Optimization of solver for gas flow modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savichkin, D.; Dodulad, O.; Kloss, Yu
2014-05-01
The main purpose of the work is optimization of the solver for rarefied gas flow modeling based on the Boltzmann equation. Optimization method is based on SIMD extensions for ×86 processors. Computational code is profiled and manually optimized with SSE instructions. Heat flow, shock waves and Knudsen pump are modeled with optimized solver. Dependencies of computational time from mesh sizes and CPU capabilities are provided.
Modeling of heavy-gas effects on airfoil flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Drela, Mark
1992-01-01
Thermodynamic models were constructed for a calorically imperfect gas and for a non-ideal gas. These were incorporated into a quasi one dimensional flow solver to develop an understanding of the differences in flow behavior between the new models and the perfect gas model. The models were also incorporated into a two dimensional flow solver to investigate their effects on transonic airfoil flows. Specifically, the calculations simulated airfoil testing in a proposed high Reynolds number heavy gas test facility. The results indicate that the non-idealities caused significant differences in the flow field, but that matching of an appropriate non-dimensional parameter led to flows similar to those in air.
Empirical slip and viscosity model performance for microscale gas flows.
Gallis, Michail A.; Boyd, Iain D.; McNenly, Matthew J.
2004-07-01
For the simple geometries of Couette and Poiseuille flows, the velocity profile maintains a similar shape from continuum to free molecular flow. Therefore, modifications to the fluid viscosity and slip boundary conditions can improve the continuum based Navier-Stokes solution in the non-continuum non-equilibrium regime. In this investigation, the optimal modifications are found by a linear least-squares fit of the Navier-Stokes solution to the non-equilibrium solution obtained using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Models are then constructed for the Knudsen number dependence of the viscosity correction and the slip model from a database of DSMC solutions for Couette and Poiseuille flows of argon and nitrogen gas, with Knudsen numbers ranging from 0.01 to 10. Finally, the accuracy of the models is measured for non-equilibrium cases both in and outside the DSMC database. Flows outside the database include: combined Couette and Poiseuille flow, partial wall accommodation, helium gas, and non-zero convective acceleration. The models reproduce the velocity profiles in the DSMC database within an L{sub 2} error norm of 3% for Couette flows and 7% for Poiseuille flows. However, the errors in the model predictions outside the database are up to five times larger.
Turbulence modeling of gas-solid suspension flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, C. P.
1988-01-01
The purpose here is to discuss and review advances in two-phase turbulent modeling techniques and their applications in various gas-solid suspension flow situations. In addition to the turbulence closures, heat transfer effect, particle dispersion and wall effects are partially covered.
DYNAMIC MODELING STRATEGY FOR FLOW REGIME TRANSITION IN GAS-LIQUID TWO-PHASE FLOWS
X. Wang; X. Sun; H. Zhao
2011-09-01
In modeling gas-liquid two-phase flows, the concept of flow regime has been used to characterize the global interfacial structure of the flows. Nearly all constitutive relations that provide closures to the interfacial transfers in two-phase flow models, such as the two-fluid model, are often flow regime dependent. Currently, the determination of the flow regimes is primarily based on flow regime maps or transition criteria, which are developed for steady-state, fully-developed flows and widely applied in nuclear reactor system safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5. As two-phase flows are observed to be dynamic in nature (fully-developed two-phase flows generally do not exist in real applications), it is of importance to model the flow regime transition dynamically for more accurate predictions of two-phase flows. The present work aims to develop a dynamic modeling strategy for determining flow regimes in gas-liquid two-phase flows through the introduction of interfacial area transport equations (IATEs) within the framework of a two-fluid model. The IATE is a transport equation that models the interfacial area concentration by considering the creation and destruction of the interfacial area, such as the fluid particle (bubble or liquid droplet) disintegration, boiling and evaporation; and fluid particle coalescence and condensation, respectively. For the flow regimes beyond bubbly flows, a two-group IATE has been proposed, in which bubbles are divided into two groups based on their size and shape (which are correlated), namely small bubbles and large bubbles. A preliminary approach to dynamically identifying the flow regimes is provided, in which discriminators are based on the predicted information, such as the void fraction and interfacial area concentration of small bubble and large bubble groups. This method is expected to be applied to computer codes to improve their predictive capabilities of gas-liquid two-phase flows, in particular for the applications in
Analytical and Numerical Modeling of Strongly Rotating Rarefied Gas Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pradhan, Sahadev; Kumaran, Viswanathan
2015-11-01
Centrifugal gas separation processes effect separation by utilizing the difference in the mole fraction in a high speed rotating cylinder caused by the difference in molecular mass, and consequently the centrifugal force density. These have been widely used in isotope separation because chemical separation methods cannot be used to separate isotopes of the same chemical species. More recently, centrifugal separation has also been explored for the separation of gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. The efficiency of separation is critically dependent on the secondary flow generated due to temperature gradients at the cylinder wall or due to inserts, and it is important to formulate accurate models for this secondary flow. The widely used Onsager model for secondary flow is restricted to very long cylinders where the length is large compared to the diameter, the limit of high stratification parameter, where the gas is restricted to a thin layer near the wall of the cylinder, and it assumes that there is no mass difference in the two species while calculating the secondary flow. There are two objectives of the present analysis of the rarefied gas flow in a rotating cylinder. The first is to remove the restriction of high stratification parameter, and to generalize the solutions to low rotation speeds where the stratification parameter may be O(1), and to apply for dissimilar gases considering the difference in molecular mass of the two species. Secondly, we would like to compare the predictions with molecular simulations based on the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for rarefied gas flows, in order to quantify the errors resulting from the approximations at different aspect ratios, Reynolds number and stratification parameter.
Two relaxation time lattice Boltzmann model for rarefied gas flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esfahani, Javad Abolfazli; Norouzi, Ali
2014-01-01
In this paper, the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) with two relaxation times (TRT) is implemented in order to study gaseous flow through a long micro/nano-channel. A new relation is introduced for the reflection factor in the bounce-back/specular reflection (BSR) boundary condition based on the analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. The focus of the present study is on comparing TRT with the other LBE models called multiple relaxation times (MRT) and single relaxation time (SRT) in simulation of rarefied gas flows. After a stability analysis for the TRT and SRT models, the numerical results are presented and validated by the analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations with slip boundary condition, direct simulation of Monte Carlo (DSMC) and information preservation (IP) method. The effect of various gases on flow behavior is also investigated by using the variable hard sphere (VHS) model through the symmetrical relaxation time.
Dynamic Modeling Strategy for Flow Regime Transition in Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flows
Xia Wang; Xiaodong Sun; Benjamin Doup; Haihua Zhao
2012-12-01
In modeling gas-liquid two-phase flows, the concept of flow regimes has been widely used to characterize the global interfacial structure of the flows. Nearly all constitutive relations that provide closures to the interfacial transfers in two-phase flow models, such as the two-fluid model, are flow regime dependent. Current nuclear reactor safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5, classify flow regimes using flow regime maps or transition criteria that were developed for steady-state, fully-developed flows. As twophase flows are dynamic in nature, it is important to model the flow regime transitions dynamically to more accurately predict the two-phase flows. The present work aims to develop a dynamic modeling strategy to determine flow regimes in gas-liquid two-phase flows through introduction of interfacial area transport equations (IATEs) within the framework of a two-fluid model. The IATE is a transport equation that models the interfacial area concentration by considering the creation of the interfacial area, fluid particle (bubble or liquid droplet) disintegration, boiling and evaporation, and the destruction of the interfacial area, fluid particle coalescence and condensation. For flow regimes beyond bubbly flows, a two-group IATE has been proposed, in which bubbles are divided into two groups based on their size and shapes, namely group-1 and group-2 bubbles. A preliminary approach to dynamically identify the flow regimes is discussed, in which discriminator s are based on the predicted information, such as the void fraction and interfacial area concentration. The flow regime predicted with this method shows good agreement with the experimental observations.
Breakdown parameter for kinetic modeling of multiscale gas flows.
Meng, Jianping; Dongari, Nishanth; Reese, Jason M; Zhang, Yonghao
2014-06-01
Multiscale methods built purely on the kinetic theory of gases provide information about the molecular velocity distribution function. It is therefore both important and feasible to establish new breakdown parameters for assessing the appropriateness of a fluid description at the continuum level by utilizing kinetic information rather than macroscopic flow quantities alone. We propose a new kinetic criterion to indirectly assess the errors introduced by a continuum-level description of the gas flow. The analysis, which includes numerical demonstrations, focuses on the validity of the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations and corresponding kinetic models and reveals that the new criterion can consistently indicate the validity of continuum-level modeling in both low-speed and high-speed flows at different Knudsen numbers. PMID:25019910
A new model for gas/solid pipe flow
Wu, Bangxian; Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Petrick, M.
1995-12-31
A new model of particle turbulent dispersion in vertical gas/solid pipe flow is presented in this paper. The essence of the model is to pay more attention to the active and discrete behavior of particles in the dispersion process in non-homogeneous turbulent vertical pipe flows using two-fluid approaches. In the new model, a non-gradient type of diffusion term is included in the expression of radial particle dispersion flux; the transport equation for particle turbulent kinetic energy (PTKE) is developed and solved for its distribution; the effect of intra-particle collision is considered for the generation and dissipation of PTKE; turbulence modulation due to particle presence is taken into account. Preliminary numerical results based on this new model are also presented in this paper.
Modeling of Liquid Flow in a Packed Bed in the Presence of Gas Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, V.; Gupta, G. S.; Sarkar, S.
2007-06-01
Liquid metal and slag descend through a porous coke matrix in the lower part of an iron making blast furnace. The size of the raceway is an important factor in determining the gas penetration into the bed, which pushes the liquid toward the deadman region. This, in turn, affects the gas flow in the bed. The current study tries to explain theoretically the effect of cavity size hysteresis on gas-liquid distribution in a packed bed. The liquid flow has been modeled considering it to be discrete in nature. The turbulent nature of gas flow has been modeled using the k-ɛ model for turbulent flow. The model results have been verified on a structured package. It is observed that the liquid is pushed away further from the nozzle-side wall in the case of decreasing gas velocity than increasing gas velocity at the same inlet gas velocity. The implications of the current study to the dropping zone of a blast furnace have been discussed.
Modeling of information flows in natural gas storage facility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ranjbari, Leyla; Bahar, Arifah; Aziz, Zainal Abdul
2013-09-01
The paper considers the natural-gas storage valuation based on the information-based pricing framework of Brody-Hughston-Macrina (BHM). As opposed to many studies which the associated filtration is considered pre-specified, this work tries to construct the filtration in terms of the information provided to the market. The value of the storage is given by the sum of the discounted expectations of the cash flows under risk-neutral measure, conditional to the constructed filtration with the Brownian bridge noise term. In order to model the flow of information about the cash flows, we assume the existence of a fixed pricing kernel with liquid, homogenous and incomplete market without arbitrage.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Qingquan; Cheng, Yuanping; Zhou, Hongxing; Guo, Pinkun; An, Fenghua; Chen, Haidong
2015-05-01
The influence of gas diffusion behavior on gas flow and permeability evolution in coal seams is evaluated in this paper. Coalbed methane (CBM) reservoirs differ from conventional porous media and fractured gas reservoirs due to certain unique features, which lead to two distinct gas pressures: one in fractures and the other in the coal matrix. The latter pressure, also known as the sorption pressure, will be used in calculating sorption-based volume changes. The effective stress laws for single-porosity media is not suitable for CBM reservoirs, and the effective stress laws for multi-porosity media need to be applied. The realization of the above two points is based on the study of the two-phase state of gas migration (involving Fickian diffusion and Darcy flow) in a coal seam. Then, a general porosity and permeability model based on the P-M model is proposed to fit this phenomenon. Moreover, the Klinkenberg effect has been taken into account and set as a reference object. Finally, a coupled gas flow and coal deformation model is proposed and solved by using a finite element method. The numerical results indicate that the effects of gas diffusion behavior and Klinkenberg behavior can have a critical influence on the gas pressure, residual gas content, and permeability evolution during the entire methane degasification period, and the impacts of the two effects are of the same order of magnitude. Without considering the gas diffusion effect, the gas pressure and residual gas content will be underestimated, and the permeability will be overestimated.
Computer modeling of gas flow and gas loading of rock in a bench blasting environment
Preece, D.S.; Baer, M.R. ); Knudsen, S.D. )
1991-01-01
Numerical modeling can contribute greatly to an understanding of the physics involved in the blasting process. This paper will describe the latest enhancements to the blast modeling code DMC (Distinct Motion Code) (Taylor and Preece, 1989) and will demonstrate the ability of DMC to model gas flow and rock motion in a bench blasting environment. DMC has been used previously to model rock motion associated with blasting in a cratering environment (Preece and Taylor, 1990) and in confined volume blasting associated with in-situ oil shale retorting (Preece, 1990 a b). These applications of DMC treated the explosive loading as force versus time functions on specific spheres which were adjusted to obtain correct face velocities. It was recognized that a great need in explosives modeling was the coupling of an ability to simulate gas flow with the rock motion simulation capability of DMC. This was accomplished by executing a finite difference code that computes gas flow through a porous media (Baer and Gross, 1989) in conjunction with DMC. The marriage of these two capabilities has been documented by Preece and Knudsen, 1991. The capabilities that have been added recently to DMC and which will be documented in this paper include: (1) addition of a new equation of state for the explosive gases; (2) modeling of gas flow and sphere loading in a bench environment. 8 refs., 5 figs.
Hybrid continuum–molecular modelling of multiscale internal gas flows
Patronis, Alexander; Lockerby, Duncan A.; Borg, Matthew K.; Reese, Jason M.
2013-12-15
We develop and apply an efficient multiscale method for simulating a large class of low-speed internal rarefied gas flows. The method is an extension of the hybrid atomistic–continuum approach proposed by Borg et al. (2013) [28] for the simulation of micro/nano flows of high-aspect ratio. The major new extensions are: (1) incorporation of fluid compressibility; (2) implementation using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for dilute rarefied gas flows, and (3) application to a broader range of geometries, including periodic, non-periodic, pressure-driven, gravity-driven and shear-driven internal flows. The multiscale method is applied to micro-scale gas flows through a periodic converging–diverging channel (driven by an external acceleration) and a non-periodic channel with a bend (driven by a pressure difference), as well as the flow between two eccentric cylinders (with the inner rotating relative to the outer). In all these cases there exists a wide variation of Knudsen number within the geometries, as well as substantial compressibility despite the Mach number being very low. For validation purposes, our multiscale simulation results are compared to those obtained from full-scale DSMC simulations: very close agreement is obtained in all cases for all flow variables considered. Our multiscale simulation is an order of magnitude more computationally efficient than the full-scale DSMC for the first and second test cases, and two orders of magnitude more efficient for the third case.
Hybrid continuum-molecular modelling of multiscale internal gas flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patronis, Alexander; Lockerby, Duncan A.; Borg, Matthew K.; Reese, Jason M.
2013-12-01
We develop and apply an efficient multiscale method for simulating a large class of low-speed internal rarefied gas flows. The method is an extension of the hybrid atomistic-continuum approach proposed by Borg et al. (2013) [28] for the simulation of micro/nano flows of high-aspect ratio. The major new extensions are: (1) incorporation of fluid compressibility; (2) implementation using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for dilute rarefied gas flows, and (3) application to a broader range of geometries, including periodic, non-periodic, pressure-driven, gravity-driven and shear-driven internal flows. The multiscale method is applied to micro-scale gas flows through a periodic converging-diverging channel (driven by an external acceleration) and a non-periodic channel with a bend (driven by a pressure difference), as well as the flow between two eccentric cylinders (with the inner rotating relative to the outer). In all these cases there exists a wide variation of Knudsen number within the geometries, as well as substantial compressibility despite the Mach number being very low. For validation purposes, our multiscale simulation results are compared to those obtained from full-scale DSMC simulations: very close agreement is obtained in all cases for all flow variables considered. Our multiscale simulation is an order of magnitude more computationally efficient than the full-scale DSMC for the first and second test cases, and two orders of magnitude more efficient for the third case.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woods, G. H.; Knox, E. C.; Pond, J. E.; Bacchus, D. L.; Hengel, J. E.
1992-01-01
A one-dimensional analytical tool, TOPAZ (Transient One-dimensional Pipe flow AnalyZer), was used to model the flow characteristics of hot combustion gases through Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) joints and to compute the resultant material surface temperatures and o-ring seal erosion of the joints. The capabilities of the analytical tool were validated with test data during the Seventy Pound Charge (SPC) motor test program. The predicted RSRM joint thermal response to ignition transients was compared with test data for full-scale motor tests. The one-dimensional analyzer is found to be an effective tool for simulating combustion gas flows in RSRM joints and for predicting flow and thermal properties.
A simple model of gas flow in a porous powder compact.
Shugard, Andrew D.; Robinson, David B.
2014-04-01
This report describes a simple model for ideal gas flow from a vessel through a bed of porous material into another vessel. It assumes constant temperature and uniform porosity. Transport is treated as a combination of viscous and molecular flow, with no inertial contribution (low Reynolds number). This model can be used to fit data to obtain permeability values, determine flow rates, understand the relative contributions of viscous and molecular flow, and verify volume calibrations. It draws upon the Dusty Gas Model and other detailed studies of gas flow through porous media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balakin, Boris V.; Hoffmann, Alex C.; Kosinski, Pawel; Istomin, Vladimir A.; Chuvilin, Evgeny M.
2010-09-01
A combined computational fluid dynamics/population balance model (CFD-PBM) is developed for gas hydrate particle size prediction in turbulent pipeline flow. The model is based on a one-moment population balance technique, which is coupled with flow field parameters computed using commercial CFD software. The model is calibrated with a five-moment, off-line population balance model and validated with experimental data produced in a low-pressure multiphase flow loop.
Mathematical modelling of the liquid atomization process by cocurrent gas flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arkhipov, V. A.; Boiko, V. M.; Goldin, V. D.; Maslov, E. A.; Orlov, S. E.; Poplavskiy, S. V.; Usanina, A. S.; Zharova, I. K.
2016-04-01
This paper focuses on the physical-mathematical model of liquid atomization in the spray pattern of an ejection nozzle. A flow field of a gas phase behind the nozzle section is computed using the Ansys Fluent package. Dynamics of molten metal droplets in the gas phase within a trajectory approach is calculated. Using the presented model, numerical calculation results are given.
Model of Gas Flow Through Porous Refractory Applied to an Upper Tundish Nozzle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Rui; Thomas, Brian G.
2015-02-01
Argon gas commonly is injected into the liquid metal stream through the porous refractory walls in many metallurgical processes. In this work, a new model has been developed to investigate gas diffusion through heated porous refractory, including the effects of refractory geometry, the thermal expansion of the gas, temperature-dependent gas viscosity, and possible leakage into unsealed joints. A novel one-way-flow pressure boundary condition has been formulated and implemented to prevent unrealistic flow into the refractory. The complete model is validated with both analytical solutions of 1D test problems and observations of a water bubbling experiment. Then, to demonstrate practical application of this general model, argon gas flow is simulated through a double-slitted upper tundish nozzle during continuous steel casting with a slide-gate system. Realistic liquid steel pressure distributions with the bubbling threshold condition are applied on the inner surface. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate the effects of joint gas leakage, refractory conductivity, permeability, and injection pressure on the resulting gas distributions, gas mass flow rates, and leakage fraction. This new model of porous flow can serve as the first step of a comprehensive multiphase model system.
One-dimensional flow model for coal-gas outbursts and initiation criterion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shanbing, Yu
1992-11-01
This paper discribes a one-dimensional flow model to explain the basic mechanism of coal-gas outbursts. A break-start criterion of coal, as the elementary outburst criterion, is given approximately. In this ideal model, the tectonic pressure before excavation, as a load on coal body, affects the break-start and then the flow field. The flow field is decoupled with the stress field, so that the gas seepage through unbroken coal body, break-start and consequent two-phase flow, and pure gas flow can be analysed independently of the stress field. The tunnelling, an external disturbance that makes the seepage intensify relatively, is an essential factor for initiating outburst. Under steady tunnelling, seepage ought to tend to be steadily progressive. From its asymptotic solution initiation criterion is obtained. This is described by three conditions, possibility condition —tectonic pressure condition, incubation condition—tunnelling or gas condition and triggering condition —seepage velocity condition.
Modelling of Radiation Heat Transfer in Reacting Hot Gas Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thellmann, A.; Mundt, C.
2009-01-01
In this work the interaction between a turbulent flow including chemical reactions and radiation transport is investigated. As a first step, the state-of-the art radiation models P1 based on the moment method and Discrete Transfer Model (DTM) based on the discrete ordinate method are used in conjunction with the CFD code ANSYS CFX. The absorbing and emitting medium (water vapor) is modeled by Weighted Sum of Gray Gases. For the chemical reactions the standard Eddy dissipation model combined with the two equation turbulence model k-epsilon is employed. A demonstration experiment is identified which delivers temperature distribution, species concentration and radiative intensity distribution in the investigated combustion enclosure. The simulation results are compared with the experiment and reveals that the P1 model predicts the location of the maximal radiation intensity unphysically. On the other hand the DTM model does better but over predicts the maximum value of the radiation intensity. This radiation sensitivity study is a first step on the way to identify a suitable radiation transport and spectral model in order to implement both in an existing 3D Navier-Stokes Code. Including radiation heat transfer we intend to investigate the influence on the overall energy balance in a hydrogen/oxygen rocket combustion chamber.
Study of Gas Flow Characteristics in Tight Porous Media with a Microscale Lattice Boltzmann Model
Zhao, Jianlin; Yao, Jun; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Yongfei; Sun, Hai; An, Senyou; Li, Aifen
2016-01-01
To investigate the gas flow characteristics in tight porous media, a microscale lattice Boltzmann (LB) model with the regularization procedure is firstly adopted to simulate gas flow in three-dimensional (3D) digital rocks. A shale digital rock and a sandstone digital rock are reconstructed to study the effects of pressure, temperature and pore size on microscale gas flow. The simulation results show that because of the microscale effect in tight porous media, the apparent permeability is always higher than the intrinsic permeability, and with the decrease of pressure or pore size, or with the increase of temperature, the difference between apparent permeability and intrinsic permeability increases. In addition, the Knudsen numbers under different conditions are calculated and the results show that gas flow characteristics in the digital rocks under different Knudsen numbers are quite different. With the increase of Knudsen number, gas flow in the digital rocks becomes more uniform and the effect of heterogeneity of the porous media on gas flow decreases. Finally, two commonly used apparent permeability calculation models are evaluated by the simulation results and the Klinkenberg model shows better accuracy. In addition, a better proportionality factor in Klinkenberg model is proposed according to the simulation results. PMID:27587293
Study of Gas Flow Characteristics in Tight Porous Media with a Microscale Lattice Boltzmann Model.
Zhao, Jianlin; Yao, Jun; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Yongfei; Sun, Hai; An, Senyou; Li, Aifen
2016-01-01
To investigate the gas flow characteristics in tight porous media, a microscale lattice Boltzmann (LB) model with the regularization procedure is firstly adopted to simulate gas flow in three-dimensional (3D) digital rocks. A shale digital rock and a sandstone digital rock are reconstructed to study the effects of pressure, temperature and pore size on microscale gas flow. The simulation results show that because of the microscale effect in tight porous media, the apparent permeability is always higher than the intrinsic permeability, and with the decrease of pressure or pore size, or with the increase of temperature, the difference between apparent permeability and intrinsic permeability increases. In addition, the Knudsen numbers under different conditions are calculated and the results show that gas flow characteristics in the digital rocks under different Knudsen numbers are quite different. With the increase of Knudsen number, gas flow in the digital rocks becomes more uniform and the effect of heterogeneity of the porous media on gas flow decreases. Finally, two commonly used apparent permeability calculation models are evaluated by the simulation results and the Klinkenberg model shows better accuracy. In addition, a better proportionality factor in Klinkenberg model is proposed according to the simulation results. PMID:27587293
Lagrangian approach to modeling unsteady gas-liquid flow in a well
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liapidevskii, V. Yu; Tikhonov, V.
2016-06-01
The purpose of this paper is to develop a numerical method of solving the problem of evolution of the finite gas volume that entered in a liquid flow at a set flow rate. The drift- flux model is used as gas-liquid mixture equations. The velocities of both phases, mixture and gas, are related by the Zuber-Findlay equation which coefficients depend on flow regime and gas void fraction. Lagrangian coordinates are used to simplify the initial equations. The numerical solution scheme is proposed. The numerical solution of the Riemann problem is verified by comparison with the exact self-similar solution. The model and numerical method efficiency is illustrated by examples of gas kick calculations in a vertical well.
The 3-D CFD modeling of gas turbine combustor-integral bleed flow interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, D. Y.; Reynolds, R. S.
1993-01-01
An advanced 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed to analyze the flow interaction between a gas turbine combustor and an integral bleed plenum. In this model, the elliptic governing equations of continuity, momentum and the k-e turbulence model were solved on a boundary-fitted, curvilinear, orthogonal grid system. The model was first validated against test data from public literature and then applied to a gas turbine combustor with integral bleed. The model predictions agreed well with data from combustor rig testing. The model predictions also indicated strong flow interaction between the combustor and the integral bleed. Integral bleed flow distribution was found to have a great effect on the pressure distribution around the gas turbine combustor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Artemov, V. I.; Sinkevich, O. A.
1986-02-01
A semiempirical turbulence model describing the interaction between an electric arc and a turbulent gas flow is proposed which is based on the closure of the balance equations of second-order moments. The model accounts for the effect of gas density and electrodynamic parameter fluctuations. Based on the model proposed here, an algorithm is developed for calculating turbulent plasma flows in channels with complex boundary conditions, such as injection and suction. The efficiency of the model is verified experimentally.
Modelling of evaporation of a dispersed liquid component in a chemically active gas flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kryukov, V. G.; Naumov, V. I.; Kotov, V. Yu.
1994-01-01
A model has been developed to investigate evaporation of dispersed liquids in chemically active gas flow. Major efforts have been directed at the development of algorithms for implementing this model. The numerical experiments demonstrate that, in the boundary layer, significant changes in the composition and temperature of combustion products take place. This gives the opportunity to more correctly model energy release processes in combustion chambers of liquid-propellant rocket engines, gas-turbine engines, and other power devices.
General slip regime permeability model for gas flow through porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Bo; Jiang, Peixue; Xu, Ruina; Ouyang, Xiaolong
2016-07-01
A theoretical effective gas permeability model was developed for rarefied gas flow in porous media, which holds over the entire slip regime with the permeability derived as a function of the Knudsen number. This general slip regime model (GSR model) is derived from the pore-scale Navier-Stokes equations subject to the first-order wall slip boundary condition using the volume-averaging method. The local closure problem for the volume-averaged equations is studied analytically and numerically using a periodic sphere array geometry. The GSR model includes a rational fraction function of the Knudsen number which leads to a limit effective permeability as the Knudsen number increases. The mechanism for this behavior is the viscous fluid inner friction caused by converging-diverging flow channels in porous media. A linearization of the GSR model leads to the Klinkenberg equation for slightly rarefied gas flows. Finite element simulations show that the Klinkenberg model overestimates the effective permeability by as much as 33% when a flow approaches the transition regime. The GSR model reduces to the unified permeability model [F. Civan, "Effective correlation of apparent gas permeability in tight porous media," Transp. Porous Media 82, 375 (2010)] for the flow in the slip regime and clarifies the physical significance of the empirical parameter b in the unified model.
Particle-Resolved Direct Numerical Simulation for Gas-Solid Flow Model Development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tenneti, Sudheer; Subramaniam, Shankar
2014-01-01
Gas-solid flows in nature and industrial applications are characterized by multiscale and nonlinear interactions that manifest as rich flow physics and pose unique modeling challenges. In this article, we review particle-resolved direct numerical simulation (PR-DNS) of the microscale governing equations for understanding gas-solid flow physics and obtaining quantitative information for model development. A clear connection between a microscale realization and meso/macroscale representation is necessary for PR-DNS to be used effectively for model development at the meso- and macroscale. Furthermore, the design of PR-DNS must address the computational challenges of parameterizing models in a high-dimensional parameter space and obtaining accurate statistics of flow properties from a finite number of realizations at acceptable grid resolution. This review also summarizes selected recent insights into the physics of momentum, kinetic energy, and heat transfer in gas-solid flows obtained from PR-DNS. Promising future applications of PR-DNS include the study of the effect of number fluctuations on hydrodynamics, instabilities in gas-solid flow, and wall-bounded flows.
Li, Zhihui; Ma, Qiang; Wu, Junlin; Jiang, Xinyu; Zhang, Hanxin
2014-12-09
Based on the Gas-Kinetic Unified Algorithm (GKUA) directly solving the Boltzmann model equation, the effect of rotational non-equilibrium is investigated recurring to the kinetic Rykov model with relaxation property of rotational degrees of freedom. The spin movement of diatomic molecule is described by moment of inertia, and the conservation of total angle momentum is taken as a new Boltzmann collision invariant. The molecular velocity distribution function is integrated by the weight factor on the internal energy, and the closed system of two kinetic controlling equations is obtained with inelastic and elastic collisions. The optimization selection technique of discrete velocity ordinate points and numerical quadrature rules for macroscopic flow variables with dynamic updating evolvement are developed to simulate hypersonic flows, and the gas-kinetic numerical scheme is constructed to capture the time evolution of the discretized velocity distribution functions. The gas-kinetic boundary conditions in thermodynamic non-equilibrium and numerical procedures are studied and implemented by directly acting on the velocity distribution function, and then the unified algorithm of Boltzmann model equation involving non-equilibrium effect is presented for the whole range of flow regimes. The hypersonic flows involving non-equilibrium effect are numerically simulated including the inner flows of shock wave structures in nitrogen with different Mach numbers of 1.5-Ma-25, the planar ramp flow with the whole range of Knudsen numbers of 0.0009-Kn-10 and the three-dimensional re-entering flows around tine double-cone body.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhi-Hui; Peng, Ao-Ping; Zhang, Han-Xin; Yang, Jaw-Yen
2015-04-01
This article reviews rarefied gas flow computations based on nonlinear model Boltzmann equations using deterministic high-order gas-kinetic unified algorithms (GKUA) in phase space. The nonlinear Boltzmann model equations considered include the BGK model, the Shakhov model, the Ellipsoidal Statistical model and the Morse model. Several high-order gas-kinetic unified algorithms, which combine the discrete velocity ordinate method in velocity space and the compact high-order finite-difference schemes in physical space, are developed. The parallel strategies implemented with the accompanying algorithms are of equal importance. Accurate computations of rarefied gas flow problems using various kinetic models over wide ranges of Mach numbers 1.2-20 and Knudsen numbers 0.0001-5 are reported. The effects of different high resolution schemes on the flow resolution under the same discrete velocity ordinate method are studied. A conservative discrete velocity ordinate method to ensure the kinetic compatibility condition is also implemented. The present algorithms are tested for the one-dimensional unsteady shock-tube problems with various Knudsen numbers, the steady normal shock wave structures for different Mach numbers, the two-dimensional flows past a circular cylinder and a NACA 0012 airfoil to verify the present methodology and to simulate gas transport phenomena covering various flow regimes. Illustrations of large scale parallel computations of three-dimensional hypersonic rarefied flows over the reusable sphere-cone satellite and the re-entry spacecraft using almost the largest computer systems available in China are also reported. The present computed results are compared with the theoretical prediction from gas dynamics, related DSMC results, slip N-S solutions and experimental data, and good agreement can be found. The numerical experience indicates that although the direct model Boltzmann equation solver in phase space can be computationally expensive
A macroscopic model for slightly compressible gas slip-flow in homogeneous porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lasseux, D.; Parada, F. J. Valdes; Tapia, J. A. Ochoa; Goyeau, B.
2014-05-01
The study of gas slip-flow in porous media is relevant in many applications ranging from nanotechnology to enhanced oil recovery and in any situation involving low-pressure gas-transport through structures having sufficiently small pores. In this paper, we use the method of volume averaging for deriving effective-medium equations in the framework of a slightly compressible gas flow. The result of the upscaling process is an effective-medium model subjected to time- and length-scale constraints, which are clearly identified in our derivation. At the first order in the Knudsen number, the macroscopic momentum transport equation corresponds to a Darcy-like model involving the classical intrinsic permeability tensor and a slip-flow correction tensor that is also intrinsic. It generalizes the Darcy-Klinkenberg equation for ideal gas flow, and exhibits a more complex form for dense gas. The component values of the two intrinsic tensors were computed by solving the associated closure problems on two- and three-dimensional periodic unit cells. Furthermore, the dependence of the slip-flow correction with the porosity was also verified to agree with approximate analytical results. Our predictions show a power-law relationship between the permeability and the slip-flow correction that is consistent with other works. Nevertheless, the generalization of such a relationship to any configuration requires more analysis.
A numerical model for gas-droplet flow application to liquid spray and cooling towers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weinacht, P.; Buchlin, J. M.
1982-07-01
A two dimensional model consisting of coupled sets of equations governing the gas and liquid phases is presented. Modeling the gas phase as a continuum allows use of the Navier-Stokes equations with momentum source terms included. The particle-gas momentum exchange and the influence of the gas flow on the droplet trajectories results in a coupling of both of these sets of equations. Numerical solution of these equations is made in an iterative fashion by solving first the liquid phase equations and then the gas phase equations until a steady state solution is reached. Solution of the liquid phase equations by a fourth order Runge-Kutta method allows subsequent determination of the droplet-gas momentum exchange field. The degrading effect of wind on a spray curtain is demonstrated, though calculations show that curtain performance can be improved by tilting the nozzle into the wind.
Computer Modeling of Flow, Thermal Condition and Ash Deposition in a Hot-Gas Filtration Device
Ahmadi, G.; Mazaheri, A.; Liu, C.; Gamwo, I.K.
2002-09-19
The objective of the present study is to develop a computational model for simulating the gas flow, thermal condition and ash transport and deposition pattern in the hot-gas filtration systems. The computational model is to provide a virtual tool for design and operation modifications. Particular attention is given to the Particle Control Device (PCD) at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Alabama. For evaluation of gas velocity and temperature field in the vessel, the FLUENT commercial CFD computer code is used. Ash particle transport and deposition pattern was analyzed with the Lagrangian particle tracking approach.
A Multidimensional Eulerian Model for Simulating Gas-Solids Flow
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1993-12-13
FORCE2 is a fundamentally based three-dimensional numerical model for simulating fluid-bed hydrodynamics for a wide range of fluid beds, from laboratory to plant scale. It is based upon the ''two-fluid'' modeling approach and includes surface permeabilities, volume porosities, and distributed resistances.
Modeling of two-layer liquid-gas flow with account for evaporation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goncharova, O. N.; Rezanova, E. V.; Lyulin, Yu. V.; Kabov, O. A.
2015-09-01
Two-layer gas-liquid flows and evaporation intensity at the interface were studied. The influence of gas flow rate, longitudinal gradient of temperature, the Soret effect on the nature of flow and transfer processes was demonstrated. Experimental and theoretical results were compared; they show dependence of evaporation at the interface on gas flow rates.
2D models of gas flow and ice grain acceleration in Enceladus' vents using DSMC methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tucker, Orenthal J.; Combi, Michael R.; Tenishev, Valeriy M.
2015-09-01
The gas distribution of the Enceladus water vapor plume and the terminal speeds of ejected ice grains are physically linked to its subsurface fissures and vents. It is estimated that the gas exits the fissures with speeds of ∼300-1000 m/s, while the micron-sized grains are ejected with speeds comparable to the escape speed (Schmidt, J. et al. [2008]. Nature 451, 685-688). We investigated the effects of isolated axisymmetric vent geometries on subsurface gas distributions, and in turn, the effects of gas drag on grain acceleration. Subsurface gas flows were modeled using a collision-limiter Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique in order to consider a broad range of flow regimes (Bird, G. [1994]. Molecular Gas Dynamics and the Direct Simulation of Gas Flows. Oxford University Press, Oxford; Titov, E.V. et al. [2008]. J. Propul. Power 24(2), 311-321). The resulting DSMC gas distributions were used to determine the drag force for the integration of ice grain trajectories in a test particle model. Simulations were performed for diffuse flows in wide channels (Reynolds number ∼10-250) and dense flows in narrow tubular channels (Reynolds number ∼106). We compared gas properties like bulk speed and temperature, and the terminal grain speeds obtained at the vent exit with inferred values for the plume from Cassini data. In the simulations of wide fissures with dimensions similar to that of the Tiger Stripes the resulting subsurface gas densities of ∼1014-1020 m-3 were not sufficient to accelerate even micron-sized ice grains to the Enceladus escape speed. In the simulations of narrow tubular vents with radii of ∼10 m, the much denser flows with number densities of 1021-1023 m-3 accelerated micron-sized grains to bulk gas speed of ∼600 m/s. Further investigations are required to understand the complex relationship between the vent geometry, gas source rate and the sizes and speeds of ejected grains.
Phlipot, J.R.; Pinkston, S.R.; Nurre, H.
1988-02-09
A compact gas flow control valve is described comprising a valve body having a first, rotor cavity-defining portion and a second cover portion covering the rotor cavity, at least one of the body portions including inlet means communicating with the rotor chamber for receiving gas under pressure for providing the gas to the rotor chamber, at least one of the body portions including outlet means for delivery of the gas by the flow control valve, a rotor within the rotor cavity, the rotor including a flat surface, a flow control plate carried by the rotor, the flow control plate covering and lying against the flat surface of the rotor, the rotor having ports opening through the rotor surface, the ports being of sufficiently large size as not to limit the flow of the gas therethrough. The flow control plate comprises a thin, flat metal disc provided with gas flow control orifices extending therethrough and spaced circumferentially around the disc and in registry with respective ones of the ports, the rotor being of substantially greater thickness than the disc, the gas flow control being of different sizes and passage means for providing communication between the outlet means and at least a selected one of the flow control plate origices, selector means for orienting the rotor to permit flow only through selected flow control plate orifices and a corresponding rotor port for delivery by the outlet means.
Model gases for the detailed study of microscopic chemical nonequilibrium in diatomic gas flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kunc, Joseph A.; Muntz, E. Phillip; Weaver, David P.
1990-01-01
It is shown that chlorine (Cl2) and iodine (I2) are suitable model diatomic gases to use in theoretical studies of chemical nonequilibrium that account for rotational and vibrational as well as electronic processes in a gas. Because of the low temperature at which significant dissociation can be achieved in iodine, it is a particularly attractive candidate for the study of relatively low temperature chemically reacting flows, permitting detailed knowledge of the nonequilibrium populations of translational, rotational, vibrational and electronic energy levels. A preliminary investigation indicates that a useful iodine flow facility can be constructed and that diagnostic techniques are available to validate in detail prediction techniques for nonequilibrium flows.
Pan, Dongqing; Chien Jen, Tien; Li, Tao; Yuan, Chris
2014-01-15
This paper characterizes the carrier gas flow in the atomic layer deposition (ALD) vacuum reactor by introducing Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to the ALD simulation through a comparative study of two LBM models. Numerical models of gas flow are constructed and implemented in two-dimensional geometry based on lattice Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (LBGK)-D2Q9 model and two-relaxation-time (TRT) model. Both incompressible and compressible scenarios are simulated and the two models are compared in the aspects of flow features, stability, and efficiency. Our simulation outcome reveals that, for our specific ALD vacuum reactor, TRT model generates better steady laminar flow features all over the domain with better stability and reliability than LBGK-D2Q9 model especially when considering the compressible effects of the gas flow. The LBM-TRT is verified indirectly by comparing the numerical result with conventional continuum-based computational fluid dynamics solvers, and it shows very good agreement with these conventional methods. The velocity field of carrier gas flow through ALD vacuum reactor was characterized by LBM-TRT model finally. The flow in ALD is in a laminar steady state with velocity concentrated at the corners and around the wafer. The effects of flow fields on precursor distributions, surface absorptions, and surface reactions are discussed in detail. Steady and evenly distributed velocity field contribute to higher precursor concentration near the wafer and relatively lower particle velocities help to achieve better surface adsorption and deposition. The ALD reactor geometry needs to be considered carefully if a steady and laminar flow field around the wafer and better surface deposition are desired.
Contribution to complex gas-liquid flows: Development and validation of a mathematical model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selma, Brahim
This study describes the development and validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for the simulation of dispersed two-phase flows taking in the account the population balance of particles size distribution. A two-fluid (Euler-Euler) methodology previously developed for complex flows is adapted to the present project. The continuous phase turbulence is represented using a two-equation k --- epsilon turbulence model which contains additional terms to account for the effects of the dispersed on the continuous phase turbulence and the effects of the gas-liquid interface. The inter-phase momentum transfer is determined from the instantaneous forces acting on the dispersed phase, comprising drag, lift, virtual mass and drift velocity. These forces are phase fraction dependent and in this work revised modelling is put forward in order to capture a good accuracy for gas hold-up, liquid velocity profiles and turbulence parameters. Furthermore, a correlation for the effect of the drift velocity on the turbulence behaviour is proposed. The revised modelling is based on an extensive survey of the existing literature. The conservation equations are discretised using the finite-volume method and solved in a solution procedure, which is loosely based on the PISO algorithm. Special techniques are employed to ensure the stability of the procedure when the phase fraction is high or changing rapidely [61]. Finally, assessment of the model is made with reference to experimental data for gas-liquid bubbly flow in a rectangular bubble column [133; 134; 135; 18], in a double-turbine stirred tank reactor [126; 127] and in an air-lift bioreacator [101]. Key words: mathematical modelling, complex flow gas-liquid, turbulence, population balance, computational fluids dynamics CFD, OpenFOAM, moments method, method of classes, QMOM, DQMOM.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levin, H.; Escorza, M. M.
1983-01-01
Using data available for small rotameters that use spherical floats in gas flow, a linear relationship is derived. It is noted that the relationship provides a good fit for variable volumetric flow, density, and viscosity at constant flow height. With low Reynolds numbers (Re being less than 1), the product of the variable volumetric flow and the viscosity becomes constant; at high Reynolds numbers (Re being greater than 2000), the product of the variable volumetric flow and the square root of the density becomes constant. It is pointed out that the equation given here can be used to obtain an indirect calibration with any gas of known density and viscosity. The constancy of the product of the variable volumetric flow and viscosity at low variable volumetric flows is seen as suggesting the development of simple, inexpensive gas viscometers using rotameter technology.
Lattice-gas models of phase separation: interfaces, phase transitions, and multiphase flow
Rothman, D.H. ); Zaleski, S. )
1994-10-01
Momentum-conserving lattice gases are simple, discrete, microscopic models of fluids. This review describes their hydrodynamics, with particular attention given to the derivation of macroscopic constitutive equations from microscopic dynamics. Lattice-gas models of phase separation receive special emphasis. The current understanding of phase transitions in these momentum-conserving models is reviewed; included in this discussion is a summary of the dynamical properties of interfaces. Because the phase-separation models are microscopically time irreversible, interesting questions are raised about their relationship to real fluid mixtures. Simulation of certain complex-fluid problems, such as multiphase flow through porous media and the interaction of phase transitions with hydrodynamics, is illustrated.
Decay of the 3D inviscid liquid-gas two-phase flow model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yinghui
2016-06-01
We establish the optimal {Lp-L2(1 ≤ p < 6/5)} time decay rates of the solution to the Cauchy problem for the 3D inviscid liquid-gas two-phase flow model and analyze the influences of the damping on the qualitative behaviors of solution. Compared with the viscous liquid-gas two-phase flow model (Zhang and Zhu in J Differ Equ 258:2315-2338, 2015), our results imply that the friction effect of the damping is stronger than the dissipation effect of the viscosities and enhances the decay rate of the velocity. Our proof is based on Hodge decomposition technique, the {Lp-L2} estimates for the linearized equations and an elaborate energy method.
Numerical modeling of non-isothermal gas flow and NAPL vapor transport in soil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pártl, Ondřej; Beneš, Michal; Frolkovič, Peter; Illangasekare, Tissa; Smits, Kathleen
2016-05-01
We introduce a mathematical model for the description of non-isothermal compressible flow of gas mixtures in heterogeneous porous media and we derive an efficient semi-implicit time-stepping numerical scheme for the solution of the governing equations. We experimentally estimate the order of convergence of the scheme in spatial variables and we present several computational studies that demonstrate the ability of the numerical scheme.
Numerical Prediction of Non-Reacting and Reacting Flow in a Model Gas Turbine Combustor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davoudzadeh, Farhad; Liu, Nan-Suey
2005-01-01
The three-dimensional, viscous, turbulent, reacting and non-reacting flow characteristics of a model gas turbine combustor operating on air/methane are simulated via an unstructured and massively parallel Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code. This serves to demonstrate the capabilities of the code for design and analysis of real combustor engines. The effects of some design features of combustors are examined. In addition, the computed results are validated against experimental data.
A gas kinetic scheme for the Baer-Nunziato two-phase flow model
Pan, Liang; Zhao, Guiping; Tian, Baolin; Wang, Shuanghu
2012-09-15
Numerical methods for the Baer-Nunziato (BN) two-phase flow model have attracted much attention in recent years. In this paper, we present a new gas kinetic scheme for the BN two-phase flow model containing non-conservative terms in the framework of finite volume method. In the view of microscopic aspect, a generalized Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model which matches with the BN model is constructed. Based on the integral solution of the generalized BGK model, we construct the distribution functions at the cell interface. Then numerical fluxes can be obtained by taking moments of the distribution functions, and non-conservative terms are explicitly introduced into the construction of numerical fluxes. In this method, not only the complex iterative process of exact solutions is avoided, but also the non-conservative terms included in the equation can be handled well.
Modeling of Gas-Liquid Flow Through An Interconnected Channel Matrix
Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane.H
2009-01-01
The motion of a less viscous, non-wetting gas into a liquid-saturated porous medium is known as drainage. Drainage is an important process in environmental applications, such as enhanced oil recovery and geologic CO2 sequestration. Understanding what conditions will increase the volume of gas that can saturate an initially water-saturated porous medium is of importance for predictions of the total CO2 volume that can be sequestered in known geologic formations. To further the understanding of how drainage flow properties are related to different injection flow-rates, a porous medium consisting of interconnected channels and pores was manufactured to perform bench-top experiments of drainage. Additionally, a finite-volume model of this interconnected channel matrix was constructed. Numerical simulations of constant-rate injection into the model porous medium are first shown to compare favorably to the bench-top experiments. The fluid and injection properties of the drainage process were then varied to evaluate the flow conditions which would maximize the volume of gas trapped within the porous medium. In particular, CO2 displacing brine within the porous medium was modeled, with representative subsurface temperatures and fluid properties. It was shown with these fluid conditions a higher final saturation of the invading less-viscous CO2 was obtained, as compared to air into water experiments at similar injection rates.
Method of Verification of the Numerical Codes for Modeling of Flows in Gas Centrifuge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogovalov, S. V.; Borisevich, V. D.; Borman, V. D.; Kislov, V. A.; Tronin, I. V.; Tronin, V. N.
A simple semi-analytical solution is proposed for the verification of numerical codes for modeling of unsteady gas flows in strong centrifugal fields. The gas flow is driven by a source/sink of energy and by an external force (deceleration/acceleration of the gas rotation) acting on the gas at a given frequency. In the semi-analytical solution, the rotor is infinite, while the given forces vary harmonically with a given wave-length along the axial coordinate. As a result, the unsteady flow problem is reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations, which can be quickly solved to any prescribed accuracy. A similar unsteady problem is solved numerically with the rotor length equal to the wavelength of the external force along the axis of rotation. The periodicity of the solution is prescribed at the end faces of the rotor. As an example, the semi-analytical solution is compared with the numerical ones obtained with different boundary conditions and mesh resolution in radial direction. The comparison confirms that the problem formulations are equivalent in both cases. The semi-analytical solution allows us to determine optimal mesh resolution and accuracy of the calculations.
Microscale Modelling of Water and Gas-Water Flows in Subsea Sand Sediment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, T.; Sugita, T.; Hirabayashi, S.; Nagao, J.; Jin, Y.; Kiyono, F.
2009-12-01
Methane hydrate is a promising energy resource in the near future. Its production is a current hot topic and flow of methane gas with water in sediment sand layer is very important to predict the production rate. In this study, permeability of microscale sand layer was numerically simulated by a three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann method. Shapes of real sands were extracted by series expansion of spherical harmonics using CT-scan images of real subsea core samples. These extracted sands were located in a cubic lattice domain by a simulated annealing method to fit to given porosities. Pressure difference was imposed at the both end faces of the domain to flow water and methane gas. By this simulation, permeability of water phase and water-gas two-phase flow were analysed and compared well with existing models. This work was financially supported by Japan's Methane Hydrate R&D Program planned by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). 3D image of an extracted frame-sand grain Distribution of gas and water phases in computational domain for Sw=0.80
Hydrogen turbines for space power systems: A simplified axial flow gas turbine model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hudson, Steven L.
1988-01-01
Hydrogen cooled, turbine powered space weapon systems require a relatively simple, but reasonably accurate hydrogen gas expansion turbine model. Such a simplified turbine model would require little computational time and allow incorporation into system level computer programs while providing reasonably accurate volume/mass estimates. This model would then allow optimization studies to be performed on multiparameter space power systems and provide improved turbine mass and size estimates for the various operating conditions (when compared to empirical and power law approaches). An axial flow gas expansion turbine model was developed for these reasons and is in use as a comparative bench mark in space power system studies at Sandia. The turbine model is based on fluid dynamic, thermodynamic, and material strength considerations, but is considered simplified because it does not account for design details such as boundary layer effects, shock waves, turbulence, stress concentrations, and seal leakage. Although the basic principles presented here apply to any gas or vapor axial flow turbine, hydrogen turbines are discussed because of their immense importance on space burst power platforms.
Measurement of Flow Phenomena in a Lower Plenum Model of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor
Hugh M. McIlroy, Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink
2008-05-01
Mean-velocity-field and turbulence data are presented that measure turbulent flow phenomena in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) similar to a General Atomics Gas-Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GTMHR) design. The data were obtained in the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and are offered for assessing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. This paper reviews the experimental apparatus and procedures, presents a sample of the data set, and reviews the INL Standard Problem. Results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). The flow in the lower plenum consists of multiple jets injected into a confined cross flow - with obstructions. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to approximate flow scaled to that expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. The model is fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive-index of the mineral oil working fluid so that optical techniques may be employed for the measurements. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits optical measurements to determine flow characteristics in complex passages in and around objects to be obtained without locating intrusive transducers that will disturb the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. An advantage of the INL system is its large size, leading to improved spatial and temporal resolution compared to similar facilities at smaller scales. A three-dimensional (3-D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system was used to collect the data. Inlet jet Reynolds numbers (based on the jet diameter and the time-mean average flow rate) are approximately 4,300 and 12
Modeling of gas flow in the cylindrical channels of high-voltage plasma torches with rod electrodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borovskoy, A. M.; Popov, S. D.; Surov, A. V.
2013-08-01
The article is devoted to the calculation of gas dynamic parameters of gas flow in various areas of low-temperature plasma generator, therefore, target area's grid was built for the simulation of plasma gas flow in channels of studied high-voltage AC plasma torches and calculations of three-dimensional gas flow was made using GAMBIT and FLUENT soft-ware and Spalart-Allmares turbulence model, air flow was simulated in the tangential feed's areas, in the cylindrical channel, in the tapering nozzle chamber and in the mixing chamber of plasma torches and outside (in the environment); thus, 3D-modelling of the cold plasma-forming gas flow was performed in cylindrical channels of studied high-voltage AC plasma torches with rod electrodes for the first time.
Eck, H. J. N. van; Koppers, W. R.; Rooij, G. J. van; Goedheer, W. J.; Cardozo, N. J. Lopes; Kleyn, A. W.; Engeln, R.; Schram, D. C.
2009-03-15
The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method was used to investigate the efficiency of differential pumping in linear plasma generators operating at high gas flows. Skimmers are used to separate the neutrals from the plasma beam, which is guided from the source to the target by a strong axial magnetic field. In this way, the neutrals are prevented to reach the target region. The neutral flux to the target must be lower than the plasma flux to enable ITER relevant plasma-surface interaction (PSI) studies. It is therefore essential to control the neutral gas dynamics. The DSMC method was used to model the expansion of a hot gas in a low pressure vessel where a small discrepancy in shock position was found between the simulations and a well-established empirical formula. Two stage differential pumping was modeled and applied in the linear plasma devices Pilot-PSI and PLEXIS. In Pilot-PSI a factor of 4.5 pressure reduction for H{sub 2} has been demonstrated. Both simulations and experiments showed that the optimum skimmer position depends on the position of the shock and therefore shifts for different gas parameters. The shape of the skimmer has to be designed such that it has a minimum impact on the shock structure. A too large angle between the skimmer and the forward direction of the gas flow leads to an influence on the expansion structure. A pressure increase in front of the skimmer is formed and the flow of the plasma beam becomes obstructed. It has been shown that a skimmer with an angle around 53 deg. gives the best performance. The use of skimmers is implemented in the design of the large linear plasma generator Magnum-PSI. Here, a three stage differentially pumped vacuum system is used to reach low enough neutral pressures near the target, opening a door to PSI research in the ITER relevant regime.
Application of Lumley's drag reduction model to two-phase gas-particle flow in a pipe
Han, K.S.; Chung, M.K.; Sung, H.J. )
1991-03-01
This paper discusses two-fluid model incorporated with Lumley's drag reduction model to analyze the mechanism of momentum transfer in the turbulent dilute gas-particle flow in a vertical pipe. The change of the effective viscous sublayer thickness by the presence of particles is modeled by Lumley's theoretical model. The numerical computations of the friction factor and the pressure drop in a fully developed pipe flow are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data for an average particle size of 15 {mu}m. it is proved that Lumley's model is successful in predicting the correct reduction behavior of the drag in the gas-particle flows It has been confirmed that the effective viscous sublayer thickness for two-phase gas-particle flow is dependent on the particle relaxation time, Kolmogoroff time scale and the solids-gas loading ratio.
Model for high rate gas flows in deformable and reactive porous beds
Weston, A M
1985-01-08
This report presents the development of a one dimensional planar Lagrange hydrodynamic computer model which describes the processes preceding detonation. The model treats gas flow, deflagration, and compaction in a porous bed of reactive material. The early part of deflagration to detonation experiment with porous HMX is simulated. Sensitivity of the simulation calculation to ignition and burn rate parameters is illustrated and discussed. The effects of changing the mean particle size of the porous material are investigated. There is widespread interest in runaway reaction hazards that may be associated with porosity in propellant and explosive materials. Experimentally, such reactions are initiated and observed in long, thick walled hollow tubes, filled with a granular porous bed of reactive material. We will present comparisons with an experiment on porous HMX to illustrate details of the model and to point out what we believe are important features of the observed phenomenon. A geometric finite element cell is devised that allows gas to flow through a compacting matrix. The experimental simulation considers the DDT process from initial squib burn through the onset of general matrix deflagration (convective burning), to the development of a fully dense compaction wave. While this simulation did not calculate turnover to detonation, it did illustrate that the transition occurred as soon as the compaction wave became fully dense. It is shown that deflagration and gas permeation lags compaction at the time of transition. This suggests that the actual transition involves an additional compaction dependent process. 18 references, 20 figures, 3 tables.
Paraelectric gas flow accelerator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sherman, Daniel M. (Inventor); Wilkinson, Stephen P. (Inventor); Roth, J. Reece (Inventor)
2001-01-01
A substrate is configured with first and second sets of electrodes, where the second set of electrodes is positioned asymmetrically between the first set of electrodes. When a RF voltage is applied to the electrodes sufficient to generate a discharge plasma (e.g., a one-atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma) in the gas adjacent to the substrate, the asymmetry in the electrode configuration results in force being applied to the active species in the plasma and in turn to the neutral background gas. Depending on the relative orientation of the electrodes to the gas, the present invention can be used to accelerate or decelerate the gas. The present invention has many potential applications, including increasing or decreasing aerodynamic drag or turbulence, and controlling the flow of active and/or neutral species for such uses as flow separation, altering heat flow, plasma cleaning, sterilization, deposition, etching, or alteration in wettability, printability, and/or adhesion.
A mathematical model of fluid and gas flow in nanoporous media.
Monteiro, Paulo J M; Rycroft, Chris H; Barenblatt, Grigory Isaakovich
2012-12-11
The mathematical modeling of the flow in nanoporous rocks (e.g., shales) becomes an important new branch of subterranean fluid mechanics. The classic approach that was successfully used in the construction of the technology to develop oil and gas deposits in the United States, Canada, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics becomes insufficient for deposits in shales. In the present article a mathematical model of the flow in nanoporous rocks is proposed. The model assumes the rock consists of two components: (i) a matrix, which is more or less an ordinary porous or fissurized-porous medium, and (ii) specific organic inclusions composed of kerogen. These inclusions may have substantial porosity but, due to the nanoscale of pores, tubes, and channels, have extremely low permeability on the order of a nanodarcy (~109-²¹ m² ) or less. These inclusions contain the majority of fluid: oil and gas. Our model is based on the hypothesis that the permeability of the inclusions substantially depends on the pressure gradient. At the beginning of the development of the deposit, boundary layers are formed at the boundaries of the low-permeable inclusions, where the permeability is strongly increased and intensive flow from inclusions to the matrix occurs. The resulting formulae for the production rate of the deposit are presented in explicit form. The formulae demonstrate that the production rate of deposits decays with time following a power law whose exponent lies between -1/2 and -1. Processing of experimental data obtained from various oil and gas deposits in shales demonstrated an instructive agreement with the prediction of the model. PMID:23188803
A mathematical model of fluid and gas flow in nanoporous media
Monteiro, Paulo J. M.; Rycroft, Chris H.; Barenblatt, Grigory Isaakovich
2012-01-01
The mathematical modeling of the flow in nanoporous rocks (e.g., shales) becomes an important new branch of subterranean fluid mechanics. The classic approach that was successfully used in the construction of the technology to develop oil and gas deposits in the United States, Canada, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics becomes insufficient for deposits in shales. In the present article a mathematical model of the flow in nanoporous rocks is proposed. The model assumes the rock consists of two components: (i) a matrix, which is more or less an ordinary porous or fissurized-porous medium, and (ii) specific organic inclusions composed of kerogen. These inclusions may have substantial porosity but, due to the nanoscale of pores, tubes, and channels, have extremely low permeability on the order of a nanodarcy () or less. These inclusions contain the majority of fluid: oil and gas. Our model is based on the hypothesis that the permeability of the inclusions substantially depends on the pressure gradient. At the beginning of the development of the deposit, boundary layers are formed at the boundaries of the low-permeable inclusions, where the permeability is strongly increased and intensive flow from inclusions to the matrix occurs. The resulting formulae for the production rate of the deposit are presented in explicit form. The formulae demonstrate that the production rate of deposits decays with time following a power law whose exponent lies between and . Processing of experimental data obtained from various oil and gas deposits in shales demonstrated an instructive agreement with the prediction of the model. PMID:23188803
Measurement of Flow Phenomena in a Lower Plenum Model of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor
Hugh M. McIlroy, Jr.; Doanld M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink
2010-02-01
Mean-velocity-field and turbulence data are presented that measure turbulent flow phenomena in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) similar to a General Atomics Gas-Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GTMHR) design. The data were obtained in the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and are offered for assessing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. Results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). The flow in the lower plenum consists of multiple jets injected into a confined cross flow - with obstructions. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to approximate geometry scaled to that expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. The model is fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive-index of the working fluid so that optical techniques may be employed for the measurements. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits optical measurements to determine flow characteristics in complex passages in and around objects to be obtained without locating intrusive transducers that will disturb the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. An advantage of the INL system is its large size, leading to improved spatial and temporal resolution compared to similar facilities at smaller scales. A three-dimensional (3-D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system was used to collect the data. Inlet jet Reynolds numbers (based on the jet diameter and the time-mean bulk velocity) are approximately 4,300 and 12,400. Uncertainty analyses and a discussion of the standard problem are included. The measurements reveal developing, non-uniform, turbulent flow in the
Comparison of analytic models of instability of rarefied gas flow in a channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aksenova, Olga A.; Khalidov, Iskander A.
2014-12-01
Numerical and analytical results are compared concerning the limit properties of the trajectories, attractors and bifurcations of rarefied gas flows in channels. The cascade of bifurcations obtained in our previous analytical and numerical investigations is simulated numerically for different scattering functions V generalizing the ray-diffuse reflection of gas particles from the surface. The main purpose of numerical simulation by Monte Carlo method is the investigation of the properties of different analytic nonlinear dynamic systems corresponding to rarefied gas flow in a channel. The results are compared as well for the models suggested originally by R. N. Miroshin, as for the approximations considered for the first time or for studied in our subsequent papers. Analytical solutions we obtained earlier for the ray reflection which means only one determined velocity of scattered from the walls gas atoms, generally different from the specular reflection. The nonlinear iterative equation describing a rarefied gas flow in a long channel becomes unstable in some regions of corresponding parameters of V (it means the sensitivity to boundary conditions). The values of the parameters are found from analytical approximations in these regions. Numerical results show that the chaotic behavior of the nonlinear dynamic system corresponds to strange attractors and distinguishes clearly from Maxwellian distribution and from the equilibrium on the whole. In the regions of instability (as the dimension of the attractor increases) the search for a corresponding state requires a lot more computation time and a lot of data (the amount of data required increases exponentially with embedding dimension). Therefore the main complication in the computation is reducing as well the computing time as the amount of data to find a suitably close solution. To reduce the computing time our analytical results are applied. Flow conditions satisfying the requirements to the experiment are
Poly-Gaussian model of randomly rough surface in rarefied gas flow
Aksenova, Olga A.; Khalidov, Iskander A.
2014-12-09
Surface roughness is simulated by the model of non-Gaussian random process. Our results for the scattering of rarefied gas atoms from a rough surface using modified approach to the DSMC calculation of rarefied gas flow near a rough surface are developed and generalized applying the poly-Gaussian model representing probability density as the mixture of Gaussian densities. The transformation of the scattering function due to the roughness is characterized by the roughness operator. Simulating rough surface of the walls by the poly-Gaussian random field expressed as integrated Wiener process, we derive a representation of the roughness operator that can be applied in numerical DSMC methods as well as in analytical investigations.
A macroscopic model for countercurrent gas-liquid flow in packed columns
Dankworth, D.C.; Sundaresan, S. )
1989-08-01
A macroscopic model based on the volume-averaged equations of motion is presented for countercurrent gas-liquid flow in a packed bed. The model yields a column-limited flooding point as the loss of existence of uniform states. It correctly predicts the existence of two uniform states below the flooding point. The lower branch corresponds to the trends commonly observed experimentally. It is shown that the upper branch is made unattainable by the gas distributor/support plate at the bottom of the column. The occurrence of premature flooding induced by the support plate is also explained. It is suggested that the occurrence of spontaneous liquid segregation, necessitating frequent liquid redistribution in columns with large dumped packings and porosities, is a consequence of the loss of stability of the uniform state in the lower branch.
Zheng, Dandan; Hou, Huirang; Zhang, Tao
2016-04-01
For ultrasonic gas flow rate measurement based on ultrasonic exponential model, when the noise frequency is close to that of the desired signals (called similar-frequency noise) or the received signal amplitude is small and unstable at big flow rate, local convergence of the algorithm genetic-ant colony optimization-3cycles may appear, and measurement accuracy may be affected. Therefore, an improved method energy genetic-ant colony optimization-3cycles (EGACO-3cycles) is proposed to solve this problem. By judging the maximum energy position of signal, the initial parameter range of exponential model can be narrowed and then the local convergence can be avoided. Moreover, a DN100 flow rate measurement system with EGACO-3cycles method is established based on NI PCI-6110 and personal computer. A series of experiments are carried out for testing the new method and the measurement system. It is shown that local convergence doesn't appear with EGACO-3cycles method when similar-frequency noises exist and flow rate is big. Then correct time of flight can be obtained. Furthermore, through flow calibration on this system, the measurement range ratio is achieved 500:1, and the measurement accuracy is 0.5% with a low transition velocity 0.3 m/s. PMID:26821309
Modeling Hot Gas Flow in the Low-luminosity Active Galactic Nucleus of NGC 3115
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shcherbakov, Roman V.; Wong, Ka-Wah; Irwin, Jimmy A.; Reynolds, Christopher S.
2014-02-01
Based on the dynamical black hole (BH) mass estimates, NGC 3115 hosts the closest billion solar mass BH. Deep studies of the center revealed a very underluminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) immersed in an old massive nuclear star cluster. Recent 1 Ms Chandra X-ray visionary project observations of the NGC 3115 nucleus resolved hot tenuous gas, which fuels the AGN. In this paper we connect the processes in the nuclear star cluster with the feeding of the supermassive BH. We model the hot gas flow sustained by the injection of matter and energy from the stars and supernova explosions. We incorporate electron heat conduction as the small-scale feedback mechanism, the gravitational pull of the stellar mass, cooling, and Coulomb collisions. Fitting simulated X-ray emission to the spatially and spectrally resolved observed data, we find the best-fitting solutions with χ2/dof = 1.00 for dof = 236 both with and without conduction. The radial modeling favors a low BH mass <1.3 × 109 M ⊙. The best-fitting supernova rate and the best-fitting mass injection rate are consistent with their expected values. The stagnation point is at r st <~ 1'', so that most of the gas, including the gas at a Bondi radius rB = 2''-4'', outflows from the region. We put an upper limit on the accretion rate at 2 × 10-3 M ⊙ yr-1. We find a shallow density profile nvpropr -β with β ≈ 1 over a large dynamic range. This density profile is determined in the feeding region 0.''5-10'' as an interplay of four processes and effects: (1) the radius-dependent mass injection, (2) the effect of the galactic gravitational potential, (3) the accretion flow onset at r <~ 1'', and (4) the outflow at r >~ 1''. The gas temperature is close to the virial temperature Tv at any radius.
Model simulation and experiments of flow and mass transport through a nano-material gas filter
Yang, Xiaofan; Zheng, Zhongquan C.; Winecki, Slawomir; Eckels, Steve
2013-11-01
A computational model for evaluating the performance of nano-material packed-bed filters was developed. The porous effects of the momentum and mass transport within the filter bed were simulated. For the momentum transport, an extended Ergun-type model was employed and the energy loss (pressure drop) along the packed-bed was simulated and compared with measurement. For the mass transport, a bulk dsorption model was developed to study the adsorption process (breakthrough behavior). Various types of porous materials and gas flows were tested in the filter system where the mathematical models used in the porous substrate were implemented and validated by comparing with experimental data and analytical solutions under similar conditions. Good agreements were obtained between experiments and model predictions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazik, D.; Samani, S.; Geistlinger, H.
2008-12-01
A multi-scale optical imaging technique was developed allowing for the 2D observation of two phase flow in porous media at two different scales simultaneously: Using two coupled camera systems a 2D flow cell (0.5 x 0.5 m²) is recorded entirely at the bench scale and at the pore scale with a spatial resolution of 0.5 mm and 0.01 mm respectively. The technique is applied to study channelized gas flow in saturated 0.5mm glass beads. We analyze the phase distribution at the pore scale and derive a pixel-based method for the measurement of saturation at the larger scale. Pore-Scale-Models: Both a grain-size- and flow rate-dependent transition are observed in the gas flow pattern. Standard quasi-static criteria do not explain the experimental results, since they do not take into account the competition between stabilizing friction forces and destabilizing capillary and gravitational forces. Conceptualizing the steady state tortuous gas flow as core-annular flow and applying Hagen-Poiseuille flow for a straight capillary, we propose a flow rate and grain-size-dependent stability criterion (coherence condition) that accounts for the experimental results. Continuum Scale Models: The main objective of this paper is to test the validity of the continuum approach for two-fluid flow for macroscopic homogeneous media. Using a reasonable log-normal distribution of capillary radii that led to a matrix potential that fits the experimental steady-state capillary pressure, the continuum model (TOUGH2) was able to describe the functional form of the dynamical gas volume, an integral flow property, as a function of the flow rate for the 0.5mm glass beads. On the other hand, the continuum model fails to describe the spatial-temporal distribution of the gas flow. For the first time, we were able to quantify the plateau-like gas distribution using optical tomography. This result is in strong contradiction to the Gaussian-like distribution obtained from the continuum model. Both
Gas flow through rough microchannels in the transition flow regime.
Deng, Zilong; Chen, Yongping; Shao, Chenxi
2016-01-01
A multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model of Couette flow is developed to investigate the rarified gas flow through microchannels with roughness characterized by fractal geometry, especially to elucidate the coupled effects of roughness and rarefaction on microscale gas flow in the transition flow regime. The results indicate that the surface roughness effect on gas flow behavior becomes more significant in rarefied gas flow with the increase of Knudsen number. We find the gas flow behavior in the transition flow regime is more sensitive to roughness height than that in the slip flow regime. In particular, the influence of fractal dimension on rarefied gas flow behavior is less significant than roughness height. PMID:26871175
Sub-grid drag models for horizontal cylinder arrays immersed in gas-particle multiphase flows
Sarkar, Avik; Sun, Xin; Sundaresan, Sankaran
2013-09-08
Immersed cylindrical tube arrays often are used as heat exchangers in gas-particle fluidized beds. In multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of large fluidized beds, explicit resolution of small cylinders is computationally infeasible. Instead, the cylinder array may be viewed as an effective porous medium in coarse-grid simulations. The cylinders' influence on the suspension as a whole, manifested as an effective drag force, and on the relative motion between gas and particles, manifested as a correction to the gas-particle drag, must be modeled via suitable sub-grid constitutive relationships. In this work, highly resolved unit-cell simulations of flow around an array of horizontal cylinders, arranged in a staggered configuration, are filtered to construct sub-grid, or `filtered', drag models, which can be implemented in coarse-grid simulations. The force on the suspension exerted by the cylinders is comprised of, as expected, a buoyancy contribution, and a kinetic component analogous to fluid drag on a single cylinder. Furthermore, the introduction of tubes also is found to enhance segregation at the scale of the cylinder size, which, in turn, leads to a reduction in the filtered gas-particle drag.
Modeling of static and flowing-gas diode pumped alkali lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barmashenko, Boris D.; Auslender, Ilya; Yacoby, Eyal; Waichman, Karol; Sadot, Oren; Rosenwaks, Salman
2016-03-01
Modeling of static and flowing-gas subsonic, transonic and supersonic Cs and K Ti:Sapphire and diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) is reported. A simple optical model applied to the static K and Cs lasers shows good agreement between the calculated and measured dependence of the laser power on the incident pump power. The model reproduces the observed threshold pump power in K DPAL which is much higher than that predicted by standard models of the DPAL. Scaling up flowing-gas DPALs to megawatt class power is studied using accurate three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model, taking into account the effects of temperature rise and losses of alkali atoms due to ionization. Both the maximum achievable power and laser beam quality are estimated for Cs and K lasers. The performance of subsonic and, in particular, supersonic DPALs is compared with that of transonic, where supersonic nozzle and diffuser are spared and high power mechanical pump (needed for recovery of the gas total pressure which strongly drops in the diffuser), is not required for continuous closed cycle operation. For pumping by beams of the same rectangular cross section, comparison between end-pumping and transverse-pumping shows that the output power is not affected by the pump geometry, however, the intensity of the output laser beam in the case of transverse-pumped DPALs is strongly non-uniform in the laser beam cross section resulting in higher brightness and better beam quality in the far field for the end-pumping geometry where the intensity of the output beam is uniform.
2005-07-01
This work was carried out to understand the behavior of the solid and gas phases in a CFB riser. Only the riser is modeled as a straight pipe. A model with linear algebraic approximation to solids viscosity of the form, {musubs} = 5.34{epsisubs}, ({espisubs} is the solids volume fraction) with an appropriate boundary condition at the wall obtained by approximate momentum balance solution at the wall to acount for the solids recirculation is tested against experimental results. The work done was to predict the flow patterns in the CFB risers from available experimental data, including data from a 7.5-cm-ID CFB riser at the Illinois Institute of Technology and data from a 20.0-cm-ID CFB riser at the Particulate Solid Research, Inc., facility. This research aims at modeling the removal of hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas using zinc oxide as the sorbent in a circulating fluidized bed and in the process indentifying the parameters that affect the performance of the sulfidation reactor. Two different gas-solid reaction models, the unreacted shrinking core (USC) and the grain model were applied to take into account chemical reaction resistances. Also two different approaches were used to affect the hydrodynamics of the process streams. The first model takes into account the effect of micro-scale particle clustering by adjusting the gas-particle drag law and the second one assumes a turbulent core with pseudo-steady state boundary condition at the wall. A comparison is made with experimental results.
Numerical modeling of condensation from vapor-gas mixtures for forced down flow inside a tube
Yuann, R Y; Schrock, V E; Chen, Xiang
1995-09-01
Laminar film condensation is the dominant heat transfer mode inside tubes. In the present paper direct numerical simulation of the detailed transport process within the steam-gas core flow and in the condensate film is carried out. The problem was posed as an axisymmetric two dimensional (r, z) gas phase inside an annular condensate film flow with an assumed smooth interface. The fundamental conservation equations were written for mass, momentum, species concentration and energy in the gaseous phase with effective diffusion parameters characterizing the turbulent region. The low Reynolds number two equation {kappa}-{epsilon} model was employed to determine the eddy diffusion coefficients. The liquid film was described by similar formulation without the gas species equation. An empirical correlation was employed to correct for the effect of film waviness on the interfacial shear. A computer code named COAPIT (Condensation Analysis Program Inside Tube) was developed to implement numerical solution of the fundamental equations. The equations were solved by a marching technique working downstream from the entrance of the condensing section. COAPIT was benchmarked against experimental data and overall reasonable agreement was found for the key parameters such as heat transfer coefficient and tube inner wall temperature. The predicted axial development of radial profiles of velocity, composition and temperature and occurrence of metastable vapor add insight to the physical phenomena.
A numerical reduced model for thin liquid films sheared by a gas flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lavalle, G.; Vila, J.-P.; Blanchard, G.; Laurent, C.; Charru, F.
2015-11-01
The non-linear dynamics of thin liquid films sheared by a laminar gas flow in a channel is investigated. Such a two-layer flow is driven by pressure gradient and possibly by the gravity force. We describe the liquid phase with a long-wave integral model, with the aim to save computational cost with respect to the full Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equations. We derive this long-wave model by the integration of the Navier-Stokes equations over the film thickness, and by an asymptotic expansion up to the first order in terms of a long-wave parameter. These depth-integrated (or shallow water) equations are discretized by means of an augmented system, which holds an evolution equation for the surface tension in order to avoid numerical instabilities of classical upwind and centered schemes. On the other side, we study the gas phase with compressible Navier-Stokes equations, and we discretize them by means of a low-Mach scheme, accounting also for moving meshes (ALE). In order to analyze liquid-gas interactions, we introduce then a coupling methodology between depth-integrated equations and Navier-Stokes equations. This approach represents a compromise between the two existing methods: the full DNS, and the full long-wave model applied to both phases. In order to validate this approach, we present comparisons with DNS, showing a good agreement of spatio-temporal evolutions of the film thickness and the stress field. Furthermore, interfacial shear stress and pressure gradient evolutions are shown to be in accordance with those provided by two-layer second-order low-dimensional models.
Kinetic model for the vibrational energy exchange in flowing molecular gas mixtures. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Offenhaeuser, F.
1987-01-01
The present study is concerned with the development of a computational model for the description of the vibrational energy exchange in flowing gas mixtures, taking into account a given number of energy levels for each vibrational degree of freedom. It is possible to select an arbitrary number of energy levels. The presented model uses values in the range from 10 to approximately 40. The distribution of energy with respect to these levels can differ from the equilibrium distribution. The kinetic model developed can be employed for arbitrary gaseous mixtures with an arbitrary number of vibrational degrees of freedom for each type of gas. The application of the model to CO2-H2ON2-O2-He mixtures is discussed. The obtained relations can be utilized in a study of the suitability of radiation-related transitional processes, involving the CO2 molecule, for laser applications. It is found that the computational results provided by the model agree very well with experimental data obtained for a CO2 laser. Possibilities for the activation of a 16-micron and 14-micron laser are considered.
Experimental validation of a direct simulation by Monte Carlo molecular gas flow model
Shufflebotham, P.K.; Bartel, T.J.; Berney, B.
1995-07-01
The Sandia direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) molecular/transition gas flow simulation code has significant potential as a computer-aided design tool for the design of vacuum systems in low pressure plasma processing equipment. The purpose of this work was to verify the accuracy of this code through direct comparison to experiment. To test the DSMC model, a fully instrumented, axisymmetric vacuum test cell was constructed, and spatially resolved pressure measurements made in N{sub 2} at flows from 50 to 500 sccm. In a ``blind`` test, the DSMC code was used to model the experimental conditions directly, and the results compared to the measurements. It was found that the model predicted all the experimental findings to a high degree of accuracy. Only one modeling issue was uncovered. The axisymmetric model showed localized low pressure spots along the axis next to surfaces. Although this artifact did not significantly alter the accuracy of the results, it did add noise to the axial data. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Vacuum} {ital Society}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, S.; Eastwick, C. N.; Simmons, K. A.; McCartney, D. G.
2001-09-01
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to predict gas dynamic behavior in a high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray gun in which premixed oxygen and propylene are burnt in a 12 mm combustion chamber linked to a parallel-sided nozzle. The CFD analysis is applied to investigate axisymmetric, steady-state, turbulent, compressible, and chemically combusting flow both within the gun and in a free jet region between the gun and the substrate to be coated. The combustion of oxygen and propylene is modeled using a single-step, finite-rate chemistry model that also allows for dissociation of the reaction products. Results are presented to show the effect of (1) fuel-to-oxygen gas ratio and (2) total gas flow rate on the gas dynamic behavior. Along the centerline, the maximum temperature reached is insensitive to the gas ratio but depends on the total flow. However, the value attained (˜2500 K) is significantly lower than the maximum temperature (˜3200 K) of the annular flame in the combustion chamber. By contrast, the centerline gas velocity depends on both total flow and gas ratio, the highest axial gas velocity being attained with the higher flow and most fuel-rich mixture. The gas Mach number increases through the gun and reaches a maximum value of approximately 1.6 around 5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. The numerical calculations also show that the residual oxygen level is principally dependent on the fuel-to-oxygen ratio and decreases by approximately fivefold as the ratio is varied from 90 to 69% of the stoichiometric requirement. The CFD model is also used to investigate the effect of changes in combustion chamber size and geometry on gas dynamics, and the results are compared with the nominal 12 mm chamber baseline calculations.
Modeling Hot Gas Flow in the Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nucleus of NGC3115
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shcherbakov, Roman V.; Wong, K.; Irwin, J.; Reynolds, C. S.
2014-01-01
Based on the dynamical estimates of the black hole (BH) mass, NGC3115 hosts the closest billion solar mass BH. Deep studies of the center revealed a very underluminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) immersed in an old massive nuclear star cluster. Recent 1Ms Chandra X-ray visionary project observations of the NGC3115 nucleus resolved hot tenuous gas, which fuels the AGN. In this work we connect the processes in the nuclear star cluster with the feeding of the supermassive BH. We model the hot gas flow sustained by the injection of matter and energy by the stars and supernova explosions. We incorporate electron heat conduction, the gravitational pull of the stellar mass, cooling, and Coulomb collisions. We reach reduced χi^2=1 fitting simulated X-ray emission to the spatially and spectrally resolved observed X-ray data. Radial modeling favors a low BH mass <1.3*10^{9}Msun. The best-fitting supernova rate and the best-fitting mass injection rate are consistent with their expected values. The stagnation point is at r_ s 1arcsec, so that most of gas, including the gas at a Bondi radius r_B=2-4arcsec, outflows from the region. We put an upper limit on the accretion rate at 2*10^{-3}Msun/yr. We find a shallow density profile r^{-β} with β 1 over a large dynamic range. This density profile is determined in the feeding region 0.5-10arcsec as an interplay of four processes and effects: (1) the radius-dependent mass injection, (2) the effect of the galactic gravitational potential, (3) the accretion flow onset at r<1arcsec, and (4) the outflow at r>1arcsec. Conduction makes the density profile shallow only very close to the BH at r<0.1arcsec. The gas temperature is close to the virial temperature T_v at any radius. The temperature profile is shallow outside of the Bondi radius because the enclosed stellar mass is proportional to radius M_en r, which leads to flat virial temperature profile.
Modeling hot gas flow in the low-luminosity active galactic nucleus of NGC 3115
Shcherbakov, Roman V.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Wong, Ka-Wah; Irwin, Jimmy A.
2014-02-20
Based on the dynamical black hole (BH) mass estimates, NGC 3115 hosts the closest billion solar mass BH. Deep studies of the center revealed a very underluminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) immersed in an old massive nuclear star cluster. Recent 1 Ms Chandra X-ray visionary project observations of the NGC 3115 nucleus resolved hot tenuous gas, which fuels the AGN. In this paper we connect the processes in the nuclear star cluster with the feeding of the supermassive BH. We model the hot gas flow sustained by the injection of matter and energy from the stars and supernova explosions. We incorporate electron heat conduction as the small-scale feedback mechanism, the gravitational pull of the stellar mass, cooling, and Coulomb collisions. Fitting simulated X-ray emission to the spatially and spectrally resolved observed data, we find the best-fitting solutions with χ{sup 2}/dof = 1.00 for dof = 236 both with and without conduction. The radial modeling favors a low BH mass <1.3 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. The best-fitting supernova rate and the best-fitting mass injection rate are consistent with their expected values. The stagnation point is at r {sub st} ≲ 1'', so that most of the gas, including the gas at a Bondi radius r{sub B} = 2''-4'', outflows from the region. We put an upper limit on the accretion rate at 2 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We find a shallow density profile n∝r {sup –β} with β ≈ 1 over a large dynamic range. This density profile is determined in the feeding region 0.''5-10'' as an interplay of four processes and effects: (1) the radius-dependent mass injection, (2) the effect of the galactic gravitational potential, (3) the accretion flow onset at r ≲ 1'', and (4) the outflow at r ≳ 1''. The gas temperature is close to the virial temperature T{sub v} at any radius.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dietze, Georg F.; Ruyer-Quil, Christian
2013-11-01
Different technological settings concern the flow of a wavy liquid film in contact with a strongly confined gas flow. Micro-gaps for instance, which are employed for the cooling of electronic equipment, involve a pressure-driven evaporating liquid film flowing co-currently to its own vapor. In packed columns used for distillation, falling liquid films sheared by a counter-current gas flow occur within narrow channels. Surface waves on the liquid-gas interface of these flows play an important role as they intensify scalar transfer and may cause flooding of the channel. However, their accurate prediction by full numerical simulation is associated with a substantial computational cost. We evaluate an alternative approach based on a low-dimensional integral boundary layer formulation applied to both fluid layers. The resulting model captures the long-wave (Yih and Kapitza) instabilities of the flow accurately and allows calculations on long domains at low computational cost. These evince a number of intricate wave-induced flow structures within the film and gas as well as a possible route to the flooding of narrow channels under counter-current gas flow conditions. Comparisons with direct numerical simulations using the VOF-CSF approach as well as experiments are convincing. GFD acknowledges support from DAAD (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst).
Numerical modeling of gas-liquid flows in mini- and microchannels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guzei, D. V.; Minakov, A. V.; Pryazhnikov, M. I.; Dekterev, A. A.
2015-01-01
The paper presents the results of testing a methodology for calculating two-phase flows in mini- and microchannels. The numerical methodology is based on the known fluid-in-cell method (VOF method) and the CSF procedure to account for surface tension forces. Solutions of several test problems of two-phase flow in microchannels, including the water-oil emulsion flow and gas-liquid flow in microchannels of the T-type and the stationary slug flow in a circular minichannel, were considered with the aid of this technique. Comparisons of numerical results with experimental data were carried out. A good agreement between the results was obtained.
Internal flow-field measurements in a model can-type gas-turbine combustion chamber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koutmos, P.; McQuirk, J. J.; Vafidis, C.
LDA measurements of the three mean velocity components and the corresponding turbulence intensities have been made to provide qualitative and quantitative information on the flow-field in a water model of a can-type gas turbine combustion chamber. The combustor geometry comprised a swirl driven primary zone, annulus fed rows of primary and secondary jets and an exit contraction nozzle. Flow visualization revealed a stable and symmetric vortex established within the primary zone via the combined effects of the inlet swirl and primary jet impingement. High levels of turbulence kinetic energy were generated within the vortex as well as near the location where the jets impinged. Large streamline curvature, anisotropy of the turbulence structure and very rapid transfer of momentum from the radial to the axial direction were associated with this primary region. In the downstream dilution zone a shallower jet trajectory was observed and the larger turbulence kinetic energy levels could be identified in this region with the shear layers formed between the bulk flow emerging from the primary zone and the incoming secondary jets. Moderate levels of spatial non-uniformities were measured at the exit from the nozzle.
Freeze, G.A.; Larson, K.W.; Davies, P.B.; Webb, S.W.
1995-10-01
Long-term repository assessment must consider the processes of (1) gas generation, (2) room closure and expansions due to salt creep, and (3) multiphase (brine and gas) fluid flow, as well as the complex coupling between these three processes. The mechanical creep closure code SANCHO was used to simulate the closure of a single, perfectly sealed disposal room filled with water and backfill. SANCHO uses constitutive models to describe salt creep, waste consolidation, and backfill consolidation, Five different gas-generation rate histories were simulated, differentiated by a rate multiplier, f, which ranged from 0.0 (no gas generation) to 1.0 (expected gas generation under brine-dominated conditions). The results of the SANCHO f-series simulations provide a relationship between gas generation, room closure, and room pressure for a perfectly sealed room. Several methods for coupling this relationship with multiphase fluid flow into and out of a room were examined. Two of the methods are described.
Beauheim, R.L.; Howarth, S.M.; Vaughn, P.; Webb, S.W.; Larson, K.W.
1995-01-01
Evaluation of the performance of the WIPP repository involves modeling of brine and gas flow in the host rocks of the Salado Formation, which consist of halite and anhydrite interbeds. Numerous physical, chemical, and structural processes, must be understood to perform this modeling. Gas generation within the repository is strongly coupled to the amount of brine inflow to the repository because brine aids in the corrosion of metals and associated generation of hydrogen gas. Increasing gas pressure in the repository decreases the rate of brine inflow. Ultimately, the gas pressure may exceed the brine pressure and gas may flow out of the repository. Relative-permeability curves and a correlation between threshold pressure and permeability taken from studies reported in the literature were used in PA models prior to being experimentally verified as appropriate for WIPP. In addition, interbed permeabilities were treated as constant and independent of effective stress in early models. Subsequently, the process of interbed fracturing (or fracture dilation) was recognized to limit gas pressures in the repository to values below lithostatic, and assumed (and unverified) relationships between porosity, permeability, and pore pressure were employed. Parameter-sensitivity studies performed using the simplified models identified important parameters for which site-specific data were needed. Unrealistic modeling results, such as room pressures substantially above lithostatic, showed the need to include additional processes in the models. Field and laboratory experimental programs have been initiated in conjunction with continued model development to provide information on important processes and parameters.
A Mathematical Model of Gas Flow Distribution in the Grate-Kiln Iron Ore Pellets Induration Process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Junxiao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yiyang; Xie, Zhiyin; Zhang, Cai
2010-03-01
Although models for general gas (e.g. natural gas) pipeline networks have been well established, research on another kind of gas networks we named gas passage networks (i.e. GPN; set that gas pass through spaces) in industry is rare. The features of the GPN are hard-determination leakage (i.e. 24.4%), quite-different thermophysical-properties, more cycles and not engaging cycle energy equations directly. And the gas network of grate-kiln-cooler (GKC) plant used for iron ore pellets induration is belong to this type. This paper develops a mathematical model to evaluate the flow distribution in this kind. Further, a field test was systematically carried out on a GKC plant in China. At last, the result shows that good agreement was observed, indicating the validity of the model.
Gas flow meter and method for measuring gas flow rate
Robertson, Eric P.
2006-08-01
A gas flow rate meter includes an upstream line and two chambers having substantially equal, fixed volumes. An adjustable valve may direct the gas flow through the upstream line to either of the two chambers. A pressure monitoring device may be configured to prompt valve adjustments, directing the gas flow to an alternate chamber each time a pre-set pressure in the upstream line is reached. A method of measuring the gas flow rate measures the time required for the pressure in the upstream line to reach the pre-set pressure. The volume of the chamber and upstream line are known and fixed, thus the time required for the increase in pressure may be used to determine the flow rate of the gas. Another method of measuring the gas flow rate uses two pressure measurements of a fixed volume, taken at different times, to determine the flow rate of the gas.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Qunzhen; Mathias, Edward C.; Heman, Joe R.; Smith, Cory W.
2000-01-01
A new, thermal-flow simulation code, called SFLOW. has been developed to model the gas dynamics, heat transfer, as well as O-ring and flow path erosion inside the space shuttle solid rocket motor joints by combining SINDA/Glo, a commercial thermal analyzer. and SHARPO, a general-purpose CFD code developed at Thiokol Propulsion. SHARP was modified so that friction, heat transfer, mass addition, as well as minor losses in one-dimensional flow can be taken into account. The pressure, temperature and velocity of the combustion gas in the leak paths are calculated in SHARP by solving the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations while the heat conduction in the solid is modeled by SINDA/G. The two codes are coupled by the heat flux at the solid-gas interface. A few test cases are presented and the results from SFLOW agree very well with the exact solutions or experimental data. These cases include Fanno flow where friction is important, Rayleigh flow where heat transfer between gas and solid is important, flow with mass addition due to the erosion of the solid wall, a transient volume venting process, as well as some transient one-dimensional flows with analytical solutions. In addition, SFLOW is applied to model the RSRM nozzle joint 4 subscale hot-flow tests and the predicted pressures, temperatures (both gas and solid), and O-ring erosions agree well with the experimental data. It was also found that the heat transfer between gas and solid has a major effect on the pressures and temperatures of the fill bottles in the RSRM nozzle joint 4 configuration No. 8 test.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moss, Thomas; Ihlefeld, Curtis; Slack, Barry
2010-01-01
This system provides a portable means to detect gas flow through a thin-walled tube without breaking into the tubing system. The flow detection system was specifically designed to detect flow through two parallel branches of a manifold with only one inlet and outlet, and is a means for verifying a space shuttle program requirement that saves time and reduces the risk of flight hardware damage compared to the current means of requirement verification. The prototype Purge Vent and Drain Window Cavity Conditioning System (PVD WCCS) Flow Detection System consists of a heater and a temperature-sensing thermistor attached to a piece of Velcro to be attached to each branch of a WCCS manifold for the duration of the requirement verification test. The heaters and thermistors are connected to a shielded cable and then to an electronics enclosure, which contains the power supplies, relays, and circuit board to provide power, signal conditioning, and control. The electronics enclosure is then connected to a commercial data acquisition box to provide analog to digital conversion as well as digital control. This data acquisition box is then connected to a commercial laptop running a custom application created using National Instruments LabVIEW. The operation of the PVD WCCS Flow Detection System consists of first attaching a heater/thermistor assembly to each of the two branches of one manifold while there is no flow through the manifold. Next, the software application running on the laptop is used to turn on the heaters and to monitor the manifold branch temperatures. When the system has reached thermal equilibrium, the software application s graphical user interface (GUI) will indicate that the branch temperatures are stable. The operator can then physically open the flow control valve to initiate the test flow of gaseous nitrogen (GN2) through the manifold. Next, the software user interface will be monitored for stable temperature indications when the system is again at
Doyle, Jessica M.; Gleeson, Tom; Manning, Andrew H.; Mayer, K. Ulrich
2015-01-01
Environmental tracers provide information on groundwater age, recharge conditions, and flow processes which can be helpful for evaluating groundwater sustainability and vulnerability. Dissolved noble gas data have proven particularly useful in mountainous terrain because they can be used to determine recharge elevation. However, tracer-derived recharge elevations have not been utilized as calibration targets for numerical groundwater flow models. Herein, we constrain and calibrate a regional groundwater flow model with noble-gas-derived recharge elevations for the first time. Tritium and noble gas tracer results improved the site conceptual model by identifying a previously uncertain contribution of mountain block recharge from the Coast Mountains to an alluvial coastal aquifer in humid southwestern British Columbia. The revised conceptual model was integrated into a three-dimensional numerical groundwater flow model and calibrated to hydraulic head data in addition to recharge elevations estimated from noble gas recharge temperatures. Recharge elevations proved to be imperative for constraining hydraulic conductivity, recharge location, and bedrock geometry, and thus minimizing model nonuniqueness. Results indicate that 45% of recharge to the aquifer is mountain block recharge. A similar match between measured and modeled heads was achieved in a second numerical model that excludes the mountain block (no mountain block recharge), demonstrating that hydraulic head data alone are incapable of quantifying mountain block recharge. This result has significant implications for understanding and managing source water protection in recharge areas, potential effects of climate change, the overall water budget, and ultimately ensuring groundwater sustainability.
Turbulence modeling in simulation of gas-turbine flow and heat transfer.
Brereton, G; Shih, T I
2001-05-01
The popular k-epsilon type two-equation turbulence models, which are calibrated by experimental data from simple shear flows, are analyzed for their ability to predict flows involving shear and an extra strain--flow with shear and rotation and flow with shear and streamline curvature. The analysis is based on comparisons between model predictions and those from measurements and large-eddy simulations of homogenous flows involving shear and an extra strain, either from rotation or from streamline curvature. Parameters are identified, which show the conditions under which performance of k-epsilon type models can be expected to be poor. PMID:11460669
A wellbore flow model in the presence of CO{sub 2} gas
Takahashi, Masahiro
1988-01-01
The fluid produced by the geothermal wells in the Nigorikawa field which is located in southern Hokkaido, Japan’s northern island, is rich in carbon dioxide(CO{sub 2}). The dissolved CO{sub 2} causes a scale deposition problem of calcium carbonate(CaCO{sub 3}). Japan Metals and Chemicals Co., Ltd.(JMC) has already solved the CaCO{sub 3} scale deposition problem by injecting a scale inhibiting chemical fluid directly and continuously through a injection tube extending into the production well. The CaCO{sub 3} scale deposition occurs at the flash point. It is important, therefore, to estimate the flash depth correctly so that the depth of the chemical injection point can be determined. However, the boiling point curve of the geothermal fluid with dissolved CO{sub 2}is different from that of pure water{H{sub 2}O}. So, a wellbore flow model in the presence of CO{sub 2} gas has been developed. This model was tested by comparing the temperature and pressure values calculated by the computer to depth profiles drawn the Nigorikawa field data. As a result of the comparison, a satisfactory fitting has been obtained. A brief explanation of this model and a few examples of analysis by this model are presented.
A low Mach number preconditioned scheme for a two-phase liquid-gas compressible flow model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pelanti, Marica
2015-11-01
The simulation of liquid-gas flows such as cavitating flows demands numerical methods efficient for a wide range of Mach number regimes, due to the large and rapid variation of the speed of sound in these two-phase flows. When classical upwind finite volume discretizations for compressible flow models are employed, suitable strategies are needed to overcome the well known difficulty of loss of accuracy encountered at low Mach number by these methods. In this work we present a novel finite volume wave propagation scheme with low Mach number preconditioning for the numerical approximation of a six-equation two-phase liquid-gas compressible flow model with stiff mechanical relaxation. A Turkel-type preconditioner is designed to correct the acoustic fields at low Mach number, by altering the numerical dissipation tensor of the scheme. We present numerical results for two-dimensional liquid-gas nozzle flow tests both for low Mach number regimes and for transonic regimes with shock formation, which show the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed preconditioned method. In particular, in the low Mach number limit the order of pressure perturbations at the discrete level agrees with the theoretical results for the continuous two-phase flow model.
Modeling and Applications of the Cylindrical Couette Flow of a Rarefied Gas
Dankov, D.; Roussinov, V.
2008-10-30
The cylindrical Couette flow of a rarefied gas is studied in the case when the inner cylinder is rotating while the outer cylinder is at rest. Velocity, density and temperature profiles are investigated by a Direct Monte Carlo Simulation method and a numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations is found. The results prove good agreement between flow macro-characteristic values obtained by the two methods.
Mathematical Model of Two Phase Flow in Natural Draft Wet-Cooling Tower Including Flue Gas Injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hyhlík, Tomáš
2016-03-01
The previously developed model of natural draft wet-cooling tower flow, heat and mass transfer is extended to be able to take into account the flow of supersaturated moist air. The two phase flow model is based on void fraction of gas phase which is included in the governing equations. Homogeneous equilibrium model, where the two phases are well mixed and have the same velocity, is used. The effect of flue gas injection is included into the developed mathematical model by using source terms in governing equations and by using momentum flux coefficient and kinetic energy flux coefficient. Heat and mass transfer in the fill zone is described by the system of ordinary differential equations, where the mass transfer is represented by measured fill Merkel number and heat transfer is calculated using prescribed Lewis factor.
Swirling flow of a dissociated gas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolfram, W. R., Jr.; Walker, W. F.
1975-01-01
Most physical applications of the swirling flow, defined as a vortex superimposed on an axial flow in the nozzle, involve high temperatures and the possibility of real gas effects. The generalized one-dimensional swirling flow in a converging-diverging nozzle is analyzed for equilibrium and frozen dissociation using the ideal dissociating gas model. Numerical results are provided to illustrate the major effects and to compare with results obtained for a perfect gas with constant ratio of specific heats. It is found that, even in the case of real gases, perfect gas calculations can give a good estimate of the reduction in mass flow due to swirl.
Towards a new modelling of gas flows in a semi-analytical model of galaxy formation and evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cousin, M.; Lagache, G.; Bethermin, M.; Guiderdoni, B.
2015-03-01
We present an extended version of the semi-analytical model, GalICS. Like its predecessor, eGalICS applies a post-treatment of the baryonic physics on pre-computed dark-matter merger trees extracted from an N-body simulation. We review all the mechanisms that affect, at any given time, the formation and evolution of a galaxy in its host dark-matter halo. We mainly focus on the gas cycle from the smooth cosmological accretion to feedback processes. To follow this cycle with a high accuracy, we introduce some novel prescriptions: i) a smooth baryonic accretion with two phases: a cold mode and a hot mode built on the continuous dark-matter accretion. In parallel to this smooth accretion, we implement the standard photoionisation modelling to reduce the input gas flow on the smallest structures. ii) a complete monitoring of the hot gas phase. We compute the evolution of the core density, the mean temperature and the instantaneous escape fraction of the hot atmosphere by considering that the hot gas is in hydrostatic equilibrium in the dark-matter potential well, and by applying a principle of conservation of energy on the treatment of gas accretion, supernovae and super massive black hole feedback iii) a new treatment for disc instabilities based on the formation, the migration and the disruption of giant clumps. The migration of such clumps in gas-rich galaxies allows to form pseudo-bulges. The different processes in the gas cycle act on different time scales, and we thus build an adaptive time-step scheme to solve the evolution equations. The model presented here is compared in detail to the observations of stellar-mass functions, star formation rates, and luminosity functions, in a companion paper. Model outputs are available at the CDS. Model outputs are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/575/A33
Final report for the ASC gas-powder two-phase flow modeling project AD2006-09.
Evans, Gregory Herbert; Winters, William S.
2007-01-01
This report documents activities performed in FY2006 under the ''Gas-Powder Two-Phase Flow Modeling Project'', ASC project AD2006-09. Sandia has a need to understand phenomena related to the transport of powders in systems. This report documents a modeling strategy inspired by powder transport experiments conducted at Sandia in 2002. A baseline gas-powder two-phase flow model, developed under a companion PEM project and implemented into the Sierra code FUEGO, is presented and discussed here. This report also documents a number of computational tests that were conducted to evaluate the accuracy and robustness of the new model. Although considerable progress was made in implementing the complex two-phase flow model, this project has identified two important areas that need further attention. These include the need to compute robust compressible flow solutions for Mach numbers exceeding 0.35 and the need to improve conservation of mass for the powder phase. Recommendations for future work in the area of gas-powder two-phase flow are provided.
3D CFD modeling of subsonic and transonic flowing-gas DPALs with different pumping geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yacoby, Eyal; Sadot, Oren; Barmashenko, Boris D.; Rosenwaks, Salman
2015-10-01
Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D CFD) modeling of subsonic (Mach number M ~ 0.2) and transonic (M ~ 0.9) diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs), taking into account fluid dynamics and kinetic processes in the lasing medium is reported. The performance of these lasers is compared with that of supersonic (M ~ 2.7 for Cs and M ~ 2.4 for K) DPALs. The motivation for this study stems from the fact that subsonic and transonic DPALs require much simpler hardware than supersonic ones where supersonic nozzle, diffuser and high power mechanical pump (due to a drop in the gas total pressure in the nozzle) are required for continuous closed cycle operation. For Cs DPALs with 5 x 5 cm2 flow cross section pumped by large cross section (5 x 2 cm2) beam the maximum achievable power of supersonic devices is higher than that of the transonic and subsonic devices by only ~ 3% and ~ 10%, respectively. Thus in this case the supersonic operation mode has no substantial advantage over the transonic one. The main processes limiting the power of Cs supersonic DPALs are saturation of the D2 transition and large ~ 60% losses of alkali atoms due to ionization, whereas the influence of gas heating is negligible. For K transonic DPALs both the gas heating and ionization effects are shown to be unimportant. The maximum values of the power are higher than those in Cs transonic laser by ~ 11%. The power achieved in the supersonic and transonic K DPAL is higher than for the subsonic version, with the same resonator and K density at the inlet, by ~ 84% and ~ 27%, respectively, showing a considerable advantaged of the supersonic device over the transonic one. For pumping by rectangular beams of the same (5 x 2 cm2) cross section, comparison between end-pumping - where the laser beam and pump beam both propagate at along the same axis, and transverse-pumping - where they propagate perpendicularly to each other, shows that the output power and optical-to-optical efficiency are not
Coughtrie, A R; Borman, D J; Sleigh, P A
2013-06-01
Flow in a gas-lift digester with a central draft-tube was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and different turbulence closure models. The k-ω Shear-Stress-Transport (SST), Renormalization-Group (RNG) k-∊, Linear Reynolds-Stress-Model (RSM) and Transition-SST models were tested for a gas-lift loop reactor under Newtonian flow conditions validated against published experimental work. The results identify that flow predictions within the reactor (where flow is transitional) are particularly sensitive to the turbulence model implemented; the Transition-SST model was found to be the most robust for capturing mixing behaviour and predicting separation reliably. Therefore, Transition-SST is recommended over k-∊ models for use in comparable mixing problems. A comparison of results obtained using multiphase Euler-Lagrange and singlephase approaches are presented. The results support the validity of the singlephase modelling assumptions in obtaining reliable predictions of the reactor flow. Solver independence of results was verified by comparing two independent finite-volume solvers (Fluent-13.0sp2 and OpenFOAM-2.0.1). PMID:23624047
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Y.; Nitao, J. J.; Glascoe, L. G.; Sun, Y.; Buscheck, T. A.; Lee, K. H.; Gansemer, J.
2003-12-01
The performance of the engineered barrier system (EBS) within the emplacement drifts depends on coupled processes that involve the flow of moisture, gas and water droplets in large open cavities, liquid-film flow on the rock and engineered-material surfaces, fluid and gas migration in fractured, porous materials, and the chemical interactions between all in situ and emplaced materials. However, with the exception of recent heat-transfer analyses using the FLUENT code, virtually all of the in-drift modeling studies for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain have used porous-medium Darcy-flow approximations. Conservative assumptions are thus required in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) to compensate for the abstracted, approximate representation of materials interactions and thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes. This study is focused on achieving more rigorous representation of the in-drift environment with Navier-Stokes modeling of in-drift flow processes (natural convection, realistic gas/moisture movement, film/droplet formation and flow, reactive chemical transport, etc.). The simulations are carried out by finite-element version of the NUFT code, with full Navier-Stokes representation of humidity distribution, droplet and film flow, gas-chemistry evolution, and gas migration within the drifts and at the interface with the invert and host rock. The results of these simulations can be used to test the adequacy of the in-drift coupled-process models being used in the TSPA. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brushlinskii, K. V.; Kozlov, A. N.; Konovalov, V. S.
2015-08-01
This paper continues the series of numerical investigations of self-ionizing gas flows in plasma accelerator channels with an azimuthal magnetic field. The mathematical model is based on the equations of dynamics of a three-component continuous medium consisting of atoms, ions, and electrons; the model is supplemented with the equation of ionization and recombination kinetics within the diffusion approximation with account for photoionization and photorecombination. It also takes into account heat exchange, which in this case is caused by radiative heat conductance. Upon a short history of the issue, the proposed model, numerical methods, and results for steady-state and pulsating flows are described.
Pedestrian flow dynamics in a lattice gas model coupled with an evolutionary game.
Hao, Qing-Yi; Jiang, Rui; Hu, Mao-Bin; Jia, Bin; Wu, Qing-Song
2011-09-01
This paper studies unidirectional pedestrian flow by using a lattice gas model with parallel update rules. Game theory is introduced to deal with conflicts that two or three pedestrians want to move into the same site. Pedestrians are either cooperators or defectors. The cooperators are gentle and the defectors are aggressive. Moreover, pedestrians could change their strategy. The fundamental diagram and the cooperator fraction at different system width W have been investigated in detail. It is found that a two-lane system exhibits a first-order phase transition while a multilane system does not. A microscopic mechanism behind the transition has been provided. Mean-field analysis is carried out to calculate the critical density of the transition as well as the probability of games at large value of W. The spatial distribution of pedestrians is investigated, which is found to be dependent (independent) on the initial cooperator fraction when W is small (large). Finally, the influence of the evolutionary game rule has been discussed. PMID:22060456
North Cascadia heat flux and fluid flow from gas hydrates: Modeling 3-D topographic effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hong-lin; He, Tao; Spence, George D.
2014-01-01
The bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) of gas hydrate is well imaged from two perpendicular seismic grids in the region of a large carbonate mound, informally called Cucumber Ridge off Vancouver Island. We use a new method to calculate 3-D heat flow map from the BSR depths, in which we incorporate 3-D topographic corrections after calibrated by the drilling results from nearby (Integrated) Ocean Drilling Program Site 889 and Site U1327. We then estimate the associated fluid flow by relating it to the topographically corrected heat flux anomalies. In the midslope region, a heat flux anomaly of 1 mW/m2 can be associated with an approximate focused fluid flow rate of 0.09 mm/yr. Around Cucumber Ridge, high rates of focused fluid flow were observed at steep slopes with values more than double the average regional diffusive fluid discharge rate of 0.56 mm/yr. As well, in some areas of relatively flat seafloor, the focused fluid flow rates still exceeded 0.5 mm/yr. On the seismic lines the regions of focused fluid flow were commonly associated with seismic blanking zones above the BSR and sometimes with strong reflectors below the BSR, indicating that the faults/fractures provide high-permeability pathways for fluids to carry methane from BSR depths to the seafloor. These high fluid flow regions cover mostly the western portion of our area with gas hydrate concentration estimations of ~6% based on empirical correlations from Hydrate Ridge in south off Oregon, significantly higher than previously recognized values of ~2.5% in the eastern portion determined from Site U1327.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barkett, Laura Ashley
In the past, fuel elements with multiple axial coolant channels have been used in nuclear propulsion applications. A novel fuel element concept that reduces weight and increases efficiency uses a stack of grooved rings. Each fuel ring consists of a hole on the interior and grooves across the top face. Many grooved ring configurations have been modeled, and a single flow channel for each design has been analyzed. For increased efficiency, a fuel ring with a higher surface-area-to-volume ratio is ideal. When grooves are shallower and they have a lower surface area, the results show that the exit temperature is higher. By coupling the physics of fluid flow with those of heat transfer, the effects on the cooler gas flowing through the grooves of the hot, fissioning ring can be predicted. Models also show differences in velocities and temperatures after dense boundary nodes are applied. Parametric studies were done to show how a pressure drop across the length of the channels will affect the exit temperatures of the gas. Geometric optimization was done to show the temperature distributions and pressure drops that result from the manipulation of various parameters, and the effects of model scaling was also investigated. The inverse Graetz numbers are plotted against Nusselt numbers, and the results of these values suggest that the gas quickly becomes fully developed, laminar flow, rather than constant turbulent conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arefyev, K. Yu.; Voronetsky, A. V.
2015-09-01
The intensification of the fragmentation and vaporization of liquid droplets in two-phase flows with the gas stagnation temperature Tg = 800-2500 K is an important scientific and technological problem. One should note that despite a high practical importance the mechanism of the vaporization of droplets with their preliminary gas-dynamic fragmentation in high-enthalpy flows has been studied insufficiently completely and requires additional research. The paper presents a mathematical model and the results of the computations of the fragmentation and vaporization of liquid droplets in subsonic and supersonic flows with a high stagnation temperature. A comparison of the obtained data with the experiments of other authors has been done. The extension of the regions of the gas-dynamic fragmentation and droplet vaporization in flow ducts with a variable distribution of parameters has been estimated. The found peculiarities may be used at the design of energy installations of the promising samples of the aerospace technology and gas-dynamic pipes.
Xu, Ying
2005-05-01
Many particle-laden flows in engineering applications involve turbulent gas flows. Modeling multiphase turbulent flows is an important research topic with applications in fluidized beds and particle conveying. A predictive multiphase turbulence model can help CFD codes to be more useful for engineering applications, such as the scale-up in the design of circulating fluidized combustor and coal gasifications. In engineering applications, the particle volume fraction can vary from dilute (<10{sup -4}) to dense ({approx} 50%). It is reasonable to expect that multiphase turbulence models should at least satisfy some basic modeling and performance criteria and give reasonable predictions for the canonical problems in dilute particle-laden turbulent flows. In this research, a comparative assessment of predictions from Simonin and Ahmadi's turbulence models is performed with direct numerical simulation (DNS) for two canonical problems in particle-laden turbulent flows. Based on the comparative assessment, some criteria and the areas for model improvement are identified: (1) model for interphase TKE transfer, especially the time scale of interphase TKE transfer, and (2) correct prediction of TKE evolution with variation of particle Stokes number. Some deficiencies that are identified in the Simonin and Ahmadi models, limit the applicability. A new multiphase turbulence model, the Equilibration of Energy Model (EEM), is proposed in this work. In EEM, a multiscale interaction time scale is proposed to account for the interaction of a particle with a range of eddy sizes. EEM shows good agreement with the DNS results for particle-laden isotropic turbulence. For particle-laden homogeneous shear flows, model predictions from EEM can be further improved if the dissipation rate in fluid phase is modeled with more accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skřínský, Jan; Vereš, Ján; Peer, Václav; Friedel, Pavel
2016-06-01
The effect of initial concentration on the explosion behavior of a stoichiometric CH4/O2/N2 mixture under air-combustion conditions was studied. Two mathematical models were used with the aim at simulating the gas explosion in the middle scale explosion vessel, and the associated effects of the temperature for different gas/air concentrations. Peak pressure, maximum rate of pressure rise and laminar burning velocity were measured from pressure time records of explosions occurring in a 1 m3 closed cylindrical vessel. The results of the models were validated considering a set of data (pressure time histories and root mean square velocity). The obtained results are relevant to the practice of gas explosion testing and the interpretation of test results and, they should be taken as the input data for CFD simulation to improve the conditions for standard tests.
Yao, Yijun; Wu, Yun; Wang, Yue; Verginelli, Iason; Zeng, Tian; Suuberg, Eric M; Jiang, Lin; Wen, Yuezhong; Ma, Jie
2015-10-01
At petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) sites at which there is significant methane generation, upward advective soil gas transport may be observed. To evaluate the health and explosion risks that may exist under such scenarios, a one-dimensional analytical model describing these processes is introduced in this study. This new model accounts for both advective and diffusive transport in soil gas and couples this with a piecewise first-order aerobic biodegradation model, limited by oxygen availability. The predicted results from the new model are shown to be in good agreement with the simulation results obtained from a three-dimensional numerical model. These results suggest that this analytical model is suitable for describing cases involving open ground surface beyond the foundation edge, serving as the primary oxygen source. This new analytical model indicates that the major contribution of upward advection to indoor air concentration could be limited to the increase of soil gas entry rate, since the oxygen in soil might already be depleted owing to the associated high methane source vapor concentration. PMID:26322369
A fractal permeability model for gas flow through dual-porosity media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Qian; Yu, Boming
2012-01-01
The dual-porosity medium, i.e., a matrix porous medium coupled with fractured networks, extensively exists in fissured rocks, natural gas reservoirs, and other natural underground reservoirs or in resolving subsurface contamination problems. This work investigates gas permeability through matrix porous media embedded with randomly distributed fractal-like tree networks. The analytical expression for gas permeability in dual-porosity media is derived based on both the pore size of matrix and the mother channel diameter of embedded fractal-like tree networks having fractal distribution. It is found that gas permeability is a function of structural parameters (the fractal dimensions for pore area and tortuous capillaries, porosity and the maximum diameter of matrix, the length ratio, the diameter ratio, the branching levels and angle of the embedded networks) for dual-porosity media. The proposed model does not contain any empirical constant. The model predictions are compared with the available experimental data and simulating results, a fair agreement among them is found. The influences of geometrical parameters on the gas permeability in the media are also analyzed.
Richardson, D.; Bich, N.N.
1997-08-01
Pipeline failures attributed to internal corrosion in the oil and gas producing industry have not been decreasing despite the many corrosion mitigation, monitoring and inspection programs implemented. This paper describes how preliminary investigations for evaluating the susceptibility of internal corrosion for wet sour gas pipelines have been based on integrating the latest knowledge in fluid flow and sour gas corrosion mechanisms. It is anticipated future efforts to correlate the onset of slug flow regime with historical corrosion and inspection data may lead to development of an improved criteria for predicting the onset of corrosive water traps and for triggering appropriate maintenance activities. This paper provides details of two corrosion failure Case Studies where application of flow modeling has improved the understanding of the operating hazards that contributed to the formation of a corrosive environment leading to high-rate initiation and growth of localized pitting corrosion. Preliminary analysis indicates slug flow pattern, and long water residence time of water within stagnant traps increases the likelihood of pitting corrosion.
GAS-SOLID TWO-PHASE FLOW IN A TRIPLE BIFURCATION LUNG AIRWAY MODEL
Laminar oscillatory flow as well as micron-particle transport and wall deposition in a triple bifurcation airway model have been simulated using a validated finite-volume code with user-enhanced programs. Three realistic breathing patterns, i.e., resting, light, acitvity and mod...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conder, Thomas E.
Core bypass flow is considered one of the largest contributors to uncertainty in fuel temperature within the Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (MHTGR). It refers to the coolant that navigates through the interstitial regions between the graphite fuel blocks instead of traveling through the designated coolant channels. These flows are of concern because they reduce the desired flow rates in the coolant channels, and thereby have significant influence on the maximum fuel element and coolant exit temperatures. Thus, accurate prediction of the bypass flow is important because it directly impacts core temperature, influencing the life and efficiency of the reactor. An experiment was conducted at Idaho National Laboratory to quantify the flow in the coolant channels in relation to the interstitial gaps between fuel blocks in a representative MHTGR core. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the flow fields within a simplified model, which comprised of a stacked junction of six partial fuel blocks with nine coolant tubes, separated by a 6mm gap width. The model had three sections: The upper plenum, upper block, and lower block. Model components were fabricated from clear, fused quartz where optical access was needed for the PIV measurements. Measurements were taken in three streamwise locations: in the upper plenum and in the midsection of the large and small fuel blocks. A laser light sheet was oriented parallel to the flow, while velocity fields were measured at millimeter intervals across the width of the model, totaling 3,276 PIV measurement locations. Inlet conditions were varied to incorporate laminar, transition, and turbulent flows in the coolant channels---all which produced laminar flow in the gap and non-uniform, turbulent flow in the upper plenum. The images were analyzed to create vector maps, and the data was exported for processing and compilation. The bypass flow was estimated by calculating the flow rates through the coolant
Bolton, R.D.; Bounds, J.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.
1996-05-07
An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors. 4 figs.
Bolton, Richard D.; Bounds, John A.; Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini W.
1996-01-01
An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors.
Development of a mechanistic model for predicting corrosion rate in multiphase oil/water/gas flows
Zhang, R.; Gopal, M.; Jepson, W.P.
1997-09-01
A mechanistic model has been developed to predict corrosion rates in multiphase (water/oil/CO{sub 2}) flow conditions. The model takes into account electrochemistry, reaction kinetics, and, mass transport effects. This paper describes the equations used to determine pH and bulk concentrations of various ions, which are then used to calculate the mass transfer rates to the corrosion surface. The result includes the determination of the mass transfer coefficients of various ionic species and corrosion rates. Details of relations used for determination of mass transfer coefficients for multiphase flows, and rates of electrochemical reaction kinetics are discussed and predicted results are compared with experimental observations. Agreement between model results and experimental data is good.
Oscillatory electrohydrodynamic gas flows
Lai, F.C.; McKinney, P.J.; Davidson, J.H.
1995-09-01
Prior numerical solutions of electrohydrodynamic flows in a positive-corona, wire-plate electrostatic precipitator are extended to reveal steady-periodic electrohydrodynamic flows. Previously, only steady solutions were reported. The present study includes results for flows with Reynolds numbers from 0 to 4,800 and with dimensionless electric number ranging from 0.06 to {infinity}. Results indicate that two regimes of low frequency oscillatory flow occur. The first regime is characterized by a single recirculating vortex that oscillates in strength between one and five Hertz. The second regime is characterized by two counter-rotating vortices that oscillate in strength at a frequency near one Hertz.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Y.; Ma, X.; Su, N.
2013-12-01
The movement of water and solute into and through the vadose zone is, in essence, an issue of immiscible displacement in pore-space network of a soil. Therefore, multiphase flow and transport in porous media, referring to three medium: air, water, and the solute, pose one of the largest unresolved challenges for porous medium fluid seepage. However, this phenomenon has always been largely neglected. It is expected that a reliable analysis model of the multi-phase flow in soil can truly reflect the process of natural movement about the infiltration, which is impossible to be observed directly. In such cases, geophysical applications of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides the opportunity to measure the water movements into soils directly over a large scale from tiny pore to regional scale, accordingly enable it available both on the laboratory and on the field. In addition, the NMR provides useful information about the pore space properties. In this study, we proposed both laboratory and field experiments to measure the multi-phase flow parameters, together with optimize the model in computer programming based on the fractional partial differential equations (fPDE). In addition, we establish, for the first time, an infiltration model including solute flowing with water, which has huge influence on agriculture and soil environment pollution. Afterwards, with data collected from experiments, we simulate the model and analyze the spatial variability of parameters. Simulations are also conducted according to the model to evaluate the effects of airflow on water infiltration and other effects such as solute and absorption. It has significant meaning to oxygen irrigation aiming to higher crop yield, and shed more light into the dam slope stability. In summary, our framework is a first-time model added in solute to have a mathematic analysis with the fPDE and more instructive to agriculture activities.
Cheng, Cheng; Zhang, Xiaobing
2013-05-01
In conventional models for two-phase reactive flow of interior ballistic, the dynamic collision phenomenon of particles is neglected or empirically simplified. However, the particle collision between particles may play an important role in dilute two-phase flow because the distribution of particles is extremely nonuniform. The collision force may be one of the key factors to influence the particle movement. This paper presents the CFD-DEM approach for simulation of interior ballistic two-phase flow considering the dynamic collision process. The gas phase is treated as a Eulerian continuum and described by a computational fluid dynamic method (CFD). The solid phase is modeled by discrete element method (DEM) using a soft sphere approach for the particle collision dynamic. The model takes into account grain combustion, particle-particle collisions, particle-wall collisions, interphase drag and heat transfer between gas and solid phases. The continuous gas phase equations are discretized in finite volume form and solved by the AUSM+-up scheme with the higher order accurate reconstruction method. Translational and rotational motions of discrete particles are solved by explicit time integrations. The direct mapping contact detection algorithm is used. The multigrid method is applied in the void fraction calculation, the contact detection procedure, and CFD solving procedure. Several verification tests demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of this approach. The simulation of an experimental igniter device in open air shows good agreement between the model and experimental measurements. This paper has implications for improving the ability to capture the complex physics phenomena of two-phase flow during the interior ballistic cycle and to predict dynamic collision phenomena at the individual particle scale. PMID:24891728
HVOF gas flow field characteristics
Swank, W.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Haggard, D.C.; Irons, G.
1994-12-31
The effects of combustion chamber pressure and fuel/oxygen mixture ratio on the characteristics of a high pressure, supersonic HVOF gun are examined experimentally and theoretically. The measured temperature, velocity and entrained air fraction are obtained from an enthalpy probe/mass spectrometer system. Predictions of combustion chamber flame temperature and composition are calculated with an equilibrium combustion model. Nozzle and barrel exit conditions are calculated using a one-dimensional rocket performance model. The calculations are bounded by the assumption of frozen and equilibrium compositions. Comparisons between measurements and the predictions indicate that the flow field is far from chemical equilibrium. The aerodynamic force available for accelerating a particle is primarily controlled by the chamber pressure while the composition and temperature of the gas surrounding the particles is controlled by the mixture ratio.
Numerical modeling of liquid-liquid bi-propellant droplet/gas reacting flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Yupai L.; Schuman, M. D.
1992-01-01
A liquid-liquid bipropellant capability for numerically simulating droplets and gas two-phase flows for impinging type rocket injectors was developed through modification of the KIVA-II computer program. This added feature of liquid-liquid bipropellant sprays makes it possible to analyze the impinging type injectors through prescribed drop size and velocity distributions near the point of impingement. Two sample cases for LOX/liquid propane were run at mixture ratios of 3.06 and 2.72 respectively for a 3.4-inch diameter rocket engine with a contraction ratio of four and an expansion ratio of two. The predicted performance as well as the chamber heat transfer were found to be in reasonable agreement with the experimental data.
Modeling multi-stage flows and aeroelasticity in transonic gas turbine compressors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Culver, Roy Milton
Modern desire to have turbomachines perform over a large range of conditions raises concerns as to their susceptibility to potentially harmful vibrations induced by the unsteady flows encountered at conditions far from the design point. Machines demonstrating this type of behavior may be damaged by fatigue or be subject to catastrophic failure. Due to these concerns and the relative expense and difficulty in obtaining accurate experimental data for fluid-structure interaction in turbomachines, computations have been and will continue to be an indispensable part of the design and research efforts focused on avoiding such phenomena. While the traditional computational analysis considering a single isolated blade row can aid in understanding the mechanisms that initiate vibrations in turbomachines, study of multiple blade rows may be necessary to completely model the underlying causes of these vibrations. In the present work, the mixing-plane and sliding-mesh methods are used to simulate both steady and unsteady multi-stage transonic compressor flows. The simulations conducted here include the solution of the compressible unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) Equations. The Spalart Almaras model is used to simulate the effects of turbulence in the flow field. A modal superposition method is used to model fluid-structure interaction resulting from blade vibration. Steady flow through the NASA Stage 35 transonic compressor is computed using the mixing-plane method, and reasonable agreement is obtained with experimental data and previous computations. Steady and unsteady computations are also performed for a modern 1.5-stage transonic compressor design provided by Siemens. For this case, experiments indicate the appearance of low frequency, large amplitude flow oscillations which could potentially lead to unwanted structural vibration. In performing unsteady computations for the Siemens compressor, effects of the periodic domain size for the sliding
Subsurface Gas Flow and Ice Grain Acceleration within Enceladus and Europa Fissures: 2D DSMC Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tucker, O. J.; Combi, M. R.; Tenishev, V.
2014-12-01
The ejection of material from geysers is a ubiquitous occurrence on outer solar system bodies. Water vapor plumes have been observed emanating from the southern hemispheres of Enceladus and Europa (Hansen et al. 2011, Roth et al. 2014), and N2plumes carrying ice and ark particles on Triton (Soderblom et al. 2009). The gas and ice grain distributions in the Enceladus plume depend on the subsurface gas properties and the geometry of the fissures e.g., (Schmidt et al. 2008, Ingersoll et al. 2010). Of course the fissures can have complex geometries due to tidal stresses, melting, freezing etc., but directly sampled and inferred gas and grain properties for the plume (source rate, bulk velocity, terminal grain velocity) can be used to provide a basis to constrain characteristic dimensions of vent width and depth. We used a 2-dimensional Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique to model venting from both axi-symmetric canyons with widths ~2 km and narrow jets with widths ~15-40 m. For all of our vent geometries, considered the water vapor source rates (1027 - 1028 s-1) and bulk gas velocities (~330 - 670 m/s) obtained at the surface were consistent with inferred values obtained by fits of the data for the plume densities (1026 - 1028 s-1, 250 - 1000 m/s) respectively. However, when using the resulting DSMC gas distribution for the canyon geometries to integrate the trajectories of ice grains we found it insufficient to accelerate submicron ice grains to Enceladus' escape speed. On the other hand, the gas distributions in the jet like vents accelerated grains > 10 μm significantly above Enceladus' escape speed. It has been suggested that micron-sized grains are ejected from the vents with speeds comparable to the Enceladus escape speed. Here we report on these results including comparisons to results obtained from 1D models as well as discuss the implications of our plume model results. We also show preliminary results for similar considerations applied to Europa
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Ho Jun; Lee, Hae June
2016-06-01
The wide applicability of capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) deposition has increased the interest in developing comprehensive numerical models, but CCP imposes a tremendous computational cost when conducting a transient analysis in a three-dimensional (3D) model which reflects the real geometry of reactors. In particular, the detailed flow features of reactive gases induced by 3D geometric effects need to be considered for the precise calculation of radical distribution of reactive species. Thus, an alternative inclusive method for the numerical simulation of CCP deposition is proposed to simulate a two-dimensional (2D) CCP model based on the 3D gas flow results by simulating flow, temperature, and species fields in a 3D space at first without calculating the plasma chemistry. A numerical study of a cylindrical showerhead-electrode CCP reactor was conducted for particular cases of SiH4/NH3/N2/He gas mixture to deposit a hydrogenated silicon nitride (SiN x H y ) film. The proposed methodology produces numerical results for a 300 mm wafer deposition reactor which agree very well with the deposition rate profile measured experimentally along the wafer radius.
Shiba, Naoki; Nagano, Osamu; Hirayama, Takahiro; Ichiba, Shingo; Ujike, Yoshihito
2012-01-01
In adult high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) with an R100 artificial ventilator, exhaled gas from patient's lung may warm the temperature probe and thereby disturb the humidification of base flow (BF) gas. We measured the humidity of BF gas during HFOV with frequencies of 6, 8 and 10 Hz, maximum stroke volumes (SV) of 285, 205, and 160 ml at the respective frequencies, and, BFs of 20, 30, 40 l/min using an original lung model. The R100 device was equipped with a heated humidifier, Hummax Ⅱ, consisting of a porous hollow fiber in circuit. A 50-cm length of circuit was added between temperature probe (located at 50 cm proximal from Y-piece) and the hollow fiber. The lung model was made of a plastic container and a circuit equipped with another Hummax Ⅱ. The lung model temperature was controlled at 37℃. The Hummax Ⅱ of the R100 was inactivated in study-1 and was set at 35℃ or 37℃ in study-2. The humidity was measured at the distal end of the added circuit in study-1 and at the proximal end in study-2. In study-1, humidity was detected at 6 Hz (SV 285 ml) and BF 20 l/min, indicating the direct reach of the exhaled gas from the lung model to the temperature probe. In study-2 the absolute humidity of the BF gas decreased by increasing SV and by increasing BF and it was low with setting of 35℃. In this study setting, increasing the SV induced significant reduction of humidification of the BF gas during HFOV with R100. PMID:22918206
A unified gas-kinetic scheme for continuum and rarefied flows IV: Full Boltzmann and model equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chang; Xu, Kun; Sun, Quanhua; Cai, Qingdong
2016-06-01
Fluid dynamic equations are valid in their respective modeling scales, such as the particle mean free path scale of the Boltzmann equation and the hydrodynamic scale of the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. With a variation of the modeling scales, theoretically there should have a continuous spectrum of fluid dynamic equations. Even though the Boltzmann equation is claimed to be valid in all scales, many Boltzmann solvers, including direct simulation Monte Carlo method, require the cell resolution to the order of particle mean free path scale. Therefore, they are still single scale methods. In order to study multiscale flow evolution efficiently, the dynamics in the computational fluid has to be changed with the scales. A direct modeling of flow physics with a changeable scale may become an appropriate approach. The unified gas-kinetic scheme (UGKS) is a direct modeling method in the mesh size scale, and its underlying flow physics depends on the resolution of the cell size relative to the particle mean free path. The cell size of UGKS is not limited by the particle mean free path. With the variation of the ratio between the numerical cell size and local particle mean free path, the UGKS recovers the flow dynamics from the particle transport and collision in the kinetic scale to the wave propagation in the hydrodynamic scale. The previous UGKS is mostly constructed from the evolution solution of kinetic model equations. Even though the UGKS is very accurate and effective in the low transition and continuum flow regimes with the time step being much larger than the particle mean free time, it still has space to develop more accurate flow solver in the region, where the time step is comparable with the local particle mean free time. In such a scale, there is dynamic difference from the full Boltzmann collision term and the model equations. This work is about the further development of the UGKS with the implementation of the full Boltzmann collision term in the region
Kinetic theory model for the flow of a simple gas from a two-dimensional nozzle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riley, B. R.; Scheller, K. W.
1989-01-01
A system of nonlinear integral equations equivalent to the Krook kinetic equation for the steady state is the mathematical basis used to develop a computer code to model the flowfields for low-thrust two-dimensional nozzles. The method of characteristics was used to solve numerically by an iteration process the approximated Boltzmann equation for the number density, temperature, and velocity profiles of a simple gas as it exhausts into a vacuum. Results predict backscatter and show the effect of the inside wall boundary layer on the flowfields external to the nozzle.
Characterization of Horizontal Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Using Markov Model-Based Complex Network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Li-Dan; Jin, Ning-De; Gao, Zhong-Ke
2013-05-01
Horizontal gas-liquid two-phase flow widely exists in many physical systems and chemical engineering processes. Compared with vertical upward gas-liquid two-phase flow, investigations on dynamic behavior underlying horizontal gas-liquid flows are quite limited. Complex network provides a powerful framework for time series analysis of complex dynamical systems. We use a network generation method based on Markov transition probability to infer directed weighted complex networks from signals measured from horizontal gas-liquid two-phase flow experiment and find that the networks corresponding to different flow patterns exhibit different network structure. To investigate the dynamic characteristics of horizontal gas-liquid flows, we construct a number of complex networks under different flow conditions, and explore the network indices for each constructed network. In addition, we investigate the sample entropy of different flow patterns. Our results suggest that the network statistic can well represent the complexity in the transition among different flow patterns and further allows characterizing the interface fluctuation behavior in horizontal gas-liquid two-phase flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Huirang; Zheng, Dandan; Nie, Laixiao
2015-04-01
For gas ultrasonic flowmeters, the signals received by ultrasonic sensors are susceptible to noise interference. If signals are mingled with noise, a large error in flow measurement can be caused by triggering mistakenly using the traditional double-threshold method. To solve this problem, genetic-ant colony optimization (GACO) based on the ultrasonic pulse received signal model is proposed. Furthermore, in consideration of the real-time performance of the flow measurement system, the improvement of processing only the first three cycles of the received signals rather than the whole signal is proposed. Simulation results show that the GACO algorithm has the best estimation accuracy and ant-noise ability compared with the genetic algorithm, ant colony optimization, double-threshold and enveloped zero-crossing. Local convergence doesn’t appear with the GACO algorithm until -10 dB. For the GACO algorithm, the converging accuracy and converging speed and the amount of computation are further improved when using the first three cycles (called GACO-3cycles). Experimental results involving actual received signals show that the accuracy of single-gas ultrasonic flow rate measurement can reach 0.5% with GACO-3 cycles, which is better than with the double-threshold method.
Multiscale image-based modeling and simulation of gas flow and particle transport in the human lungs
Tawhai, Merryn H; Hoffman, Eric A
2013-01-01
is distributed to the peripheral tissue. The human airway structure spans more than 20 generations, beginning with the extra-thoracic airways (oral or nasal cavity, and through the pharynx and larynx to the trachea), then the conducting airways, the respiratory airways, and to the alveoli. The airways in individuals and sub-populations (by gender, age, ethnicity, and normal vs. diseased states) may exhibit different dimensions, branching patterns and angles, and thickness and rigidity. At the local level, one would like to capture detailed flow characteristics, e.g. local velocity profiles, shear stress, and pressure, for prediction of particle transport in an airway (lung structure) model that is specific to the geometry of an individual, to understand how inter-subject variation in airway geometry (normal or pathological) influences the transport and deposition of particles. In a systems biology – or multiscale modeling – approach, these local flow characteristics can be further integrated with epithelial cell models for the study of mechanotransduction. At the global (organ) level, one would like to match regional ventilation (lung function) that is specific to the individual, thus ensuring that the flow that transports inhaled particles is appropriately distributed throughout the lung model. Computational models that do not account for realistic distribution of ventilation are not capable of predicting realistic particle distribution or targeted drug deposition. Furthermore, the flow in the human lung can be transitional or turbulent in the upper and proximal airways, and becomes laminar in the distal airways. The flows in the laminar, transitional and turbulent regimes have different temporal and spatial scales. Therefore, modeling airway structure and predicting gas flow and particle transport at both local and global levels require image-guided multiscale modeling strategies. In this article, we will review the aforementioned three key aspects of CFD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, J. X.; Shen, X.; Yin, Y. J.; Guo, Z.; Wang, H.
2015-06-01
In this paper, Gas-liquid two phase flow mathematic models of incompressible fluid were proposed to explore the feature of fluid under certain centrifugal force in vertical centrifugal casting (VCC). Modified projection-level-set method was introduced to solve the mathematic models. To validate the simulation results, two methods were used in this study. In the first method, the simulation result of basic VCC flow process was compared with its analytic solution. The relationship between the numerical solution and deterministic analytic solution was presented to verify the correctness of numerical algorithms. In the second method, systematic water simulation experiments were developed. In this initial experiment, special experimental vertical centrifugal device and casting shapes were designed to describe typical mold-filling processes in VCC. High speed camera system and data collection devices were used to capture flow shape during the mold-filling process. Moreover, fluid characteristic at different rotation speed (from 40rpm, 60rpmand 80rpm) was discussed to provide comparative resource for simulation results. As compared with the simulation results, the proposed mathematical models could be proven and the experimental design could help us advance the accuracy of simulation and further studies for VCC.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1995-01-01
The success of any solution methodology for studying gas-turbine combustor flows depends a great deal on how well it can model various complex, rate-controlling processes associated with turbulent transport, mixing, chemical kinetics, evaporation and spreading rates of the spray, convective and radiative heat transfer, and other phenomena. These phenomena often strongly interact with each other at disparate time and length scales. In particular, turbulence plays an important role in determining the rates of mass and heat transfer, chemical reactions, and evaporation in many practical combustion devices. Turbulence manifests its influence in a diffusion flame in several forms depending on how turbulence interacts with various flame scales. These forms range from the so-called wrinkled, or stretched, flamelets regime, to the distributed combustion regime. Conventional turbulence closure models have difficulty in treating highly nonlinear reaction rates. A solution procedure based on the joint composition probability density function (PDF) approach holds the promise of modeling various important combustion phenomena relevant to practical combustion devices such as extinction, blowoff limits, and emissions predictions because it can handle the nonlinear chemical reaction rates without any approximation. In this approach, mean and turbulence gas-phase velocity fields are determined from a standard turbulence model; the joint composition field of species and enthalpy are determined from the solution of a modeled PDF transport equation; and a Lagrangian-based dilute spray model is used for the liquid-phase representation with appropriate consideration of the exchanges of mass, momentum, and energy between the two phases. The PDF transport equation is solved by a Monte Carlo method, and existing state-of-the-art numerical representations are used to solve the mean gasphase velocity and turbulence fields together with the liquid-phase equations. The joint composition PDF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miura, Hitoshi; Nakamoto, Taishi
2007-05-01
Millimeter-sized, spherical silicate grains abundant in chondritic meteorites, which are called as chondrules, are considered to be a strong evidence of the melting event of the dust particles in the protoplanetary disk. One of the most plausible scenarios is that the chondrule precursor dust particles are heated and melt in the high-velocity gas flow (shock-wave heating model). We developed the non-linear, time-dependent, and three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation code for analyzing the dynamics of molten droplets exposed to the gas flow. We confirmed that our simulation results showed a good agreement in a linear regime with the linear solution analytically derived by Sekyia et al. [Sekyia, M., Uesugi, M., Nakamoto, T., 2003. Prog. Theor. Phys. 109, 717-728]. We found that the non-linear terms in the hydrodynamical equations neglected by Sekiya et al. [Sekiya, M., Uesugi, M., Nakamoto, T., 2003. Prog. Theor. Phys. 109, 717-728] can cause the cavitation by producing negative pressure in the droplets. We discussed that the fragmentation through the cavitation is a new mechanism to determine the upper limit of chondrule sizes. We also succeeded to reproduce the fragmentation of droplets when the gas ram pressure is stronger than the effect of the surface tension. Finally, we compared the deformation of droplets in the shock-wave heating with the measured data of chondrules and suggested the importance of other effects to deform droplets, for example, the rotation of droplets. We believe that our new code is a very powerful tool to investigate the hydrodynamics of molten droplets in the framework of the shock-wave heating model and has many potentials to be applied to various problems.
Gas-flow experiments in the transition region
Santeler, D.J. )
1994-07-01
A special gas-flow facility was designed and constructed for the purpose of accurately measuring UF[sub 6] gas flow through a variety of gas-flow restrictions. The facility was used to measure the gas flow through 15 different orifices and 20 short tubes over a nominal pressure range from 0.002 to 100 Torr. The intent of the experiments was to confirm a new theoretical approach to gas flow through short tubes in the transition range between laminar viscous flow and molecular flow. The theoretical approach previously discussed [Santeler, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A [bold 4], 338, 348 (1986)] (1986) became a part of the basis for several computer programs used for calculating gas flow in vacuum systems. A number of interesting results in turbulent flow were observed during the experiments and are discussed in the paper. The results of the experiments confirmed the proposed model and were used to evaluate specific parameters of the proposed equations.
Gas-solid flow in vertical tubes
Pita, J.A.; Sundaresan, S. )
1991-07-01
This paper reports on a computational study of fully-developed flow of gas-particle suspensions in vertical pipes which was carried out, using the model proposed recently by Sinclair and Jackson, to understand the predicted scale-up characteristics. It was shown that the model can capture the existence of steady-state multiplicity wherein different pressure gradients can be obtained for the same gas and solids fluxes. A pronounced and nonmonotonic variation of the pressure gradient required to achieve desired fluxes of solid and gas with tube diameter was predicted by the model, and this is explained on a physical basis. The computed results were compared with the experimental data. The model manifests an unsatisfactory degree of sensitivity to the inelasticity of the particle-particle collisions and the damping of particle-phase fluctuating motion by the gas.
Phase-Contrast MRI and CFD Modeling of Apparent 3He Gas Flow in Rat Pulmonary Airways
Minard, Kevin R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Rick E.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Carson, James P.; Corley, Richard A.
2012-08-01
Phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with hyperpolarized 3He is potentially useful for developing and testing patient-specific models of pulmonary airflow. One challenge, however, is that PC-MRI provides apparent values of local 3He velocity that not only depend on actual airflow but also on gas diffusion. This not only blurs laminar flow patterns in narrow airways but also introduces anomalous airflow structure that reflects gas-wall interactions. Here, both effects are predicted in a live rat using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and for the first time, simulated patterns of apparent 3He gas velocity are compared with in-vivo PC-MRI. Results show (1) that correlations (R2) between measured and simulated airflow patterns increase from 0.23 to 0.79 simply by accounting for apparent 3He transport, and that (2) remaining differences are mainly due to uncertain airway segmentation and partial volume effects stemming from relatively coarse MRI resolution. Higher-fidelity testing of pulmonary airflow predictions should therefore be possible with future imaging improvements.
Phase-contrast MRI and CFD modeling of apparent ³He gas flow in rat pulmonary airways.
Minard, Kevin R; Kuprat, Andrew P; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E; Einstein, Daniel R; Carson, James P; Corley, Richard A
2012-08-01
Phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with hyperpolarized ³He is potentially useful for developing and testing patient-specific models of pulmonary airflow. One challenge, however, is that PC-MRI provides apparent values of local ³He velocity that not only depend on actual airflow but also on gas diffusion. This not only blurs laminar flow patterns in narrow airways but also introduces anomalous airflow structure that reflects gas-wall interactions. Here, both effects are predicted in a live rat using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and for the first time, simulated patterns of apparent ³He gas velocity are compared with in vivo PC-MRI. Results show (1) that correlations (R²) between measured and simulated airflow patterns increase from 0.23 to 0.79 simply by accounting for apparent ³He transport, and (2) that remaining differences are mainly due to uncertain airway segmentation and partial volume effects stemming from relatively coarse MRI resolution. Higher-fidelity testing of pulmonary airflow predictions should therefore be possible with future imaging improvements. PMID:22771528
Phase-Contrast MRI and CFD Modeling of Apparent 3He Gas Flow in Rat Pulmonary Airways
Minard, Kevin R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Carson, James P.; Corley, Richard A.
2012-01-01
Phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with hyperpolarized 3He is potentially useful for developing and testing patient-specific models of pulmonary airflow. One challenge, however, is that PC-MRI provides apparent values of local 3He velocity that not only depend on actual airflow but also on gas diffusion. This not only blurs laminar flow patterns in narrow airways but also introduces anomalous airflow structure that reflects gas-wall interactions. Here, both effects are predicted in a live rat using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and for the first time, simulated patterns of apparent 3He gas velocity are compared with in-vivo PC-MRI. Results show 1) that correlations (R2) between measured and simulated airflow patterns increase from 0.23 to 0.79 simply by accounting for apparent 3He transport, and 2) that remaining differences are mainly due to uncertain airway segmentation and partial volume effects stemming from relatively coarse MRI resolution. Higher-fidelity testing of pulmonary airflow predictions should therefore be possible with future imaging improvements. PMID:22771528
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nourazar, S. S.; Jahangiri, P.; Aboutalebi, A.; Ganjaei, A. A.; Nourazar, M.; Khadem, J.
2011-06-01
The effect of new terms in the improved algorithm, the modified direct simulation Monte-Carlo (MDSMC) method, is investigated by simulating a rarefied binary gas mixture flow inside a rotating cylinder. Dalton law for the partial pressures contributed by each species of the binary gas mixture is incorporated into our simulation using the MDSMC method and the direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) method. Moreover, the effect of the exponent of the cosine of deflection angle (α) in the inter-molecular collision models, the variable soft sphere (VSS) and the variable hard sphere (VHS), is investigated in our simulation. The improvement of the results of simulation is pronounced using the MDSMC method when compared with the results of the DSMC method. The results of simulation using the VSS model show some improvements on the result of simulation for the mixture temperature at radial distances close to the cylinder wall where the temperature reaches the maximum value when compared with the results using the VHS model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yujie; Zhang, Hongliang; Li, Jie; Lai, Yanqing
2013-11-01
A nonlinear shallow-water model combined with the effect of anode gas bubbles was derived for the melt flows and interface instability in aluminum reduction cells. Both the electromagnetic forces and the drag forces between the bath and gas bubbles, as the main driven forces for the melt flows, were taken into account in this model. A comparative numerical study was carried out using both the model considering the bubble and the model without considering the bubble. The results show the effect of the bubble cannot be neglected in a fluid dynamics analysis for the aluminum reduction cell. The bath flow, induced by the motion of bubbles, presents a series of small eddies rather than large eddies as the metal flow pattern shows. The horizontal drag forces between the bath and the bubbles in the bath layer enlarge the deformation of the metal-bath interface, to some extent, but have a positive influence on stabilizing the metal-bath interface perturbations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mahorter, L.; Chik, J.; McDaniels, D.; Dill, C.
1990-01-01
Engine 0209, the certification engine for the new Phase 2+ Hot Gas Manifold (HGM), showed severe deterioration of the Main Combustion Chamber (MCC) liner during hot fire tests. One theory on the cause of the damage held that uneven local distribution of the fuel rich hot gas flow through the main injector assembly was producing regions of high oxidizer/fuel (O/F) ratio near the wall of the MCC liner. Airflow testing was proposed to measure the local hot gas flow rates through individual injector elements. The airflow tests were conducted using full scale, geometrically correct models of both the current Phase 2 and the new Phase 2+ HGMs. Different main injector flow shield configurations were tested for each HGM to ascertain their effect on the pressure levels and distribution of hot gas flow. Instrumentation located on the primary faceplate of the main injector measured hot gas flow through selected injector elements. These data were combined with information from the current space shuttle main engine (SSME) power balances to produce maps of pressure, hot gas flow rate, and O/F ratio near the main injector primary plate. The O/F distributions were compared for the different injector and HGM configurations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sormani, Mattia C.; Binney, James; Magorrian, John
2015-05-01
We use a Cartesian grid to simulate the flow of gas in a barred Galactic potential and investigate the effects of varying the sound speed in the gas and the resolution of the grid. For all sound speeds and resolutions, streamlines closely follow closed orbits at large and small radii. At intermediate radii shocks arise and the streamlines shift between two families of closed orbits. The point at which the shocks appear and the streamlines shift between orbit families depends strongly on sound speed and resolution. For sufficiently large values of these two parameters, the transfer happens at the cusped orbit as hypothesized by Binney et al. over two decades ago. For sufficiently high resolutions, the flow downstream of the shocks becomes unsteady. If this unsteadiness is physical, as appears to be the case, it provides a promising explanation for the asymmetry in the observed distribution of CO.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carcano, Susanna; Bonaventura, Luca
2014-05-01
During explosive volcanic eruptions a mixture of gases, magma fragments, crystals and eroded rocks is injected in the atmosphere at high velocity, pressure and temperature. In the proximity of the volcanic vent, the erupted underexpanded multiphase mixture can manifest the features of supersonic flows, while the subsequent column behaviour is controlled by the (subsonic) turbulent mixing and mass and thermal exchange between the gas-particle mixture and the atmosphere. One of the main difficulties of the numerical simulation of explosive volcanic eruptions is therefore the need of modeling a multiphase process where different fluid dynamic regimes coexist and develop on on a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. From a computational point of view, this requires robust numerical techniques able to resolve supersonic regimes and to capture flow discontinuities (shock waves), as well as to reduce, where needed, the so-called numerical diffusion (while increasing the numerical accuracy) in order to simulate gas-particle non-equilibrium phenomena. Several examples of numerical approximation of multiphase gas-particle equations based on finite volume approach have been proposed in the literature, able to simulate the multiphase mixture up to second-order accuracy in space and time. However, achieving higher order of accuracy in the finite volume framework implies an increasing computational cost related to the extension of the computational stencil, in particular when a parallel implementation has to be employed. In this work, a mixture of gas and solid particles is described with a set of coupled partial differential equations for the mass, momentum and energy of each phase. Solid particles and the gas phase are considered as non-equilibrium interpenetrating continua, following an Eulerian-Eulerian approach. Each phase is compressible and inviscid. The gas and particles dynamics are coupled through the drag term in the momentum equations and the heat exchange term
Simulation of gas particle flow in a HVOF torch
Chang, C.H.; Moore, R.L.
1995-12-31
A transient two-dimensional numerical simulation of Inconel spraying in an HVOF torch barrel has been performed. The gas flow is treated as a continuum multicomponent chemically reacting flow, while particles are modeled using a stochastic particle spray model, fully coupled to the gas flow. The calculated results agree well with experimental data, and show important statistical aspects of particle flow in the torch.
Duncan, David B.
1992-01-01
A method and laser apparatus are disclosed which provide for a cross-flow of gas near one end of a laser discharge tube. The cross-flow of gas causes a concentration gradient which affects diffusion of contaminants in the discharge tube towards the cross-flow of the gas, which contaminants are then withdrawn from the discharge tube.
Rarefied gas flow through nanoscale tungsten channels.
Ozhgibesov, M S; Leu, T S; Cheng, C H
2013-05-01
The aim of this work is to investigate argon flow behaviors through the channels with three types of boundary conditions. Current work deals with numerical simulations of rarefied gas flow through nano-channels using the Molecular Dynamics method. Taking into account that this method is very time consuming, we implemented all the simulations using CUDA capable graphic cards. We found that the well-known and relatively simple Maxwell model of boundary conditions is able to reproduce gas flow through a tungsten channel with irregularities and roughness, while it results in a significant error in the case of a smooth metal surface. We further found that the flow rate through a relatively short channel correlates nonlinearly with the channel's length. This finding is in contrast with the results available in extant literature. Our results are important for both numerical and theoretical analyses of rarefied gas flow in micro- and nano-systems where the choice of boundary conditions significantly influences flow. PMID:23528809
Natural gas flow through critical nozzles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, R. C.
1969-01-01
Empirical method for calculating both the mass flow rate and upstream volume flow rate through critical flow nozzles is determined. Method requires knowledge of the composition of natural gas, and of the upstream pressure and temperature.
Heavy Gas Dispersion Incompressible Flow
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1992-01-27
FEM3 is a numerical model developed primarily to simulate heavy gas dispersion in the atmosphere, such as the gravitational spread and vapor dispersion that result from an accidental spill of liquefied natural gas (LNG). FEM3 solves both two and three-dimensional problems and, in addition to the generalized anelastic formulation, includes options to use either the Boussinesq approximation or an isothermal assumption, when appropriate. The FEM3 model is composed of three parts: a preprocessor PREFEM3, themore » main code FEM3, and two postprocessors TESSERA and THPLOTX.« less
Thomas E. Conder; Richard Skifton; Ralph Budwig
2012-11-01
Core bypass flow is one of the key issues with the prismatic Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor, and it refers to the coolant that navigates through the interstitial, non-cooling passages between the graphite fuel blocks instead of traveling through the designated coolant channels. To determine the bypass flow, a double scale representative model was manufactured and installed in the Matched Index-of-Refraction flow facility; after which, stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was employed to measure the flow field within. PIV images were analyzed to produce vector maps, and flow rates were calculated by numerically integrating over the velocity field. It was found that the bypass flow varied between 6.9-15.8% for channel Reynolds numbers of 1,746 and 4,618. The results were compared to computational fluid dynamic (CFD) pre-test simulations. When compared to these pretest calculations, the CFD analysis appeared to under predict the flow through the gap.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geistlinger, H.; Samani, S.; Pohlert, M.; Martienssen, M.; Engelmann, F.; Hüttmann, S.
2008-12-01
Within the framework of the OXYWALL field experiment we developed the direct gas injection (DGI) of oxygen as a remediation technology, which allows the cost-efficient and large-scale cleaning of groundwater contaminated with organic contaminants. That technology can be used as wide-banded, unselective remediation method for complex contaminant mixtures. Particularly, it could be proofed in field experiments that mineral oil hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX), the rather persistent gasoline component Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), and chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, like Trichloroethene and Monochlorobenzene, can be aerobically metabolized by autochthon microorganisms. Over the last 8 years the field site was investigated and a dense monitoring network was installed using Geoprobe direct- push technology and standard hydrogeological investigations were conducted, like EC-Logs, Injections-Logs, Gamma-Logs, TDR-probes, oxygen measurements with in-situ optodes, and tracer test with test gases SF6, Ar, and Oxygen. The key parameter for controling and regulating the DGI is the spatial and temporal distribution of the gas phase. High-resolution optical bench scale experiments were conducted in order to investigate local gas flow pattern and integral flow properties caused by point-like gas injection into water-saturated glass beads and natural sands. We observed a grain-size (dk)- and flow-rate (Q) dependent transition from incoherent to coherent flow. Conceptualizing the stationary tortuous gas flow as core-annulus flow and applying Hagen- Poiseuille flow for a straight capillary, we propose a flow-rate- and grain-size dependent stability criterion that could describe our experimental results and was used for classifying the experiments in a dk-Q-diagram (flow chart). Since DGI simulations are mainly based on continuum models, we also test the validity of the continuum approach for two-fluid flow in macroscopic homogeneous media by
Steinberg, A.M.; Boxx, I.; Stoehr, M.; Meier, W.; Carter, C.D.
2010-12-15
A detailed analysis of the flow-flame interactions associated with acoustically coupled heat-release rate fluctuations was performed for a 10 kW, CH{sub 4}/air, swirl stabilized flame in a gas turbine model combustor exhibiting self-excited thermo-acoustic oscillations at 308 Hz. High-speed stereoscopic particle image velocimetry, OH planar laser induced fluorescence, and OH* chemiluminescence measurements were performed at a sustained repetition rate of 5 kHz, which was sufficient to resolve the relevant combustor dynamics. Using spatio-temporal proper orthogonal decomposition, it was found that the flow-field contained several simultaneous periodic motions: the reactant flux into the combustion chamber periodically oscillated at the thermo-acoustic frequency (308 Hz), a helical precessing vortex core (PVC) circumscribed the burner nozzle at 515 Hz, and the PVC underwent axial contraction and extension at the thermo-acoustic frequency. The global heat release rate fluctuated at the thermo-acoustic frequency, while the heat release centroid circumscribed the combustor at the difference between the thermo-acoustic and PVC frequencies. Hence, the three-dimensional location of the heat release fluctuations depended on the interaction of the PVC with the flame surface. This motivated the compilation of doubly phase resolved statistics based on the phase of both the acoustic and PVC cycles, which showed highly repeatable periodic flow-flame configurations. These include flames stabilized between the inflow and inner recirculation zone, large-scale flame wrap-up by the PVC, radial deflection of the inflow by the PVC, and combustion in the outer recirculation zones. Large oscillations in the flame surface area were observed at the thermo-accoustic frequency that significantly affected the total heat-release oscillations. By filtering the instantaneous reaction layers at different scales, the importance of the various flow-flame interactions affecting the flame area was
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alzahrany, Mohammed; Banerjee, Arindam
2012-11-01
A computational fluid dynamic study is carried out to investigate gas transport in patient specific human lung models (based on CT scans) during high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). Different pressure-controlled waveforms and various ventilator frequencies are studied to understand the effect of flow transport and gas mixing during these processes. Three different pressure waveforms are created by solving the equation of motion subjected to constant lung wall compliance and flow resistance. Sinusoidal, exponential and constant waveforms shapes are considered with three different frequencies 6, 10 and 15 Hz and constant tidal volume 50 ml. The velocities are calculated from the obtained flow rate and imposed as inlet flow conditions to represent the mechanical ventilation waveforms. An endotracheal tube ETT is joined to the model to account for the effect of the invasive management device with the peak Reynolds number (Re) for all the cases ranging from 6960 to 24694. All simulations are performed using high order LES turbulent model. The gas transport near the flow reversal will be discussed at different cycle phases for all the cases and a comparison of the secondary flow structures between different cases will be presented.
A Gas-Kinetic Scheme for Reactive Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lian,Youg-Sheng; Xu, Kun
1998-01-01
In this paper, the gas-kinetic BGK scheme for the compressible flow equations is extended to chemical reactive flow. The mass fraction of the unburnt gas is implemented into the gas kinetic equation by assigning a new internal degree of freedom to the particle distribution function. The new variable can be also used to describe fluid trajectory for the nonreactive flows. Due to the gas-kinetic BGK model, the current scheme basically solves the Navier-Stokes chemical reactive flow equations. Numerical tests validate the accuracy and robustness of the current kinetic method.
Y. Wu
2004-11-01
The purpose of this report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) flow models and submodels, as well as the flow fields that have been generated using the UZ flow model(s) of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this report, the term ''UZ model'' refers to the UZ flow model and the several submodels, which include tracer transport, temperature or ambient geothermal, pneumatic or gas flow, and geochemistry (chloride, calcite, and strontium) submodels. The term UZ flow model refers to the three-dimensional models used for calibration and simulation of UZ flow fields. This work was planned in the ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.7). The table of included Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs), Table 6.2-11, is different from the list of included FEPs assigned to this report in the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Table 2.1.5-1), as discussed in Section 6.2.6. The UZ model has revised, updated, and enhanced the previous UZ model (BSC 2001 [DIRS 158726]) by incorporating the repository design with new grids, recalibration of property sets, and more comprehensive validation effort. The flow fields describe fracture-fracture, matrix-matrix, and fracture-matrix liquid flow rates, and their spatial distributions as well as moisture conditions in the UZ system. These three-dimensional UZ flow fields are used directly by Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The model and submodels evaluate important hydrogeologic processes in the UZ as well as geochemistry and geothermal conditions. These provide the necessary framework to test hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales, and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic conditions. In addition, the limitations of the UZ model are discussed in Section 8.11.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lilley, D. G.; Sander, G. F.
1983-01-01
In connection with the desirability of optimizing the design of a gas turbine combustion chamber, there exists a need for a more complete understanding of the fluid dynamics of the flow in such chambers. In order to satisfy this need, experimental and theoretical research is being conducted with the objective to study two-dimensional axisymmetric geometries under low speed, nonreacting, turbulent, swirling flow conditions. The flow enters the test section and proceeds into a larger chamber. Inlet swirl vanes are adjustable to a variety of vane angles. The present investigation concentrates on the time-mean flow characteristics which are generated by the upstream annular swirler. The investigation makes use of a five-hole pitot probe technique. A theoretical analysis of swirl numbers associated with several idealized exit velocity profiles is included, and values of the ratio of maximum swirl velocity to maximum axial velocity at different swirl strengths are given for each case.
Monte Carlo modeling of electron density in hypersonic rarefied gas flows
Fan, Jin; Zhang, Yuhuai; Jiang, Jianzheng
2014-12-09
The electron density distribution around a vehicle employed in the RAM-C II flight test is calculated with the DSMC method. To resolve the mole fraction of electrons which is several orders lower than those of the primary species in the free stream, an algorithm named as trace species separation (TSS) is utilized. The TSS algorithm solves the primary and trace species separately, which is similar to the DSMC overlay techniques; however it generates new simulated molecules of trace species, such as ions and electrons in each cell, basing on the ionization and recombination rates directly, which differs from the DSMC overlay techniques based on probabilistic models. The electron density distributions computed by TSS agree well with the flight data measured in the RAM-C II test along a decent trajectory at three altitudes 81km, 76km, and 71km.
Heavy Gas Dispersion Incompressible Flow
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1992-02-03
FEM3 is a numerical model developed primarily to simulate heavy gas dispersion in the atmosphere, such as the gravitational spread and vapor dispersion that result from an accidental spill of liquefied natural gas (LNG). FEM3 solves both two and three-dimensional problems and, in addition to the generalized anelastic formulation, includes options to use either the Boussinesq approximation or an isothermal assumption, when appropriate. The FEM3 model is composed of three parts: a preprocessor PREFEM3, themore » main code FEM3, and two postprocessors TESSERA and THPLOTX. The DEC VAX11 version contains an auxiliary program, POLYREAD, which reads the polyplot file created by FEM3.« less
Permeable Gas Flow Influences Magma Fragmentation Speed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richard, D.; Scheu, B.; Spieler, O.; Dingwell, D.
2008-12-01
Highly viscous magmas undergo fragmentation in order to produce the pyroclastic deposits that we observe, but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. The overpressure required to initiate fragmentation depends on a number of physical parameters, such as the magma's vesicularity, permeability, tensile strength and textural properties. It is clear that these same parameters control also the speed at which a fragmentation front travels through magma when fragmentation occurs. Recent mathematical models of fragmentation processes consider most of these factors, but permeable gas flow has not yet been included in these models. However, it has been shown that permeable gas flow through a porous rock during a sudden decompression event increases the fragmentation threshold. Fragmentation experiments on natural samples from Bezymianny (Russia), Colima (Mexico), Krakatau (Indonesia) and Augustine (USA) volcanoes confirm these results and suggest in addition that high permeable flow rates may increase the speed of fragmentation. Permeability from the investigated samples ranges from as low as 5 x 10-14 to higher than 9 x 10- 12 m2 and open porosity ranges from 16 % to 48 %. Experiments were performed for each sample series at applied pressures up to 35 MPa. Our results indicate that the rate of increase of fragmentation speed is higher when the permeability is above 10-12 m2. We confirm that it is necessary to include the influence of permeable flow on fragmentation dynamics.
Spark gap switch with spiral gas flow
Brucker, John P.
1989-01-01
A spark gap switch having a contaminate removal system using an injected gas. An annular plate concentric with an electrode of the switch defines flow paths for the injected gas which form a strong spiral flow of the gas in the housing which is effective to remove contaminates from the switch surfaces. The gas along with the contaminates is exhausted from the housing through one of the ends of the switch.
Taylor, L.M.; Swenson, D.V.; Cooper, P.W.
1984-07-01
A two-dimensional finite element model for predicting fracture patterns obtained in high energy gas fracture experiments is presented. In these experiments, a mixture of propellants is used instead of explosives to fracture the rock surrounding the borehole. The propellant mixture is chosen to tailor the pressure pulse so that multiple fractures emanate from the borehole. The model allows the fracture pattern and pressure pulse to be calculated for different combinations of propellant mixture, in situ stress conditions, and rock properties. The model calculates the amount of gas generated by the burning propellants using a burn rate given by a power law in pressure. By assuming that the gas behaves as a perfect gas and that the flow down the fractures is isothermal, the loss of gas from the borehole due to flow down the cracks is accounted for. The flow of gas down the cracks is included in an approximate manner by assuming self-similar pressure profiles along the fractures. Numerical examples are presented and compared to three different full-scale experiments. Results show a good correlation with the experimental data over a wide variety of test parameters. 9 reference, 10 figures, 3 tables.
Advances in gas-liquid flows 1990
Kim, J.M. . Nuclear Reactor Lab.); Rohatgi, U.S. ); Hashemi, A. )
1990-01-01
Gas-liquid two-phase flows commonly occur in nature and industrial applications. Rain, clouds, geysers, and waterfalls are examples of natural gas-liquid flow phenomena, whereas industrial applications can be found in nuclear reactors, steam generators, boilers, condensers, evaporators, fuel atomization, heat pipes, electronic equipment cooling, petroleum engineering, chemical process engineering, and many others. The household-variety phenomena such as garden sprinklers, shower, whirlpool bath, dripping faucet, boiling tea pot, and bubbling beer provide daily experience of gas-liquid flows. The papers presented in this volume reflect the variety and richness of gas-liquid two-phase flow and the increasing role it plays in modern technology. This volume contains papers dealing with some recent development in gas-liquid flow science and technology, covering basic gas-liquid flows, measurements and instrumentation, cavitation and flashing flows, countercurrent flow and flooding, flow in various components and geometries liquid metals and thermocapillary effects, heat transfer, nonlinear phenomena, instability, and other special and general topics related to gas-liquid flows.
Hodges, Rex A.; Cooper, Clay; Falta, Ronald
2012-09-17
The Piceance Basin in western Colorado contains significant reserves of natural gas in poorly connected, low-permeability (tight) sandstone lenses of the Mesaverde Group. The ability to enhance the production of natural gas in this area has long been a goal of the oil and gas industry. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, participated in three tests using nuclear detonations to fracture tight formations in an effort to enhance gas production. The tests were conducted under Project Plowshare, a program designed to identify peaceful, beneficial uses for nuclear devices. The first, Project Gasbuggy, was conducted in 1967 in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico. The two subsequent tests, Project Rulison in 1969 and Project Rio Blanco in 1973, were in the Piceance Basin. The ability to enhance natural gas production from tight sands has become practical through advances in hydraulic fracturing technology (hydrofracturing). This technology has led to an increase in drilling activity near the Rulison site, raising concerns that contamination currently contained in the subsurface could be released through a gas well drilled too close to the site. As wells are drilled nearer the site, the DOE Office of Legacy Management has taken the approach outlined in the June 2010 Rulison Path Forward document (DOE 2010), which recommends a conservative, staged approach to gas development. Drillers are encouraged to drill wells in areas with a low likelihood of encountering contamination (both distance and direction from the detonation zone are factors) and to collect data from these wells prior to drilling nearer the site’s 40 acre institutional control boundary (Lot 11). Previous modeling results indicate that contamination has been contained within Lot 11 (Figure 1). The Path Forward document couples the model predictions with the monitoring of gas and produced water from the gas wells
Hugh M. McIlroy Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink
2008-09-01
The experimental program that is being conducted at the Matched Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Flow Facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to obtain benchmark data on measurements of flow phenomena in a scaled model of a prismatic gas-cooled reactor lower plenum using 3-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is presented. A description of the scaling analysis, experimental facility, 3-D PIV system, measurement uncertainties and analysis, experimental procedures and samples of the data sets that have been obtained are included. Samples of the data set that will be presented include mean-velocity-field and turbulence data in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) similar to a General Atomics Gas-Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GTMHR) design. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. The flow in the lower plenum consists of multiple jets injected into a confined cross flow - with obstructions. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to approximate flow scaled to that expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. The model is fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive-index of the mineral oil working fluid. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits high-quality measurements to be obtained without locating intrusive transducers that disturb the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. An advantage of the INL MIR system is its large size which allows improved spatial and temporal resolution compared to similar facilities at smaller scales. Results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). Inlet jet Reynolds numbers (based on the jet diameter and the time-mean average flow rate) are approximately 4,300 and 12,400. The measurements
Apparatus for focusing flowing gas streams
Nogar, N.S.; Keller, R.A.
1985-05-20
Apparatus for focusing gas streams. The principle of hydrodynamic focusing is applied to flowing gas streams in order to provide sample concentration for improved photon and sample utilization in resonance ionization mass spectrometric analysis. In a concentric nozzle system, gas samples introduced from the inner nozzle into the converging section of the outer nozzle are focused to streams 50-250-..mu..m in diameter. In some cases diameters of approximately 100-..mu..m are maintained over distances of several centimeters downstream from the exit orifice of the outer nozzle. The sheath gas employed has been observed to further provide a protective covering around the flowing gas sample, thereby isolating the flowing gas sample from possible unwanted reactions with nearby surfaces. A single nozzle variation of the apparatus for achieving hydrodynamic focusing of gas samples is also described.
Mink, S N
1984-01-01
The pathophysiology of reduced maximum expiratory flow in a canine model of pulmonary emphysema was studied, and the results interpreted in terms of the wave-speed theory of flow limitation. According to this theory, maximum expiratory flow is related both to the cross-sectional area and compliance at an airway site where a critical gas velocity is first reached ("choke-point") and to gas density. Pulmonary emphysema was produced by the repeated instillations of the enzyme papain into the airways of six dogs. In five control dogs, a saline solution was instilled. During forced vital capacity deflation, in an open-chest preparation, maximum expiratory flow, choke-point locations, and the response to breathing an 80:20 helium/oxygen gas mixture were determined at multiple lung volumes. To locate choke-points, a pressure measuring device was positioned in the airway to measure lateral and end-on intrabronchial pressures, from which the relevant wave-speed parameters were obtained. In general, the reduced maximum expiratory flow in emphysema can be explained by diminished lung elastic recoil pressure and by altered bronchial pressure-area behavior, which results in a more peripheral location of choke-points that have smaller cross-sectional areas than controls. With respect to the density dependence of maximum expiratory flow, this response did not differ from control values in four dogs with emphysema in which frictional pressure losses upstream from choke-points did not differ on the two gas mixtures. In two dogs with emphysema, however, upstream frictional pressure losses were greater on helium/oxygen than on air, which resulted in a smaller cross-sectional area on helium/oxygen; hence density dependence decreased. PMID:6715539
Flow rate measuring devices for gas flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonfig, K. W.
1985-07-01
Flowrate measuring devices are described: volume meter with fixed or mobile walls; turbine meter; throttling procedure; ultrasonic and Doppler methods; vortex method; rotary flowmeter; and swinging body flow measuring procedure. Flowrate can also be measured from the force exerted on bodies immersed in a fluid or based on thermodynamical principles. The characteristics and operating envelope of each device/method are given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasanth, P. S.; Kakkassery, Jose K.; Vijayakumar, R.
2012-04-01
A modified phenomenological model is constructed for the simulation of rarefied flows of polyatomic non-polar gas molecules by the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. This variable hard sphere-based model employs a constant rotational collision number, but all its collisions are inelastic in nature and at the same time the correct macroscopic relaxation rate is maintained. In equilibrium conditions, there is equi-partition of energy between the rotational and translational modes and it satisfies the principle of reciprocity or detailed balancing. The present model is applicable for moderate temperatures at which the molecules are in their vibrational ground state. For verification, the model is applied to the DSMC simulations of the translational and rotational energy distributions in nitrogen gas at equilibrium and the results are compared with their corresponding Maxwellian distributions. Next, the Couette flow, the temperature jump and the Rayleigh flow are simulated; the viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients of nitrogen are numerically estimated and compared with experimentally measured values. The model is further applied to the simulation of the rotational relaxation of nitrogen through low- and high-Mach-number normal shock waves in a novel way. In all cases, the results are found to be in good agreement with theoretically expected and experimentally observed values. It is concluded that the inelastic collision of polyatomic molecules can be predicted well by employing the constructed variable hard sphere (VHS)-based collision model.
Coupling compositional liquid gas Darcy and free gas flows at porous and free-flow domains interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masson, R.; Trenty, L.; Zhang, Y.
2016-09-01
This paper proposes an efficient splitting algorithm to solve coupled liquid gas Darcy and free gas flows at the interface between a porous medium and a free-flow domain. This model is compared to the reduced model introduced in [6] using a 1D approximation of the gas free flow. For that purpose, the gas molar fraction diffusive flux at the interface in the free-flow domain is approximated by a two point flux approximation based on a low-frequency diagonal approximation of a Steklov-Poincaré type operator. The splitting algorithm and the reduced model are applied in particular to the modelling of the mass exchanges at the interface between the storage and the ventilation galleries in radioactive waste deposits.
Flows of gas through a protoplanetary gap.
Casassus, Simon; van der Plas, Gerrit; Sebastian Perez, M; Dent, William R F; Fomalont, Ed; Hagelberg, Janis; Hales, Antonio; Jordán, Andrés; Mawet, Dimitri; Ménard, Francois; Wootten, Al; Wilner, David; Hughes, A Meredith; Schreiber, Matthias R; Girard, Julien H; Ercolano, Barbara; Canovas, Hector; Román, Pablo E; Salinas, Vachail
2013-01-10
The formation of gaseous giant planets is thought to occur in the first few million years after stellar birth. Models predict that the process produces a deep gap in the dust component (shallower in the gas). Infrared observations of the disk around the young star HD 142527 (at a distance of about 140 parsecs from Earth) found an inner disk about 10 astronomical units (AU) in radius (1 AU is the Earth-Sun distance), surrounded by a particularly large gap and a disrupted outer disk beyond 140 AU. This disruption is indicative of a perturbing planetary-mass body at about 90 AU. Radio observations indicate that the bulk mass is molecular and lies in the outer disk, whose continuum emission has a horseshoe morphology. The high stellar accretion rate would deplete the inner disk in less than one year, and to sustain the observed accretion matter must therefore flow from the outer disk and cross the gap. In dynamical models, the putative protoplanets channel outer-disk material into gap-crossing bridges that feed stellar accretion through the inner disk. Here we report observations of diffuse CO gas inside the gap, with denser HCO(+) gas along gap-crossing filaments. The estimated flow rate of the gas is in the range of 7 × 10(-9) to 2 × 10(-7) solar masses per year, which is sufficient to maintain accretion onto the star at the present rate. PMID:23283173
Tao, Shi; Guo, Zhaoli
2015-04-01
The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has been widely used to simulate microgaseous flows in recent years. However, it is still a challenging task for LBM to model that kind of microscale flow involving complex geometries, owing to the use of uniform Cartesian lattices in space. In this work, a boundary condition for microflows in the slip regime is developed for LBM in which the shape of a solid wall is well considered. The proposed treatment is a combination of the Maxwellian diffuse reflection scheme and the simple bounce-back method. A portion of each part is determined by the relative position between the boundary node and curved walls, which is the key point that distinguishes this method from some previous schemes where the smooth curved surface was assumed to be zigzag lines. The present curved boundary condition is implemented with the multiple-relaxation-times model and verified for several established cases, including the plane microchannel flow (aligned and inclined), microcylindrical Couette flow, and the flow over an inclined microscale airfoil. The numerical results agree well with those predicted by the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. PMID:25974610
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, Shi; Guo, Zhaoli
2015-04-01
The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has been widely used to simulate microgaseous flows in recent years. However, it is still a challenging task for LBM to model that kind of microscale flow involving complex geometries, owing to the use of uniform Cartesian lattices in space. In this work, a boundary condition for microflows in the slip regime is developed for LBM in which the shape of a solid wall is well considered. The proposed treatment is a combination of the Maxwellian diffuse reflection scheme and the simple bounce-back method. A portion of each part is determined by the relative position between the boundary node and curved walls, which is the key point that distinguishes this method from some previous schemes where the smooth curved surface was assumed to be zigzag lines. The present curved boundary condition is implemented with the multiple-relaxation-times model and verified for several established cases, including the plane microchannel flow (aligned and inclined), microcylindrical Couette flow, and the flow over an inclined microscale airfoil. The numerical results agree well with those predicted by the direct simulation Monte Carlo method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fabris, Gracio
1994-01-01
Improved devices mix gases and liquids into bubbly or foamy flows. Generates flowing, homogeneous foams or homogeneous dispersions of small, noncoalescing bubbles entrained in flowing liquids. Mixers useful in liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic electric-power generator, froth flotation in mining industry, wastewater treatment, aerobic digestion, and stripping hydrocarbon contaminants from ground water.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1994-12-01
RAMSGAS, the Research and Development Analysis Modeling System World Natural Gas Model, was developed to support planning of unconventional gaseoues fuels research and development. The model is a scenario analysis tool that can simulate the penetration of unconventional gas into world markets for oil and gas. Given a set of parameter values, the model estimates the natural gas supply and demand for the world for the period from 1980 to 2030. RAMSGAS is based onmore » a supply/demand framwork and also accounts for the non-renewable nature of gas resources. The model has three fundamental components: a demand module, a wellhead production cost module, and a supply/demand interface module. The demand for gas is a product of total demand for oil and gas in each of 9 demand regions and the gas share. Demand for oil and gas is forecast from the base year of 1980 through 2030 for each demand region, based on energy growth rates and price-induced conservation. For each of 11 conventional and 19 unconventional gas supply regions, wellhead production costs are calculated. To these are added transportation and distribution costs estimates associated with moving gas from the supply region to each of the demand regions and any economic rents. Based on a weighted average of these costs and the world price of oil, fuel shares for gas and oil are computed for each demand region. The gas demand is the gas fuel share multiplied by the total demand for oil plus gas. This demand is then met from the available supply regions in inverse proportion to the cost of gas from each region. The user has almost complete control over the cost estimates for each unconventional gas source in each year and thus can compare contributions from unconventional resources under different cost/price/demand scenarios.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terzija, N.; Yin, W.; Gerbeth, G.; Stefani, F.; Timmel, K.; Wondrak, T.; Peyton, A. J.
2011-01-01
Monitoring of the steel flow through the submerged entry nozzle (SEN) during continuous casting presents a challenge for the instrumentation system because of the high temperature environment and the limited access to the nozzle in between the tundish and the mould. Electromagnetic inductance tomography (EMT) presents an attractive tool to visualize the steel flow profile within the SEN. In this paper, we investigate various flow regimes over a range of stopper positions and gas volume flow rates on a model of a submerged entry nozzle. A scaled (approximately 10:1) experimental rig consisting of a tundish, stopper rod, nozzle and mould was used. Argon gas was injected through the centre of the stopper rod and the behaviour of the two-phase GaInSn/argon flow was studied. The experiments were performed with GaInSn as an analogue for liquid steel, because it has similar conductive properties as molten steel and allows measurements at room temperature. The electromagnetic system used in our experiments to monitor the behaviour of the two-phase GaInSn/argon flow consisted of an array of eight equally spaced induction coils arranged around the object, a data acquisition system and a host computer. The present system operates with a sinusoidal excitation waveform with a frequency of 40 kHz and the system has a capture rate of 40 frames per second. The results show the ability of the system to distinguish the different flow regimes and to detect the individual bubbles. Sample tomographic images given in the paper clearly illustrate the different flow regimes.
Slip length measurement of gas flow.
Maali, Abdelhamid; Colin, Stéphane; Bhushan, Bharat
2016-09-16
In this paper, we present a review of the most important techniques used to measure the slip length of gas flow on isothermal surfaces. First, we present the famous Millikan experiment and then the rotating cylinder and spinning rotor gauge methods. Then, we describe the gas flow rate experiment, which is the most widely used technique to probe a confined gas and measure the slip. Finally, we present a promising technique using an atomic force microscope introduced recently to study the behavior of nanoscale confined gas. PMID:27505860
Slip length measurement of gas flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maali, Abdelhamid; Colin, Stéphane; Bhushan, Bharat
2016-09-01
In this paper, we present a review of the most important techniques used to measure the slip length of gas flow on isothermal surfaces. First, we present the famous Millikan experiment and then the rotating cylinder and spinning rotor gauge methods. Then, we describe the gas flow rate experiment, which is the most widely used technique to probe a confined gas and measure the slip. Finally, we present a promising technique using an atomic force microscope introduced recently to study the behavior of nanoscale confined gas.
Behafarid, F.; Shaver, D. R.; Bolotnov, I. A.; Jansen, K. E.; Antal, S. P.; Podowski, M. Z.
2012-07-01
The required technological and safety standards for future Gen IV Reactors can only be achieved if advanced simulation capabilities become available, which combine high performance computing with the necessary level of modeling detail and high accuracy of predictions. The purpose of this paper is to present new results of multi-scale three-dimensional (3D) simulations of the inter-related phenomena, which occur as a result of fuel element heat-up and cladding failure, including the injection of a jet of gaseous fission products into a partially blocked Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) coolant channel, and gas/molten sodium transport along the coolant channels. The computational approach to the analysis of the overall accident scenario is based on using two different inter-communicating computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) codes: a CFD code, PHASTA, and a RANS code, NPHASE-CMFD. Using the geometry and time history of cladding failure and the gas injection rate, direct numerical simulations (DNS), combined with the Level Set method, of two-phase turbulent flow have been performed by the PHASTA code. The model allows one to track the evolution of gas/liquid interfaces at a centimeter scale. The simulated phenomena include the formation and breakup of the jet of fission products injected into the liquid sodium coolant. The PHASTA outflow has been averaged over time to obtain mean phasic velocities and volumetric concentrations, as well as the liquid turbulent kinetic energy and turbulence dissipation rate, all of which have served as the input to the core-scale simulations using the NPHASE-CMFD code. A sliding window time averaging has been used to capture mean flow parameters for transient cases. The results presented in the paper include testing and validation of the proposed models, as well the predictions of fission-gas/liquid-sodium transport along a multi-rod fuel assembly of SFR during a partial loss-of-flow accident. (authors)
Driver gas flow with fluctuations. [shock tube turbulent bursts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, J. A., III; Jones, W. R.; Santiago, J.
1980-01-01
A shock tube's driver gas can apparently provide flow with turbulent bursts. The fluctuations are interpreted using a boundary layer model of contact surface flow and results form a kinetic theory of turbulence. With this, a lower limit of 4 on the ratio of maximum to minimum turbulent intensities in contact surface instabilities has been estimated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmidt, Rodney C.; Patankar, Suhas V.
1988-01-01
The use of low Reynolds number (LRN) forms of the k-epsilon turbulence model in predicting transitional boundary layer flow characteristic of gas turbine blades is developed. The research presented consists of: (1) an evaluation of two existing models; (2) the development of a modification to current LRN models; and (3) the extensive testing of the proposed model against experimental data. The prediction characteristics and capabilities of the Jones-Launder (1972) and Lam-Bremhorst (1981) LRN k-epsilon models are evaluated with respect to the prediction of transition on flat plates. Next, the mechanism by which the models simulate transition is considered and the need for additional constraints is discussed. Finally, the transition predictions of a new model are compared with a wide range of different experiments, including transitional flows with free-stream turbulence under conditions of flat plate constant velocity, flat plate constant acceleration, flat plate but strongly variable acceleration, and flow around turbine blade test cascades. In general, calculational procedure yields good agreement with most of the experiments.
Jones, A Y; Jones, R D; Kwong, K; Burns, Y
2000-01-01
Gas flows of 2, 3, and 4 L/min were directed through a sputum-like gel with viscosities of 100, 150, and 200 P and placed in a tube similar in diameter to a human segmental bronchus (4 mm), which was immersed in a bath of water. The sound produced by gas flow through the gel was recorded with a hydrophone. Sound data were subjected to time-expanded waveforms and fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis. This study demonstrated that the number of crackles generated was directly related to the flow rate and inversely related to gel viscosity. The initial deflection width (IDW), two-cycle duration (2 CD), and peak-to-peak amplitude of crackles were significantly affected by the gas flow rate but not the viscosity of the gel. A lower gas flow rate generated crackles with longer IDW and 2 CD, but higher gas flow rates generated crackles with higher amplitude. Peak sound intensity measured from FFT increased as flow rate increased but decreased as the viscosity of the gel increased. At low gas flows, no gel-induced crackle sound was generated within the data capture window when the most viscous gel was examined. A digital video image of gas flow through the gel was captured, and this confirmed the absence of bubbles or slug formation at low flows through 200 P gel during the 3 seconds of data acquisition. This study describes some characteristics of crackles generated from different combinations of gas flow and gel viscosity and suggests that "coarse crackles" results from the explosion of gas bubbles in pulmonary secretions. Health care practitioners should consider the combined effect of rate of inspiratory gas flow and sputum viscosity during auscultation of patients' lungs. PMID:10723718
A method of determining combustion gas flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bon Tempi, P. J.
1968-01-01
Zirconium oxide coating enables the determination of hot gas flow patterns on liquid rocket injector face and baffle surfaces to indicate modifications that will increase performance and improve combustion stability. The coating withstands combustion temperatures and due to the coarse surface and coloring of the coating, shows the hot gas patterns.
Cleanouts boost Devonian shale gas flow
Not Available
1991-02-04
Cleaning shale debris from the well bores is an effective way to boost flow rates from old open hole Devonian shale gas wells, research on six West Virginia wells begun in 1985 has shown. Officials involved with the study say the Appalachian basin could see 20 year recoverable gas reserves hiked by 315 bcf if the process is used on a wide scale.
Fluorescent particles enable visualization of gas flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, A. J.
1968-01-01
Fluorescent particles enable visualization of the flow patterns of gases at slow velocities. Through a transparent section in the gas line, a camera views the visible light emitted by the particles carried by the gas stream. Fine definition of the particle tracks are obtained at slow camera shutter speeds.
HYDROGEN ELECTROLYZER FLOW DISTRIBUTOR MODEL
Shadday, M
2006-09-28
The hybrid sulfur process (HyS) hydrogen electrolyzer consists of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) sandwiched between two porous graphite layers. An aqueous solution of sulfuric acid with dissolved SO{sub 2} gas flows parallel to the PEM through the porous graphite layer on the anode side of the electrolyzer. A flow distributor, consisting of a number of parallel channels acting as headers, promotes uniform flow of the anolyte fluid through the porous graphite layer. A numerical model of the hydraulic behavior of the flow distributor is herein described. This model was developed to be a tool to aid the design of flow distributors. The primary design objective is to minimize spatial variations in the flow through the porous graphite layer. The hydraulic data from electrolyzer tests consists of overall flowrate and pressure drop. Internal pressure and flow distributions are not measured, but these details are provided by the model. The model has been benchmarked against data from tests of the current electrolyzer. The model reasonably predicts the viscosity effect of changing the fluid from water to an aqueous solution of 30 % sulfuric acid. The permeability of the graphite layer was the independent variable used to fit the model to the test data, and the required permeability for a good fit is within the range literature values for carbon paper. The model predicts that reducing the number of parallel channels by 50 % will substantially improve the uniformity of the flow in the porous graphite layer, while maintaining an acceptable pressure drop across the electrolyzer. When the size of the electrolyzer is doubled from 2.75 inches square to 5.5 inches square, the same number of channels as in the current design will be adequate, but it is advisable to increase the channel cross-sectional flow area. This is due to the increased length of the channels.
Gas/oil/water flow measurement by electrical capacitance tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yi; Yang, Wuqiang; Xie, Cheng-gang; Huang, Songming; Wu, Zhipeng; Tsamakis, Dimitrios; Lenn, Chris
2013-07-01
In the oil industry, it is important to measure gas/oil/water flows produced from oil wells. To determine oil production, it is necessary to measure the water-in-liquid ratio (WLR), liquid fraction and some other parameters, which are related to multiphase flow rates. A research team from the University of Manchester and Schlumberger Gould Research have developed an experimental apparatus for gas/oil/water flow measurement based on a flow-conditioning device and electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) and microwave sensors. This paper presents the ECT part of the developed apparatus, including the re-engineering of an ECT sensor and a model-based image reconstruction algorithm, which is used to derive the WLR and the thickness of the liquid layer in oil-continuous annular flows formed by the flow-conditioning device. The ECT sensor was tested both at Schlumberger and on TUV-NEL's Multiphase Flow Facility. The experimental results are promising.
Kinetic theory model for the flow of a simple gas from a three-dimensional axisymmetric nozzle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riley, B. R.
1991-01-01
A system of nonlinear integral equations equivalent to the Krook kinetic equations for the steady state is the mathematical basis used to develop a computer code to model the flowfields for low-thrust three-dimensional axisymmetric nozzles. The method of characteristics is used to solve numerically by an iteration process the approximated Boltzmann equation for the number density, temperature, and velocity profiles of a simple gas as it expands into a vacuum. Results predict backscatter and show the effect of the nozzle wall boundary layer on the external flowfields.
Lee, J. ); Teitel, S. )
1994-08-01
We carry out driven-diffusion Monte Carlo simulations of the two-dimensional classical lattice Coulomb gas in an applied uniform electric field, as a model for vortex motion due to an applied dc current in a periodic superconducting network. A finite-size version of dynamic scaling is used to extract the dynamic critical exponent [ital z], and infer the nonlinear response at the transition temperature. We consider the Coulomb gases [ital f]=0 and [ital f]=1/2, corresponding to a superconducting network with an applied transverse magnetic field of zero, and one-half flux quantum per unit cell, respectively.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sinha, Neeraj; Brinckman, Kevin; Jansen, Bernard; Seiner, John
2011-01-01
A method was developed of obtaining propulsive base flow data in both hot and cold jet environments, at Mach numbers and altitude of relevance to NASA launcher designs. The base flow data was used to perform computational fluid dynamics (CFD) turbulence model assessments of base flow predictive capabilities in order to provide increased confidence in base thermal and pressure load predictions obtained from computational modeling efforts. Predictive CFD analyses were used in the design of the experiments, available propulsive models were used to reduce program costs and increase success, and a wind tunnel facility was used. The data obtained allowed assessment of CFD/turbulence models in a complex flow environment, working within a building-block procedure to validation, where cold, non-reacting test data was first used for validation, followed by more complex reacting base flow validation.
Prediction of strongly-heated internal gas flows
McEligot, D.M. ||; Shehata, A.M.; Kunugi, Tomoaki |
1997-12-31
The purposes of the present article are to remind practitioners why the usual textbook approaches may not be appropriate for treating gas flows heated from the surface with large heat fluxes and to review the successes of some recent applications of turbulence models to this case. Simulations from various turbulence models have been assessed by comparison to the measurements of internal mean velocity and temperature distributions by Shehata for turbulent, laminarizing and intermediate flows with significant gas property variation. Of about fifteen models considered, five were judged to provide adequate predictions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minier, Jean-Pierre; Peirano, Eric; Chibbaro, Sergio
2004-07-01
The aim of the paper is to discuss the main characteristics of a complete theoretical and numerical model for turbulent polydispersed two-phase flows, pointing out some specific issues. The theoretical details of the model have already been presented [Minier and Peirano, Phys. Rep. 352, 1 (2001)]. Consequently, the present work is mainly focused on complementary aspects that are often overlooked and that require particular attention. In particular, the following points are analyzed: the necessity to add an extra term in the equation for the velocity of the fluid seen in the case of two-way coupling, the theoretical and numerical evaluations of particle averages and the fulfillment of the particle mass-continuity constraint. The theoretical model is developed within the probability density function (PDF) formalism. The important physical choice of the state vector variables is first discussed and the model is then expressed as a stochastic differential equation written in continuous time (Langevin equations) for the velocity of the fluid seen. The interests and limitations of Langevin equations, compared to the single-phase case, are reviewed. From the numerical point of view, the model corresponds to a hybrid Eulerian/Lagrangian approach where the fluid and particle phases are simulated by different methods. Important aspects of the Monte Carlo particle/mesh numerical method are emphasized. Finally, the complete model is validated and its performance is assessed by simulating a bluff-body case with an important recirculation zone and in which two-way coupling is noticeable.
Internal flows of relevance to gas-turbines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGuirk, J. J.; Whitelaw, J. H.
An attempt is made to formulate the best combination of equations, numerical discretization, and turbulence modeling assumptions for internal aerodynamic flows relevant to gas turbines. Typical of the problems treated are the solution of the three-dimensional, time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for laminar and turbulent flow in 90-deg bends, and the relative advantages obtainable from parabolized forms in bends, in S-type intake ducts, in turbine blade passages, and in forced mixers. In the present discussion of the influence of numerical assumptions on the calculation of isothermal flow in gas turbine combustors, emphasis is given to the assessment and removal of numerical errors.
Gas flow dependence of atmospheric pressure plasma needle discharge characteristics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qian, Muyang; Yang, Congying; Liu, Sanqiu; Chen, Xiaochang; Ni, Gengsong; Wang, Dezhen
2016-04-01
In this paper, a two-dimensional coupled model of neutral gas flow and plasma dynamics is presented to explain the gas flow dependence of discharge characteristics in helium plasma needle at atmospherics pressure. The diffusional mixing layer between the helium jet core and the ambient air has a moderate effect on the streamer propagation. The obtained simulation results present that the streamer shows the ring-shaped emission profile at a moderate gas flow rate. The key chemical reactions which drive the streamer propagation are electron-impact ionization of helium neutral, nitrogen and oxygen molecules. At a moderate gas flow rate of 0.5 slm, a significant increase in propagation velocity of the streamer is observed due to appropriate quantity of impurities air diffuse into the helium. Besides, when the gas flow rate is below 0.35 slm, the radial density of ground-state atomic oxygen peaks along the axis of symmetry. However, when the gas flow rate is above 0.5 slm, a ring-shaped density distribution appears. The peak density is on the order of 1020 m-3 at 10 ns in our work.
On mechanisms of choked gas flows in microchannels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shan, Xiaodong; Wang, Moran
2015-10-01
Choked gas flows in microchannels have been reported before based solely on experimental measurements, but the underlining physical mechanism has yet to be clarified. In this work, we are to explore the process via numerical modeling of choked gas flows through a straight microchannel that connects two gas reservoirs. The major theoretical consideration lies in that, since the gas in microchannels may not be necessarily rarefied even at a high Knudsen number, a generalized Monte Carlo method based on the Enskog theory, GEMC, was thus used instead of direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC). Our results indicate that the choked gas flows in microchannels can be divided into two types: sonic choking and subsonic choking, because the sonic point does not always exist even though the gas flows appear choked, depending on the inlet-outlet pressure ratio and the length-height ratio of the channel. Even if the gas flow does not reach a sonic point at the outlet region, the effective pressure ratio (pi /po) acting on the channel becomes asymptotically changeless when the pressure ratio on the buffer regions (pi‧/po‧) is higher than a certain value. The subsonic choking may caused by the expansion wave or the strong non-equilibrium effect at the outlet.
The digital control of anaesthetic gas flow.
Boaden, R W; Hutton, P
1986-04-01
The theory and construction of a prototype digital gas flow controller are described. Using eight preset needle valves, it has the ability to deliver any flow from 50 to 12750 ml/minute in steps of 50 ml/minute. Under given conditions, the accuracy of this device is very high and its variation in performance with pipeline supply pressures is quantified. The required flow is requested from a BBC 'B' microcomputer which is interfaced with the equipment via a program written in Basic and the 1MHz bus port. The possible uses and potential of a microcomputer-controlled flow regulator in anaesthesia and intensive care are discussed. PMID:2939766
Modeling blood flow heterogeneity.
King, R B; Raymond, G M; Bassingthwaighte, J B
1996-01-01
It has been known for some time that regional blood flows within an organ are not uniform. Useful measures of heterogeneity of regional blood flows are the standard deviation and coefficient of variation or relative dispersion of the probability density function (PDF) of regional flows obtained from the regional concentrations of tracers that are deposited in proportion to blood flow. When a mathematical model is used to analyze dilution curves after tracer solute administration, for many solutes it is important to account for flow heterogeneity and the wide range of transit times through multiple pathways in parallel. Failure to do so leads to bias in the estimates of volumes of distribution and membrane conductances. Since in practice the number of paths used should be relatively small, the analysis is sensitive to the choice of the individual elements used to approximate the distribution of flows or transit times. Presented here is a method for modeling heterogeneous flow through an organ using a scheme that covers both the high flow and long transit time extremes of the flow distribution. With this method, numerical experiments are performed to determine the errors made in estimating parameters when flow heterogeneity is ignored, in both the absence and presence of noise. The magnitude of the errors in the estimates depends upon the system parameters, the amount of flow heterogeneity present, and whether the shape of the input function is known. In some cases, some parameters may be estimated to within 10% when heterogeneity is ignored (homogeneous model), but errors of 15-20% may result, even when the level of heterogeneity is modest. In repeated trials in the presence of 5% noise, the mean of the estimates was always closer to the true value with the heterogeneous model than when heterogeneity was ignored, but the distributions of the estimates from the homogeneous and heterogeneous models overlapped for some parameters when outflow dilution curves were
Flowmeter for gas-entrained solids flow
Porges, Karl G.
1990-01-01
An apparatus and method for the measurement of solids feedrate in a gas-entrained solids flow conveyance system. The apparatus and method of the present invention include a vertical duct connecting a source of solids to the gas-entrained flow conveyance system, a control valve positioned in the vertical duct, and a capacitive densitometer positioned along the duct at a location a known distance below the control valved so that the solid feedrate, Q, of the gas entrained flow can be determined by Q=S.rho..phi.V.sub.S where S is the cross sectional area of the duct, .rho. is the density of the solid, .phi. is the solid volume fraction determined by the capacitive densitometer, and v.sub.S is the local solid velocity which can be inferred from the konown distance of the capacitive densitometer below the control valve.
Equations and simulations for multiphase compressible gas-dust flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oran, Elaine; Houim, Ryan
2014-11-01
Dust-gas multiphase flows are important in physical scenarios such as dust explosions in coal mines, asteroid impact disturbing lunar regolith, and soft aircraft landings dispersing desert or beach sand. In these cases, the gas flow regime can range from highly subsonic and nearly incompressible to supersonic and shock-laden flow, the grain packing can range from fully packed to completely dispersed, and both the gas and the dust can range from chemically inert to highly exothermic. To cover the necessary parameter range in a single model, we solve coupled sets of Navier-Stokes equations describing the background gas and the dust. As an example, a reactive-dust explosion that results in a type of shock-flame complex is described and discussed. Sponsored by the University of Maryland through Minta Martin Endowment Funds in the Department of Aerospace Engineering, and through the Glenn L. Martin Institute Chaired Professorship at the A. James Clark School of Engineering.
Controlling Gas-Flow Mass Ratios
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morris, Brian G.
1990-01-01
Proposed system automatically controls proportions of gases flowing in supply lines. Conceived for control of oxidizer-to-fuel ratio in new gaseous-propellant rocket engines. Gas-flow control system measures temperatures and pressures at various points. From data, calculates control voltages for electronic pressure regulators for oxygen and hydrogen. System includes commercially available components. Applicable to control of mass ratios in such gaseous industrial processes as chemical-vapor depostion of semiconductor materials and in automotive engines operating on compressed natural gas.
Decentralized, continuous-flow gas anchor
Podio, A.L.; McCoy, J.N.; Woods, M.D.
1995-12-31
A novel gas separator design has been developed and successfully tested in several beam pumped wells which were subject to severe gas interference. This paper presents a detailed description of various designs to cover various ranges of fluid production for the most common sizes of completions (4-1/2 to 7 inch casing) and rates from 120 to 825 barrels of liquid per day. The new design is based on two innovations: decentralization of the gas separator in the casing, insures that a minimum amount of gas enters the separator; and the presence of two ports located on the narrow side of the annulus and placed a significant distance apart allow continuous flow of fluids into and out of the separator during both the upstroke and downstroke of the pump. These innovations have resulted in a gas separator efficiency much greater than that of conventional designs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Z.; Day, D. A.; Ortega, A. M.; Hu, W.; Palm, B. B.; Li, R.; De Gouw, J. A.; Brune, W. H.; Jimenez, J. L.
2014-12-01
Oxidation Flow Reactors (OFRs) using OH produced from low-pressure Hg lamps at 254 nm (OFR254) or both 185 and 254 nm (OFR185) are commonly used in atmospheric chemistry and other fields. OFR254 requires addition of externally formed O3 since OH is formed mainly from O3 photolysis, while OFR185 does not since OH can also be formed from H2O photolysis. In this study we use a plug-flow kinetic model to investigate OFR properties under a very wide range of conditions applicable to both field and laboratory studies. We show that radical chemistry in OFRs can be characterized as a function of 3 main parameters: UV light intensity, H2O concentration, and total external OH reactivity (e.g. from VOCs, NOx, and SO2). In OFR185, OH exposure is more sensitive to external OH reactivity than in OFR254, because injected O3 in OFR254 greatly promotes the recycling of HO2 to OH, making external perturbations to the radical chemistry less significant. The uncertainties of modeled OH, O3, and H2O2 due to uncertain kinetic parameters are within 40% in most cases. Sensitivity analysis shows that most of the uncertainty is contributed by photolysis and reactions involving OH and HO2, e.g. 2HO2→H2O2+O2 and OH+O3→HO2+O2. Reactants of atmospheric interest are dominantly consumed by OH, except some biogenics that can have substantial contributions from O3. Other highly reactive species (UV photons, O(1D), and O(3P)) only contribute for some species under conditions low H2O concentration and/or high external OH reactivity, which can be avoided by experimental planning. OFR185 and OFR254 are comparable in terms of non-OH oxidants' influence. In OFRs NO is fast oxidized. RO2 fate is similar to that in the atmosphere under low NO conditions. A comprehensive comparison of OFRs with typical environmental chamber studies with UV blacklights and with the atmosphere is also performed. OFRs' key advantages are their short experimental time scales, portability to field sites, and generally good
Continuous-Flow Gas-Phase Bioreactors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wise, Donald L.; Trantolo, Debra J.
1994-01-01
Continuous-flow gas-phase bioreactors proposed for biochemical, food-processing, and related industries. Reactor contains one or more selected enzymes dehydrated or otherwise immobilized on solid carrier. Selected reactant gases fed into reactor, wherein chemical reactions catalyzed by enzyme(s) yield product biochemicals. Concept based on discovery that enzymes not necessarily placed in traditional aqueous environments to function as biocatalysts.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, R. S.; Bellan, J.
1997-01-01
An Investigation of the statistical description of binary mixing and/or reaction between a carrier gas and an evaporated vapor species in two-phase gas-liquid turbulent flows is perfomed through both theroetical analysis and comparisons with results from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a two-phase mixing layer.
Velocity Inversion In Cylindrical Couette Gas Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dongari, Nishanth; Barber, Robert W.; Emerson, David R.; Zhang, Yonghao; Reese, Jason M.
2012-05-01
We investigate a power-law probability distribution function to describe the mean free path of rarefied gas molecules in non-planar geometries. A new curvature-dependent model is derived by taking into account the boundary-limiting effects on the molecular mean free path for surfaces with both convex and concave curvatures. In comparison to a planar wall, we find that the mean free path for a convex surface is higher at the wall and exhibits a sharper gradient within the Knudsen layer. In contrast, a concave wall exhibits a lower mean free path near the surface and the gradients in the Knudsen layer are shallower. The Navier-Stokes constitutive relations and velocity-slip boundary conditions are modified based on a power-law scaling to describe the mean free path, in accordance with the kinetic theory of gases, i.e. transport properties can be described in terms of the mean free path. Velocity profiles for isothermal cylindrical Couette flow are obtained using the power-law model. We demonstrate that our model is more accurate than the classical slip solution, especially in the transition regime, and we are able to capture important non-linear trends associated with the non-equilibrium physics of the Knudsen layer. In addition, we establish a new criterion for the critical accommodation coefficient that leads to the non-intuitive phenomena of velocity-inversion. Our results are compared with conventional hydrodynamic models and direct simulation Monte Carlo data. The power-law model predicts that the critical accommodation coefficient is significantly lower than that calculated using the classical slip solution and is in good agreement with available DSMC data. Our proposed constitutive scaling for non-planar surfaces is based on simple physical arguments and can be readily implemented in conventional fluid dynamics codes for arbitrary geometric configurations.
21 CFR 868.2885 - Gas flow transducer.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gas flow transducer. 868.2885 Section 868.2885...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2885 Gas flow transducer. (a) Identification. A gas flow transducer is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to convert gas...
21 CFR 868.2885 - Gas flow transducer.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gas flow transducer. 868.2885 Section 868.2885...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2885 Gas flow transducer. (a) Identification. A gas flow transducer is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to convert gas...
21 CFR 868.2885 - Gas flow transducer.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gas flow transducer. 868.2885 Section 868.2885...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2885 Gas flow transducer. (a) Identification. A gas flow transducer is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to convert gas...
21 CFR 868.2885 - Gas flow transducer.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas flow transducer. 868.2885 Section 868.2885...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2885 Gas flow transducer. (a) Identification. A gas flow transducer is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to convert gas...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Sourabh
Gas turbines are extensively used for aircraft propulsion, land based power generation and various industrial applications. Developments in innovative gas turbine cooling technology enhance the efficiency and power output, with an increase in turbine rotor inlet temperatures. These advancements of turbine cooling have allowed engine design to exceed normal material temperature limits. For internal cooling design, techniques for heat extraction from the surfaces exposed to hot stream are based on the increase of heat transfer areas and on promotion of turbulence of the cooling flow. In this study, it is obtained by casting repeated continuous V and broken V shaped ribs on one side of the two pass square channel into the core of blade. Despite extensive research on ribs, only few papers have validated the numerical data with experimental results in two pass channel. In the present study, detailed experimental investigation is carried out for two pass square channels with 180° turn. Detailed heat transfer distribution occurring in the ribbed passage is reported for steady state experiment. Four different combinations of 60° and Broken 60° V ribs in channel are considered. Thermocouples are used to obtain the temperature on the channel surface and local heat transfer coefficients are obtained for various Reynolds numbers, within the turbulent flow regime. Area averaged data are calculated in order to compare the overall performance of the tested ribbed surface and to evaluate the degree of heat transfer enhancement induced by the ribs with. Flow within the channels is characterized by heat transfer enhancing ribs, bends, rotation and buoyancy effects. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out for the same geometries using different turbulence models such as k-o Shear stress transport (SST) and Reynolds stress model (RSM). These CFD simulations were based on advanced computing in order to improve the accuracy of three dimensional metal
Modeling dynamical geometry with lattice gas automata
Hasslacher, B.; Meyer, D.A.
1998-06-27
Conventional lattice gas automata consist of particles moving discretely on a fixed lattice. While such models have been quite successful for a variety of fluid flow problems, there are other systems, e.g., flow in a flexible membrane or chemical self-assembly, in which the geometry is dynamical and coupled to the particle flow. Systems of this type seem to call for lattice gas models with dynamical geometry. The authors construct such a model on one dimensional (periodic) lattices and describe some simulations illustrating its nonequilibrium dynamics.
Mangan, M.; Mastin, L.; Sisson, T.
2004-01-01
In this paper we examine the consequences of bubble nucleation mechanism on eruptive degassing of rhyolite magma. We use the results of published high temperature and pressure decompression experiments as input to a modified version of CONFLOW, the numerical model of Mastin and Ghiorso [(2000) U.S.G.S. Open-File Rep. 00-209, 53 pp.] and Mastin [(2002) Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 3, 10.1029/2001GC000192] for steady, two-phase flow in vertical conduits. Synthesis of the available experimental data shows that heterogeneous nucleation is triggered at ??P 120-150 MPa, and leads to disequilibrium degassing at extreme H2O supersaturation. In this latter case, nucleation is an ongoing process controlled by changing supersaturation conditions. Exponential bubble size distributions are often produced with number densities of 106-109 bubbles/cm3. Our numerical analysis adopts an end-member approach that specifically compares equilibrium degassing with delayed, disequilibrium degassing characteristic of homogeneously-nucleating systems. The disequilibrium simulations show that delaying nucleation until ??P =150 MPa restricts degassing to within ???1500 m of the surface. Fragmentation occurs at similar porosity in both the disequilibrium and equilibrium modes (???80 vol%), but at the distinct depths of ???500 m and ???2300 m, respectively. The vesiculation delay leads to higher pressures at equivalent depths in the conduit, and the mass flux and exit pressure are each higher by a factor of ???2.0. Residual water contents in the melt reaching the vent are between 0.5 and 1.0 wt%, roughly twice that of the equilibrium model. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baranov, Vladimir B.
2009-02-01
At present there is no doubt that the local interstellar medium (LISM) is mainly partially ionized hydrogen gas moving with a supersonic flow relative to the solar system. The bulk velocity of this flow is approximately equal ˜26 km/s. Although the interaction of the solar wind with the charged component (below plasma component) of the LISM can be described in the framework of hydrodynamic approach, the interaction of H atoms with the plasma component can be correctly described only in the framework of kinetic theory because the mean free path of H atoms in the main process of the resonance charge exchange is comparable with a characteristic length of the problem considered. Results of self-consistent, kinetic-hydrodynamic models are considered in this review paper. First, such the model was constructed by Baranov and Malama (J. Geophys. Res. 98(A9):15,157-15,163, 1993). Up to now it is mainly developed by Moscow group taking into account new experimental data obtained onboard spacecraft studying outer regions of the solar system (Voyager 1 and 2, Pioneer 10 and 11, Hubble Space Telescope, Ulysses, SOHO and so on). Predictions and interpretations of experimental data obtained on the basis of these models are presented. Kinetic models for describing H atom motion were later suggested by Fahr et al. (Astron. Astrophys 298:587-600, 1995) and Lipatov et al. (J. Geophys. Res. 103(A9):20,631-20,642, 1998). However they were not self-consistent and did not incorporate sources to the plasma component. A self-consistent kinetic-hydrodynamic model suggested by Heerikhuisen et al. (J. Geophys. Res. 111:A06110, 2006, Astrophys. J. 655:L53-L56, 2007) was not tested on the results by Baranov and Malama (J. Geophys. Res. 111:A06110, 1993) although it was suggested much later. Besides authors did not describe in details their Monte Carlo method for a solution of the H atom Boltzmann equation and did not inform about an accuracy of this method. Therefore the results of
Interaction of a surface glow discharge with a gas flow
Aleksandrov, A. L. Schweigert, I. V.
2010-05-15
A surface glow discharge in a gas flow is of particular interest as a possible tool for controlling the flow past hypersonic aircrafts. Using a hydrodynamic model of glow discharge, two-dimensional calculations for a kilovolt surface discharge in nitrogen at a pressure of 0.5 Torr are carried out in a stationary gas, as well as in a flow with a velocity of 1000 m/s. The discharge structure and plasma parameters are investigated near a charged electrode. It is shown that the electron energy in a cathode layer reaches 250-300 eV. Discharge is sustained by secondary electron emission. The influence of a high-speed gas flow on the discharge is considered. It is shown that the cathode layer configuration is flow-resistant. The distributions of the electric field and electron energy, as well as the ionization rate profile in the cathode layer, do not change qualitatively under the action of the flow. The basic effect of the flow's influence is a sharp decrease in the region of the quasineutral plasma surrounding the cathode layer due to fast convective transport of ions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shekhar, R.; Evans, J. W.
1994-06-01
The need for energy reduction in the electrolytic production of aluminum led to the concept of advanced Hall cells that can be operated at lower interelectrode gaps compared to existing cells. However, gas bubbles generated by the anodic reaction increase the resistivity of electrolyte and cancel out part of the reduction in interelectrode resistance expected from bringing the electrodes closer together. Therefore, the primary objective of this work was to determine a cell design in which flow can be managed to promote the removal of anode gas bubbles from the interelectrode gap. In particular, this article focuses on advanced Hall cells equipped with “flat” anodes, similar to those used in existing cells. The principal experimental tool has been a “water” model consisting of a large tank in which simulated anodes can be suspended in either the horizontal or near-horizontal configurations. Gas was generated by forcing compressed air through porous graphite, and the fine bubbles characteristic of inert anodes used in advanced Hall cells were produced by adding butanol to water. Velocities were measured using a laser-Doppler velocimeter (LDV). This study indicates that the existing cell configuration might not be the optimum configuration for advanced Hall cells. The results also show that operation of an advanced Hall cell with a fully submerged anode should give rise to higher electrolyte velocities and thus rapid removal of bubbles. The bubble effect should be further lowered in a near-horizontal configuration; however, the flow pattern could have an adverse effect on current efficiency and alumina distribution in the cell. It has also been shown that the bubble size, and, therefore, the physical properties of the electrolyte, can have a significant effect on the electrolyte flow pattern in the interelectrode gap.
SSME hot gas manifold flow comparison test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cox, G. B., Jr.; Dill, C. C.
1988-01-01
An account is given of the High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFT) component of NASA's Alternate Turbopump Development effort, which is aimed at the proper aerodynamic integration of the current Phase II three-duct SSME Hot Gas Manifold (HGM) and the future 'Phase II-plus' two-duct HGM. Half-scale water flow tests of both HGM geometries were conducted to provide initial design data for the HPFT. The results reveal flowfield results and furnish insight into the performance differences between the two HGM flowpaths. Proper design of the HPFT can potentially secure significant flow improvements in either HGM configuration.
A Two-Dimensional Compressible Gas Flow Code
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1995-03-17
F2D is a general purpose, two dimensional, fully compressible thermal-fluids code that models most of the phenomena found in situations of coupled fluid flow and heat transfer. The code solves momentum, continuity, gas-energy, and structure-energy equations using a predictor-correction solution algorithm. The corrector step includes a Poisson pressure equation. The finite difference form of the equation is presented along with a description of input and output. Several example problems are included that demonstrate the applicabilitymore » of the code in problems ranging from free fluid flow, shock tubes and flow in heated porous media.« less
Gas flow analysis in melting furnaces
Kiss, L.I.; Bui, R.T.; Charette, A.; Bourgeois, T.
1998-12-01
The flow structure inside round furnaces with various numbers of burners, burner arrangement, and exit conditions has been studied experimentally with the purpose of improving the flow conditions and the resulting heat transfer. Small-scale transparent models were built according to the laws of geometric and dynamic similarity. Various visualization and experimental techniques were applied. The flow pattern in the near-surface regions was visualized by the fluorescent minituft and popcorn techniques; the flow structure in the bulk was analyzed by smoke injection and laser sheet illumination. For the study of the transient effects, high-speed video photography was applied. The effects of the various flow patterns, like axisymmetric and rotational flow, on the magnitude and uniformity of the residence time, as well as on the formation of stagnation zones, were discussed. Conclusions were drawn and have since been applied for the improvement of furnace performance.
Effect of gas flow swirling on coating deposition by the cold gas-dynamic spray method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiselev, S. P.; Kiselev, V. P.; Zaikovskii, V. N.
2012-03-01
The effect of gas flow swirling on the process of coating deposition onto a target by the cold gas-dynamic spray method is studied experimentally and numerically. Flow swirling is found to change the gas flow field and to reduce the gas flow rate under typical conditions of cold gas-dynamic spray. In a non-swirled flow, the shape of the deposited spot is similar to a sharp cone. In contrast, the deposited spot in a swirled flow is shaped as a crater without particles at the center of this crater. It is found that this effect is caused by centrifugal forces acting on particles in a swirled gas flow.
Thomas J. Hanratty
2005-02-25
A research program was carried out at the University of Illinois in which develops a scientific approach to gas-liquid flows that explains their macroscopic behavior in terms of small scale interactions. For simplicity, fully-developed flows in horizontal and near-horizontal pipes. The difficulty in dealing with these flows is that the phases can assume a variety of configurations. The specific goal was to develop a scientific understanding of transitions from one flow regime to another and a quantitative understanding of how the phases distribute for a give regime. These basic understandings are used to predict macroscopic quantities of interest, such as frictional pressure drop, liquid hold-up, entrainment in annular flow and frequency of slugging in slug flows. A number of scientific issues are addressed. Examples are the rate of atomization of a liquid film, the rate of deposition of drops, the behavior of particles in a turbulent field, the generation and growth of interfacial waves. The use of drag-reducing polymers that change macroscopic behavior by changing small scale interactions was explored.
Inspiratory flow and intrapulmonary gas distribution
Rehder, K.; Knopp, T.J.; Brusasco, V.; Didier, E.P.
1981-01-01
The effect of flow of inspired gas on intrapulmonary gas distribution was examined by analysis of regional pulmonary /sup 133/Xe clearances and of total pulmonary /sup 133/Xe clearance measured at the mouth after equilibration of the lungs with /sup 133/Xe. Five awake healthy volunteers (24 to 40 yr of age) and another 5 healthy, anesthetized-paralyzed volunteers (26 to 28 yr of age) were studied while they were in the right lateral decubitus position. The awake subjects were studied at 3 inspiratory flows (0.4, 0.7, and 1.0 L/s) and the anesthetized-paralyzed subjects at 4 inspiratory flows (0.2, 0.5, 1.1, and 1.6 L/s). Interregional differences in /sup 133/Xe clearances along the vertical axis were significantly less during anesthesia-paralysis and mechanical ventilation than during spontaneous breathing in the awake state. No differences in the regional or total pulmonary /sup 133/Xe clearances were detected at these different flows in either of the two states, i.e., the difference between the awake and anesthetized-paralyzed states persisted.
Measuring gas flow rates in the Milky Way
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wakker, Bart
2010-09-01
Gas flows out of and into the Milky Way are a crucial element in its evolution. Supernovae heat gas in the disk and lift it into the halo. Tidal streams and instabilities in the hot Galactic corona result in an inflow of low-metallicity gas. These flows can be observed in the form of the high-velocity clouds {HVCs}. Their location, brightness, distances, ionization structure and metallicities can be used to determine the conditions in the gaseous disk and halo as well as the rate of mass flow corresponding to the different processes. So far, sufficient information to derive an associated mass flow rate is available for just 5 HVCs. We propose to observe 20 AGNs toward most of the other HVC complexes as well as toward a few small clouds, in order to derive a metallicity for almost every HVC complex, which will complement distance measurements that have been or will be obtained in our ongoing program. Combining all the data, we can derive {a} the rate of the circulation of gas between disk and halo, constraining the Galactic supernova rate and {b} the accretion rate of low-metallicity material that feeds star formation over 10 Gyr, which will constrain both models of galactic chemical evolution and models of the conditions in the hot galactic corona.
Experimental Flow Models for SSME Flowfield Characterization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abel, L. C.; Ramsey, P. E.
1989-01-01
Full scale flow models with extensive instrumentation were designed and manufactured to provide data necessary for flow field characterization in rocket engines of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) type. These models include accurate flow path geometries from the pre-burner outlet through the throat of the main combustion chamber. The turbines are simulated with static models designed to provide the correct pressure drop and swirl for specific power levels. The correct turbopump-hot gas manifold interfaces were designed into the flow models to permit parametric/integration studies for new turbine designs. These experimental flow models provide a vehicle for understanding the fluid dynamics associated with specific engine issues and also fill the more general need for establishing a more detailed fluid dynamic base to support development and verification of advanced math models.
21 CFR 868.2885 - Gas flow transducer.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gas flow transducer. 868.2885 Section 868.2885 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2885 Gas flow transducer. (a) Identification. A gas flow transducer is a device intended...
Numerical simulations of high Knudsen number gas flows and microchannel electrokinetic liquid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Fang
Low pressure and microchannel gas flows are characterized by high Knudsen numbers. Liquid flows in microchannels are characterized by non-conventional driving potentials like electrokinetic forces. The main thrust of the dissertation is to investigate these two different kinds of flows in gases and liquids respectively. High Knudsen number (Kn) gas flows were characterized by 'rarified' or 'microscale' behavior. Because of significant non-continuum effect, traditional CFD techniques are often inaccurate for analyzing high Kn number gas flows. The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method offers an alternative to traditional CFD which retains its validity in slip and transition flow regimes. To validate the DSMC code, comparisons of simulation results with theoretical analysis and experimental data are made. The DSMC method was first applied to compute low pressure, high Kn flow fields in partially heated two dimensional channels. The effects of varying pressure, inlet flow and gas transport properties (Kn, Reynolds number, Re and the Prandtl number, Pr respectively) on the wall heat transfer (Nusselt number, Nu) were examined. The DSMC method was employed to explore mixing gas flows in two dimensional microchannels. Mixing of two gas streams (H2 and O2) was considered within a microchannel. The effect of the inlet-outlet pressure difference, the pressure ratio of the incoming streams and the accommodation coefficient of the solid wall on mixing length were all examined. Parallelization of a three-dimensional DSMC code was implemented using OpenMP procedure on a shared memory multi-processor computer. The parallel code was used to simulate 3D high Kn number Couette flow and the flow characteristics are found to be very different from their continuum counterparts. A mathematical model describing electrokinetically driven mass transport phenomena in microfabricated chip devices will also be presented. The model accounts for the principal physical phenomena affecting
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tawfik, Hazem H.
1996-01-01
Thermally sprayed coatings have been extensively used to enhance materials properties and provide surface protection against their working environments in a number of industrial applications. Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are used to reduce the thermal conductivity of aerospace turbine blades and improve the turbine overall thermal efficiency. TBC allows higher gas operating temperatures and lower blade material temperatures due to the thermal insulation provided by these ceramic coatings. In the automotive industry, coatings are currently applied to a number of moving parts that are subjected to friction and wear inside the engine such as pistons, cylinder liners, valves and crankshafts to enhance their wear resistance and prolong their useful operation and lifetime.
Flow Analysis of a Gas Turbine Low- Pressure Subsystem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Veres, Joseph P.
1997-01-01
The NASA Lewis Research Center is coordinating a project to numerically simulate aerodynamic flow in the complete low-pressure subsystem (LPS) of a gas turbine engine. The numerical model solves the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes flow equations through all components within the low-pressure subsystem as well as the external flow around the engine nacelle. The Advanced Ducted Propfan Analysis Code (ADPAC), which is being developed jointly by Allison Engine Company and NASA, is the Navier-Stokes flow code being used for LPS simulation. The majority of the LPS project is being done under a NASA Lewis contract with Allison. Other contributors to the project are NYMA and the University of Toledo. For this project, the Energy Efficient Engine designed by GE Aircraft Engines is being modeled. This engine includes a low-pressure system and a high-pressure system. An inlet, a fan, a booster stage, a bypass duct, a lobed mixer, a low-pressure turbine, and a jet nozzle comprise the low-pressure subsystem within this engine. The tightly coupled flow analysis evaluates aerodynamic interactions between all components of the LPS. The high-pressure core engine of this engine is simulated with a one-dimensional thermodynamic cycle code in order to provide boundary conditions to the detailed LPS model. This core engine consists of a high-pressure compressor, a combustor, and a high-pressure turbine. The three-dimensional LPS flow model is coupled to the one-dimensional core engine model to provide a "hybrid" flow model of the complete gas turbine Energy Efficient Engine. The resulting hybrid engine model evaluates the detailed interaction between the LPS components at design and off-design engine operating conditions while considering the lumped-parameter performance of the core engine.
Nicole Lautze
2015-01-01
Groundwater flow model for the island of Oahu. Data is from the following sources: Rotzoll, K., A.I. El-Kadi. 2007. Numerical Ground-Water Flow Simulation for Red Hill Fuel Storage Facilities, NAVFAC Pacific, Oahu, Hawaii - Prepared TEC, Inc. Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.; Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume VII – Island of Oahu Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2009. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. December 2009.
VanOsdol, J.G.; Chiang, T-K.
2002-09-19
Two different technologies that are being considered for generating electric power on a large scale by burning coal are Pressurized Fluid Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems and Integrated Gasification and Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Particulate emission regulations that have been proposed for future systems may require that these systems be fitted with large scale Hot Gas Clean-Up (HGCU) filtration systems that would remove the fine particulate matter from the hot gas streams that are generated by PFBC and IGCC systems. These hot gas filtration systems are geometrically and aerodynamically complex. They typically are constructed with large arrays of ceramic candle filter elements (CFE). The successful design of these systems require an accurate assessment of the rate at which mechanical energy of the gas flow is dissipated as it passes through the filter containment vessel and the individual candle filter elements that make up the system. Because the filtration medium is typically made of a porous ceramic material having open pore sizes that are much smaller than the dimensions of the containment vessel, the filtration medium is usually considered to be a permeable medium that follows Darcy's law. The permeability constant that is measured in the lab is considered to be a function of the filtration medium only and is usually assumed to apply equally to all the filters in the vessel as if the flow were divided evenly among all the filter elements. In general, the flow of gas through each individual CFE will depend not only on the geometrical characteristics of the filtration medium, but also on the local mean flows in the filter containment vessel that a particular filter element sees. The flow inside the CFE core, through the system manifolds, and inside the containment vessel itself will be coupled to the flow in the filter medium by various Reynolds number effects. For any given filter containment vessel, since the mean flows are different in different locations
Hypervelocity atmospheric flight: Real gas flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howe, John T.
1990-01-01
Flight in the atmosphere is examined from the viewpoint of including real gas phenomena in the flow field about a vehicle flying at hypervelocity. That is to say, the flow field is subject not only to compressible phenomena, but is dominated by energetic phenomena. There are several significant features of such a flow field. Spatially, its composition can vary by both chemical and elemental species. The equations which describe the flow field include equations of state and mass, species, elemental, and electric charge continuity; momentum; and energy equations. These are nonlinear, coupled, partial differential equations that were reduced to a relatively compact set of equations of a self-consistent manner (which allows mass addition at the surface at a rate comparable to the free-stream mass flux). The equations and their inputs allow for transport of these quantities relative to the mass-averaged behavior of the flow field. Thus transport of mass by chemical, thermal, pressure, and forced diffusion; transport of momentum by viscosity; and transport of energy by conduction, chemical considerations, viscosity, and radiative transfer are included. The last of these complicate the set of equations by making the energy equation a partial integrodifferential equation. Each phenomenon is considered and represented mathematically by one or more developments. The coefficients which pertain are both thermodynamically and chemically dependent. Solutions of the equations are presented and discussed in considerable detail, with emphasis on severe energetic flow fields. For hypervelocity flight in low-density environments where gaseous reactions proceed at finite rates, chemical nonequilibrium is considered and some illustrations are presented. Finally, flight where the flow field may be out of equilibrium, both chemically and thermodynamically, is presented briefly.
Hypervelocity atmospheric flight: Real gas flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howe, John T.
1989-01-01
Flight in the atmosphere is examined from the viewpoint of including real gas phenomena in the flow field about a vehicle flying at hypervelocity. That is to say, the flow field is subject not only to compressible phenomena, but is dominated by energetic phenomena. There are several significant features of such a flow field. Spatially, its composition can vary by both chemical and elemental species. The equations which describe the flow field include equations of state and mass, species, elemental, and electric charge continuity; momentum; and energy equations. These are nonlinear, coupled, partial differential equations that have been reduced to a relatively compact set of equations in a self-consistent manner (which allows mass addition at the surface at a rate comparable to the free-stream mass flux). The equations and their inputs allow for transport of these quantities relative to the mass-average behavior of the flow field. Thus transport of mass by chemical, thermal, pressure, and forced diffusion; transport of momentum by viscosity; and transport of energy by conduction, chemical considerations, viscosity, and radiative transfer are included. The last of these complicate the set of equations by making the energy equations a partial integrodifferential equation. Each phenomenon is considered and represented mathematically by one or more developments. The coefficients which pertain are both thermodynamically and chemically dependent. Solutions of the equations are presented and discussed in considerable detail, with emphasis on severe energetic flow fields. Hypervelocity flight in low-density environments where gaseous reactions proceed at finite rates chemical nonequilibrium is considered, and some illustrations are presented. Finally, flight where the flow field may be out of equilibrium, both chemically and thermodynamically, is presented briefly.
Going with the flow: using gas clouds to probe the accretion flow feeding Sgr A*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCourt, Michael; Madigan, Ann-Marie
2016-01-01
The massive black hole in our Galactic centre, Sgr A*, accretes only a small fraction of the gas available at its Bondi radius. The physical processes determining this accretion rate remain unknown, partly due to a lack of observational constraints on the gas at distances between ˜10 and ˜105 Schwarzschild radii (Rs) from the black hole. Recent infrared observations identify low-mass gas clouds, G1 and G2, moving on highly eccentric, nearly co-planar orbits through the accretion flow around Sgr A*. Although it is not yet clear whether these objects contain embedded stars, their extended gaseous envelopes evolve independently as gas clouds. In this paper we attempt to use these gas clouds to constrain the properties of the accretion flow at ˜103 Rs. Assuming that G1 and G2 follow the same trajectory, we model the small differences in their orbital parameters as evolution resulting from interaction with the background flow. We find evolution consistent with the G-clouds originating in the clockwise disc. Our analysis enables the first unique determination of the rotation axis of the accretion flow: we localize the rotation axis to within 20°, finding an orientation consistent with the parsec-scale jet identified in X-ray observations and with the circumnuclear disc, a massive torus of molecular gas ˜1.5 pc from Sgr A*. This suggests that the gas in the accretion flow comes predominantly from the circumnuclear disc, rather than the winds of stars in the young clockwise disc. This result will be tested by the Event-Horizon Telescope within the next year. Our model also makes testable predictions for the orbital evolution of G1 and G2, falsifiable on a 5-10 year time-scale.
Flow field simulation of gas-water two phase flow in annular channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Pengcheng; Dong, Feng
2014-04-01
The gas-water two-phase flow is very common in the industrial processes. the deep understanding of the two-phase flow state is to achieve the production equipment design and safe operation. In the measurement of gas-water two-phase flow, the differential pressure sensor is widely used, and some measurement model of multiphase flow have been concluded. The differential pressure is generated when fluid flowing through the throttling components to calculate flow rate. This paper mainly focuses on two points: 1. The change rule of the parameters include velocity, pressure, phase fraction as the change of time, when the phase inlet velocity is given. 2. Analysis the distribution of the parameters above-mentioned at a certain moment under the condition of different water inlet velocity. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was used to simulate gas-water two-phase flow fluid in the annular channel, which is composed of horizontal pipe and long- waist cone sensor. The simulation results were obtained from FLUENT software.
Generalized second-order slip boundary condition for nonequilibrium gas flows.
Guo, Zhaoli; Qin, Jishun; Zheng, Chuguang
2014-01-01
It is a challenging task to model nonequilibrium gas flows within a continuum-fluid framework. Recently some extended hydrodynamic models in the Navier-Stokes formulation have been developed for such flows. A key problem in the application of such models is that suitable boundary conditions must be specified. In the present work, a generalized second-order slip boundary condition is developed in which an effective mean-free path considering the wall effect is used. By combining this slip scheme with certain extended Navier-Stokes constitutive relation models, we obtained a method for nonequilibrium gas flows with solid boundaries. The method is applied to several rarefied gas flows involving planar or curved walls, including the Kramers' problem, the planar Poiseuille flow, the cylindrical Couette flow, and the low speed flow over a sphere. The results show that the proposed method is able to give satisfied predictions, indicating the good potential of the method for nonequilibrium flows. PMID:24580334
Incorporation of Interstitial Gas Effects on Granular Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hrenya, Christine; Garzo, Vicente; Tenneti, Sudheer; Subramaniam, Shankar
2013-11-01
Numerous examples of granular flows exist in which the role of the interstitial gas cannot be ignored. A range of approaches have been taken to incorporate these effects into continuum descriptions. Early efforts simply added a mean drag law to the momentum balance. This ad hoc approach was followed by more rigorous treatments in which an instantaneous drag was incorporated directly into the kinetic equation. Analytical expressions for the resulting continuum description were obtained in the Stokes limit, but not possible higher Reynolds numbers. In the current effort, DNS-based simulations are used to develop a model for the instantaneous drag force that is applicable to a wide range of Reynolds number. This model, based on the Langevin equation, is incorporated into the Enskog equation in order to derive a continuum description for the gas-solid flow. In the limit of Stokes flow, the additional terms arising in the conservation equation are found to match those of previous analytical treatments. Furthermore, the impact of gas on the solid-phase constitutive relations, which was ignored in analytical treatments, is determined. The parameter space examined is consistent with that found in circulating fluidized beds. For such systems, the results indicate a non-negligible impact of the gas phase on the shear viscosity and the Dufour coefficient.
Droplet breakup in accelerating gas flows. Part 2: Secondary atomization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zajac, L. J.
1973-01-01
An experimental investigation to determine the effects of an accelerating gas flow on the atomization characteristics of liquid sprays was conducted. The sprays were produced by impinging two liquid jets. The liquid was molten wax and the gas was nitrogen. The use of molten wax allowed for a quantitative measure of the resulting dropsize distribution. The results of this study, indicate that a significant amount of droplet breakup will occur as a result of the action of the gas on the liquid droplets. Empirical correlations are presented in terms of parameters that were found to affect the mass median dropsize most significantly, the orifice diameter, the liquid injection velocity, and the maximum gas velocity. An empirical correlation for the normalized dropsize distribution is also presented. These correlations are in a form that may be incorporated readily into existing combustion model computer codes for the purpose of calculating rocket engine combustion performance.
Ethylene Trace-gas Techniques for High-speed Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, David O.; Reichert, Bruce A.
1994-01-01
Three applications of the ethylene trace-gas technique to high-speed flows are described: flow-field tracking, air-to-air mixing, and bleed mass-flow measurement. The technique involves injecting a non-reacting gas (ethylene) into the flow field and measuring the concentration distribution in a downstream plane. From the distributions, information about flow development, mixing, and mass-flow rates can be dtermined. The trace-gas apparatus and special considerations for use in high-speed flow are discussed. A description of each application, including uncertainty estimates is followed by a demonstrative example.
Visualization and velocity measurement of unsteady flow in a gas generator using cold-flow technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuppa, Subrahmanyam
1990-08-01
Modeling of internal flow fields with hot, compressible fluids and sometimes combustion using cold flow techniques is discussed. The flow in a gas generator was modeled using cold air. The experimental set up was designed and fabricated to simulate the unsteady flow with different configurations of inlet tubes. Tests were run for flow visualization and measurement of axial velocity at different frequencies ranging from 5 to 12 Hz. Flow visualization showed that the incoming flow was a complex jet flow confined to a cylindrical enclosure, while the outgoing flow resembled the venting of a pressurized vessel. The pictures show a complex flow pattern due to the angling of the jet towards the wall for the bent tube configurations and straightened flows with straight tube and other configurations with straighteners. Velocity measurements were made at an inlet Re of 8.1 x 10(exp 4) based on maximum velocity and inlet diameter. Phase averaged mean velocities were observed to be well defined during charging and diminished during venting inside the cylinder. For the straight tube inlet comparison with a steady flow measurement of sudden expansion flow showed a qualitative similarity of the mean axial velocity distribution and centerline velocity decay during the charging phases. For the bent tube inlet case the contour plots showed the flow tendency towards the wall. Two cells were seen in the contours for the 8 and 12 Hz cases. The deviation of the point of occurrence of maximum velocity in a radial profile was found to be about 6.5 degrees. Entrance velocity profiles showed symmetry for the straight tube inlet but were skewed for the bent tube inlet. Contour plots of the phase averaged axial turbulence intensity for bent tube cases showed higher values in the core and near the wall in the region of impingement. Axial turbulence intensity measured for the straight tube case showed features as observed in an axisymmetric sudden expansion flow.
Micro/Nano-pore Network Analysis of Gas Flow in Shale Matrix
Zhang, Pengwei; Hu, Liming; Meegoda, Jay N.; Gao, Shengyan
2015-01-01
The gas flow in shale matrix is of great research interests for optimized shale gas extraction. The gas flow in the nano-scale pore may fall in flow regimes such as viscous flow, slip flow and Knudsen diffusion. A 3-dimensional nano-scale pore network model was developed to simulate dynamic gas flow, and to describe the transient properties of flow regimes. The proposed pore network model accounts for the various size distributions and low connectivity of shale pores. The pore size, pore throat size and coordination number obey normal distribution, and the average values can be obtained from shale reservoir data. The gas flow regimes were simulated using an extracted pore network backbone. The numerical results show that apparent permeability is strongly dependent on pore pressure in the reservoir and pore throat size, which is overestimated by low-pressure laboratory tests. With the decrease of reservoir pressure, viscous flow is weakening, then slip flow and Knudsen diffusion are gradually becoming dominant flow regimes. The fingering phenomenon can be predicted by micro/nano-pore network for gas flow, which provides an effective way to capture heterogeneity of shale gas reservoir. PMID:26310236
Micro/Nano-pore Network Analysis of Gas Flow in Shale Matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Pengwei; Hu, Liming; Meegoda, Jay N.; Gao, Shengyan
2015-08-01
The gas flow in shale matrix is of great research interests for optimized shale gas extraction. The gas flow in the nano-scale pore may fall in flow regimes such as viscous flow, slip flow and Knudsen diffusion. A 3-dimensional nano-scale pore network model was developed to simulate dynamic gas flow, and to describe the transient properties of flow regimes. The proposed pore network model accounts for the various size distributions and low connectivity of shale pores. The pore size, pore throat size and coordination number obey normal distribution, and the average values can be obtained from shale reservoir data. The gas flow regimes were simulated using an extracted pore network backbone. The numerical results show that apparent permeability is strongly dependent on pore pressure in the reservoir and pore throat size, which is overestimated by low-pressure laboratory tests. With the decrease of reservoir pressure, viscous flow is weakening, then slip flow and Knudsen diffusion are gradually becoming dominant flow regimes. The fingering phenomenon can be predicted by micro/nano-pore network for gas flow, which provides an effective way to capture heterogeneity of shale gas reservoir.
Micro/Nano-pore Network Analysis of Gas Flow in Shale Matrix.
Zhang, Pengwei; Hu, Liming; Meegoda, Jay N; Gao, Shengyan
2015-01-01
The gas flow in shale matrix is of great research interests for optimized shale gas extraction. The gas flow in the nano-scale pore may fall in flow regimes such as viscous flow, slip flow and Knudsen diffusion. A 3-dimensional nano-scale pore network model was developed to simulate dynamic gas flow, and to describe the transient properties of flow regimes. The proposed pore network model accounts for the various size distributions and low connectivity of shale pores. The pore size, pore throat size and coordination number obey normal distribution, and the average values can be obtained from shale reservoir data. The gas flow regimes were simulated using an extracted pore network backbone. The numerical results show that apparent permeability is strongly dependent on pore pressure in the reservoir and pore throat size, which is overestimated by low-pressure laboratory tests. With the decrease of reservoir pressure, viscous flow is weakening, then slip flow and Knudsen diffusion are gradually becoming dominant flow regimes. The fingering phenomenon can be predicted by micro/nano-pore network for gas flow, which provides an effective way to capture heterogeneity of shale gas reservoir. PMID:26310236
Carbon and Noble Gas Isotope Banks in Two-Phase Flow: Changes in Gas Composition During Migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sathaye, K.; Larson, T.; Hesse, M. A.
2015-12-01
In conjunction with the rise of unconventional oil and gas production, there has been a recent rise in interest in noble gas and carbon isotope changes that can occur during the migration of natural gas. Natural gas geochemistry studies use bulk hydrocarbon composition, carbon isotopes, and noble gas isotopes to determine the migration history of gases from source to reservoir, and to trace fugitive gas leaks from reservoirs to shallow groundwater. We present theoretical and experimental work, which helps to explain trends observed in gas composition in various migration scenarios. Noble gases are used as tracers for subsurface fluid flow due to distinct initial compositions in air-saturated water and natural gases. Numerous field studies have observed enrichments and depletions of noble gases after gas-water interaction. A theoretical two-phase gas displacement model shows that differences in noble gas solubility will cause volatile gas components will become enriched at the front of gas plumes, leaving the surrounding residual water stripped of dissolved gases. Changes in hydrocarbon gas composition are controlled by gas solubility in both formation water and residual oil. In addition to model results, we present results from a series of two-phase flow experiments. These results demonstrate the formation of a noble gas isotope banks ahead of a main CO2 gas plume. Additionally, we show that migrating hydrocarbon gas plumes can sweep biogenic methane from groundwater, significantly altering the isotope ratio of the gas itself. Results from multicomponent, two-phase flow experiments qualitatively agree with the theoretical model, and previous field studies. These experimentally verified models for gas composition changes can be used to aid source identification of subsurface gases.
Franchina, Flavio A; Maimone, Mariarosa; Tranchida, Peter Q; Mondello, Luigi
2016-04-01
The main objective of the herein described research was focused on performing satisfactory flow modulation (FM), in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS), using an MS-compatible second-dimension gas flow of approx. 4mLmin(-1). The FM model used was based on that initially proposed by Seeley et al. [3]. The use of limited gas flows was enabled through fine tuning of the FM parameters, in particular the duration of the re-injection (or flushing) process. Specifically, the application of a long re-injection period (i.e., 700ms) enabled efficient accumulation-loop flushing with gas flows of about 4mLmin(-1). It was possible to apply such extended re-injection periods by using different restrictor lengths in the connections linking the modulator to the auxiliary pressure source. FM GC×GC-MS applications were performed on a mixture containing C9-10 alkanes, and on a sample of essential oil. GC×GC-MS sensitivity was compared with that attained by using conventional GC-MS analysis, in essential oil applications. It was observed that signal intensities were, in general, considerably higher in the FM GC×GC-MS experiments. PMID:26968229
Towards molecular gas flows in micro propulsion devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Groll, Rodion; Rath, Hans J.
Developing micro propulsion devices like cold gas thrusters the geometry has to be optimized for the varying pressure and temperature fields inside the unit. Modelling diluted gas flows in microchannels the influence of the mean free path of molecules has to be respected describing pressure drop and specific momentum of a micro-propulsion unit. With the molecule mass factor the density is given used for a five-equation-system modelling the momentum and heat diffusion inside a channel flow for higher Knudsen numbers. The five equations are transport equation for the three mean velocity components, the velocity standard deviation and the molecule collision rate. The present model does not base on the definition of a Dirichlet boundary condition. The momentum boundary condition is given by a shear stress function depending on the collision rate and the standard deviation square of the molecule velocity. With this new wall stress modelling method the slip velocity results from the computation of the transported parameters. The present model is validated computing Poiseuille and Couette flows with different Knudsen numbers. Showing the advantages of the present model the simulation results are compared with simulation results of the wall-distance depending diffusivity model of Lockerby and Reese and BGK results of a Lattice-Boltzmann simulation.
PREFACE: 1st European Conference on Gas Micro Flows (GasMems 2012)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frijns, Arjan; Valougeorgis, Dimitris; Colin, Stéphane; Baldas, Lucien
2012-05-01
The aim of the 1st European Conference on Gas Micro Flows is to advance research in Europe and worldwide in the field of gas micro flows as well as to improve global fundamental knowledge and to enable technological applications. Gas flows in microsystems are of great importance and touch almost every industrial field (e.g. fluidic microactuators for active control of aerodynamic flows, vacuum generators for extracting biological samples, mass flow and temperature micro-sensors, pressure gauges, micro heat-exchangers for the cooling of electronic components or for chemical applications, and micro gas analyzers or separators). The main characteristic of gas microflows is their rarefaction, which for device design often requires modelling and simulation both by continuous and molecular approaches. In such flows various non-equilibrium transport phenomena appear, while the role played by the interaction between the gas and the solid device surfaces becomes essential. The proposed models of boundary conditions often need an empirical adjustment strongly dependent on the micro manufacturing technique. The 1st European Conference on Gas Micro Flows is organized under the umbrella of the recently established GASMEMS network (www.gasmems.eu/) consisting of 13 participants and six associate members. The main objectives of the network are to structure research and train researchers in the fields of micro gas dynamics, measurement techniques for gaseous flows in micro experimental setups, microstructure design and micro manufacturing with applications in lab and industry. The conference takes place on June 6-8 2012, at the Skiathos Palace Hotel, on the beautiful island of Skiathos, Greece. The conference has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement ITN GASMEMS no. 215504. It owes its success to many people. We would like to acknowledge the support of all members of the Scientific Committee and of all
Gas-Dynamic Transients Flow Networks
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1987-09-01
TVENT1P predicts flows and pressures in a ventilation system or other air pathway caused by pressure transients, such as a tornado. For an analytical model to simulate an actual system, it must have (1) the same arrangement of components in a network of flow paths; (2) the same friction characteristics; (3) the same boundary pressures; (4) the same capacitance; and (5) the same forces that drive the air. A specific set of components used formore » constructing the analytical model includes filters, dampers, ducts, blowers, rooms, or volume connected at nodal points to form networks. The effects of a number of similar components can be lumped into a single one. TVENT1P contains a material transport algorithm and features for turning blowers off and on, changing blower speeds, changing the resistance of dampers and filters, and providing a filter model to handle very high flows. These features make it possible to depict a sequence of events during a single run. Component properties are varied using time functions. The filter model is not used by the code unless it is specified by the user. The basic results of a TVENT1P solution are flows in branches and pressures at nodes. A postprocessor program, PLTTEX, is included to produce the plots specified in the TVENT1P input. PLTTEX uses the proprietary CA-DISSPLA graphics software.« less
Gas flow characteristics of a time modulated APPJ: the effect of gas heating on flow dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, S.; Sobota, A.; van Veldhuizen, E. M.; Bruggeman, P. J.
2015-01-01
This work investigates the flow dynamics of a radio-frequency (RF) non-equilibrium argon atmospheric pressure plasma jet. The RF power is at a frequency of 50 Hz or 20 kHz. Combined flow pattern visualizations (obtained by shadowgraphy) and gas temperature distributions (obtained by Rayleigh scattering) are used to study the formation of transient vortex structures in initial flow field shortly after the plasma is switched on and off in the case of 50 Hz modulation. The transient vortex structures correlate well with observed temperature differences. Experimental results of the fast modulated (20 kHz) plasma jet that does not induce changes of the gas temperature are also presented. The latter result suggests that momentum transfer by ions does not have dominant effect on the flow pattern close to the tube. It is argued that the increased gas temperature and corresponding gas velocity increase at the tube exit due to the plasma heating increases the admixing of surrounding air and reduces the effective potential core length. With increasing plasma power a reduction of the effective potential core length is observed with a minimum length for 5.6 W after which the length extends again. Possible mechanisms related to viscosity effects and ionic momentum transfer are discussed.
Liquid and liquid–gas flows at all speeds
LeMartelot, S.; Nkonga, B.; Saurel, R.
2013-12-15
All speed flows and in particular low Mach number flow algorithms are addressed for the numerical approximation of the Kapila et al. [1] multiphase flow model. This model is valid for fluid mixtures evolving in mechanical equilibrium but out of temperature equilibrium and is efficient for material interfaces computation separating miscible and non-miscible fluids. In this context, the interface is considered as a numerically diffused zone, captured as well as all present waves (shocks, expansion waves). The same flow model can be used to solve cavitating and boiling flows [2]. Many applications occurring with liquid–gas interfaces and cavitating flows involve a very wide range of Mach number, from 10{sup −3} to supersonic (and even hypersonic) conditions with respect to the mixture sound speed. It is thus important to address numerical methods free of restrictions regarding the Mach number. To do this, a preconditioned Riemann solver is built and embedded into the Godunov explicit scheme. It is shown that this method converges to exact solutions but needs too small time steps to be efficient. An implicit version is then derived, first in one dimension and second in the frame of 2D unstructured meshes. Two-phase flow preconditioning is then addressed in the frame of the Saurel et al. [3] algorithm. Modifications of the preconditioned Riemann solver are needed and detailed. Convergence of both single phase and two-phase numerical solutions are demonstrated with the help of single phase and two-phase steady nozzle flow solutions. Last, the method is illustrated by the computation of real cavitating flows in Venturi nozzles. Vapour pocket size and instability frequencies are reproduced by the model and method without using any adjustable parameter.
Swirl flow turbulence modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abujelala, M. T.; Jackson, T. W.; Lilley, D. G.
1984-01-01
Confined turbulent swirling flow data obtained from a single hot-wire using a six-orientation technique are analyzed numerically. The effects of swirl strength and the presence of a strong contraction nozzle further downstream on deduced parameters is also presented and discussed for the case of chamber-to-inlet diameter ratio D/d = 2. Three swirl strengths are considered with inlet swirl vane angles of 0, 45 and 70 deg. A strong contraction nozzle with an area ratio of 4 is located two chamber-diameters downstream of the inlet to the flowfield. It is found that both the swirl strength and the contraction have strong effects on the turbulence parameters. Generally, the most dramatic effect of increase of swirl strength is the considerable increase in values of all the parameters considered, (rx-viscosity, kinetic energy of turbulence, length scales, and degree of nonisotropy). The presence of a strong contraction nozzle tends to increase the turbulence parameter values in regions of acceleration and to reduce them in deceleration regions. Based on similarity of viscosity and length scale profiles, a C sub mu formulation is deduced which is shown to improve the predictive capability of the standard k-epsilon turbulence model in swirling recirculating flows.
Nonlinear flow model for well production in an underground formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, J. C.; Nie, R. S.
2013-05-01
Fluid flow in underground formations is a nonlinear process. In this article we modelled the nonlinear transient flow behaviour of well production in an underground formation. Based on Darcy's law and material balance equations, we used quadratic pressure gradients to deduce diffusion equations and discuss the origins of nonlinear flow issues. By introducing an effective-well-radius approach that considers skin factor, we established a nonlinear flow model for both gas and liquid (oil or water). The liquid flow model was solved using a semi-analytical method, while the gas flow model was solved using numerical simulations because the diffusion equation of gas flow is a stealth function of pressure. For liquid flow, a series of standard log-log type curves of pressure transients were plotted and nonlinear transient flow characteristics were analyzed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were used to compare the solutions of the linear and nonlinear models. The effect of nonlinearity upon pressure transients should not be ignored. For gas flow, pressure transients were simulated and compared with oil flow under the same formation and well conditions, resulting in the conclusion that, under the same volume rate production, oil wells demand larger pressure drops than gas wells. Comparisons between theoretical data and field data show that nonlinear models will describe fluid flow in underground formations realistically and accurately.
Nicole Lautze
2015-01-01
Groundwater flow model for Kauai. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume IV – Island of Kauai Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2015.
Analysis of Developing Gas/liquid Two-Phase Flows
Elena A. Tselishcheva; Michael Z. Podowski; Steven P. Antal; Donna Post Guillen; Matthias Beyer; Dirk Lucas
2010-06-01
The goal of this work is to develop a mechanistically based CFD model that can be used to simulate process equipment operating in the churn-turbulent regime. The simulations were performed using a state-of-the-art computational multiphase fluid dynamics code, NPHASE–CMFD [Antal et al,2000]. A complete four-field model, including the continuous liquid field and three dispersed gas fields representing bubbles of different sizes, was first carefully tested for numerical convergence and accuracy, and then used to reproduce the experimental results from the TOPFLOW test facility at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. Institute of Safety Research [Prasser et al,2007]. Good progress has been made in simulating the churn-turbulent flows and comparison the NPHASE-CMFD simulations with TOPFLOW experimental data. The main objective of the paper is to demonstrate capability to predict the evolution of adiabatic churn-turbulent gas/liquid flows. The proposed modelling concept uses transport equations for the continuous liquid field and for dispersed bubble fields [Tselishcheva et al, 2009]. Along with closure laws based on interaction between bubbles and continuous liquid, the effect of height on air density has been included in the model. The figure below presents the developing flow results of the study, namely total void fraction at different axial locations along the TOPFLOW facility test section. The complete model description, as well as results of simulations and validation will be presented in the full paper.
Pressure and flow distribution in internal gas manifolds of a fuel-cell stack
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koh, Joon-Ho; Seo, Hai-Kyung; Lee, Choong Gon; Yoo, Young-Sung; Lim, Hee Chun
Gas-flow dynamics in internal gas manifolds of a fuel-cell stack are analyzed to investigate overall pressure variation and flow distribution. Different gas-flow patterns are considered in this analysis. Gas-flow through gas channels of each cell is modeled by means of Darcy's law where permeability should be determined on an experimental basis. Gas-flow in manifolds is modeled from the macroscopic mechanical energy balance with pressure-loss by wall friction and geometrical effects. A systematic algorithm to solve the proposed flow model is suggested to calculate pressure and flow distribution in fuel-cell stacks. Calculation is done for a 100-cell molten carbonate fuel-cell stack with internal manifolds. The results show that the pressure-loss by wall friction is negligible compared with the pressure recovery in inlet manifolds or loss in outlet manifolds due to mass dividing or combining flow at manifold-cell junctions. A more significant effect on manifold pressure possibly arises from the geometrical manifold structure which depends on the manifold size and shape. The geometrical effect is approximated from pressure-loss coefficients of several types of fittings and valves. The overall pressure and flow distribution is significantly affected by the value of the geometrical pressure-loss coefficient. It is also found that the flow in manifolds is mostly turbulent in the 100-cell stack and this way result in an uneven flow distribution when the stack manifold is incorrectly, designed.
Laboratory measurement and interpretation of nonlinear gas flow in shale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Yili; Chen, Mingjun; Li, Xiangchen; You, Lijun; Yang, Bin
2015-11-01
Gas flow mechanisms in shale are urgent to clarify due to the complicated pore structure and low permeability. Core flow experiments were conducted under reservoir net confining stress with samples from the Longmaxi Shale to investigate the characteristics of nonlinear gas flow. Meanwhile, microstructure analyses and gas adsorption experiments are implemented. Experimental results indicate that non-Darcy flow in shale is remarkable and it has a close relationship with pore pressure. It is found that type of gas has a significant influence on permeability measurement and methane is chosen in this work to study the shale gas flow. Gas slippage effect and minimum threshold pressure gradient weaken with the increasing backpressure. It is demonstrated that gas flow regime would be either slip flow or transition flow with certain pore pressure and permeability. Experimental data computations and microstructure analyses confirm that hydraulic radius of flow tubes in shale are mostly less than 100 nm, indicating that there is no micron scale pore or throat which mainly contributes to flow. The results are significant for the study of gas flow in shale, and are beneficial for laboratory investigation of shale permeability.
Hugh M. McIlroy Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink
2008-09-01
The experimental program that is being conducted at the Matched Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Flow Facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to obtain benchmark data on measurements of flow phenomena in a scaled model of a typical prismatic gas-cooled (GCR) reactor lower plenum using 3-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is presented. A detailed description of the model, scaling, the experimental facility, 3-D PIV system, measurement uncertainties and analysis, experimental procedures and samples of the data sets that have been obtained are included. Samples of the data set that are presented include mean-velocity-field and turbulence data in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic GCR design. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. Results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). Inlet jet Reynolds numbers (based on the jet diameter and the time-mean average flow rate) are approximately 4,300 and 12,400. The measurements reveal undeveloped, non-uniform flow in the inlet jets and complicated flow patterns in the model lower plenum. Data include three-dimensional vector plots, data displays along the coordinate planes (slices) and charts that describe the component flows at specific regions in the model. Information on inlet flow is also presented.
Stochastic power flow modeling
Not Available
1980-06-01
The stochastic nature of customer demand and equipment failure on large interconnected electric power networks has produced a keen interest in the accurate modeling and analysis of the effects of probabilistic behavior on steady state power system operation. The principle avenue of approach has been to obtain a solution to the steady state network flow equations which adhere both to Kirchhoff's Laws and probabilistic laws, using either combinatorial or functional approximation techniques. Clearly the need of the present is to develop sound techniques for producing meaningful data to serve as input. This research has addressed this end and serves to bridge the gap between electric demand modeling, equipment failure analysis, etc., and the area of algorithm development. Therefore, the scope of this work lies squarely on developing an efficient means of producing sensible input information in the form of probability distributions for the many types of solution algorithms that have been developed. Two major areas of development are described in detail: a decomposition of stochastic processes which gives hope of stationarity, ergodicity, and perhaps even normality; and a powerful surrogate probability approach using proportions of time which allows the calculation of joint events from one dimensional probability spaces.
Visualization of unsteady gas/vapor expansion flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schnerr, G. H.; Adam, S.
1997-09-01
High speed expansion flows of pure vapors or gas/vapor mixtures are important to many technical applications, e.g. to steam turbines, jet engines, and for safety control of pressurized power plants. The sudden cooling of the fluid flow leads to condensation and nonequilibrium two-phase flow with instabilities and periodic shock formation at mean frequencies of about 1 kHz. Modelling and control of this dynamical problem is not only important with respect to erosion, it also may cause flutter excitation and serious demolition of technical facilities. In numerical simulations, the time dependent 2-D Euler equations coupled to four equations describing the process of homogeneous nucleation and droplet growth are solved by a MUSCL-type finite volume method. The results are compared with experiments carried out in an atmospheric supersonic wind tunnel. By application of this numerical method to internal flows (nozzles) we found different modes of instabilities including bifurcations. At the stability limit a sharp frequency minimum was found for symmetric oscillations in slender nozzles. It separates oscillation modes where the oncoming subsonic flow remains unchanged from the oscillatory state where a shock monotonically moves upstream into the oncoming flow. For different nozzles we detected a new unsymmetric oscillation mode with a complex system of upstream moving oblique shocks. Here the frequency curve shows the typical structure of a bifurcation problem, which is definitely not controlled by viscous effects but by instabilities of the interaction of flow and phase transition process.
Mehta, D.C.; Weimer, R.F.; Crowley, C.J.; Patel, B.R.; Sam, R.G.; Wallis, G.B.
1984-05-01
The major conclusions are: (1) The flow regime in the heater pipe will be slug flow at the design conditions of 6- and 12-ft/sec liquid and gas superficial velocities, respectively. The pipe configuration for the design is a 1/sup 0/ upward slope. (2) Slug flow will also exist in the heater pipes at mass loadings as low as one-third the design gas and liquid velocities. (3) The expected pressure drop across the fired heater will be 25 to 50% lower than the design value. This will provide flexibility for any design modifications and still stay below the design pressure drop. (4) The expected heat transfer coefficient will be higher than the design value, thereby improving the overall heat transfer performance. (5) Based on the heat transfer data developed at Creare and the computer simulation program at ICRC, the inside wall temperature of the fired heater pipe could be controlled below 850/sup 0/F. The thick pipe walls serve as huge heat sink and are not influenced by the cyclic nature of the slug flow. (6) The presence of slug flow and a higher heat transfer coefficient maintaining the inside wall temperature below 850/sup 0/F should eliminate the possibility of coking in the fired heater pipe. (7) The results confirm the presence of slug flow at the full range of operating conditions. The expected lower pressure drop and higher heat transfer coefficient compared with the design values would improve the overall performance of the fired heater. Therefore, the results from the test program at Creare confirm the SRC-I Demonstration Plant fired heater design. Appendix 1 has been entered individually into EDB and ERA. 5 references, 1 table.
Computer program for natural gas flow through nozzles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, R. C.
1972-01-01
Subroutines, FORTRAN 4 type, were developed for calculating isentropic natural gas mass flow rate through nozzle. Thermodynamic functions covering compressibility, entropy, enthalpy, and specific heat are included.
Gas flow means for improving efficiency of exhaust hoods
Gadgil, A.J.
1994-01-11
Apparatus is described for inhibiting the flow of contaminants in an exhaust enclosure toward an individual located adjacent an opening into the exhaust enclosure by providing a gas flow toward a source of contaminants from a position in front of an individual to urge said contaminants away from the individual toward a gas exit port. The apparatus comprises a gas manifold which may be worn by a person as a vest. The manifold has a series of gas outlets on a front face thereof facing away from the individual and toward the contaminants to thereby provide a flow of gas from the front of the individual toward the contaminants. 15 figures.
Gas flow means for improving efficiency of exhaust hoods
Gadgil, Ashok J.
1994-01-01
Apparatus for inhibiting the flow of contaminants in an exhaust enclosure toward an individual located adjacent an opening into the exhaust enclosure by providing a gas flow toward a source of contaminants from a position in front of an individual to urge said contaminants away from the individual toward a gas exit port. The apparatus comprises a gas mani-fold which may be worn by a person as a vest. The manifold has a series of gas outlets on a front face thereof facing away from the individual and toward the contaminants to thereby provide a flow of gas from the front of the individual toward the contaminants.
Reduced Order Modeling Incompressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Helenbrook, B. T.
2010-01-01
The details: a) Need stable numerical methods; b) Round off error can be considerable; c) Not convinced modes are correct for incompressible flow. Nonetheless, can derive compact and accurate reduced-order models. Can be used to generate actuator models or full flow-field models
Compressible flow computer program for gas film seals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zuk, J.; Smith, P. J.
1975-01-01
Computer program, AREAX, calculates properties of compressible fluid flow with friction and area change. Program carries out quasi-one-dimensional flow analysis which is valid for laminar and turbulent flows under both subsonic and choked flow conditions. Program was written to be applied to gas film seals.
Compatibility of gas and flow sensor technology fabrication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabate, Neus; Gracia, Isabel; Cane, Carles; Puigcorbe, Jordi; Cerda, Judith; Morante, Joan Ramon; Berganzo, Javier
2003-04-01
The requirements of flow measurement and control in the home-appliances field lead to the need of a measurement system able to monitor the flow and the quality of gas. The integration of a set of sensors with different functionalities on a single chip arises as an advantageous solution. In this paper, the description of the structures and technologies required for the gas, flow and temperature sensor devices is presented prior to the complete description of the process flow for the full on-chip compatibilization. In this sense, semiconductor gas sensors and thermal flow sensors have arisen as the best candidates to address the compatibilization.
Lattice gas automata for flow and transport in geochemical systems
Janecky, D.R.; Chen, S.; Dawson, S.; Eggert, K.C.; Travis, B.J.
1992-01-01
Lattice gas automata models are described, which couple solute transport with chemical reactions at mineral surfaces within pore networks. Diffusion in a box calculations are illustrated, which compare directly with Fickian diffusion. Chemical reactions at solid surfaces, including precipitation/dissolution, sorption, and catalytic reaction, can be examined with the model because hydrodynamic transport, solute diffusion and mineral surface processes are all treated explicitly. The simplicity and flexibility of the approach provides the ability to study the interrelationship between fluid flow and chemical reactions in porous materials, at a level of complexity that has not previously been computationally possible.
P. Dixon
2004-02-11
The purpose of this Model Report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) fluid flow and tracer transport models and submodels as well as the flow fields generated utilizing the UZ Flow and Transport Model of Yucca Mountain (UZ Model), Nevada. This work was planned in ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2002 [160819], Section 1.10, Work Package AUZM06). The UZ Model has revised, updated, and enhanced the previous UZ Flow Model REV 00 ICN 01 (BSC 2001 [158726]) by incorporation of the conceptual repository design with new grids, recalibration of property sets, and more comprehensive validation effort. The flow fields describe fracture-fracture, matrix-matrix, and fracture-matrix liquid flow rates and their spatial distributions as well as moisture conditions in the UZ system. These 3-D UZ flow fields are used directly by Performance Assessment (PA). The model and submodels evaluate important hydrogeologic processes in the UZ as well as geochemistry and geothermal conditions. These provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic conditions. In addition, this Model Report supports several PA activities, including abstractions, particle-tracking transport simulations, and the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model.
Granular flow in Dorfan Impingo filter for gas cleanup
Hsiau, S.S.; Smid, J.; Tsai, H.H.; Kuo, J.T.; Chou, C.S.
1999-07-01
Inside a two-dimensional model of the louvered Drofan Impingo panel with transparent front and rear walls, the velocity fields of filter granules without gas cross flow were observed. The PE beads with diameter of 6 mm were used as filter granules. The filter bed was filled with beads continuously and circulated until the granular flows inside the panel reached the steady state condition. In the moving granular bed, there is a central fast flowing core of filter granules surrounded by large quasi-stagnant zones located close to the louver walls. The existence of quasi-stagnant zones may result in the dust plugging problems. The velocity fields of filter granules are plotted for three different louver geometries.
Viewing inside Pyroclastic Flows - Large-scale Experiments on hot pyroclast-gas mixture flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breard, E. C.; Lube, G.; Cronin, S. J.; Jones, J.
2014-12-01
Pyroclastic density currents are the largest threat from volcanoes. Direct observations of natural flows are persistently prevented because of their violence and remain limited to broad estimates of bulk flow behaviour. The Pyroclastic Flow Generator - a large-scale experimental facility to synthesize hot gas-particle mixture flows scaled to pyroclastic flows and surges - allows investigating the physical processes behind PDC behaviour in safety. The ability to simulate natural eruption conditions and to view and measure inside the hot flows allows deriving validation and calibration data sets for existing numerical models, and to improve the constitutive relationships necessary for their effective use as powerful tools in hazard assessment. We here report on a systematic series of large-scale experiments on up to 30 ms-1 fast, 2-4.5 m thick, 20-35 m long flows of natural pyroclastic material and gas. We will show high-speed movies and non-invasive sensor data that detail the internal structure of the analogue pyroclastic flows. The experimental PDCs are synthesized by the controlled 'eruption column collapse' of variably diluted suspensions into an instrumented channel. Experiments show four flow phases: mixture acceleration and dilution during free fall; impact and lateral blasting; PDC runout; and co-ignimbrite cloud formation. The fully turbulent flows reach Reynolds number up to 107 and depositional facies similar to natural deposits. In the PDC runout phase, the shear flows develop a four-partite structure from top to base: a fully turbulent, strongly density-stratified ash cloud with average particle concentrations <<1vol%; a transient, turbulent dense suspension region with particle concentrations between 1 and 10 vol%; a non-turbulent, aerated and highly mobile dense underflows with particle concentrations between 40 and 50 vol%; and a vertically aggrading bed of static material. We characterise these regions and the exchanges of energy and momentum
Scaled Experimental Modeling of VHTR Plenum Flows
ICONE 15
2007-04-01
Abstract The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is the leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Project in the U.S. which has the goal of demonstrating the production of emissions free electricity and hydrogen by 2015. Various scaled heated gas and water flow facilities were investigated for modeling VHTR upper and lower plenum flows during the decay heat portion of a pressurized conduction-cooldown scenario and for modeling thermal mixing and stratification (“thermal striping”) in the lower plenum during normal operation. It was concluded, based on phenomena scaling and instrumentation and other practical considerations, that a heated water flow scale model facility is preferable to a heated gas flow facility and to unheated facilities which use fluids with ranges of density to simulate the density effect of heating. For a heated water flow lower plenum model, both the Richardson numbers and Reynolds numbers may be approximately matched for conduction-cooldown natural circulation conditions. Thermal mixing during normal operation may be simulated but at lower, but still fully turbulent, Reynolds numbers than in the prototype. Natural circulation flows in the upper plenum may also be simulated in a separate heated water flow facility that uses the same plumbing as the lower plenum model. However, Reynolds number scaling distortions will occur at matching Richardson numbers due primarily to the necessity of using a reduced number of channels connected to the plenum than in the prototype (which has approximately 11,000 core channels connected to the upper plenum) in an otherwise geometrically scaled model. Experiments conducted in either or both facilities will meet the objectives of providing benchmark data for the validation of codes proposed for NGNP designs and safety studies, as well as providing a better understanding of the complex flow phenomena in the plenums.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel
1989-01-01
This paper treats the accurate and efficient calculation of thermodynamic properties of arbitrary gas mixtures for equilibrium flow computations. New improvements in the Stupochenko-Jaffe model for the calculation of thermodynamic properties of diatomic molecules are presented. A unified formulation of equilibrium calculations for gas mixtures in terms of irreversible entropy is given. Using a highly accurate thermo-chemical data base, a new, efficient and vectorizable search algorithm is used to construct piecewise interpolation procedures with generate accurate thermodynamic variable and their derivatives required by modern computational algorithms. Results are presented for equilibrium air, and compared with those given by the Srinivasan program.
Gas mass transfer for stratified flows
Duffey, R.B.; Hughes, E.D.
1995-07-01
We analyzed gas absorption and release in water bodies using existing surface renewal theory. We show a new relation between turbulent momentum and mass transfer from gas to water, including the effects of waves and wave roughness, by evaluating the equilibrum integral turbulent dissipation due to energy transfer to the water from the wind. Using Kolmogoroff turbulence arguments the gas transfer velocity, or mass transfer coefficient, is then naturally and straightforwardly obtained as a non-linear function of the wind speed drag coefficient and the square root of the molecular diffusion coefficient. In dimensionless form, the theory predicts the turbulent Sherwood number to be Sh{sub t} = (2/{radical}{pi}) Sc{sup 1/2}, where Sh{sub t} is based on an integral dissipation length scale in the air. The theory confirms the observed nonlinear variation of the mass transfer coefficient as a function of the wind speed; gives the correct transition with turbulence-centered models for smooth surfaces at low speeds; and predicts experimental data from both laboratory and environmental measurements within the data scatter. The differences between the available laboratory and field data measurements are due to the large differences in the drag coefficient between wind tunnels and oceans. The results also imply that the effect of direct aeration due to bubble entrainment at wave breaking is no more than a 20% increase in the mass transfer for the highest speeds. The theory has importance to mass transfer in both the geophysical and chemical engineering literature.
Gas mass transfer for stratified flows
Duffey, R.B.; Hughes, E.D.
1995-06-01
We analyzed gas absorption and release in water bodies using existing surface renewal theory. We show a new relation between turbulent momentum and mass transfer from gas to water, including the effects of waves and wave roughness, by evaluating the equilibrium integral turbulent dissipation due to energy transfer to the water from the wind. Using Kolmogoroff turbulence arguments the gas transfer velocity, or mass transfer coefficient, is then naturally and straightforwardly obtained as a non-linear function of the wind speed drag coefficient and the square root of the molecular diffusion coefficient. In dimensionless form, the theory predicts the turbulent Sherwood number to be Sh{sub t} = (2/{radical}{pi})Sc{sup 1/2}, where Sh{sub t} is based on an integral dissipation length scale in the air. The theory confirms the observed nonlinear variation of the mass transfer coefficient as a function of the wind speed; gives the correct transition with turbulence-centered models for smooth surfaces at low speeds; and predicts experimental data from both laboratory and environmental measurements within the data scatter. The differences between the available laboratory and field data measurements are due to the large differences in the drag coefficient between wind tunnels and oceans. The results also imply that the effect of direct aeration due to bubble entrainment at wave breaking is no more than a 20% increase in the mass transfer for the highest speeds. The theory has importance to mass transfer in both the geo-physical and chemical engineering literature.
Study of interfacial behavior in cocurrent gas-liquid flows
McCready, M.J.
1990-01-01
We have examined the mechanism of formation of solitary waves on gas-liquid flows and found, that these form from existing periodic waves which have sufficiently large ({approximately}1.5 to 2 depending upon fluid properties) amplitude to liquid layer-thickness ratios. The exact process for the wave shape change is not understood but it does not seem to be related to the wave steepness (amplitude/wavelength) or to separation of gas flow over the waves. The observed confinement of solitary waves to low liquid Reynolds numbers results because the necessary large precursor waves do not form if the wave speed dispersion is too large or if the wavelength of the dominant waves is too short, as occurs for higher Re{sub L}. Measurements of interface tracings and calculations of power spectra and bispectra as a function of flow distance for conditions close to neutral stability reveal that the initially, linearly unstable mode is stabilized by formation of overtones which are linearly stable and can dissipate energy. As a result, a stable wave field can occur. Mode equations, which include quadratic nonlinearities, can model this process to the extent of producing some degree of quantitative predictions for the amplitudes of the wave modes. However, a complete picture of the wave field must include sidebands as well because these are observed for some flow conditions. 34 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.
Modeling Leaking Gas Plume Migration
Silin, Dmitriy; Patzek, Tad; Benson, Sally M.
2007-08-20
In this study, we obtain simple estimates of 1-D plume propagation velocity taking into account the density and viscosity contrast between CO{sub 2} and brine. Application of the Buckley-Leverett model to describe buoyancy-driven countercurrent flow of two immiscible phases leads to a transparent theory predicting the evolution of the plume. We obtain that the plume does not migrate upward like a gas bubble in bulk water. Rather, it stretches upward until it reaches a seal or until the fluids become immobile. A simple formula requiring no complex numerical calculations describes the velocity of plume propagation. This solution is a simplification of a more comprehensive theory of countercurrent plume migration that does not lend itself to a simple analytical solution (Silin et al., 2006). The range of applicability of the simplified solution is assessed and provided. This work is motivated by the growing interest in injecting carbon dioxide into deep geological formations as a means of avoiding its atmospheric emissions and consequent global warming. One of the potential problems associated with the geologic method of sequestration is leakage of CO{sub 2} from the underground storage reservoir into sources of drinking water. Ideally, the injected green-house gases will stay in the injection zone for a geologically long time and eventually will dissolve in the formation brine and remain trapped by mineralization. However, naturally present or inadvertently created conduits in the cap rock may result in a gas leak from primary storage. Even in supercritical state, the carbon dioxide viscosity and density are lower than those of the indigenous formation brine. Therefore, buoyancy will tend to drive the CO{sub 2} upward unless it is trapped beneath a low permeability seal. Theoretical and experimental studies of buoyancy-driven supercritical CO{sub 2} flow, including estimation of time scales associated with plume evolution, are critical for developing technology
Prediction of inverted velocity profile for gas flow in nanochannel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, T. T.; Ren, Y. R.
2014-11-01
Velocity inversion is an interesting phenomenon of nanoscale which means that the velocity near the wall is greater than that of center. To solve this problem, fluid flow in nanochannel attracts more attention in recent years. The physical model of gas flow in two-dimensional nanochannel was established here. To describe the process with conventional control equations, Navier-Stokes equations combined with high-order accurate slip boundary conditions was used as mathematical model. With the introduction of new dimensionless variables, the problem was reduced to an ordinary differential equation. Then it was analytically solved and investigated using homotopy analysis method (HAM). The results were verified by comparing with other available experiment data. Result shows that the proposed method could predict velocity phenomenon.
Modeling of Turbulent Swirling Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Zhu, Jiang; Liou, William; Chen, Kuo-Huey; Liu, Nan-Suey; Lumley, John L.
1997-01-01
Aircraft engine combustors generally involve turbulent swirling flows in order to enhance fuel-air mixing and flame stabilization. It has long been recognized that eddy viscosity turbulence models are unable to appropriately model swirling flows. Therefore, it has been suggested that, for the modeling of these flows, a second order closure scheme should be considered because of its ability in the modeling of rotational and curvature effects. However, this scheme will require solution of many complicated second moment transport equations (six Reynolds stresses plus other scalar fluxes and variances), which is a difficult task for any CFD implementations. Also, this scheme will require a large amount of computer resources for a general combustor swirling flow. This report is devoted to the development of a cubic Reynolds stress-strain model for turbulent swirling flows, and was inspired by the work of Launder's group at UMIST. Using this type of model, one only needs to solve two turbulence equations, one for the turbulent kinetic energy k and the other for the dissipation rate epsilon. The cubic model developed in this report is based on a general Reynolds stress-strain relationship. Two flows have been chosen for model evaluation. One is a fully developed rotating pipe flow, and the other is a more complex flow with swirl and recirculation.
Oxford Miniature Vaporiser output with reversed gas flows.
Donovan, A; Perndt, H
2007-06-01
This study was undertaken to investigate and calibrate the isoflurane output of an Oxford Miniature Vaporiser (OMV) draw-over vaporiser with reversed gas flows. Plenum or Boyles type machines have gas flowing left to right through the apparatus. Draw over anaesthesia systems, in contrast, traditionally have the carrier gas, air plus oxygen, flowing right to left through the vaporiser. There are a number of variations in the external design of the OMV vaporiser: 1) a back bar mounted draw-over vaporiser with 23-mm taper and left to right gas flow, 2) the Tri-Service with 22-mm taper and left to right gas flow, and 3) the traditional draw-over OMV with right to left gas flow with a variety of tapers. Non-uniformity leads to a variety of possible connections. The predictable output of the OMV vaporiser assumes the correct direction of gas flows for the device. There are many second hand right to left OMV vaporisers for sale to developing countries where the nuances of vaporiser orientation add unnecessarily to the desired simplicity of anaesthesia. A simple calibration scale for reversed gas flows through the OMV vaporiser would be useful. PMID:17506742
Device accurately measures and records low gas-flow rates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Branum, L. W.
1966-01-01
Free-floating piston in a vertical column accurately measures and records low gas-flow rates. The system may be calibrated, using an adjustable flow-rate gas supply, a low pressure gage, and a sequence recorder. From the calibration rates, a nomograph may be made for easy reduction. Temperature correction may be added for further accuracy.
Calculation of two-phase flow in gas turbine combustors
Tolpadi, A.K.
1995-10-01
A method is presented for computing steady two-phase turbulent combusting flow in a gas turbine combustor. The gas phase equations are solved in an Eulerian frame of reference. The two-phase calculations are performed by using a liquid droplet spray combustion a model and treating the motion of the evaporating fuel droplets in a Lagrangian frame of reference. The numerical algorithm employs nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinates, a multigrid iterative solution procedure, the standard k-{epsilon} turbulence model, and a combustion model comprising an assumed shape probability density function and the conserved scalar formulation. The trajectory computation of the fuel provides the source terms for all the gas phase equations. This two-phase model was applied to a real piece of combustion hardware in the form of a modern GE/SNECMA single annular CFM56 turbofan engine combustor. For the purposes of comparison, calculations were also performed by treating the fuel as a single gaseous phase. The effect on the solution of two extreme situations of the fuel as a gas and initially as a liquid was examined. The distribution of the velocity field and the conserved scalar within the combustor, as well as the distribution of the temperature field in the reaction zone and in the exhaust, were all predicted with the combustor operating both at high-power and low-power (ground idle) conditions. The calculated exit gas temperature was compared with test rig measurements. Under both low and high-power conditions, the temperature appeared to show an improved agreement with the measured data when the calculations were performed with the spray model as compared to a single-phase calculation.
Gas/liquid flow measurement using coriolis-based flow meters
Liu, K.T.; Nguyen, T.V.
1991-07-09
This patent describes a method of determining total mass flow rate and phase distribution of individual components in a flowing gas/liquid stream. It comprises flowing at least a first gas/liquid stream through a Coriolis-based flow meter, the first gas/liquid stream having a first known total mass flow rate and component phase distribution; obtaining a first apparent total mass flow rate output and a first apparent density output from the Coriolis- based mass flow meter; correlating the first known total mass flow rate and phase distribution with the first apparent mass flow rate output and the first apparent density output obtained from the Coriolis-based mass flow meter to determine a set of correlation equations; flowing a second gas/liquid stream through the Coriolis-based mass flow meter; obtaining a second apparent mass flow rate output and a second apparent density output from the Coriolis-based mass flow meter; calculating a total mass flow rate and a component phase distribution of the second gas/liquid stream based on the correlation equations and the second apparent mass flow rate output and the second apparent density output.
Real-Time Measurement of Vehicle Exhaust Gas Flow
Hardy, J.E.; Hylton, J.O.; Joy, R.D.; McKnight, T.E.
1999-06-28
A flow measurement system was developed to measure, in real-time, the exhaust gas flow from vehicies. This new system was based on the vortex shedding principle using ultrasonic detectors for sensing the shed vortices. The flow meter was designed to measure flow over a range of 1 to 366 Ips with an inaccuracy of ~1o/0 of reading. Additionally, the meter was engineered to cause minimal pressure drop (less than 125mm of water), to function in a high temperature environment (up to 650oC) with thermal transients of 15 oC/s, and to have a response time of 0.1 seconds for a 10% to 90!40 step change. The flow meter was also configured to measure hi-directional flow. Several flow meter prototypes were fabricated, tested, and calibrated in air, simulated exhaust gas, and actual exhaust gas. Testing included gas temperatures to 600oC, step response experiments, and flow rates from O to 360 lps in air and exhaust gas. Two prototypes have been tested extensively at NIST and two additional meters have been installed in exhaust gas flow lines for over one year. This new flow meter design has shown to be accurate, durabIe, fast responding, and to have a wide rangeabi~ity.
Equations for Adiabatic but Rotational Steady Gas Flows without Friction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schaefer, Manfred
1947-01-01
This paper makes the following assumptions: 1) The flowing gases are assumed to have uniform energy distribution. ("Isoenergetic gas flows," that is valid with the same constants for the the energy equation entire flow.) This is correct, for example, for gas flows issuing from a region of constant pressure, density, temperature, end velocity. This property is not destroyed by compression shocks because of the universal validity of the energy law. 2) The gas behaves adiabatically, not during the compression shock itself but both before and after the shock. However, the adiabatic equation (p/rho(sup kappa) = C) is not valid for the entire gas flow with the same constant C but rather with an appropriate individual constant for each portion of the gas. For steady flows, this means that the constant C of the adiabatic equation is a function of the stream function. Consequently, a gas that has been flowing "isentropically",that is, with the same constant C of the adiabatic equation throughout (for example, in origination from a region of constant density, temperature, and velocity) no longer remains isentropic after a compression shock if the compression shock is not extremely simple (wedge shaped in a two-dimensional flow or cone shaped in a rotationally symmetrical flow). The solution of nonisentropic flows is therefore an urgent necessity.
Thermoacoustic compression based on alternating to direct gas flow conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, D. M.; Wang, K.; Xu, Y.; Shen, Q.; Zhang, X. J.; Qiu, L. M.
2012-05-01
We present a remarkable thermoacoustically driven compression effect based on the conversion of gas flow from an alternating state to a direct state. The alternating gas flow is generated by the thermoacoustic effect in thermoacoustic engines, whereas direct gas flow is achieved by means of the flow rectification effect of check valves. A demonstrative thermoacoustic compressor consisting of two standing-wave thermoacoustic engines, two reservoirs, and three check valves is constructed for experimental investigation. With nitrogen as a working gas and an initial pressure of 2.4 MPa in all components, a usable pressure difference of 0.4 MPa is achieved, with the average gas pumping rate reaching 2.85 Nm3/h during the first 3 s of the compression process. The simple mechanical structure and thermally driven nature of the compressor show potential in gas compression, power generation, and refrigeration applications.
Distribution of gas flow in internally manifolded solid oxide fuel-cell stacks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boersma, R. J.; Sammes, N. M.
In internally manifolded fuel-cell stacks, there is a non-uniform gas flow distribution along the height of the system. To gain an insight into this distribution an analytical model has been developed. In the model, the stack is viewed as a network of hydraulic resistances. Some of these resistances are constant, while some depend upon the gas velocity and can be determined from the literature. The model consists of equations for the network with counter-current flow in the manifold channels. Only the most important resistances are included, i.e., the resistances due to splitting and combining the flows in the manifold channels, and the resistance in the gas channels of the active cell area. The ratio between the average flow and the flow in the upper cell can be solved from the model. In this manner, a very useful tool for separatorplate design is obtained.
A model for insect tracheolar flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Staples, Anne; Chatterjee, Krishnashis
2015-11-01
Tracheoles are the terminal ends of the microscale tracheal channels present in most insect respiratory systems that transport air directly to the tissue. From a fluid dynamics perspective, tracheolar flow is notable because it lies at the intersection of several specialized fluid flow regimes. The flow through tracheoles is creeping, microscale gas flow in the rarefied regime. Here, we use lubrication theory to model the flow through a single microscale tracheole and take into account fluid-structure interactions through an imposed periodic wall deformation corresponding to the rhythmic abdominal compression found in insects, and rarefaction effects using slip boundary conditions. We compare the pressure, axial pressure gradient, and axial and radial velocities in the channel, and the volumetric flow rate through the channel for no-slip, low slip, and high slip conditions under two different channel deformation regimes. We find that the presence of slip tends to reduce the flow rate through the model tracheole and hypothesize that one of the mechanical functions of tracheoles is to act as a diffuser to decelerate the flow, enhance mixing, and increase the residency time of freshly oxygenated air at the surface of the tissue. This work was funded by the NSF under grant no. 1437387.
Analytical solution for subsurface gas flow to a well induced by surface pressure fluctuations.
Rossabi, Joseph; Falta, Ronald W
2002-01-01
A simple analytical model is presented for predicting subsurface gas flow to a vadose-zone well in response to atmospheric pressure fluctuations (barometric pumping). The effective radial permeability (kr) in the vicinity of the well is determined during model calibration using less than two weeks worth of data. By combining the flow solution with a solution for the vertical gas pressure, only atmospheric pressure data are required to predict the induced flow through a well. The ability to quantitatively predict naturally induced flow in vadose-zone wells by simple and inexpensive measurements is invaluable for systems using barometric pumping for remediation. PMID:11798048
Analytical Solution for Subsurface Gas Flow to a Well Induced by Surface Pressure Fluctuations
Rossabi, J.
2001-06-20
A simple analytical model is presented for predicting subsurface gas flow to a vadose zone well in response to atmospheric pressure fluctuations (barometric pumping). The effective radial permeability (kr) in the vicinity of the well is determined during model calibration using less than two weeks of data. By combining the flow solution with a solution for the vertical gas pressure, only atmospheric pressure data are required to predict the induced flow through a well. The ability to quantitatively predict naturally induced flow in vadose zone wells by simple and inexpensive measurements is invaluable for systems using barometric pumping for remediation.
Bubble formation during horizontal gas injection into downward-flowing liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Hua; Thomas, Brian G.
2001-12-01
Bubble formation during gas injection into turbulent downward-flowing water is studied using high-speed videos and mathematical models. The bubble size is determined during the initial stages of injection and is very important to turbulent multiphase flow in molten-metal processes. The effects of liquid velocity, gas-injection flow rate, injection hole diameter, and gas composition on the initial bubble-formation behavior have been investigated. Specifically, the bubble-shape evolution, contact angles, size, size range, and formation mode are measured. The bubble size is found to increase with increasing gas-injection flow rate and decreasing liquid velocity and is relatively independent of the gas injection hole size and gas composition. Bubble formation occurs in one of four different modes, depending on the liquid velocity and gas flow rate. Uniform-sized spherical bubbles form and detach from the gas injection hole in mode I for a low liquid speed and small gas flow rate. Modes III and IV occur for high-velocity liquid flows, where the injected gas elongates down along the wall and breaks up into uneven-sized bubbles. An analytical two-stage model is developed to predict the average bubble size, based on realistic force balances, and shows good agreement with measurements. Preliminary results of numerical simulations of bubble formation using a volume-of-fluid (VOF) model qualitatively match experimental observations, but more work is needed to reach a quantitative match. The analytical model is then used to estimate the size of the argon bubbles expected in liquid steel in tundish nozzles for conditions typical of continuous casting with a slide gate. The average argon bubble sizes generated in liquid steel are predicted to be larger than air bubbles in water for the same flow conditions. However, the differences lessen with increasing liquid velocity.
Experimental on two sensors combination used in horizontal pipe gas-water two-phase flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Hao; Dong, Feng
2014-04-01
Gas-water two phase flow phenomenon widely exists in production and living and the measurement of it is meaningful. A new type of long-waist cone flow sensor has been designed to measure two-phase mass flow rate. Six rings structure of conductance probe is used to measure volume fraction and axial velocity. The calibration of them have been made. Two sensors have been combined in horizontal pipeline experiment to measure two-phase flow mass flow rate. Several model of gas-water two-phase flow has been discussed. The calculation errors of total mass flow rate measurement is less than 5% based on the revised homogeneous flow model.
Experimental on two sensors combination used in horizontal pipe gas-water two-phase flow
Wu, Hao; Dong, Feng
2014-04-11
Gas-water two phase flow phenomenon widely exists in production and living and the measurement of it is meaningful. A new type of long-waist cone flow sensor has been designed to measure two-phase mass flow rate. Six rings structure of conductance probe is used to measure volume fraction and axial velocity. The calibration of them have been made. Two sensors have been combined in horizontal pipeline experiment to measure two-phase flow mass flow rate. Several model of gas-water two-phase flow has been discussed. The calculation errors of total mass flow rate measurement is less than 5% based on the revised homogeneous flow model.
Centrifuge modelling of granular flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Wu, Wei
2015-04-01
A common characteristic of mass flows like debris flows, rock avalanches and mudflows is that gravity is their main driving force. Gravity defines the intensity and duration of the main interactions between particles and their surrounding media (particle-particle, particle-fluid, fluid-fluid). At the same time, gravity delimits the occurrence of phase separation, inverse segregation, and mass consolidation, among other phenomena. Therefore, in the understanding of the flow physics it is important to account for the scaling of gravity in scaled models. In this research, a centrifuge model is developed to model free surface granular flows down an incline at controlled gravity conditions. Gravity is controlled by the action of an induced inertial acceleration field resulting from the rotation of the model in a geotechnical centrifuge. The characteristics of the induced inertial acceleration field during flow are discussed and validated via experimental data. Flow heights, velocity fields, basal pressure and impact forces are measured for a range of channel inclinations and gravity conditions. Preliminary results enlighten the flow characteristics at variable gravity conditions and open a discussion on the simulation of large scale processes at a laboratory scale. Further analysis on the flow physics brings valuable information for the validation of granular flows rheology.
Simple models for embayment flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gibson, F.; Dalziel, S.
2003-04-01
The flow structure in an embayment with a mean external flow has been investigated. The embayment is a relatively quiescent environment separated from the external mean flow by a mixing layer, in a manner analogous to the ventilation of a street canyon in an urban environment. This study aims to improve our knowledge of the exchange between the embayment and the external flow, which is an important mechanism for the transport and dispersion of substances such as nutrients, sediments, heat and pollutants. Understanding of flow in an embayment is therefore vital to the explanation and preservation of its ecology. In an experimental study, a model rectangular embayment was placed in a recirculating flume tank. The aspect ratio and bathymetry of the embayment was varied and the effect on the flow and mixing layer recorded. A neutrally buoyant tracer was added to the flow at various locations to visualise the eddies and the mixing layer. Field experiments in a coastal embayment used an accoustic Doppler current profiler to measure the flow velocities. These measurements demonstrate the existance of a gyre within the bay and support a shear-driven cavity model. In parallel with the experiments and fieldwork, a hierarchy of computer models was used to gain further understanding of the flow. Results from these models are presented alongside the experimental measurements.
Shape of gas flow paths causes power law tailing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawanishi, T.; Sakami, A.; Hayashi, Y.
2004-12-01
In soil and/or groundwater remediation, we often see prolonged tailings: continuous outflow of low concentration pollutants for very long time, and in many cases power low behavior of late-time time-concentration curves. We considered that this kind of tailing can be caused by the shape of the gaseous flow introduced in saturated/unsaturated porous media. When gas is introduced to porous media, like air-sparging or soil vapor extraction, the shape of the gas flow path would be tree-like, or to some extent "fractal." So, there would be a distribution of the distance that a solute would have to travel by diffusion before getting to a gas/water interface, and we might expect that the distribution of this "diffusion distance" would be power-law-like. In order to see if tailing can be caused by this mechanism, simple column experiments were carried out. A column, 64 mm in inner diameter and 240 mm in height, was prepared and was packed with 1mm diameter glass beads. Nitrogen gas containing 5 % CO2 and 5% He was supplied from the bottom of the column, and after the water in the column is approximately saturated with CO2, the sparging gas was changed to pure nitrogen. The CO2 and He concentrations in the effluent gas was monitored and recorded. As the result, we saw tailing: the double-log plots of the concentration vs. time relationship was practically linear, and the absolute value of the slope in the double-log charts were 1.28, 0.95 and 0.83 according to the gas flow rates of 40, 80 and 120 ml/min, respectively. Slope less than 1.00 showed that these tailings cannot be explained by Freundlich-type adsorption behavior. Model analysis showed that this power low time-concentration behavior with the slope of approximately -1.0 can be explained by the power law distribution of diffusion distance \\textit{a} with PDF p(\\textit{a}) proportional to \\textit{a}^{-1}.
Visualization of Atomization Gas Flow and Melt Break-up Effects in Response to Nozzle Design
Anderson, Iver; Rieken, Joel; Meyer, John; Byrd, David; Heidloff, Andy
2011-04-01
Both powder particle size control and efficient use of gas flow energy are highly prized goals for gas atomization of metal and alloy powder to minimize off-size powder inventory (or 'reverb') and excessive gas consumption. Recent progress in the design of close-coupled gas atomization nozzles and the water model simulation of melt feed tubes were coupled with previous results from several types of gas flow characterization methods, e.g., aspiration measurements and gas flow visualization, to make progress toward these goals. Size distribution analysis and high speed video recordings of gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) experiments on special ferritic stainless steel alloy powders with an Ar+O{sub 2} gas mixture were performed to investigate the operating mechanisms and possible advantages of several melt flow tube modifications with one specific gas atomization nozzle. In this study, close-coupled gas atomization under closed wake gas flow conditions was demonstrated to produce large yields of ultrafine (dia.<20 {mu}m) powders (up to 32%) with moderate standard deviations (1.62 to 1.99). The increased yield of fine powders is consistent with the dual atomization mechanisms of closed wake gas flow patterns in the near-field of the melt orifice. Enhanced size control by stabilized pre-filming of the melt with a slotted trumpet bell pour tube was not clearly demonstrated in the current experiments, perhaps confounded by the influence of the melt oxidation reaction that occurred simultaneously with the atomization process. For this GARS variation of close-coupled gas atomization, it may be best to utilize the straight cylindrical pour tube and closed wake operation of an atomization nozzle with higher gas mass flow to promote the maximum yields of ultrafine powders that are preferred for the oxide dispersion strengthened alloys made from these powders.
Turbulence modeling for separated flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durbin, Paul A.
1994-01-01
Two projects are described in this report. The first involves assessing turbulence models in separated flow. The second addresses the anomalous behavior of certain turbulence models in stagnation point flow. The primary motivation for developing turbulent transport models is to provide tools for computing non-equilibrium, or complex, turbulent flows. Simple flows can be analyzed using data correlations or algebraic eddy viscosities, but in more complicated flows such as a massively separated boundary layer, a more elaborate level of modeling is required. It is widely believed that at least a two-equation transport model is required in such cases. The transport equations determine the evolution of suitable velocity and time-scales of the turbulence. The present study included assessment of second-moment closures in several separated flows, including sharp edge separation; smooth wall, pressure driven separation; and unsteady vortex shedding. Flows with mean swirl are of interest for their role in enhancing mixing both by turbulent and mean motion. The swirl can have a stabilizing effect on the turbulence. An axi-symmetric extension to the INS-2D computer program was written adding the capability of computing swirling flow. High swirl can produce vortex breakdown on the centerline of the jet and it occurs in various combustors.
Strongly coupled turbulent gas-particle flows in vertical channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fox, Rodney O.; Capecelatro, Jesse; Desjardins, Olivier
2015-11-01
Eulerian-Lagrangian (EL) simulations of strongly coupled (high mass loading) gas-particle flows in vertical channels are performed with the purpose of exploring the fundamental physics of fully developed, wall-bounded multiphase turbulence. An adaptive spatial filter is developed that accurately decomposes the total granular energy of the particles into correlated and uncorrelated components at each location in the wall-normal direction of the flow. In this manner, Reynolds- and phase-averaged (PA) two-phase turbulence statistics up to second order are reported for both phases and for three values of the PA mean fluid velocity. As expected due to the high mass loading, in all cases the turbulence production due to mean drag dominates production due to mean shear. A multiphase LRR-IP Reynolds-stress turbulence model is developed to predict the turbulent flow statistics as a function of the wall-normal distance. Using a correlation for the vertical drift velocity developed from the EL data, the turbulence model predictions agree satisfactorily with all of one-point EL statistics for the vertical channel flows, as well as for the homogeneous cluster-induced turbulence (CIT) statistics reported previously. Funded by U.S. National Science Foundation (CBET-1437865).
Breakup of Droplets in an Accelerating Gas Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dickerson, R. A.; Coultas, T. A.
1966-01-01
A study of droplet breakup phenomena by an accelerating gas flow is described. The phenomena are similar to what propellant droplets experience when exposed to accelerating combustion gas flow in a rocket engine combustion zone. Groups of several dozen droplets in the 100-10 750-micron-diameter range were injected into a flowing inert gas in a transparent rectangular nozzle. Motion photography of the behavior of the droplets at various locations in the accelerating gas flow has supplied quantitative and qualitative data on the breakup phenomena which occur under conditions similar to those found in large rocket engine combustors. A blowgun injection device, used to inject very small amounts of liquid at velocities of several hundred feet per second into a moving gas stream, is described. The injection device was used to inject small amounts of liquid RP-1 and water into the gas stream at a velocity essentially equal to the gas velocity where the group of droplets was allowed to stabilize its formation in a constant area section before entering the convergent section of the transparent nozzle. Favorable comparison with the work of previous investigators who have used nonaccelerating gas flow is found with the data obtained from this study with accelerating gas flow. The criterion for the conditions of minimum severity required to produce shear-type droplet breakup in an accelerating gas flow is found to agree well with the criterion previously established at Rocketdyne for breakup in nonaccelerating flow. An extension of the theory of capillary surface wave effects during droplet breakup is also presented. Capillary surface waves propagating in the surface of the droplet, according to classical hydrodynamical laws, are considered. The waves propagate tangentially over the surface of the droplet from the forward stagnation point to the major diameter. Consideration of the effects of relative gas velocity on the amplitude growth of these waves allows conclusions to be
Adsorption Model for Off-Gas Separation
Veronica J. Rutledge
2011-03-01
The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior and feedback loops. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes will provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed in gPROMS software. Inputs include gas stream constituents, sorbent, and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. It models dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions for a multiple component gas stream. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which the breakthrough data is obtained. It also outputs temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. Experimental data will be input into the adsorption model to develop a model specific for iodine adsorption on silver mordenite as well as model(s) specific for krypton and xenon adsorption. The model will be validated with experimental breakthrough curves. Another future off-gas modeling goal is to develop a model for the unit operation absorption. The off-gas models will be made available via the server or web for evaluation by customers.
Modeling Size Polydisperse Granular Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lueptow, Richard M.; Schlick, Conor P.; Isner, Austin B.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.
2014-11-01
Modeling size segregation of granular materials has important applications in many industrial processes and geophysical phenomena. We have developed a continuum model for granular multi- and polydisperse size segregation based on flow kinematics, which we obtain from discrete element method (DEM) simulations. The segregation depends on dimensionless control parameters that are functions of flow rate, particle sizes, collisional diffusion coefficient, shear rate, and flowing layer depth. To test the theoretical approach, we model segregation in tri-disperse quasi-2D heap flow and log-normally distributed polydisperse quasi-2D chute flow. In both cases, the segregated particle size distributions match results from full-scale DEM simulations and experiments. While the theory was applied to size segregation in steady quasi-2D flows here, the approach can be readily generalized to include additional drivers of segregation such as density and shape as well as other geometries where the flow field can be characterized including rotating tumbler flow and three-dimensional bounded heap flow. Funded by The Dow Chemical Company and NSF Grant CMMI-1000469.
Laser absorption phenomena in flowing gas devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chapman, P. K.; Otis, J. H.
1976-01-01
A theoretical and experimental investigation is presented of inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption of CW CO2 laser radiation in flowing gases seeded with alkali metals. In order to motivate this development, some simple models are described of several space missions which could use laser powered rocket vehicles. Design considerations are given for a test call to be used with a welding laser, using a diamond window for admission of laser radiation at power levels in excess of 10 kW. A detailed analysis of absorption conditions in the test cell is included. The experimental apparatus and test setup are described and the results of experiments presented. Injection of alkali seedant and steady state absorption of the laser radiation were successfully demonstrated, but problems with the durability of the diamond windows at higher powers prevented operation of the test cell as an effective laser powered thruster.
Gulf Coast, Arkoma gas increasing flow through Lebanon hub
True, W.R.
1992-03-09
Construction projects will hit stride this year for moving more U.S.-produced gas into the Northeast. Combined with projects recently completed, under way, or planned for Canadian gas at least 3 bcfd more gas will flow into New York, New Jersey, and the New England states within the next 3 years. This article looks at two major clusters of projectors to move U.S. Gulf Coast and Arkoma gas through the expanding Lebanon, Ohio, hub.
Compressible turbulent flows: Modeling and similarity considerations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeman, Otto
1991-01-01
With the recent revitalization of high speed flow research, compressibility presents a new set of challenging problems to turbulence researchers. Questions arise as to what extent compressibility affects turbulence dynamics, structures, the Reynolds stress-mean velocity (constitutive) relation, and the accompanying processes of heat transfer and mixing. In astrophysical applications, compressible turbulence is believed to play an important role in intergalactic gas cloud dynamics and in accretion disk convection. Understanding and modeling of the compressibility effects in free shear flows, boundary layers, and boundary layer/shock interactions is discussed.
Gas flow driven by thermal creep in dusty plasma
Flanagan, T. M.; Goree, J.
2009-10-15
Thermal creep flow (TCF) is a flow of gas driven by a temperature gradient along a solid boundary. Here, TCF is demonstrated experimentally in a dusty plasma. Stripes on a glass box are heated by laser beam absorption, leading to both TCF and a thermophoretic force. The design of the experiment allows isolating the effect of TCF. A stirring motion of the dust particle suspension is observed. By eliminating all other explanations for this motion, we conclude that TCF at the boundary couples by drag to the bulk gas, causing the bulk gas to flow, thereby stirring the suspension of dust particles. This result provides an experimental verification, for the field of fluid mechanics, that TCF in the slip-flow regime causes steady-state gas flow in a confined volume.
Groundwater flow and transport modeling
Konikow, L.F.; Mercer, J.W.
1988-01-01
Deterministic, distributed-parameter, numerical simulation models for analyzing groundwater flow and transport problems have come to be used almost routinely during the past decade. A review of the theoretical basis and practical use of groundwater flow and solute transport models is used to illustrate the state-of-the-art. Because of errors and uncertainty in defining model parameters, models must be calibrated to obtain a best estimate of the parameters. For flow modeling, data generally are sufficient to allow calibration. For solute-transport modeling, lack of data not only limits calibration, but also causes uncertainty in process description. Where data are available, model reliability should be assessed on the basis of sensitivity tests and measures of goodness-of-fit. Some of these concepts are demonstrated by using two case histories. ?? 1988.
Hot Gas Flows in T Tauri Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ardila, David R.; Herczeg, G.; Gregory, S. G.; Ingleby, L.; France, K.; Brown, A.; Edwards, S.; Linsky, J.; Yang, H.; Valenti, J. A.; Johns-Krull, C. M.; Alexander, R.; Bergin, E. A.; Bethell, T.; Brown, J.; Calvet, N.; Espaillat, C.; Hervé, A.; Hillenbrand, L.; Hussain, G.; Roueff, E.; Schindhelm, E.; Walter, F. M.
2013-01-01
We describe observations of the hot gas 1e5 K) ultraviolet lines C IV and He II, in Classical and Weak T Tauri Stars (CTTSs, WTTSs). Our goal is to provide observational constraints for realistic models. Most of the data for this work comes from the Hubble proposal “The Disks, Accretion, and Outflows (DAO) of T Tau stars” (PI Herczeg). The DAO program is the largest and most sensitive high resolution spectroscopic survey of young stars in the UV ever undertaken and it provides a rich source of information for these objects. The sample of high resolution COS and STIS spectra presented here comprises 35 stars: one Herbig Ae star, 28 CTTSs, and 6 WTTSs. For CTTSs, the lines consist of two kinematic components. The relative strengths of the narrow and broad components (NC, BC) are similar in C IV but in He II the NC is stronger than the BC, and dominates the line profile. We do not find correlations between disk inclination and the velocity centroid, width, or shape of the CIV line profile. The NC of the C IV line in CTTSs increases in strength with accretion rate, and its contribution to the line increases from ˜20% to ˜80%, for the accretion rates considered here (1e-10 to 1e-7 Msun/yr). The CTTSs C IV lines are redshifted by ˜20 km/s while the CTTSs He II are redshifted by ˜10 km/s. Because the He II line and the C IV NC have the same width in CTTSs and in WTTSs, but are correlated with accretion, we suggest that they are produced in the stellar transition region. The accretion shock model predicts that the velocity of the post-shock emission should be 4x smaller than the velocity of the pre-shock emission. Identifying the post-shock emission with the NC and the pre-shock with the BC, we find that this is approximately the case in 11 out of 23 objects. The model cannot explain 11 systems in which the velocity of the NC is smaller than the velocity of the BC, or systems in which one of the velocities is negative (five CTTSs). The hot gas lines in some systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, Bryce; Hendrickson, Kelli; Liu, Yuming; Subramani, Hariprasad
2014-11-01
For gas-liquid flows through pipes and channels, a flow regime (referred to as slug flow) may occur when waves form at the interface of a stratified flow and grow until they bridge the pipe diameter trapping large elongated gas bubbles within the liquid. Slug formation is often accompanied by strong nonlinear wave-wave interactions, wave breaking, and gas entrainment. This work numerically investigates the fully nonlinear interfacial evolution of a two-phase density/viscosity stratified flow through a horizontal channel. A Navier-Stokes flow solver coupled with a conservative volume-of-fluid algorithm is use to carry out high resolution three-dimensional simulations of a turbulent gas flowing over laminar (or turbulent) liquid layers. The analysis of such flows over a range of gas and liquid Reynolds numbers permits the characterization of the interfacial stresses and turbulent flow statistics allowing for the development of physics-based models that approximate the coupled interfacial-turbulent interactions and supplement the heuristic models built into existing industrial slug simulators.
Integral Transport Analysis of Ions Flowing Through Neutral Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emmert, Gilbert; Santarius, John; Alderson, Eric
2011-10-01
A computational model for the flow of energetic ions through a background neutral gas is being developed. Its essence is to consider reactions as creating a new source of ions or neutrals if the energy or charge state of the resulting particle is changed. For a given source boundary condition, the creation and annihilation of the various species is formulated as a 1-D Volterra integral equation that can quickly be solved numerically by finite differences. The current work focuses on radially converging, multiple-pass, 1-D ion flow through neutral gas and a nearly transparent, concentric anode and cathode pair in spherical geometry. This has been implemented as a computer code for atomic (3He, 3He+) and molecular (D, D2, D-, D+, D2+, D3+) ion and neutral species, and applied to modeling inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) devices. The inclusion of negative ions is a recent development. The code yields detailed energy spectra of the various ions and energetic neutral species. Comparisons with experimental data for a University of Wisconsin IEC device will be presented. Research supported by US Dept of Energy, grant DE-FG02-04ER54745, and by the Grainger Foundation.
Slurry fired heater cold-flow modelling
Moujaes, S.F.
1983-07-01
This report summarizes the experimental and theoretical work leading to the scale-up of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant slurry fired heater. The scale-up involved a theoretical model using empirical relations in the derivation, and employed variables such as flow conditions, liquid viscosity, and slug frequency. Such variables have been shown to affect the heat transfer characteristics ofthe system. The model assumes that, if all other variables remain constant, the heat transfer coefficient can be scaled up proportional to D/sup -2/3/ (D = inside diameter of the fired heater tube). All flow conditions, liquid viscosities, and pipe inclinations relevant to the demonstration plant have indicated a slug flow regime in the slurry fired heater. The annular and stratified flow regimes should be avoided to minimize the potential for excessive pipe erosion and to decrease temperature gradients along the pipe cross section leading to coking and thermal stresses, respectively. Cold-flow studies in 3- and 6.75-in.-inside-diameter (ID) pipes were conducted to determine the effect of scale-up on flow regime, slug frequency, and slug dimensions. The developed model assumes that conduction heat transfer occurs through the liquid film surrounding the gas slug and laminar convective heat transfer to the liquid slug. A weighted average of these two heat transfer mechanisms gives a value for the average pipe heat transfer coefficient. The cold-flow work showed a decrease in the observed slug frequency between the 3- and 6.75-ID pipes. Data on the ratio of gas to liquid slug length in the 6.75-in. pipe are not yet complete, but are expected to yield generally lower values than those obtained in the 3-in. pipe; this will probably affect the scale-up to demonstration plant conditions. 5 references, 15 figures, 7 tables.
Comet Gas and Dust Dynamics Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Von Allmen, Paul A.; Lee, Seungwon
2010-01-01
This software models the gas and dust dynamics of comet coma (the head region of a comet) in order to support the Microwave Instrument for Rosetta Orbiter (MIRO) project. MIRO will study the evolution of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko's coma system. The instrument will measure surface temperature, gas-production rates and relative abundances, and velocity and excitation temperatures of each species along with their spatial temporal variability. This software will use these measurements to improve the understanding of coma dynamics. The modeling tool solves the equation of motion of a dust particle, the energy balance equation of the dust particle, the continuity equation for the dust and gas flow, and the dust and gas mixture energy equation. By solving these equations numerically, the software calculates the temperature and velocity of gas and dust as a function of time for a given initial gas and dust production rate, and a dust characteristic parameter that measures the ability of a dust particle to adjust its velocity to the local gas velocity. The software is written in a modular manner, thereby allowing the addition of more dynamics equations as needed. All of the numerical algorithms are added in-house and no third-party libraries are used.
Mutiscale Modeling of Segregation in Granular Flows
Sun, Jin
2007-01-01
Modeling and simulation of segregation phenomena in granular flows are investigated. Computational models at different scales ranging from particle level (microscale) to continuum level (macroscale) are employed in order to determine the important microscale physics relevant to macroscale modeling. The capability of a multi-fluid model to capture segregation caused by density difference is demonstrated by simulating grain-chaff biomass flows in a laboratory-scale air column and in a combine harvester. The multi-fluid model treats gas and solid phases as interpenetrating continua in an Eulerian frame. This model is further improved by incorporating particle rotation using kinetic theory for rapid granular flow of slightly frictional spheres. A simplified model is implemented without changing the current kinetic theory framework by introducing an effective coefficient of restitution to account for additional energy dissipation due to frictional collisions. The accuracy of predicting segregation rate in a gas-fluidized bed is improved by the implementation. This result indicates that particle rotation is important microscopic physics to be incorporated into the hydrodynamic model. Segregation of a large particle in a dense granular bed of small particles under vertical. vibration is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Wall friction is identified as a necessary condition for the segregation. Large-scale force networks bearing larger-than-average forces are found with the presence of wall friction. The role of force networks in assisting rising of the large particle is analyzed. Single-point force distribution and two-point spatial force correlation are computed. The results show the heterogeneity of forces and a short-range correlation. The short correlation length implies that even dense granular flows may admit local constitutive relations. A modified minimum spanning tree (MST) algorithm is developed to asymptotically recover the force statistics in the
Turbulence modeling for hypersonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marvin, J. G.; Coakley, T. J.
1989-01-01
Turbulence modeling for high speed compressible flows is described and discussed. Starting with the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, methods of statistical averaging are described by means of which the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are developed. Unknown averages in these equations are approximated using various closure concepts. Zero-, one-, and two-equation eddy viscosity models, algebraic stress models and Reynolds stress transport models are discussed. Computations of supersonic and hypersonic flows obtained using several of the models are discussed and compared with experimental results. Specific examples include attached boundary layer flows, shock wave boundary layer interactions and compressible shear layers. From these examples, conclusions regarding the status of modeling and recommendations for future studies are discussed.
Numerical modeling of laser thermal propulsion flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccay, T. D.; Thoenes, J.
1984-01-01
An review of the problems associated with modeling laser thermal propulsion flows, a synopsis of the status of such models, and the attributes of a successful model are presented. The continuous gaseous hydrogen laser-supported combustion wave (LSCW) thruster, for which a high-energy laser system (preferably space-based) should exist by the time the propulsion technology is developed, is considered in particular. The model proposed by Raizer (1970) is based on the assumptions of one-dimensional flow at constant pressure with heat conduction as the principal heat transfer mechanism. Consideration is given to subsequent models which account for radiative transfer into the ambient gas; provide a two-dimensional generalization of Raizer's analysis for the subsonic propagation of laser sparks in air; include the effect of forward plasma radiation in a one-dimensional model; and attempt a time-dependent (elliptic) solution of the full Navier-Stokes equations for the flow in a simple axisymmetric thruster. Attention is also given to thruster and nozzle flow models and thermodynamic and transport properties.
Developing flow of a gas-particle mixture in a vertical riser
Pita, J.A. ); Sundaresan, S. )
1993-04-01
The riser reactors used for the catalytic cracking of gas oil use a transported solid catalyst, and their performance can be predicted with confidence only if the physical mechanism that determines the cross-sectional distribution of the catalyst can be identified and modeled. A computational study of steady, developing flow of gas-particle suspensions in a vertical riser has been carried out, using a model based on kinetic theory of granular materials, to understand the role of inlet configuration on the pattern of flow development. Three inlet configurations - uniform inlet, core-annulus flow at the inlet and circumferential injection of secondary gas - were examined. It is found that the inlet configuration can have a profound impact on the rate of segregation of particles to the wall and the internal recirculation. Circumferential injection of gas has a favorable effect on the flow in the sense that it can decrease the extent of internal recirculation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Demuren, A. O.
1994-01-01
Various approaches to the modeling of jets in cross flow are reviewed. These are grouped into four classes, namely: empirical models, integral models, perturbation models, and numerical models. Empirical models depend largely on the correlation of experimental data and are mostly useful for first-order estimates of global properties such as jet trajectory and velocity and temperature decay rates. Integral models are based on some ordinary-differential form of the conservation laws, but require substantial empirical calibration. They allow more details of the flow field to be obtained; simpler versions have to assume similarity of velocity and temperature profiles, but more sophisticated ones can actually calculate these profiles. Perturbation models require little empirical input, but the need for small parameters to ensure convergent expansions limits their application to either the near-field or the far-field. Therefore, they are mostly useful for the study of flow physics. Numerical models are based on conservation laws in partial-differential form. They require little empirical input and have the widest range of applicability. They also require the most computational resources. Although many qualitative and quantitative features of jets in cross flow have been predicted with numerical models, many issues affecting accuracy such as grid resolution and turbulence model are not completely resolved.
New technology directly measures mass flow of gas
Hahn, D.T.
1995-12-31
According to recent industry surveys and solicitations by organizations such as the Gas Research Institute and Small Business Innovation Research, a need exists for a gas flowmeter with {plus_minus}0.5% or better accuracy, that does not need to be calibrated for specific gas properties, and requires no periodic maintenance. Over the past 18 years, Coriolis mass flowmeters have provided these features for liquid flow applications, and have won a significant share of the liquid flow measurement market. Coriolis meters continue to be the fastest growing technology in the world market for flow measurement. Coriolis mass flowmeters have not, however, had much success in penetrating the gas flow measurement market due to some limitations involved with measuring the low density fluids associated with low pressure gas flow measurement. A new type of Coriolis mass flowmeter has been developed which utilizes a unique new method of creating and measuring the requisite Coriolis forces. This new technology; radial mode Coriolis mass flow measurement, has several inherent features that make it perfectly suited to measuring the mass flow of gas.
Two critical issues in Langevin simulation of gas flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jun; Fan, Jing
2014-12-01
A stochastic algorithm based on the Langevin equation has been recently proposed to simulate rarefied gas flows. Compared with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, the Langevin method is more efficient in simulating small Knudsen number flows. While it is well-known that the cell sizes and time steps should be smaller than the mean free path and the mean collision time, respectively, in DSMC simulations, the Langevin equation uses a drift term and a diffusion term to describe molecule movements, so no direct molecular collisions have to be modeled. This enables the Langevin simulation to proceed with a much larger time step than that in the DSMC method. Two critical issues in Langevin simulation are addressed in this paper. The first issue is how to reproduce the transport properties as that described by kinetic theory. Transport coefficients predicted by Langevin equation are obtained by using Green-Kubo formulae. The second issue is numerical scheme with boundary conditions. We present two schemes corresponding to small time step and large time step, respectively. For small time step, the scheme is similar to DSMC method as the update of positions and velocities are uncoupled; for large time step, we present an analytical solution of the hitting time, which is the crucial factor for accurate simulation. Velocity-Couette flow, thermal-Couette flow, Rayleigh-Bénard flow and wall-confined problem are simulated by using these two schemes. Our study shows that Langevin simulation is a promising tool to investigate small Knudsen number flows.
Two critical issues in Langevin simulation of gas flows
Zhang, Jun; Fan, Jing
2014-12-09
A stochastic algorithm based on the Langevin equation has been recently proposed to simulate rarefied gas flows. Compared with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, the Langevin method is more efficient in simulating small Knudsen number flows. While it is well-known that the cell sizes and time steps should be smaller than the mean free path and the mean collision time, respectively, in DSMC simulations, the Langevin equation uses a drift term and a diffusion term to describe molecule movements, so no direct molecular collisions have to be modeled. This enables the Langevin simulation to proceed with a much larger time step than that in the DSMC method. Two critical issues in Langevin simulation are addressed in this paper. The first issue is how to reproduce the transport properties as that described by kinetic theory. Transport coefficients predicted by Langevin equation are obtained by using Green-Kubo formulae. The second issue is numerical scheme with boundary conditions. We present two schemes corresponding to small time step and large time step, respectively. For small time step, the scheme is similar to DSMC method as the update of positions and velocities are uncoupled; for large time step, we present an analytical solution of the hitting time, which is the crucial factor for accurate simulation. Velocity-Couette flow, thermal-Couette flow, Rayleigh-Bénard flow and wall-confined problem are simulated by using these two schemes. Our study shows that Langevin simulation is a promising tool to investigate small Knudsen number flows.
Phase-locked measurements of gas-liquid horizontal flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zadrazil, Ivan; Matar, Omar; Markides, Christos
2014-11-01
A flow of gas and liquid in a horizontal pipe can be described in terms of various flow regimes, e.g. wavy stratified, annular or slug flow. These flow regimes appear at characteristic gas and liquid Reynolds numbers and feature unique wave phenomena. Wavy stratified flow is populated by low amplitude waves whereas annular flow contains high amplitude and long lived waves, so called disturbance waves, that play a key role in a liquid entrainment into the gas phase (droplets). In a slug flow regime, liquid-continuous regions travel at high speeds through a pipe separated by regions of stratified flow. We use a refractive index matched dynamic shadowgraphy technique using a high-speed camera mounted on a moving robotic linear rail to track the formation and development of features characteristic for the aforementioned flow regimes. We show that the wave dynamics become progressively more complex with increasing liquid and gas Reynolds numbers. Based on the shadowgraphy measurements we present, over a range of conditions: (i) phenomenological observations of the formation, and (ii) statistical data on the downstream velocity distribution of different classes of waves. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.
Heat flow anomalies in oil- and gas-bearing structures
Sergiyenko, S.I.
1988-02-01
The main features of the distribution of heat flow values in oil, gas and gas-condensate fields on the continents have been discussed by Makarenko and Sergiyenko. The method of analysis used made it possible to establish that the presence of hydrocarbons in formations leads to high heat-flow, regardless of the age of folding of the potentially oil- and gas-bearing zones. Only in regions adjacent to marginal Cenozoic folded mountain structures and in zones of Cenozoic volcanism is the world average higher, by 2.5 to 10%, than in the oil- and gas-bearing structures in those regions. The earlier analysis of the distribution of heat flow values in oil and gas structures was based on 403 measurements. The author now has nearly doubled the sample population, enabling him substantially to revise the ideas on the distribution of heat flow values and the development of the thermal regime of local oil and gas structures. He notes that the method previously used, comparing heat flow values on young continental platforms with values in local oil and gas structures, makes it possible to estimate the thermal effect of the presence of oil and gas. This conclusion stems from the fact that the overwhelming majority of heat flow measurements were made on various kinds of positive structural forms, and distortions of the thermal field caused by thermal anisotropy phenomena are equally characteristic of both productive and nonproductive structures. As a result, for the first time a continuous time series of heat flow measurements over oil and gas structures in various tectonic regions, with ages of consolidation ranging from the Precambrian to the Cenozoic, was established. 26 references.
Flowing gas, non-nuclear experiments on the gas core reactor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kunze, J. F.; Cooper, C. G.; Macbeth, P. J.
1973-01-01
Variations in cavity wall and injection configurations of the gas core reactor were aimed at establishing flow patterns that give a maximum of the nuclear criticality eigenvalue. Correlation with the nuclear effect was made using multigroup diffusion theory normalized by previous benchmark critical experiments. Air was used to simulate the hydrogen propellant in the flow tests, and smoked air, argon, or Freon to simulate the central nuclear fuel gas. Tests were run both in the down-firing and upfiring directions. Results showed that acceptable flow patterns with volume fraction for the simulated nuclear fuel gas and high flow rate ratios of propellant to fuel can be obtained. Using a point injector for the fuel, good flow patterns are obtained by directing the outer gas at high velocity long the cavity wall, using louvered injection schemes. Recirculation patterns were needed to stabilize the heavy central gas when different gases are used.
Gas and liquid measurements in air-water bubbly flows
Zhou, X.; Doup, B.; Sun, X.
2012-07-01
Local measurements of gas- and liquid-phase flow parameters are conducted in an air-water two-phase flow loop. The test section is a vertical pipe with an inner diameter of 50 mm and a height of 3.2 m. The measurements are performed at z/D = 10. The gas-phase measurements are performed using a four-sensor conductivity probe. The data taken from this probe are processed using a signal processing program to yield radial profiles of the void fraction, bubble velocity, and interfacial area concentration. The velocity measurements of the liquid-phase are performed using a state-of-the-art Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. The raw PIV images are acquired using fluorescent particles and an optical filtration device. Image processing is used to remove noise in the raw PIV images. The statistical cross correlation is introduced to determine the axial velocity field and turbulence intensity of the liquid-phase. Measurements are currently being performed at z/D = 32 to provide a more complete data set. These data can be used for computational fluid dynamic model development and validation. (authors)
Formation of a Multi-Charged Plasma in the Directed Gas Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abramov, I. S.; Gospodchikov, E. D.; Shalashov, A. G.
2016-06-01
We consider a gas-dynamic model describing the formation of a plasma with multiply ionized ions under the conditions of resonant heating of the electron component. Based on the isothermal approximation, possible regimes of the plasma flow are classified, the influence of the geometric divergence of the flow on the formation of the ion charge distribution is studied, and optimal regimes for the achievement of the maximum ion charge are identified. The model can be used for optimization and interpretation of modern experiments on generation of the extreme ultraviolet radiation due to the excitation of lines of multiply ionized atoms in a gas flow heated by strong millimeter or submillimeter waves.
Modeling Combustion in Supersonic Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Drummond, J. Philip; Danehy, Paul M.; Bivolaru, Daniel; Gaffney, Richard L.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Cutler, Andrew D.
2007-01-01
This paper discusses the progress of work to model high-speed supersonic reacting flow. The purpose of the work is to improve the state of the art of CFD capabilities for predicting the flow in high-speed propulsion systems, particularly combustor flow-paths. The program has several components including the development of advanced algorithms and models for simulating engine flowpaths as well as a fundamental experimental and diagnostic development effort to support the formulation and validation of the mathematical models. The paper will provide details of current work on experiments that will provide data for the modeling efforts along with with the associated nonintrusive diagnostics used to collect the data from the experimental flowfield. Simulation of a recent experiment to partially validate the accuracy of a combustion code is also described.
Dynamic gas slippage: a unique dual-mechanism approach to the flow of gas in tight formations
Ertekin, T.; King, G.R.; Schwerer, F.C.
1983-01-01
A mathematical formulation, applicable to both numeric simulation and transient well analysis, describing the flow of gas in very tight porous media has been developed. Unique to this formulation is the dual- mechanism transport of gas. In this formulation, gas is assumed to be traveling under the influence of 2 fields: a concentration field and a pressure field. Transport through the concentration field is a Knudsen flow process and is modeled with Fick's Law of diffusion. Transport through the pressure field is a laminar process and is modeled with Darcy's Law (inertial-turbulent effects are ignored). The combination of these 2 flow mechanisms rigorously yields a composition, pressure, and saturation dependent slippage factor. 21 references.
System for controlling the flow of gas into and out of a gas laser
Alger, Terry; Uhlich, Dennis M.; Benett, William J.; Ault, Earl R.
1994-01-01
A modularized system for controlling the gas pressure within a copper vapor or like laser is described herein. This system includes a gas input assembly which serves to direct gas into the laser in a controlled manner in response to the pressure therein for maintaining the laser pressure at a particular value, for example 40 torr. The system also includes a gas output assembly including a vacuum pump and a capillary tube arrangement which operates within both a viscous flow region and a molecular flow region for drawing gas out of the laser in a controlled manner.
PHYSICAL MODELING OF CONTRACTED FLOW.
Lee, Jonathan K.
1987-01-01
Experiments on steady flow over uniform grass roughness through centered single-opening contractions were conducted in the Flood Plain Simulation Facility at the U. S. Geological Survey's Gulf Coast Hydroscience Center near Bay St. Louis, Miss. The experimental series was designed to provide data for calibrating and verifying two-dimensional, vertically averaged surface-water flow models used to simulate flow through openings in highway embankments across inundated flood plains. Water-surface elevations, point velocities, and vertical velocity profiles were obtained at selected locations for design discharges ranging from 50 to 210 cfs. Examples of observed water-surface elevations and velocity magnitudes at basin cross-sections are presented.
Lagrangian solution of supersonic real gas flows
Loh, Chingyuen; Liou, Mengsing )
1993-01-01
This paper details the procedure of the real gas Riemann solution in the Lagrangian approach originally proposed by Loh and Hui for perfect gases. The extension to real gases is nontrivial and requires substantial development of an exact real-gas Riemann solver for the Lagrangian form of conservation laws. The first-order Gudonov scheme is enhanced for accuracy by adding limited anti-diffusive terms according to Sweby. Extensive calculations were made to test the accuracy and robustness of the present real gas Lagrangian approach, including complex wave interactions of different types. The accuracy for capturing 2D oblique waves and slip line is clearly demonstrated. In addition, we also show the real gas effect in a generic engine nozzle.
Flammable gas interlock spoolpiece flow response test plan and procedure
Schneider, T.C., Fluor Daniel Hanford
1997-02-13
The purpose of this test plan and procedure is to test the Whittaker electrochemical cell and the Sierra Monitor Corp. flammable gas monitors in a simulated field flow configuration. The sensors are used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) Flammable Gas Interlock (FGI), to detect flammable gases, including hydrogen and teminate the core sampling activity at a predetermined concentration level.
Sub-surface gas flow in porous bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teiser, Jens; Schywek, Mathias; de Beule, Caroline; Wurm, Gerhard
2015-11-01
Gas flow within porous media is of importance for various bodies in the Solar System. It occurs within the Martian soil, might be significant in the porous interiors of comets and also within dusty planetesimals in the Solar Nebula. In regimes of low atmospheric pressure, thermal creep leads to an efficient gas flux if temperature gradients are present, e.g. by solar insolation. This flow can lead to erosion or supports the exchange of volatiles within a porous body. Experiments showed that this gas flux dominates over diffusive gas transport under Martian conditions with gas velocities on the order of cm/s. Results from the Rosetta spacecraft suggest that eolian processes occur on comets which might be related to thermal creep gas flow. Here, we present new results of microgravity experiments on a thermally induced gas flow. Gas velocities and their dependence on the atmospheric pressure for different gases (Helium and air) are studied as well as the influence of the geometry of the pores.
10. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PROCESS FLOW SCHEMATIC, GAS ...
10. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PROCESS FLOW SCHEMATIC, GAS PRODUCER PROCESS, BUILDING 10A.' Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Holston Defense Corporation. August 29, 1974. Delineator: G. A. Horne. Drawing # SK-1942. - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Producer Gas Plant, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN
Stationary spiral flow in polytropic stellar models
Pekeris, C.L.
1980-06-01
It is shown that, in addition to the static Emden solution, a self-gravitating polytropic gas has a dynamic option in which there is stationary flow along spiral trajectories wound around the surfaces of concentric tori. The motion is obtained as a solution of a partial differential equation which is satisfied by the meridional stream function, coupled with Poisson's equation and a Bernoulli-type equation for the pressure (density). The pressure is affected by the whole of the Bernoulli term rather than by the centrifugal part only, which acts for a rotating model, and it may be reduced down to zero at the center. The spiral type of flow is illustrated for an incompressible fluid (n = 0), for which an exact solution is obtained. The features of the dynamic constant-density model are discussed as a basis for future comparison with the solution for compressible models.
Continuum modeling of cooperative traffic flow dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ngoduy, D.; Hoogendoorn, S. P.; Liu, R.
2009-07-01
This paper presents a continuum approach to model the dynamics of cooperative traffic flow. The cooperation is defined in our model in a way that the equipped vehicle can issue and receive a warning massage when there is downstream congestion. Upon receiving the warning massage, the (up-stream) equipped vehicle will adapt the current desired speed to the speed at the congested area in order to avoid sharp deceleration when approaching the congestion. To model the dynamics of such cooperative systems, a multi-class gas-kinetic theory is extended to capture the adaptation of the desired speed of the equipped vehicle to the speed at the downstream congested traffic. Numerical simulations are carried out to show the influence of the penetration rate of the equipped vehicles on traffic flow stability and capacity in a freeway.
Debris flows: Experiments and modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turnbull, Barbara; Bowman, Elisabeth T.; McElwaine, Jim N.
2015-01-01
Debris flows and debris avalanches are complex, gravity-driven currents of rock, water and sediments that can be highly mobile. This combination of component materials leads to a rich morphology and unusual dynamics, exhibiting features of both granular materials and viscous gravity currents. Although extreme events such as those at Kolka Karmadon in North Ossetia (2002) [1] and Huascarán (1970) [2] strongly motivate us to understand how such high levels of mobility can occur, smaller events are ubiquitous and capable of endangering infrastructure and life, requiring mitigation. Recent progress in modelling debris flows has seen the development of multiphase models that can start to provide clues of the origins of the unique phenomenology of debris flows. However, the spatial and temporal variations that debris flows exhibit make this task challenging and laboratory experiments, where boundary and initial conditions can be controlled and reproduced, are crucial both to validate models and to inspire new modelling approaches. This paper discusses recent laboratory experiments on debris flows and the state of the art in numerical models.
Preserving Flow Variability in Watershed Model Calibrations
Background/Question/Methods Although watershed modeling flow calibration techniques often emphasize a specific flow mode, ecological conditions that depend on flow-ecology relationships often emphasize a range of flow conditions. We used informal likelihood methods to investig...
Phase-field simulation of gas bubble growth and flow in a Hele-Shaw cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Ying
2005-11-01
A diffuse interface model has been developed for gas bubble growth and dynamics in a supersaturated liquid. The liquid becomes supersaturated in the gas species because of a drop in the pressure or temperature. The bubbles grow by gas diffusion in the liquid towards the bubble interfaces. During bubble growth, flows are induced by the large density contrast between the phases. The bubbles coarsen due to surface tension effects. The process widely exists in biological systems, materials processing, oil recovery, and other applications. The flows in the gas and liquid phases are solved using a diffuse interface model for two-phase flows with surface tension, phase change, and density and viscosity differences between the phases. This diffuse-interface model for flow is coupled with a phase-field equation for calculating the interface motion, and a species conservation equation for the gas transport. The model is validated for a single bubble growing inside a semi-infinite liquid, and convergence of the results with respect to the interface width is demonstrated. Large-scale numerical simulations for multiple bubbles inside a Hele-Shaw cell reveal the presence of complex interface dynamics and flows. The bubble dynamics, including coarsening and coalescence, are investigated as a function of the initial gas concentration, surface tension, and the density and viscosity contrasts between the phases.
Kim, Jihoon; Moridis, George J.
2014-12-01
We investigate coupled flow and geomechanics in gas production from extremely low permeability reservoirs such as tight and shale gas reservoirs, using dynamic porosity and permeability during numerical simulation. In particular, we take the intrinsic permeability as a step function of the status of material failure, and the permeability is updated every time step. We consider gas reservoirs with the vertical and horizontal primary fractures, employing the single and dynamic double porosity (dual continuum) models. We modify the multiple porosity constitutive relations for modeling the double porous continua for flow and geomechanics. The numerical results indicate that production of gas causes redistribution of the effective stress fields, increasing the effective shear stress and resulting in plasticity. Shear failure occurs not only near the fracture tips but also away from the primary fractures, which indicates generation of secondary fractures. These secondary fractures increase the permeability significantly, and change the flow pattern, which in turn causes a change in distribution of geomechanical variables. From various numerical tests, we find that shear failure is enhanced by a large pressure drop at the production well, high Biot's coefficient, low frictional and dilation angles. Smaller spacing between the horizontal wells also contributes to faster secondary fracturing. When the dynamic double porosity model is used, we observe a faster evolution of the enhanced permeability areas than that obtained from the single porosity model, mainly due to a higher permeability of the fractures in the double porosity model. These complicated physics for stress sensitive reservoirs cannot properly be captured by the uncoupled or flow-only simulation, and thus tightly coupled flow and geomechanical models are highly recommended to accurately describe the reservoir behavior during gas production in tight and shale gas reservoirs and to smartly design production
Modeling of neutral gas dynamics in high-density plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Canupp, Patrick Wellington
This thesis describes a physical model of chemically reactive neutral gas flow and discusses numerical solutions of this model for the flow in an inductively coupled plasma etch reactor. To obtain these solutions, this research develops an efficient, implicit numerical method. As a result of the enhanced numerical stability of the scheme, large time steps advance the solution from initial conditions to a final steady state in fewer iterations and with less computational expense than simpler explicit methods. This method would incorporate suitably as a module in currently existing large scale plasma simulation tools. In order to demonstrate the accuracy of the numerical technique, this thesis presents results from two simulations of flows that possess theoretical solutions. The first case is the inviscid flow of a gas through a converging nozzle. A comparison of the numerical solution to isentropic flow theory shows that the numerical technique capably captures the essential flow features of this environment. The second case is the Couette flow of a gas between two parallel plates. The simulation results compare well with the exact solution for this flow. After establishing the accuracy of the numerical technique, this thesis discusses results for the flow of chemically reactive gases in a chlorine plasma etch reactor. This research examines the influence of the plasma on the neutral gas and the dynamics exhibited by the neutral gas in the reactor. This research finds that the neutral gas temperature strongly depends on the rate at which inelastic, electron-impact dissociation reactions occur and on atomic chlorine wall recombination rates. Additionally, the neutral gas Aow in the reactor includes a significant mass flux of etch product from the wafer surface. Resolution of these effects is useful for neutral gas simulation. Finally, this thesis demonstrates that continuum fluid models provide reasonable accuracy for these low pressure reactor flows due to the fact
Progress in Creating Stabilized Gas Layers in Flowing Liquid Mercury
Wendel, Mark W; Felde, David K; Riemer, Bernie; Abdou, Ashraf A; D'Urso, Brian R; West, David L
2009-01-01
The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee uses a liquid mercury target that is bombarded with protons to produce a pulsed neutron beam for materials research and development. In order to mitigate expected cavitation damage erosion (CDE) of the containment vessel, a two-phase flow arrangement of the target has been proposed and was earlier proven to be effective in significantly reducing CDE in non-prototypical target bodies. This arrangement involves covering the beam "window", through which the high-energy proton beam passes, with a protective layer of gas. The difficulty lies in establishing a stable gas/liquid interface that is oriented vertically with the window and holds up to the strong buoyancy force and the turbulent mercury flow field. Three approaches to establishing the gas wall have been investigated in isothermal mercury/gas testing on a prototypical geometry and flow: (1) free gas layer approach, (2) porous wall approach, and (3) surface-modified approach. The latter two of these approaches show success in that a stabilized gas layer is produced. Both of these successful approaches capitalize on the high surface energy of liquid mercury by increasing the surface area of the solid wall, thus increasing gas hold up at the wall. In this paper, a summary of these experiments and findings is presented as well as a description of the path forward toward incorporating the stabilized gas layer approach into a feasible gas/mercury SNS target design.
Gas Flow Measurements of a Novel Geometry for Neutral Beam Neutralizers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pirkle, David Ross
The gas flow characteristics of a novel geometry (pumped neutralizer) for decreasing the flow of gas from neutral beam neutralizers were measured and compared with a conventional (passive) neutralizer. A passive neutralizer is typically a duct attached to the ion source. For the pumped neutralizer the top and bottom surfaces of the duct are replaced by a Venetian blind geometry which opens into ballast vacuum pumping volumes. With guidance from a Monte Carlo program which models gas flow at low pressure, a one-half scale model with pumped neutralizer geometry was built and compared to a passive neutralizer with comparable dimensions. With the vanes on the pumped neutralizer opened to 55 degrees, the line density of the pumped neutralizer was 1.6 times less than the passive neutralizer. The amount of gas flowing from the exit of the pumped neutralizer was from 2 to 5 times less than the amount flowing from the pumped neutralizer. Hence, the pumped neutralizer geometry appears to be a promising method of limiting the flow of gas from neutral beam gas cell neutralizers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sone, Yoshio; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Aoki, Kazuo
1999-02-01
A rarefied gas between two coaxial circular cylinders made of the condensed phase of the gas is considered, where each cylinder is kept at a uniform temperature and is rotating at a constant angular velocity around its axis (cylindrical Couette flows of a rarefied gas with evaporation or condensation on the cylinders). The steady behavior of the gas, with special interest in bifurcation of a flow, is studied on the basis of kinetic theory from the continuum to the Knudsen limit. The solution shows profound variety: reversal of direction of evaporation-condensation with variation of the speed of rotation of the cylinders; contrary to the conventional cylindrical Couette flow without evaporation and condensation, bifurcation of a flow in a simple case where the state of the gas is circumferentially and axially uniform.
Computational fluid dynamics modeling of gas dispersion in multi impeller bioreactor.
Ahmed, Syed Ubaid; Ranganathan, Panneerselvam; Pandey, Ashok; Sivaraman, Savithri
2010-06-01
In the present study, experiments have been carried out to identify various flow regimes in a dual Rushton turbines stirred bioreactor for different gas flow rates and impeller speeds. The hydrodynamic parameters like fractional gas hold-up, power consumption and mixing time have been measured. A two fluid model along with MUSIG model to handle polydispersed gas flow has been implemented to predict the various flow regimes and hydrodynamic parameters in the dual turbines stirred bioreactor. The computational model has been mapped on commercial solver ANSYS CFX. The flow regimes predicted by numerical simulations are validated with the experimental results. The present model has successfully captured the flow regimes as observed during experiments. The measured gross flow characteristics like fractional gas hold-up, and mixing time have been compared with numerical simulations. Also the effect of gas flow rate and impeller speed on gas hold-up and power consumption have been investigated. PMID:20471599
Investigation on the Oscillating Gas Flow Along AN Inertance Tube by Experimental and Cfd Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Houlei; Zhao, Miguang; Yang, Luwei; Cai, Jinghui; Hong, Guotong; Liang, Jingtao
2010-04-01
To investigate the oscillating gas flow along an inertance tube used in pulse tube coolers, a CFD model is set up for FLUENT and an experimental measuring cell is designed and optimized by CFD results. Some characteristics of oscillating flow are demonstrated and discussed. Then, the flow status along an inertance tube is measured by the optimized measuring cell. The experimental results validate the simulating results.
INVESTIGATION ON THE OSCILLATING GAS FLOW ALONG AN INERTANCE TUBE BY EXPERIMENTAL AND CFD METHODS
Chen Houlei; Zhao Miguang; Yang Luwei; Cai Jinghui; Hong Guotong; Liang Jingtao
2010-04-09
To investigate the oscillating gas flow along an inertance tube used in pulse tube coolers, a CFD model is set up for FLUENT and an experimental measuring cell is designed and optimized by CFD results. Some characteristics of oscillating flow are demonstrated and discussed. Then, the flow status along an inertance tube is measured by the optimized measuring cell. The experimental results validate the simulating results.
Not Available
1980-07-31
The Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has been supporting the development of flow models for Devonian shale gas reservoirs. The broad objectives of this modeling program are to: (1) develop and validate a mathematical model which describes gas flow through Devonian shales; (2) determine the sensitive parameters that affect deliverability and recovery of gas from Devonian shales; (3) recommend laboratory and field measurements for determination of those parameters critical to the productivity and timely recovery of gas from the Devonian shales; (4) analyze pressure and rate transient data from observation and production gas wells to determine reservoir parameters and well performance; and (5) study and determine the overall performance of Devonian shale reservoirs in terms of well stimulation, well spacing, and resource recovery as a function of gross reservoir properties such as anisotropy, porosity and thickness variations, and boundary effects. During the previous annual period, a mathematical model describing gas flow through Devonian shales and the software for a radial one-dimensional numerical model for single well performance were completed and placed into operation. Although the radial flow model is a powerful tool for studying single well behavior, it is inadequate for determining the effects of well spacing, stimulation treatments, and variation in reservoir properties. Hence, it has been necessary to extend the model to two-dimensions, maintaining full capability regarding Klinkerberg effects, desorption, and shale matrix parameters. During the current annual period, the radial flow model has been successfully extended to provide the two-dimensional capability necessary for the attainment of overall program objectives, as described above.
Experimental Modelling of Debris Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paleo Cageao, P.; Turnbull, B.; Bartelt, P.
2012-04-01
Debris flows are gravity-driven mass movements typically containing water, sediments, soil and rocks. These elements combine to give a flow complex phenomenology that exhibits characteristics common to diverse geophysical flows from dry granular media (e.g. levee formation) to viscous gravity currents (viscous fingering and surge instabilities). The exceptional speeds and range debris flows can achieve motivate the need for a co-ordinated modelling approach that can provide insight into the key physical processes that dictate the hazard associated with the flows. There has been recent progress in theoretical modelling approaches that capture the details of the multi-component nature of debris flows. The promise of such models is underlined by their qualitatively successful comparison with field-scale experimental data. The aim of the present work is to address the technical difficulties in achieving a controlled and repeatable laboratory-scale experiment for robust testing of these multi-component models. A laboratory experiment has been designed and tested that can provide detailed information of the internal structure of debris flows. This constitutes a narrow Perspex chute that can be tilted to any angle between 0° and ≈ 60°. A mixture of glycerine and glass balls was initially held behind a lock-gate, before being released down the chute. The evolving flow was captured through high speed video, analysed with a Particle Image Velocimetry algorithm to provide the changing velocity field. A wide parameter space has been tested, allowing variations in particle size, dispersity, surface roughness, fluid viscosity, slope angle and solid volume fraction. While matching key similarity criteria, such as Froude number, with a typical field event, these experiments allow close examination of a wide range of physical scenarios for the robust testing of new multi-component flow models. Further diagnostics include force plate and pore pressure measurements, with a view
Vacuum rated flow controllers for inert gas ion engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pless, L. C.
1987-01-01
Electrical propulsion systems which use a gas as a propellant require a gas flowmeter/controller which is capable of operating in a vacuum environment. The presently available instruments in the required flow ranges are designed and calibrated for use at ambient pressure. These instruments operate by heating a small diameter tube through which the gas is flowing and then sensing the change in temperature along the length of the tube. This temperature change is a function of the flow rate and the gas heat capacity. When installed in a vacuum, the change in the external thermal characteristics cause the tube to overheat and the temperature sensors are then operating outside their calibrated range. In addition, the variation in heat capacity with temperature limit the accuracy obtainable. These problems and the work in progress to solve them are discussed.
Lagrangian solution of supersonic real gas flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loh, Ching-Yuen; Liou, Meng-Sing
1993-01-01
The present extention of a Lagrangian approach of the Riemann solution procedure, which was originally proposed for perfect gases, to real gases, is nontrivial and requires the development of an exact real-gas Riemann solver for the Lagrangian form of the conservation laws. Calculations including complex wave interactions of various types were conducted to test the accuracy and robustness of the approach. Attention is given to the case of 2D oblique waves' capture, where a slip line is clearly in evidence; the real gas effect is demonstrated in the case of a generic engine nozzle.
Gas-Particle Interactions in a Microgravity Flow Cell
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Louge, Michel; Jenkins, James
1999-01-01
We are developing a microgravity flow cell in which to study the interaction of a flowing gas with relatively massive particles that collide with each other and with the moving boundaries of the cell. The absence of gravity makes possible the independent control of the relative motion of the boundaries and the flow of the gas. The cell will permit gas-particle interactions to be studied over the entire range of flow conditions over which the mixture is not turbulent. Within this range, we shall characterize the viscous dissipation of the energy of the particle fluctuations, measure the influence of particle-phase viscosity on the pressure drop along the cell, and observe the development of localized inhomogeneities that are likely to be associated with the onset of clusters. These measurements and observations should contribute to an understanding of the essential physics of pneumatic transport.
Real life experience with multipath ultrasonic gas flow meters
Sakariassen, R.
1996-12-31
Multipath ultrasonic gas flow meters are to be considered as newcomers among flow meters for large, high pressure gas flows. Although the advantages of this type of meters are many and obvious, the metering community is still hesitating to go for it mainly because of lack of experience. The objective of this paper is to present the experience of Statoil after more than six years experience with multipath ultrasonic gas flow meters. Their experience includes laboratory testing and operation in the field for a variety of designs and dimensions. This paper presents the accuracy achieved by such meters including comparison between ultrasonic meters and orifice metering systems in operation, the unique possibilities that this type of meter offers for on-line verification of performance and installation effects. Of particular interest should be noted that in the vicinity of low-noise control valves, such meters could stop functioning completely if no precautions are taken.
Experimental research of gas flows through isothermal and non-isothermal membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikolskiy, Yu. V.; Friedlander, O. G.
2012-11-01
In specialized test bench and in vacuum aerodynamic facilities VAT-2M TsAGI three types of a gas flows with observed kinetic effects were researched. Firstly, the flow through the membrane with uniform temperature was investigated. The dependence of flow rate through membranes on pressure drop across it was measured at various values of permeability. The experimental data at various flow regimes in the pores were compared with numerical data. The comparison gives the opportunity to associate the model perforated membrane with definite diameter of perforation channels and with definite permeability to each porous membrane with intricate pores. Flow rate through real and model membranes are the same ones for two limit regimes: the free-molecular regime and the Stokes ones. For experimental research of a gas flows induced by temperature difference across membrane the method of creation such temperature difference (uniform on membrane surface) was used. In this method thermoelectric effect is utilized. The dependence of thermo-transpiration flow rate and thermo-molecular pressure difference across non-isothermal membrane (for zero flow rate) on gas pressure were measured. The comparison of results of direct and indirect measurements of the velocity of thermo-transpiration was carried out. In the second case the flow rate of thermal transpiration was calculated by the experimental results on thermo-molecular pressure difference across non-isothermal membrane and the results of measurement of pressure driven flow through isothermal membrane.
Multispecies Gas Flows in the Interior of Comets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexander, Claudia Joan
1993-01-01
A theoretical comet nucleus model has been developed to simulate the efflux from a cometary nucleus. The model employs 3 volatiles; CO, CO_2, and H_2O, and a siliceous dust component. Separation into mantle layers is assumed, then the heat flow equation and interface heat balance expressions are solved for temperatures while expressions for the growth and shrinkage of the mantles are integrated in time until a steady state is reached. New steady states at other positions in space, making use of the old steady state as an initial condition, are calculated along an orbit trajectory. The result constitutes a hysterisis curve of the output along the orbit. The model allows for variations in the equation of state of ices; the Clausius/Clapeyron equation as well as other equations based on the latest thermodynamic data; the Brown/Ziegler (1989) relationship for CO_2 and CO at low pressure and the Lowe (1977) expression for water vapor at low pressure. It allows for variations in the physics of the outflow, from a mechanism of sublimation directly to space, consideration of the Knudsen regime, to the Dusty-Gas Dynamic model (Cunningham and Williams, (1980), Mason and Malinauskas, (1983)). Variations in density, porosity, friability, tortuosity, ice phase, pore radius size, and orbital parameters are explored. Results are compared with measured cometary light curves from Halley's comet, comet Tempel2, and comet Bradfield (Feldman, et al., (1987), Roettger, et al., (1990)). Temperature variations over each orbit, the hysterisis curves of the growth and shrinkage of each mantle, the gas production rates for each species, as well as the overall gas flux rate are shown. None of the variations in parameter space so far considered produce a result that compares well with the comet data. All models yield a total gas production between 1027 and 10 28 sec^{ -1} (low). This suggests that secondary mechanisms peripheral to this modeling effort, such as the opening and closing of
Radiation-transport method to simulate noncontinuum gas flows for MEMS devices.
Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert
2004-01-01
A Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) typically consists of micron-scale parts that move through a gas at atmospheric or reduced pressure. In this situation, the gas-molecule mean free path is comparable to the geometric features of the microsystem, so the gas flow is noncontinuum. When mean-free-path effects cannot be neglected, the Boltzmann equation must be used to describe the gas flow. Solution of the Boltzmann equation is difficult even for the simplest case because of its sevenfold dimensionality (one temporal dimension, three spatial dimensions, and three velocity dimensions) and because of the integral nature of the collision term. The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is the method of choice to simulate high-speed noncontinuum flows. However, since DSMC uses computational molecules to represent the gas, the inherent statistical noise must be minimized by sampling large numbers of molecules. Since typical microsystem velocities are low (< 1 m/s) compared to molecular velocities ({approx}400 m/s), the number of molecular samples required to achieve 1% precision can exceed 1010 per cell. The Discrete Velocity Gas (DVG) method, an approach motivated by radiation transport, provides another way to simulate noncontinuum gas flows. Unlike DSMC, the DVG method restricts molecular velocities to have only certain discrete values. The transport of the number density of a velocity state is governed by a discrete Boltzmann equation that has one temporal dimension and three spatial dimensions and a polynomial collision term. Specification and implementation of DVG models are discussed, and DVG models are applied to Couette flow and to Fourier flow. While the DVG results for these benchmark problems are qualitatively correct, the errors in the shear stress and the heat flux can be order-unity even for DVG models with 88 velocity states. It is concluded that the DVG method, as described herein, is not sufficiently accurate to simulate the low-speed gas flows
Intercooler flow path for gas turbines: CFD design and experiments
Agrawal, A.K.; Gollahalli, S.R.; Carter, F.L.
1995-10-01
The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program was created by the U.S. Department of Energy to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for generating electricity. Intercooling or cooling of air between compressor stages is a feature under consideration in advanced cycles for the ATS. Intercooling entails cooling of air between the low pressure (LP) and high pressure (BP) compressor sections of the gas turbine. Lower air temperature entering the HP compressor decreases the air volume flow rate and hence, the compression work. Intercooling also lowers temperature at the HP discharge, thus allowing for more effective use of cooling air in the hot gas flow path. The thermodynamic analyses of gas turbine cycles with modifications such as intercooling, recuperating, and reheating have shown that intercooling is important to achieving high efficiency gas turbines. The gas turbine industry has considerable interest in adopting intercooling to advanced gas turbines of different capacities. This observation is reinforced by the US Navys Intercooled-Recuperative (ICR) gas turbine development program to power the surface ships. In an intercooler system, the air exiting the LP compressor must be decelerated to provide the necessary residence time in the heat exchanger. The cooler air must subsequently be accelerated towards the inlet of the HP compressor. The circumferential flow nonuniformities inevitably introduced by the heat exchanger, if not isolated, could lead to rotating stall in the compressors, and reduce the overall system performance and efficiency. Also, the pressure losses in the intercooler flow path adversely affect the system efficiency and hence, must be minimized. Thus, implementing intercooling requires fluid dynamically efficient flow path with minimum flow nonuniformities and consequent pressure losses.
Cascading Tesla Oscillating Flow Diode for Stirling Engine Gas Bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dyson, Rodger
2012-01-01
Replacing the mechanical check-valve in a Stirling engine with a micromachined, non-moving-part flow diode eliminates moving parts and reduces the risk of microparticle clogging. At very small scales, helium gas has sufficient mass momentum that it can act as a flow controller in a similar way as a transistor can redirect electrical signals with a smaller bias signal. The innovation here forces helium gas to flow in predominantly one direction by offering a clear, straight-path microchannel in one direction of flow, but then through a sophisticated geometry, the reversed flow is forced through a tortuous path. This redirection is achieved by using microfluid channel flow to force the much larger main flow into this tortuous path. While microdiodes have been developed in the past, this innovation cascades Tesla diodes to create a much higher pressure in the gas bearing supply plenum. In addition, the special shape of the leaves captures loose particles that would otherwise clog the microchannel of the gas bearing pads.
Gas-Liquid Flows and Phase Separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McQuillen, John
2004-01-01
Common issues for space system designers include:Ability to Verify Performance in Normal Gravity prior to Deployment; System Stability; Phase Accumulation & Shedding; Phase Separation; Flow Distribution through Tees & Manifolds Boiling Crisis; Heat Transfer Coefficient; and Pressure Drop.The report concludes:Guidance similar to "A design that operates in a single phase is less complex than a design that has two-phase flow" is not always true considering the amount of effort spent on pressurizing, subcooling and phase separators to ensure single phase operation. While there is still much to learn about two-phase flow in reduced gravity, we have a good start. Focus now needs to be directed more towards system level problems .
Flow field thermal gradient gas chromatography.
Boeker, Peter; Leppert, Jan
2015-09-01
Negative temperature gradients along the gas chromatographic separation column can maximize the separation capabilities for gas chromatography by peak focusing and also lead to lower elution temperatures. Unfortunately, so far a smooth thermal gradient over a several meters long separation column could only be realized by costly and complicated manual setups. Here we describe a simple, yet flexible method for the generation of negative thermal gradients using standard and easily exchangeable separation columns. The measurements made with a first prototype reveal promising new properties of the optimized separation process. The negative thermal gradient and the superposition of temperature programming result in a quasi-parallel separation of components each moving simultaneously near their lowered specific equilibrium temperatures through the column. Therefore, this gradient separation process is better suited for thermally labile molecules such as explosives and natural or aroma components. High-temperature GC methods also benefit from reduced elution temperatures. Even for short columns very high peak capacities can be obtained. In addition, the gradient separation is particularly beneficial for very fast separations below 1 min overall retention time. Very fast measurements of explosives prove the benefits of using negative thermal gradients. The new concept can greatly reduce the cycle time of high-resolution gas chromatography and can be integrated into hyphenated or comprehensive gas chromatography setups. PMID:26235451
Droplet breakup in accelerating gas flows. Part 1: Primary atomization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zajac, L. J.
1973-01-01
An experimental study of the effects of an accelerating gas flow on the atomization characteristics of liquid sprays was conducted. The sprays were produced by impinging two liquid jets. The liquid was molten wax, while the gas was nitrogen. The use of molten wax allowed for a quantitative measure of the resulting dropsize distribution. The effects of the accelerating gas flow on the formation of the spray were examined. The results of this study indicate that the parameters that most affect the resulting dropsize are the injector parameters of orifice diameter and injection velocity, the maximum gas velocity, and the distance from the injector face at which the maximum gas velocity is attained. Empirical correlations for both the mass median dropsize and the dropsize distribution are presented. These correlations can be readily incorporated into existing computer codes for the purpose of calculating rocket engine combustion performance.
Boundary conditions for gas flow problems from anisotropic scattering kernels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
To, Quy-Dong; Vu, Van-Huyen; Lauriat, Guy; Léonard, Céline
2015-10-01
The paper presents an interface model for gas flowing through a channel constituted of anisotropic wall surfaces. Using anisotropic scattering kernels and Chapman Enskog phase density, the boundary conditions (BCs) for velocity, temperature, and discontinuities including velocity slip and temperature jump at the wall are obtained. Two scattering kernels, Dadzie and Méolans (DM) kernel, and generalized anisotropic Cercignani-Lampis (ACL) are examined in the present paper, yielding simple BCs at the wall fluid interface. With these two kernels, we rigorously recover the analytical expression for orientation dependent slip shown in our previous works [Pham et al., Phys. Rev. E 86, 051201 (2012) and To et al., J. Heat Transfer 137, 091002 (2015)] which is in good agreement with molecular dynamics simulation results. More important, our models include both thermal transpiration effect and new equations for the temperature jump. While the same expression depending on the two tangential accommodation coefficients is obtained for slip velocity, the DM and ACL temperature equations are significantly different. The derived BC equations associated with these two kernels are of interest for the gas simulations since they are able to capture the direction dependent slip behavior of anisotropic interfaces.
Vent Flowing Cold Gas and T/C Rake
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1963-01-01
Vent flowing cryogenic fuel and T/C Rake mounted on a 1/10 scale model Centaur in the l0 x l0 Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. The fuel being used is liquid hydrogen. The point of the test is to determine how far to expel venting fuel from the rocket body to prevent explosion at the base of the vehicle. This vent is used as a safety valve for the fumes created when loading the fuel tanks during launch preparation. Liquid hydrogen has to be kept at a very low temperature. As it heats, it turns to gas and increases pressure in the tank. It therefore has to be vented overboard while the rocket sits on the pad. The test is being run at the Lewis Research Center, now known as John H. Glenn Research Center, Lewis Field.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schleiff, M.; Thiele, W.; Matschiner, H.
1983-01-01
In an electrochemical reactor with gas-evolving electrodes, the transporting action of the gas bubbles can be used to move the electrolyte in a cycle flow, when the structure of the flow channels is suitable. For an electrolysis cell with such a circulation system a mathematic model was set up and evaluated. It is shown that in this manner, a rapid flow through the electrode gap can be achieved without additional energy consumption, in addition to a low gas fraction and a low cell voltage. The cell voltage and the attainable cycle spread are investigated as a function of the geometric parameters for their optimum values.
Upchurch, E.R. )
1989-08-01
The critical flow rate of a gas well is the minimum flow rate required to prevent accumulation of liquids in the tubing. Theoretical models currently available for estimating critical flow rates are restricted to wells with water/gas ratios less than 150bbl/MMcf (0.84 X 10/sup -3/ m/sup 3//m/sup 3/). For wells producing at higher water/gas ratios from normally pressured waterdrive reservoirs, a method of estimating critical flow rates is derived through use of an empirical multiphase-flow correlation.
Magnetogasdynamic Power Extraction and Flow Conditioning for a Gas Turbine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamovich, Igor V.; Rich, J. William; Schneider, Steven; Blankson, Isaiah
2003-01-01
An extension of the Russian AJAX concept to a turbojet is being explored. This magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy bypass engine cycle incorporating conventional gas turbine technology has MHD flow conditioning at the inlet to electromagnetically extract part of the inlet air kinetic energy. The electrical power generated can be used for various on-board vehicle requirements including plasma flow control around the vehicle or it may be used for augmenting the expanding flow in the high speed nozzle by MHD forces to generate more thrust. In order to achieve this interaction, the air needs to be ionized by an external means even up to fairly high flight speeds, and the leading candidates may be classified as electrical discharge devices. The present kinetic modeling calculations suggest that the use of electron beams with characteristics close to the commercially available e-beam systems (electron energy approx. 60 keV, beam current approx. 0.2 mA/sq cm) to sustain ionization in intermediate pressure, low-temperature (P = 0.1 atm, T = 300 K) supersonic air flows allows considerable reduction of the flow kinetic energy (up to 10 to 20 percent in M = 3 flows). The calculations also suggest that this can be achieved at a reasonable electron beam efficiency (eta approx. 5), even if the e-beam window losses are taken into account. At these conditions, the exit NO and O atom concentrations due to e-beam initiated chemical reactions do not exceed 30 ppm. Increasing the beam current up to approx. 2 mA/sq cm, which corresponds to a maximum electrical conductivity of sigma(sub max) approx. 0.8 mho/m at the loading parameter of K = 0.5, would result in a much greater reduction of the flow kinetic energy (up to 30 to 40 percent). The MHD channel efficiency at these conditions would be greatly reduced (to eta approx. 1) due to increased electron recombination losses in the channel. At these conditions, partial energy conversion from kinetic energy to heat would result in a
Kim, Jihoon; Moridis, George J.
2014-12-01
We investigate coupled flow and geomechanics in gas production from extremely low permeability reservoirs such as tight and shale gas reservoirs, using dynamic porosity and permeability during numerical simulation. In particular, we take the intrinsic permeability as a step function of the status of material failure, and the permeability is updated every time step. We consider gas reservoirs with the vertical and horizontal primary fractures, employing the single and dynamic double porosity (dual continuum) models. We modify the multiple porosity constitutive relations for modeling the double porous continua for flow and geomechanics. The numerical results indicate that production of gasmore » causes redistribution of the effective stress fields, increasing the effective shear stress and resulting in plasticity. Shear failure occurs not only near the fracture tips but also away from the primary fractures, which indicates generation of secondary fractures. These secondary fractures increase the permeability significantly, and change the flow pattern, which in turn causes a change in distribution of geomechanical variables. From various numerical tests, we find that shear failure is enhanced by a large pressure drop at the production well, high Biot's coefficient, low frictional and dilation angles. Smaller spacing between the horizontal wells also contributes to faster secondary fracturing. When the dynamic double porosity model is used, we observe a faster evolution of the enhanced permeability areas than that obtained from the single porosity model, mainly due to a higher permeability of the fractures in the double porosity model. These complicated physics for stress sensitive reservoirs cannot properly be captured by the uncoupled or flow-only simulation, and thus tightly coupled flow and geomechanical models are highly recommended to accurately describe the reservoir behavior during gas production in tight and shale gas reservoirs and to smartly design
Modeling groundwater flow on MPPs
Ashby, S.F.; Falgout, R.D.; Smith, S.G.; Tompson, A.F.B.
1993-10-01
The numerical simulation of groundwater flow in three-dimensional heterogeneous porous media is examined. To enable detailed modeling of large contaminated sites, preconditioned iterative methods and massively parallel computing power are combined in a simulator called PARFLOW. After describing this portable and modular code, some numerical results are given, including one that demonstrates the code`s scalability.
The effects of bubbles on the structure of upward gas-liquid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gubaidulin, D. A.; Snigerev, B. A.
2016-01-01
The paper presents the results of study of the local structure of turbulent gas-liquid flow in vertical pipe. A mathematical model based on the use of Eulerian description for both phases taking into account the action of different forces of interfacial interaction. Special attention is paid to the development of approaches for the simulation of polydispersed bubbly flows taking into account processes of coagulation and fragmentation. Comparison of simulation results with experimental data showed that the developed approach allows to obtain detailed information about the structures of turbulent gas-liquid flows, the distribution of bubbles by size.
Turbulence modeling for compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marvin, J. G.
1977-01-01
Material prepared for a course on Applications and Fundamentals of Turbulence given at the University of Tennessee Space Institute, January 10 and 11, 1977, is presented. A complete concept of turbulence modeling is described, and examples of progess for its use in computational aerodynimics are given. Modeling concepts, experiments, and computations using the concepts are reviewed in a manner that provides an up-to-date statement on the status of this problem for compressible flows.
Modelling ironmaking blast furnace: Solid flow and thermochemical behaviours
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Yansong; Guo, Baoyu; Yu, Aibing; Chew, Sheng; Austin, Peter
2013-06-01
Ironmaking blast furnace is a counter-, co-, cross-current moving bed reactor, where solid particles are charged at the furnace top forming a downward moving bed while gas are introduced at the lower part of furnace and travels upward through the solid bed of varying porosity, reducing solid ore to liquid iron at the cohesive zone. These three phases interact intensely. In this paper, a three-dimensional mathematical model is developed. The model describes the motion of solid and gas, based on continuum approach, and implements the so-called force balance model for the liquid flow. The model is applied to a blast furnace, where raceway cavity is considered explicitly. The results demonstrate and characterize the key multiphase flow patterns of solid-gas-liquid at different regions inside the blast furnace, in particular solid flow and associated thermochemical behaviours of solid particles. This model offers a costeffective tool to understand and optimize blast furnace operation.
Dynamic gas slippage: A unique dual-mechanism approach to the flow of gas in tight formations
Ertekin; King, G.R.; Schwerer, F.C.
1983-10-01
A mathematical formulation, applicable to both numerical simulation and transient well analysis, describing the flow of gas in very tight (k < 0.1 md) porous media has been developed. Unique to this formulation is the dual-mechanism transport of gas. In this formulation gas is assumed to be traveling under the influence of two fields: a concentration field and a pressure field. Transport through the concentration field is a Knudsen flow process and is modeled with Fick's Law of diffusion. Transport through the pressure field is a laminar process and is modeled with Darcy's law (inertial-turbulent effects are ignored). The combination of these two flow mechanisms rigorously yields a composition, pressure and saturation dependent slippage factor. The pressure dependence arises from treating the gas as a real gas. The dynamic slippage derived from this formulation is found to be most applicable in reservoirs with permeabilities less than or equal to 0.01 md. The results from this study indicate that in reservoirs of this type, differences between recoveries after ten years of production using the dynamic slip described in this paper and constant slip approaches were as great as 10% depending on the initial gas saturation. If an economic production rate is considered, differences as great as 30 can be expected.
Dynamic gas slippage: A unique dual-mechanism approach to the flow of gas in tight formations
Ertekin, T.; King, G.R.; Schwerer, F.C.
1986-02-01
A mathematical formulation, applicable to both numerical simulation and transient well analysis that describes the flow of gas in very tight porous media and includes a dual-mechanism transport of gas is developed. Gas is assumed to be traveling under the influence of a concentration field and a pressure field. Transport through the concentration field is a Knudsen flow process and is modeled with Fick's law of diffusion. Transport through the pressure field is a laminar process and is modeled with Darcy's law (inertial/turbulent effects are ignored). The combination of these two flow mechanisms rigorously yields a composition-, pressure-, and saturation-dependent slippage factor. The pressure dependence arises from treating the gas as a real gas. The derived dynamic slippage is most applicable in reservoirs with permeabilities less than or equal to0.01 md. The results indicate that in reservoirs of this type, differences between recoveries after 10 years of production with the dynamic-slip and constant-slip approaches were as great as 10%, depending on the initial gas saturation. If an economic production rate is considered, differences as great as 30% can be expected.
About the statistical description of gas-liquid flows
Sanz, D.; Guido-Lavalle, G.; Carrica, P.
1995-09-01
Elements of the probabilistic geometry are used to derive the bubble coalescence term of the statistical description of gas liquid flows. It is shown that the Boltzmann`s hypothesis, that leads to the kinetic theory of dilute gases, is not appropriate for this kind of flows. The resulting integro-differential transport equation is numerically integrated to study the flow development in slender bubble columns. The solution remarkably predicts the transition from bubbly to slug flow pattern. Moreover, a bubbly bimodal size distribution is predicted, which has already been observed experimentally.
Gas-kinetic numerical studies of three-dimensional complex flows on spacecraft re-entry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Han-Xin
2009-03-01
The gas-kinetic numerical algorithm solving the Boltzmann model equation is extended and developed to study the three-dimensional hypersonic flows of spacecraft re-entry into the atmosphere in perfect gas. In this study, the simplified velocity distribution function equation for various flow regimes is presented on the basis of the kinetic Boltzmann-Shakhov model. The discrete velocity ordinate technique and numerical quadrature methods, such as the Gauss quadrature formulas with the weight function 2/ π1/2exp(- V2) and the Gauss-Legendre numerical quadrature rule, are studied to resolve the barrier in simulating complex flows from low Mach numbers to hypersonic problems. Specially, the gas-kinetic finite-difference scheme is constructed for the computation of three-dimensional flow problems, which directly captures the time evolution of the molecular velocity distribution function. The gas-kinetic boundary conditions and numerical procedures are studied and implemented by directly acting on the velocity distribution function. The HPF (high performance fortran) parallel implementation technique for the gas-kinetic numerical method is developed and applied to study the hypersonic flows around three-dimensional complex bodies. The main purpose of the current research is to provide a way to extend the gas-kinetic numerical algorithm to the flow computation of three-dimensional complex hypersonic problems with high Mach numbers. To verify the current method and simulate gas transport phenomena covering various flow regimes, the three-dimensional hypersonic flows around sphere and spacecraft shape with different Knudsen numbers and Mach numbers are studied by HPF parallel computing. Excellent results have been obtained for all examples computed.
Hydrodynamic flow regimes, gas holdup, and liquid circulation in airlift reactors
Abashar, M.E.; Narsingh, U.; Rouillard, A.E.; Judd, R.
1998-04-01
This study reports an experimental investigation into the hydrodynamic behavior of an external-loop airlift reactor (ALR) for the air-water system. Three distinct flow regimes are identified--namely homogeneous, transition, and heterogeneous regimes. The transition between homogeneous and heterogeneous flow is observed to occur over a wide range rather than being merely a single point as has been previously reported in the literature. A gas holdup correlation is developed for each flow regime. The correlations fit the experimental gas holdup data with very good accuracy (within {+-}5%). It would appear, therefore, that a deterministic equation to describe each flow regime is likely to exist in ALRs. This equation is a function of the reactor geometry and the system`s physical properties. New data concerning the axial variation of gas holdup is reported in which a minimum value is observed. This phenomenon is discussed and an explanation offered. Discrimination between two sound theoretical models--namely model 1 (Chisti et al., 1988) and model 2 (Garcia Calvo, 1989)--shows that model 1 predicts satisfactorily the liquid circulation velocity with an error of less than {+-} 10%. The good predictive features of model 1 may be due to the fact that it allows for a significant energy dissipation by wakes behind bubbles. Model 1 is now further improved by the new gas holdup correlations which are derived for the three different flow regimes.
Axial flow positive displacement worm gas generator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)
2010-01-01
An axial flow positive displacement engine has an inlet axially spaced apart and upstream from an outlet. Inner and outer bodies have offset inner and outer axes extend from the inlet to the outlet through first, second, and third sections of a core assembly in serial downstream flow relationship. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes respectively. The inner and outer helical blades extend radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first, second, and third twist slopes in the first, second, and third sections respectively. The first twist slopes are less than the second twist slopes and the third twist slopes are less than the second twist slopes. A combustor section extends axially downstream through at least a portion of the second section.
Isothermal flow in a gas turbine combustor — a benchmark experimental study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koutmos, P.; McGuirk, J. J.
1989-04-01
An experimental investigation of the three-dimensional flow field within a water model of a can-type gas turbine combustion chamber is presented. Flow visualisation demonstrated that internal flow patterns simulated closely those expected in real combustors. The combustor comprised a swirl driven primary zone, annulus fed primary and dilution jets and an exit contraction nozzle. LDA measurements of the three mean velocity components and corresponding turbulence intensities were obtained to map out the flow development throughout the combustor. Besides providing information to aid understanding of the complex flow events inside combustors, the data are believed to be of sufficient quantity and quality to act as a benchmark test case for the assessment of the predictive accuracy of computational models for gas-turbine combustors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dillard, Seth; Mousel, John; Buchholz, James; Udaykumar, H. S.
2009-11-01
A preliminary method has been developed to model complex moving boundaries interacting with fluids in two dimensions using video files. Image segmentation techniques are employed to generate sharp object interfaces which are cast as level sets embedded in a Cartesian flow domain. In this way, boundary evolution is effected directly through imagery rather than by way of functional approximation. Videos of an American eel swimming in a water tunnel apparatus and a guinea pig duodenum undergoing peristaltic contractions in vitro serve as external and internal flow examples, which are evaluated for wake structure and mixing efficacy, respectively.
Gas Flow Dynamics in Inlet Capillaries: Evidence for non Laminar Conditions.
Wißdorf, Walter; Müller, David; Brachthäuser, Yessica; Langner, Markus; Derpmann, Valerie; Klopotowski, Sebastian; Polaczek, Christine; Kersten, Hendrik; Brockmann, Klaus; Benter, Thorsten
2016-09-01
In this work, the characteristics of gas flow in inlet capillaries are examined. Such inlet capillaries are widely used as a first flow restriction stage in commercial atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometers. Contrary to the common assumption, we consider the gas flow in typical glass inlet capillaries with 0.5 to 0.6 mm inner diameters and lengths about 20 cm as transitional or turbulent. The measured volume flow of the choked turbulent gas stream in such capillaries is 0.8 L·min(-1) to 1.6 L·min(-1) under typical operation conditions, which is in good agreement to theoretically calculated values. Likewise, the change of the volume flow in dependence of the pressure difference along the capillary agrees well with a theoretical model for turbulent conditions as well as with exemplary measurements of the static pressure inside the capillary channel. However, the results for the volume flow of heated glass and metal inlet capillaries are neither in agreement with turbulent nor with laminar models. The velocity profile of the neutral gas in a quartz capillary with an inner diameter similar to commercial inlet capillaries was experimentally determined with spatially resolved ion transfer time measurements. The determined gas velocity profiles do not contradict the turbulent character of the flow. Finally, inducing disturbances of the gas flow by placing obstacles in the capillary channel is found to not change the flow characteristics significantly. In combination the findings suggest that laminar conditions inside inlet capillaries are not a valid primary explanation for the observed high ion transparency of inlet capillaries under common operation conditions. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27245455
Gas Flow Dynamics in Inlet Capillaries: Evidence for non Laminar Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wißdorf, Walter; Müller, David; Brachthäuser, Yessica; Langner, Markus; Derpmann, Valerie; Klopotowski, Sebastian; Polaczek, Christine; Kersten, Hendrik; Brockmann, Klaus; Benter, Thorsten
2016-05-01
In this work, the characteristics of gas flow in inlet capillaries are examined. Such inlet capillaries are widely used as a first flow restriction stage in commercial atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometers. Contrary to the common assumption, we consider the gas flow in typical glass inlet capillaries with 0.5 to 0.6 mm inner diameters and lengths about 20 cm as transitional or turbulent. The measured volume flow of the choked turbulent gas stream in such capillaries is 0.8 L·min-1 to 1.6 L·min-1 under typical operation conditions, which is in good agreement to theoretically calculated values. Likewise, the change of the volume flow in dependence of the pressure difference along the capillary agrees well with a theoretical model for turbulent conditions as well as with exemplary measurements of the static pressure inside the capillary channel. However, the results for the volume flow of heated glass and metal inlet capillaries are neither in agreement with turbulent nor with laminar models. The velocity profile of the neutral gas in a quartz capillary with an inner diameter similar to commercial inlet capillaries was experimentally determined with spatially resolved ion transfer time measurements. The determined gas velocity profiles do not contradict the turbulent character of the flow. Finally, inducing disturbances of the gas flow by placing obstacles in the capillary channel is found to not change the flow characteristics significantly. In combination the findings suggest that laminar conditions inside inlet capillaries are not a valid primary explanation for the observed high ion transparency of inlet capillaries under common operation conditions.
Gas Flow Dynamics in Inlet Capillaries: Evidence for non Laminar Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wißdorf, Walter; Müller, David; Brachthäuser, Yessica; Langner, Markus; Derpmann, Valerie; Klopotowski, Sebastian; Polaczek, Christine; Kersten, Hendrik; Brockmann, Klaus; Benter, Thorsten
2016-09-01
In this work, the characteristics of gas flow in inlet capillaries are examined. Such inlet capillaries are widely used as a first flow restriction stage in commercial atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometers. Contrary to the common assumption, we consider the gas flow in typical glass inlet capillaries with 0.5 to 0.6 mm inner diameters and lengths about 20 cm as transitional or turbulent. The measured volume flow of the choked turbulent gas stream in such capillaries is 0.8 L·min-1 to 1.6 L·min-1 under typical operation conditions, which is in good agreement to theoretically calculated values. Likewise, the change of the volume flow in dependence of the pressure difference along the capillary agrees well with a theoretical model for turbulent conditions as well as with exemplary measurements of the static pressure inside the capillary channel. However, the results for the volume flow of heated glass and metal inlet capillaries are neither in agreement with turbulent nor with laminar models. The velocity profile of the neutral gas in a quartz capillary with an inner diameter similar to commercial inlet capillaries was experimentally determined with spatially resolved ion transfer time measurements. The determined gas velocity profiles do not contradict the turbulent character of the flow. Finally, inducing disturbances of the gas flow by placing obstacles in the capillary channel is found to not change the flow characteristics significantly. In combination the findings suggest that laminar conditions inside inlet capillaries are not a valid primary explanation for the observed high ion transparency of inlet capillaries under common operation conditions.
Two parametric flow measurement in gas-liquid two-phase flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Z.; Chen, C.; Xu, Y.; Zhao, Z.
The importance and current development of two parametric measurement during two-phase flow are briefly reviewed in this paper. Gas-liquid two-phase two parametric metering experiments were conducted by using an oval gear meter and a sharp edged orifice mounted in series in a horizontal pipe. Compressed air and water were used as gas and liquid phases respectively. The correlations, which can be used to predict the total flow rate and volumetric quality of two-phase flow or volumetric flow rate of each phase, have also been proposed in this paper. Comparison of the calculated values of flow rate of each phase from the correlations with the test data showed that the root mean square fractional deviation for gas flow rate is 2.9 percent and for liquid flow rate 4.4 percent. The method proposed in this paper can be used to measure the gas and liquid flow rate in two-phase flow region without having to separate the phases.
Mathematical modeling of methane flow in coal beds
Fedorov, A.V.; Fedorchenko, I.A.
2009-01-15
The paper offers to describe the free and occlude gas filtration and diffusion in a coal bed by a numerical model in the form of a system of heterogenous parabolic equations. The gas flow as a shock and depression wave has been considered, and the desorption isotherm conditions for these waves to arise in a coal bed are formulated. By analyzing experimental data on cavities generated by a sudden coal and gas outburst, the authors construct the numerical model describing gas and coal mix outflow in a mine.
Do tropical wetland plants possess convective gas flow mechanisms?
Konnerup, Dennis; Sorrell, Brian K; Brix, Hans
2011-04-01
• Internal pressurization and convective gas flow, which can aerate wetland plants more efficiently than diffusion, are common in temperate species. Here, we present the first survey of convective flow in a range of tropical plants. • The occurrence of pressurization and convective flow was determined in 20 common wetland plants from the Mekong Delta in Vietnam. The diel variation in pressurization in culms and the convective flow and gas composition from stubbles were examined for Eleocharis dulcis, Phragmites vallatoria and Hymenachne acutigluma, and related to light, humidity and air temperature. • Nine of the 20 species studied were able to build up a static pressure of > 50 Pa, and eight species had convective flow rates higher than 1 ml min(-1). There was a clear diel variation, with higher pressures and flows during the day than during the night, when pressures and flows were close to zero. • It is concluded that convective flow through shoots and rhizomes is a common mechanism for below-ground aeration of tropical wetland plants and that plants with convective flow might have a competitive advantage for growth in deep water. PMID:21175639
Turbine exhaust diffuser with region of reduced flow area and outer boundary gas flow
Orosa, John
2014-03-11
An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inwardly toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. At least one gas jet is provided including a jet exit located on the outer boundary. The jet exit may discharge a flow of gas downstream substantially parallel to an inner surface of the outer boundary to direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the outer boundary to effect a radially outward flow of at least a portion of the exhaust gas flow toward the outer boundary to balance an aerodynamic load between the outer and inner boundaries.
Numerical Study of Gas-Phase Flow in a Cyclone Separator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Ya-Ping; Qu, Biao; Huang, Shan; Niu, Xiao-Dong
2016-06-01
To investigate separation efficiency of a cyclone separator at different operating parameters, in this paper we use Fluent software to numerically study the three dimensional gas-solid two-phase flows in the cyclone separator. The present work mainly consists four parts. Firstly we investigates the accuracy of different turbulent models including the standard k-ɛ model, RNG k-ɛ model, Realizable k-ɛ model and Reynolds stress equation model (RSM), and finds that the RSM turbulence model gives a good comparison between the numerical results and the experimental results. Secondly, the gas phase flow rate, pressure, and turbulent distribution in the cyclone separator are explored numerically in detail with the RSM model. Thirdly, on the base of the gas flow results, gas-solid two phase flows in the cyclone separator are studied by coupling the random trajectory model in the Lagrangian coordinates so that the particle trajectories in separator are displayed. Finally, effects of particle size and velocity at the cyclone separator inlet on the separation efficiency are analyzed. Numerical results show that when the particle velocity is higher and particle size is larger at the inlet, the separation efficiency is better. However, when the particle velocity and size approach their threshold values, the separation efficiency will not change.
Real-gas effects 1: Simulation of ideal gas flow by cryogenic nitrogen and other selected gases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, R. M.
1980-01-01
The thermodynamic properties of nitrogen gas do not thermodynamically approximate an ideal, diatomic gas at cryogenic temperatures. Choice of a suitable equation of state to model its behavior is discussed and the equation of Beattie and Bridgeman is selected as best meeting the needs for cryogenic wind tunnel use. The real gas behavior of nitrogen gas is compared to an ideal, diatomic gas for the following flow processes: isentropic expansion; normal shocks; boundary layers; and shock wave boundary layer interactions. The only differences in predicted pressure ratio between nitrogen and an ideal gas that may limit the minimum operating temperatures of transonic cryogenic wind tunnels seem to occur at total pressures approaching 9atmospheres and total temperatures 10 K below the corresponding saturation temperature, where the differences approach 1 percent for both isentropic expansions and normal shocks. Several alternative cryogenic test gases - air, helium, and hydrogen - are also analyzed. Differences in air from an ideal, diatomic gas are similar in magnitude to those of nitrogen. Differences for helium and hydrogen are over an order of magnitude greater than those for nitrogen or air. Helium and hydrogen do not approximate the compressible flow of an ideal, diatomic gas.
1995-02-17
The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The methodology employed allows the analysis of impacts of regional capacity constraints in the interstate natural gas pipeline network and the identification of pipeline capacity expansion requirements. There is an explicit representation of core and noncore markets for natural gas transmission and distribution services, and the key components of pipeline tariffs are represented in a pricing algorithm. Natural gas pricing and flow patterns are derived by obtaining a market equilibrium across the three main elements of the natural gas market: the supply element, the demand element, and the transmission and distribution network that links them. The NGTDM consists of four modules: the Annual Flow Module, the Capacity F-expansion Module, the Pipeline Tariff Module, and the Distributor Tariff Module. A model abstract is provided in Appendix A.
Modelling cavitating flow around underwater missiles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petitpas, Fabien; Saurel, Richard; Ahn, Byoung-Kwon; Ko, Sungho
2011-12-01
The diffuse interface model of Saurel et al. (2008) is used for the computation of compressible cavitating flows around underwater missiles. Such systems use gas injection and natural cavitation to reduce drag effects. Consequently material interfaces appear separating liquid and gas. These interfaces may have a really complex dynamics such that only a few formulations are able to predict their evolution. Contrarily to front tracking or interface reconstruction method the interfaces are computed as diffused numerical zones, that are captured in a routinely manner, as is done usually with gas dynamics solvers for shocks and contact discontinuity. With the present approach, a single set of partial differential equations is solved everywhere, with a single numerical scheme. This leads to very efficient solvers. The algorithm derived in Saurel et al. (2009) is used to compute cavitation pockets around solid bodies. It is first validated against experiments done in cavitation tunnel at CNU. Then it is used to compute flows around high speed underwater systems (Shkval-like missile). Performance data are then computed showing method ability to predict forces acting on the system.
Modeling Flows Around Merging Black Hole Binaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2008-01-01
Coalescing massive black hole binaries are produced by the merger of galaxies. The final stages of the black hole coalescence produce strong gravitational radiation that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. In cases in which the black hole merger takes place in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts of the final merger requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the strong-field regions around the black holes. We have taken a first step towards this problem by mapping the flow of pressureless matter in the dynamic, 3-D general relativistic spacetime around the merging black holes. We report on the results of these initial simulations and discuss their likely importance for future hydrodynamical simulations.
Computation of layers in Eulerian gas flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hemker, P. W.
A mixed defect-correction iteration process (MDCP) is applied for the implicit numerical solution of steady Euler flows. Without stability problems, MDCP can be applied with a straightforward 2nd order scheme such as central differences. A nearly monotonous representation of the thin layers is obtained by application of a 2nd order scheme with a proper flux-limiter. When combined with nonlinear multigrid (FAS) cycles, a few FAS-MDCP iteration steps are sufficient to determine the two solutions up to truncation-error accuracy.
Reacting Multi-Species Gas Capability for USM3D Flow Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frink, Neal T.; Schuster, David M.
2012-01-01
The USM3D Navier-Stokes flow solver contributed heavily to the NASA Constellation Project (CxP) as a highly productive computational tool for generating the aerodynamic databases for the Ares I and V launch vehicles and Orion launch abort vehicle (LAV). USM3D is currently limited to ideal-gas flows, which are not adequate for modeling the chemistry or temperature effects of hot-gas jet flows. This task was initiated to create an efficient implementation of multi-species gas and equilibrium chemistry into the USM3D code to improve its predictive capabilities for hot jet impingement effects. The goal of this NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) assessment was to implement and validate a simulation capability to handle real-gas effects in the USM3D code. This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.
Heat transfer between a stationary granular packing and a descending flow of dusty gas
Dryabin, V.A.; Galershtein, D.M.
1988-10-01
The transfer of heat from a stationary granular bed (packing) to a gas-particle flow has been investigated experimentally. Heat transfer experiments were carried out on an apparatus with an open gas-particle flow system. Monodisperse packing comprised of smooth steel balls or round porcelain granules was used. Particles used in the gas flow consisted of grades of sand and electrical corundum. The external heat transfer coefficient was determined by local modeling of heat transfer in the steady temperature field regime. Calorimetry was used for determining this regime as well as the temperature of the air and dusty gas. A correlation was obtained for calculating the heat-transfer coefficient in the system.
Numerical simulation of rarefied gas flow through a slit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Jeng, Duen-Ren; De Witt, Kenneth J.; Chung, Chan-Hong
1990-01-01
Two different approaches, the finite-difference method coupled with the discrete-ordinate method (FDDO), and the direct-simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, are used in the analysis of the flow of a rarefied gas from one reservoir to another through a two-dimensional slit. The cases considered are for hard vacuum downstream pressure, finite pressure ratios, and isobaric pressure with thermal diffusion, which are not well established in spite of the simplicity of the flow field. In the FDDO analysis, by employing the discrete-ordinate method, the Boltzmann equation simplified by a model collision integral is transformed to a set of partial differential equations which are continuous in physical space but are point functions in molecular velocity space. The set of partial differential equations are solved by means of a finite-difference approximation. In the DSMC analysis, three kinds of collision sampling techniques, the time counter (TC) method, the null collision (NC) method, and the no time counter (NTC) method, are used.
Rock matrix and fracture analysis of flow in western tight gas sands: Annual report, Phase 3
Dandge, V.; Graham, M.; Gonzales, B.; Coker, D.
1987-12-01
Tight gas sands are a vast future source of natural gas. These sands are characterized as having very low porosity and permeability. The main resource development problem is efficiently extracting the gas from the reservoir. Future production depends on a combination of gas price and technological advances. Gas production can be enhanced by fracturing. Studies have shown that many aspects of fracture design and gas production are influenced by properties of the rock matrix. Computer models for stimulation procedures require accurate knowledge of flow properties of both the rock matrix and the fractured regions. In the proposed work, these properties will be measured along with advanced core analysis procedure aimed at understanding the relationship between pore structure and properties. The objective of this project is to develop reliable core analysis techniques for measuring the petrophysical properties of tight gas sands. Recent research has indicated that the flow conditions in the reservoir can be greatly enhanced by the presence of natural fractures, which serve as a transport path for gas from the less permeable matrix. The study is mainly concerned with the dependence of flow in tight gas matrix and healed tectonic fractures on water saturation and confining pressure. This dependency is to be related to the detailed pore structure of tight sands as typified by cores recovered in the Multi-Well experiment. 22 refs., 34 figs., 9 tabs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hollis, Brian R.
1996-01-01
A computational algorithm has been developed which can be employed to determine the flow properties of an arbitrary real (virial) gas in a wind tunnel. A multiple-coefficient virial gas equation of state and the assumption of isentropic flow are used to model the gas and to compute flow properties throughout the wind tunnel. This algorithm has been used to calculate flow properties for the wind tunnels of the Aerothermodynamics Facilities Complex at the NASA Langley Research Center, in which air, CF4. He, and N2 are employed as test gases. The algorithm is detailed in this paper and sample results are presented for each of the Aerothermodynamic Facilities Complex wind tunnels.
Multiphase imaging of gas flow in a nanoporous material usingremote detection NMR
Harel, Elad; Granwehr, Josef; Seeley, Juliette A.; Pines, Alex
2005-10-03
Pore structure and connectivity determine how microstructured materials perform in applications such as catalysis, fluid storage and transport, filtering, or as reactors. We report a model study on silica aerogel using a recently introduced time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance imaging technique to characterize the flow field and elucidate the effects of heterogeneities in the pore structure on gas flow and dispersion with Xe-129 as the gas-phase sensor. The observed chemical shift allows the separate visualization of unrestricted xenon and xenon confined in the pores of the aerogel. The asymmetrical nature of the dispersion pattern alludes to the existence of a stationary and a flow regime in the aerogel. An exchange time constant is determined to characterize the gas transfer between them. As a general methodology, this technique provides new insights into the dynamics of flow in porous media where multiple phases or chemical species may be present.
Gas, liquids flow rates hefty at Galveston Bay discovery
Petzet, G.A.
1998-01-19
Extended flow tests indicate a large Vicksburg (Oligocene) gas, condensate, and oil field is about to be developed in western Galveston Bay. Internal estimates indicates that ultimate recovery from the fault block in which the discovery well was drilled could exceed 1 tcf of gas equivalent of proved, possible, and probable reserves. The paper discusses the test program for this field and other prospects in the Galveston Bay area.
Time-Resolved Rayleigh Scattering Measurements in Hot Gas Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mielke, Amy F.; Elam, Kristie A.; Sung, Chih-Jen
2008-01-01
A molecular Rayleigh scattering technique is developed to measure time-resolved gas velocity, temperature, and density in unseeded gas flows at sampling rates up to 32 kHz. A high power continuous-wave laser beam is focused at a point in an air flow field and Rayleigh scattered light is collected and fiber-optically transmitted to the spectral analysis and detection equipment. The spectrum of the light, which contains information about the temperature and velocity of the flow, is analyzed using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. Photomultipler tubes operated in the photon counting mode allow high frequency sampling of the circular interference pattern to provide time-resolved flow property measurements. Mean and rms velocity and temperature fluctuation measurements in both an electrically-heated jet facility with a 10-mm diameter nozzle and also in a hydrogen-combustor heated jet facility with a 50.8-mm diameter nozzle at NASA Glenn Research Center are presented.
Numerical modeling of flowing soft materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toschi, Federico; Benzi, Roberto; Bernaschi, Massimo; Perlekar, Prasad; Sbragaglia, Mauro; Succi, Sauro
2012-11-01
The structural properties of soft-flowing and non-ergodic materials, such as emulsions, foams and gels shares similarities with the three basic states of matter (solid, liquid and gas). The macroscopic properties are characterized by non-standard features such as non-Newtonian rheology, long-time relaxation, caging effects, enhanced viscosity, structural arrest, hysteresis, dynamic disorder, aging and related phenomena. Large scale non-homogeneities can develop, even under simple shear conditions, by means of the formation of macroscopic bands of widely different viscosities (``shear banding'' phenomena). We employ a numerical model based on the Lattice Boltzmann method to perform numerical simulations of soft-matter under flowing conditions. Results of 3d simulations are presented and compared to previous 2d investigations.
Alfyorov, V.I.; Yegorov, I.V.; Shcherbakov, G.I.
1995-12-31
The paper contains the results of applying a hypervelocity MHD-gas acceleration wind tunnel to investigations of flows over bodies. Consideration is given to the conditions of re producing gas dynamic and thermochemical flow parameters as applied to different types of tests: pressure and heat flux distributions, determination of shock wave positions and shapes. The measured heat fluxes towards the leading edge of swept wings are presented for sweep angles ranging from 0{degrees} to 60{degrees} at a flow velocity of U{approximately}6000 m/s. An appreciable influence of the surface nonequilibrium and catalyticity on their values is indicated. Possible investigations of flows over bodies at ultra high heat fluxes, q {approximately} 10 kW/m{sup 2} are discussed. The results of applying the facility to the verification of calculation codes and thermodynamic gas models are analyzed for flows over a hemisphere, a cone and a wedge. The calculated and measured surface pressure distributions are in good agreement for a hemisphere and satisfactory for a cone and a wedge. The shock wave positions and shapes are compared. It is shown that respective gas glow is impossible to use for this purpose.
Structural support bracket for gas flow path
None
2016-08-02
A structural support system is provided in a can annular gas turbine engine having an arrangement including a plurality of integrated exit pieces (IEPs) forming an annular chamber for delivering gases from a plurality of combustors to a first row of turbine blades. A bracket structure is connected between an IEP and an inner support structure on the engine. The bracket structure includes an axial bracket member attached to an IEP and extending axially in a forward direction. A transverse bracket member has an end attached to the inner support structure and extends circumferentially to a connection with a forward end of the axial bracket member. The transverse bracket member provides a fixed radial position for the forward end of the axial bracket member and is flexible in the axial direction to permit axial movement of the axial bracket member.
Correlations predict gas-condensate flow through chokes
Osman, M.E.; Dokla, M.E. )
1992-03-16
Empirical correlations have developed to describe the behavior of gas-condensate flow through surface chokes. The field data were obtained from a Middle East gas-condensate reservoir and cover a wide range of flow rates and choke sizes. Correlations for gas-condensate systems have not been previously available. These new correlations will help the production engineer to size chokes for controlling production of gas-condensate wells and predicting the performance of flowing wells under various conditions. Four forms of the correlation were developed and checked against data. One form correlates choke upstream pressure with liquid production rate, gas/liquid ratio, and choke size. The second form uses gas production rate instead of the liquid rate. The other two forms use the pressure drop across the choke instead of upstream pressure. All four of the correlations are presented in this paper as nomograms. Accuracy of the different forms was checked with five error parameters: root-mean-square error, mean-absolute error, simple-mean error, mean-percent-age-absolute error, and mean-percentage error. The correlation was found to be the most accurate when pressure-drop data are used instead of choke upstream pressure.
Modeling Vertical Plasma Flows in Solar Filament Barbs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Litvinenko, Y.
2003-12-01
Speeds of observed flows in quiescent solar filaments are typically much less than the local Alfvén speed. This is why the flows in filament barbs can be modeled by perturbing a local magnetostatic solution describing the balance between the Lorentz force, gravity, and gas pressure in a barb. Similarly, large-scale filament flows can be treated as adiabatically slow deformations of a force-free magnetic equilibrium that describes the global structure of a filament. This approach reconciles current theoretical models with the puzzling observational result that some of the flows appear to be neither aligned with the magnetic field nor controlled by gravity.
Flows In Model Human Femoral Arteries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Back, Lloyd H.; Kwack, Eug Y.; Crawford, Donald W.
1990-01-01
Flow is visualized with dye traces, and pressure measurements made. Report describes experimental study of flow in models of human femoral artery. Conducted to examine effect of slight curvature of artery on flow paths and distribution of pressure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zerkle, Ronald D.; Prakash, Chander
1995-03-01
This viewgraph presentation summarizes some CFD experience at GE Aircraft Engines for flows in the primary gaspath of a gas turbine engine and in turbine blade cooling passages. It is concluded that application of the standard k-epsilon turbulence model with wall functions is not adequate for accurate CFD simulation of aerodynamic performance and heat transfer in the primary gas path of a gas turbine engine. New models are required in the near-wall region which include more physics than wall functions. The two-layer modeling approach appears attractive because of its computational complexity. In addition, improved CFD simulation of film cooling and turbine blade internal cooling passages will require anisotropic turbulence models. New turbulence models must be practical in order to have a significant impact on the engine design process. A coordinated turbulence modeling effort between NASA centers would be beneficial to the gas turbine industry.
Turbulent gas-particle flow in vertical risers
Dasgupta, S.; Jackson, R.; Sundaresan, S. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)
1994-02-01
The riser reactors used for the catalytic cracking of gas oil use a transported solid catalyst, and their performance can be predicted with confidence only if the physical mechanism that determines the cross-sectional distribution of the catalyst can be identified and modeled. Understanding this mechanism is, therefore, of central importance in predicting the behavior of any system in which solid particles are transported through a duct by fluid, and this is the problem addressed here. Many experimental studies on the cross-sectional distribution of particles in vertical risers have revealed marked segregation of particles. These flows are inherently unsteady with large fluctuations in suspension density. In this article, the authors have analyzed the time-smoothed equations for the motion of dense suspensions to demonstrate the role of these fluctuations on the occurrence of segregation. It is shown that the particles will congregate in regions where the kinetic energy of fluctuations associated with the particles is small. In the context of transport of small particles such as FCC, a simplified model based on the mixture velocity can be constructed. A speculative K-[epsilon] model based on this velocity is analyzed to illustrate the extent of segregation of particles afforded by unsteady fluctuations.
A Phenomenological Model of Industrial Gas Sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woestman, J. T.; Logothetis, E. M.; Shane, M. D.; Brailsford, A. D.
1997-08-01
Gas sensors are widely used in industry for applications ranging from air-to-fuel ratio control in combustion processes, including those in automotive engines and industrial furnaces, to leakage detection of inflammable and toxic gases. This presentation reports on a model to describe the response of typical electrochemical solid state gas sensors in environments of air (80% N2 and 20% O_2) and one reducing species such as CO, H2 or CH_4. The goal of the model is to predict the time-dependent sensor output resulting from a time-dependent gas composition. Through a set of coupled differential equations, the model accounts for the flow of the gases into the sensor, their diffusion through a porous spinel coating, their adsorption/desorption on/off a catalytic electrode and their redox reaction on the electrode. The solution of these equations provides an oxygen adatom concentration on the electrode surface. This oxygen concentration is used in the Nernst equation to determine an instantaneous sensor emf and a first order filter is user to account for the time delay associated with the emf generation processes. The model was applied to the operation of an automotive oxygen sensor exposed to mixtures of O2 and CO in N2 and mixtures of O2 and H2 in N_2. Good agreement was found with experimental results under both steady state and dynamic operating conditions.
Influence of flowing helium gas on plasma plume formation in atmospheric pressure plasma
Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Konda, Kohmei; Ogura, Kazuo
2015-05-15
We have studied atmospheric pressure plasma generated using a quartz tube, helium gas, and a foil electrode by applying RF high voltage. The atmospheric pressure plasma in the form of a bullet is released as a plume into the atmosphere. The helium gas flowing out of quartz tube mixes with air, and the flow channel is composed of the regions of flowing helium gas and air. The plasma plume length is equivalent to the reachable distance of flowing helium gas. Although the amount of helium gas on the flow channel increases by increasing the inner diameter of quartz tube at the same gas flow velocity, the plasma plume length peaks at around 8 m/s of gas flow velocity, which is the result that a flow of helium gas is balanced with the amount of gas. The plasma plume is formed at the boundary region where the flow of helium gas is kept to the wall of the air.
Modeling shrouded stator cavity flows in axial-flow compressors
Wellborn, S.R.; Tolchinsky, I.; Okiishi, T.H.
2000-01-01
Experiments and computational analyses were completed to understand the nature of shrouded stator cavity flows. From this understanding, a one-dimensional model of the flow through shrouded stator cavities was developed. This model estimates the leakage mass flow, temperature rise, and angular momentum increase through the cavity, given geometry parameters and the flow conditions at the interface between the cavity and primary flow path. This cavity model consists of two components, one that estimates the flow characteristics through the labyrinth seals and the other that predicts the transfer of momentum due to windage. A description of the one-dimensional model is given. The incorporation and use of the one-dimensional model in a multistage compressor primary flow analysis tool is described. The combination of this model and the primary flow solver was used to reliably simulate the significant impact on performance of the increase of hub seal leakage in a twelve-stage axial-flow compressor. Observed higher temperatures of the hub region fluid, different stage matching, and lower overall efficiencies and core flow than expected could be correctly linked to increased hub seal clearance with this new technique. The importance of including these leakage flows in compressor simulations is shown.
Numerical analysis of flow in the hot gas manifold of the Space Shuttle main engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owens, S. F.; Mukerjee, T.; Singhal, A. K.; Przekwas, A. J.; Glynn, D. R.; Costes, N. C.
1986-01-01
This paper presents a numerical model and results of analyses carried out to characterize the flow through the two duct configuration of the Hot Gas Manifold of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. Three dimensional computations have been performed for a half-scale air test model using a nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinate system. The calculation domain is extended from the inlet of the turnaround duct to the exit of the transfer duct. Three test cases, one for laminar flow and two for turbulent flow, have been considered. For turbulent flows, constant eddy viscosity and the k-epsilon model of turbulence were employed. As expected, laminar flow calculation predicts much larger pressure drop than turbulent flow cases. The turbulent flow results are in good agreement with the available flow-visualization data. This study and experimental data indicate that the two-transfer duct design will significantly improve the flow distribution in the Hot Gas Manifold and thereby enhance the overall performance of the SSME.
Flow mechanism of Forchheimer's cubic equation in high-velocity radial gas flow through porous media
Ezeudembah, A.S.; Dranchuk, P.M.
1982-01-01
Formal derivation of Forchheimer's cubic equation is made by considering the kinetic energy equation of mean flow and dimensional relations for one-dimensional, linear, incompressible fluid flow. By the addition of the cubic term, this equation is regarded as a modified Forchheimer's quadratic equation which accounts for the flow rates obtained beyond the laminar flow condition. The cubic equation spans a wide range of flow rates and regimes. For suitable use in gas flow studies, this equation has been adapted, modified, and corrected for the gas slippage effect. The physical basis of the cubic term has been established by using boundary layer theory to explain the high-velocity, high-pressure flow behavior through a porous path. Gamma, the main parameter in the cubic term, is related directly to a characteristic, dimensionless shape factor which is significant at higher flow rates. It is inversely related to viscosity, but has no dependence on the gas slippage coefficient in the higher flow regime. 25 references.
Design and Uncertainty Analysis for a PVTt Gas Flow Standard
Wright, John D.; Johnson, Aaron N.; Moldover, Michael R.
2003-01-01
A new pressure, volume, temperature, and, time (PVTt) primary gas flow standard at the National Institute of Standards and Technology has an expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of between 0.02 % and 0.05 %. The standard spans the flow range of 1 L/min to 2000 L/min using two collection tanks and two diverter valve systems. The standard measures flow by collecting gas in a tank of known volume during a measured time interval. We describe the significant and novel features of the standard and analyze its uncertainty. The gas collection tanks have a small diameter and are immersed in a uniform, stable, thermostatted water bath. The collected gas achieves thermal equilibrium rapidly and the uncertainty of the average gas temperature is only 7 mK (22 × 10−6 T). A novel operating method leads to essentially zero mass change in and very low uncertainty contributions from the inventory volume. Gravimetric and volume expansion techniques were used to determine the tank and the inventory volumes. Gravimetric determinations of collection tank volume made with nitrogen and argon agree with a standard deviation of 16 × 10−6 VT. The largest source of uncertainty in the flow measurement is drift of the pressure sensor over time, which contributes relative standard uncertainty of 60 × 10−6 to the determinations of the volumes of the collection tanks and to the flow measurements. Throughout the range 3 L/min to 110 L/min, flows were measured independently using the 34 L and the 677 L collection systems, and the two systems agreed within a relative difference of 150 × 10−6. Double diversions were used to evaluate the 677 L system over a range of 300 L/min to 1600 L/min, and the relative differences between single and double diversions were less than 75 × 10−6. PMID:27413592
CFD simulation of gas and non-Newtonian fluid two-phase flow in anaerobic digesters.
Wu, Binxin
2010-07-01
This paper presents an Eulerian multiphase flow model that characterizes gas mixing in anaerobic digesters. In the model development, liquid manure is assumed to be water or a non-Newtonian fluid that is dependent on total solids (TS) concentration. To establish the appropriate models for different TS levels, twelve turbulence models are evaluated by comparing the frictional pressure drops of gas and non-Newtonian fluid two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with those from a correlation analysis. The commercial CFD software, Fluent12.0, is employed to simulate the multiphase flow in the digesters. The simulation results in a small-sized digester are validated against the experimental data from literature. Comparison of two gas mixing designs in a medium-sized digester demonstrates that mixing intensity is insensitive to the TS in confined gas mixing, whereas there are significant decreases with increases of TS in unconfined gas mixing. Moreover, comparison of three mixing methods indicates that gas mixing is more efficient than mixing by pumped circulation while it is less efficient than mechanical mixing. PMID:20627353
Disturbed flow and flow accelerated corrosion in oil and gas production
Efird, K.D.
1998-12-31
The effect of fluid flow on corrosion of steel in oil and gas environments involves a complex interaction of physical and chemical parameters. The basic requirement for any corrosion to occur is the existence of liquid water contacting the pipe wall, which is primarily controlled by the flow regime. The effect of flow on corrosion, or flow accelerated corrosion, is defined by the mass transfer and wall shear stress parameters existing in the water phase that contacts the pipe wall. While existing fluid flow equations for mass transfer and wall shear stress relate to equilibrium conditions, disturbed flow introduces non-equilibrium, steady state conditions not addressed by these equations, and corrosion testing in equilibrium conditions cannot be effectively related to corrosion in disturbed flow. The problem in relating flow effects to corrosion is that steel corrosion failures in oil and gas environments are normally associated with disturbed flow conditions as a result of weld beads, preexisting pits, bends, flanges, valves, tubing connections, etc. Steady state mass transfer and wall shear stress relationships to steel corrosion and corrosion testing are required for their application to corrosion of steel under disturbed flow conditions. A procedure is described to relate the results of a corrosion test directly to corrosion in an operation system where disturbed flow conditions are expected, or must be considered.
Rarefaction effects in microchannel gas flow driven by rhythmic wall contractions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatterjee, Krishnashis; Staples, Anne; Department of Biomedical Engineering; Mechanics, Virginia Tech Collaboration
2015-11-01
Current state of the art microfluidic devices employ precise and timely operation of a complex arrangement of micropumps and valves for fluid transport. A much more novel flow transport mechanism is found in entomological respiratory systems, which involve rhythmic wall contractions for driving the fluid flow. The practical viability of using this technique in future microfluidic devices has been studied earlier. The present study investigates the incorporation of rarefaction effects in the above model of microscale gas flow by including slip boundary conditions. The Navier Stokes equations for gas flow in rectangular microchannel are solved analytically with microscale and lubrication theory assumptions. First order slip boundary conditions are incorporated to account for the rarefaction effects. The dependence of fluid velocities and pressure gradient on the slip boundary conditions is studied. Time averaged unidirectional fluid flow rates are plotted for different phase lags between the contractions, with and without slip in order to obtain an optimum range under different conditions.
Review of coaxial flow gas core nuclear rocket fluid mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weinstein, H.
1976-01-01
Almost all of the fluid mechanics research associated with the coaxial flow gas core reactor ended abruptly with the interruption of NASA's space nuclear program because of policy and budgetary considerations in 1973. An overview of program accomplishments is presented through a review of the experiments conducted and the analyses performed. Areas are indicated where additional research is required for a fuller understanding of cavity flow and of the factors which influence cold and hot flow containment. A bibliography is included with graphic material.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shishkin, N. E.
2015-07-01
Experiments were conducted about the effect of height of annular slot on efficiency of film cooling in a tube flow. Nonisothermal nature of flows was modelled by mixing of jets with different densities: air with argon or with helium: the concentration of foreign gas on wall was measured. The influence of nearwall jet swirling and of proportions of densities of gas flows as key factors for laminarization of mixing was considered.
Modeling the liquid flow in up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors
Bolle, W.L.; Van Breugel, J.; Van Eybergen, G.C.; Kossen, N.W.F.; Zoetemeyer, R.J.
1986-11-01
By means of stimulus-response experiments and Li+ tracer, models for the fluid flow in a 30-cubic m UASB reactor, used for the anaerobic treatment of wastewater, were tested. From the model with the best fit it could be derived that both the sludge bed and the sludge blanket can be described as perfectly mixed tank reactors with short-circuiting flows; the settler volume acts like a plug-flow region. Apart from the volumes of the different flow regions, two parameters are necessary and sufficient to describe the fluid flow in a well functioning UASB reactor, i.e., the short-circuiting flow over the sludge bed and the short-circuiting flow over the sludge blanket. The volumes could be measured accurately. The short-circuiting flow over the sludge bed is a linear function of the sludge bed height. When the optimal height of the sludge bed is defined as the height for which the short-ciruiting flows are as small as possible, a bed-height of 3.5-4 m is sufficient (for superficial gas velocities between 1 and 1.5 m/h). This is in contradiction to the results of other authors. The short-circuiting flows over the sludge bed and the sludge blanket were also influenced by the superficial gas velocity. 7 references.
Stochastic models for turbulent reacting flows
Kerstein, A.
1993-12-01
The goal of this program is to develop and apply stochastic models of various processes occurring within turbulent reacting flows in order to identify the fundamental mechanisms governing these flows, to support experimental studies of these flows, and to further the development of comprehensive turbulent reacting flow models.
Large-Flow-Area Flow-Selective Liquid/Gas Separator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vasquez, Arturo; Bradley, Karla F.
2010-01-01
This liquid/gas separator provides the basis for a first stage of a fuel cell product water/oxygen gas phase separator. It can separate liquid and gas in bulk in multiple gravity environments. The system separates fuel cell product water entrained with circulating oxygen gas from the outlet of a fuel cell stack before allowing the gas to return to the fuel cell stack inlet. Additional makeup oxygen gas is added either before or after the separator to account for the gas consumed in the fuel cell power plant. A large volume is provided upstream of porous material in the separator to allow for the collection of water that does not exit the separator with the outgoing oxygen gas. The water then can be removed as it continues to collect, so that the accumulation of water does not impede the separating action of the device. The system is designed with a series of tubes of the porous material configured into a shell-and-tube heat exchanger configuration. The two-phase fluid stream to be separated enters the shell-side portion of the device. Gas flows to the center passages of the tubes through the porous material and is then routed to a common volume at the end of the tubes by simple pressure difference from a pumping device. Gas flows through the porous material of the tubes with greater ease as a function of the ratio of the dynamic viscosity of the water and gas. By careful selection of the dimensions of the tubes (wall thickness, porosity, diameter, length of the tubes, number of the tubes, and tube-to-tube spacing in the shell volume) a suitable design can be made to match the magnitude of water and gas flow, developed pressures from the oxygen reactant pumping device, and required residual water inventory for the shellside volume.
Back-Pressure Regulator for Large Gas Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Theodore, E. A.; Chin, F.
1985-01-01
Cost reduced, and safety enhanced. Pipe exit partially obstructed by conical throat plug. When pressure in pipe falls below (or rises above) desired back pressure, plug automatically moved in (or out). Applications of system lie in environmental testing or production facilities requiring large gas flows at low pressures.
Pockels-effect cell for gas-flow simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weimer, D.
1982-01-01
A Pockels effect cell using a 75 cu cm DK*P crystal was developed and used as a gas flow simulator. Index of refraction gradients were produced in the cell by the fringing fields of parallel plate electrodes. Calibration curves for the device were obtained for index of refraction gradients in excess of .00025 m.
40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... procedure has been incorporated by reference. See § 89.6.) and calculation of the exhaust gas flow as follows: GEXHW = GAIRW + GFUEL(for wet exhaust mass) or VEXHD = VAIRD + (−.767) × GFUEL(for dry exhaust volume) or VEXHW = VAIRW + .749 × GFUEL(for wet exhaust volume) (b) Exhaust mass calculation from...
40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... procedure has been incorporated by reference. See § 89.6.) and calculation of the exhaust gas flow as follows: GEXHW = GAIRW + GFUEL(for wet exhaust mass) or VEXHD = VAIRD + (−.767) × GFUEL(for dry exhaust volume) or VEXHW = VAIRW + .749 × GFUEL(for wet exhaust volume) (b) Exhaust mass calculation from...
Effects of argon gas flow rate on laser-welding.
Takayama, Yasuko; Nomoto, Rie; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Ohkubo, Chikahiro
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the rate of argon gas flow on joint strength in the laser-welding of cast metal plates and to measure the porosity. Two cast plates (Ti and Co-Cr alloy) of the same metal were abutted and welded together. The rates of argon gas flow were 0, 5 and 10 L/min for the Co-Cr alloy, and 5 and 10 L/min for the Ti. There was a significant difference in the ratio of porosity according to the rate of argon gas flow in the welded area. Argon shielding had no significant effect on the tensile strength of Co-Cr alloy. The 5 L/min specimens showed greater tensile strength than the 10 L/min specimens for Ti. Laser welding of the Co-Cr alloy was influenced very little by argon shielding. When the rate of argon gas flow was high, joint strength decreased for Ti. PMID:22447067
Long arc stabilities with various arc gas flow rates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maruyama, K.; Takeda, K.; Sugimoto, M.; Noguchi, Y.
2014-11-01
A new arc torch for use in magnetically driven arc device was developed with a commercially available TIG welding arc torch. The torch has a water-cooling system to the torch nozzle and has a nozzle nut to supply a swirling-free plasma gas flow. Its endurance against arc thermal load is examined. Features of its generated arc are investigated.
Unified gas-kinetic scheme for diatomic molecular simulations in all flow regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Sha; Yu, Pubing; Xu, Kun; Zhong, Chengwen
2014-02-01
A unified gas-kinetic scheme (UGKS) is constructed for both continuum and rarefied flow computations. The underlying principle for the development of UGKS is the direct modeling for the gas evolution process from the kinetic to the hydrodynamic scale, which is used in the flux construction across a cell interface. More specifically, the physical process from the kinetic particle free transport to the hydrodynamic pressure wave propagation is recovered in the flux function. In the previous study, the UGKS has been developed mainly for monatomic gas with particle translational motion only. The construction of time evolution solution is based on the BGK, Shakhov, and ES-BGK models. The UGKS has been validated through extensive numerical tests. In this paper, a UGKS for diatomic gas will be constructed, where the gas-kinetic Rykov model with a Landau-Teller-Jeans-type rotational energy relaxation is used in the numerical scheme. The new scheme will be tested in many cases, such as homogeneous flow relaxation, shock structure calculations, hypersonic flow passing a flat plate, and the flow around a blunt circular cylinder. The analytic, DSMC, and experimental measurements will be used for validating the solutions of UGKS.
In Situ Control of Gas Flow by Modification of Gas-Solid Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seo, Dongjin; Ducker, William A.
2013-10-01
The boundary condition for gas flow at the solid-gas interface can be altered by in situ control of the state of a thin film adsorbed to the solid. A monolayer of ocatadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) reversibly undergoes a meltinglike transition. When the temperature of an OTS-coated particle and plate is moved through the range of OTS “melting” temperatures, there is a change in the lubrication force between the particle and plate in 1 atm of nitrogen gas. This change is interpreted in terms of a change in the flow of gas mediated by the slip length and tangential momentum accommodation coefficient (TMAC). There is a minimum in slip length (290 nm) at 18°C, which corresponds to a maximum in TMAC (0.44). The slip length increases to 590 nm at 40°C which corresponds to a TMAC of 0.25. We attribute the decrease in TMAC with increasing temperature to a decrease in roughness of the monolayer on melting, which allows a higher fraction of specular gas reflections, thereby conserving tangential gas momentum. The importance of this work is that it demonstrates the ability to control gas flow simply by altering the interface for fixed geometry and gas properties.
Tan, Chao; Zhao, Jia; Dong, Feng
2015-03-01
Flow behavior characterization is important to understand gas-liquid two-phase flow mechanics and further establish its description model. An Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) provides information regarding flow conditions at different directions where the sensing electrodes implemented. We extracted the multivariate sample entropy (MSampEn) by treating ERT data as a multivariate time series. The dynamic experimental results indicate that the MSampEn is sensitive to complexity change of flow patterns including bubbly flow, stratified flow, plug flow and slug flow. MSampEn can characterize the flow behavior at different direction of two-phase flow, and reveal the transition between flow patterns when flow velocity changes. The proposed method is effective to analyze two-phase flow pattern transition by incorporating information of different scales and different spatial directions. PMID:25304040
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanjou, M.; Okamoto, T.; Nezu, I.
2016-05-01
Velocity and gas concentration measurements were carried out to reveal gas transfer phenomena in open-channel turbulent flows with flat bottom and submerged vegetation bottom conditions. A large-scale coherent vortex appears near the vegetation top due to shear instability, and the submerged vegetation was found to promote gas transfer beneath the air- water interface. Furthermore, we revealed a great dependency of gas transfer on vegetation density. The present measurement results propose a new surface divergence model with wide generality, connecting reasonably the gas transfer velocity and the surface divergence intensity in open-channel flows, irrespective of bottom roughness conditions.
Global scale groundwater flow model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sutanudjaja, Edwin; de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Ludovicus; Bierkens, Marc
2013-04-01
As the world's largest accessible source of freshwater, groundwater plays vital role in satisfying the basic needs of human society. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and supplies water for agricultural and industrial activities. During times of drought, groundwater sustains water flows in streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands, and thus supports ecosystem habitat and biodiversity, while its large natural storage provides a buffer against water shortages. Yet, the current generation of global scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component that is a crucial part of the hydrological cycle and allows the simulation of groundwater head dynamics. In this study we present a steady-state MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988) groundwater model on the global scale at 5 arc-minutes resolution. Aquifer schematization and properties of this groundwater model were developed from available global lithological model (e.g. Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2010; Hartmann and Moorsdorff, in press). We force the groundwtaer model with the output from the large-scale hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the long term net groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from routed channel discharge. We validated calculated groundwater heads and depths with available head observations, from different regions, including the North and South America and Western Europe. Our results show that it is feasible to build a relatively simple global scale groundwater model using existing information, and estimate water table depths within acceptable accuracy in many parts of the world.
Magee, Patrick T
2012-06-01
The insertion of a suction catheter or a bronchoscope down an endotracheal tube increases the resistance to gas flow down the tube. The extent to which this occurs depends on the relative diameters of the endotracheal tube and the coaxially introduced catheter. This study utilises a laboratory model to quantify this effect, using a steady flow down an annulus between two tubes whose long axes lie co-axially. Two diameters of an endotracheal tube were modelled to represent flow down adult and neonatal endotracheal tubes; these were of internal diameter (d(o)) 6.3 mm and 3.2 mm, and of length (L) 555 mm. A steady flow of air was generated to pass through the model 'endotracheal' tube. Flowrates were calculated to give Re of approximately 5000 for the larger endotracheal tube, and of approximately 1300 for the smaller. These values correspond to clinically appropriate flowrates in adult and neonatal patients, respectively. The pressure drop deltaPo down the endotracheal tube was measured initially without any obstruction, using a calibrated pressure transducer. Catheters of diameter (d(i)) 0.8 mm, 1.6 mm, and 3.2 mm were introduced into the larger diameter endotracheal tube, while catheters of 0.8 mm and 1.6 mm were introduced into the smaller one, and flow was restored to its original value. The pressure drops deltaP down the endotracheal tubes were measured with the catheters introduced a length 'x' into the tube, to x = L/2 and to x = L. Results are compared with a theoretical calculation on the basis of laminar flow for concentric tubes. If a sampling tube or suction catheter is used down the length of an infant's endotracheal tube, the results show that for most values of do/di, there is a significant rise in deltaP/deltaPo. Where a flexible bronchoscope is used down an endotracheal tube or a telescope down a rigid bronchoscope, the value of deltaP/deltaP(o) may also increase unacceptably where d(o)/d(i) is low. The results show that for equal d(o)/d(i), and
Fabrication of a gas flow device consisting of micro-jet pump and flow sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Katsuhiko; Dau, Van T.; Otake, Tomonori; Dinh, Thien X.; Sugiyama, Susumu
2008-12-01
A gas-flow device consisting of a valveless micro jet pump and flow sensor has been designed and fabricated using a Si micromachining process. The valveless micro pump is composed of a piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) diaphragm actuator and flow channels. The design of the valvless pump focuses on a crosss junction formed by the neck of the pump chamber and one outlet and two opposite inlet channnels. The structure allows differences in the fluidic resistance and fluidic momentum inside the channels during each pump vibration cycle, which leads to the gas flow being rectified without valves. Before the Si micro-pump was developed, a prototype of it was fabricated using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and a conventional machining techinique, and experiments on it confirmed the working principles underlying the pump. The Si micro-pump was designed and fabricated based on these working principles. The Si pump was composed of a Si flow channel plate and top and botom covers of PMMA. The flow channels were easily fabricated by using a silicon etching process. To investigate the effects of the step nozzle structure on the gas flow rate, two types of pumps with different channel depths (2D- and 3D-nozzle structures) were designed, and flow simulations were done using ANSYS-Fluent software. The simulations and excperimental data revealed that the 3D-nozzle structure is more advantageous than the 2D-nozzle structure. A flow rate of 4.3 ml/min was obtained for the pump with 3D-nozzle structure when the pump was driven at a resonant frequency of 7.9 kHz by a sinusoidal voltage of 40Vpp. A hot wire was fabricated as a gas-flow sensor near the outlet port on the Si wafer.
Prediction of Ablation Rates from Solid Surfaces Exposed to High Temperature Gas Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Akyuzlu, Kazim M.; Coote, David
2013-01-01
A mathematical model and a solution algorithm is developed to study the physics of high temperature heat transfer and material ablation and identify the problems associated with the flow of hydrogen gas at very high temperatures and velocities through pipes and various components of Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) motors. Ablation and melting can be experienced when the inner solid surface of the cooling channels and the diverging-converging nozzle of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) motor is exposed to hydrogen gas flow at temperatures around 2500 degrees Kelvin and pressures around 3.4 MPa. In the experiments conducted on typical NTR motors developed in 1960s, degradation of the cooling channel material (cracking in the nuclear fuel element cladding) and in some instances melting of the core was observed. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study based on two types of physics based mathematical models that were developed to simulate the thermal-hydrodynamic conditions that lead to ablation of the solid surface of a stainless steel pipe exposed to high temperature hydrogen gas near sonic velocities. One of the proposed models is one-dimensional and assumes the gas flow to be unsteady, compressible and viscous. An in-house computer code was developed to solve the conservations equations of this model using a second-order accurate finite-difference technique. The second model assumes the flow to be three-dimensional, unsteady, compressible and viscous. A commercial CFD code (Fluent) was used to solve the later model equations. Both models assume the thermodynamic and transport properties of the hydrogen gas to be temperature dependent. In the solution algorithm developed for this study, the unsteady temperature of the pipe is determined from the heat equation for the solid. The solid-gas interface temperature is determined from an energy balance at the interface which includes heat transfer from or to the interface by conduction, convection, radiation, and
Closures for Course-Grid Simulation of Fluidized Gas-Particle Flows
Sankaran Sundaresan
2010-02-14
Gas-particle flows in fluidized beds and riser reactors are inherently unstable, and they manifest fluctuations over a wide range of length and time scales. Two-fluid models for such flows reveal unstable modes whose length scale is as small as ten particle diameters. Yet, because of limited computational resources, gas-particle flows in large fluidized beds are invariably simulated by solving discretized versions of the two-fluid model equations over a coarse spatial grid. Such coarse-grid simulations do not resolve the small-scale spatial structures which are known to affect the macroscale flow structures both qualitatively and quantitatively. Thus there is a need to develop filtered two-fluid models which are suitable for coarse-grid simulations and capturing the effect of the small-scale structures through closures in terms of the filtered variables. The overall objective of the project is to develop validated closures for filtered two-fluid models for gas-particle flows, with the transport gasifier as a primary, motivating example. In this project, highly resolved three-dimensional simulations of a kinetic theory based two-fluid model for gas-particle flows have been performed and the statistical information on structures in the 100-1000 particle diameters length scale has been extracted. Based on these results, closures for filtered two-fluid models have been constructed. The filtered model equations and closures have been validated against experimental data and the results obtained in highly resolved simulations of gas-particle flows. The proposed project enables more accurate simulations of not only the transport gasifier, but also many other non-reacting and reacting gas-particle flows in a variety of chemical reactors. The results of this study are in the form of closures which can readily be incorporated into existing multi-phase flow codes such as MFIX (www.mfix.org). Therefore, the benefits of this study can be realized quickly. The training provided
Predictive modeling of particle-laden turbulent flows. Final report
Shaffer, F.; Bolio, E.J.; Hrenya, C.M.
1993-12-31
Earlier work of Sinclair and Jackson which treats the laminar flow of gas-solid suspensions is extended to model dilute turbulent flow. The random particle motion, often exceeding the turbulent fluctuations in the gas, is obtained using a model based on kinetic theory of granular materials. A two-equation low Reynolds number turbulence model is, modified to account for the presence of the dilute particle phase. Comparisons of the model predictions with available experimental data for the mean and fluctuating velocity profiles for both phases indicate that the resulting theory captures many of the flow features observed in the pneumatic transport of large particles. The model predictions did not manifest an extreme sensitivity to the degree of inelasticity in the particle-particle collisions for the range of solid loading ratios investigated.
GASCAP: Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model documentation, June 1993
Not Available
1993-07-01
The Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model (GASCAP) has been developed by EIA to provide a historical analysis of the monthly productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead and a projection of monthly capacity for 2 years into the future. The impact of drilling, oil and gas price assumptions, and demand on gas productive capacity are examined. Both gas-well gas and oil-well gas are included. Oil-well gas productive capacity is estimated separately and then combined with the gas-well gas productive capacity. This documentation report provides a general overview of the GASCAP Model, describes the underlying data base, provides technical descriptions of the component models, diagrams the system and subsystem flow, describes the equations, and provides definitions and sources of all variables used in the system. This documentation report is provided to enable users of EIA projections generated by GASCAP to understand the underlying procedures used and to replicate the models and solutions. This report should be of particular interest to those in the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas.
Evaluation of the 3-D channeling flow in a fractured type of oil/gas reservoir
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishibashi, T.; Watanabe, N.; Tsuchiya, N.; Tamagawa, T.
2013-12-01
An understanding of the flow and transport characteristics through rock fracture networks is of critical importance in many engineering and scientific applications. These include effective recovery of targeted fluid such as oil/gas, geothermal, or potable waters, and isolation of hazardous materials. Here, the formation of preferential flow path (i.e. channeling flow) is one of the most significant characteristics in considering fluid flow through rock fracture networks; however, the impact of channeling flow remains poorly understood. In order to deepen our understanding of channeling flow, the authors have developed a novel discrete fracture network (DFN) model simulator, GeoFlow. Different from the conventional DFN model simulators, we can characterize each fracture not by a single aperture value but by a heterogeneous aperture distribution in GeoFlow [Ishibashi et al., 2012]. As a result, the formation of 3-D preferential flow paths within fracture network can be considered by using this simulator. Therefore, we would challenge to construct the precise fracture networks whose fractures have heterogeneous aperture distributions in field scale, and to analyze fluid flows through the fracture networks by GeoFlow. In the present study, the Yufutsu oil/gas field in Hokkaido, Japan is selected as the subject area for study. This field is known as the fractured type of reservoir, and reliable DFN models can be constructed for this field based on the 3-D seismic data, well logging, in-situ stress measurement, and acoustic emission data [Tamagawa et al., 2012]. Based on these DFN models, new DFN models for 1,080 (East-West) × 1,080 (North-South) × 1,080 (Depth) m^3, where fractures are represented by squares of 44-346 m on a side, are re-constructed. In these new models, scale-dependent aperture distributions are considered for all fractures constructing the fracture networks. Note that the multi-scale modeling of fracture flow has been developed by the authors
Simulation of Wave Motion Using a Lattice Gas Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buick, J.; Easson, W.; Greated, C.
1996-02-01
The lattice gas model for simulating two-phase flow, proposed by Appert and Zaleski, has been modified by the introduction of gravitational interactions and the new model has been used to simulate standing wave patterns on the free surface of a fluid. The results compare well with linear theory.
Research on Gas-liquid Flow Rate Optimization in Foam Drilling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, B. K.; Sun, D. G.; Jia, Z. G.; Huang, Z. Q.
2010-03-01
With the advantages of less gas consumption, higher carrying rocks ability, lower leakage and higher penetration rate, foam drilling is widely used today in petroleum industry. In the process of foam underbalanced drilling, the mixture of gas, liquid and cuttings flows upwards through the annular, so it is a typical gas-liquid-solid multi-phase flow. In order to protect the reservoir and avoid borehole wall collapsing during foam drilling, it is crucial to ensure that the bottom hole pressure is lower than the formation pressure and higher than the formation collapse pressure, and in the mean time, foam drilling fluid in the whole wellbore should be in the best foam quality stage in order to have sufficient capacity to carry cuttings. In this paper, main relations between bottom hole pressure and gas-liquid injecting rate are analyzed with the underbalanced multiphase flow models. And in order to obtain precise flow pattern and flow pressure, the whole well bore is spatial meshed and iterative method is used. So, a convenient safety window expressed by gas-liquid injecting rate is obtained instead of that by bottom hole pressure. Finally, a foam drilling example from a block in Yemen is presented; the drilling results show that this method is reliable and practical.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Hsing-Hao; Lai, Po-Han; Wu, Hsuan-Chung; Liu, Yung-Chang; Lin, Chi-Cheng; Lu, Muh-Jung
2016-04-01
Featuring the advantages of top-blown and bottom-blown oxygen converters, top and bottom combined blown converters are mainstream devices used in steelmaking converter. This study adopted the FLUENT software to develop a numerical model that simulates 3D multiphase flows of gas (air and argon), liquid steel, and slag. Ten numerical experiments were conducted to analyze the effects that the bottom blowing gas flow rate distribution patterns (uniform, linear fixed total flow rate, linear fixed maximal flow rate, and V-type) and bottom blowing gas flow distribution gradients of combined blown converters exert on slag surface stirring heights, flow field patterns, simulation system dynamic pressures, mixing time, and liquid steel-slag interface velocity. The simulation results indicated that the mixing efficiency was highest for the linear fixed total flow rate, followed by the linear fixed maximal flow rate, V-type, and uniform patterns. The bottom blowing gas flow rate distribution exhibited linear patterns and large gradients, and high bottom blowing total flow rates increased the mixing efficiency substantially. In addition, the results suggested that even when bottom blowing total flow rate was reduced, adopting effective bottom blowing gas flow rate distribution patterns and gradients could improve the mixing efficiency.
Role of the gas flow parameters on the uniformity of films produced by PECVD technique
Martins, R.; Macarico, A.; Ferreira, I.; Fortunato, E.
1997-07-01
The aim of this work is to present an analytical model able to interpret the experimental data of the dependence of film's uniformity on the discharge pressure, gas flow and temperature used during the production of thin films by the plasma enhancement chemical vapor deposition technique, under optimized electrode's geometry and electric field distribution. To do so, the gas flow is considered to be quasi-incompressible and inviscous leading to the establishment of the electro-fluid-mechanics equations able to interpret the film's uniformity over the substrate area, when the discharge process takes place in the low power regime.
Multi-scale gas flow in Bazhen formation shales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasilyev, R.; Gerke, K.; Korost, D. V.; Karsanina, M.; Balushkina, N. S.; Kalmikov, G. A.; Mallants, D.
2013-12-01
To perform geological surveys, estimate gas/oil productivity and create large-scale reservoir models, detailed information on reservoir rock properties is needed. Such information typically includes main reservoir properties such as absolute and relative permeability, formation factor, residual oil/water content, etc. The only available method to study all these properties directly is based on laboratory analysis of core material. Usually, only porosity measurements using such techniques as NMR and mercury porosimetry are applicable to study the structure of porous spaces filled with kerogen and bitumen. To measure porosity these organic materials should be extracted (usually by dissolution), a process which can result in sample destruction as some part of the organics is the part of the matrix (and also non-extractable during production). Thus, a pore-scale modelling approach in many cases is not only a valuable alternative, but also the only way to assess physical properties. Unlike core material, drilling cuts are almost always available for analysis and can be used for processing in the laboratory. The main aim of this work is to develop a framework for accessing unconventional reservoir rock properties using pore-scale modeling on 3D models of porous structure of cores or drilling cuts. To do so we combine detailed laboratory measurements on more than 20 samples of shales with X-ray micro-tomography and SEM to study micro and nano-porosity (including kerogen porosity). First, we show that in many cases it is not possible to measure petrophysical properties (e.g., gas permeability) in the laboratory, as dissolution procedures usually result in non-realistic values. Next samples with measurable properties were chosen and micro-tomography 3D structure data combined with SEM images was used to create representative network models. Macroporosity and distribution of different non-porosity domains (kerogen, pyrite, quartz, etc.) is extracted from X-ray tomography
Magnetic Field Generation and Zonal Flows in the Gas Giants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duarte, L.; Wicht, J.; Gastine, T.
2013-12-01
The surface dynamics of Jupiter and Saturn is dominated by a banded system of fierce zonal winds. The depth of these winds remains unclear but they are thought to be confined to the very outer envelopes where hydrogen remains molecular and the electrical conductivity is negligible. The dynamo responsible for the dipole dominated magnetic fields of both Gas Giants, on the other hand, likely operates in the deeper interior where hydrogen assumes a metallic state. We present numerical simulations that attempt to model both the zonal winds and the interior dynamo action in an integrated approach. Using the anelastic version of the MHD code MagIC, we explore the effects of density stratification and radial electrical conductivity variations. The electrical conductivity is assumed to remain constant in the thicker inner metallic region and decays exponentially towards the outer boundary throughout the molecular envelope. Our results show that the combination of stronger density stratification (Δρ≈55) and a weaker conducting outer layer is essential for reconciling dipole dominated dynamo action and a fierce equatorial zonal jet. Previous simulations with homogeneous electrical conductivity show that both are mutually exclusive, with solutions either having strong zonal winds and multipolar magnetic fields or weak zonal winds and dipole dominated magnetic fields. The particular setup explored here allows the equatorial jet to remain confined to the weaker conducting region where is does not interfere with the deeper seated dynamo action. The equatorial jet can afford to remain geostrophic and reaches throughout the whole shell. This is not an option for the additional mid to higher latitude jets, however. In dipole dominated dynamo solutions, appropriate for the Gas Giants, zonal flows remain very faint in the deeper dynamo region but increase in amplitude in the weakly conducting outer layer in some of our simulations. This suggests that the mid to high latitude jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kutin, J.; Bobovnik, G.; Bajsić, I.
2015-12-01
This paper deals with heat exchange effects in a compact, high-speed, clearance-sealed version of a piston prover for gas flow measurements that has the temperature measurements limited to the time-averaged temperature of the gas flow. A lumped-element mathematical model is used to study the physical background of the heat exchange effects. Experimental testing is performed to validate the theoretical results, estimate the required temperature homogeneity in the piston prover and propose a modified measurement model that considers the heat exchange effects. These effects are almost linearly related to the temperature difference between the gas flow into the piston prover and the cylinder wall, with the sensitivity coefficient being dependent on the measured flow rate. The piston-prover configuration with the gas temperature sensor in the mixed inlet /outlet flow is found to be advantageous in comparison to a measurement of the inlet temperature.
Gas flow environment and heat transfer nonrotating 3D program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schulz, R. J.
1982-01-01
A complete set of benchmark quality data for the flow and heat transfer within a large rectangular turning duct is provided. These data are to be used to evaluate, and verify, three-dimensional internal viscous flow models and computational codes. The analytical contract objective is to select a computational code and define the capabilities of this code to predict the experimental results obtained. Details of the proper code operation will be defined and improvements to the code modeling capabilities will be formulated. Internal flow in a large rectangular cross-sectioned 90 deg. bend turning duct was studied. The duct construction was designed to allow detailed measurements to be made for the following three duct wall conditions: (1) an isothermal wall with isothermal flow; (2) an adiabatic wall with convective heat transfer by mixing between an unheated surrounding flow; and (3) an isothermal wall with heat transfer from a uniformly hot inlet flow.
Parallel magnetic resonance imaging of gas-liquid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mueller, Christoph; Penn, Alexander; Pruessmann, Klaas P.
2015-03-01
Gas-liquids flows are commonly encountered in nature and industry. Experimental measurements of gas-liquid flows are challenging since such systems can be visually opaque and highly dynamic. Here we report the implementation of advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) strategies allowing us to probe the dynamics (voidage and velocity measurements) of gas-liquid flows with ultra-fast acquisition speeds. Specifically, parallel MRI which exploits the spatial encoding capabilities of multiple receiver coils was implemented. To this end a tailored, 16 channels MR receive array was constructed and employed in the MR acquisition. A magnetic susceptibility matched gas-liquid system was set-up and used to probe the motion, splitting and coalescence of bubbles. The temporal and spatial resolution of our acquired data was 5 ms and 3.5 mm x 3.5 mm, respectively. The total field of view was 200 mm x 200 mm. We will conclude with an outlook of further possible advances in MRI that have the potential to reduce substantially the acquisition time, providing flexible gains in temporal and spatial resolution.
Ahmadi, Goodarz
2006-09-30
Semi-analytical computational models for natural gas flow in hydrate reservoirs were developed and the effects of variations in porosity and permeability on pressure and temperature profiles and the movement of a dissociation front were studied. Experimental data for variations of gas pressure and temperature during propane hydrate formation and dissociation for crushed ice and mixture of crushed ice and glass beads under laboratory environment were obtained. A thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase liquid-gas flows trough porous media was developed. Numerical models for hydrate dissociation process in one dimensional and axisymmetric reservoir were performed. The computational model solved the general governing equations without the need for linearization. A detail module for multidimensional analysis of hydrate dissociation which make use of the FLUENT code was developed. The new model accounts for gas and liquid water flow and uses the Kim-Boshnoi model for hydrate dissociation.
Numerical Investigation of PLIF Gas Seeding for Hypersonic Boundary Layer Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johanson, Craig T.; Danehy, Paul M.
2012-01-01
Numerical simulations of gas-seeding strategies required for planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) in a Mach 10 air flow were performed. The work was performed to understand and quantify adverse effects associated with gas seeding and to compare different flow rates and different types of seed gas. The gas was injected through a slot near the leading edge of a flat plate wedge model used in NASA Langley Research Center's 31- Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel facility. Nitric oxide, krypton, and iodine gases were simulated at various injection rates. Simulation results showing the deflection of the velocity field for each of the cases are presented. Streamwise distributions of velocity and concentration boundary layer thicknesses as well as vertical distributions of velocity, temperature, and mass distributions are presented for each of the cases. Relative merits of the different seeding strategies are discussed.
Computer simulations of an impurity in a granular gas under planar Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vega Reyes, F.; Santos, A.; Garzó, V.
2011-07-01
We present in this work results from numerical solutions, obtained by means of the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, of the Boltzmann and Boltzmann-Lorentz equations for an impurity immersed in a granular gas under planar Couette flow. The DSMC results are compared with the exact solution of a recent kinetic model for the same problem. The results confirm that, in steady states and over a wide range of parameter values, the state of the impurity is enslaved to that of the host gas: it follows the same flow velocity profile, its concentration (relative to that of the granular gas) is constant in the bulk region, and the impurity/gas temperature ratio is also constant. We determine also the rheological properties and nonlinear hydrodynamic transport coefficients for the impurity, finding a good semi-quantitative agreement between the DSMC results and the theoretical predictions.
Heat transfer and flow characteristics on a gas turbine shroud.
Obata, M; Kumada, M; Ijichi, N
2001-05-01
The work described in this paper is an experimental investigation of the heat transfer from the main flow to a turbine shroud surface, which may be applicable to ceramic gas turbines. Three kinds of turbine shrouds are considered with a flat surface, a taper surface and a spiral groove surface opposite to the blades in an axial flow turbine of actual turbo-charger. Heat transfer measurements were performed for the experimental conditions of a uniform heat flux or a uniform wall temperature. The effects of the inlet flow angle, rotational speed, and tip clearance on the heat transfer coefficient were clarified under on- and off-design flow conditions. The mean heat transfer coefficient was correlated to the blade Reynolds number and tip clearance, and compared with an experimental correlation and measurements of a flat surface. A comparison was also made for the measurement of static pressure distributions. PMID:11460639
Production of Natural Gas and Fluid Flow in Tight Sand Reservoirs
Maria Cecilia Bravo
2006-06-30
This document reports progress of this research effort in identifying relationships and defining dependencies between macroscopic reservoir parameters strongly affected by microscopic flow dynamics and production well performance in tight gas sand reservoirs. These dependencies are investigated by identifying the main transport mechanisms at the pore scale that should affect fluids flow at the reservoir scale. A critical review of commercial reservoir simulators, used to predict tight sand gas reservoir, revealed that many are poor when used to model fluid flow through tight reservoirs. Conventional simulators ignore altogether or model incorrectly certain phenomena such as, Knudsen diffusion, electro-kinetic effects, ordinary diffusion mechanisms and water vaporization. We studied the effect of Knudsen's number in Klinkenberg's equation and evaluated the effect of different flow regimes on Klinkenberg's parameter b. We developed a model capable of explaining the pressure dependence of this parameter that has been experimentally observed, but not explained in the conventional formalisms. We demonstrated the relevance of this, so far ignored effect, in tight sands reservoir modeling. A 2-D numerical simulator based on equations that capture the above mentioned phenomena was developed. Dynamic implications of new equations are comprehensively discussed in our work and their relative contribution to the flow rate is evaluated. We performed several simulation sensitivity studies that evidenced that, in general terms, our formalism should be implemented in order to get more reliable tight sands gas reservoirs' predictions.
Flow and heat transfer for gas flowing in microchannels: a review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rostami, A. A.; Mujumdar, A. S.; Saniei, N.
Microchannels are currently being used in many areas and have high potential for applications in many other areas, which are considered realistic by experts. The application areas include medicine, biotechnology, avionics, consumer electronics, telecommunications, metrology, computer technology, office equipment and home appliances, safety technology, process engineering, robotics, automotive engineering and environmental protection. A number of these applications are introduced in this paper, followed by a critical review of the works on the flow and heat transfer for gas flowing in microchannels. The results show that the flow and heat transfer characteristics of a gas flowing in microchannels can not be adequately predicted by the theories and correlations developed for conventional sized channels. The results of theoretical and experimental works are discussed and summarized along with suggestions for future research directions.
Direct Monte Carlo Simulations of Gas Flow from Enceladus’ Nozzle-like Vents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tucker, Orenthal; Combi, M. R.; Tenishev, V.
2013-10-01
Collective observations by the Cassini spacecraft indicate that the gas plumes emanating from Enceladus’ south pole contain micrometer sized ice grains that travel at speeds 50-80% lower than the bulk gas speed (Kempf et al., 2008, Hedman et al., 2009, Teolis et al., 2010). Previous studies indicate the difference in velocity originates below the surface, and the gas flow to the surface occurs supersonically suggestive of nozzle like vents (Schmidt et al., 2008, Hansen et al., 2011). Here we use a 2D Direct Monte Carlo Simulation (DSMC) technique (Bird, 1994) to model gas flow and grain acceleration in nozzle like fissures for Enceladus’ vent geometries. First, we use the DSMC technique to model the transition of the gas flow from inside the highly collisional vent to a couple of meters above the surface where the gas flow becomes essentially collisionless. Then the DSMC results for gas density, temperature and velocity are used with an equation of motion for the drag force on a grain entrenched in a gas. The flow is tracked in both the vertical direction from the vent opening, and the radial direction from the vent axis. It is impossible to consider every type of vent geometry, but using Cassini data for grain sizes and velocities within the plumes we consider a few vent geometries of different width, length, and opening angle with respect to the surface. The Enceladus vents are not likely to be axially symmetric, but the simulations provide insight into possible vent geometries, and the effect of the vent wall geometry on gas flow and grain acceleration for suggested plume water production rates (0.5 - 1×1028 s-1) inferred using Cassini data (Tenishev et al., 2010). We obtain density and velocity distributions at the vent exit for the gas and grains that can serve as parameters for plume models and be used as comparisons for interpretation of various Cassini measurements. Kempf, S., et al., 2008, Icarus 193, 2. Hedman, M.M., et al., 2009, AJ 693. Teolis, B
High-frequency sound wave propagation in binary gas mixtures flowing through microchannels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bisi, M.; Lorenzani, S.
2016-05-01
The propagation of high-frequency sound waves in binary gas mixtures flowing through microchannels is investigated by using the linearized Boltzmann equation based on a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK)-type approach and diffuse reflection boundary conditions. The results presented refer to mixtures whose constituents have comparable molecular mass (like Ne-Ar) as well as to disparate-mass gas mixtures (composed of very heavy plus very light molecules, like He-Xe). The sound wave propagation model considered in the present paper allows to analyze the precise nature of the forced-sound modes excited in different gas mixtures.
Flow regions of granules in Dorfan Impingo filter for gas cleanup
Kuo, J.T.; Smid, J.; Hsiau, S.S.; Tsai, S.S.; Chou, C.S.
1999-07-01
Inside a two-dimensional model of the louvered Dorfan Impingo panel with transparent front and rear walls the flow region of filter granules without gas cross flow were observed. The white PE beads were used as filter granules. Colored PE beads served as tracers. Filter granules were discharged and circulated to the bed. The flow rate of filter medium was controlled by the belt conveyor. The image processing system including a Frame Grabber and JVC videocamera was used to record the granular flow. Every image of motion was digitized and stored in a file. The flow patterns and the quasi-stagnant zones history in the moving granular bed were evaluated. The experiment showed fast central moving region (flowing core) of filter granules and quasi-stagnant zones close to louver walls.
Dual exposure interferometry. [gas dynamics and flow visualization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smeets, G.; George, A.
1982-01-01
The application of dual exposure differential interferometry to gas dynamics and flow visualization is discussed. A differential interferometer with Wallaston prisms can produce two complementary interference fringe systems, depending on the polarization of the incident light. If these two systems are superimposed on a film, with one exposure during a phenomenon, the other before or after, the phenomenon will appear on a uniform background. By regulating the interferometer to infinite fringe distance, a resolution limit of approximately lambda/500 can be obtained in the quantitative analysis of weak phase objects. This method was successfully applied to gas dynamic investigations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Minsun; Jiang, Houman; Jiao, Luguang; Li, Junshen; Liu, Zejin
2013-05-01
The irradiation effects of 976nm continuous-wave laser on carbon fiber reinforced E-51 resin composite is studied experimentally, with a 0.4Ma tangential airflow or 0.4Ma tangential nitrogen gas flow on the target surface. In order to simulate the thermal response of fiber reinforced resin composite materials subjected to combined laser and tangential gas flow loading, a three-dimensional thermal response model of resin composite materials is developed. In the model, the thermal decomposition of resin is described by a multi-step model. The motion of the decomposition gas is assumed to be one-dimensional, for the case that the laser spot is significantly larger than the thickness of the sample. According the above assumption, the flow of the decomposition gas is considered in the three-dimensional model without introducing any mechanical quantities. The influences of the tangential gas flow, the outflow of the thermal decomposition gas and the ablation-including phase change ablation or oxidative ablation-of the surface material on the laser irradiation effects are included in the surface boundary conditions. The three-dimensional thermal response model is calculated numerically by use of the modified smooth particle hydrodynamics (MSPH) method which is coded with FORTRAN. The model is tested by experimentally measuring the temperature profiles during carbon fiber reinforced E-51 resin composite subjected to combined laser and tangential gas flow. The predicted temperature profiles are in good agreement with experimental temperatures obtained using thermocouples.
CFD Validation of Gas Injection in Flowing Mercury over Vertical Smooth and Grooved Wall
Abdou, Ashraf A; Wendel, Mark W; Felde, David K; Riemer, Bernie
2009-01-01
The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The nuclear spallation reaction occurs when a proton beam hits liquid mercury. This interaction causes thermal expansion of the liquid mercury which produces high pressure waves. When these pressure waves hit the target vessel wall, cavitation can occur and erode the wall. Research and development efforts at SNS include creation of a vertical protective gas layer between the flowing liquid mercury and target vessel wall to mitigate the cavitation damage erosion and extend the life time of the target. Since mercury is opaque, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used as a diagnostic tool to see inside the liquid mercury and guide the experimental efforts. In this study, CFD simulations of three dimensional, unsteady, turbulent, two-phase flow of helium gas injection in flowing liquid mercury over smooth, vertically grooved and horizontally grooved walls are carried out with the commercially available CFD code Fluent-12 from ANSYS. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) model is used to track the helium-mercury interface. V-shaped vertical and horizontal grooves with 0.5 mm pitch and about 0.7 mm depth were machined in the transparent wall of acrylic test sections. Flow visualization data of helium gas coverage through transparent test sections is obtained with a high-speed camera at the ORNL target test facility (TTF). The helium gas mass flow rate is 8 mg/min and introduced through a 0.5 mm diameter port. The local mercury velocity is 0.9 m/s. In this paper, the helium gas flow rate and the local mercury velocity are kept constant for the three cases. Time integration of predicted helium gas volume fraction over time is done to evaluate the gas coverage and calculate the average thickness of the helium gas layer. The predicted time-integrated gas coverage over vertically grooved and horizontally grooved test sections is better than over a smooth wall. The
Modeling of density loaded two-phase flows
Mostafa, A.A. )
1991-01-01
In this paper a mathematical model for densely loaded particle-laden flows is proposed to account for particle collisions and particle-turbulence interaction. The coupled conservation equations are based on a Eulerian scheme for the gas and a stochastic Lagrangian technique for the particles. The model was validated against the experimental data of densely loaded particle-laden jet flows. The comparison between the computational results and measurements suggested that both turbulence modulation and particle collisions are important and should be considered in an accurate analysis of dense two-phase flows.
Nonequilibrium condensation in high-speed gas flows
Ryzhov, Y.A.; Pirumov, U.G.; Gorbunov, V.N. )
1989-01-01
Nonequilibrium condensation is an important aspect of weather forecasting, aerosol formation, and the design of jet propulsion engines, steam turbines and nuclear reactors. It has recently taken on a new significance with the development of technologies such as the production of fine powders, cluster spraying, the development of laser media and isotope separation. This book discusses the general theory of condensation in high speed gas flows, and the new theoretical, experimental and numerical methods necessary for solving the partial differential equations governing the flows.
Gas-liquid two-phase flow across a bank of micropillars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishnamurthy, Santosh; Peles, Yoav
2007-04-01
Adiabatic nitrogen-water two-phase flow across a bank of staggered circular micropillars, 100μm long with a diameter of 100μm and a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.5, was investigated experimentally for Reynolds number ranging from 5 to 50. Flow patterns, void fraction, and pressure drop were obtained, discussed, and compared to large scale as well as microchannel results. Two-phase flow patterns were determined by flow visualization, and a flow map was constructed as a function of gas and liquid superficial velocities. Significant deviations from conventional scale systems, with respect to flow patterns and trend lines, were observed. A unique flow pattern, driven by surface tension, was observed and termed bridge flow. The applicability of conventional scale models to predict the void fraction and two-phase frictional pressure drop was also assessed. Comparison with a conventional scale void fraction model revealed good agreement, but was found to be in a physically wrong form. Thus, a modified physically based model for void fraction was developed. A two-phase frictional multiplier was found to be a strong function of mass flux, unlike in previous microchannel studies. It was observed that models from conventional scale systems did not adequately predict the two-phase frictional multiplier at the microscale, thus, a modified model accounting for mass flux was developed.
Computation of the flow field in an annular gas turbine combustor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cline, Michael C.; Deur, John M.; Micklow, Gerald J.; Harper, Michael R.; Kundu, Krishna P.
1993-01-01
The KIVA-II code was modified to calculate the 3D flow field in a typical annular gas turbine combustor. The airblast fuel nozzle, cooling baffle, cooling slots, primary and dilution jets, and effusion cooling (bleed) pads were accounted for in this calculation. The turbulence and combustion were modeled using the k-epsilon model and laminar Arrhenius kinetics, respectively. The fuel was modeled as an evaporating liquid spray. The results illustrate the complicated flow fields present in such combustors. From the results obtained to date it appears that the modified KIVA-II code can be used to study the effects of different annular combustor designs and operating conditions.
Dynamic pressure corrections in a clearance-sealed piston prover for gas flow measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kutin, Jože; Bobovnik, Gregor; Bajsić, Ivan
2013-02-01
The dynamic pressure effects and their corrections in a high-speed, clearance-sealed realization of a piston prover for gas flow measurements are discussed. The experimental results show the deterministic, rather than stochastic, nature of the dynamic pressure conditions and, consequently, the repeatable nature of their influence on the flow measurements. The experimental validation proves the advantage of the polytropic/adiabatic pressure correction model, which was proposed by the authors, as compared with the isothermal pressure correction model. The paper ends with an estimation of the measurement uncertainty related to the pressure corrections using either the adiabatic or isothermal model.
Turbulence modeling for complex hypersonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, P. G.; Coakley, T. J.
1993-01-01
The paper presents results of calculations for a range of 2D turbulent hypersonic flows using two-equation models. The baseline models and the model corrections required for good hypersonic-flow predictions will be illustrated. Three experimental data sets were chosen for comparison. They are: (1) the hypersonic flare flows of Kussoy and Horstman, (2) a 2D hypersonic compression corner flow of Coleman and Stollery, and (3) the ogive-cylinder impinging shock-expansion flows of Kussoy and Horstman. Comparisons with the experimental data have shown that baseline models under-predict the extent of flow separation but over-predict the heat transfer rate near flow reattachment. Modifications to the models are described which remove the above-mentioned deficiencies. Although we have restricted the discussion only to the selected baseline models in this paper, the modifications proposed are universal and can in principle be transferred to any existing two-equation model formulation.
Gaseous sodium sulfate formation in flames and flowing gas environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stearns, C. A.; Miller, R. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.
1977-01-01
Formation of Na2SO4(g) in flames and hot flowing gas systems was studied by high pressure, free-jet expansion, modulated molecular beam mass spectrometric sampling. Fuel-lean CH4-O2 flames doped with SO2, H2O and NaCl yielded the gaseous Na2SO4 molecule in residence times of less than one millisecond. Intermediate species NaSO2(g) and NaSO3(g) were also observed and measured. Composition profiles were obtained for all reaction products. Nonflame flowing gas experiments showed that Na2SO4 and NaSO3 gaseous molecules were formed at 1140 C in mixtures of O2, H2O(g), SO2 and NaCl(g). Experimental results are compared with calculated equilibrium thermodynamic predictions.
Emission control valve with gas flow shut-off
Betterton, J.T.; Glover, A.H.; McKee, T.S.; Romanczuk, C.S.
1990-03-06
This patent describes, in an internal combustion engine, a crankcase gas flow control device located between the engine crankcase and the engine fuel-air induction. It comprises: a hollow housing, an apertured member supported at its outer edge by the housing. The apertured member forming an inlet and having an annular seating surface about the inlet aperture which faces the interior of the housing; a rod extending through the housing coaxially with the apertured inlet. The inlet forming member has a central boss portion engaging and supporting an end of the rod; a valve element in the housing and encircling the rod, the valve having a closed end normally seated against the seating surface to block gas flow through the inlet aperture; a coil type spring having one end axially fixed to the rod and another end engaging the valve element for yieldably urging the closed end against the seating surface.
Numerical simulation of gas flow through unsaturated fractured rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada
Cooper, C.A.
1990-01-01
Numerical analysis is used to identify the physical phenomena associated with barometrically driven gas (air and water vapor) flow through unsaturated fractured rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Results from simple finite difference simulations indicate that for a fractured rock scenario, the maximum velocity of air out of an uncased 10 cm borehole is 0.002 m s{sub {minus}1}. An equivalent porous medium (EPM) model was incorporated into a multiphase, multicomponent simulator to test more complex conceptual models. Results indicate that for a typical June day, a diurnal pressure wave propagates about 160 m into the surrounding Tiva Canyon hydrogeologic unit. Dry air that enters the formation evaporates water around the borehole which reduces capillary pressure. Multiphase countercurrent flow develops in the vicinity of the hole; the gas phase flows into the formation while the liquid phase flows toward the borehole. The effect occurs within 0.5 m of the borehole. The amount of water vapor leaving the formation during 1 day is 900 cm{sup 3}. This is less than 0.1% of the total recharge into the formation, suggesting that the barometric effect may be insignificant in drying the unsaturated zone. However, gas phase velocities out of the borehole (3 m s{sup {minus}1}), indicating that observed flow rates from wells along the east flank of Yucca Mountain were able to be simulated with a barometric model.
Stability of Wavy Films in Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flows at Normal and Microgravity Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balakotaiah, V.; Jayawardena, S. S.
1996-01-01
For flow rates of technological interest, most gas-liquid flows in pipes are in the annular flow regime, in which, the liquid moves along the pipe wall in a thin, wavy film and the gas flows in the core region. The waves appearing on the liquid film have a profound influence on the transfer rates, and hence on the design of these systems. We have recently proposed and analyzed two boundary layer models that describe the characteristics of laminar wavy films at high Reynolds numbers (300-1200). Comparison of model predictions to 1-g experimental data showed good agreement. The goal of our present work is to understand through a combined program of experimental and modeling studies the characteristics of wavy films in annular two-phase gas-liquid flows under normal as well as microgravity conditions in the developed and entry regions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von der Heyde, M.; Schmitz, G.; Mickan, B.
2016-08-01
This paper presents a computational model written in Modelica for the high pressure piston prover (HPPP) used as the national primary standard for high pressure natural gas flow metering in Germany. With a piston prover the gas flow rate is determined by measuring the time a piston needs to displace a certain volume of gas in a cylinder. Fluctuating piston velocity during measurement can be a significant source of uncertainty if not considered in an appropriate way. The model was built to investigate measures for the reduction of this uncertainty. Validation shows a good compliance of the piston velocity in the model with measured data for certain volume flow rates. Reduction of the piston weight, variation of the start valve switching time and integration of a flow straightener were found to reduce the piston velocity fluctuations in the model significantly. The fast and cost effective generation of those results shows the strength of the used modelling approach.
Theory of Gas Injection: Interaction of Phase Behavior and Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dindoruk, B.
2015-12-01
The theory of gas injection processes is a central element required to understand how components move and partition in the reservoir as one fluid is displacing another (i.e., gas is displacing oil). There is significant amount of work done in the area of interaction of phase-behavior and flow in multiphase flow conditions. We would like to present how the theory of gas injection is used in the industry to understand/design reservoir processes in various ways. The tools that are developed for the theory of gas injection originates from the fractional flow theory, as the first solution proposed by Buckley-Leveret in 1940's, for water displacing oil in porous media. After 1960's more and more complex/coupled equations were solved using the initial concept(s) developed by Buckley-Leverett, and then Welge et al. and others. However, the systematic use of the fractional flow theory for coupled set of equations that involves phase relationships (EOS) and phase appearance and disappearance was mainly due to the theory developed by Helfferich in early 80's (in petroleum literature) using method of characteristics primarily for gas injection process and later on by the systematic work done by Orr and his co-researchers during the last two decades. In this talk, we will present various cases that use and extend the theory developed by Helfferich and others (Orr et al., Lake et al. etc.). The review of various injection systems reveals that displacement in porous media has commonalities that can be represented with a unified theory for a class of problems originating from the theory of gas injection (which is in a way generalized Buckley-Leverett problem). The outcome of these solutions can be used for (and are not limited to): 1) Benchmark solutions for reservoir simulators (to quantify numerical dispersion, test numerical algorithms) 2) Streamline simulators 3) Design of laboratory experiments and their use (to invert the results) 4) Conceptual learning and to investigate
Gas flow environmental and heat transfer nonrotating 3D program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geil, T.; Steinhoff, J.
1983-01-01
A complete set of benchmark quality data for the flow and heat transfer within a large rectangular turning duct is being compiled. These data will be used to evaluate and verify three dimensional internal viscous flow models and computational codes. The analytical objective is to select such a computational code and define the capabilities of this code to predict the experimental results. Details of the proper code operation will be defined and improvements to the code modeling capabilities will be formulated.
Coarse-Grid Simulation of Reacting and Non-Reacting Gas-Particle Flows
Loezos, Peter N.; Srivastava, Anuj; Sundaresan, Sankaran
2001-11-06
The principal goal of our project, funded under the DOE Vision 21 Virtual Demonstration Initiative is virtual demonstration of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) performance. Virtual demonstration of CFB performance requires modeling and simulation of the entire spectrum of gas-particle flow conditions ranging from dense phase flows in standpipes to dilute phase flow conditions of risers. We had proposed a virtual demonstration tool, which is based on the open-domain Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code MFIX (Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchange), originally developed at NETL (National Energy Technology Laboratory). MFIX is based on a model framework in which the gas and particle phases are treated as interpenetrating continua. The general structure of Eulerian equations of motion for each of the phases is well understood, although specific constitutive equations describing the rheological behavior of gas-particle suspensions are still being developed. MFIX includes the capability to carry out reactive flow simulations, so the tool that we have set out to develop will permit both cold flow and reactive flow simulations. The principal challenge funded through this grant is to devise and implement in MFIX sound physical models for the rheological characteristics of the gas-particle mixtures. The volume fraction of particles in dense fluidized beds, standpipes and valves is usually sufficiently large that the particles make enduring contact with multiple neighbors. In such instances, stress transmission between particles, and between particles and bounding solid surfaces occurs predominantly through frictional interactions. In this regime of flow, when the strength of frictional interaction between particles becomes sufficiently weak, flow of gas-solid suspension becomes unstable and a bubbly suspension results. Once formed, these bubbles dictate the macroscale flow characteristics, and therefore detailed CFD simulation of suspensions in this regime should account
A 3D model of a reverse vortex flow gliding arc reactor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trenchev, G.; Kolev, St.; Bogaerts, A.
2016-06-01
In this computational study, a gliding arc plasma reactor with a reverse-vortex flow stabilization is modelled for the first time by a fluid plasma description. The plasma reactor operates with argon gas at atmospheric pressure. The gas flow is simulated using the k-ε Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes turbulent model. A quasi-neutral fluid plasma model is used for computing the plasma properties. The plasma arc movement in the reactor is observed, and the results for the gas flow, electrical characteristics, plasma density, electron temperature, and gas temperature are analyzed.
Simultaneous flow of gas and water in a damage-susceptible argillaceous rock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, T. S.
2011-12-01
A research project has been initiated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) to study the influence of gas generation and migration on the long term safety of deep geological repositories for radioactive wastes. Such facilities rely on multiple barriers to isolate and contain the wastes. Depending on the level of radioactivity of the wastes, those barriers include some or all of the following: corrosion and structurally resistant containers, low permeability seals around the emplacements rooms, galleries and shaft, and finally the host rock formations. Large quantities of gas may be generated from the degradation of the waste forms or the corrosion of the containers. The generated gas pressures, if sufficiently large, can induce cracks and microcracks in the engineered and natural barriers and affect their containment functions. The author has developed a mathematical model to simulate the above effects. The model must be calibrated and validated with laboratory and field experiments in order to provide confidence in its future use for assessing the effects of gas on the long term safety of nuclear wastes repositories. The present communication describes the model and its use in the simulation of laboratory and large scale in-situ gas injection experiments in an argillaceous rock, known as Opalinus clay, from Mont Terri, Switzerland. Both the laboratory and in-situ experiments show that the gas flow rate substantially increases when the injection pressure is higher than the confining stress. The above observation seems to indicate that at high gas injection pressures, damage could possibly be induced in the rock formation resulting in an important increase in its permeability. In order to simulate the experiments, we developed a poro-elastoplastic model, with the consideration of two compressible pore fluids (water and gas). The bulk movement of the pore fluids is assumed to obey the generalized Darcy's law, and their respective degree of saturation is
One-dimensional flows of an imperfect diatomic gas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1959-01-01
With the assumptions that Berthelot's equation of state accounts for molecular size and intermolecular force effects, and that changes in the vibrational heat capacities are given by a Planck term, expressions are developed for analyzing one-dimensional flows of a diatomic gas. The special cases of flow through normal and oblique shocks in free air at sea level are investigated. It is found that up to a Mach number 10 pressure ratio across a normal shock differs by less than 6 percent from its ideal gas value; whereas at Mach numbers above 4 the temperature rise is considerable below and hence the density rise is well above that predicted assuming ideal gas behavior. It is further shown that only the caloric imperfection in air has an appreciable effect on the pressures developed in the shock process considered. The effects of gaseous imperfections on oblique shock-flows are studied from the standpoint of their influence on the life and pressure drag of a flat plate operating at Mach numbers of 10 and 20. The influence is found to be small. (author)
West Maui Groundwater Flow Model
Nicole Lautze
2015-01-01
Groundwater flow model for West Maui. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume V – Island of Maui Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.
Hawaii Island Groundwater Flow Model
Nicole Lautze
2015-01-01
Groundwater flow model for Hawaii Island. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume II – Island of Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.
East Maui Groundwater Flow Model
Nicole Lautze
2015-01-01
Groundwater flow model for East Maui. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume V – Island of Maui Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.
Compression Shocks in Two-Dimensional Gas Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Busemann, A.
1949-01-01
The following are arguments on the compression shocks in gas flow start with a simplified representation of the results of the study made by Th. Meyer as published in the Forschungsheft 62 of the VDI, supplemented by several amplifications for the application.In the treatment of compression shocks, the equation of energy, the equation of continuity, the momentum equation, the equation of state of the particular gas, as well as the condition Of the second law of thermodynamics that no decrease of entropy is possible in an isolated system, must be taken into consideration. The result is that, in those cases where the sudden change of state according to the second law of thermodynamics is possible, there always occurs a compression of the gas which is uniquely determined by the other conditions.
Hot gas ingestion characteristics and flow visualization of a vectored thrust STOVL concept
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johns, Albert L.; Neiner, George H.; Bencic, Timothy J.; Flood, Joseph D.; Amuedo, Kurt C.; Strock, Thomas W.; Williams, Ben R.
1990-01-01
A 9.2 percent scale short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) hot gas ingestion model was designed and built by McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MCAIR) and tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT). Hot gas ingestion, the entrainment of heated engine exhaust into the inlet flow field, is a key development issue for advanced short takeoff and vertical landing aircraft. The Phase 1 test program, conducted by NASA Lewis and McDonnell Douglas Corporation, evaluated the hot ingestion phenomena and control techniques and Phase 2 test program which was conducted by NASA Lewis are both reported. The Phase 2 program was conducted at exhaust nozzles temperatures up to 1460 R and utilized a sheet laser system for flow visualization of the model flow field in and out of ground effects. Hot gas ingestion levels were measured for the several forward nozzle splay configurations and with flow control/lift improvement devices which reduced the hot gas ingestion. The model support system had four degrees of freedom, heated high pressure air for nozzle flow, and a suction system exhaust for inlet flow. The headwind (freestream) velocity for Phase 1 was varied from 8 to 90 kn, with primary data taken in the 8 to 23 kn headwind velocity range. Phase 2 headwind velocity varied from 10 to 23 kn. Results of both Phase 1 and 2 are presented. A description of the model, facility, a new model support system, and a sheet laser illumination system are also provided. Results are presented over a range of main landing gear height (model height) above the ground plane at a 10 kn headwind velocity. The results contain the compressor face pressure and temperature distortions, total pressure recovery, compressor face temperature rise, and the environmental effects of the hot gas. The environmental effects include the ground plane temperature and pressure distributions, model airframe heating, and the location of the ground flow separation. Results from the
Characterization of Turbulent Flows for Turbulence Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reynolds, W. C.; Haire, S. L.
1998-11-01
A diagram for the characterization of turbulent flows using the invariants of the mean velocity gradient tensor is introduced. All mean flows, from irrotationally strained flows to shearing flows, to purely rotational flows, can be identified on this diagram. Different flow fields which occupy the same region on the diagram are said to be comprised of the same topological features. The current state of turbulence modeling can be identified on the diagram based on the type of mean flow fields which can be accurately computed. Regions on the diagram can be shown for which current capabilities in turbulence modeling fail to accurately resolve the turbulent structures. Relevant mean field topology is identified for future work in turbulence modeling. Using this analysis, we suggest a number of flows to be computed by DNS or LES and used as testing cases for new models.
Two-phase Flow Characteristics in a Gas-Flow Channel of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Sung Chan
patterns are obtained optically and two-phase pressure drop is measured experimentally. Cross-sectional view of two-phase flow is visualized in simplified circumstance to understand liquid-phase location in gas flow channels. Various surfaces on the GDL side are examined and are compared. The two-phase friction multipliers (pressure drop) predicted by two model groups are compared showing a good agreement for the cases with low liquid flow rate. Optimization of one relative permeability correlation is presented. Theoretical analysis is also presented to examine the relative permeability correlation for annulus flow. Real-time pressure drops are presented to show the effect of flow patterns on pressure drop. This work presents analytical results for droplet deformation, criteria for droplet detachment, and compares empirical and physical two-phase flow models for the gas flow channel of PEM fuel cells. These fundamentals are important for channel design, fuel cell diagnostic, water management, and understanding of two-phase flow in PEM fuel cells.
A modeling of buoyant gas plume migration
Silin, D.; Patzek, T.; Benson, S.M.
2008-12-01
This work is motivated by the growing interest in injecting carbon dioxide into deep geological formations as a means of avoiding its atmospheric emissions and consequent global warming. Ideally, the injected greenhouse gas stays in the injection zone for a geologic time, eventually dissolves in the formation brine and remains trapped by mineralization. However, one of the potential problems associated with the geologic method of sequestration is that naturally present or inadvertently created conduits in the cap rock may result in a gas leakage from primary storage. Even in a supercritical state, the carbon dioxide viscosity and density are lower than those of the formation brine. Buoyancy tends to drive the leaked CO{sub 2} plume upward. Theoretical and experimental studies of buoyancy-driven supercritical CO{sub 2} flow, including estimation of time scales associated with plume evolution and migration, are critical for developing technology, monitoring policy, and regulations for safe carbon dioxide geologic sequestration. In this study, we obtain simple estimates of vertical plume propagation velocity taking into account the density and viscosity contrast between CO{sub 2} and brine. We describe buoyancy-driven countercurrent flow of two immiscible phases by a Buckley-Leverett type model. The model predicts that a plume of supercritical carbon dioxide in a homogeneous water-saturated porous medium does not migrate upward like a bubble in bulk water. Rather, it spreads upward until it reaches a seal or until it becomes immobile. A simple formula requiring no complex numerical calculations describes the velocity of plume propagation. This solution is a simplification of a more comprehensive theory of countercurrent plume migration (Silin et al., 2007). In a layered reservoir, the simplified solution predicts a slower plume front propagation relative to a homogeneous formation with the same harmonic mean permeability. In contrast, the model yields much higher
Hot gas ingestion characteristics and flow visualization of a vectored thrust STOVL concept
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johns, Albert L.; Neiner, George H.; Bencic, Timothy J.; Flood, Joseph D.; Amuedo, Kurt C.; Strock, Thomas W.; Williams, Ben R.
1990-01-01
The study presents results obtained at the compressor face of a 9.2-percent scale vectored thrust model in ground effects from Phases I and II of a test program to evaluate the hot ingestion phenomena and control techniques, and to conduct flow visualization of the model flowfield in and out of ground effects, respectively. A description of the model, facility, a new model support system, and a sheet laser illumination system are provided. The findings contain the compressor face pressure and temperature distortions, compressor face temperature rise, and the environmental effects of the hot gas. The environmental effects include the ground plane temperature and pressure distributions, model airframe heating, and the location of the ground flow separation. Results from the sheet laser flow visualization test are also presented.
A gas flow indicator for portable life support systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bass, R. L., III; Schroeder, E. C.
1975-01-01
A three-part program was conducted to develop a gas flow indicator (GFI) to monitor ventilation flow in a portable life support system. The first program phase identified concepts which could potentially meet the GFI requirements. In the second phase, a working breadboard GFI, based on the concept of a pressure sensing diaphragm-aneroid assembly connected to a venturi, was constructed and tested. Extensive testing of the breadboard GFI indicated that the design would meet all NASA requirements including eliminating problems experienced with the ventilation flow sensor used in the Apollo program. In the third program phase, an optimized GFI was designed by utilizing test data obtained on the breadboard unit. A prototype unit was constructed using prototype materials and fabrication techniques, and performance tests indicated that the prototype GFI met or exceeded all requirements.
Observing and Modeling Earth's Energy Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stevens, Bjorn; Schwartz, Stephen E.
2012-07-01
This article reviews, from the authors' perspective, progress in observing and modeling energy flows in Earth's climate system. Emphasis is placed on the state of understanding of Earth's energy flows and their susceptibility to perturbations, with particular emphasis on the roles of clouds and aerosols. More accurate measurements of the total solar irradiance and the rate of change of ocean enthalpy help constrain individual components of the energy budget at the top of the atmosphere to within ±2 W m-2. The measurements demonstrate that Earth reflects substantially less solar radiation and emits more terrestrial radiation than was believed even a decade ago. Active remote sensing is helping to constrain the surface energy budget, but new estimates of downwelling surface irradiance that benefit from such methods are proving difficult to reconcile with existing precipitation climatologies. Overall, the energy budget at the surface is much more uncertain than at the top of the atmosphere. A decade of high-precision measurements of the energy budget at the top of the atmosphere is providing new opportunities to track Earth's energy flows on timescales ranging from days to years, and at very high spatial resolution. The measurements show that the principal limitation in the estimate of secular trends now lies in the natural variability of the Earth system itself. The forcing-feedback-response framework, which has developed to understand how changes in Earth's energy flows affect surface temperature, is reviewed in light of recent work that shows fast responses (adjustments) of the system are central to the definition of the effective forcing that results from a change in atmospheric composition. In many cases, the adjustment, rather than the characterization of the compositional perturbation (associated, for instance, with changing greenhouse gas concentrations, or aerosol burdens), limits accurate determination of the radiative forcing. Changes in clouds contribute
40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation...
40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation...
40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation...
40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation...
40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Gas meter or flow instrumentation... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation...
A toy terrestrial carbon flow model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parton, William J.; Running, Steven W.; Walker, Brian
1992-01-01
A generalized carbon flow model for the major terrestrial ecosystems of the world is reported. The model is a simplification of the Century model and the Forest-Biogeochemical model. Topics covered include plant production, decomposition and nutrient cycling, biomes, the utility of the carbon flow model for predicting carbon dynamics under global change, and possible applications to state-and-transition models and environmentally driven global vegetation models.
Gas diffusion optic flow calculation and its applications in gas cloud infrared imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Shao-hua; Luo, Xiu-li; Wang, Ling-xue; Cai, Yi
2015-11-01
Motion detection frequently employs Optic Flow to get the velocity of solid targets in imaging sequences. This paper suggests calculate the gas diffusion velocity in infrared gas leaking videos by optic flow algorithms. Gas target is significantly different from solid objects, which has variable margin and gray values in diffusion. A series of tests with various scenes and leakage rate were performed to compare the effect of main stream methods, such as Farneback algorithm, PyrLK and BM algorithm. Farneback algorithm seems to have the best result in those tests. Besides, the robustness of methods used in uncooled infrared imaging may decline seriously for the low resolution, big noise and poor contrast ratio. This research adopted a special foreground detection method (FDM) and spectral filtering technique to address this issue. FDM firstly computes corresponding sample sets of each pixel, and uses the background based on the sets to make a correlation analysis with the current frame. Spectral filtering technique means get two or three images in different spectrum by band pass filters, and show a better result by mixing those images. In addition, for Optic Flow methods have ability to precisely detect directional motion and to ignore the nondirectional one, these methods could be employed to highlight the gas area and reduce the background noise. This paper offers a credible way for obtaining the diffusion velocity and resolves the robust troubles in practical application. In the meanwhile, it is an exploration of optic flow in varied shape target detection.
Modelling of multiphase flow in ironmaking blast furnace
Dong, X.F.; Yu, A.B.; Burgess, J.M.; Pinson, D.; Chew, S.; Zulli, P.
2009-01-15
A mathematical model for the four-phase (gas, powder, liquid, and solids) flow in a two-dimensional ironmaking blast furnace is presented by extending the existing two-fluid flow models. The model describes the motion of gas, solid, and powder phases, based on the continuum approach, and implements the so-called force balance model for the flow of liquids, such as metal and slag in a blast furnace. The model results demonstrate a solid stagnant zone and dense powder hold-up region, as well as a dense liquid flow region that exists in the lower part of a blast furnace, which are consistent with the experimental observations reported in the literature. The simulation is extended to investigate the effects of packing properties and operational conditions on the flow and the volume fraction distribution of each phase in a blast furnace. It is found that solid movement has a significant effect on powder holdup distribution. Small solid particles and low porosity distribution are predicted to affect the fluid flow considerably, and this can cause deterioration in bed permeability. The dynamic powder holdup in a furnace increases significantly with the increase of powder diameter. The findings should be useful to better understand and control blast furnace operations.
Modeling of Gas Production from Shale Reservoirs Considering Multiple Transport Mechanisms
Guo, Chaohua; Wei, Mingzhen; Liu, Hong
2015-01-01
Gas transport in unconventional shale strata is a multi-mechanism-coupling process that is different from the process observed in conventional reservoirs. In micro fractures which are inborn or induced by hydraulic stimulation, viscous flow dominates. And gas surface diffusion and gas desorption should be further considered in organic nano pores. Also, the Klinkenberg effect should be considered when dealing with the gas transport problem. In addition, following two factors can play significant roles under certain circumstances but have not received enough attention in previous models. During pressure depletion, gas viscosity will change with Knudsen number; and pore radius will increase when the adsorption gas desorbs from the pore wall. In this paper, a comprehensive mathematical model that incorporates all known mechanisms for simulating gas flow in shale strata is presented. The objective of this study was to provide a more accurate reservoir model for simulation based on the flow mechanisms in the pore scale and formation geometry. Complex mechanisms, including viscous flow, Knudsen diffusion, slip flow, and desorption, are optionally integrated into different continua in the model. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of different mechanisms on the gas production. The results showed that adsorption and gas viscosity change will have a great impact on gas production. Ignoring one of following scenarios, such as adsorption, gas permeability change, gas viscosity change, or pore radius change, will underestimate gas production. PMID:26657698
Modeling of Gas Production from Shale Reservoirs Considering Multiple Transport Mechanisms.
Guo, Chaohua; Wei, Mingzhen; Liu, Hong
2015-01-01
Gas transport in unconventional shale strata is a multi-mechanism-coupling process that is different from the process observed in conventional reservoirs. In micro fractures which are inborn or induced by hydraulic stimulation, viscous flow dominates. And gas surface diffusion and gas desorption should be further considered in organic nano pores. Also, the Klinkenberg effect should be considered when dealing with the gas transport problem. In addition, following two factors can play significant roles under certain circumstances but have not received enough attention in previous models. During pressure depletion, gas viscosity will change with Knudsen number; and pore radius will increase when the adsorption gas desorbs from the pore wall. In this paper, a comprehensive mathematical model that incorporates all known mechanisms for simulating gas flow in shale strata is presented. The objective of this study was to provide a more accurate reservoir model for simulation based on the flow mechanisms in the pore scale and formation geometry. Complex mechanisms, including viscous flow, Knudsen diffusion, slip flow, and desorption, are optionally integrated into different continua in the model. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of different mechanisms on the gas production. The results showed that adsorption and gas viscosity change will have a great impact on gas production. Ignoring one of following scenarios, such as adsorption, gas permeability change, gas viscosity change, or pore radius change, will underestimate gas production. PMID:26657698
Spenik, J.; Ludlow, J.C.; Compston, R.; Breault, R.W.
2007-01-01
The local gas velocity and the intensity of the gas turbulence in a gas/solid flow are a required measurement in validating the gas and solids flow structure predicted by computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models in fluid bed and transport reactors. The high concentration and velocities of solids, however, make the use of traditional gas velocity measurement devices such as pitot tubes, hot wire anemometers and other such devices difficult. A method of determining these velocities has been devised at the National Energy Technology Laboratory employing tracer gas. The technique developed measures the time average local axial velocity gas component of a gas/solid flow using an injected tracer gas which induces changes in the heat transfer characteristics of the gas mixture. A small amount of helium is injected upstream a known distance from a self-heated thermistor. The thermistor, protected from the solids by means of a filter, is exposed to gases that are continuously extracted from the flow. Changes in the convective heat transfer characteristics of the gas are indicated by voltage variations across a Wheatstone bridge. When pulsed injections of helium are introduced to the riser flow the change in convective heat transfer coefficient of the gas can be rapidly and accurately determined with this instrument. By knowing the separation distance between the helium injection point and the thermistor extraction location as well as the time delay between injection and detection, the gas velocity can easily be calculated. Variations in the measured gas velocities also allow the turbulence intensity of the gas to be estimated.
Long-term flow monitoring of submarine gas emanations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spickenbom, K.; Faber, E.; Poggenburg, J.; Seeger, C.
2009-04-01
One of the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) strategies currently under study is the sequestration of CO2 in sub-seabed geological formations. Even after a thorough review of the geological setting, there is the possibility of leaks from the reservoirs. As part of the EU-financed project CO2ReMoVe (Research, Monitoring, Verification), which aims to develop innovative research and technologies for monitoring and verification of carbon dioxide geological storage, we are working on the development of submarine long-term gas flow monitoring systems. Technically, however, these systems are not limited to CO2 but can be used for monitoring of any free gas emission (bubbles) on the seafloor. The basic design of the gas flow sensor system was derived from former prototypes developed for monitoring CO2 and CH4 on mud volcanoes in Azerbaijan. This design was composed of a raft floating on the surface above the gas vent to collect the bubbles. Sensors for CO2 flux and concentration and electronics for data storage and transmission were mounted on the raft, together with battery-buffered solar panels for power supply. The system was modified for installation in open sea by using a buoy instead of a raft and a funnel on the seafloor to collect the gas, which is then guided above water level through a flexible tube. Besides some technical problems (condensed water in the tube, movement of the buoys due to waves leading to biased measurement of flow rates), this setup provides a cost-effective solution for shallow waters. However, a buoy interferes with ship traffic, and it is also difficult to adapt this design to greater water depths. These requirements can best be complied by a completely submersed system. To allow unattended long-term monitoring in a submarine environment, such a system has to be extremely durable. Therefore, we focussed on developing a mechanically and electrically as simple setup as possible, which has the additional advantage of low cost. The system
Modeling of gas turbine fuel nozzle spray
Rizk, N.K.; Chin, J.S.; Razdan, M.K.
1997-01-01
Satisfactory performance of the gas turbine combustor relies on the careful design of various components, particularly the fuel injector. It is, therefore, essential to establish a fundamental basis for fuel injection modeling that involves various atomization processes. A two-dimensional fuel injection model has been formulated to simulate the airflow within and downstream of the atomizer and address the formation and breakup of the liquid sheet formed at the atomizer exit. The sheet breakup under the effects of airblast, fuel pressure, or the combined atomization mode of the air-assist type is considered in the calculation. The model accounts for secondary breakup of drops and the stochastic Lagrangian treatment of spray. The calculation of spray evaporation addresses both droplet heat-up and steady-state mechanisms, and fuel vapor concentration is based on the partial pressure concept. An enhanced evaporation model has been developed that accounts for multicomponent, finite mass diffusivity and conductivity effects, and addresses near-critical evaporation. The present investigation involved predictions of flow and spray characteristics of two distinctively different fuel atomizers under both nonreacting and reacting conditions. The predictions of the continuous phase velocity components and the spray mean drop sizes agree well with the detailed measurements obtained for the two atomizers, which indicates the model accounts for key aspects of atomization. The model also provides insight into ligament formation and breakup at the atomizer exit and the initial drop sizes formed in the atomizer near field region where measurements are difficult to obtain. The calculations of the reacting spray show the fuel-rich region occupied most of the spray volume with two-peak radial gas temperature profiles. The results also provided local concentrations of unburned hydrocarbon and CO in atomizer flowfield.
Modeling gas-liquid head performance of electrical submersible pumps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Datong
The objectives of this study are to develop a simple and accurate theoretical model and to implement the model into a computational tool to predict Electrical Submersible Pumps (ESP) head performance under two-phase flow conditions. A new two-phase model including a set of one-dimensional mass and momentum balance equations was developed. The derived gas-liquid momentum equations along pump channels has improved Sachdeva (1992, 1994)'s model in petroleum industry and generalized Minemura (1998)'s model in nuclear industry. The resulting pressure ODE for frictionless incompressible single-phase flow is consistent with the pump Euler equation. In the two-phase momentum equations, new models for wall frictional losses for each phase, through using gas-liquid stratified assumption and existing correlations for impeller rotating effect, channel curvature effect, and channel cross section effect, have been proposed. New equations for radius of curvature along ESP channels, used in the curvature effect calculation, have been derived. A new shock loss model incorporating rotational speeds has been developed. A new correlation for drag coefficient and interfacial characteristic length effects has been obtained through fitting the model results with experimental data. An algorithm to solve the model equations has been developed and implemented. The model predicts pressure and void fraction distributions along impellers and diffusers and can also be used to predict the pump head performance curve under different fluid properties, pump intake conditions, and rotational speeds. The new two-phase model is validated with air-water experimental data. Results show the model provides a very good prediction for pump head performance under different gas flow rates, liquid flow rates, and different intake pressures. The new model is capable of predicting surging and gas lock conditions.
A numerical study of two-phase flow in gas turbine combustors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tolpadi, A. K.
1992-07-01
A method is presented for computing steady two-phase turbulent combusting flow in a gas turbine combustor. The gas phase equations are solved in an Eulerian frame of reference. The two-phase calculations are performed by using a liquid droplet spray combustion model and treating the motion of the evaporating fuel droplets in a Lagrangian frame of reference. The numerical algorithm employs nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinates, a multigrid iterative solution procedure, the standard k-epsilon turbulence model, and a combustion model made up of an assumed shape probability density function and the conserved scalar formulation. The trajectory computation of the fuel provides the source terms for all the gas phase equations. Results of the application of the two-phase model to a modern GE/SNECMA single annular CFM56 turbofan engine combustor are reported.
Shock Structure Analysis and Aerodynamics in a Weakly Ionized Gas Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saeks, R.; Popovic, S.; Chow, A. S.
2006-01-01
The structure of a shock wave propagating through a weakly ionized gas is analyzed using an electrofluid dynamics model composed of classical conservation laws and Gauss Law. A viscosity model is included to correctly model the spatial scale of the shock structure, and quasi-neutrality is not assumed. A detailed analysis of the structure of a shock wave propagating in a weakly ionized gas is presented, together with a discussion of the physics underlying the key features of the shock structure. A model for the flow behind a shock wave propagating through a weakly ionized gas is developed and used to analyze the effect of the ionization on the aerodynamics and performance of a two-dimensional hypersonic lifting body.
A Baroclinic Model of turbulent dusty flows
Kuhl, A.L.
1992-04-01
The problem considered here is the numerical simulation of the turbulent dusty flow induced by explosions over soil surfaces. Some of the unresolved issues are: (1) how much dust is scoured from such surfaces; (2) where does the dust go in the boundary layer; (3) what is the dusty boundary layer height versus time; (4) what are the dusty boundary layer profiles; (5) how much of the dust mass becomes entrained into the dust stem; and (6) where does the dust go in the buoyant cloud? The author proposes a Baroclinic Model for flows with large density variations that actually calculates the turbulent mixing and transport of dust on an adaptive grid. The model is based on the following idealizations: (1) a loose dust bed; (2) an instantaneous shock fluidization of the dust layer; (3) the dust and air are in local equilibrium (so air viscosity enforces the no-slip condition); (4) the dust-air mixture is treated as a