technique. The ground movements at the reservoir roof (i.e. reservoir compression) cause additional stresses and disturbance in the overburden strata. In this study, the reservoir compaction was modeled by using the conventional ``stress equilibrium`` approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ``cavity`` generated by reservoir depletion. The resulting stresses and ground movements were computed by using the finite element method. Based on the parameters used in this investigation, the maximum ground subsidence could vary anywhere from 0.50 to 6.50 inches depending on the overburden depth and the size of the depleted hydrate reservoir.

Siriwardane, H.J.; Kutuk, B.

1992-03-01

228

Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Exploration Solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is an outcome of lean thinking to eliminate waste and increase productivity. PLM is inextricably tied to the systems engineering business philosophy, coupled with a methodology by which personnel, processes and practices, and information technology combine to form an architecture platform for product design, development, manufacturing, operations, and decommissioning. In this model, which is being implemented by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Engineering Directorate, total lifecycle costs are important variables for critical decision-making. With the ultimate goal to deliver quality products that meet or exceed requirements on time and within budget, PLM is a powerful concept to shape everything from engineering trade studies and testing goals, to integrated vehicle operations and retirement scenarios. This briefing will demonstrate how the MSFC Engineering Directorate is implementing PLM as part of an overall strategy to deliver safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions and how that strategy aligns with the Agency and Center systems engineering policies and processes. Sustainable space exploration solutions demand that all lifecycle phases be optimized, and engineering the next generation space transportation system requires a paradigm shift such that digital tools and knowledge management, which are central elements of PLM, are used consistently to maximum effect. Adopting PLM, which has been used by the aerospace and automotive industry for many years, for spacecraft applications provides a foundation for strong, disciplined systems engineering and accountable return on investment. PLM enables better solutions using fewer resources by making lifecycle considerations in an integrative decision-making process.

Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Grieves, Michael

2011-01-01

229

Commander field: Case study of a gas productive landsat and geochemical anomaly, Parker County, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Landsat data for a mature area of southern Parker County were analyzed for structural anomalies and lineaments in order to determine the relationship of these data to gas production and the possible fracturing of Atoka sand reservoirs. Interstitial soil gas data gathered over a 160 acre tract revealed a strong surface anomaly situated at the intersection of two lineaments. The drilling of this anomaly resulted in gas production from a Bend conglomerate and excellent mudlog shows of gas from shallower sands in the Atoka and Strawn intervals. A subsequent offset well, located within the original surface soil gas anomaly, also proved gas productive in the shallow Strawn interval. Well data from the productive gas zones are discussed in relation to local stratigraphy and structure. The limitations and advantages of Landsat/soil gas data are considered in terms of future applicability to other mature areas.

Crowder, W.T. Jr. [Consulting Geologist, Dallas, TX (United States)

1995-06-01

230

Atmospheric emissions and air quality impacts from natural gas production and use.  

PubMed

The US Energy Information Administration projects that hydraulic fracturing of shale formations will become a dominant source of domestic natural gas supply over the next several decades, transforming the energy landscape in the United States. However, the environmental impacts associated with fracking for shale gas have made it controversial. This review examines emissions and impacts of air pollutants associated with shale gas production and use. Emissions and impacts of greenhouse gases, photochemically active air pollutants, and toxic air pollutants are described. In addition to the direct atmospheric impacts of expanded natural gas production, indirect effects are also described. Widespread availability of shale gas can drive down natural gas prices, which, in turn, can impact the use patterns for natural gas. Natural gas production and use in electricity generation are used as a case study for examining these indirect consequences of expanded natural gas availability. PMID:24498952

Allen, David T

2014-01-01

231

Prediction of Gas Leak Tightness of Superplastically Formed Products  

SciTech Connect

In some applications, in this case an aluminium box in a subatomic particle detector containing highly sensitive detecting devices, it is important that a formed sheet should show no gas leak from one side to the other. In order to prevent a trial-and-error procedure to make this leak tight box, a method is set up to predict if a formed sheet conforms to the maximum leak constraint. The technique of superplastic forming (SPF) is used in order to attain very high plastic strains before failure. Since only a few of these boxes are needed, this makes, this generally slow, process an attractive production method. To predict the gas leak of a superplastically formed aluminium sheet in an accurate way, finite element simulations are used in combination with a user-defined material model. This constitutive model couples the leak rate with the void volume fraction. This void volume fraction is then dependent on both the equivalent plastic strain and the applied hydrostatic pressure during the bulge process (backpressure).

Snippe, Corijn H. C. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef) PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meinders, T. [University of Twente, Faculty of Engineering Technology PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

2010-06-15

232

Methods for exploring management options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from tropical grazing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing atmospheric concentrations of ‘greenhouse gases’ are expected to result in global climatic changes over the next decades. Means of evaluating and reducing greenhouse gas emissions are being sought. In this study an existing simulation model of a tropical savanna woodland grazing system was adapted to account for greenhouse gas emissions. This approach may be able to be used in

S. Mark Howden; David H. White; Greg M. Mckeon; Joe C. Scanlan; John O. Carter

1994-01-01

233

An attempt to explore the production routes of Astatine radionuclides: Theoretical approach  

E-print Network

In order to fulfil the recent thrust of Astatine radionuclides in the field of nuclear medicine various production routes have been explored in the present work. The possible production routes of $^{209-211}$At comprise both light and heavy ion induced reactions at the bombarding energy range starting from threshold to maximum 100 MeV energy. For this purpose, we have used the nuclear reaction model codes TALYS, ALICE91 and PACE-II. Excitation functions of those radionuclides, produced through various production routes, have been calculated using nuclear reaction model codes and compared with the available measured data. Contribution of various reaction mechanisms, like, direct, preequilibrium and equilibrium reactions, to the total reaction cross section has been studied using the codes. Result shows that equilibrium reaction mechanism dominates in all cases over other reaction mechanisms.

Moumita Maiti; Susanta Lahiri

2008-12-16

234

An attempt to explore the production routes of Astatine radionuclides: Theoretical approach  

E-print Network

In order to fulfil the recent thrust of Astatine radionuclides in the field of nuclear medicine various production routes have been explored in the present work. The possible production routes of $^{209-211}$At comprise both light and heavy ion induced reactions at the bombarding energy range starting from threshold to maximum 100 MeV energy. For this purpose, we have used the nuclear reaction model codes TALYS, ALICE91 and PACE-II. Excitation functions of those radionuclides, produced through various production routes, have been calculated using nuclear reaction model codes and compared with the available measured data. Contribution of various reaction mechanisms, like, direct, preequilibrium and equilibrium reactions, to the total reaction cross section has been studied using the codes. Result shows that equilibrium reaction mechanism dominates in all cases over other reaction mechanisms.

Maiti, Moumita

2008-01-01

235

Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas and Energy Analyses of Algae Biofuels Production  

E-print Network

Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas and Energy Analyses of Algae Biofuels Production Transportation Energy algae life cycle studies and compare new analyses of multiple production scenarios and process the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, net energy consumption, and net liquid fuels production

236

Gas hydrate exploration of Porangahau Ridge, East Coast, North Island, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During June and July 2006 the R/V Tangaroa collected high-resolution seismic profiles, EM 300 swath bathymetry, 3.5 sub-bottom, as well as water column echosounder data across Porangahau Ridge east of the North Island. Piston cores were recovered for pore water chemistry, microbiology, and paleoceanographic analyses. We also acquired heatflow data, CTDs, and seawater samples for water-column chemistry. The seismic data show amplitude anomalies beneath the ridge. The anomalies develop along a prominent N-S fault-propagation anticline. We analyzed reflection coefficients and conclude that the anomalies are most likely caused by free gas within the regional gas hydrate stability field as defined by the depth of bottom simulating reflections. We suggest that local warming associated with fluid expulsion through faults keeps the temperature at the anomalies outside of the gas hydrate stability field. Based on the seismic amplitudes, we predict at least ~7% of the pore space to be saturated with gas if gas is evenly distributed. Gas saturation is predicted to be almost 70% for "patchy'' gas distribution. For the pressure-temperature conditions beneath the ridge, gas at a saturation of 7% would form gas hydrate at a saturation of ~10% of pore space. Should the localized heat flow anomaly weaken, e.g., because of sealing of the faults, the ridge could become an area with significant hydrate deposits. We speculate that the Porangahau Ridge constitutes a gas hydrate "sweet spot" in the process of formation. Pore water chemistry shows a shoaling of the base of the sulfate reduction zone across this feature, indicative of elevated methane flux through the hydrate stability field. There is a distinct thermal anomaly across the Porangahau Ridge, albeit with a complex signature. On the other hand, there are no indications of methane expulsion into the water column, neither in the echosounder records nor in the water chemistry profiles from CTDs.

Pecher, I. A.; Henrys, S. A.; Crutchley, G.; Toulmin, S.; Gorman, A. R.; Wood, W. T.; Kukowski, N.; Greinert, J.; Faure, K.; Coffin, R. B.

2007-12-01

237

Probabilistic reliability modeling for oil exploration & production (E&P) facilities in the tallgrass prairie preserve.  

PubMed

The aging domestic oil production infrastructure represents a high risk to the environment because of the type of fluids being handled (oil and brine) and the potential for accidental release of these fluids into sensitive ecosystems. Currently, there is not a quantitative risk model directly applicable to onshore oil exploration and production (E&P) facilities. We report on a probabilistic reliability model created for onshore exploration and production (E&P) facilities. Reliability theory, failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), and event trees were used to develop the model estimates of the failure probability of typical oil production equipment. Monte Carlo simulation was used to translate uncertainty in input parameter values to uncertainty in the model output. The predicted failure rates were calibrated to available failure rate information by adjusting probability density function parameters used as random variates in the Monte Carlo simulations. The mean and standard deviation of normal variate distributions from which the Weibull distribution characteristic life was chosen were used as adjustable parameters in the model calibration. The model was applied to oil production leases in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve, Oklahoma. We present the estimated failure probability due to the combination of the most significant failure modes associated with each type of equipment (pumps, tanks, and pipes). The results show that the estimated probability of failure for tanks is about the same as that for pipes, but that pumps have much lower failure probability. The model can provide necessary equipment reliability information for proactive risk management at the lease level by providing quantitative information to base allocation of maintenance resources to high-risk equipment that will minimize both lost production and ecosystem damage. PMID:18076499

Zambrano, Lyda; Sublette, Kerry; Duncan, Kathleen; Thoma, Greg

2007-10-01

238

Exploration of satellite-derived data products for atmospheric turbulence studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality, availability and diversity of satellite-derived earth observation data products are continuously improving. Such satellite products can provide an extensive and complementary view on many matters with respect to intensive but localised in-situ or ground measurements. A search has been undertaken on the available types and sources of satellite data products that could be applicable in the study of the spatio-temporal distribution of aero-optical turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer. This has included all satellite data products that are relevant to the surface energy balance such as surface reflectance, temperature and emissivity. It was also important to identify active archive data services that can provide preprocessed and quality-filtered time-series products. Products derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and other sensors on the NASA Terra and Aqua platforms were of special interest. The use of climatological shortwave and longwave radiative transfer models, combined with satellite-derived data was explored as a method of elucidating the surface heat balance. An in-situ dataset from the Rietvlei vertical turbulence profiling campaign of 2013 was used to validate a number of aspects of the satellite-derived heat balance approach.

Griffith, Derek J.; Ramkilowan, Arshath; Sprung, Detlev; Sucher, Erik; Willers, Cornelius J.; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; van Staden, Ryno

2014-10-01

239

Open-source LCA tool for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from crude oil production using field characteristics.  

PubMed

Existing transportation fuel cycle emissions models are either general and calculate nonspecific values of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil production, or are not available for public review and auditing. We have developed the Oil Production Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE) to provide open-source, transparent, rigorous GHG assessments for use in scientific assessment, regulatory processes, and analysis of GHG mitigation options by producers. OPGEE uses petroleum engineering fundamentals to model emissions from oil and gas production operations. We introduce OPGEE and explain the methods and assumptions used in its construction. We run OPGEE on a small set of fictional oil fields and explore model sensitivity to selected input parameters. Results show that upstream emissions from petroleum production operations can vary from 3 gCO2/MJ to over 30 gCO2/MJ using realistic ranges of input parameters. Significant drivers of emissions variation are steam injection rates, water handling requirements, and rates of flaring of associated gas. PMID:23634761

El-Houjeiri, Hassan M; Brandt, Adam R; Duffy, James E

2013-06-01

240

Exploring interaction effects in two-component gas mixtures using orthogonal signal correction of ultrasound pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within Sweden and the EU, an increased use of biogas gas and natural gas is encouraged to decrease emission of carbon dioxide. To support more effective manufacturing, distribution, and consumption of energy gases, new methods for the measurement of the calorimetric value or the gas composition are needed. This paper presents a method to extract and visualize variations in ultrasound pulse shape, caused by interaction effects between the constituents of a two-component gas mixture. The method is based on a combination of principal component analysis and orthogonal signal correction. Pulse-echo ultrasound experiments on mixtures of oxygen and ethane in the concentration range from 20% to 80% ethane show that the extracted information could be correlated with the molar fraction of ethane in the mixture. .

Carlson, Johan E.; Martinsson, Pär-Erik

2005-05-01

241

Exploring the dynamic behaviors and transport properties of gas molecules in a transmembrane cyclic peptide nanotube.  

PubMed

The dynamic behaviors and transport properties of O2, CO2, and NH3 molecules through a transmembrane cyclic peptide nanotube (CPNT) of 8×cyclo-(WL)4/POPE have been investigated by steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations and adaptive biasing force (ABF) samplings. Different external forces are needed for three gas molecules to enter the channel. The periodic change of the pulling force curve for a gas traveling through the channel mainly arises from the regular and periodic arrangement of the composed CP subunits of the CPNT. Radial distribution functions (RDFs) between gas and water disclose the density decrease of channel water, which strongly aggravates the discontinuity of H-bond formation between a gas molecule and the neighboring water. Compared to hardly any H-bond formation between CO2 (or O2) and the framework of the CPNT, NH3 can form abundant H-bonds with the carbonyl/amide groups of the CPNT, leading to a fierce competition to NH3-water H-bonded interactions. In addition to direct H-bonded interactions, all three gases can form water bridges with the tube. The potential profile of mean force coincides with the occurring probability of a gas molecule along the tube axis. The energy barriers at two mouths of the CPNT elucidate the phenomenon that CO2 and O2 are thoroughly confined in the narrow lumen while NH3 can easily go outside the tube. Intermolecular interactions of each gas with channel water and the CPNT framework and the formation of H-bonds and water bridges illuminate the different gas translocation behaviors. The results uncover interesting and comprehensive mechanisms underlying the permeation characteristics of three gas molecules traveling through a transmembrane CPNT. PMID:24245847

Li, Rui; Fan, Jianfen; Li, Hui; Yan, Xiliang; Yu, Yi

2013-12-01

242

Modeling the relative GHG emissions of conventional and shale gas production.  

PubMed

Recent reports show growing reserves of unconventional gas are available and that there is an appetite from policy makers, industry, and others to better understand the GHG impact of exploiting reserves such as shale gas. There is little publicly available data comparing unconventional and conventional gas production. Existing studies rely on national inventories, but it is not generally possible to separate emissions from unconventional and conventional sources within these totals. Even if unconventional and conventional sites had been listed separately, it would not be possible to eliminate site-specific factors to compare gas production methods on an equal footing. To address this difficulty, the emissions of gas production have instead been modeled. In this way, parameters common to both methods of production can be held constant, while allowing those parameters which differentiate unconventional gas and conventional gas production to vary. The results are placed into the context of power generation, to give a ?well-to-wire? (WtW) intensity. It was estimated that shale gas typically has a WtW emissions intensity about 1.8-2.4% higher than conventional gas, arising mainly from higher methane releases in well completion. Even using extreme assumptions, it was found that WtW emissions from shale gas need be no more than 15% higher than conventional gas if flaring or recovery measures are used. In all cases considered, the WtW emissions of shale gas powergen are significantly lower than those of coal. PMID:22085088

Stephenson, Trevor; Valle, Jose Eduardo; Riera-Palou, Xavier

2011-12-15

243

Natural gas industry directory  

SciTech Connect

This directory has information on the following: associations and organizations; exploration and production; gas compression; gas processors; gathering and transmission companies; liquefied natural gas; local distribution companies; marketing firms; regulatory agencies; service companies; suppliers and manufacturers; and regional buyer`s guide.

NONE

1999-11-01

244

A review of in situ propellant production techniques for solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Representative studies done in the area of extraterrestrial chemical production as it applies to solar system exploration are presented. A description of the In Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) system is presented. Various propellant combinations and direct applications along with the previously mentioned benefits and liens are discussed. A series of mission scenarios is presented which is studied in the greatest detail. A general description of the method(s) of analysis used to study each mission is provided. Each section will be closed by an assessment of the performance advantage, if any, that can be provided by ISPP. A final section briefly summarizes those missions which, as a result of the studies completed thus far, should see a sizable benefit from the use of ISPP.

Hoffman, S. J.

1983-01-01

245

Exploring Evolution Through the Effects of Galaxy-Galaxy and Group Interactions on Gas Content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxy-galaxy interactions are a driving force in galaxy evolution, producing changes in color, morphology, metallicity and enhancing star formation. Many factors contributing to these changes have been well studied such as environment and orientation of the interaction, however studies of the gas content have been limited. To address the question of how interactions affect the gas content of galaxy pairs, we present results from two studies taking different approaches to the question. We present results from a combined optical and HI 21 cm study of 102 galaxy pairs with projected separations up to 120 kpc and velocity differences less than 500 km/s. These pairs were selected from the SDSS spectroscopic survey and were also observed by the ALFALFA HI 21 cm survey. We use these data to study how interactions effect the SFE and HI gas content of these systems. From the second study we present initial results from VLA D-array observations of a galaxy group in which interactions appear to be removing much of the cold gas from the galaxies creating a large reservoir in the inter-group medium. We investigate how this removal of gas and subsequent reservoir impact the evolution of the galaxies within the group, particularly two systems which are transitioning through the green valley. This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-000167932 and a George Mason University Presidential Fellowship.

Fertig, Derek; Rosenberg, J. L.; Patton, D. R.; Ellison, S. L.

2014-01-01

246

DETERMINATION OF INTERFERING TRIAZINE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Deethyl atrazine (DEA), along with other triazine degradation products, has been added to the US Environmental Protection Agency's Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). In its gas chromatographic (GC) analysis, deethyl atrazine, a degradation product of atrazine, can ...

247

76 FR 67201 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems; Submitted for Office of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Safety and Environmental...Gas Production Safety Systems; Submitted for Office of Management and Budget (OMB...and Office of Management and Budget (OMB...Facility Production Safety System Applications...

2011-10-31

248

A comparison of Solar Mesosphere Explorer and Stratosphere Aerosol and Gas Experiment II ozone densities near the stratopause  

SciTech Connect

Ozone measurements made by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer on the Solar Mesosphere Explorer and those from the Stratosphere Aerosol and Gas Experiment 2 are compared at 1.0 mbar for the time period from October 1984, to December 1986. A model of the diurnal variation of ozone is used to correct for the difference in local times of the two measurements. The two instruments agree to within 5% at all latitudes considered in the comparison. Further, no significant divergence is found between the data sets for the time period of overlap. The results support the accuracy and precision of each instrument and the accuracy of ozone derived over the 1982-1986 period from Solar Mesosphere Explorer data.

Rusch, D.W.; Clancy, R.T. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); McCormick, M.P.; Zawodny, J.M. (Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States))

1990-03-20

249

Geomechanical Development of Fractured Reservoirs During Gas Production  

E-print Network

and utilized in a finite element model to coupled gas diffusion and rock mass deformation. The dual permeability method (DPM) is implemented into the Finite Element Model (FEM) to investigate fracture deformation and closure and its impact on gas flow...

Huang, Jian

2013-04-05

250

Exploring the Dust-Gas Connection in the Protoplanetary Disk of GM Aur  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous Spitzer infrared observations of disks around young, low-mass pre-main sequence stars have given us an unprecedented look at dust evolution in young objects, particularly in disks which were revealed to have large inner holes (i.e., the transitional disks). Despite this ground-breaking progress in studying the dust in young disks, the relationship between the dust and gas properties in the inner disk remains essentially unknown. Here we propose to quantify the variability of both the dust and gas in the transitional disk surrounding GM Aur to study how or if accretion onto the star is tied to inhomogeneities in the inner disk. To do this, we will use simultaneous Spitzer, HST, and Swift observations to constrain the IR, UV, and X-ray emission of GM Aur and provide a picture of the interaction between dust and gas in the inner ~0.5-1 AU of the disk down to the stellar surface.

Espaillat, Catherine; Ingleby, Laura; Hernandez, Jesus; Calvet, Nuria

2014-12-01

251

Gas production from sanitary landfills as a potential energy resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid increase in the cost of energy has increased interest in the recovery and utilization of sanitary landfill gas at locations throughout the World. These solid waste disposal sites are considered untapped sources of methane gas. If methane is not recovered and utilized, it forms an explosive mixture with oxygen and causes environmental damages. The amount of recoverable gas

Alzuydi

1980-01-01

252

ANALYSIS OF GAS PRODUCTION FROM HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED WELLS IN THE HAYNESVILLE SHALE USING SCALING METHODS  

E-print Network

ANALYSIS OF GAS PRODUCTION FROM HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED WELLS IN THE HAYNESVILLE SHALE USING. The reservoir temperature is also high, up to 3000 F. These pressures are uniquely high among shale gas gas from the Haynesville Shale without horizontal wells and massive hydrofractures. In addition

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

253

Understanding Ozone: Exploring the Good and Bad Facets of a Famous Gas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents activities that help students distinguish between the beneficial layer of stratospheric ozone and the dangerous ground-level or tropospheric ozone, understand the chemical processes of ozone breakdown in the stratosphere, find the sources of ground-level ozone, and explore the differences in the patterns of ozone concentration over the…

Hanif, Muhammad

1995-01-01

254

Production of manufactured aggregates from flue gas desulfurization by-products  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL R and D has developed a disk pelletization process to produce manufactured aggregates from the by-products of various technologies designed to reduce sulfur emissions produced from coal utilization. Aggregates have been produced from the by-products of the Coolside and LIMB sorbent injection, the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), spray dryer absorption (SDA), and lime and limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. The aggregates produced meet the general specifications for use as road aggregate in road construction and for use as lightweight aggregate in concrete masonry units. Small field demonstrations with 1200 lb to 5000 lb of manufactured aggregates were conducted using aggregates produced from FBC ash and lime wet FGD sludge in road construction and using aggregates made from SDA ash and lime wet FGD sludge to manufacture concrete blocks. The aggregates for this work were produced with a bench-scale (200--400 lb batch) unit. In 1999, CONSOL R and D constructed and operated a 500 lb/hr integrated, continuous pilot plant. A variety of aggregate products were produced from lime wet FGD sludge. The pilot plant test successfully demonstrated the continuous, integrated operation of the process. The pilot plant demonstration was a major step toward commercialization of manufactured aggregate production from FGD by-products. In this paper, progress made in the production of aggregates from dry FGD (Coolside, LIMB, SDA) and FBC by-products, and lime wet FGD sludge is discussed. The discussion covers bench-scale and pilot plant aggregate production and aggregate field demonstrations.

Wu, M.M.; McCoy, D.C.; Fenger, M.L.; Scandrol, R.O.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Statnick, R.M.

1999-07-01

255

Soil biotransformation of thiodiglycol, the hydrolysis product of mustard gas: understanding the factors governing remediation of mustard gas contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Thiodiglycol (TDG) is both the precursor for chemical synthesis of mustard gas and the product of mustard gas hydrolysis. TDG can also react with intermediates of mustard gas degradation to form more toxic and/or persistent aggregates, or reverse the pathway of mustard gas degradation. The persistence of TDG have been observed in soils and in the groundwater at sites contaminated by mustard gas 60 years ago. The biotransformation of TDG has been demonstrated in three soils not previously exposed to the chemical. TDG biotransformation occurred via the oxidative pathway with an optimum rate at pH 8.25. In contrast with bacteria isolated from historically contaminated soil, which could degrade TDG individually, a consortium of three bacterial strains isolated from the soil never contaminated by mustard gas was able to grow on TDG in minimal medium and in hydrolysate derived from an historical mustard gas bomb. Exposure to TDG had little impacts on the soil microbial physiology or on community structure. Therefore, the persistency of TDG in soils historically contaminated by mustard gas might be attributed to the toxicity of mustard gas to microorganisms and the impact to soil chemistry during the hydrolysis. TDG biodegradation may form part of a remediation strategy for mustard gas contaminated sites, and may be enhanced by pH adjustment and aeration. PMID:22752796

Li, Hong; Muir, Robert; McFarlane, Neil R; Soilleux, Richard J; Yu, Xiaohong; Thompson, Ian P; Jackman, Simon A

2013-02-01

256

Exploring the energy/beam current parameter space for the isotope production facility (IPF) at LANSCE  

SciTech Connect

IPF has recently investigated isotope production with proton beams at energies other than the 100-MeV currently available to the IPF beam line. To maximize the yield of a particular isotope, it is necessary to measure the production rate and cross section versus proton beam energy. Studies were conducted at 800 MeV and 197 MeV to determine the cross section of Tb-159. Also, the ability to irradiate targets at different proton beam energies opens up the possibility of producing other radioisotopes. A proof-of-principle test was conducted to develop a 40-MeV tune in the 100-MeV beam line. Another parameter explored was the beam current, which was raised from the normal limit of 250 {mu}A up to 356 {mu}A via both power and repetition rate increase. This proof-of-principle test demonstrated the capability of the IPF beam line for high current operation with potential for higher isotope yields. For the full production mode, system upgrades will need to be in place to operate at high current and high duty factor. These activities are expected to provide the data needed for the development of a new and unique isotope production capability complementing the existing 100-MeV IPF facility.

Gulley, Mark S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bach, Hong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nortier, Francis M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bitteker, Leo J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; John, Kevin D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdez, Frank O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seifter, Achim [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-07

257

Product Lifecycle Management and the Quest for Sustainable Space Exploration Solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is an outcome of lean thinking to eliminate waste and increase productivity. PLM is inextricably tied to the systems engineering business philosophy, coupled with a methodology by which personnel, processes and practices, and information technology combine to form an architecture platform for product design, development, manufacturing, operations, and decommissioning. In this model, which is being implemented by the Engineering Directorate at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center, total lifecycle costs are important variables for critical decisionmaking. With the ultimate goal to deliver quality products that meet or exceed requirements on time and within budget, PLM is a powerful tool to shape everything from engineering trade studies and testing goals, to integrated vehicle operations and retirement scenarios. This paper will demonstrate how the Engineering Directorate is implementing PLM as part of an overall strategy to deliver safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions. It has been 30 years since the United States fielded the Space Shuttle. The next generation space transportation system requires a paradigm shift such that digital tools and knowledge management, which are central elements of PLM, are used consistently to maximum effect. The outcome is a better use of scarce resources, along with more focus on stakeholder and customer requirements, as a new portfolio of enabling tools becomes second nature to the workforce. This paper will use the design and manufacturing processes, which have transitioned to digital-based activities, to show how PLM supports the comprehensive systems engineering and integration function. It also will go through a launch countdown scenario where an anomaly is detected to show how the virtual vehicle created from paperless processes will help solve technical challenges and improve the likelihood of launching on schedule, with less hands-on labor needed for processing and troubleshooting. Sustainable space exploration solutions demand that all lifecycle phases be optimized. Adopting PLM, which has been used by the automotive industry for many years, for aerospace applications provides a foundation for strong, disciplined systems engineering and accountable return on investment by making lifecycle considerations variables in an iterative decision-making process. This paper combines the perspectives of the founding father of PLM, along with the experience of Engineering leaders who are implementing these processes and practices real-time. As the nation moves from an industrial-based society to one where information is a valued commodity, future NASA programs and projects will benefit from the experience being gained today for the exploration missions of tomorrow.

Caruso, Pamela W.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.

2010-01-01

258

High-velocity jet and propellant fracture device for gas and oil well production  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated jet perforation and controlled propellant fracture device and method is disclosed for enhancing production in oil or gas wells, wherein the device is inserted in a well bore to the level of a geological production structure; the fracturing device being constructed with a cylindrical housing of variable cross-section and wall-thickness with the housing filled with combustible propellant gas

F. C. Ford; G. A. Hill; C. T. Vincent

1983-01-01

259

Production and Pressure Decline Curves for Wet Gas Sands With Closed Outer Boundaries  

E-print Network

as gas reservoirs which produce substan- tial amounts of water together with ~as. Production of water of the reservoir, Irr this paper a series of pressure and production decline curves which accounts for the water in which simultaneous flow of water and gas phases takes place. These reservoirs may produce substantial

Mohaghegh, Shahab

260

Production of Hydrogen and Ammonia Synthesis Gas by Pressure Swing Adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new pressure swing adsorption processes for the simultaneous production of hydrogen or ammonia synthesis gas and carbon dioxide from a reformer off-gas feed are described. Both products are produced at high purity and recovery. Performance data for these processes are reported.

Shivaji Sircar

1990-01-01

261

Gas production potential of disperse low-saturation hydrateaccumulations in oceanic sediments  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we evaluate the gas production potential ofdisperse, low-saturation (SH<0.1) hydrate accumulations in oceanicsediments. Such hydrate-bearing sediments constitute a significantportion of the global hydrate inventory. Using numerical simulation, weestimate (a) the rates of gas production and gas release from hydratedissociation, (b) the corresponding cumulative volumes of released andproduced gas, as well as (c) the water production rate and the mass ofproduced water from disperse, low-SH hydrate-bearing sediments subject todepressurization-induced dissociation over a 10-year production period.We investigate the sensitivity of items (a) to (c) to the followinghydraulic properties, reservoir conditions, and operational parameters:intrinsic permeability, porosity, pressure, temperature, hydratesaturation, and constant pressure at which the production well is kept.The results of this study indicate that, despite wide variations in theaforementioned parameters (covering the entire spectrum of suchdeposits), gas production is very limited, never exceeding a few thousandcubic meters of gas during the 10-year production period. Such lowproduction volumes are orders of magnitude below commonly acceptedstandards of economic viability, and are further burdened with veryunfavorable gas-to-water ratios. The unequivocal conclusion from thisstudy is that disperse, low-SH hydrate accumulations in oceanic sedimentsare not promising targets for gas production by means ofdepressurization-induced dissociation, and resources for early hydrateexploitation should be focused elsewhere.

Moridis, George J.; Sloan, E. Dendy

2006-07-19

262

Different palm oil production systems for energy purposes and their greenhouse gas implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyses the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) production in northern Borneo (Malaysia), their transport to the Netherlands and their co-firing with natural gas for electricity production. In the case of CPO, conversion to biodiesel and the associated GHG emissions are also studied. This study follows the methodology suggested

Birka Wicke; Veronika Dornburg; Martin Junginger

2008-01-01

263

A new fast technique for calculation of gas condensate well productivity by using pseudopressure method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new fast technique to obtain gas condensate well productivity without using simulator. The calculation uses a material balance model for reservoir depletion and Fevang and Whitson’s two phase pseudopressure function for well inflow performance. The two phase pseudopressure technique cannot be applied independently for well performance evaluation since it requires the well production gas-oil ratio (GOR)

M. Bonyadi; M. R. Rahimpour; F. Esmaeilzadeh

264

Detection and quantification of fugitive emissions from Colorado oil and gas production operations using remote monitoring  

EPA Science Inventory

Western states contain vast amounts of oil and gas production. For example, Weld County Colorado contains approximately 25,000 active oil and gas well sites with associated production operations. There is little information on the air pollutant emission potential from this source...

265

Join Shell and Purdue for a series of discussions that will explore preventative measures to minimize risk of oil spills, the future of natural gas infrastructure, and  

E-print Network

to minimize risk of oil spills, the future of natural gas infrastructure, and the challenges we face in our (refreshments served) 8:00am ­ 8:15am Opening 8:15am ­ 9:15am Panel Discussion: "Offshore Oil Spill Containment ENERGY DAY A Symposium on the New Frontiers in Oil and Natural Gas Exploration #12;

Ginzel, Matthew

266

Gas, Oil, and Water Production in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas, oil, and water production data were collected from the Fuller Reservoir, Cooper Reservoir, Frenchie Draw, Cave Gulch, and Madden fields in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming. These fields produce from the Mississippian Madison Limestone, the Upper Cretaceous Cody Shale and Mesaverde Formation, and the Paleocene lower unnamed member and Shotgun Member of the Fort Union Formation. Diagrams of water and gas production from tight gas accumulations in three formations in the Madden field show that (1) water production either increased or decreased with time in all three formations, (2) increases and decreases in water production were greater in the Cody Shale than in either the Mesaverde Formation or the lower unnamed member of the Fort Union Formation, (3) the gas production rate declined more slowly in the lower part of the Fort Union Formation than in the Cody Shale or the Mesaverde Formation, (4) changes in gas and water production were not related to their initial production rates, and (5) there appears to be no relation between well location and the magnitudes or trends of gas and water production. To explain the apparent independence of gas and water production in the Cody Shale and Mesaverde Formation, a two-step scenario is proposed: gas was generated and emplaced under the compressive stress regime resulting from Laramide tectonism; then, fractures formed during a subsequent period of stress relaxation and extension. Gas is produced from the pore and fracture system near the wellbore, whereas water is produced from a larger scale system of extension fractures. The distribution of gas and water in the lower Fort Union resulted from a similar scenario, but continued generation of gas during post-Laramide extension may have allowed its more widespread distribution.

Nelson, Philip H.; Trainor, Patrick K.; Finn, Thomas M.

2009-01-01

267

Gas chromatography: Possible application of advanced instrumentation developed for solar system exploration to space station cabin atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gas chromatography (GC) technology was developed for flight experiments in solar system exploration. The GC is a powerful analytical technique with simple devices separating individual components from complex mixtures to make very sensitive quantitative and qualitative measurements. It monitors samples containing mixtures of fixed gases and volatile organic molecules. The GC was used on the Viking mission in support of life detection experiments and on the Pioneer Venus Large Probe to determine the composition of the venusian atmosphere. A flight GC is under development to study the progress and extent of STS astronaut denitrogenation prior to extravehicular activity. Advanced flight GC concepts and systems for future solar system exploration are also studied. Studies include miniature ionization detectors and associated control systems capable of detecting from ppb up to 100% concentration levels. Further miniaturization is investigated using photolithography and controlled chemical etching in silicon wafers. Novel concepts such as ion mobility drift spectroscopy and multiplex gas chromatography are also developed for future flight experiments. These powerful analytical concepts and associated hardware are ideal for the monitoring of cabin atmospheres containing potentially dangerous volatile compounds.

Carle, G. C.

1985-01-01

268

Process development of hydrogenous gas production for PEFC from biogas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory-scale gas processor that integrates four successive catalytic reactions: steam reforming of methane, high- and low-temperature water gas shifts and selective oxidation of carbon monoxide, was designed and tested in this study to produce hydrogen-rich gas with CO<10 ppm from a clean model biogas having a constant molar ratio of CH4\\/CO2=1.5:1.0 for a 50-W class polymer electrolyte fuel cell

Zhan-Guo Zhang; Guangwen Xu; Xin Chen; Kazunori Honda; Tadashi Yoshida

2004-01-01

269

Exploration of the possible new island of inversion with the production of neutron rich nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experiments at the NSCL have demonstrated that fragmentation coupled with two-stage separation technique can be used to explore the properties of very neutron-rich nuclei. Production cross sections for a large number of neutron-rich nuclei produced from the fragmentation of a 76Ge beam at 132 MeV/u with beryllium and tungsten targets were measured, including 15 new isotopes of the elements 17 <= Z <= 25. The higher cross sections of several new nuclei relative to a simple thermal evaporation framework, previously shown to describe similar production cross sections, indicate that nuclei in the region around 62Ti might be more stable than predicted by current mass models. This could indicate the existence of a new island of inversion. This year, a newly-developed primary beam of 82Se at 140 MeV/u has been used to extend these measurements of production cross sections to even more neutron-rich isotopes for elements from calcium to cobalt.

Baumann, T.; Tarasov, O. B.; Amthor, A. M.; Bandura, L.; Bazin, D.; Berryman, J. S.; Gade, A.; Ginter, T. N.; Hausmann, M.; Morrissey, D. J.; Nettleton, A.; Pereira, J.; Portillo, M.; Sherrill, B. M.; Stolz, A.; Sumithrarachchi, C.; Thoennessen, M.; Weisshaar, D.; Fukuda, N.; Inabe, N.; Kubo, T.; Chubarian, G.

2011-10-01

270

A best practice regulatory proposal for shale gas production.  

E-print Network

??[Truncated abstract] Unconventional gas reserves are typically characterised by relatively low permeability, making these reserves more challenging — technically and commercially — to exploit than… (more)

Robb, Simon Alexander

2014-01-01

271

KIGAM Seafloor Observation System (KISOS) for the baseline study in monitoring of gas hydrate test production in the Ulleung Basin, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the baseline study in the monitoring gas hydrate test production in the Ulleung Basin, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) has developed the KIGAM Seafloor Observation System (KISOS) for seafloor exploration using unmanned remotely operated vehicle connected with a ship by a cable. The KISOS consists of a transponder of an acoustic positioning system (USBL), a bottom finding pinger, still camera, video camera, water sampler, and measuring devices (methane, oxygen, CTD, and turbidity sensors) mounted on the unmanned ROV, and a sediment collecting device collecting sediment on the seafloor. It is very important to monitoring the environmental risks (gas leakage and production water/drilling mud discharge) which may be occurred during the gas hydrate test production drilling. The KISOS will be applied to solely conduct baseline study with the KIGAM seafloor monitoring system (KIMOS) of the Korean gas hydrate program in the future. The large scale of environmental monitoring program includes the environmental impact assessment such as seafloor disturbance and subsidence, detection of methane gas leakage around well and cold seep, methane bubbles and dissolved methane, change of marine environments, chemical factor variation of water column and seabed, diffusion of drilling mud and production water, and biological factors of biodiversity and marine habitats before and after drilling test well and nearby areas. The design of the baseline survey will be determined based on the result of SIMAP simulation in 2013. The baseline survey will be performed to provide the gas leakage and production water/drilling mud discharge before and after gas hydrate test production. The field data of the baseline study will be evaluated by the simulation and verification of SIMAP simulator in 2014. In the presentation, the authors would like introduce the configuration of KISOS and applicability to the seafloor observation for the gas hydrate test production in the Ulleung Basin. This work was financially supported by the the Ministry of Knowledge Economy(MKE) and Gas Hydrate R/D Organization(GHDO)

Lee, Sung-rock; Chun, Jong-hwa

2013-04-01

272

Evaluation of in vitro gas production and rumen bacterial populations fermenting corn milling (co)products.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the fermentation dynamics of 2 commonly fed corn (co)products in their intact and defatted forms, using the in vitro gas production (IVGP) technique, and to investigate the shifts of the predominant rumen bacterial populations using the 16S rDNA bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) technique. The bTEFAP technique was used to determine the bacterial profile of each fermentation time at 24 and 48 h. Bacterial populations were identified at the species level. Species were grouped by substrate affinities (guilds) for cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, starch, sugars, protein, lipids, and lactate. The 2 (co)products were a dried distillers grain (DDG) plus solubles produced from a low-heat drying process (BPX) and a high-protein DDG without solubles (HP). Chemical analysis revealed that BPX contained about 11.4% ether extract, whereas HP contained only 3.88%. Previous studies have indicated that processing methods, as well as fat content, of corn (co)products directly affect fermentation rate and substrate availability, but little information is available regarding changes in rumen bacterial populations. Fermentation profiles of intact and defatted BPX and HP were compared with alfalfa hay as a standard profile. Defatting before incubation had no effect on total gas production in BPX or HP, but reduced lag time and the fractional rate of fermentation of BPX by at least half, whereas there was no effect for HP. The HP feed supported a greater percentage of fibrolytic and proteolytic bacteria than did BPX. Defatting both DDG increased the fibrolytic (26.8 to 38.7%) and proteolytic (26.1 to 37.2%) bacterial guild populations and decreased the lactate-utilizing bacterial guild (3.06 to 1.44%). Information regarding the fermentation kinetics and bacterial population shifts when feeding corn (co)products may lead to more innovative processing methods that improve feed quality (e.g., deoiling) and consequently allow greater inclusion rates in dairy cow rations. PMID:20855008

Williams, W L; Tedeschi, L O; Kononoff, P J; Callaway, T R; Dowd, S E; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

2010-10-01

273

Exploring the limits of crop productivity: beyond the limits of tipburn in lettuce  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The productivity of lettuce in a combination of high light, high temperature, and elevated CO2 has not been commonly studied because rapid growth usually causes a calcium deficiency in meristems called tipburn, which greatly reduces quality and marketability. We eliminated tipburn by blowing air directly onto the meristem, which allowed us to increase the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) to 1000 micromoles m-2 s-1 (57.6 mol m-2 d-1); two to three times higher than normally used for lettuce. Eliminating tipburn doubled edible yield at the highest PPF level. In addition to high PPF, CO2 was elevated to 1200 micromoles m-2 mol-1, which increased the temperature optimum from 25 to 30 degrees C. The higher temperature increased leaf expansion rate, which improved radiation capture and more than doubled yield. Photosynthetic efficiency, measured as canopy quantum yield in a whole-plant gas exchange system, steadily increased up to the highest temperature of 32 degrees C in high CO2. The highest productivity was 19 g m-2 d-1 of dry biomass (380 g d-1 fresh mass) averaged over the 23 days the plants received light. Without the limitation of tipburn, the combination of high PPF, high temperature, and elevated CO2 resulted in a 4-fold increase in growth rate over productivity in conventional environments.

Frantz, Jonathan M.; Ritchie, Glen; Cometti, Nilton N.; Robinson, Justin; Bugbee, Bruce

2004-01-01

274

In press Learning and Instruction 2014 Exploring Writing Products in students with Language Impairments and Autism Spectrum  

E-print Network

: written text production; language impairment; ASD; ; transcription; text generation; learning difficultiesIn press Learning and Instruction 2014 Exploring Writing Products in students with Language for assistance with data #12;2 In press Learning and Instruction, 2014 Abstract Oral language skills scaffold

Royal Holloway, University of London

275

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas: Case studies, design, and economics  

SciTech Connect

This project is a combination of process simulation and catalyst development aimed at identifying the most economical method for converting coal to syngas to linear higher alcohols to be used as oxygenated fuel additives. There are two tasks. The goal of Task 1 is to discover, study, and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas, and to explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. The goal of Task 2 is to simulate, by computer, energy efficient and economically efficient processes for converting coal to energy (fuel alcohols and/or power). The primary focus is to convert syngas to fuel alcohols. This report contains results from Task 2. The first step for Task 2 was to develop computer simulations of alternative coal to syngas to linear higher alcohol processes, to evaluate and compare the economics and energy efficiency of these alternative processes, and to make a preliminary determination as to the most attractive process configuration. A benefit of this approach is that simulations will be debugged and available for use when Task 1 results are available. Seven cases were developed using different gasifier technologies, different methods for altering the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the syngas to the desired 1.1/1, and with the higher alcohol fuel additives as primary products and as by-products of a power generation facility. Texaco, Shell, and Lurgi gasifier designs were used to test gasifying coal. Steam reforming of natural gas, sour gas shift conversion, or pressure swing adsorption were used to alter the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the syngas. In addition, a case using only natural gas was prepared to compare coal and natural gas as a source of syngas.

NONE

1995-10-01

276

Numerical, Laboratory And Field Studiesof Gas Production FromNatural Hydrate Accumulations in Geologic Media  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the range of activities at Lawrence BerkeleyNational Laboratory in support of gas production from natural hydrates.Investigations of production from the various classes of hydrate depositsby numerical simulation indicate their significant promise as potentialenergy sources. Laboratory studies are coordinated with the numericalstudies and are designed to address knowledge gaps that are important tothe prediction of gas production. Our involvement in field tests is alsobriefly discussed.

Moridis, George J.; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Kowalsky, Michael; Reagan, Matthew

2006-10-17

277

Lifecycle greenhouse gas implications of US national scenarios for cellulosic ethanol production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 set an annual US national production goal of 39.7 billion l of cellulosic ethanol by 2020. This paper explores the possibility of meeting that target by growing and processing Miscanthus × giganteus. We define and assess six production scenarios in which active cropland and/or Conservation Reserve Program land are used to grow to Miscanthus. The crop and biorefinery locations are chosen with consideration of economic, land-use, water management and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction objectives. Using lifecycle assessment, the net GHG footprint of each scenario is evaluated, providing insight into the climate costs and benefits associated with each scenario’s objectives. Assuming that indirect land-use change is successfully minimized or mitigated, the results suggest two major drivers for overall GHG impact of cellulosic ethanol from Miscanthus: (a) net soil carbon sequestration or emissions during Miscanthus cultivation and (b) GHG offset credits for electricity exported by biorefineries to the grid. Without these factors, the GHG intensity of bioethanol from Miscanthus is calculated to be 11-13 g CO2-equivalent per MJ of fuel, which is 80-90% lower than gasoline. Including soil carbon sequestration and the power-offset credit results in net GHG sequestration up to 26 g CO2-equivalent per MJ of fuel.

Scown, Corinne D.; Nazaroff, William W.; Mishra, Umakant; Strogen, Bret; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Masanet, Eric; Santero, Nicholas J.; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E.

2012-03-01

278

Effects of gas bubble production on heat transfer from a volumetrically heated liquid pool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqueous solutions of uranium salts may provide a new supply chain to fill potential shortfalls in the availability of the most common radiopharmaceuticals currently in use worldwide, including Tc99m which is a decay product of Mo99. The fissioning of the uranium in these solutions creates Mo99 but also generates large amounts of hydrogen and oxygen from the radiolysis of the water. When the dissolved gases reach a critical concentration, bubbles will form in the solution. Bubbles in the solution affect both the fission power and the heat transfer out of the solution. As a result, for safety and production calculations, the effects of the bubbles on heat transfer must be understood. A high aspect ratio tank was constructed to simulate a section of an annulus with heat exchangers on the inner and outer steel walls to provide cooling. Temperature measurements via thermocouples inside the tank and along the outside of the steel walls allowed the calculation of overall and local heat transfer coefficients. Different air injection manifolds allowed the exploration of various bubble characteristics and patterns on heat transfer from the pool. The manifold type did not appear to have significant impact on the bubble size distributions in water. However, air injected into solutions of magnesium sulfate resulted in smaller bubble sizes and larger void fractions than those in water at the same injection rates. One dimensional calculations provide heat transfer coefficient values as functions of the superficial gas velocity in the pool.

Bull, Geoffrey R.

279

ANALYSIS OF THERMAL DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS OF FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AGENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of reactions of several flue gas conditioning agents in a laboratory-scale facility simulating conditions in the flue gas train of a coal-burning power plant. Primary purposes of the study were to characterize the chemical species resulting fro...

280

Drilling and Production Testing the Methane Hydrate Resource Potential Associated with the Barrow Gas Fields  

SciTech Connect

In November of 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Slope Borough (NSB) committed funding to develop a drilling plan to test the presence of hydrates in the producing formation of at least one of the Barrow Gas Fields, and to develop a production surveillance plan to monitor the behavior of hydrates as dissociation occurs. This drilling and surveillance plan was supported by earlier studies in Phase 1 of the project, including hydrate stability zone modeling, material balance modeling, and full-field history-matched reservoir simulation, all of which support the presence of methane hydrate in association with the Barrow Gas Fields. This Phase 2 of the project, conducted over the past twelve months focused on selecting an optimal location for a hydrate test well; design of a logistics, drilling, completion and testing plan; and estimating costs for the activities. As originally proposed, the project was anticipated to benefit from industry activity in northwest Alaska, with opportunities to share equipment, personnel, services and mobilization and demobilization costs with one of the then-active exploration operators. The activity level dropped off, and this benefit evaporated, although plans for drilling of development wells in the BGF's matured, offering significant synergies and cost savings over a remote stand-alone drilling project. An optimal well location was chosen at the East Barrow No.18 well pad, and a vertical pilot/monitoring well and horizontal production test/surveillance well were engineered for drilling from this location. Both wells were designed with Distributed Temperature Survey (DTS) apparatus for monitoring of the hydrate-free gas interface. Once project scope was developed, a procurement process was implemented to engage the necessary service and equipment providers, and finalize project cost estimates. Based on cost proposals from vendors, total project estimated cost is $17.88 million dollars, inclusive of design work, permitting, barging, ice road/pad construction, drilling, completion, tie-in, long-term production testing and surveillance, data analysis and technology transfer. The PRA project team and North Slope have recommended moving forward to the execution phase of this project.

Steve McRae; Thomas Walsh; Michael Dunn; Michael Cook

2010-02-22

281

By Terry Engelder and Gary G. Lash UNIVERSITY PARK, PA.The shale gas rush is on. Excitement over natural gas production from a  

E-print Network

By Terry Engelder and Gary G. Lash UNIVERSITY PARK, PA.­The shale gas rush is on. Excitement over natural gas production from a number of Devonian-Mississippian black shales such as the Barnett by the Eastern Gas Shales Project (EGSP), a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored investigation of gas potential

Engelder, Terry

282

Accounting for Adsorbed gas and its effect on production bahavior of Shale Gas Reservoirs  

E-print Network

?.............................................................................................. 14 3.4 SGPA results on decline curve for free, desorbed and total gas ............... 15 3.5 SGPA results on log qg / [m(pi) ?m(pwf)] vs log time plot for free, desorbed and total gas (SGPA.................................................................................... 23 4.4 Plot of [m(pi )? m(pwf )(t)] / qg vs pseudo time tn* constant rate gas BDF including adsorbed gas with slope mBDF to calculate G............................ 25 4.5 Plot of [m(pi )? m(pwf )(t)] / qg vs pseudo time tn...

Mengal, Salman Akram

2010-10-12

283

Monotoring of mangrove ecosystem in relation with exploration and production activities  

SciTech Connect

From Indonesia`s initial 13 million hectares of mangrove forests, presently only 2.6 million hectares remains which must be certainly protected. Mangrove swamps are of considerable ecological importance not only because of their use as spawning and feeding grounds for a many variety of fish and shrimps but also of economical importance and last but not least as coastal protection. In such a sensitive ecosystem, i.e. in the mangrove swamp area of Mahakam Delta in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, TOTAL Indonesie, an affiliate of the French oil company {open_quotes}TOTAL{close_quotes} and one of the production sharing contractors of PERTAMINA, the Indonesian owned state oil company, has undertaken its E&P operations since 1974. Realizing the sensitivity of the mangrove area, TOTAL Indonesie has undertaken continuous monitoring of the environment as part of its Environmental Management System. This monitoring is very important not only to measure the impact to the mangrove ecosystem in particular due to TOTAL Indonesie activities but also as a feed back for the environmental management. Physicochemical and biological aspects of the environment are monitored and various measurements are taken covering: (1) Hydrology and hydrodynamics of the water streams i.e. the water quality, productivity and flow characteristic of the region (2) Sedimentation and biodegradation (3) The influence of accidental and chronic pollution mangrove ecosystem (3) Sensitivity of the mangroves. The above monitoring has led to the conclusion that after more than 20 years of operation, there has significant adverse impact to the mangrove ecosystem by the exploration and production activities of Indonesie.

Alamsyah, C.; Dwistiadi, D.

1996-11-01

284

Gas production from a cold, stratigraphically-bounded gas hydrate deposit at the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Implications of uncertainties  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an effort to identify suitable targets for a planned long-term field test, we investigate by means of numerical simulation the gas production potential from unit D, a stratigraphically bounded (Class 3) permafrost-associated hydrate occurrence penetrated in the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well on North Slope, Alaska. This shallow, low-pressure deposit has high porosities (? = 0.4),

G. J. Moridis; S. Silpngarmlert; M. T. Reagan; T. Collett; K. Zhang

2011-01-01

285

Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and

W. Dick; J. Bigham; R. Forster; F. Hitzhusen; R. Lal; R. Stehouwer; S. Traina; W. Wolfe; R. Haefner; G. Rowe

1999-01-01

286

KPIM of Gas\\/Condensate Productivity: Prediction of Condensate\\/Gas Ratio Using Reservoir Volumetric Balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach for forecasting viability of gas condensate wells and calculating Condensate Gas Ratio (CGR), using simpler techniques is presented. The calculation uses a volumetric balance model for reservoir system, standardized and modified correlations, equation of state and a vapor-liquid equilibrium technique. The technique has been extended to include mass transfer and also to allow for the changes in

A. F. Olaberinjo; M. O. Oyewola; O. A. Obiyemi; O. A. Adeyanju; M. S. Adaramola

2006-01-01

287

40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2  

...2014-07-01 false Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table...MM of Part 98—Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1...

2014-07-01

288

40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table...MM of Part 98—Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1...

2013-07-01

289

40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table...MM of Part 98—Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1...

2012-07-01

290

40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table...MM of Part 98—Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1...

2011-07-01

291

Controls of coal fabric on coalbed gas production and compositional shift in both field production and canister desorption tests  

SciTech Connect

The production rates of coalbed gas wells commonly vary significantly, even in the same field with similar reservoir permeability and gas content. The compositional variation in produced gas is also not everywhere predictable, although in most fields produced gas becomes progressively enriched in CO, through the production life of a reservoir, such as parts of the San Juan basin. In contrast, it is generally observed that the ratio of CO{sub 2}:CH{sub 4} declines with time during field and laboratory desorption testing of coal cores. In this study, we investigate numerically the importance of coal fabric, namely cleat spacing and aperture width, on the performance of coalbed gas wells and gas compositional shifts during production. Because of the cubic relationship between fracture permeability and fracture aperture width (and thus fracture porosity) for a given cleat permeability, the production profile of coal seams varies depending on whether the permeability is distributed among closely spaced fractures (cleat) with narrower apertures or more widely spaced fractures (cleat) with wider apertures. There is a lower fracture porosity for coal with widely spaced fractures than for coal with closely spaced fractures. Therefore, the relative permeability to gas increases more rapidly for coals with more widely spaced cleats as less dewatering from fractures is required, assuming that the fractures are initially water saturated. The enrichment of CO{sub 2} in the production gas with time occurs because of the stronger adsorption of coals for CO{sub 2} than CH{sub 4}. However, during desorption of coal cores, CO{sub 2} desorbs more rapidly than methane because desorption rate is governed more by diffusion than by sorption affinity, and CO{sub 2} has much higher effective diffusivity in microporous coals than CH{sub 4}.

Cui, X.J.; Bustin, R.M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2006-03-15

292

Global exploration and production capacity for platinum-group metals from 1995 through 2015  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Platinum-group metals (PGMs) are required in a variety of commercial, industrial, and military applications for many existing and emerging technologies, yet the United States is highly dependent on foreign sources of PGMs. Information on global exploration for PGMs since 1995 has been used in this study as a basis for identifying locations where the industry has determined that exploration has provided data sufficient to warrant development of a new mine or expansion of an existing operation or where a significant increase in capacity for PGMs is anticipated by 2015. Discussions include an overview of the industry and the selected sites, factors affecting mineral supply, and circumstances leading to the development of mineral properties with the potential to affect mineral supply. Of the 52 sites or regional operations that were considered in this analysis, 16 sites were producing before 1995, 28 sites commenced production from 1995 through 2010, and 8 sites were expected to begin production from 2011 through 2015 if development plans came to fruition. The United States imports PGMs primarily from Canada, Russia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe to meet increasing demand for these materials in a variety of specialized and high-tech applications. Feed sources of PGMs are changing in South Africa and Russia, which together accounted for about 89 percent of platinum production and 82 percent of palladium production in 2009. A greater amount of South African PGM capacity is likely to come from deeper, higher cost Upper Group Reef seam 2 deposits and deposits in the Eastern Bushveld area. Future Russian PGM capacity is likely to come from ore zones with generally lower PGM content and different platinum-to-palladium ratios than the nickel-rich ore that dominated PGM supply in the 1990s. Because PGM supply from Canada and Russia is derived as a byproduct of copper and nickel mining, the PGM supply from these countries is influenced by economic, environmental, political, and technological factors affecting exploration for and development of copper and nickel, as well as factors affecting the PGM industry. The recovery of PGMs from mill tailings since 2004 and the recycling of PGMs from catalytic converters, electrical components, and jewelry has increased since 1995 so that recycled PGMs recovered from these products accounted for about 30 percent of the supply of platinum worldwide and 29 percent of the supply of palladium worldwide in 2010. Economic and geopolitical conditions have influenced PGM supply and demand. The global recession of 2008 and 2009 temporarily decreased demand for PGMs and constrained PGM mine exploration and development, at least through 2010. Legislation regulating the structure of the mining sector has affected mining in Russia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. Stricter vehicle emissions standards in established markets since the 1980s have led to mandatory use of pollution control devices, such as catalytic converters, that contain PGMs and are required on vehicles in expanding markets, such as China and India. It is expected that South Africa, Russia, Canada, and Zimbabwe will continue to be the principal sources of PGM at least for the next decade. Based on this review of the PGM industry, the world’s platinum capacity, expressed in terms of recoverable platinum metal, increased from 1995 through 2010 by 77,000 kilograms (kg) in South Africa, 9,000 kg in Zimbabwe, 6,000 kg in Russia, 2,000 kg in Botswana, and 2,000 kg in Canada. For the same period, palladium capacity worldwide increased by 44,000 kg in South Africa, 22,000 kg in Russia, 8,000 kg in Canada, 8,000 kg in the United States, 7,000 kg in Zimbabwe, and 3,000 kg in Botswana. Platinum capacity worldwide is expected to further increase by 24,000 kg in South Africa, 9,000 kg in Russia, 3,000 kg in Canada, and 2,000 kg in Zimbabwe from 2011 through 2015. Palladium capacity worldwide is likewise expected to increase an additional 16,000 kg in Russia, 14,000 kg in South Africa, 4,000 kg in Zimbabwe, and 1,000 kg in Canada if new or expanded mine and asso

Wilburn, David R.

2012-01-01

293

Evidence of Pressure Dependent Permeability in Long-Term Shale Gas Production and Pressure Transient Responses  

E-print Network

The current state of shale gas reservoir dynamics demands understanding long-term production, and existing models that address important parameters like fracture half-length, permeability, and stimulated shale volume assume constant permeability...

Vera Rosales, Fabian 1986-

2012-12-11

294

Minimizing Water Production from Unconventional Gas Wells Using a Novel Environmentally Benign Polymer Gel System  

E-print Network

Excess water production is a major economic and environmental problem for the oil and gas industry. The cost of processing excess water runs into billions of dollars. Polymer gel technology has been successfully used in controlling water influx...

Gakhar, Kush

2012-02-14

295

Device for quickly sensing the amount of O2 in a combustion product gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sensing device comprising an O2 sensor, a pump, a compressor, and a heater is provided to quickly sense the amount of O2 in a combustion product gas. A sample of the combustion product gas is compressed to a pressure slightly above one atmosphere by the compressor. Next, the heater heats the sample between 800 C and 900 C. Next, the pump causes the sample to be flushed against the electrode located in O2 sensor 6000 to 10,000 times per second. Reference air at approximately one atmosphere is provided to the electrode of O2 sensor. Accordingly, the O2 sensor produces a voltage which is proportional to the amount of oxygen in the combustion product gas. This voltage may be used to control the amount of O2 entering into the combustion chamber which produces the combustion product gas.

Singh, Jag J. (inventor); Davis, William T. (inventor); Puster, Richard L. (inventor)

1990-01-01

296

Evidence of Reopened Microfractures in Production Data of Hydraulically Fractured Shale Gas Wells  

E-print Network

the presence of reopened natural fracture network can be observed in pressure and production data of shale gas wells producing from two shale formations with different well and reservoir properties. Homogeneous, dual porosity and triple porosity models...

Apiwathanasorn, Sippakorn

2012-10-19

297

UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS RESOURCES: AN OVERVIEW COVERING THE RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This report covers natural gas from the following unconventional sources: western tight sands, Devonian shale, coal deposits, geopressured aquifers, and landfills. This report covers the resource base, potential production levels, and associated environmental aspects. Over the pa...

298

Overview of the 2006-2008 JOGMEC\\/NRCan\\/Aurora Mallik Gas Hydrate Production Test Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the winters of 2007 and 2008 the Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC) and Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), with Aurora Research Institute as the operator, carried out an on-shore gas hydrate production test program at the Mallik site, Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada. The prime objective of the program was to verify the feasibility of depressurization technique

K. Yamamoto; S. R. Dallimore

2008-01-01

299

Catalytic cracking of Mayan gas oil and selected hydrotreated products: Topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalytic cracking of a Mayan vacuum gas oil and the products from mild, moderate, and severe hydrotreating of this gas oil was evaluated over a low-metal equilibrium catalyst in a microconfined bed unit (MCBU). Results obtained with the Mayan feedstocks are compared with those of an earlier study conducted with similar feedstocks obtained from a Wilmington (CA) crude oil.

J. W. Wells; E. J. Zagula; D. W. Brinkman; R. P. Anderson

1988-01-01

300

Dual gas and oil dispersions in water: production and stability of foamulsion Anniina Salonen,*a  

E-print Network

Dual gas and oil dispersions in water: production and stability of foamulsion Anniina Salonen of oil droplets and gas bubbles and show that the oil can have two very different roles, either suppressing foaming or stabilising the foam. We have foamed emulsions made from two different oils (rapeseed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

301

AMMONIA REMOVAL AND NITROUS OXIDE PRODUCTION IN GAS-PHASE COMPOST BIOFILTERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biofiltration technology is widely utilized for treating ammonia gas (NH3), with one of its potential detrimental by-products being nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas approximately 300 times more reactive to infrared than CO2. The present work intends to provide the relation between NH3 removal d...

302

Geologic model for identification of higher Devonian shale gas-production potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Areas of higher gas production within the Devonian shales of the Appalachian basin may be identified with the aid of an integrated geologic model. Lithology and fractures combine to form complex reservoir systems. The search for these reservoirs is aided by integration of log lithofacies analysis and interpretations of seismic data. Gas Research Institute - sponsored research has shown that

P. H. Lowry; R. W. Brown; A. Olszewski; J. W. Hobson

1991-01-01

303

Functionally gradient material for membrane reactors to convert methane gas into value-added products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A functionally gradient material for a membrane reactor for converting methane gas into value-added-products includes an outer tube of perovskite, which contacts air; an inner tube which contacts methane gas, of zirconium oxide, and a bonding layer between the perovskite and zirconium oxide layers. The bonding layer has one or more layers of a mixture of perovskite and zirconium oxide,

U. Balachandran; J. T. Dusek; M. S. Kleefisch; T. P. Kobylinski

1996-01-01

304

Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content  

DOEpatents

A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

Najjar, Mitri S. (Hopewell Junction, NY); Corbeels, Roger J. (Wappingers Falls, NY); Kokturk, Uygur (Wappingers Falls, NY)

1989-01-01

305

Regional air quality impacts of increased natural gas production and use in Texas.  

PubMed

Natural gas use in electricity generation in Texas was estimated, for gas prices ranging from $1.89 to $7.74 per MMBTU, using an optimal power flow model. Hourly estimates of electricity generation, for individual electricity generation units, from the model were used to estimate spatially resolved hourly emissions from electricity generation. Emissions from natural gas production activities in the Barnett Shale region were also estimated, with emissions scaled up or down to match demand in electricity generation as natural gas prices changed. As natural gas use increased, emissions decreased from electricity generation and increased from natural gas production. Overall, NOx and SO2 emissions decreased, while VOC emissions increased as natural gas use increased. To assess the effects of these changes in emissions on ozone and particulate matter concentrations, spatially and temporally resolved emissions were used in a month-long photochemical modeling episode. Over the month-long photochemical modeling episode, decreases in natural gas prices typical of those experienced from 2006 to 2012 led to net regional decreases in ozone (0.2-0.7 ppb) and fine particulate matter (PM) (0.1-0.7 ?g/m(3)). Changes in PM were predominantly due to changes in regional PM sulfate formation. Changes in regional PM and ozone formation are primarily due to decreases in emissions from electricity generation. Increases in emissions from increased natural gas production were offset by decreasing emissions from electricity generation for all the scenarios considered. PMID:23441728

Pacsi, Adam P; Alhajeri, Nawaf S; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Webster, Mort D; Allen, David T

2013-04-01

306

Production of a Gas- Controlling a Chemical Reaction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students have seen a few reactions that produce a gas.They will adjust the amount of baking soda and vinegar to control the amount of gas produced in the reaction. The materials needed are basic and easily available anywhere. There is a downloadable activity sheet that will be very helpful to educators, and will help students stay on track. An assessment sheet is also available on the activity page to keep track of students progress. There is also a step by step guide as to how to perform the experiment, and how to introduce it t the students.

Kessler, James; Galvan, Patti

2010-01-01

307

Water alternating enriched gas injection to enhance oil production and recovery from San Francisco Field, Colombia  

E-print Network

) using Kulin oil (21 'API oil Irom Indonesia). ' The same effect of production acceleration was observed in these experiments and steam injectivity was improved with the addition of propane to the steam. Rivero and Mamora (2002) conducted several steam... studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil. ' With steam-propane injection no improvement on production and oil recovery was obtained. Enriched gas injection increase the oil recovery in 13'/o, (74'/o OOIP with 5...

Rueda Silva, Carlos Fernando

2003-01-01

308

The Effect of Well Trajectory on Production Performance of Tight Gas Wells  

E-print Network

8 Case two summary .............................................................................................. 28 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background In oil and gas production, inflow and outflow are an essential aspect... of the process. In order to develop outflow and inflow analysis, pressure drop calculation in a well system is essential. In the oil and gas industry, water is considered enemy number one due to several implications caused by water production. In this study...

Aldousari, Mohammad

2012-02-14

309

The effects of production rate and gravitational segregation on gas injection performance of oil reservoirs  

E-print Network

THE EFFECTS OF PRODUCTION RATE AND GRAVITATIONAL SEGREGATION ON GAS INJECTION PERFORMANCE OF OIL RESERVOIRS A Thesis by ED MARTIN FERGUSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1972 Major Subject: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING THE EFFECTS OF PRODUCTION RATE AND GRAVITATIONAL SEGREGATION ON GAS INJECTION PERFORMANCE OF OIL RESERVOIRS A Thesis by ED MARTIN FERGUSON Approved as. to style...

Ferguson, Ed Martin

1972-01-01

310

Gas production and transport during bench-scale electrical resistance heating of water and trichloroethene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effective remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones using in situ thermal treatment requires successful capture of gas that is produced. Replicate electrical resistance heating experiments were performed in a thin bench-scale apparatus, where water was boiled and pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) trichloroethene (TCE) and water were co-boiled in unconsolidated silica sand. Quantitative light transmission visualization was used to assess gas production and transport mechanisms. In the water boiling experiments, nucleation, growth and coalescence of the gas phase into connected channels were observed at critical gas saturations of Sgc = 0.233 ± 0.017, which allowed for continuous gas transport out of the sand. In experiments containing a colder region above a target heated zone, condensation prevented the formation of steam channels and discrete gas clusters that mobilized into colder regions were trapped soon after discontinuous transport began. In the TCE-water experiments, co-boiling at immiscible fluid interfaces resulted in discontinuous gas transport above the DNAPL pool. Redistribution of DNAPL was also observed above the pool and at the edge of the vapor front that propagated upwards through colder regions. These results suggest that the subsurface should be heated to water boiling temperatures to facilitate gas transport from specific locations of DNAPL to extraction points and reduce the potential for DNAPL redistribution. Decreases in electric current were observed at the onset of gas phase production, which suggests that coupled electrical current and temperature measurements may provide a reliable metric to assess gas phase development.

Hegele, P. R.; Mumford, K. G.

2014-09-01

311

Design and Analysis of a Scalable In-situ Cryogen Production Facility for Space Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system demonstration of a scalable cryogen production facility will be necessary to establish the feasibility of in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) as part of NASA's Space Exploration Initiative. Cryogenic fluids such as liquid oxygen, hydrogen, and methane will be required for propellants for return vehicle propulsion, life support consumables, power generation, and precursors for the refinement of structural materials. A key technology necessary for the realization of a cryogenic ISRU system is high-efficiency cryocoolers that can enable low-temperature thermal processing of extracted volatile materials for separation, liquefaction, and zero boiloff (ZBO) storage. This paper addresses the design and analysis of the following pertinent technologies: (1) producing a concentrated feedstock from low partial-pressure volatile constituents to drive chemical and thermal reaction operations, (2) balancing unit feed and effluent flows and molecular species to derive system efficiency and capture of high-purity cryogenic fluids, (3) thermal isolation of cryogenically cooled stages from ambient and elevated temperature subsystems to achieve power efficiency and thermal stability, and (4) developing a reverse-Brayton cycle cryocooler that provides cooling at 20 K for liquefying and sustaining hydrogen storage.

Petrick, D. E.; Nieczkoski, S. J.; Duke, M. B.; Gardner, T. Q.

2006-04-01

312

Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products. Executive summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create several types of by-products. This project focused primarily on by-product materials obtained from what are commonly called ''dry scrubbers'' which produce a dry, solid material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Prior to this project, dry FGD by-products were generally treated as solid wastes

W. Dick; J. Bigham; R. Forster; F. Hitzhusen; R. Lal; R. Stehouwer; S. Traina; W. Wolfe; R. Haefner; G. Rowe

1999-01-01

313

High density gas jet nozzle design for laser target production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimization of a cylindrical nozzle design to generate a uniform density profile for laser plasmas studies has been investigated using numerical simulations. In addition gas jet flows have been characterized using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The experimental results are in very good agreement with the simulation.

S. Semushin; V. Malka

2001-01-01

314

Agricultural By-products as Mercury Adsorbents in Gas Applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increased emphasis on reduction of mercury emissions from coal fired electric power plans have resulted in environmental regulations that may in the future require application of activated carbons as mercury sorbents. The sorbents could be injected into the flue gas stream where is adsorbs the merc...

315

Production of ammonia synthesis gas from solid carbonaceous fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a continuous process for producing ammonia synthesis gas and includes the partial oxidation of particles of solid carboniferous fuels entrained in nitrogen. In the process, air is separated into high pressure nitrogen and substantially pure oxygen. A first stream of said nitrogen is used as a safe pneumatic vehicle in a grinding and transport operation which introduces ground,

F. E. Guptill; J. R. Muenger

1980-01-01

316

H. R. 5593: A Bill to maintain the viability of the domestic oil industry by enhancing capital investment and ensuring future oil and gas exploration, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, September 12, 1990  

SciTech Connect

This bill would maintain the viability of the domestic oil industry by enhancing capital investment and ensuring future oil and gas exploration by amending certain sections of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986. The bill describes the following provisions under the title, Percentage depletion and intangible drilling costs: increase in percentage depletion; percentage depletion permitted after transfer of proven property; percentage depletion allowed for stripper well production of integrated producers; net income limitation not to apply to oil or gas wells; and definitions of intangible drilling costs. Under Title II, Domestic energy improvement tax credits, the following tax credits are described: marginal production; exploring for oil or gas; vehicles fueled by clean-burning fuels, property converting vehicles to be so fueled, and facilities for the retail delivery of such fuels; conversion to natural gas equipment; clean fuel alternatives research; and tertiary recovery methods research.

Not Available

1990-01-01

317

Western Gas Sands Project: production histories of the Piceance and Uinta basins of Colorado and Utah  

SciTech Connect

Current United States geological tight sand designations in the Piceance and Uinta Basins' Western Gas Sands Project include the Mesaverde Group, Fort Union and Wasatch Formations. Others, such as the Dakota, Cedar Mountain, Morrison and Mancos may eventually be included. Future production from these formations will probably be closely associated with existing trends. Cumulative gas production through December 1979, of the Mesaverde Group, Fort Union and Wasatch Formations in the Piceance and Uinta Basins is less than 275 billion cubic feet. This contrasts dramatically with potential gas in place estimates of 360 trillion cubic feet. If the geology can be fully understood and engineering problems surmounted, significant potential reserves can be exploited.

Anderson, S.; Kohout, J. (comp.)

1980-11-20

318

Optoelectronic sensors for subsea oil and gas production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential for optoelectronic sensor technology to provide the monitoring and control systems required for advanced subsea hydrocarbon production management is described. The utilisation of optoelectronic sensor technology to produce a new class of subsea Christmas Tree with in-built enhanced production monitoring and control systems as well as effective environmental monitoring systems is reported.

McStay, D.; Shiach, G.; Nolan, A.; McAvoy, S.

2007-07-01

319

Pyrolysis of glycerol for the production of hydrogen or syn gas.  

PubMed

Biodiesel has high potential as alternative liquid transportation fuel because it is renewable and CO(2) neutral, and has similar properties as diesel fuel. Glycerol is a by-product obtained during the production of biodiesel. Canadian government has planned to produce 500 million litres of biodiesel by 2010. An increase in biodiesel production would decrease the market price of glycerol. The objective of this study is to pyrolyse glycerol for the production of clean fuels such as H(2) or a feedstock such as syn gas for additional transportation fuel via Fisher-Tropsch synthesis. The pyrolysis of glycerol was carried out at various flow rates of N(2) (30-70 mL/min), temperatures (650-800 degrees C) and types and sizes of packing material in a tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure. The products were mostly gas, essentially consisting of CO, H(2), CO(2), CH(4) and C(2)H(4). It was observed that temperature, carrier flow rates and particle diameter of packing material had profound effects on the conversion of glycerol as well as product distribution. Composition of product gas ranged between syn gas 70-93 mol%, CH(4) 3-15 mol% and C(2)H(4) 2-12 mol% and heating value ranged from 13 to 22 MJ/m(3). This study indicates that the bio-glycerol has potential in making syn gas and medium heating value gases. PMID:17951053

Valliyappan, T; Bakhshi, N N; Dalai, A K

2008-07-01

320

International Conference on Natural Health Products: “Promotion and Development of Botanicals with International Coordination: Exploring Quality, Safety, Efficacy, and Regulations”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Conference “Promotion and Development of Botanicals With International Coordination: Exploring Quality, Safety, Efficacy, and Regulations” was organized by the School of Natural Product Studies, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India. This article presents the background, objectives, and highlights of the presentations of different plenary, oral, and poster sessions. The conference was supported by the Drug Information Association of the United

Pulok K. Mukherjee

2005-01-01

321

A product of “his” time? Exploring the construct of the ideal manager in the Cold War era  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the idea that the ideal manager is a social construct that is a product of the context within which it exists. The context chosen to illustrate this idea is that of the first two decades of the Cold War (1945-1965) in the USA. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The methodology used is an

Patricia Genoe McLaren; Albert J. Mills

2008-01-01

322

Greenhouse gas mitigation in animal production: towards an integrated life cycle sustainability assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The animal food chain contributes significantly to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). We explored studies that addressed options to mitigate GHG emissions in the animal production chain and concluded that most studies focused on production systems in developed countries and on a single GHG. They did not account for the complex interrelated effects on other GHGs or their relation with

IJM de Boer; C. Cederberg; S. Eady; S. Gollnow; T. Kristensen; M. Macleod; M. Meul; T. Nemecek; L. T. Phong; G. Thoma; HMG van der Werf; A. G. Williams; M. A. Zonderland-Thomassen

2011-01-01

323

Exploring states of matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will simultate the 3 states of matter; followed by the online quiz. 1. Explore the solids animation. ice 2. Explore the water animation. water animation 3. Explore the gas animation. gas animation 4. Explore comparing the 3 states of matter. compare 3 state Take the quiz. quiz ...

Mrs. Connerley

2010-10-26

324

Production of natural gas from methane hydrate by a constant downhole pressure well  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas production from the dissociation of methane hydrate in a confined reservoir by a depressurizing downhole well was studied. The case that the well pressure was kept constant was treated, and two different linearization schemes in an axisymmetric configuration were used in the analysis. For different fixed well pressures and reservoir temperatures, approximate self similar solutions were obtained. Distributions of temperature, pressure and gas velocity field across the reservoir were evaluated. The distance of the decomposition front from the well and the natural gas production rate as functions of time were also computed. Time evolutions of the resulting profiles were presented in graphical forms, and their differences with the constant well output results were studied. It was shown that the gas production rate was a sensitive function of well pressure and reservoir temperature. The sensitivity of the results to the linearization scheme used was also studied.

Ahmadi, G. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY); Ji, C. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY); Smith, D.H.

2007-07-01

325

Production of sulfur from sulfur dioxide obtained from flue gas  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a regenerable process for recovery of elemental sulfur from a gas containing sulfur dioxide comprising the steps of: contacting the gas with an aqueous, alkaline reaction medium containing sodium sulfite in concentration sufficient so that a slurry containing solid sodium sulfide is formed to react sulfur dioxide with sodium sulfite to form a solution containing dissolved sodium pyrosulfite and sodium sulfite; separating sulfur dioxide from the solution produced to leave a residual mixture containing water, sodium sulfite and a sodium pyrosulfite, the amount of sulfur dioxide separated being equal to about one-third the amount of sulfur dioxide which reacted with sodium sulfite; adding, in substantial absence of air, sufficient water and sodium bicarbonate to the residual mixture to react with the dissolved sodium pyrsulfide and form a slurry of solid sodium sulfite suspended in the resulting aqueous, alkaline reaction medium and gaseous carbon dioxide; separating the gaseous carbon dioxide; separating the solid sodium sulfite from the aqueous alkaline reaction medium and recycling the separated reaction medium; reducing the separated sodium sulfite to sodium sulfide; adding the sodium sulfide to an aqueous reaction medium containing sodium bicarbonate and, in the substantial absence of air, carbonating the resulting mixture with the gaseous carbon dioxide to form a slurry of solid particles of sodium bicarbonate dispersed in an aqueous reactor medium containing sodium bicarbonate, along with a gas composed primarily of hydrogen sulfide.

Miller, R.

1989-06-06

326

Geochemical Monitoring Of The Gas Hydrate Production By CO2/CH4 Exchange In The Ignik Sikumi Gas Hydrate Production Test Well, Alaska North Slope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrocarbon gases, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water were collected from production streams at the Ignik Sikumi gas hydrate production test well (TD, 791.6 m), drilled on the Alaska North Slope. The well was drilled to test the feasibility of producing methane by carbon dioxide injection that replaces methane in the solid gas hydrate. The Ignik Sikumi well penetrated a stratigraphically-bounded prospect within the Eileen gas hydrate accumulation. Regionally, the Eileen gas hydrate accumulation overlies the more deeply buried Prudhoe Bay, Milne Point, and Kuparuk River oil fields and is restricted to the up-dip portion of a series of nearshore deltaic sandstone reservoirs in the Sagavanirktok Formation. Hydrate-bearing sandstones penetrated by Ignik Sikumi well occur in three primary horizons; an upper zone, ("E" sand, 579.7 - 597.4 m) containing 17.7 meters of gas hydrate-bearing sands, a middle zone ("D" sand, 628.2 - 648.6 m) with 20.4 m of gas hydrate-bearing sands and a lower zone ("C" sand, 678.8 - 710.8 m), containing 32 m of gas hydrate-bearing sands with neutron porosity log-interpreted average gas hydrate saturations of 58, 76 and 81% respectively. A known volume mixture of 77% nitrogen and 23% carbon dioxide was injected into an isolated section of the upper part of the "C" sand to start the test. Production flow-back part of the test occurred in three stages each followed by a period of shut-in: (1) unassisted flowback; (2) pumping above native methane gas hydrate stability conditions; and (3) pumping below the native methane gas hydrate stability conditions. Methane production occurred immediately after commencing unassisted flowback. Methane concentration increased from 0 to 40% while nitrogen and carbon dioxide concentrations decreased to 48 and 12% respectively. Pumping above the hydrate stability phase boundary produced gas with a methane concentration climbing above 80% while the carbon dioxide and nitrogen concentrations fell to 2 and 18% respectively. Pumping below the gas hydrate stability phase boundary occurred in two periods with the composition of the produced gases continually increasing in methane reaching an excess of 96%, along with carbon dioxide decreasing to <1% and nitrogen to ~3%. The isotopic composition of all the gases was monitored. Methane carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions remained stable throughout the test, while the carbon dioxide carbon became isotopically heavier. Nitrogen isotopic composition remained stable or became slightly isotopically depleted at the later phase of the test. These results imply that the produced methane was not isotopically fractionated, whereas carbon dioxide was fractionated becoming isotopically heavier at the end of each production phase. In addition, water samples were analyzed during the production phase documenting an increase in salinity.

Lorenson, T. D.; Collett, T. S.; Ignik Sikumi, S.

2012-12-01

327

An air quality emission inventory of offshore operations for the exploration and production of petroleum by the Mexican oil industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An air quality screening study was performed to assess the impacts of emissions from the offshore operations of the oil and gas exploration and production by Mexican industry in the Campeche Sound, which includes the states of Tabasco and Campeche in southeast Mexico. The major goal of this study was the compilation of an emission inventory (EI) for elevated, boom and ground level flares, processes, internal combustion engines and fugitive emissions. This inventory is so far the most comprehensive emission register that has ever been developed for the Mexican petroleum industry in this area. The EI considered 174 offshore platforms, the compression station at Atasta, and the Maritime Ports at Dos Bocas and Cayo Arcas. The offshore facilities identified as potential emitters in the area were the following: (1) trans-shipment stations, (2) a maritime floating port terminal, (3) drilling platforms, (4) crude oil recovering platforms, (5) crude oil production platforms, (6) linking platforms, (7) water injection platforms, (8) pumping platforms, (9) shelter platforms, (10) telecommunication platforms, (11) crude oil measurement platforms, and (12) flaring platforms. Crude oil storage tanks, helicopters and marine ship tankers were also considered to have an EI accurate enough for air quality regulations and mesoscale modeling of atmospheric pollutants. Historical ambient data measure at two onshore petroleum facilities were analyzed to measure air quality impacts on nearby inhabited coastal areas, and a source-receptor relationship for flares at the Ixtoc marine complex was performed to investigate health-based standards for offshore workers. A preliminary air quality model simulation was performed to observe the transport and dispersion patterns of SO 2, which is the main pollutant emitted from the offshore platforms. The meteorological wind and temperature fields were generated with CALMET, a diagnostic meteorological model that used surface observations and upper air soundings from a 4-day field campaign conducted in February of 1999. The CALMET meteorological output and the generated EI drove the transport and dispersion model, CALPUFF. Model results were compared with SO 2 measurements taken from the monitoring network at Dos Bocas.

Villasenor, R.; Magdaleno, M.; Quintanar, A.; Gallardo, J. C.; López, M. T.; Jurado, R.; Miranda, A.; Aguilar, M.; Melgarejo, L. A.; Palmerín, E.; Vallejo, C. J.; Barchet, W. R.

328

Seismo-geological models of stratigraphic sequences and their application to oil and gas exploration in west Siberia  

SciTech Connect

In west Siberia, large structural prospects for oil exploration have been exhausted. Further discoveries are expected to be made in small to medium structural traps and in lithostratigraphic traps. Prospecting and exploration for hydrocarbons in lithostratigraphic traps is based on new seismo-geological models of hydrocarbon-bearing sequences. In middle Paleozoic rocks, small hydrocarbon accumulations have been found in structural highs; the reservoirs are composed of fractured vuggy carbonates. Seismostratigraphic criteria for prediction of such traps are uncertain. The Lower-Middle Jurassic sequence consists of continental and partially of marine clastic rocks. The sequence is believed to contain considerable hydrocarbon resources in lithostratigraphic traps in basal sandstones and in pinch-out zones of Lower Jurassic sandstones. In the upper part of the sequence, oil pools have been discovered in channel sandstone bodies. Two different areas of oil accumulations are found in the Callovian-Oxfordian sequence. The Bazhenov Formation bituminous shales of Volgian-Berriasian contain sporadically distributed fractured-porous reservoirs. Accumulations in these reservoirs are characterized by irregular oil saturation. The Neocomian sequence consists of rocks deposited on the shallow-water shelf and on the basinal slope. Seismo-geological data indicate that the sequence is prospective for discovery of hydrocarbons in lithostratigraphic traps. The clinoform consists of laterally prograding strata; most prospective are frontal and depocentral parts of the strata which contain sandstone reservoirs of medium to poor quality. Lithostratigraphic traps in the shelf sequence can be found in the marginal parts of the paleoshelf where regional pinch-out zones and sandstones lenses are common. The Aptian-Cenomanian sequence deposited under terrestrial and coastal conditions is dominantly gas prone. New hydrocarbon discoveries in this sequence are expected in structural traps.

Mkrtchyan, O.M. (Institute of Geology and Exploration of Combustible Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation))

1993-09-01

329

Volatile organic compound emissions from unconventional natural gas production: Source signatures and air quality impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing over the past two decades have allowed access to previously unrecoverable reservoirs of natural gas and led to an increase in natural gas production. Intensive unconventional natural gas extraction has led to concerns about impacts on air quality. Unconventional natural gas production has the potential to emit vast quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. Many VOCs can be toxic, can produce ground-level ozone or secondary organic aerosols, and can impact climate. This dissertation presents the results of experiments designed to validate VOC measurement techniques, to quantify VOC emission rates from natural gas sources, to identify source signatures specific to natural gas emissions, and to quantify the impacts of these emissions on potential ozone formation and human health. Measurement campaigns were conducted in two natural gas production regions: the Denver-Julesburg Basin in northeast Colorado and the Marcellus Shale region surrounding Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. An informal measurement intercomparison validated the canister sampling methodology used throughout this dissertation for the measurement of oxygenated VOCs. Mixing ratios of many VOCs measured during both campaigns were similar to or higher than those observed in polluted cities. Fluxes of natural gas-associated VOCs in Colorado ranged from 1.5-3 times industry estimates. Similar emission ratios relative to propane were observed for C2-C6 alkanes in both regions, and an isopentane:n-pentane ratio ?1 was identified as a unique tracer for natural gas emissions. Source apportionment estimates indicated that natural gas emissions were responsible for the majority of C2-C8 alkanes observed in each region, but accounted for a small proportion of alkenes and aromatic compounds. Natural gas emissions in both regions accounted for approximately 20% of hydroxyl radical reactivity, which could hinder federal ozone standard compliance in downwind cities. A health risk assessment showed no increase in cancer or chronic non-cancer risk at locations near natural gas wells in Pennsylvania, but the contribution of natural gas emissions to total risk was 3-6 times higher near wells. These results will assist policy makers, natural gas producers, and citizen stakeholders in crafting effective policies to control VOC emissions from natural gas production activities.

Swarthout, Robert F.

330

Products from pyrolysis of gas-phase propionaldehyde.  

PubMed

A hyperthermal nozzle was utilized to study the thermal decomposition of propionaldehyde, CH3CH2CHO, over a temperature range of 1073-1600 K. Products were identified with two detection methods: matrix-isolation Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and photoionization mass spectrometry. Evidence was observed for four reactions during the breakdown of propionaldehyde: ?-C-C bond scission yielding CH3CH2, CO, and H, an elimination reaction forming methylketene and H2, an isomerization pathway leading to propyne via the elimination of H2O, and a ?-C-C bond scission channel forming methyl radical and (•)CH2CHO. The products identified during this experiment were CO, HCO, CH3CH2, CH3CH?C?O, H2O, CH3C?CH, CH3, H2C?C?O, CH2CH2, CH3CH?CH2, HC?CH, CH2CCH, H2CO, C4H2, C4H4, and CH3CHO. The first eight products result from primary or bimolecular reactions involving propionaldehyde while the remaining products occur from reactions including the initial pyrolysis products. While the pyrolysis of propionaldehyde involves reactions similar to those observed for acetaldehyde and butyraldehyde in recent studies, there are a few unique products observed which highlight the need for further study of the pyrolysis mechanism. PMID:25526259

Warner, Brian J; Wright, Emily M; Foreman, Hannah E; Wellman, Courtney D; McCunn, Laura R

2015-01-01

331

Life cycle assessment of the conventional and solar thermal production of zinc and synthesis gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current industrial productions of zinc and synthesis gas are characterized by their high energy consumption and their concomitant environmental pollution. Emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) could be reduced substantially by combining both productions and by replacing fossil fuels with concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat. The extent of such a GHG mitigation has been quantified

Miriam Werder; Aldo Steinfeld

2000-01-01

332

Life Cycle Assessment of fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in Chinese pear production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was performed to analyze environmental consequences of different pear production chains in terms of fossil energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in China. The assessment identified hotspots that contributed significantly to the environmental impacts of pear production from the cradle to the point of sale. The results showed that GHG emissions and fossil energy

Yuexian Liu; Vibeke Langer; Henning Høgh-Jensen; Henrik Egelyng

2010-01-01

333

Growth of Forage Legumes and Grasses in Acidic Soil Amended with Flue Gas Desulfurization Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large amounts of flue gas desulfurization products (FGDs) are produced when SO2 emissions are trapped in the coal burning process for generation of electricity. FGDs are normally discarded instead of being reused, and reuse on soils could be important in overall management of these products. Glasshouse experiments were conducted to determine effects of various levels of three FGDs (a FGD

R. B. Clark; V. C. Baligar

2003-01-01

334

Potential restrictions for CO2 sequestration sites due to shale and tight gas production.  

PubMed

Carbon capture and geological sequestration is the only available technology that both allows continued use of fossil fuels in the power sector and reduces significantly the associated CO(2) emissions. Geological sequestration requires a deep permeable geological formation into which captured CO(2)can be injected, and an overlying impermeable formation, called a caprock, that keeps the buoyant CO(2) within the injection formation. Shale formations typically have very low permeability and are considered to be good caprock formations. Production of natural gas from shale and other tight formations involves fracturing the shale with the explicit objective to greatly increase the permeability of the shale. As such, shale gas production is in direct conflict with the use of shale formations as a caprock barrier to CO(2) migration. We have examined the locations in the United States where deep saline aquifers, suitable for CO(2) sequestration, exist, as well as the locations of gas production from shale and other tight formations. While estimated sequestration capacity for CO(2) sequestration in deep saline aquifers is large, up to 80% of that capacity has areal overlap with potential shale-gas production regions and, therefore, could be adversely affected by shale and tight gas production. Analysis of stationary sources of CO(2) shows a similar effect: about two-thirds of the total emissions from these sources are located within 20 miles of a deep saline aquifer, but shale and tight gas production could affect up to 85% of these sources. These analyses indicate that colocation of deep saline aquifers with shale and tight gas production could significantly affect the sequestration capacity for CCS operations. This suggests that a more comprehensive management strategy for subsurface resource utilization should be developed. PMID:22352312

Elliot, T R; Celia, M A

2012-04-01

335

UK Oil and Gas Collaborative Doctoral Training Centre (2014 start) Project Title: Are non-marine organic-rich shales suitable exploration targets?  

E-print Network

UK Oil and Gas Collaborative Doctoral Training Centre (2014 start) Project Title: Are non-marine organic-rich shales suitable exploration targets? (EARTH-15-SR2) Host institution: University of Oxford Supervisor 1: Stuart Robinson Supervisor 2: Steve Hesselbo (University of Exeter) Project description: Shales

Henderson, Gideon

336

Analysis of eastern Devonian gas shales production data. Final report, July 1984-May 1987  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the final results, conclusions, and recommendations from a study of well-test and production data from over 1600 Devonian Shale gas wells. The key accomplishment of the study was the development of a number of new analytical tools for well test and production data analysis including (1) an analytical production data analysis model, (2) an analytical well test analysis model, (3) an automatic history matching algorithm, (4) a set of production data anlysis type curves, and (5) the SUGARIII reservoir simulator. Although developed primarily for analyzing data from Devonian Shale gas wells, these tools are generally applicable to the analysis of well test and production data from a variety of reservoirs. From a systematic analysis of long-term production data, the permeability-thickness product was found to be the only reservoir property which can be accurately and uniquely determined from history-matching production data. Gas in place can also be determined provided that sufficient production data are available. Empirical equations were developed for predicting well performance from kh and GIP and from past production data when available.

Lancaster, D.E.; Lee, W.J.; Gatens, J.M.

1987-05-01

337

Hydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction of iron oxides in blast  

E-print Network

Hydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction 2012 Available online 18 June 2012 Keywords: Steam reforming Hydrogen and syngas production Coke oven (syngas) can be produced from steam reforming (SR) of coke oven gas (COG). When the reforming gas is used

Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

338

Analysis of Improved Government Geological Map Information for Mineral Exploration: Incorporating Efficiency, Productivity, Effectiveness, and Risk Considerations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This bulletin/professional paper focuses on the value of geoscientific information and knowledge, as provided in published government bedrock geological maps, to the mineral exploration sector. An economic model is developed that uses an attribute- ranking approach to convert geological maps into domains of mineral favourability. Information about known deposits in these (or analogous) favourability domains allow the calculation of exploration search statistics that provide input into measures of exploration efficiency, productivity, effectiveness, risk, and cost stemming from the use of the published geological maps. Two case studies, the Flin Flon Belt (Manitoba and Saskatchewan) and the south Baffin Island area (Nunavut), demonstrate that updated, finer resolution maps can be used to identify more exploration campaign options, and campaigns thats are more efficient, more effective, and less risky than old, coarser resolution maps when used as a guide for mineral exploration. The Flin Flon Belt study illustrates that an updated, coarser resolution bedrock map enables improved mineral exploration efficiency, productivity, and effectiveness by locating 60% more targets and supporting an exploration campaign that is 44% more efficient. Refining the map resolution provides an additional 17% reduction in search effort across all favourable domains and a 55% reduction in search effort in the most favourable domain. The south Baffin Island case study projects a 40% increase in expected targets and a 27% reduction in search effort when the updated, finer resolution map is used in lieu of the old, coarser resolution map. On southern Baffin Island, the economic value of the up dated map ranges from CAN$2.28 million to CAN$15.21 million, which can be compared to the CAN$1.86 million that it cost to produce the map (a multiplier effect of up to eight).

Bernknopf, R.L.; Wein, A.M.; St-Onge, M. R.; Lucas, S.B.

2007-01-01

339

Depressurization-induced gas production from Class 1 and Class 2hydrate deposits  

SciTech Connect

Class 1 hydrate deposits are characterized by aHy-drate-Bearing Layer (HBL) underlain by a two-phase zone involvingmobile gas. Such deposits are further divided to Class 1W (involvingwater and hydrate in the HBL) and Class 1G (involving gas and hydrate inthe HBL). In Class 2 deposits, a mobile water zone underlies the hydratezone. Methane is the main hydrate-forming gas in natural accumulations.Using TOUGH-FX/HYDRATE to study the depressurization-induced gasproduction from such deposits, we determine that large volumes of gascould be readily produced at high rates for long times using conventionaltechnology. Dissociation in Class 1W deposits proceeds in distinctstages, but is continuous in Class 1G deposits. Hydrates are shown tocontribute significantly to the production rate (up to 65 percent and 75percent in Class 1W and 1G, respectively) and to the cumulative volume ofproduced gas (up to 45 percent and 54 percent in Class 1W and 1G,respectively). Large volumes of hydrate-originating CH4 could be producedfrom Class 2 hydrates, but a relatively long lead time would be neededbefore gas production (which continuously increases over time) attains asubstantial level. The permeability of the confining boundaries plays asignificant role in gas production from Class 2 deposits. In general,long-term production is needed to realize the full potential of the verypromising Class 1 and Class 2 hydrate deposits.

Moridis, George J.; Kowalsky, Michael

2006-05-12

340

The Use of Horizontal Wells in Gas Production from Hydrate Accumulations  

SciTech Connect

The amounts of hydrocarbon gases trapped in natural hydrate accumulations are enormous, leading to a recent interest in the evaluation of their potential as an energy source. Earlier studies have demonstrated that large volumes of gas can be readily produced at high rates for long times from gas hydrate accumulations by means of depressurization-induced dissociation, using conventional technology and vertical wells. The results of this numerical study indicate that the use of horizontal wells does not confer any practical advantages to gas production from Class 1 deposits. This is because of the large disparity in permeabilities between the hydrate layer (HL) and the underlying free gas zone, leading to a hydrate dissociation that proceeds in a horizontally dominant direction and is uniform along the length of the reservoir. When horizontal wells are placed near the base of the HL in Class 2 deposits, the delay in the evolution of a significant gas production rate outweighs their advantages, which include higher rates and the prevention of flow obstruction problems that often hamper the performance of vertical wells. Conversely, placement of a horizontal well near to top of the HL can lead to dramatic increases in gas production from Class 2 and Class 3 deposits over the corresponding production from vertical wells.

Reagan, Matthew; Moridis, George J.; Reagan, Matthew T.; Zhang, Keni

2008-04-15

341

Production of Gas Bubbles in Reduced Gravity Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a wide variety of applications such as waste water treatment, biological reactors, gas-liquid reactors, blood oxygenation, purification of liquids, etc., it is necessary to produce small bubbles in liquids. Since gravity plays an essential role in currently available techniques, the adaptation of these applications to space requires the development of new tools. Under normal gravity, bubbles are typically generated by forcing gas through an orifice in a liquid. When a growing bubble becomes large enough, the buoyancy dominates the surface tension force causing it to detach from the orifice. In space, the process is quite different and the bubble may remain attached to the orifice indefinitely. The most practical approach to simulating gravity seems to be imposing an ambient flow to force bubbles out of the orifice. In this paper, we are interested in the effect of an imposed flow in 0 and 1 g. Specifically, we investigate the process of bubble formation subject to a parallel and a cross flow. In the case of parallel flow, we have a hypodermic needle in a tube from which bubbles can be produced. On the other hand, the cross flow condition is established by forcing bubbles through an orifice on a wall in a shear flow. The first series of experiments have been performed under normal gravity conditions and the working fluid was water. A high quality microgravity facility has been used for the second type and silicone oil is used as the host liquid.

Oguz, Hasan N.; Takagi, Shu; Misawa, Masaki

1996-01-01

342

Production of hydrogen and ammonia synthesis gas by pressure swing adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process was developed by Air Products and Chemicals which produces two pure products from a multicomponent feed gas with high recoveries of both product components. For example, this process (hereafter called Process A) can simultaneously produce a stream of 99.999 + mol% Hâ with a recovery of 87.0% and a stream of 99.4 mol% Coâ

Sircar

2009-01-01

343

Flue Gas Desulfurization By-products as Lime and Sulfur Sources for Alfalfa and Soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are created when coal is burned and SO2 is removed from the flue gases. These FGD by-products are often alkaline and contain many nutrients including S. Agricultural application of FGD by-products is encouraged but little information is available related to plant responses and environmental impacts concerning such use. Agricultural lime (ag-lime) and several types of

Liming Chen; Warren A. Dick; Sid Nelson Jr

344

Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB)  

E-print Network

production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB) to cool process syngas. The gas entersCold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Overview Air Products, operates hydrogen walls. Air Products tasked our team to design an insert to place in the tubes of the WHB to increase

Demirel, Melik C.

345

SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT IN THE MID-CONTINENT  

SciTech Connect

Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: Continued coordinating the final selection of candidates and field implementation with Oneok. Oneok plans on performing the operations early in 2003.

Scott Reeves

2003-04-01

346

SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT IN THE MID-CONTINENT  

SciTech Connect

Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: (1) Began preparing final project report, less the field implementation component. (2) Coordinated the final selection of candidates and field implementation with Oneok.

Scott Reeves

2003-03-01

347

SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT IN THE MID-CONTINENT  

SciTech Connect

Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: (1) Continued coordinating the final selection of candidates and field implementation with Oneok. Oneok plans on performing the operations early in 2003.

Scott Reeves

2003-03-01

348

SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT IN THE MID-CONTINENT  

SciTech Connect

Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: (1) The contract was signed on August 20, 2000. Little work has been performed other than preliminary planning to get the project underway.

Scott Reeves

2003-03-01

349

Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production in geologic media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report deals with an investigation on the potential strata movements and subsidence associated with hydrate production. The investigation involved the determination of mechanical properties experimentally and numerical modeling of ground movements resulting from reservoir compaction. The objective was to investigate the influence of reservoir compaction on ground movements based the theories of continuum mechanics and principles of geomechanics. Here,

H. J. Siriwardane; W. S. Tsai

1989-01-01

350

METHANOL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS AND NATURAL GAS AS TRANSPORTATION FUEL  

EPA Science Inventory

Two processes are examined for production of methanol. They are assessed against the essential requirements of a future alternative fuel for road transport: that it (i) is producible in amounts comparable to the 19 EJ of motor fuel annually consumed in the U.S., (ii) minimizes em...

351

Impacts of Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Production on Regional Air Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural gas is a clean burning alternative to other fossil fuels, producing lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions during combustion. Gas deposits located within shale rock or tight sand formations are difficult to access using conventional drilling techniques. However, horizontal drilling coupled with hydraulic fracturing is now widely used to enhance natural gas extraction. Potential environmental impacts of these practices are currently being assessed because of the rapid expansion of natural gas production in the U.S. Natural gas production has contributed to the deterioration of air quality in several regions, such as in Wyoming and Utah, that were near or downwind of natural gas basins. We conducted a field campaign in southwestern Pennsylvania on 16-18 June 2012 to investigate the impact of gas production operations in the Marcellus Shale on regional air quality. A total of 235 whole air samples were collected in 2-liter electropolished stainless- steel canisters throughout southwestern Pennsylvania in a regular grid pattern that covered an area of approximately 8500 square km. Day and night samples were collected at each grid point and additional samples were collected near active wells, flaring wells, fluid retention reservoirs, transmission pipelines, and a processing plant to assess the influence of different stages of the gas production operation on emissions. The samples were analyzed at Appalachian State University for methane (CH4), CO2, C2-C10 nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), C1-C2 halocarbons, C1-C5 alkyl nitrates and selected reduced sulfur compounds. In-situ measurements of ozone (O3), CH4, CO2, nitric oxide (NO), total reactive nitrogen (NOy), formaldehyde (HCHO), and a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were carried out at an upwind site and a site near active gas wells using a mobile lab. Emissions associated with gas production were observed throughout the study region. Elevated mixing ratios of CH4 and CO2 were observed in the southwest and northeast portions of the study area indicating multiple emission sources. We also present comparisons of VOC fingerprints observed in the Marcellus Shale to our previous observations of natural gas emissions from the Denver-Julesburg Basin in northeast Colorado to identify tracers for these different natural gas sources.

Swarthout, R.; Russo, R. S.; Zhou, Y.; Mitchell, B.; Miller, B.; Lipsky, E. M.; Sive, B. C.

2012-12-01

352

Fission product range effects on HEU fissile gas monitoring for UF{sub 6} gas  

SciTech Connect

The amount of {sup 235}U in UF{sub 6} flowing in a pipe can be monitored by counting gamma rays emitted from fission fragments carried along by the flowing gas. Neutron sources are mounted in an annular sleeve that is filled with moderator material and surrounds the pipe. This provides a source of thermal neutrons to produce the fission fragments. Those fragments that remain in the gas stream following fission are carried past a gamma detector. A typical fragment will be quite unstable, giving up energy as it decays to a more stable isotope with a significant amount of this energy being emitted in the form of gamma rays. A given fragment can emit several gamma rays over its lifetime. The gamma ray emission activity level of a distribution of fission fragments decreases with time. The monitoring system software uses models of these processes to interpret the gamma radiation counting data measured by the gamma detectors.

Munro, J.K. Jr.; Valentine, T.E.; Perez, R.B. [and others

1997-09-01

353

Steady-state model for estimating gas production from underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

A pseudo-one-dimensional channel model has been developed to estimate gas production from underground coal gasification. The model incorporates a zero-dimensional steady-state cavity growth submodel and models mass transfer from the bulk gas to the coal wall using a correlation for natural convection. Simulations with the model reveal that the gas calorific value is sensitive to coal reactivity and the exposed reactive surface area per unit volume in the channel. A comparison of model results with several small-scale field trials conducted at Centralia in the U.S.A. show that the model can make good predictions of the gas production and composition under a range of different operating conditions, including operation with air and steam/oxygen mixtures. Further work is required to determine whether the model formulation is also suitable for simulating large-scale underground coal gasification field trials.

Greg Perkins; Veena Sahajwalla [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science and Engineering

2008-11-15

354

Biohydrogen gas production from food processing and domestic wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food processing industry produces highly concentrated, carbohydrate-rich wastewaters, but their potential for biological hydrogen production has not been extensively studied. Wastewaters were obtained from four different food-processing industries that had chemical oxygen demands of 9g\\/L (apple processing), 21g\\/L (potato processing), and 0.6 and 20g\\/L (confectioners A and B). Biogas produced from all four food processing wastewaters consistently contained 60%

Steven W. Van Ginkel; Sang-Eun Oh; Bruce E. Logan

2005-01-01

355

Gamma radiation effect on gas production in anion exchange resins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation-induced decomposition of Amberlite IRA400 anion exchange resin in hydroxide form by gamma radiolysis has been studied at various doses in different atmospheres (anaerobic, anaerobic with liquid water, and aerobic). The effect of these parameters on the degradation of ion exchange resins is rarely investigated in the literature. We focused on the radiolysis gases produced by resin degradation. When the resin was irradiated under anaerobic conditions with liquid water, the liquid phase over the resin was also analyzed to identify any possible water-soluble products released by degradation of the resin. The main products released are trimethylamine (TMA), molecular hydrogen (H2g) and carbon dioxide (CO2g). TMA and H2g are produced in all the irradiation atmospheres. However, TMA was in gaseous form under anaerobic and aerobic conditions and in aqueous form in presence of liquid water. In the latter conditions, TMAaq was associated with aqueous dimethylamine (DMAaq), monomethylamine (MMAaq) and ammonia (NH). CO2g is formed in the presence of oxygen due to oxidation of organic compounds present in the system, in particular the degradation products such as TMAg.

Traboulsi, A.; Labed, V.; Dauvois, V.; Dupuy, N.; Rebufa, C.

2013-10-01

356

The elimination of liquid loading problems in low productivity gas wells  

E-print Network

. W. Jennings Liquid buildup in the wellbore has long been recognized as a detriment to flow from gas wells. Several methods of artificial lift have been shown to be effective in the removal of liquids from the wellbore. The more commonly used... methods include rod pumping, gas lift, plunger lift, foaming agents, smaller diameter production tubing, swabbing, subsurface liquid diverter system, and alternate flow/shut-in periods, This thesis will discuss the advantages, disadvantages...

Neves, Toby Roy

2012-06-07

357

Production of hydrogen-rich gas by plasma reforming of dimethyl ether  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of hydrogen-rich gas by plasma reforming of dimethyl ether (DME) was conducted in a self-made three-cavity reformer at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. The effects of reformer structure parameters, electrode material, heat transfer characteristics, and operation parameters on the gas composition and hydrogen yield were investigated. The results indicated that the yield of hydrogen increases with the increase

Kui-feng MA; Xing-hu LI

2010-01-01

358

Cryogenic gas target system for intense RI beam productions in nuclear astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cryogenic gas target system was newly developed to produce intense RI beams at the low-energy in-flight radio-isotope beam separator (CRIB) of the University of Tokyo. The main features of the cryogenic gas target system are the direct cooling of the target cell by a liquid N2 finger and the circulation of the target gas that goes through the liquid N2 tank. Hydrogen gas was cooled down to 85-90 K by liquid nitrogen and used as a secondary beam production target which has a thickness of 2.3 mg/cm2 at the gas pressure of 760 Torr. Intense RI beams, such as a 7Be beam of 2×108 particles per second, were successfully produced using the target.

Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Kurihara, Y.; Amadio, G.; Fujikawa, H.; Binh, D. N.; He, J. J.; Kim, A.; Kubono, S.

2008-05-01

359

SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT IN THE MID-CONTINENT  

SciTech Connect

Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: (1) Continued to solicit industry research partners to provide test sites, including Patina Oil and Gas and EOG Resources, each of whom have previously worked with ARI on a similar projects funded by the Gas Technology Institute. Both declined to participate due to other priorities at the present time, which is becoming a common theme. We are continuing to solicit other operators for a second site. (2) Traveled to Tulsa, Oklahoma and collected data from Oneok for the Mocane-Laverne field test site. Well files on approximately 80 wells were reviewed copied. Currently, we are in the process of inputting the information into a production database. (3) During the next quarter, we hope to complete the Oneok field study and acquire an industry partner for the second test site.

Scott Reeves

2003-03-01

360

Determination of mustard gas hydrolysis products thiodiglycol and thiodiglycol sulfoxide by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after trifluoroacetylation.  

PubMed

A method for detecting mustard gas degradation products thiodiglycol (TDG) and thiodiglycol sulfoxide (TDGO) in water and sediment samples using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) after derivatization with 1-(trifluoroacetyl)imidazole (TFAI) was described. Selected reaction monitoring mode (SRM) of tandem mass spectrometry was developed for analysis of TDG and TDGO derivatives while analysis by gas chromatography-atomic emission detector (GC-AED) was performed using the 181 nm sulfur canal. TFAI derivatization conditions were optimized and the method validated. Two derivatization agents were compared, TFAI and N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), where derivatization using TFAI occurred quicker and under milder conditions than using BSTFA. Water samples containing TDG and TDGO were evaporated to dryness under nitrogen, dissolved in organic solvent followed by reaction with TFAI. The limit of detection (LOD) for TDG and TDGO were 0.01 and 5 ng/mL, respectively. The limit of detection for TDG was decreased by two orders of magnitude if TFAI is used for derivatization rather than silyl derivatizing agents (e.g., BSTFA). TFAI has three major advantages in comparison to BSTFA, the first is much higher sensitvity, the second is a very clean background of chromatograms, and the last one is very mild conditions of derivatization. Moreover, by-products are not formed during derivatization of TDGO by TFAI in comparison to derivatization by silylating agents. PMID:24831983

Popiel, Stanis?aw; Nawa?a, Jakub; Dziedzic, Daniel; Söderström, Martin; Vanninen, Paula

2014-06-17

361

Unfinished business in the regulation of shale gas production in the United States.  

PubMed

With increased drilling for natural gas, toxic chemicals used to fracture wells have been introduced into the environment accompanied by allegations of injuries. This article evaluates laws and regulations governing shale gas production to disclose ideas for offering further protection to people and the environment. The aim of the study is to offer state governments ideas for addressing contractual obligations of drilling operators, discerning health risks, disclosing toxic chemicals, and reporting sufficient information to detect problems and enforce regulations. The discussion suggests opportunities for state regulators to become more supportive of public health through greater oversight of shale gas extraction. PMID:24476976

Centner, Terence J; O'Connell, Laura Kathryn

2014-04-01

362

Process Design, Simulation and Integration of Dimethyl Ether (DME) Production from Shale Gas by Direct and Indirect Methods  

E-print Network

of sustainable energy. Over the last decade, the U.S has witnessed substantial growth in shale gas production. Consequently, shale gas has become a competitive feedstock for usage as energy and production of chemicals and petrochemicals. A valuable product which...

Karagoz, Secgin

2014-08-11

363

Gas production and transport during bench-scale electrical resistance heating of water and trichloroethene.  

PubMed

The effective remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones using in situ thermal treatment requires successful capture of gas that is produced. Replicate electrical resistance heating experiments were performed in a thin bench-scale apparatus, where water was boiled and pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) trichloroethene (TCE) and water were co-boiled in unconsolidated silica sand. Quantitative light transmission visualization was used to assess gas production and transport mechanisms. In the water boiling experiments, nucleation, growth and coalescence of the gas phase into connected channels were observed at critical gas saturations of Sgc=0.233±0.017, which allowed for continuous gas transport out of the sand. In experiments containing a colder region above a target heated zone, condensation prevented the formation of steam channels and discrete gas clusters that mobilized into colder regions were trapped soon after discontinuous transport began. In the TCE-water experiments, co-boiling at immiscible fluid interfaces resulted in discontinuous gas transport above the DNAPL pool. Redistribution of DNAPL was also observed above the pool and at the edge of the vapor front that propagated upwards through colder regions. These results suggest that the subsurface should be heated to water boiling temperatures to facilitate gas transport from specific locations of DNAPL to extraction points and reduce the potential for DNAPL redistribution. Decreases in electric current were observed at the onset of gas phase production, which suggests that coupled electrical current and temperature measurements may provide a reliable metric to assess gas phase development. PMID:25084057

Hegele, P R; Mumford, K G

2014-09-01

364

Laboratory investigation of Hg release from flue gas desulfurization products.  

PubMed

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a process applied to remove acid deposition precursors from the coal combustion air stream. This process also removes mercury (Hg) resulting in accumulation of this element in FGD produced solids. This project investigated Hg release from FGD materials to the air and water. Hg concentrations in the synthetic leaching precipitation procedure extracts, designed to simulate rainwater pH conditions, were in general <10 ng L(-1). Unlike coal fly ash, which has been found to adsorb Hg from the air, FGD materials were found to release Hg to the air over time with the addition of water a dominant environmental factor promoting release. The chemistry of the atmosphere to which the FGD materials were exposed (i.e., air Hg concentration and presence of oxidants), as well as that of the material (i.e., salts removed), was found to influence the magnitude of emissions. Although this work showed a component of the Hg captured by the FGD process could be released to the air under laboratory conditions, the potential for release under disposal and beneficial use conditions needs to be determined. PMID:20420364

Gustin, Mae; Ladwig, Ken

2010-05-15

365

Gas and Particle Oxidation Products from Ozone Aging of Airborne Diesel Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diesel exhaust emissions contain fine particulate matter (PM2.5) composed of carbon-based particles with adsorbed compounds, including water soluble and insoluble substances. Many nonpolar organic compounds associated with diesel particulate matter (DPM) are known to be mutagenic and carcinogenic. In the presence of ozone, these DPM compounds can be transformed into polar species that are more toxic and poorly characterized. Understanding the gas and particle reaction products from DPM aging in the presence of tropospheric ozone is important for air quality, climate change and aerosol health effects. Aging experiments were conducted in a flow reactor to identify gas and particle-phase reaction products of DPM exposed to ambient levels of ozone. Diesel bus exhaust particles were collected on filters and then exposed to 0.1 - 0.5 ppm O3 for 0 to 72 h. Gaseous polar organic products formed during the aging experiments were collected on Tenax TA adsorbent coated with PFBHA derivatization agent. A thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) method was developed to determine gas-phase and particle-phase organic compounds. PFBHA and BSTFA derivatization agents converted polar species into less polar analogues prior to analysis. Preliminary results indicate that DPM hydrocarbons react with O3 to form many gas-phase polar products containing C=O (carbonyl) and COOH (carboxy) functional groups. Particle-phase PAH and alkane concentrations decreased significantly depending on time of exposure.

Holmen, B. A.; Chen, Z.

2005-12-01

366

CITE Suitability : an exploration of product evaluation methodologies for developing world technologies  

E-print Network

There are a multitude of technological products that have been developed to improve the lives of bottom of pyramid consumers in the developing world. Unfortunately, many of these products fail to have the desired impact ...

Pombrol, Christopher Anthony

2014-01-01

367

Gas production in the radiolysis of poly(vinyl chloride).  

PubMed

The yields of H2 and Cl- were determined in the radiolysis of deaerated, aerated, and water mixtures of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) powders with gamma-rays and 5 MeV He ions. H2 yields with gamma-rays are low at about 0.25 molecule/100 eV and they double with He ion radiolysis indicating a second order formation process. The production of H2 in the gamma-radiolysis of water-PVC mixtures is much greater than expected from the weight fraction of the components and is due to acidification of the aqueous phase by the evolution of HCl from the polymer. Cl- yields in the gamma-radiolysis of PVC with number average weights of 22,000, 47,000, and 99,000 Daltons are 19.6, 33.8, and 32.5 atoms/100 eV. Cl- continuously evolves from the polymer for days following radiolysis. The extremely large yields suggest that a chain process involving radicals stabilized on the polymeric chain are responsible. Reflectance UV/vis and infrared spectroscopy show subtle changes in the PVC with radiolysis while UV/vis absorption spectra clearly indicate the formation of polyenes with 1 to 11 units. Cl- formation is probably initiated by Cl radical production followed by an electron rearrangement mechanism along the PVC chain to produce more Cl- and polyenes. PMID:18335913

LaVerne, Jay A; Carrasco-Flores, Eduardo A; Araos, M S; Pimblott, Simon M

2008-04-17

368

Amine-degradation products play no part in corrosion at gas-sweetening plants  

SciTech Connect

Gas-sweetening units using diethanolamine (DEA) and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) are occasionally subject to corrosion. Discounting the basic degradation products of DEA as the cause, researchers (1) confirmed the presence of formic, oxalic, and acetic acids in used amine solutions, (2) defined oxygen's role in forming these carboxylic acids, and (3) demonstrated that the acid contents of different units are about the same order of magnitude for both DEA and MDEA. In most cases, oxygen can be easily excluded from gas-treating units, especially in storage tanks, thereby limiting the formation of acid products.

Blanc, C.; Grall, M.; Demarais, G.

1982-11-15

369

The Texas Railroad Commission oil and gas information system  

SciTech Connect

The Texas Railroad Commission (RRC) is the primary regulator of oil and gas exploration, drilling, production, and transportation in the state. The Oil and Gas Division of the RRC receives, analyses, and makes available a variety of maps and reports, including data on exploration, drilling, production, test results, well logs, and abandonment.

Barnett, A.A.; Russell, J.E.; Startzman, R.A.

1995-12-31

370

Integrated Solar System Exploration Education and Public Outreach: Theme, Products and Activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Solar System Exploration Program is entering an unprecedented period of exploration and discovery. Its goal is to understand the origin and evolution of the solar system and life within it. SSE missions are operating or in development to study the far reaches of our solar system and beyond. These missions proceed in sequence for each body from reconnaissance flybys through orbiters and landers or rovers to sample returns. SSE research programs develop new instruments, analyze mission data or returned samples, and provide experimental or theoretical models to aid in interpretation.

Lowes, Leslie; Lindstrom, Marilyn; Stockman, Stephanie; Scalice, Daniela; Allen, Jaclyn; Tobola, Kay; Klug, Sheri; Harmon, Art

2004-01-01

371

Zero-power autonomous buoyancy system controlled by microbial gas production.  

PubMed

A zero-power ballast control system that could be used to float and submerge a device solely using a gas source was built and tested. This system could be used to convey sensors, data loggers, and communication devices necessary for water quality monitoring and other applications by periodically maneuvering up and down a water column. Operational parameters for the system such as duration of the submerged and buoyant states can be varied according to its design. The gas source can be of any origin, e.g., compressed air, underwater gas vent, gas produced by microbes, etc. The zero-power ballast system was initially tested using a gas pump and further tested using gas produced by Clostridium acetobutylicum. Using microbial gas production as the only source of gas and no electrical power during operation, the system successfully floated and submerged periodically with a period of 30 min for at least 24 h. Together with microbial fuel cells, this system opens up possibilities for underwater monitoring systems that could function indefinitely. PMID:21639539

Wu, Peter K; Fitzgerald, Lisa A; Biffinger, Justin C; Spargo, Barry J; Houston, Brian H; Bucaro, Joseph A; Ringeisen, Bradley R

2011-05-01

372

Disaggregating reserve-to-production ratios: An algorithm for United States oil and gas reserve development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reserve-to-production ratios for oil and gas development are utilized by oil and gas producing states to monitor oil and gas reserve and production dynamics. These ratios are used to determine production levels for the manipulation of oil and gas prices while maintaining adequate reserves for future development. These aggregate reserve-to-production ratios do not provide information concerning development cost and the best time necessary to develop newly discovered reserves. Oil and gas reserves are a semi-finished inventory because development of the reserves must take place in order to implement production. These reserves are considered semi-finished in that they are not counted unless it is economically profitable to produce them. The development of these reserves is encouraged by profit maximization economic variables which must consider the legal, political, and geological aspects of a project. This development is comprised of a myriad of incremental operational decisions, each of which influences profit maximization. The primary purpose of this study was to provide a model for characterizing a single product multi-period inventory/production optimization problem from an unconstrained quantity of raw material which was produced and stored as inventory reserve. This optimization was determined by evaluating dynamic changes in new additions to reserves and the subsequent depletion of these reserves with the maximization of production. A secondary purpose was to determine an equation for exponential depletion of proved reserves which presented a more comprehensive representation of reserve-to-production ratio values than an inadequate and frequently used aggregate historical method. The final purpose of this study was to determine the most accurate delay time for a proved reserve to achieve maximum production. This calculated time provided a measure of the discounted cost and calculation of net present value for developing new reserves. This study concluded that the theoretical model developed by this research may be used to provide a predictive equation for each major oil and gas state so that a net present value to undiscounted net cash flow ratio might be calculated in order to establish an investment signal for profit maximizers. This equation inferred how production decisions were influenced by exogenous factors, such as price, and how policies performed which lead to recommendations regarding effective policies and prudent planning.

Williams, Charles William

373

The effect of floating vegetation on denitrification and greenhouse gas production in wetland mesocosms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic intensification of nitrogen (N) loading to aquatic ecosystems is widespread and can lead to the degradation of these systems. Wetlands are important sites for N removal via denitrification, the microbially mediated reduction of reactive nitrate to inert N2 gas, but they can also produce high levels of greenhouse gases. Floating plants play an important role in encouraging denitrification, since they create low oxygen conditions that may favor denitrification. We investigated whether wetland sediments with floating plant cover had higher denitrification and greenhouse gas production rates than wetland sediments without floating plants. Replicate flow-through mesocosms with wetland sediment and water were constructed in a growth chamber to mimic the wetland where the sediment and water were collected. Mesocosm treatments were covered with floating vegetation (duckweed), an opaque tarp, or no cover to determine how cover type affects denitrification and greenhouse gas production and whether biotic or abiotic factors are likely responsible for observed differences. Denitrification and greenhouse gas production rates were calculated by measuring excess N2 gas, methane, and nitrous oxide concentrations in the water column and measuring the gas exchange rates between the water column and the atmosphere. Gas exchange rates were measured using an inert volatile tracer added to the water column and accumulation of gas in the mesocosm headspace. Additional mesocosm experiments were performed to determine how duckweed-dominated wetland systems respond to nitrogen loading and which mechanism for lowering dissolved oxygen concentrations is important in affecting denitrification under floating vegetation. Mesocosms with floating vegetation had lower dissolved oxygen than no cover or tarp-covered mesocosms, which is consistent with field and literature observations. Water flowing out of the mesocosms had statistically lower total nitrogen and nitrate concentrations compared to inflow water, and calculated denitrification was statistically higher in the floating vegetation treatments compared to the other treatments. Greenhouse gas production, measured in CO2 equivalents for N2O and CH4, was highly variable and not statistically different between the treatments. Denitrification in the tarp covered mesocosms was similar to the no-cover treatment, indicating that biotic effects in the floating vegetation treatment may be important in lowering water column oxygen levels and increasing denitrification. Understanding how floating vegetation affects total nitrogen loss, denitrification, and greenhouse gas production can be used to weigh ecological costs and benefits of different vegetation types, especially in constructed and managed wetlands.

Jacobs, A. E.; Harrison, J. A.

2012-12-01

374

Sensitivity Analysis of Gas Production from Class 2 and Class 3 Hydrate Deposits  

SciTech Connect

Gas hydrates are solid crystalline compounds in which gas molecules are lodged within the lattices of an ice-like crystalline solid. The vast quantities of hydrocarbon gases trapped in hydrate formations in the permafrost and in deep ocean sediments may constitute a new and promising energy source. Class 2 hydrate deposits are characterized by a Hydrate-Bearing Layer (HBL) that is underlain by a saturated zone of mobile water. Class 3 hydrate deposits are characterized by an isolated Hydrate-Bearing Layer (HBL) that is not in contact with any hydrate-free zone of mobile fluids. Both classes of deposits have been shown to be good candidates for exploitation in earlier studies of gas production via vertical well designs - in this study we extend the analysis to include systems with varying porosity, anisotropy, well spacing, and the presence of permeable boundaries. For Class 2 deposits, the results show that production rate and efficiency depend strongly on formation porosity, have a mild dependence on formation anisotropy, and that tighter well spacing produces gas at higher rates over shorter time periods. For Class 3 deposits, production rates and efficiency also depend significantly on formation porosity, are impacted negatively by anisotropy, and production rates may be larger, over longer times, for well configurations that use a greater well spacing. Finally, we performed preliminary calculations to assess a worst-case scenario for permeable system boundaries, and found that the efficiency of depressurization-based production strategies are compromised by migration of fluids from outside the system.

Reagan, Matthew; Moridis, George; Zhang, Keni

2008-05-01

375

Hydrogen-Rich Gas Production by Cogasification of Coal and Biomass in an Intermittent Fluidized Bed  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the experimental results of cogasification of coal and biomass in an intermittent fluidized bed reactor, aiming to investigate the influences of operation parameters such as gasification temperature (T), steam to biomass mass ratio (SBMR), and biomass to coal mass ratio (BCMR) on hydrogen-rich (H2-rich) gas production. The results show that H2-rich gas free of N2 dilution is produced and the H2 yield is in the range of 18.25~68.13?g/kg. The increases of T, SBMR, and BCMR are all favorable for promoting the H2 production. Higher temperature contributes to higher CO and H2 contents, as well as H2 yield. The BCMR has a weak influence on gas composition, but the yield and content of H2 increase with BCMR, reaching a peak at the BCMR of 4. The H2 content and yield in the product gas increase with SBMR, whilst the content of CO increases first and then decreases correspondingly. At a typical case, the relative linear sensitivity coefficients of H2 production efficiency to T, SBMR, and BCMR were calculated. The results reveal that the order of the influence of the operation parameters on H2 production efficiency is T > SBMR > BCMR. PMID:24174911

Wang, Li-Qun; Chen, Zhao-Sheng

2013-01-01

376

Estimating the full costs of oil and gas production  

SciTech Connect

Methods for calculating the full-cycle, economic costs of new oil production are compared and tested for accuracy. The method pioneered by M. A. Adelman is generalized and shown to be accurate over a wide range of conditions. The estimated {open_quotes}costs{close_quotes} are most accurate where reliable data on reserves are available, but useful results are still obtainable as long as the reservoir decline rates can be approximately determined. Even where data on expenditures in the given area are not published, synthetic costs can still be estimated by extrapolation as long as the drilling data are believed to be reliable. The methodology is illustrated for the case of the PDO concessions in Oman.

Stauffer, T.R.

1995-12-31

377

[Dynamic variation of landfill gas production under different landfill treatment].  

PubMed

Based on the landfill principles, large scale installations of anaerobic and semi-aerobic landfills were established, with the concentrations of CH4, O2 and CO2 detected regularly. The results showed that the average CH4 concentration in semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfill installations was 7%-13% and 35%-50%, respectively, indicating the better effect of semi-aerobic landfill in reducing CH4 production. The CH4 and O2 concentrations in the two landfill installations all presented obvious spatial layer effect, i.e., under-layer > middle layer > upper layer for CH4, while upper layer > middle level > under-layer for O2. PMID:16515198

Liu, Yuqiang; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yufei; Dong, Lu

2005-12-01

378

A New Type Curve Analysis for Shale Gas/Oil Reservoir Production Performance with Dual Porosity Linear System.  

E-print Network

??With increase of interest in exploiting shale gas/oil reservoirs with multiple stage fractured horizontal wells, complexity of production analysis and reservoir description have also increased.… (more)

Abdulal, Haider Jaffar

2012-01-01

379

Exploring Ovulation & Pregnancy Using Over-the-Counter Products: A Novel Guided Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this guided inquiry, students explore the complex hormonal regulation of the female reproductive cycle using inexpensive ovulation and pregnancy detection kits that are readily available over the counter. This hands-on activity engages students in the practice of doing science as highlighted by the "National Science Education Standards." The…

Venditti, Jennifer J.; Surmacz, Cynthia A.

2012-01-01

380

Simulating the gas hydrate production test at Mallik using the pilot scale pressure reservoir LARS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LARS, the LArge Reservoir Simulator, allows for one of the few pilot scale simulations of gas hydrate formation and dissociation under controlled conditions with a high resolution sensor network to enable the detection of spatial variations. It was designed and built within the German project SUGAR (submarine gas hydrate reservoirs) for sediment samples with a diameter of 0.45 m and a length of 1.3 m. During the project, LARS already served for a number of experiments simulating the production of gas from hydrate-bearing sediments using thermal stimulation and/or depressurization. The latest test simulated the methane production test from gas hydrate-bearing sediments at the Mallik test site, Canada, in 2008 (Uddin et al., 2011). Thus, the starting conditions of 11.5 MPa and 11°C and environmental parameters were set to fit the Mallik test site. The experimental gas hydrate saturation of 90% of the total pore volume (70 l) was slightly higher than volumes found in gas hydrate-bearing formations in the field (70 - 80%). However, the resulting permeability of a few millidarcy was comparable. The depressurization driven gas production at Mallik was conducted in three steps at 7.0 MPa - 5.0 MPa - 4.2 MPa all of which were used in the laboratory experiments. In the lab the pressure was controlled using a back pressure regulator while the confining pressure was stable. All but one of the 12 temperature sensors showed a rapid decrease in temperature throughout the sediment sample, which accompanied the pressure changes as a result of gas hydrate dissociation. During step 1 and 2 they continued up to the point where gas hydrate stability was regained. The pressure decreases and gas hydrate dissociation led to highly variable two phase fluid flow throughout the duration of the simulated production test. The flow rates were measured continuously (gas) and discontinuously (liquid), respectively. Next to being discussed here, both rates were used to verify a model of gas hydrate dissociation applying the foamy oil approach, a method earlier adopted to model the Mallik production test (see abstract Abendroth et al., this volume). Combined with a dense set of data from a cylindrical electrical resistance tomography (ERT) array (see abstract Priegnitz et al., this volume), very valuable information were gained on the spatial as well as temporal formation and dissociation of gas hydrates as well as changes in permeability and resulting pathways for the fluid flow. Here we present the set-up and execution of the experiment and discuss the results from temperature and flow measurements with respect to the gas hydrate dissociation and characteristics of resulting fluid flow. Uddin, M., Wright, F., and Coombe, D. 2011. Numerical Study of Gas Evolution and Transport Behaviours in Natural Gas-Hydrate Reservoirs. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology 50, 70-89.

Heeschen, Katja; Spangenberg, Erik; Schicks, Judith M.; Priegnitz, Mike; Giese, Ronny; Luzi-Helbing, Manja

2014-05-01

381

SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT IN THE MID-CONTINENT  

SciTech Connect

Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: (1) The search for another field site was abandoned after discussion with DOE. There is a clear absence of willing industry partners to participate in this project. The greatest obstacle is having the necessary data to perform the study, or the cost of collecting and organizing it. In its' place, the scope of the Mocane-Laverne field has been expanded to include all four major producing horizons, as opposed to just one. This approach will still meet the project objectives and requirements. (2) The type-curve matching of the production for all horizons in all wells was initiated.

Scott Reeves

2003-03-01

382

SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT IN THE MID-CONTINENT  

SciTech Connect

Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: (1) Completed both type curve and artificial neural network analysis of the field. Developed list of production enhancement candidates. (2) Made final presentation of results to Oneok in Tulsa (February 26). (3) Made presentations on the project at the PTTC Marginal Well workshops in Tyler (February 6) and Lansing (February 19).

Scott Reeves

2003-03-01

383

Exploring the chemical fate of the sulfate radical anion by reaction with sulfur dioxide in the gas phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas phase reaction between SO4-(H2O)n and SO2, n = 0-2, is investigated using ab initio calculations and kinetic modelling. Structures of reactants, transition states and products are reported. Our calculations predict that the SO2SO4-(H2O)n cluster ion, which is formed upon SO2 and SO4-(H2O)n collision, can isomerize to SO3SO3-(H2O)n. The overall reaction is SO2 oxidation by the SO4-(H2O)n anionic cluster. The results show that SO4-(H2O)n is a good SO2 oxidant, especially at low relative humidity, with a reaction rate constant up to 1.5 × 10-10 cm3 molecule-1s-1. At high relative humidity, instead, the re-evaporation of SO2 from the SO2SO

Tsona, N. T.; Bork, N.; Vehkamäki, H.

2015-01-01

384

Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from beef production in western Canada: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to estimate whole-farm greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from beef production in western Canada. The aim was to determine the relative contributions of the cow–calf and feedlot components to these emissions, and to examine the proportion of whole-farm emissions attributable to enteric methane (CH4). The simulated farm consisted of a beef production operation comprised

Karen A. Beauchemin; H. Henry Janzen; Shannan M. Little; Tim A. McAllister; Sean M. McGinn

2010-01-01

385

Computerized Monitoring of Gas Production to Measure Forage Digestion In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The techniques reported in this paper were developed,to facilitate the study of the kinetics of forage digestion in vitro by measuring,gas production. Fiber dis- appearance,as a measure,of the reaction rate has been replaced,by the use of computerized,pressure sensors to moni- tor the gaseous products (C02, CH4) of microbial,metabolism.,The,recording system described requires a computer, pressure sensors, an interface card, and

A. N. Pell; P. Schofield

1993-01-01

386

Exploring the decision to disclose the use of natural products among outpatients: a mixed-method study  

PubMed Central

Background There is little understanding of the reasons for the limited communication between patients and conventional healthcare professionals regarding patients’ use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The purpose of this study is to explore the predictors of outpatients’ decision to disclose their use of natural products to conventional healthcare professionals. Methods A mixed method design was used. Quantitative data were obtained through a survey and qualitative data were obtained from semi-structured interviews. A total of 257 outpatients who fulfilled the criteria of having used natural products prior to the interview were recruited for this study. Subsequently, 39 patients of those who completed the survey were further selected to take part in an in-depth qualitative interview. Results Predictors of the decision to disclose the use of natural products to conventional healthcare professionals included age, frequency of clinic visits, knowledge of the natural products and the attitude towards the benefits of CAM use. The themes that emerged from the qualitative data included safeness of the natural products, consulting alternative sources of information, apprehension regarding the development of negative relationships with healthcare professionals and reactions from the healthcare professionals. Conclusions Understanding the factors and reasons affecting patients’ decision as to whether to disclose their use of natural products provides an opportunity for conventional healthcare professionals to communicate better with patients. It is important to encourage patients to disclose their use of natural products in order to provide responsible health care as well as increasing patient safety regarding medication usage. PMID:24245611

2013-01-01

387

Gas  

MedlinePLUS

... swallow and the breakdown of undigested food by bacteria in the large intestine. Certain foods may cause gas. Foods that produce gas in one person may not cause gas in another. You can reduce the amount of gas you have by Drinking lots of water and non-fizzy drinks Eating more slowly so ...

388

Explorer-II: Wireless Self-Powered Visual and NDE Robotic Inspection System for Live Gas Distribution Mains  

SciTech Connect

Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) under contract from Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DoE/NETL) and co-funding from the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), has completed the overall system design, field-trial and Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) sensor evaluation program for the next-generation Explorer-II (X-II) live gas main Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) and visual inspection robot platform. The design is based on the Explorer-I prototype which was built and field-tested under a prior (also DoE- and NGA co-funded) program, and served as the validation that self-powered robots under wireless control could access and navigate live natural gas distribution mains. The X-II system design ({approx}8 ft. and 66 lbs.) was heavily based on the X-I design, yet was substantially expanded to allow the addition of NDE sensor systems (while retaining its visual inspection capability), making it a modular system, and expanding its ability to operate at pressures up to 750 psig (high-pressure and unpiggable steel-pipe distribution mains). A new electronics architecture and on-board software kernel were added to again improve system performance. A locating sonde system was integrated to allow for absolute position-referencing during inspection (coupled with external differential GPS) and emergency-locating. The power system was upgraded to utilize lithium-based battery-cells for an increase in mission-time. The resulting robot-train system with CAD renderings of the individual modules. The system architecture now relies on a dual set of end camera-modules to house the 32-bit processors (Single-Board Computer or SBC) as well as the imaging and wireless (off-board) and CAN-based (on-board) communication hardware and software systems (as well as the sonde-coil and -electronics). The drive-module (2 ea.) are still responsible for bracing (and centering) to drive in push/pull fashion the robot train into and through the pipes and obstacles. The steering modules and their arrangement, still allow the robot to configure itself to perform any-angle (up to 90 deg) turns in any orientation (incl. vertical), and enable the live launching and recovery of the system using custom fittings and a (to be developed) launch-chamber/-tube. The battery modules are used to power the system, by providing power to the robot's bus. The support modules perform the functions of centration for the rest of the train as well as odometry pickups using incremental encoding schemes. The electronics architecture is based on a distributed (8-bit) microprocessor architecture (at least 1 in ea. module) communicating to a (one of two) 32-bit SBC, which manages all video-processing, posture and motion control as well as CAN and wireless communications. The operator controls the entire system from an off-board (laptop) controller, which is in constant wireless communication with the robot train in the pipe. The sensor modules collect data and forward it to the robot operator computer (via the CAN-wireless communications chain), who then transfers it to a dedicated NDE data-storage and post-processing computer for further (real-time or off-line) analysis. The prototype robot system was built and tested indoors and outdoors, outfitted with a Remote-Field Eddy Current (RFEC) sensor integrated as its main NDE sensor modality. An angled launcher, allowing for live launching and retrieval, was also built to suit custom angled launch-fittings from TDW. The prototype vehicle and launcher systems are shown. The complete system, including the in-pipe robot train, launcher, integrated NDE-sensor and real-time video and control console and NDE-data collection and -processing and real-time display, were demonstrated to all sponsors prior to proceeding into final field-trials--the individual components and setting for said acceptance demonstration are shown. The launcher-tube was also used to verify that the vehicle system is capable of operating in high-pressure environments, and is safely deployable using proper evacuating/purging techniques for operation in the po

Carnegie Mellon University

2008-09-30

389

Swarm intelligence for multi-objective optimization of synthesis gas production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the chemical industry, the production of methanol, ammonia, hydrogen and higher hydrocarbons require synthesis gas (or syn gas). The main three syn gas production methods are carbon dioxide reforming (CRM), steam reforming (SRM) and partial-oxidation of methane (POM). In this work, multi-objective (MO) optimization of the combined CRM and POM was carried out. The empirical model and the MO problem formulation for this combined process were obtained from previous works. The central objectives considered in this problem are methane conversion, carbon monoxide selectivity and the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio. The MO nature of the problem was tackled using the Normal Boundary Intersection (NBI) method. Two techniques (Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)) were then applied in conjunction with the NBI method. The performance of the two algorithms and the quality of the solutions were gauged by using two performance metrics. Comparative studies and results analysis were then carried out on the optimization results.

Ganesan, T.; Vasant, P.; Elamvazuthi, I.; Ku Shaari, Ku Zilati

2012-11-01

390

Determining the Cause of a Header Failure in a Natural Gas Production Facility  

SciTech Connect

An investigation was made into the premature failure of a gas-header at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) natural gas production facility. A wide variety of possible failure mechanisms were considered: design of the header, deviation from normal pipe alloy composition, physical orientation of the header, gas composition and flow rate, type of corrosion, protectiveness of the interior oxide film, time of wetness, and erosion-corrosion. The failed header was examined using metallographic techniques, scanning electron microscopy, and microanalysis. A comparison of the failure site and an analogous site that had not failed, but exhibited similar metal thinning was also performed. From these studies it was concluded that failure resulted from erosion-corrosion, and that design elements of the header and orientation with respect to gas flow contributed to the mass loss at the failure point.

Matthes, S.A.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, G.R.

2007-03-01

391

DESULFURIZATION OF HOT BIOMASS PRODUCT GAS WITH REGENERATIVE ADSORBENTS FOR SOFC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing need for sustainable energy and the independency from fossil fuels makes biomass an important energy source. The gasification of biomass with a subsequent use of the product gas in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) can achieve a higher overall efficiency compared to conventional combined heat and power plants (CHP). Impurities like dust, alkali, heavy metal, sulfur and halogenous

G. Bamberger; A. Schweiger; U. Hohenwarter

392

Characterization of particulate matter in the hot product gas from atmospheric fluidized bed biomass gasifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) in the hot product gas from three different atmospheric fluidized bed biomass gasifiers: a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) gasifier, a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasifier, and an indirect BFB gasifier (the latter integrated with a CFB boiler). All gasifiers displayed a bimodal particle mass size distribution with a fine mode in

Eva Gustafsson; Leteng Lin; Michael Strand

2011-01-01

393

Development of a method for estimating emissions from oil and gas production sites utilizing remote observations  

EPA Science Inventory

There is a lack of information on emissions of ozone precursors, hazardous air pollutants, and greenhouse gases from oil and gas production operations, and measurement of these emissions presents many challenges. Assessment is complicated by the fugitive nature ofthe emissions, v...

394

Energy, environmental and greenhouse gas effects of using alternative fuels in cement production  

E-print Network

1 Energy, environmental and greenhouse gas effects of using alternative fuels in cement-sponsored by #12; 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Cement is by far the most widely used man-made material. The global cement industry produces about 3.3 billion tonnes of cement annually. Cement production is energy

Columbia University

395

Software for evaluating greenhouse gas emissions and the carbon footprint of dairy production systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Abstract: Dairy production, along with all other types of animal agriculture, is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but little information exists on the net emissions from our farms. Component models for representing all important sources and sinks of CH4, N2O, and CO2 in dairy p...

396

Feasibility of monitoring gas hydrate production with time-lapse VSP  

SciTech Connect

In this work we begin to examine the feasibility of using time-lapse seismic methods-specifically the vertical seismic profiling (VSP) method-for monitoring changes in hydrate accumulations that are predicted to occur during production of natural gas.

Kowalsky, M.B.; Nakagawa, S.; Moridis, G.J.

2009-11-01

397

Title: Using acidic electrolyzed water to reduce objectionable gas emissions from poultry production facilities in Texas.  

E-print Network

the ammonia and the resulting product can be used for fertilizer. However, sulfuric acid costs more facilities that uses sulfuric acid to scrub ammonia out of the air. It has been effective in removingTitle: Using acidic electrolyzed water to reduce objectionable gas emissions from poultry

Mukhtar, Saqib

398

Catalytic cracking of Mayan gas oil and selected hydrotreated products: Topical report  

SciTech Connect

The catalytic cracking of a Mayan vacuum gas oil and the products from mild, moderate, and severe hydrotreating of this gas oil was evaluated over a low-metal equilibrium catalyst in a microconfined bed unit (MCBU). Results obtained with the Mayan feedstocks are compared with those of an earlier study conducted with similar feedstocks obtained from a Wilmington (CA) crude oil. Two levels of catalytic cracking severity were used in the evaluation. Performance and product analysis showed that hydrotreating improves the yields obtained from catalytic cracking and the quality of the resultant products. In contrast to results obtained with the Wilmington feedstocks, conversion and gasoline yield do not improve with severity of the hydrotreating of the Mayan vacuum gas oils. The insensitivity of the cracking performance to hydrotreating severity may reflect the more facile removal of polar compounds (heteroatom compounds) on hydrotreating of the Mayan gas oil in comparison to the Wilmington. Sulfur and nitrogen contents of the liquid products (gasoline, light cycle oil, heavy cycle oil) decreased as the severity of the feed hydrotreating increased. 7 refs., 12 figs., 15 tabs.

Wells, J.W.; Zagula, E.J.; Brinkman, D.W.; Anderson, R.P.

1988-01-01

399

Enhancement of landfill gas production Nanticoke landfill, Binghamton, New York. Final report, October 1983August 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of the effects of landfill gas production enhancement in a field-scale program is presented. The enhancement entailed the use of leachate recycling to promote more conducive environmental conditions for the anaerobic microorganisms so that they would grow more quickly and thus convert the organic fraction of the municipal solid waste to methane at a faster rate. Seven field-scale

G. DiPippo; A. P. Leuschner

1987-01-01

400

Production of natural gas from methane hydrate by a constant downhole pressure well  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas production from the dissociation of methane hydrate in a confined reservoir by a depressurizing downhole well was studied. The case that the well pressure was kept constant was treated, and two different linearization schemes in an axisymmetric configuration were used in the analysis. For different fixed well pressures and reservoir temperatures, approximate self similar solutions were obtained. Distributions

Goodarz Ahmadi; Chuang Ji; Duane H. Smith

2007-01-01

401

USE OF IN VITRO GAS PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES TO EVALUATE ASSOCIATIVE EFFECTS OF FORAGES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Combinations of feedstuffs can alter ruminal fermentation patterns compared to the same feedstuffs fed individually. These associative effects can be positive or negative and alter the potential nutritive value of feedstuffs for ruminant animals. An in vitro gas production system was used to evaluat...

402

Energy potential and greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy cropping systems on marginally productive cropland  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grain and biomass yields and composition, soil carbon changes, and production input data from a long-term continuous corn and switchgrass replicated field trial in the western Corn Belt USA were used to estimate energy yields and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Corn was produced without tillage wi...

403

Field nano-localization of gas bubble production from water electrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a tip shaped electrode and ac voltages, we show that the production of micro bubbles of gas from water electrolysis is localized at the tip apex inside a domain in the voltage frequency phase space. A model taking into account the electrode shape and dimensions explains these results which suggest a field effect control of the electrolysis reaction rate at a nanometer scale.

Hammadi, Z.; Morin, R.; Olives, J.

2013-11-01

404

Production of Oxygen Gas and Liquid Metal by Electrochemical Decomposition of Molten Iron Oxide  

E-print Network

advocated molten oxide elec- trolysis (MOE) as a carbon-free alternative to existing metals extrac- tionProduction of Oxygen Gas and Liquid Metal by Electrochemical Decomposition of Molten Iron Oxide of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Wuhan University, China Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE

Sadoway, Donald Robert

405

Greenhouse gas emissions from final harvest fuel chip production in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy sources have been identified to play an important role in mitigating climate change. The main reason is that carbon dioxide emission is avoided when fossil fuels are replaced. This paper presents a study focusing on direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions from fuel chip production in Finland. The fuel chips studied were produced from logging residue at final

Margareta Wihersaari

2005-01-01

406

Operator Trainer System for the Petrobras P-26 Semi-Submersible Oil and Gas Production Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operator trainer systems aim to improve operator performance, by simulating scenarios such as emergency conditions, thus reducing accidents and increasing processes economical results. In this paper, we present PETROBRAS' Oil & Gas Production Process and Utilities Simulator Environment called AMBTREI (Training Environment) that mimics the actual Control Room of an E&P semi-submersible Platform at a very high fidelity level. This

A. C. Pereira; A. Riera; G. Padilla; E. Musulin; N. J. Nakamura

2009-01-01

407

MERCURY IN PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS: ESTIMATION OF EMISSIONS FROM PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an examination of mercury (Hg) in liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons that are produced and/or processed in the U.S. The Hg associated with petroleum and natural gas production and processing enters the environment primarily via solid waste streams (drilli...

408

Gas exchange in NASA's biomass production chamber - A preprototype closed human life support system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unique capabilities of the NASA biomass production chamber for monitoring and evaluating gas exchange rates are examined. Special emphasis is given to results with wheat and soybeans. The potential of the chamber as a preprototype of a closed human life support system is considered.

Corey, Kenneth A.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

1992-01-01

409

Genetic variation in perennial ryegrass for gas production during in vitro rumen fermentation  

E-print Network

Genetic variation in perennial ryegrass for gas production during in vitro rumen fermentation EN Nutrition, (ID-DLO), PO Box 160, 8200 AD Lelystad, The Netherlands Genetic variation for fermentation. The material was produced at two locations and consisted of a cut in late summer at two locations. Fermentation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

410

College students' attitudes toward shopping online for apparel products : Exploring a rural versus urban campus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To study college students' attitudes toward and behavioral intention of shopping online for apparel products by using the theory of reasoned action. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Focus group interviews and a literature review identified specific items of interest related to the desirability of shopping online for apparel products. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to two groups of respondents: college

Yingjiao Xu; V. Ann Paulins

2005-01-01

411

Detection and quantification of methane and VOC emissions from oil and gas production operations using remote measurements, Interim report  

EPA Science Inventory

Improved understanding of air pollutant emissions from oil and gas production operations is needed. With a steadily increasing number of production sources, the impact of emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on regional ozone is potentially significant. As the separation dis...

412

SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT IN THE MID-CONTINENT  

SciTech Connect

Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: (1) Compiled information and results of field activities that Oneok has conducted in relation to the project. Field activities have included performing six pressure transient tests, and implementing six workovers, four of which were Gas-Gun treatments. (2) Results indicate that the candidate selection methodology was marginally successful based on the pressure transient test results, but highly successful based on the workovers. For the selected candidate wells that were worked over, incremental reserve costs were < $ 0.10/Mcf. For the non-candidates, incremental reserve costs were {+-} > $1.00/Mcf. (3) Based on the combined results, the accuracy of the candidate selection methodology tested under this project is unclear. Generally, however, the technique should provide better-than-average candidate selections.

Scott Reeves

2003-08-01

413

Gas production in the Barnett Shale obeys a simple scaling theory  

PubMed Central

Natural gas from tight shale formations will provide the United States with a major source of energy over the next several decades. Estimates of gas production from these formations have mainly relied on formulas designed for wells with a different geometry. We consider the simplest model of gas production consistent with the basic physics and geometry of the extraction process. In principle, solutions of the model depend upon many parameters, but in practice and within a given gas field, all but two can be fixed at typical values, leading to a nonlinear diffusion problem we solve exactly with a scaling curve. The scaling curve production rate declines as 1 over the square root of time early on, and it later declines exponentially. This simple model provides a surprisingly accurate description of gas extraction from 8,294 wells in the United States’ oldest shale play, the Barnett Shale. There is good agreement with the scaling theory for 2,057 horizontal wells in which production started to decline exponentially in less than 10 y. The remaining 6,237 horizontal wells in our analysis are too young for us to predict when exponential decline will set in, but the model can nevertheless be used to establish lower and upper bounds on well lifetime. Finally, we obtain upper and lower bounds on the gas that will be produced by the wells in our sample, individually and in total. The estimated ultimate recovery from our sample of 8,294 wells is between 10 and 20 trillion standard cubic feet. PMID:24248376

Patzek, Tad W.; Male, Frank; Marder, Michael

2013-01-01

414

Exploring the Complexities of Children's Inquiries in Science: Knowledge Production Through Participatory Practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beginning with the assumption that young children are capable of producing unprecedented knowledges about science phenomena, this paper explores the complexities of children's inquiries within open-ended investigations. I ask two central questions: (1) how can we (teachers, researchers, and children themselves) use and build upon children's explorations in science in practice? and (2) what pedagogical approaches can position children as experts on their experiences to facilitate children's sense of ownership in the process of learning science? Six vignettes from a Kindergarten classroom are analyzed to elaborate the central claim of this work, which is that when children are engaged in collaborative open-ended activities, science emerges from their interactions. Open-ended structures allowed for teachers and children to facilitate further investigations collaboratively, and participatory structures mediated children's representations and explanations of their investigations. Evidence of children's interactions is used to illustrate the complexities of children's explorations, and pedagogical approaches that create the spaces for children to create knowledge are highlighted.

Siry, Christina

2013-12-01

415

Use of thermal infrared remote sensing data for fisheries, environmental monitoring, oil and gas exploration, and ship routing.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal infrared (TIR) and ocean color remote sensing data (1.1 - 4.0 km) are being used as the primary data source in decision making systems for fisheries management, commercial and recreational fishing advisory services, fisheries research, environmental monitoring, oil and gas operations, and ship routing. Experience over the last 30 years suggests that while ocean color and other remote sensing data (e.g. altimetry) are important data sources, TIR presently yields the most useful data for studying ocean surface circulation synoptically on a daily basis. This is due primarily to the greater temporal resolution, but also due to one's better understanding of the dynamics of sea surface temperature compared with variations in ocean color and the spatial limitations of altimeter data. Information derived from commercial operations and research is being used to improve the operational efficiency of fishing vessels (e.g. reduce search time and increase catch rate) and to improve our understanding of the variations in catch distribution and rate needed to properly manage fisheries. This information is also being used by the oil and gas industry to minimize transit time and thus, save costs (e.g., tug charter, insurance), to increase production and revenue up to 500K dollars a day. The data are also be used to reduce the risk of equipment loss, loss of time and revenue to sudden and unexpected currents such as eddies. Sequential image analysis integrating TIR and ocean color provided near-real time, synoptic visualization of the rapid and wide dispersal of coastal waters from the northern Gulf of Mexico following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in September 2005. The satellite data and analysis techniques have also been used to monitor the effects and movement of other potential environmentally damaging substances, such as dispersing nutrient enriched waste water offshore. A review of our experience in several commercial applications and research efforts will reinforce the importance and benefits of TIR compared to other remote sensing data. Examples of sequential image analysis and side by side image comparisons will demonstrate the utility of TIR for oceanographic applications. This will emphasize that TIR research and development be continued, as well as, implemented on all new research sensor packages. Sea surface temperature, derived from TIR, has the longest history and reliability for synoptic observations of ocean circulation. Thus, any new sensor packages should be fitted with TIR at the same temporal and spatial resolution to facilitate an objective comparison of the utility of the new sensors compared with the TIR.

Roffer, M. A.; Gawlikowski, G.; Muller-Karger, F.; Schaudt, K.; Upton, M.; Wall, C.; Westhaver, D.

2006-12-01

416

FreezeFrac Improves the Productivity of Gas Shales S. Enayatpour, E. Van Oort, T. Patzek, University of Texas At Austin  

E-print Network

SPE 166482 FreezeFrac Improves the Productivity of Gas Shales S. Enayatpour, E. Van Oort, T. Patzek to unconventional hydrocarbon reservers such as oil shales, gas shales, tight gas sands, coalbed methane, and gas; Keaney et al., 2004). Successful production of oil and gas from shales with nano-Darcy range permeability

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

417

Use and application of organic geochemical techniques related to exploration and production of petroleum reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum geochemical data are essential to many aspects of reservoir evaluation, for example, in the detection of barriers to fluid-flow and the identification of different reservoir compartments. The analytical techniques used in reservoir geochemistry include bulk screening analyses (e.g. Rock-Eval and Iatroscan TLC-FID), detailed gas chromatographic analyses (e.g. whole oil GC) and compound specific analyses (e.g. thermal extraction GC-MS and

H. Jensen; P. B. Hall; S. Bharati

1995-01-01

418

Exploration of the possibilities for production of Fischer Tropsch liquids and power via biomass gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the technical feasibility and economics of biomass integrated gasification–Fischer Tropsch (BIG-FT) processes in general, identifies most promising system configurations and identifies key R&D issues essential for the commercialisation of BIG-FT technology.The FT synthesis produces hydrocarbons of different length from a gas mixture of H2 and CO. The large hydrocarbons can be hydrocracked to form mainly diesel of

Michiel J. A. Tijmensen; Carlo N. Hamelinck; Martijn R. M. van Hardeveld

2002-01-01

419

Effects of Marine and Freshwater Macroalgae on In Vitro Total Gas and Methane Production  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of twenty species of tropical macroalgae on in vitro fermentation parameters, total gas production (TGP) and methane (CH4) production when incubated in rumen fluid from cattle fed a low quality roughage diet. Primary biochemical parameters of macroalgae were characterized and included proximate, elemental, and fatty acid (FAME) analysis. Macroalgae and the control, decorticated cottonseed meal (DCS), were incubated in vitro for 72 h, where gas production was continuously monitored. Post-fermentation parameters, including CH4 production, pH, ammonia, apparent organic matter degradability (OMd), and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations were measured. All species of macroalgae had lower TGP and CH4 production than DCS. Dictyota and Asparagopsis had the strongest effects, inhibiting TGP by 53.2% and 61.8%, and CH4 production by 92.2% and 98.9% after 72 h, respectively. Both species also resulted in the lowest total VFA concentration, and the highest molar concentration of propionate among all species analysed, indicating that anaerobic fermentation was affected. Overall, there were no strong relationships between TGP or CH4 production and the >70 biochemical parameters analysed. However, zinc concentrations >0.10 g.kg?1 may potentially interact with other biochemical components to influence TGP and CH4 production. The lack of relationship between the primary biochemistry of species and gas parameters suggests that significant decreases in TGP and CH4 production are associated with secondary metabolites produced by effective macroalgae. The most effective species, Asparagopsis, offers the most promising alternative for mitigation of enteric CH4 emissions. PMID:24465524

Machado, Lorenna; Magnusson, Marie; Paul, Nicholas A.; de Nys, Rocky; Tomkins, Nigel

2014-01-01

420

Effects of marine and freshwater macroalgae on in vitro total gas and methane production.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of twenty species of tropical macroalgae on in vitro fermentation parameters, total gas production (TGP) and methane (CH4) production when incubated in rumen fluid from cattle fed a low quality roughage diet. Primary biochemical parameters of macroalgae were characterized and included proximate, elemental, and fatty acid (FAME) analysis. Macroalgae and the control, decorticated cottonseed meal (DCS), were incubated in vitro for 72 h, where gas production was continuously monitored. Post-fermentation parameters, including CH4 production, pH, ammonia, apparent organic matter degradability (OMd), and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations were measured. All species of macroalgae had lower TGP and CH4 production than DCS. Dictyota and Asparagopsis had the strongest effects, inhibiting TGP by 53.2% and 61.8%, and CH4 production by 92.2% and 98.9% after 72 h, respectively. Both species also resulted in the lowest total VFA concentration, and the highest molar concentration of propionate among all species analysed, indicating that anaerobic fermentation was affected. Overall, there were no strong relationships between TGP or CH4 production and the >70 biochemical parameters analysed. However, zinc concentrations >0.10 g x kg(-1) may potentially interact with other biochemical components to influence TGP and CH4 production. The lack of relationship between the primary biochemistry of species and gas parameters suggests that significant decreases in TGP and CH4 production are associated with secondary metabolites produced by effective macroalgae. The most effective species, Asparagopsis, offers the most promising alternative for mitigation of enteric CH4 emissions. PMID:24465524

Machado, Lorenna; Magnusson, Marie; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky; Tomkins, Nigel

2014-01-01

421

Measurements of methane emissions at natural gas production sites in the United States  

PubMed Central

Engineering estimates of methane emissions from natural gas production have led to varied projections of national emissions. This work reports direct measurements of methane emissions at 190 onshore natural gas sites in the United States (150 production sites, 27 well completion flowbacks, 9 well unloadings, and 4 workovers). For well completion flowbacks, which clear fractured wells of liquid to allow gas production, methane emissions ranged from 0.01 Mg to 17 Mg (mean = 1.7 Mg; 95% confidence bounds of 0.67–3.3 Mg), compared with an average of 81 Mg per event in the 2011 EPA national emission inventory from April 2013. Emission factors for pneumatic pumps and controllers as well as equipment leaks were both comparable to and higher than estimates in the national inventory. Overall, if emission factors from this work for completion flowbacks, equipment leaks, and pneumatic pumps and controllers are assumed to be representative of national populations and are used to estimate national emissions, total annual emissions from these source categories are calculated to be 957 Gg of methane (with sampling and measurement uncertainties estimated at ±200 Gg). The estimate for comparable source categories in the EPA national inventory is ?1,200 Gg. Additional measurements of unloadings and workovers are needed to produce national emission estimates for these source categories. The 957 Gg in emissions for completion flowbacks, pneumatics, and equipment leaks, coupled with EPA national inventory estimates for other categories, leads to an estimated 2,300 Gg of methane emissions from natural gas production (0.42% of gross gas production). PMID:24043804

Allen, David T.; Torres, Vincent M.; Thomas, James; Sullivan, David W.; Harrison, Matthew; Hendler, Al; Herndon, Scott C.; Kolb, Charles E.; Fraser, Matthew P.; Hill, A. Daniel; Lamb, Brian K.; Miskimins, Jennifer; Sawyer, Robert F.; Seinfeld, John H.

2013-01-01

422

Measurements of methane emissions at natural gas production sites in the United States.  

PubMed

Engineering estimates of methane emissions from natural gas production have led to varied projections of national emissions. This work reports direct measurements of methane emissions at 190 onshore natural gas sites in the United States (150 production sites, 27 well completion flowbacks, 9 well unloadings, and 4 workovers). For well completion flowbacks, which clear fractured wells of liquid to allow gas production, methane emissions ranged from 0.01 Mg to 17 Mg (mean = 1.7 Mg; 95% confidence bounds of 0.67-3.3 Mg), compared with an average of 81 Mg per event in the 2011 EPA national emission inventory from April 2013. Emission factors for pneumatic pumps and controllers as well as equipment leaks were both comparable to and higher than estimates in the national inventory. Overall, if emission factors from this work for completion flowbacks, equipment leaks, and pneumatic pumps and controllers are assumed to be representative of national populations and are used to estimate national emissions, total annual emissions from these source categories are calculated to be 957 Gg of methane (with sampling and measurement uncertainties estimated at ± 200 Gg). The estimate for comparable source categories in the EPA national inventory is ~1,200 Gg. Additional measurements of unloadings and workovers are needed to produce national emission estimates for these source categories. The 957 Gg in emissions for completion flowbacks, pneumatics, and equipment leaks, coupled with EPA national inventory estimates for other categories, leads to an estimated 2,300 Gg of methane emissions from natural gas production (0.42% of gross gas production). PMID:24043804

Allen, David T; Torres, Vincent M; Thomas, James; Sullivan, David W; Harrison, Matthew; Hendler, Al; Herndon, Scott C; Kolb, Charles E; Fraser, Matthew P; Hill, A Daniel; Lamb, Brian K; Miskimins, Jennifer; Sawyer, Robert F; Seinfeld, John H

2013-10-29

423

Impact of offshore oil exploration and production on the Social Institutions of Coastal Louisiana. University research initiative. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The research contained in the report considers the relationship of oil production--a primary economic activity--to five social institutions: the family; poverty and social service provision; communities; government; and the political economy. Findings suggest a direct impact of offshore oil and gas production on these institutions. The impact is both positive and negative. It is long-term as well as short-term. It affects different institutions and sub-populations differently. The effects are on the entire state, not just the area directly involved with oil production. Mitigation recommendations range from research, data collection, impact monitoring, a national policy requiring the use of American contractors, the sharing of severance taxes with the affected area, the escrowing of monies by oil companies, and the expansion of government assistance to mitigate impacts.

Laska, S.; Baxter, V.K.; Seydlitz, R.; Thayer, R.E.; Brabant, S.

1993-08-01

424

High-calcium flue gas desulfurization products reduce aluminum toxicity in an Appalachian soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An acid Appalachian soil was amended with two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products, one consisting of wallboard-quality gypsum (CaSOâ·2Hâ) and the other containing CaSOâ·0.5HâO as a major component. Soil columns treated with FGD by-products were leached with deionized HâO under unsaturated conditions. Aluminum amounts leached increased 25-fold over the control when CaSOâ·2HâO FGD by-product was incorporated into the soil. Leachate

R. R. Wendell; K. D. Ritchey

1996-01-01

425

Enhancement of tannase production by Lactobacillus plantarum CIR1: validation in gas-lift bioreactor.  

PubMed

The optimization of tannase production by Lactobacillus plantarum CIR1 was carried out following the Taguchi methodology. The orthogonal array employed was L18 (2(1) × 3(5)) considering six important factors (pH and temperature, also phosphate, nitrogen, magnesium, and carbon sources) for tannase biosynthesis. The experimental results obtained from 18 trials were processed using the software Statistical version 7.1 using the character higher the better. Optimal culture conditions were pH, 6; temperature, 40 °C; tannic acid, 15.0 g/L; KH2PO4, 1.5 g/L; NH4Cl, 7.0 g/L; and MgSO4, 1.5 g/L which were obtained and further validated resulting in an enhance tannase yield of 2.52-fold compared with unoptimized conditions. Tannase production was further carried out in a 1-L gas-lift bioreactor where two nitrogen flows (0.5 and 1.0 vvm) were used to provide anaerobic conditions. Taguchi methodology allowed obtaining the optimal culture conditions for the production of tannase by L. plantarum CIR1. At the gas-lift bioreactor the tannase productivity yields increase 5.17 and 8.08-fold for the flow rates of 0.5 and 1.0 vvm, respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum CIR1 has the capability to produce tannase at laboratory-scale. This is the first report for bacterial tannase production using a gas-lift bioreactor. PMID:24861311

Aguilar-Zarate, Pedro; Cruz-Hernandez, Mario A; Montañez, Julio C; Belmares-Cerda, Ruth E; Aguilar, Cristobal N

2014-11-01

426

Floating production platforms and their applications in the development of oil and gas fields in the South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the current available options for floating production platforms in developing deepwater oil fields and the potential development models of future oil and gas exploration in the South China Sea. A detailed review of current deepwater platforms worldwide was performed through the examples of industry projects, and the pros and cons of each platform are discussed. Four types of platforms are currently used for the deepwater development: tension leg platform, Spar, semi-submersible platform, and the floating production system offloading. Among these, the TLP and Spar can be used for dry tree applications, and have gained popularity in recent years. The dry tree application enables the extension of the drilling application for fixed platforms into floating systems, and greatly reduces the cost and complexity of the subsea operation. Newly built wet tree semi-submersible production platforms for ultra deepwater are also getting their application, mainly due to the much needed payload for deepwater making the conversion of the old drilling semi-submersible platforms impossible. These platforms have been used in different fields around the world for different environments; each has its own advantages and disadvantages. There are many challenges with the successful use of these floating platforms. A lot of lessons have been learned and extensive experience accumulated through the many project applications. Key technologies are being reviewed for the successful use of floating platforms for field development, and potential future development needs are being discussed. Some of the technologies and experience of platform applications can be well used for the development of the South China Sea oil and gas field.

Zhang, Dagang; Chen, Yongjun; Zhang, Tianyu

2014-03-01

427

SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT IN THE MID-CONTINENT  

SciTech Connect

Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: (1) Finished preparing the final project report, less the field implementation component. Sent to DOE for review. (2) Continued coordinating the final selection of candidates and field implementation with Oneok. Oneok postponed field implementation until after the first of the year due to budget constraints.

Scott Reeves

2003-03-01

428

SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT IN THE MID-CONTINENT  

SciTech Connect

Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: (1) Type curve matching continued during the reporting period. (2) A second data collection trip to Tulsa was performed to gather information on the additional reservoirs to be included in the analysis. Created updated database. Delivered information for both type-curve and artificial neural network analysis to analytic team. (3) Made presentations on the project at the Stripper Well Consortium Meetings in Oklahoma City (October 24) and Dallas (October 25). (4) Made presentations on the project at the PTTC Marginal Well workshop in Jackson (October 30) and Wichita (November 29).

Scott Reeves

2003-03-01

429

Brief: Information technology as an aid to productivity in petroleum exploration -- fact or fiction  

SciTech Connect

This paper considers the relationship between information technology investment, technical productivity, and business benefit. The effect of introducing IT to the industry and its impact on geoscience is described, along with a discussion of whether investment in IT has brought the expected benefits to other industries. The paper concludes with a consideration of the present business perceptions of IT and asks whether a company, by concentrating solely on such issues as technical productivity, will actually maximize the benefits of IT.

Dawson, M.; Iliffe, J. (Petroleum Science and Technology Inst., Aberdeen (United Kingdom))

1994-06-01

430

Africa: the emphasis is exploration  

SciTech Connect

Individual country reports on drilling, oil and gas production, and petroleum exploration and reserves are given for Africa. Nigeria was the continent's largest oil producer in 1979, averaging 2.3 million bpd, followed closely by Libya with 2.07 million bpd. Algeria cut production of crude oil in 1979 to a level of 1,194,350 bpd, and increased gas production to 2031 mmcfd. In Egypt, the return of Israeli-occupied oil fields and a surge in productive capacity enabled production averaging 524,000 bpd. Brief country reports are included for Gabon, Angola, Republic of the Congo, Cameroun, Tunisia, Morocco, Zaire, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Niger, Chad, Republic of South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Equatorial Guinea, Seychelles Islands, Mauritania, Republic of Mali, Benin, Kenya, Madagascar, Botswana, Gambia, Mozambique, and Senegal.

Not Available

1980-08-15

431