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1

Liquefied natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Countries such as Abu Dhabi, Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Libya, Nigeria, Trinidat, and the Soviet Union have entered or are planning to enter the rapidly growing market for imported natural gas in Japan, the U.S., and Western Europe. The most economic method to transport natural gas across great ocean distances is to ship it in liquid form. Prior to 1977 the

1978-01-01

2

LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN CALIFORNIA  

E-print Network

Tyler Contributors Dave Maul Manager NATURAL GAS & SPECIAL PROJECTS OFFICE Terrence O'Brien, Deputy Director SYSTEMS ASSESMENTS & FACILITIES DIVISION Robert L. Therkelsen Executive Director James D. Boyd not discuss the regulation of LNG facility operations, gas pipeline construction and operation, gas quality

3

Liquefied natural gas safety research overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is a growing factor in the United States energy supply situation, both for periods of high demand, peak shaving, and for daily supply (base load). Safety has been a major issue in its acceptance by the public, the government, and industry. Perhaps because of this, industry and government have undertaken programs of research, development, testing, and

A. L. Schneider

1978-01-01

4

Bibliography on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximately 600 citations concerning safety of liquefied natural gas and liquid methane are presented. Each entry includes the title, author, abstract, source, description of figures, key references, and major descriptors for retrieving the document. An author index is provided as well as an index of descriptors.

Ordin, P. M.

1976-01-01

5

Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status and Outlook, The  

EIA Publications

The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook was undertaken to characterize the global liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and to examine recent trends and future prospects in the LNG market.

2003-01-01

6

Fuel tank for liquefied natural gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A storage tank is provided for storing liquefied natural gas on, for example, a motor vehicle such as a bus or truck. The storage tank includes a metal liner vessel encapsulated by a resin-fiber composite layer. A foam insulating layer, including an outer protective layer of epoxy or of a truck liner material, covers the composite layer. A non-conducting protective coating may be painted on the vessel between the composite layer and the vessel so as to inhibit galvanic corrosion.

DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

7

Development of a thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier.  

SciTech Connect

Praxair, in conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is developing a new technology, thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators, for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems will be developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed. In February 2001 Praxair, Inc. purchased the acoustic heat engine and refrigeration development program from Chart Industries. Chart (formerly Cryenco, which Chart purchased in 1997) and Los Alamos had been working on the technology development program since 1994. The purchase included assets and intellectual property rights for thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse tube refrigerators (TADOPTR), a new and revolutionary Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engine (TASHE) technology, aspects of Orifice Pulse Tube Refrigeration (OPTR) and linear motor compressors as OPTR drivers. Praxair, in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the licensor of the TADOPTR and TASHE patents, is continuing the development of TASHE-OPTR natural gas powered, natural gas liquefiers. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at -161 C (-259 F) at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 TADOPTR invention by Drs. Greg Swift (LANL) and Ray Radebaugh (NIST) demonstrated the first technology to produce cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators use acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The basic driver and refrigerator consist of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. The liquefier development program is divided into two components: Thermoacoustically driven refrigerators and linear motor driven refrigerators (LOPTRs). LOPTR technology will, for the foreseeable future, be limited to natural gas liquefaction capacities on the order of hundreds of gallons per day. TASHE-OPTR technology is expected to achieve liquefaction capacities of tens of thousands of gallons per day. This paper will focus on the TASHE-OPTR technology because its natural gas liquefaction capacity has greater market opportunity. LOPTR development will be mentioned briefly. The thermoacoustically driven refrigerator development program is now in the process of demonstrating the technology at a capacity of about 500 gallon/day (gpd) i.e., approximately 42,000 standard cubic feet/day, which requires about 7 kW of refrigeration power. This capacity is big enough to illuminate the issues of large-scale acoustic liquefaction at reasonable cost and to demonstrate the liquefaction of about 70% of an input gas stream, while burning about 30%. Subsequent to this demonstration a system with a capacity of approximately 10{sup 6} standard cubic feet/day (scfd) = 10,000 gpd with a projected liquefaction rate of about 85% of the input gas stream will be developed. When commercialized, the TASHE-OPTRs will be a totally new type of heat-driven cryogenic refrigerator, with projected low manufacturing cost, high reliability, long life, and low maintenance. A TASHE-OPTR will be able to liquefy a broad range of gases, one of the most important being natural gas (NG). Potential NG applications range from distributed liquefaction of pipeline gas as fuel for heavy-duty fleet and long haul vehicles to large-scale liquefaction at on-shore and offshore gas wellheads. An alternative to the thermoacoustic driver, but with many similar technical and market advantages, is the linear motor compressor. Linear motors convert electrical power directly into oscillating linear, or axial, motion. Attachment of a piston to the oscillator results in a direct drive compressor. Such a compressor

Wollan, J. J. (John J.); Swift, G. W. (Gregory W.); Backhaus, S. N. (Scott N.); Gardner, D. L. (David L.)

2002-01-01

8

Conceptual Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminal design for Kuwait  

E-print Network

This research study investigated a new conceptual design for a modular structural configuration incorporating storage for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) within the base of the platform structure. The structure, referred to as a modified gravity base...

Aljeeran, Fares

2006-08-16

9

Power conversion system utilizing reversible energy of liquefied natural gas  

SciTech Connect

A power conversion system comprising a combination of a liquefied natural gas vaporizing plant and a fuel burning power generating facility is disclosed. The liquefied natural gas vaporizing plant utilizes the cryogenic capacity of the liquefied natural gas to produce liquid air which is pumped to a high pressure by a liquid air pump. The liquid air is then brought into a heat exchanging relationship with air drawn into the vaporizing plant so that the high pressure liquid air is converted to high pressure gaseous air. The high pressure gaseous air which represents recovered reversible energy of the liquefied natural gas is fed into a combustion chamber of the fuel burning power generating plant. Since the power generating facility requires no significant output of power to drive a compressor to compress ambient air prior to its entry into the combustion chamber, the power generating facility is operated at a high efficiency.

Hoskinson, R.L.

1982-05-18

10

Simulation and integration of liquefied natural gas (lng) processes  

E-print Network

natural gas is the form (phase) at which it should be delivered. Natural gas may be supplied to the consumers as a compressed gas through pipelines. Another common form is to be compressed, refrigerated and supplied as a liquid known as liquefied natural...

Al-Sobhi, Saad Ali

2009-05-15

11

Promising technology for recovery and use of liquefied natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of liquefied natural gas is proposed as an alternative to motor fuel. Technology for recovering liquid natural gas based\\u000a on the principle of internal gas cooling in a turbo-expander, and the equipment required for its use in internal combustion\\u000a engines are considered.

E. B. Fedorova; V. V. Fedorov; A. D. Shakhov

2009-01-01

12

Probabilistic analysis of a liquefied natural gas storage tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied Natural Gas transport and storage has become very important due to its ability to occupy 1\\/600th of the volume that compressed natural gas would occupy at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. In the present work, an LNG storage tank has been computationally simulated and probabilistically evaluated in view of the several uncertainties in the fluid, structural, material and thermal

Rama Subba Reddy Gorla

2010-01-01

13

Liquefied natural gas: safety issues, public concerns, and decision making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas is an important, widely used fossil fuel which is convenient and relatively non-polluting. Because U.S. domestic suppliers have been declining since 1972, suppliers have sought to import additional gas in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG), which is 1\\/600 the volume of natural gas and is therefore convenient for transportation and storage. If present plans and proposals

A. J. Van Horn; R. Wilson

1976-01-01

14

Development of a thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Praxair, in conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is developing a new technology, thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators, for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons\\/day, has been built and tested. The power

John J. Wollan; Gregory W. Swift; S. N. Backhaus; D. L. Gardner

2002-01-01

15

Liquefied Natural Gas: Global Challenges (released in AEO2008)  

EIA Publications

U.S. imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in 2007 were more than triple the 2000 total, and they are expected to grow in the long term as North Americas conventional natural gas production declines. With U.S. dependence on LNG imports increasing, competitive forces in the international markets for natural gas in general and LNG in particular will play a larger role in shaping the U.S. market for LNG. Key factors currently shaping the future of the global LNG market include the evolution of project economics, worldwide demand for natural gas, government policies that affect the development and use of natural resources in countries with LNG facilities, and changes in seasonal patterns of LNG trade.

2008-01-01

16

40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620...engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all...operate solely on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have...

2013-07-01

17

40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620...engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all...operate solely on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have...

2012-07-01

18

40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620...engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all...operate solely on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have...

2010-07-01

19

40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620...engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all...operate solely on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have...

2011-07-01

20

33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum...Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum...tankers during their inbound and outbound transits through Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips...

2010-07-01

21

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Vapor Dispersion Modeling with Computational Fluid Dynamics Codes  

E-print Network

Federal regulation 49 CFR 193 and standard NFPA 59A require the use of validated consequence models to determine the vapor cloud dispersion exclusion zones for accidental liquefied natural gas (LNG) releases. For modeling purposes, the physical...

Qi, Ruifeng

2012-10-19

22

75 FR 19954 - Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application...SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy...Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room...

2010-04-16

23

75 FR 60095 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application...SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy...Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room...

2010-09-29

24

75 FR 38092 - The Dow Chemical Company; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application...SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy...Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room...

2010-07-01

25

Study of the Effects of Obstacles in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Vapor Dispersion using CFD Modeling  

E-print Network

STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF OBSTACLES IN LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) VAPOR DISPERSION USING CFD MODELING A Thesis by ROBERTO EDUARDO RUIZ VASQUEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2012 Major Subject: Safety Engineering 2 Study of the Effects of Obstacles in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Vapor Dispersion using...

Ruiz Vasquez, Roberto

2012-10-19

26

Forced Dispersion of Liquefied Natural Gas Vapor Clouds with Water Spray Curtain Application  

E-print Network

FORCED DISPERSION OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS VAPOR CLOUDS WITH WATER SPRAY CURTAIN APPLICATION A Dissertation by MORSHED ALI RANA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2009 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering FORCED DISPERSION OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS VAPOR CLOUDS WITH WATER SPRAY CURTAIN APPLICATION A Dissertation by MORSHED ALI RANA...

Rana, Morshed A.

2011-02-22

27

Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing share of natural gas supplies distributed to residential appliances in the U.S. may come from liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports. The imported gas will be of a higher Wobbe number than domestic gas, and there is concern that it could produce more pollutant emissions at the point of use. This report will review recently undertaken studies, some of

Alex Lekov; Andy Sturges; Gabrielle Wong-Parodi

2009-01-01

28

Fault-tree analysis for liquefied natural gas terminal emergency shutdown system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas, one of the cleanest, most efficient and useful of all energy sources, is a vital component of the world’s supply of energy. To make natural gas more convenient for storage and transportation, it is refined and condensed into a liquid called liquefied natural gas (LNG). In a LNG site, safety is a long-team and critical issue. The emergency

Shuenn-ren Cheng; Binshan Lin; Bi-min Hsu; Ming-hung Shu

2009-01-01

29

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve and liquefied natural gas supplies. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States is planning to import liquefied natural gas (LNG) to offset the effects of our apparent dwindling natural gas supply. These imports would begin by the 1980s and would come from Algeria, Indonesia, Pakistan, Iran, Nigeria, and possibly the Soviet Union. If a disruption in LNG supplies were to occur, the impact to the nation could be eased

R. J. Fink; B. A. Bancroft; T. M. Palmieri

1977-01-01

30

76 FR 2093 - Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application...SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy...Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room...

2011-01-12

31

The prospects for liquefied natural gas development in the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of our paper is to analyze the prospects for LNG development in the US. In particular, we discuss LNG investment projects with respect to natural gas supply and demand, existing transmission infrastructure, and competing pipeline projects. At the same time potential competition between natural gas and coal in power generation is taken into account. We conclude that in

Sophia Ruester; Anne Neumann

2008-01-01

32

Impact of Liquefied Natural Gas usage and payload size on Hybrid Wing Body aircraft fuel efficiency  

E-print Network

This work assessed Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft in the context of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) fuel usage and payload/range scalability at three scales: H1 (B737), H2 (B787) and H3 (B777). The aircraft were optimized for ...

Mody, Pritesh (Pritesh Chetan)

2010-01-01

33

Hazards to nuclear power plants from large liquefied natural gas (LNG) spills on water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hazards to nuclear power plants arising from large spills of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on water transportation routes are treated by deterministic analytical procedures. Global models, which address the salient features of the LNG spill phenomena are used in the analysis. A coupled computational model for the combined LNG spill, spreading, and fire scenario is developed. To predict the

C. A. Kot; T. V. Eichler; A. H. Wiedermann; R. Pape; M. G. Srinivasan

1981-01-01

34

Control of Vapor Dispersion and Pool Fire of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) with Expansion Foam  

E-print Network

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is flammable when it forms a 5 – 15 percent volumetric concentration mixture with air at atmospheric conditions. When the LNG vapor comes in contact with an ignition source, it may result in fire and/or explosion. Because...

Yun, Geun Woong

2011-10-21

35

Offshore Threats: Liquefied Natural Gas, Terrorism, and Environmental Debate in Connecticut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broadwater Energy is one of a number of recent proposals to construct a liquefied natural gas facility along the East Coast of the United States. The proposal calls for the construction of an import and regasification terminal in Long Island Sound, roughly halfway between the states of New York and Connecticut. First made public in 2004 by its sponsors, TransCanada

Blake Harrison

2008-01-01

36

Development status of liquefied natural gas industry in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the significant economic growth in China, energy related environmental issues become more and more serious. Most of air pollutants are produced by burning coal. In order to achieve a sustainable balance between economic growth and environmental protection, China has been taking measures to expand the role played by natural gas, especially since the beginning of the 21st century. As

Guo-Hua Shi; You-Yin Jing; Song-Ling Wang; Xu-Tao Zhang

2010-01-01

37

Experimental plan for 40-m/sup 3/ liquefied natural gas (LNG) dispersion tests. 1981 tests  

SciTech Connect

Details on instruments and types of tests to be performed in the study of liquefied natural gas dispersion at the China Lake Naval Weapons Center are presented. Possible scheduling of the tests to coincide with the closing of the spill facility is discussed. The experiments will be a continuation of those conducted earlier on gas dispersion. The investigation will be expanded into studies on rapid phase transformation explosions. Combustion and dispersion measurements will be made during vapor cloud fires. (DMC)

Koopman, R.P.; Lind, C.D.

1981-04-01

38

Liquefied natural gas as a transportation fuel for heavy-duty trucks: Volume I  

SciTech Connect

This document contains Volume 1 of a three-volume manual designed for use with a 2- to 3-day liquefied natural gas (LNG) training course. Transportation and off-road agricultural, mining, construction, and industrial applications are discussed. This volume provides a brief introduction to the physics and chemistry of LNG; an overview of several ongoing LNG projects, economic considerations, LNG fuel station technology, LNG vehicles, and a summary of federal government programs that encourage conversion to LNG.

NONE

1997-12-01

39

Crack growth and fracture of thick 5083-O plate under liquefied natural gas ship spectrum loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are presented on the growth rate of surface flaws and through cracks in thick aluminum alloy 5083-O plate for spherical liquefied natural gas (LNG) cargo tanks. Tests were made using 135-mm (5.3-in.) thick specimens loaded so as to simulate the bending and membrane stresses in the equatorial ring and 43-mm (1³\\/â-in.) thick specimens loaded to simulate the membrane stresses

R. A. Kelsey; R. H. Wygonik; P. Tenge

1975-01-01

40

From NIMBY to NIABY: regional mobilization against liquefied natural gas in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only sometimes do environmental protests that begin as not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) objections to proposed facilities become translated into more universal not-in-anyone's-backyard (NIABY) mobilizations. An examination of opposition to liquefied natural gas (LNG) receiving terminals in the United States shows evidence of regional mobilization in the Gulf and West Coasts, but not in the Northeast. Opposition to LNG facilities in the United

Hilary Schaffer Boudet

2011-01-01

41

The application of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) to suppress LNG vapor and LNG pool fire thermal radiation  

E-print Network

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) hazards include LNG flammable vapor dispersion and LNG pool fire thermal radiation. A large LNG pool fire emits high thermal radiation thus preventing fire fighters from approaching and extinguishing the fire. One...

Suardin, Jaffee Arizon

2009-05-15

42

On the application of computational fluid dynamics codes for liquefied natural gas dispersion.  

SciTech Connect

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are increasingly being used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry to predict natural gas dispersion distances. This paper addresses several issues regarding the use of CFD for LNG dispersion such as specification of the domain, grid, boundary and initial conditions. A description of the k-{var_epsilon} model is presented, along with modifications required for atmospheric flows. Validation issues pertaining to the experimental data from the Burro, Coyote, and Falcon series of LNG dispersion experiments are also discussed. A description of the atmosphere is provided as well as discussion on the inclusion of the Coriolis force to model very large LNG spills.

Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Koopman, Ronald P. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Ermak, Donald (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA)

2006-02-01

43

The liquefied natural gas pipeline: a system study  

E-print Network

and will continue to do so until a suitable replacement for the internal combustion engine is found. Synthetic gas and liquids from coal and shale oil will enter the picture on a limited scale by 1980 and could drastically affect the entire domestic energy pic... pipeline [10] is one possible long distance application and is enhanced by the large quantities of gas involved and the sparsely populated area allowing reduced safety factors and low cost. Shorter lines might find use in conjunction with LNG tanker...

Hazel, Thomas Ray

2012-06-07

44

Development of a Small-Scale Natural Gas Liquefier. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This final report describes the progress during the contract period March 1, 1998 through April 30, 2003, on the design, development, and testing of a novel mixed-refrigerant-based 1000 gal/day natural gas liquefier, together with the associated gas cleanup equipment. Based on the work, it is concluded that a cost-effective 1000 gal/day liquefaction system is technically and economically feasible. A unit based on the same developed technology, with 5000 gal/day capacity, would have much improved economics.

Kountz, K.; Kriha, K.; Liss, W.; Perry, M.; Richards, M.; Zuckerman, D.

2003-04-30

45

Study on Solidification of CO2 by using Cold Energy of Liquefied Natural Gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In conventional natural gas combustion power plants, vaporization heat of liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been supplied by sea water and/or air. In the plants, cold vaporization energy has been lost without any effective utilization. An advanced technology has been developed in which carbon dioxide in the flue gas is solidified and separated as dry-ice. Carbon dioxide in the flue gas of a LNG combined cycle is cooled and solidified by the evaporation of LNG. Fundamental studies on fluidized bed heat exchanger were carried out to analyze heat transfer phenomena at low temperature. And the fluidized bed type heat exchanger was confirmed that they had high efficiency by striping off frost solidified on the surface of heat exchanger tube. The heat transfer coefficient at -135°C was calculated about 330-370 (W/m2•K) at the condition where C02 gas was solidified.

Takeuchi, Yoshiyuki; Fujiwara, Atsushi

46

Effect of Increased Levels of Liquefied Natural Gas Exports on U.S. Energy Markets  

EIA Publications

This report responds to a May 29, 2014 request from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE) for an update of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) January 2012 study of liquefied natural gas (LNG) export scenarios. This updated study, like the prior one, is intended to serve as an input to be considered in the evaluation of applications to export LNG from the United States under Section 3 of the Natural Gas Act, which requires DOE to grant a permit to export domestically produced natural gas unless it finds that such action is not consistent with the public interest. Appendix A provides a copy of the DOE/FE request letter.

2014-01-01

47

Strategic petroleum reserve and liquefied natural gas supplies. Final report. [Impact of LNG and\\/or oil embargo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States is planning to import liquefied natural gas (LNG) to offset the effects of our apparent dwindling natural gas supply. These imports would begin by the 1980s and would come from Algeria, Indonesia, Pakistan, Iran, Nigeria, and possibly the Soviet Union. If a disruption in LNG supplies were to occur, the impact to the nation could be eased

R. J. Fink; B. A. Bancroft; T. M. Palmieri

1977-01-01

48

40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage  

...2013-07-01 true 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage...Table W-5 Table W-5 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)...

2014-07-01

49

40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage...Table W-5 Table W-5 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)...

2013-07-01

50

Thermodynamic analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) production cycle in APCI process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The appropriate production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) with least consuming energy and maximum efficiency is quite important. In this paper, LNG production cycle by means of APCI Process has been studied. Energy equilibrium equations and exergy equilibrium equations of each equipment in the APCI cycle were established. The equipments are described using rigorous thermodynamics and no significant simplification is assumed. Taken some operating parameters as key parameters, influences of these parameters on coefficient of performance (COP) and exergy efficiency of the cascading cycle were analyzed. The results indicate that COP and exergy efficiency will be improved with the increasing of the inlet pressure of MR (mixed refrigerant) compressors, the decreasing of the NG and MR after precooling process, outlet pressure of turbine, inlet temperature of MR compressor and NG temperature after cooling in main cryogenic heat exchanger (MCHE). The COP and exergy efficiency of the APCI cycle will be above 2% and 40%, respectively, after optimizing the key parameters.

Nezhad, Shahrooz Abbasi; Shabani, Bezhan; Soleimani, Majid

2012-12-01

51

Characterization of liquefied natural gas tanker steel from cryogenic to fire temperatures.  

SciTech Connect

The increased demand for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a fuel source in the U.S. has prompted a study to improve our capability to predict cascading damage to LNG tankers from cryogenic spills and subsequent fire. To support this large modeling and simulation effort, a suite of experiments were conducted on two tanker steels, ABS Grade A steel and ABS Grade EH steel. A thorough and complete understanding of the mechanical behavior of the tanker steels was developed that was heretofore unavailable for the span of temperatures of interest encompassing cryogenic to fire temperatures. This was accomplished by conducting several types of experiments, including tension, notched tension and Charpy impact tests at fourteen temperatures over the range of -191 C to 800 C. Several custom fixtures and special techniques were developed for testing at the various temperatures. The experimental techniques developed and the resulting data will be presented, along with a complete description of the material behavior over the temperature span.

Dempsey, J. Franklin (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Wellman, Gerald William (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Antoun, Bonnie R.; Connelly, Kevin; Kalan, Robert J. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

2010-03-01

52

Economic and environmental assessment of liquefied natural gas as a supplemental aircraft fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2013, natural gas is 70-80% cheaper than jet fuel on an energy basis. As an alternative aviation fuel, natural gas may reduce operating costs. In this paper, we assess the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a supplemental aircraft fuel in a military context, with detailed assessments of the Lockheed Martin C-130H and C-130J transport aircraft. We estimate the cost of retrofitting these aircraft to use LNG and the savings from reduced fuel expenses. We evaluate the societal impacts of LNG within a cost-benefit framework, taking into account resource consumption, human health impacts related to air quality, and climate damage. In order to compare alternative uses of natural gas in aviation, we include in our analysis Fischer-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas as a drop-in alternative. Uncertainty analysis is performed with Monte Carlo simulations. We find that aircraft operators can save up to 14% on fuel expenses (retrofit costs included) by employing LNG retrofits, with a 95% confidence interval of 2-23%. Society can also benefit by 12% (3-20%) from LNG use as a result of improved surface air quality, lower resource consumption, and net climate neutrality. These results are highly dependent on fuel prices, the quantity and cost of the LNG retrofits, and the frequency and length of missions. FT jet fuel is not cost-competitive with conventional fuel and results in increased fuel expenses by 17%. FT fuel provides marginal societal benefits relative to jet fuel.

Withers, Mitch R.; Malina, Robert; Gilmore, Christopher K.; Gibbs, Jonathan M.; Trigg, Chris; Wolfe, Philip J.; Trivedi, Parthsarathi; Barrett, Steven R. H.

2014-04-01

53

Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool.  

PubMed

With increasing consumption of natural gas, the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) utilization has become an issue that requires a comprehensive study on the risk of LNG spillage in facilities with mitigation measures. The immediate hazard associated with an LNG spill is the vapor hazard, i.e., a flammable vapor cloud at the ground level, due to rapid vaporization and dense gas behavior. It was believed that high expansion foam mitigated LNG vapor hazard through warming effect (raising vapor buoyancy), but the boil-off effect increased vaporization rate due to the heat from water drainage of foam. This work reveals the existence of blocking effect (blocking convection and radiation to the pool) to reduce vaporization rate. The blanketing effect on source term (vaporization rate) is a combination of boil-off and blocking effect, which was quantitatively studied through seven tests conducted in a wind tunnel with liquid nitrogen. Since the blocking effect reduces more heat to the pool than the boil-off effect adds, the blanketing effect contributes to the net reduction of heat convection and radiation to the pool by 70%. Water drainage rate of high expansion foam is essential to determine the effectiveness of blanketing effect, since water provides the boil-off effect. PMID:25194555

Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi; Olewski, Tomasz; Vechot, Luc; Mannan, M Sam

2014-09-15

54

AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA  

SciTech Connect

The effects of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on pollutant emission inventories and air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California were evaluated using recent LNG emission measurements by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas), and with a state-of-the-art air quality model. Pollutant emissions can be affected by LNG owing to differences in composition and physical properties, including the Wobbe index, a measure of energy delivery rate. This analysis uses LNG distribution scenarios developed by modeling Southern California gas flows, including supplies from the LNG receiving terminal in Baja California, Mexico. Based on these scenarios, the projected penetratino of LNG in the South Coast Air Basin is expected to be limited. In addition, the increased Wobbe index of delivered gas (resulting from mixtures of LNG and conventional gas supplies) is expected to cause increases smaller than 0.05 percent in overall (area-wide) emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). BAsed on the photochemical state of the South Coast Air Basin, any increase in NOx is expected to cause an increase in the highest local ozone concentrations, and this is reflected in model results. However, the magnitude of the increase is well below the generally accepted accuracy of the model and would not be discernible with the existing monitoring network. Modeling of hypothetical scenarios indicates that discernible changes to ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations would occur only at LNG distribution rates that are not achievable with current or planned infrastructure and with Wobbe index vlaues that exceed current gas quality tariffs. Results of these hypothetical scenarios are presented for consideration of any proposed substantial expansion of LNG supply infrastructure in Southern California.

Carerras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Lunden, Melissa; Singer, Brett

2011-07-01

55

Experimental and numerical investigation of the roll motion behavior of a floating liquefied natural gas system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper does an experimental and numerical investigation of the hydrodynamic interaction and the response of a single point turret-moored Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) system, which is a new type of floating LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) platform that consists of a ship-type FPSO hull equipped with LNG storage tanks and liquefaction plants. In particular, this study focuses on the investigation of the roll response of FLNG hull in free-decay motions, white noise waves and also in irregular waves. Model tests of the FLNG system in 60%H filling condition excited by both white noise waves and irregular waves combined with steady wind and current have been carried out. Response Amplitude Operators (RAOs) and time histories of the responses are obtained for sway, roll and yaw motions. Obvious Low Frequency (LF) components of the roll motions are observed, which may be out of expectation. To facilitate the physical understanding of this phenomenon, we filter the roll motions at the period of 30 s into two parts: the Wave Frequency (WF) motions and the Low Frequency (LF) motions respectively. The results indicate that the LF motions are closely related to the sway and yaw motions. Possible reasons for the presence of the LF motions of roll have been discussed in detail, through the comparison with the sway and yaw motions. As for the numerical part, the simulation of the modeled case is conducted with the help of the software SESAM®. A good agreement between experiments and calculations is reported within the scope of trends. However, the numerical simulations should be further improved for the prediction of the FLNG system in the heading sea.

Zhao, WenHua; Yang, JianMin; Hu, ZhiQiang; Xiao, LongFei; Peng, Tao

2013-03-01

56

78 FR 65427 - Pipeline Safety: Reminder of Requirements for Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Utility Liquefied...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Safety: Reminder of Requirements for Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Utility Liquefied Petroleum Gas Pipeline Systems AGENCY: Pipeline and...reminding owners and operators of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and utility liquefied...

2013-10-31

57

Application of landfill gas as a liquefied natural gas fuel for refuse trucks in Texas  

E-print Network

apparent negative impacts of these conventional fuels are global warming, poor air-quality, and adverse health effects. Considering these negative impacts, it is necessary to develop and use non-conventional sources of energy. Landfill gas (LFG) generated...

Gokhale, Bhushan

2007-04-25

58

Guidance on risk analysis and safety implications of a large liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill over water.  

SciTech Connect

While recognized standards exist for the systematic safety analysis of potential spills or releases from LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) storage terminals and facilities on land, no equivalent set of standards or guidance exists for the evaluation of the safety or consequences from LNG spills over water. Heightened security awareness and energy surety issues have increased industry's and the public's attention to these activities. The report reviews several existing studies of LNG spills with respect to their assumptions, inputs, models, and experimental data. Based on this review and further analysis, the report provides guidance on the appropriateness of models, assumptions, and risk management to address public safety and property relative to a potential LNG spill over water.

Wellman, Gerald William; Melof, Brian Matthew; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Hightower, Marion Michael; Covan, John Morgan; Gritzo, Louis Alan; Irwin, Michael James; Kaneshige, Michael Jiro; Morrow, Charles W.

2004-12-01

59

Estimated uncertainty of calculated liquefied natural gas density from a comparison of NBS and Gaz de France densimeter test facilities  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) densities can be measured directly but are usually determined indirectly in custody transfer measurement by using a density correlation based on temperature and composition measurements. An LNG densimeter test facility at the National Bureau of Standards uses an absolute densimeter based on the Archimedes principle, while a test facility at Gaz de France uses a correlation method based on measurement of composition and density. A comparison between these two test facilities using a portable version of the absolute densimeter provides an experimental estimate of the uncertainty of the indirect method of density measurement for the first time, on a large (32 L) sample. The two test facilities agree for pure methane to within about 0.02%. For the LNG-like mixtures consisting of methane, ethane, propane, and nitrogen with the methane concentrations always higher than 86%, the calculated density is within 0.25% of the directly measured density 95% of the time.

Siegwarth, J.D.; LaBrecque, J.F.; Roncier, M.; Philippe, R.; Saint-Just, J.

1982-12-16

60

Evaporation of liquefied natural gas in conditions of compact storage containers heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identical by its power, but located in different parts of the external surface of the tank, the heating sources are different intensity heat transfer modes is heating up, respectively, times of vapour pressure rise to critical values. Developed mathematical model and method of calculation can be used in the analysis of conditions of storage tanks for liquefied gases.

Telgozhayeva, D. S.

2014-08-01

61

49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section 393...Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation...

2012-10-01

62

49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section 393...Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation...

2013-10-01

63

49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section 393...Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation...

2010-10-01

64

49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section 393...Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation...

2011-10-01

65

Method for liquifying natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for liquefying natural gas comprises heat exchanging a pressurized natural gas with two independent coolant circuits. The first coolant circuit pre-cools the compressed natural gas. After the natural gas is pre-cooled in the first circuit, a major portion is liquefied in heat exchange with the coolant in the second circuit while the remaining minor portion is liquefied in

Forg

1980-01-01

66

30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57.4463 Section...Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to...

2011-07-01

67

30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57.4463 Section...Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to...

2013-07-01

68

30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57.4463 Section...Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to...

2014-07-01

69

30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57.4463 Section...Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to...

2012-07-01

70

30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57.4463 Section 57...Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied...

2010-07-01

71

EXAMINE AND EVALUATE A PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy cooperative research project is to define, describe, and validate, a process to utilize salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships. The project defines the process as receiving LNG from a ship, pumping the LNG up to cavern injection pressures, warming it to cavern compatible temperatures, injecting the warmed vapor directly into salt caverns for storage, and distribution to the pipeline network. The performance of work under this agreement is based on U.S. Patent 5,511,905, and other U.S. and Foreign pending patent applications. The cost sharing participants in the research are The National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. Department of Energy), BP America Production Company, Bluewater Offshore Production Systems (U.S.A.), Inc., and HNG Storage, L.P. Initial results indicate that a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at about half the capital cost, less than half the operating costs and would have significantly higher delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. There is a significant body of knowledge and practice concerning natural gas storage in salt caverns, and there is a considerable body of knowledge and practice in handling LNG, but there has never been any attempt to develop a process whereby the two technologies can be combined. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or terrorist acts, and much more acceptable to the community. The project team developed conceptual designs of two salt cavern based LNG terminals, one with caverns located in Calcasieu Parish Louisiana, and the second in Vermilion block 179 about 50 miles offshore Louisiana. These conceptual designs were compared to conventional tank based LNG terminals and demonstrate superior security, economy and capacity. The potential for the development of LNG receiving terminals, utilizing salt caverns for storage and the existing comprehensive pipeline system has profound implications for the next generation of LNG terminals. LNG imports are expected to become an increasingly more important part of the U.S. energy supply and the capacities to receive LNG securely, safely, and economically must be expanded. Salt cavern LNG receiving terminals both in onshore and offshore locations can be quickly built and provide additional import capacity into the U.S. exceeding 6-10 Bcf/day in the aggregate.

Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; D. Braxton Scherz

2003-04-24

72

Comments on Potential Geologic and Seismic Hazards Affecting Proposed Liquefied Natural Gas Site in Santa Monica Bay, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In a letter to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) dated March 25, 2008, Representative Jane Harman (California 36th district) requested advice on geologic hazards that should be considered in the review of a proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility off the California coast in Santa Monica Bay. In 2004, the USGS responded to a similar request from Representative Lois Capps, regarding two proposed LNG facilities offshore Ventura County, Calif., with a report summarizing potential geologic and seismic hazards (Ross and others, 2004). The proposed LNG Deepwater Port (DWP) facility includes single point moorings (SPMs) and 35 miles of underwater pipelines. The DWP submersible buoys, manifolds, and risers would be situated on the floor of the southern Santa Monica Basin, in 3,000 feet of water, about 23 miles offshore of the Palos Verdes Peninsula. Twin 24-inch diameter pipelines would extend northeastward from the buoys across the basin floor, up the basin slope and across the continental shelf, skirting north around the Santa Monica submarine canyon. Figure 1 provides locations of the project and geologic features. Acronyms are defined in table 1. This facility is being proposed in a region of known geologic hazards that arise from both the potential for strong earthquakes and geologic processes related to sediment transport and accumulation in the offshore environment. The probability of a damaging earthquake (considered here as magnitude 6.5 or greater) in the next 30 years within about 30 miles (50 km) of the proposed pipeline ranges from 16% at the pipeline's offshore end to 48% where it nears land (Petersen, 2008). Earthquakes of this magnitude are capable of producing strong shaking, surface fault offsets, liquefaction phenomena, landslides, underwater turbidity currents and debris flow avalanches, and tsunamis. As part of the DWP license application for the Woodside Natural Gas proposal in Santa Monica Bay (known as the OceanWay Secure Energy Project), Fugro West, Inc., had already prepared a document discussing geologic hazards in the area, titled 'Exhibit B Topic Report 6 - Geological Resources' (Fugro West, Inc., 2007); hereafter, this will be called the 'Geological Resources document'. The USGS agreed to evaluate the information in the Geological Resources document regarding (1) proximity of active faults to the proposed project, (2) potential magnitude of seismic events from nearby faults, (3) thoroughness of the assessment of earthquake hazards in general, (4) potential hazards from ground rupture and strong shaking, (5) potential hazards from tsunamis, and (6) other geologic hazards including landslides and debris flows. Because two new earthquake probability reports were scheduled to be released in mid-April, 2008, by the USGS and the California Geological Survey (CGS), the USGS suggested a 6-month review period to enable a thorough incorporation of this new information. Twenty-seven scientists from the USGS and the CGS reviewed various sections of the Geological Resources document. This report outlines our major conclusions. The appendix is a longer list of comments by these reviewers, grouped by section of the Geological Resources document. Before discussing our reviews, we first provide a brief overview of geologic hazards in the proposed site area. This report is a snapshot in time and any future work in the area will need to take into account ongoing research efforts. For example, USGS scientists collected seismic reflection data in the spring of 2008 to study the structure and seismic potential of several faults in the area. Their interpretations (Conrad and others, 2008a and 2008b) are too preliminary to be included in this report, but their final results, along with other researchers' studies in the project area, should be considered in any future work on the Deepwater Port project.

Ross, Stephanie L.; Lee, Homa J.; Parsons, Tom E.; Beyer, Larry A.; Boore, David M.; Conrad, James E.; Edwards, Brian D.; Fisher, Michael A.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Geist, Eric L.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Hough, Susan E.; Kayen, Robert E.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Luco, Nicolas; McCrory, Patricia A.; McGann, Mary L.; Nathenson, Manuel; Nolan, Michael; Petersen, Mark D.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Powell, Charles L.; Ryan, Holly F.; Tinsley, John C.; Wills, Chris J.; Wong, Florence L.; Xu, Jingping

2008-01-01

73

Apparatus for reliquefying boil-off natural gas from a storage tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a combination of apparatus for storing liquefied natural gas which includes an insulated separation tank in which solidified carbon dioxide is settled out of liquefied natural gas and a liquefied natural gas-solidified carbon dioxide slurry accumulates, an insulated liquefied natural gas storage tank, and a conduit for delivering liquefied natural gas from the separation tank to the storage tank,

C. C. Hanke; M. Husain; Y. A. Selcukoglu

1980-01-01

74

77 FR 72840 - CE FLNG, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...up to 8 million tons per annum (mtpa) of domestically...Bcf) of natural gas per year, or 1.07 Bcf per day (Bcf/d), over...Project) to any country (1) With which the...Natural Gas Act (NGA). Protests, motions to...

2012-12-06

75

77 FR 72837 - Golden Pass Products LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries for a 25-Year Period...produced natural gas per year, equal to approximately...6 million metric tons per annum (mtpa), for...Pass, Texas, to any country (1) That has or in...Natural Gas Act (NGA). Protests, motions to...

2012-12-06

76

76 FR 76698 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application To Export Domestic Liquefied Natural Gas to Non-Free...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...82 million metric tons per year of domestically produced...billion cubic feet [Bcf] per year of natural gas...County, Maryland, to any country (1) with which the United...Natural Gas Act (NGA). Protests, motions to intervene...82 million metric tons per annum is equivalent...

2011-12-08

77

78 FR 75337 - Eos LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries for a 25-Year Period...584 billion cubic feet per year (Bcf/yr) of natural gas, or 1.6 Bcf per day (Bcf/d). Eos...to export LNG to any country with which the United...C. 717b. DATES: Protests, motions to...

2013-12-11

78

78 FR 75339 - Barca LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries for a 25-Year Period...584 billion cubic feet per year (Bcf/yr) of natural gas, or 1.6 Bcf per day (Bcf/d). Barca...to export LNG to any country with which the United...C. 717b. DATES: Protests, motions to...

2013-12-11

79

A new methodology for analyzing and predicting U.S. liquefied natural gas imports using neural networks  

E-print Network

and consumption of natural gas model predicted that in 2025 U.S. LNG imports will be about 6.5 TCF, while the other three models prediction is about three times as less. The energy stack model is the most realistic model due its non-linear trend, when the rapid...

Bolen, Matthew Scott

2005-11-01

80

40 CFR 86.157-98 - Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. 86.157-98...Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. (a) Equipment...procedure for light-duty liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles and trucks...

2012-07-01

81

40 CFR 86.157-98 - Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. 86.157-98...Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. (a) Equipment...procedure for light-duty liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles and trucks...

2013-07-01

82

29 CFR 1926.153 - Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). 1926.153 Section...Prevention § 1926.153 Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). (a) Approval of...for transportation or storing liquefied petroleum gases. (b) Welding on LP-Gas...

2012-07-01

83

29 CFR 1926.153 - Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). 1926.153 Section...Prevention § 1926.153 Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). (a) Approval of...for transportation or storing liquefied petroleum gases. (b) Welding on LP-Gas...

2013-07-01

84

46 CFR 58.16-7 - Use of liquefied petroleum gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Use of liquefied petroleum gas. 58.16-7 Section 58...MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-7 Use of liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Cooking equipment...

2010-10-01

85

46 CFR 58.16-7 - Use of liquefied petroleum gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Use of liquefied petroleum gas. 58.16-7 Section 58...MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-7 Use of liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Cooking equipment...

2013-10-01

86

46 CFR 58.16-7 - Use of liquefied petroleum gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Use of liquefied petroleum gas. 58.16-7 Section 58...MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-7 Use of liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Cooking equipment...

2011-10-01

87

46 CFR 58.16-7 - Use of liquefied petroleum gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Use of liquefied petroleum gas. 58.16-7 Section 58...MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-7 Use of liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Cooking equipment...

2012-10-01

88

33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165.110 Navigation and Navigable...Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. (a) Definitions. As used in this section—...

2010-07-01

89

33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165.110 Navigation and Navigable...Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. (a) Definitions. As used in this section—...

2011-07-01

90

33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165.110 Navigation and Navigable...Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. (a) Definitions. As used in this section—...

2012-07-01

91

33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165.110 Navigation and Navigable...Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. (a) Definitions. As used in this section—...

2013-07-01

92

Hydrogen production by steam reforming of simulated liquefied natural gas (LNG) over mesoporous nickel–M–alumina (M = Ni, Ce, La, Y, Cs, Fe, Co, and Mg) aerogel catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesoporous nickel–M–alumina aerogel catalysts (denoted as NiMAE) with different second metal (M=Ni, Ce, La, Y, Cs, Fe, Co, and Mg) were prepared by a single-step sol–gel method and a subsequent CO2 supercritical drying method. The effect of second metal of mesoporous nickel–M–alumina aerogel catalysts on their physicochemical properties and catalytic activity for steam reforming of simulated liquefied natural gas (LNG)

Jeong Gil Seo; Min Hye Youn; Yongju Bang; In Kyu Song

2011-01-01

93

18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.  

...than liquefied natural gas facilities caused by a hurricane, earthquake or other natural disaster or terrorist activity that results...liquefied natural gas facilities by reason other than hurricane, earthquake or other natural disaster or terrorist activity, the...

2014-04-01

94

18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...than liquefied natural gas facilities caused by a hurricane, earthquake or other natural disaster or terrorist activity that results...liquefied natural gas facilities by reason other than hurricane, earthquake or other natural disaster or terrorist activity, the...

2011-04-01

95

77 FR 63806 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...export up to 4 million tons per annum (mtpa) of liquefied...Bcf) of natural gas per year or 0.5 Bcf per day (Bcf/d), over...Island Terminal) to any country (1) with which the United...Natural Gas Act (NGA). Protests, motions to...

2012-10-17

96

The role of natural gas as a vehicle transportation fuel  

E-print Network

This thesis analyzes pathways to directly use natural gas, as compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG), in the transportation sector. The thesis focuses on identifying opportunities to reduce market ...

Murphy, Paul Jarod

2010-01-01

97

Apparatus for reliquefying boil-off natural gas from a storage tank  

SciTech Connect

In a combination of apparatus for storing liquefied natural gas which includes an insulated separation tank in which solidified carbon dioxide is settled out of liquefied natural gas and a liquefied natural gas-solidified carbon dioxide slurry accumulates, an insulated liquefied natural gas storage tank, and a conduit for delivering liquefied natural gas from the separation tank to the storage tank, the improvement comprising a conduit for withdrawing natural gas boil-off from the storage tank and feeding it to a compressor, a conduit for feeding compressed natural gas boil-off from the compressor to a heat exchanger for indirect heat exchange with a liquefied natural gas -solidified carbon dioxide slurry in the separation tank to cool the compressed natural gas to reliquefied natural gas, and a conduit to feed the reliquefied natural gas from the heat exchanger to the storage tank.

Hanke, C.C.; Husain, M.; Selcukoglu, Y.A.

1980-02-12

98

ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORT FUELS FROM NATURAL GAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the economics of using natural gas as an alternative fuel in transport vehicles including passenger cars, taxis, buses, and trucks. It compares the cost of using conventional fuels (gasoline and diesel) in these vehicles with that of retrofitting the vehicles and using natural gas-based fuels. These fuels include compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol,

JR. R. MORENO; D. G. FALLEN BAILEY

1989-01-01

99

29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Service Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas...the production of a specific product in which the gas is an essential ingredient or principal raw material, such as sales of...

2012-07-01

100

29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Service Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas...the production of a specific product in which the gas is an essential ingredient or principal raw material, such as sales of...

2013-07-01

101

29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Service Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas...the production of a specific product in which the gas is an essential ingredient or principal raw material, such as sales of...

2010-07-01

102

29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Service Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas...the production of a specific product in which the gas is an essential ingredient or principal raw material, such as sales of...

2011-07-01

103

29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.  

...Service Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas...the production of a specific product in which the gas is an essential ingredient or principal raw material, such as sales of...

2014-07-01

104

Turbo expanders in natural gas applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turboexpanders are proven, reliable and used widely in such natural gas applications as: ethane and propane extraction; natural gas (NG) dewpoint control; production of liquefied natural gas (LNG); flashing hydrocarbon liquids; NG pressure letdown energy recovery; and oilfield cogeneration. These applications are each discussed in this article as well as the design of a turboexpander and the various loading devices

Holm

1984-01-01

105

78 FR 75359 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Construction and Operation of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Orange...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Operation of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Orange, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...Liquefied Hazardous Gas (LHG) at its Orange, Texas facility. The Coast Guard is...INVISTA, S.a.r.l. located in Orange, Texas submitted an LOI and WSA on...

2013-12-11

106

40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.  

...false Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...32 Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...handling over 13,660 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas per month shall equip each pump...

2014-07-01

107

40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...32 Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...handling over 13,660 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas per month shall equip each pump...

2011-07-01

108

40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...32 Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...handling over 13,660 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas per month shall equip each pump...

2010-07-01

109

40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...32 Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...handling over 13,660 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas per month shall equip each pump...

2013-07-01

110

40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...32 Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...handling over 13,660 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas per month shall equip each pump...

2012-07-01

111

Natural gas liquifier based on an EGD-generator-expander  

Microsoft Academic Search

Versions are considered for preparing liquefied natural gas (LNG) in liquefiers with different cold producing units; with\\u000a a throttle valve, a vortex tube, a turbo-expander. A short analysis is given for their efficiency, and disadvantages and advantages\\u000a are noted. It is proposed to use as a cold producing unit in liquid gas liquefiers an electrogasdynamic (EGD) generator-expander\\u000a (G-E) using (utilization)

G. I. Bumagin; D. V. Borodin; A. G. Lapkova; A. E. Rakhanskii; E. I. Rogal’skii

2007-01-01

112

Evaluation of burn injuries related to liquefied petroleum gas.  

PubMed

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a fuel that is widely used for domestic, agricultural, and industrial purposes. LPG is also commonly used in restaurants, industries, and cars; however, the home continues to be the main site for accidents. In Turkey, the increased usage of LPG as a cooking or heating fuel has resulted in many burn injuries from LPG mishaps. Between January 2000 and June 2011, 56 LPG-burned patients were compared with 112 flame-burned patients. There were no significant differences with respect to the mean age, sex, hospitalization time, and mortality in both groups. In the LPG-caused burn cases, 41 burns (73.2%) occurred at home, seven (12.5) were work-related mishaps, and eight (14.3) were associated with car accidents. The majority of the LPG burns (82%, 46 patients) resulted from a gas leak, and 18% of them were related to the failure to close LPG tubes in the patients' kitchens (10 patients). Burns to the face and neck (82 vs 67%, P = .039) and upper (62 vs 23%, P = .000) and lower (70 vs 45%, P = .002) extremities were significantly higher in LPG-caused burn cases than flame-burned cases. General awareness regarding the risk of LPG and first aid for burns appears to be lacking. The LPG delivery system should be standardized throughout countries that widely use LPG. PMID:23799481

Tarim, Mehmet Akin

2014-01-01

113

Domestic liquefied petroleum gas: are we using a kitchen bomb?  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to understand the aetiological factors and pattern of burns caused by the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). This hospital based study was conducted on consecutive patients admitted with major burns from September 2011 to August 2012. The data was recorded on predesigned data sheet. Age, gender, mode of injury, its exact mechanism, place of incidence, extent of burn and inhalation injury were recorded for every patient. 182 patients with LPG related burn injury were admitted in one year. This is 11% of total burn patients received during the same period (182/1656). 147 incidents caused these burns due to gas leak from various parts of the LPG cooking system. Leakage was either from the cylinder, pipe or stove in 52%, 36% and 2% incidents respectively. Human error accounted for 3% incidents while in 7% the mechanism could not be ascertained. Leakage from 5kg cylinder with pipe was the commonest aetiological factor. There were 14 group casualties with more than one victim involved. LPG related burns are preventable to a large extent. There is a need to improve the safety standards in the LPG stove system. Public awareness needs to be improved. PMID:24480369

Paliwal, G; Agrawal, K; Srivastava, R K; Sharma, S

2014-09-01

114

Natural Gas Liquefaction Process for Small-scale LNG Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of natural gas liquefaction, the small-scale natural gas liquefier has been attracting more and more attentions home and abroad, thanks to its small volume, mobile transportation, easy start-up and shut-down, as well as skid-mounted package. A study was made to choose the optimum liquefaction process to improve the economy of small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant. The

Cao Wensheng

2012-01-01

115

Two Heat-Transfer Improvements for Gas Liquefiers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two improvements in heat-transfer design have been investigated with a view toward increasing the efficiency of refrigerators used to liquefy gases. The improvements could contribute to the development of relatively inexpensive, portable oxygen liquefiers for medical use. A description of the heat-transfer problem in a pulse-tube refrigerator is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the first improvement. In a pulse-tube refrigerator in particular, one of in-line configuration heat must be rejected from two locations: an aftercooler (where most of the heat is rejected) and a warm heat exchanger (where a small fraction of the total input power must be rejected as heat). Rejection of heat from the warm heat exchanger can be problematic because this heat exchanger is usually inside a vacuum vessel. When an acoustic-inertance tube is used to provide a phase shift needed in the pulse-tube cooling cycle, another problem arises: Inasmuch as the acoustic power in the acoustic-inertance tube is dissipated over the entire length of the tube, the gas in the tube must be warmer than the warm heat exchanger in order to reject heat at the warm heat exchanger. This is disadvantageous because the increase in viscosity with temperature causes an undesired increase in dissipation of acoustic energy and an undesired decrease in the achievable phase shift. Consequently, the overall performance of the pulse-tube refrigerator decreases with increasing temperature in the acoustic-inertance tube. In the first improvement, the acoustic-inertance tube is made to serve as the warm heat exchanger and to operate in an approximately isothermal condition at a lower temperature, thereby increasing the achievable phase shift and the overall performance of the refrigerator. This is accomplished by placing the acoustic-inertance tube inside another tube and pumping a cooling fluid (e.g., water) in the annular space between the tubes. Another benefit of this improvement is added flexibility of design to locate the warm heat-rejection components outside the vacuum vessel. The second improvement is the development of a compact radial-flow condenser characterized by a very high heat transfer coefficient and a small pressure drop.

Martin, Jerry L.

2005-01-01

116

Natural Gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural gas is a naturally occurring mixture of simple hydrocarbons and nonhydrocarbons that exists as a gas at ordinary pressures and temperatures. In the raw state, as produced from the earth, natural gas consists principally of methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H4), with fractional amounts of propane (C3H8), butane (C4H10), and other hydrocarbons, pentane (C5H12) and heavier. Occasionally, small traces of light aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and toluene may also be present.

Maddox, Robert N.; Moshfeghian, Mahmood; Ldol, James D.; Johannes, Arland H.

117

Liquefied Noble Gas (LNG) detectors for detection of nuclear materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquefied-noble-gas (LNG) detectors offer, in principle, very good energy resolution for both neutrons and gamma rays, fast response time (hence high-count-rate capabilities), excellent discrimination between neutrons and gamma rays, and scalability to large volumes. They do, however, need cryogenics. LNG detectors in sizes of interest for fissionable material detection in cargo are reaching a certain level of maturity because of the ongoing extensive R&}D effort in high-energy physics regarding their use in the search for dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. The unique properties of LNG detectors, especially those using Liquid Argon (LAr) and Liquid Xenon (LXe), call for a study to determine their suitability for Non-Intrusive Inspection (NII) for Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) and possibly for other threats in cargo. Rapiscan Systems Laboratory, Yale University Physics Department, and Adelphi Technology are collaborating in the investigation of the suitability of LAr as a scintillation material for large size inspection systems for air and maritime containers and trucks. This program studies their suitability for NII, determines their potential uses, determines what improvements in performance they offer and recommends changes to their design to further enhance their suitability. An existing 3.1 liter LAr detector (microCLEAN) at Yale University, developed for R&}D on the detection of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) was employed for testing. A larger version of this detector (15 liters), more suitable for the detection of higher energy gamma rays and neutrons is being built for experimental evaluation. Results of measurements and simulations of gamma ray and neutron detection in microCLEAN and a larger detector (326 liter CL38) are presented.

Nikkel, J. A.; Gozani, T.; Brown, C.; Kwong, J.; McKinsey, D. N.; Shin, Y.; Kane, S.; Gary, C.; Firestone, M.

2012-03-01

118

Alternative transport fuels from natural gas. Technical paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report examines the economics of using natural gas as an alternative fuel in transport vehicles including passenger cars, taxis, buses, and trucks. It compares the cost of using conventional fuels (gasoline and diesel) in these vehicles with that of retrofitting the vehicles and using natural gas-based fuels. These fuels include compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol,

R. Moreno; D. G. F. Bailey

1989-01-01

119

Ventilation of liquefied petroleum gas components from the Valley of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The saturated hydrocarbons propane and the butane isomers are both indirect greenhouse gases and key species in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Leakage of LPG and its component alkanes\\/alkenes is now thought to explain a significant fraction of the volatile organic burden and oxidative potential in the basin which confines Mexico City. Propane and the butanes, however, are stable enough to

Scott Elliott; Donald R. Blake; F. Sherwood Rowland; Rong Lu; Michael J. Brown; Michael D. Williams; Armistead G. Russell; James E. Bossert; Gerald E. Streit; Marisa Ruiz Santoyo; Francisco Guzman; William M. Porch; Laurie A. McNair; John Keyantash; Chih-Yue Jim Kao; Richard P. Turco; William E. Eichinger

1997-01-01

120

Turbo expanders in natural gas applications  

SciTech Connect

Turboexpanders are proven, reliable and used widely in such natural gas applications as: ethane and propane extraction; natural gas (NG) dewpoint control; production of liquefied natural gas (LNG); flashing hydrocarbon liquids; NG pressure letdown energy recovery; and oilfield cogeneration. These applications are each discussed in this article as well as the design of a turboexpander and the various loading devices available. Mechanical designs of low temperature, high speed machinery are routine. Stiff designs have eliminated shaft and bearing criticals in the entire operating range. Rotor resonance problems are almost totally eliminated. Thrust bearing problems can be accurately monitored and controlled. Condensing streams and some dust in gas can be handled without erosion.

Holm, J

1984-09-01

121

Epoxidized natural rubber toughened aqueous resole type liquefied EFB resin: Physical and chemical characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preliminary study on the reaction between aqueous resole type resinified liquefied palm oil empty fruit bunches fibres (RLEFB) with epoxidized natural rubber (ENR). Liquefaction of empty fruit bunches (EFB) is carried out at different ratio of phenol to EFB (P:EFB). Resole type phenolic resin is prepared using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the catalyst with the ratio of liquefied EFB (LEFB) to formaldehyde (LEFB:F) of 1:1.8. 50% epoxidation of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR-50) is used to react with resole resin by mixing with ENR with aqueous resole resin. The cured resin is characterized with FT-IR and SEM. Aqueous system have been found to be unsuitable medium in the reaction between resin and ENR. This system produced a highly porous product when RLEFB/ENR resin is cured.

Amran, Umar Adli; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua

2013-11-01

122

Odor-fading prevention from organosulfur-odorized liquefied petroleum gas  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for the prevention of odor-fading from organosulfur-odorized LPG stored in containers having active interior steel surfaces. It consists of treating the surfaces with a deactivating amount of benzotriazole, tolyl triazole, mercaptobenzothiazole, benzothiazyl disulfide, or mixtures thereof, and loading the container with liquefied petroleum gas odorized with at least one reduced organosulfur compounds containing one to five carbon atoms.

Nevers, A.D.

1987-10-20

123

Method of constructing a low temperature liquefied gas tank of a membrane type  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bridgestone Liquefied Gas Co., Ltd., developed a new method for constructing membrane-type cargo tanks for LNG tankers in which the inner membrane vessel is designed so as to subject the vessel to the most favorable stresses at low-temperature loaded conditions without complicated corrugations or convex and concave portions. The LNG tank construction consists of an outer rigid vessel, a heat-insulating

1975-01-01

124

Natural gas contracting in the '80s  

SciTech Connect

As the casinghead gas became recognized by state regulatory agencies as a valuable natural resource, they began issuing no-flare orders. This had the effect of forcing producers to shut in oil production until they made arrangements for using or marketing the gas. Low pressure gathering systems were built into the oil fields. Most of the casinghead gas produced in this country is now processed for the extraction of liquefiable hydrocarbons, and the residue gas sold to pipeline compaines. Regulations concerning casinghead gas are discussed.

La Grone, J.C.

1981-01-01

125

Underground storage tank for low temperature liquefied gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new inground LNG storage tank developed by Osaka Gas Co., Ltd., and Ohbayashi-Gumi, Ltd., is specially constructed to prevent the freezing of the soil beneath the floor slab to avoid upward stressing of the tank bottom and possible cracking. The floor slab lower floor slab consists of an upper floor slab section, upon the excavated bottom of the soil

K. Takase; H. Miyakohsi; M. Ohmura

1974-01-01

126

Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its impact on Mexico City air quality  

SciTech Connect

Alkane hydrocarbons (propane, isobutane, and n-butane) from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are present in major quantities throughout Mexico City air because of leakage of the unburned gas from numerous urban sources. These hydrocarbons, together with olefinic minor LPG components, furnish substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical reactivity, a major precursor to formation of the ozone component of urban smog. The combined processes of unburned leakage and incomplete combustion of LPG play significant role in causing the excessive ozone characteristic of Mexico City. Reductions in ozone levels should be possible through changes in LPG composition and lowered rates of leakage. 23 refs., 3 tabs.

Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

1995-08-18

127

Pennsylvania's Natural Gas Future  

E-print Network

, President #12;UGI Propane Gas & Electric Domestic International Regulated Utilities Midstream & Marketing development (safety/regulation) · Aging and limited distribution infrastructure #12;Conclusion · Gas1 Pennsylvania's Natural Gas Future Penn State Natural Gas Utilization Workshop Bradley Hall

Lee, Dongwon

128

Process for the liquefaction of natural gas  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is a process for the liquefaction of high pressure natural gas. The natural gas is expanded through a turboexpander to reduce its pressure and thereby cool it. The natural gas is then passed through a demethanizer to remove the heavier components therefrom. The natural gas is then precooled, before substantial warming occurs, by heat exchange with a C/sub 2/ hydrocarbon refrigerant, either ethane or ethylene, contained in a single refrigerant system. The precooled natural gas is liquefied by heat exchange with a mixed refrigerant contained in a mixed refrigerant system. The mixed refrigerant consists essentially of nitrogen, methane and a C/sub 2/ hydrocarbon, either ethane or ethylene. The mixed refrigerant contained in the mixed refrigerant system is cooled by heat exchange with the C/sub 2/ hydrocarbon refrigerant contained in the single refrigerant system.

Chiu, C.

1985-10-22

129

Apparatus For The Liquefaaction Of Natural Gas And Methods Relating To Same  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating

Bruce M. Wilding; Dennis N. Bingham; Michael G. McKellar; Terry D. Turner; Kevin T. Raterman; Gary L. Palmer; Kerry M. Klingler; John J. Vranicar

2005-01-01

130

Apparatus for the liquefaction of natural gas and methods relating to same  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating

Bruce M. Wilding; Dennis N. Bingham; Michael G. McKellar; Terry D. Turner; Kevin T. Raterman; Gary L. Palmer; Kerry M. Klingler; John J. Vranicar

2007-01-01

131

Apparatus For The Liquefaaction Of Natural Gas And Methods Relating To Same  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating

Bruce M. Wilding; Dennis N. Bingham; Michael G. McKellar; Terry D. Turner; Kevin T. Raterman; Gary L. Palmer; Kerry M. Klingler; John J. Vranicar

2003-01-01

132

A novel liquefied gas based oral controlled release drug delivery system for liquid drug formulations.  

PubMed

A novel liquefied gas based drug delivery system for the oral delivery of liquid and semi-solid drug formulations is presented. The capsule-shaped system is equipped with a capillary as an element controlling the release rate. The delivery mechanism is based on a constant vapor pressure produced by isopentane as a low-boiling liquefied gas. The liquid drug valproic acid (VA) was used as a model compound. The viscosity was increased by the addition of povidone (PVP). The VA-PVP gel exhibited pseudoplastic rheological properties, the shear rate was above 0.1s(-1), similar to a Newtonian liquid. The gels tested in the gas based delivery system provided near-zero-order release kinetics. The longest delivery time was up to ca. 8h. The system is characterized by high flexibility of the delivery rate, which can be achieved by adjusting system parameters such as the diameter and length of the capillary, the vapor pressure of the propellant and the viscosity of the drug formulation. PMID:22426133

Haznar-Garbacz, Dorota; Garbacz, Grzegorz; Eisenächer, Friederike; Klein, Sandra; Weitschies, Werner

2012-06-01

133

Liquefied natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, views and practices, policy and safety  

SciTech Connect

Public concern over the dangers of LNG and LPG has necessitated the publication of a set of LNG and LPG regulations covering 1) properties and hazards, 2) carrier design and construction, 3) facilities and operational controls, and 4) personnel training and qualifications. The appendixes to these rules provide answers to common questions concerning LNG and LPG, as well as a bibliography for further reading.

Not Available

1980-01-01

134

78 FR 37878 - Deepwater Port License Application: Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Port Ambrose Deepwater Port  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Application Liberty Natural Gas, LLC is proposing to...operate a liquefied natural gas (LNG) deepwater port...submitted by Liberty Natural Gas, LLC in 2010. Port...navigation areas, maritime safety and security requirements...and compliance with domestic and international...

2013-06-24

135

Natural gas annual 1996  

SciTech Connect

This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

NONE

1997-09-01

136

Natural Gas Monthly  

EIA Publications

Highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported.

2014-01-01

137

76 FR 28326 - Pipeline Safety: National Pipeline Mapping System Data Submissions and Submission Dates for Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Submissions and Submission Dates for Gas Transmission and Gathering Systems and Liquefied...advises owners and operators of gas transmission and gathering systems and Liquefied...Annual Report for Natural or Other Gas Transmission and Gathering Systems (Gas...

2011-05-17

138

Natural gas annual 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

NONE

1996-11-01

139

Natural-gas liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Casinghead gasoline or natural gasoline, now more suitably known as natural-gas liquids (NGL), was a nuisance when first found, but was developed into a major and profitable commodity. This part of the petroleum industry began at about the turn of the century, and more than 60 yr later the petroleum industry recovers approx. one million bbl of natural-gas liquids a

W. B. Blackstock; G. W. McCullough; R. C. McCutchan

1968-01-01

140

Liquefaction of remote sources of natural gas. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective was to determine the technical and financial feasibility of liquefying remote reserves of natural gas and transporting the liquefied product to users. The proposed methodology included efforts to (1) identify any prohibitive or limiting laws and/or regulations; (2) identify sufficient unutilized reserves in remote areas to justify further investigation; (3) identify existing portable liquefaction equipment (or an interested manufacturer that could supply the needed equipment) to obtain cost and performance data; (4) determine site preparation, supply and production costs for use in assessing economic feasibility; and (5) identify potential users. The conclusion is that the liquefaction of natural gas in remote areas of Appalachia is not economically feasible as long as an adequate and reliable supply of pipeline gas is perceived to be available for the forseable future and the price per Btu of pipeline gas remains so far below other fuels. 3 tables.

Rogers, D.W.

1981-12-01

141

Natural gas liquefaction processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liquefaction of natural gas using a mixed refrigerant process was first proposed by Kleemenko in 1959 [50]. Mixed refrigerant processes were subsequently adopted for the commercial liquefaction of natural gas nearly 40 years ago. Over 95% of the base-load LNG plants operate on mixed refrigerant processes, with the remaining few operating on conventional cascade processes. The enthalpy of natural gas varies nonlinearly with temperature (at constant pressure), with points of inflection on the enthalpy temperature curve.

Venkatarathnam, Gadhiraju

142

Alaskan Natural Gas Pipeline Developments (released in AEO2007)  

EIA Publications

The Annual Energy Outlook 2007 reference case projects that an Alaska natural gas pipeline will go into operation in 2018, based on the Energy Information Administration's current understanding of the projects time line and economics. There is continuing debate, however, about the physical configuration and the ownership of the pipeline. In addition, the issue of Alaskas oil and natural gas production taxes has been raised, in the context of a current market environment characterized by rising construction costs and falling natural gas prices. If rates of return on investment by producers are reduced to unacceptable levels, or if the project faces significant delays, other sources of natural gas, such as unconventional natural gas production and liquefied natural gas imports, could fulfill the demand that otherwise would be served by an Alaska pipeline.

2007-01-01

143

30 CFR 75.1106-4 - Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; general requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...gases in an underground coal mine. (b) Persons who perform welding, cutting, or burning operations shall wear clothing free...entire area within 10 feet of the worksite covered with a heavy coating of rock dust. (g) Liquefied and nonliquefied...

2010-07-01

144

46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...105-32 Section 111.105-32 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-32 Bulk liquefied...

2011-10-01

145

Nitrogen Removal From Low Quality Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas provides more than one-fifth of all the primary energy used in the United States. It is especially important in the residential sector, where it supplies nearly half of all the energy consumed in U.S. homes. However, significant quantities of natural gas cannot be produced economically because its quality is too low to enter the pipeline transportation system without some type of processing, other than dehydration, to remove the undesired gas fraction. Such low-quality natural gas (LQNG) contains significant concentration or quantities of gas other than methane. These non- hydrocarbons are predominantly nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide, but may also include other gaseous components. The nitrogen concentrations usually exceeds 4%. Nitrogen rejection is presently an expensive operation which can present uneconomic scenarios in the potential development of natural gas fields containing high nitrogen concentrations. The most reliable and widely used process for nitrogen rejection from natural gas consists of liquefying the feed stream using temperatures in the order of - 300{degrees}F and separating the nitrogen via fractionation. In order to reduce the gas temperature to this level, the gas is compressed, cooled by mullet-stream heat exchangers, and expanded to low pressure. Significant energy for compression and expensive materials of construction are required. Water and carbon dioxide concentrations must be reduced to levels required to prevent freezing. SRI`s proposed research involves screening new nitrogen selective absorbents and developing a more cost effective nitrogen removal process from natural gas using those compounds. The long-term objective of this project is to determine the technical and economical feasibility of a N{sub 2}2 removal concept based on complexation of molecular N{sub 2} with novel complexing agents. Successful development of a selective, reversible, and stable reagent with an appropriate combination of capacity and N{sub 2} absorption/desorption characteristics will allow selective separation of N{sub 2} from LQNG.

Alvarado, D.B.; Asaro, M.F.; Bomben, J.L.; Damle, A.S.; Bhown, A.S.

1997-10-01

146

Apparatus for the liquefaction of natural gas and methods relating to same  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through an expander creating work output. A compressor may be driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream.

Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID) [Ammon, ID; Carney, Francis H. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-09-29

147

Fossil Fuels: Natural Gas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the use of natural gas as an energy source. Topics include its advantages (cleanliness, fewer carbon emissions), disadvantages (difficulty in transport and storage), sources, and usage. There is also a discussion of the creation and production of natural gas, the United States' production and reserves, and some potential new sources (coal bed methane, methane hydrates). The lesson includes an activity in which students investigate porosity and permeability in simulated sediments.

Pratte, John

148

Adsorbed Natural Gas Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of adsorbed natural gas technology for the vehicle fueling sector is reviewed. It is shown that there are\\u000a solutions to the all of the problems associated to adsorption storage, and that it is possible to build a light, compact,\\u000a and efficient system for storage, distribution, and dispensing of natural gas. The practical achievement of this objective\\u000a is

José Paulo Mota

149

Evaluation of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for natural gas and LPG vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the CNG and LPG vehicles studied were converted to the alternative fuel after purchase. There are wide variations in the quality of the conversion hardware and the installation. This leads to questions

Willson

1992-01-01

150

Estimating household fuel oil\\/kerosine, natural gas, and LPG prices by census region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to estimate individual fuel prices within the residential sector. The data from four US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, residential energy consumption surveys were used to estimate the models. For a number of important fuel types - fuel oil, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas - the estimation presents a problem because these

D. A. Poyer; A. P. S. Teotia

1994-01-01

151

Forecasting Residential Natural Gas Demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Turkey, the major purpose of natural gas demand in residences is heating, where the residential gas usage is approximately 18% of total gas consumption. The studies on forecasting gas demand for future periods have a great importance because natural gas is an imported energy source. This article describes an approach to obtain appropriate models for forecasting residential monthly natural

HAYDAR ARAS; NIL ARAS

2004-01-01

152

Natural gas processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ortloff Corp.'s approach of processing natural gas by expansion in at least two stages through turboexpanders with interstage cooling results in a flexible combination of advantages that include (1) for constant recovery of desired liquids, significantly reduced energy requirements or (2) for a constant energy requirement, significantly improved yields. In addition, both advantages are possible under certain conditions. Furthermore,

R. E. Campbell; J. B. Lawrence; R. R. Tonne

1977-01-01

153

Natural Gas Annual  

EIA Publications

Provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas in the United States. Production, transmission, storage, deliveries, and price data are published by state for the current year. Summary data are presented for each state for the previous 5 years.

2013-01-01

154

US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

Not Available

1990-10-05

155

Natural gas purchases  

SciTech Connect

In the 1970`s gas and boilers were like oil and water as far as policy makers were concerned, culminating in the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act (perhaps a more appropriate title would have been the Fuel Non-Use Act or the Gas Non-Use Act). But now, the last two Administrations have made gas the centerpiece of their energy and environmental strategies, including promotion of gas use for boilers and electric generation. The FERC`s Order 636 almost completes the Commission`s restructuring of the gas industry that began with Order 380 (eliminating commodity minimum bills) and progressed sharply with Orders 436 and 500. It is Order 636 that has transformed the interstate pipeline business into a transportation business, with the pipelines virtually out of the merchant business altogether because the Commission is not resting on its laurels after completing implementation of Order 636. Rather, it is exploring new ways to expand the growing competitive market for gas, including the possibility of using market-based rates for interstate pipeline transportation services. Methods for the procurement of natural gas supplies are discussed.

Grenier, E.J. Jr. [Partner, Sutherland, Asbill and Brennan, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-09-01

156

Thermodynamic Cycle Selection for Distributed Natural Gas Liquefaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural gas liquefaction plants with cooling capacities of approximately 100 kW are facilitating the development of a distributed LNG infrastructure. To be economically viable, liquefiers of this scale must be able to operate on a variety of feed gases while offering relatively low capital costs, short delivery time, and good performance. This paper opens with a discussion of a natural gas liquefier design focusing on the refrigeration system. Linde, cascade, mixed refrigerant, and modified-Brayton cycle refrigeration systems are then discussed in context of the overall plant design. Next, a detailed comparison of the modified-Brayton and mixed refrigerant cycles is made including cycle selection's impact on main system components like the recuperative heat exchanger and compressors. In most cases, a reverse-Brayton or a mixed refrigerant cycle refrigerator is the best-suited available technology for local liquefaction. The mixed refrigerant cycle liquefier offers the potential of better real performance at lower capital costs but requires more know-how in the areas of two-phase flow and refrigerant composition management, heat exchanger design, and process control.

Barclay, M. A.; Gongaware, D. F.; Dalton, K.; Skrzypkowski, M. P.

2004-06-01

157

Method of dehydrating natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for dehydration of natural gas is provided wherein well head gas is supplied to a three-phase inlet separator, the vapor mixture of natural gas and water removed from that inlet separator means is supplied to a turboexpander, and the resulting refrigerated mixture of natural gas and condensed water vapor is supplied to a multi-phase outlet separator. The turboexpander

1985-01-01

158

Investigation of poly(o-anisidine)-SnO2 nanocomposites for fabrication of low temperature operative liquefied petroleum gas sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly(o-anisidine)-tin oxide (POA-SnO2) nanocomposites has been investigated for the fabrication of low temperature operative (100 °C) liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensor. The POA-SnO2 nanocomposites have been synthesized through an in situ chemical polymerization of o-anisidine in presence of SnO2 nanoparticles. The POA-SnO2 nanocomposite shows better LPG sensing properties than that of pure POA. The nanocomposite with 50 wt. % SnO2 exhibits an excellent LPG sensing characteristics at the operating temperature of 100 °C such as higher relative gas response (˜23.47% to 3.4% of LPG), extremely rapid response (˜6 s), fast recovery (˜33 s), good reproducibility, and remarkable selectivity. The application of POA-SnO2 nanocomposites for fabrication of the LPG sensor was demonstrated.

Patil, Dewyani; Kolhe, Kishor; Potdar, Hari S.; Patil, Pradip

2011-12-01

159

FDAS hardware and firmware description, Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Data-Acquisition System. [LNG dispersion, vapor burn experiments  

SciTech Connect

The FDAS are the front-end data acquisition units of the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Data Acquisition System (LGFDAS). They acquired data from numerous sensors during liquefied natural gas (LNG) dispersion and vapor burn experiments conducted at the Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California, in 1980 and 1981. This is a description of the hardware, functions, commands, messages, and firmware of the FDAS units.

Baker, J.

1982-03-01

160

Natural gas monthly, December 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report presents information of interest to organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data are presented on natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

NONE

1995-12-01

161

Natural Gas Exports from Iran  

EIA Publications

This assessment of the natural gas sector in Iran, with a focus on Iran’s natural gas exports, was prepared pursuant to section 505 (a) of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (Public Law No: 112-158). As requested, it includes: (1) an assessment of exports of natural gas from Iran; (2) an identification of the countries that purchase the most natural gas from Iran; (3) an assessment of alternative supplies of natural gas available to those countries; (4) an assessment of the impact a reduction in exports of natural gas from Iran would have on global natural gas supplies and the price of natural gas, especially in countries identified under number (2); and (5) such other information as the Administrator considers appropriate.

2012-01-01

162

Natural gas monthly, March 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1994-03-22

163

Natural gas monthly, August 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1993-08-25

164

Natural gas monthly, July 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1994-07-20

165

Natural gas monthly, September 1995  

SciTech Connect

The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1995-09-27

166

Natural gas monthly, April 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

NONE

1995-04-27

167

Natural gas monthly, August 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1994-08-24

168

Natural gas monthly, July 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1993-07-27

169

Natural gas monthly, May 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1999-05-01

170

Natural gas monthly, November 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1995-12-05

171

Natural gas monthly: December 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. Articles are included which are designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1993-12-01

172

Natural gas monthly, June 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1993-06-22

173

Natural gas monthly, June 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1998-06-01

174

Natural gas vs. heat pumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spokesmen for gas and electric utilities describe the relative merits of using natural gas and electric heat pumps. Both argue that their product is more economical and operates more efficiently than its competitor. Rising natural gas prices are responsible for making costs more competitive, although rates for both gas and electricity vary by region. The utilities also describe heat pump

A. M. Verrips; W. A. Canney

2009-01-01

175

Natural gas monthly, February 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

NONE

1999-02-01

176

Natural gas monthly, November 1996  

SciTech Connect

The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``US natural gas imports and exports-1995``. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1996-11-01

177

Natural gas monthly, May 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured articles for this month are: Opportunities with fuel cells, and revisions to monthly natural gas data.

Not Available

1994-05-25

178

Natural gas monthly, August 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article is on US Natural Gas Imports and Exports 1994.

NONE

1995-08-24

179

Natural gas monthly, April 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are present3ed each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas pipeline and system expansions.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1997-04-01

180

Natural gas monthly, May 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

NONE

1997-05-01

181

Natural gas monthly, December 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1997-12-01

182

Natural gas monthly, June 1996  

SciTech Connect

The natural gas monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article for this month is Natural Gas Industry Restructuring and EIA Data Collection.

NONE

1996-06-24

183

Natural gas monthly, March 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas analysis and geographic information systems.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1997-03-01

184

Natural gas monthly, September 1998  

SciTech Connect

The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1998-09-01

185

Natural gas monthly, April 1994  

SciTech Connect

The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1994-04-26

186

Natural gas conversion process  

SciTech Connect

The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

Not Available

1992-01-01

187

Natural gas monthly, October 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary of the terms used in this report is provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. 6 figs., 30 tabs.

NONE

1995-10-23

188

Natural gas monthly, February 1994  

SciTech Connect

The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The NGM also features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1994-02-25

189

Natural gas monthly, February 1996  

SciTech Connect

The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1996-03-01

190

Natural gas monthly, January 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured article for this month is on US coalbed methane production.

Not Available

1994-02-01

191

Natural gas monthly, October 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. 16 figs., 33 tabs.

Not Available

1991-11-05

192

Natural gas monthly, August 1990  

SciTech Connect

This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

Not Available

1990-11-05

193

Natural gas monthly, December 1996  

SciTech Connect

This document highlights activities, events, and analysis of interest to the public and private sector associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

NONE

1996-12-01

194

Natural Gas Imports and Exports  

EIA Publications

In the face of unprecedented levels of domestic natural gas production, net imports of natural gas into the United States fell 23% in 2012. A combination of both higher exports and lower imports led to a decline in net imports. In 2012, total imports decreased by 10% to 3,135 Bcf, while total exports increased by 8% to 1,619 Bcf.

2013-01-01

195

The state of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

As global energy demand rises, natural gas now plays an important strategic role in energy supply. It is more difficult to transport and store gas than oil and consequently it lagged behind that commodity for a considerable period. Over the last couple of decades this has changed and gas markets continue to expand more rapidly than those of other fossil

Michael J. Economides; David A. Wood

2009-01-01

196

Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions  

SciTech Connect

U.S. natural gas composition is expected to be more variable in the future. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Unconventional gas supplies, like coal-bed methane, are also expected to grow. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from existing domestic natural gas supplies. To allow the greatest use of gas supplies, end-use equipment should be able to accommodate the widest possible gas composition. For this reason, the effect of gas composition on combustion behavior is of interest. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 589K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx emissions. These results vary from data reported in the literature for some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences are discussed.

D. Straub; D. Ferguson; K. Casleton; G. Richards

2006-03-01

197

Comparative study of engine control strategies for particulate emissions from direct injection light-duty vehicle fueled with gasoline and liquid phase liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the potential of a dedicated direct injection liquefied petroleum gas (LPG-DI) vehicle, we investigated several engine control parameters that are closely related to the characteristics of mixture preparation and nano-particle emissions. The fuel supply circuit for the direct injection of LPG in liquid form was modified into a return-type system comprised of a three-way high pressure pump, a

Cha-Lee Myung; Juwon Kim; Kwanhee Choi; In Goo Hwang

198

Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report  

SciTech Connect

The Assistant Secretary for Environment has responsibility for identifying, characterizing, and ameliorating the environmental, health, and safety issues and public concerns associated with commercial operation of specific energy systems. The need for developing a safety and environmental control assessment for liquefied gaseous fuels was identified by the Environmental and Safety Engineering Division as a result of discussions with various governmental, industry, and academic persons having expertise with respect to the particular materials involved: liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and anhydrous ammonia. This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in Fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 1 (Executive Summary) describes the background, purpose and organization of the LGF Program and contains summaries of the 25 reports presented in Volumes 2 and 3. Annotated bibliographies on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety and Environmental Control Research and on Fire Safety and Hazards of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) are included in Volume 1.

Not Available

1980-10-01

199

Practical natural gas engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the author, there is no fundamental difference between the behavior of wells producing liquids and the behavior of wells producing gas. This book bridges the gap between the results of empirical testing and the theory of unsteady-state flow in porous media. It strengthens the bond between conventional reservoir engineering practices and understanding gas well behavior. Problems are included

1983-01-01

200

Natural gas monthly, August 1996  

SciTech Connect

This analysis presents the most recent data on natural gas prices, supply, and consumption from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The presentation of the latest monthly data is followed by an update on natural gas markets. The markets section examines the behavior of daily spot and futures prices based on information from trade press, as well as regional, weekly data on natural gas storage from the American Gas Association (AGA). This {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} closes with a special section comparing and contrasting EIA and AGA storage data on a monthly and regional basis. The regions used are those defined by the AGA for their weekly data collection effort: the Producing Region, the Consuming Region East, and the Consuming Region West. While data on working gas levels have tracked fairly closely between the two data sources, differences have developed recently. The largest difference is in estimates of working gas levels in the East consuming region during the heating season.

NONE

1996-08-01

201

Economics of natural gas upgrading  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas could be an important alternative energy source in meeting some of the market demand presently met by liquid products from crude oil. This study was initiated to analyze three energy markets to determine if greater use could be made of natural gas or natural gas derived products and if those products could be provided on an economically competitive basis. The three markets targeted for possible increases in gas use were motor fuels, power generation, and the chemical feedstocks market. The economics of processes to convert natural gas to transportation fuels, chemical products, and power were analyzed. The economic analysis was accomplished by drawing on a variety of detailed economic studies, updating them and bringing the results to a common basis. The processes analyzed included production of methanol, MTBE, higher alcohols, gasoline, CNG, and LNG for the transportation market. Production and use of methanol and ammonia in the chemical feedstock market and use of natural gas for power generation were also assessed. Use of both high and low quality gas as a process feed stream was evaluated. The analysis also explored the impact of various gas price growth rates and process facility locations, including remote gas areas. In assessing the transportation fuels market the analysis examined production and use of both conventional and new alternative motor fuels.

Hackworth, J.H.; Koch, R.W.

1995-07-01

202

North American Natural Gas Markets  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

Not Available

1989-02-01

203

North American Natural Gas Markets  

SciTech Connect

This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

Not Available

1988-12-01

204

Bringing Alaska North Slope Natural Gas to Market (released in AEO2009)  

EIA Publications

At least three alternatives have been proposed over the years for bringing sizable volumes of natural gas from Alaska's remote North Slope to market in the lower 48 states: a pipeline interconnecting with the existing pipeline system in central Alberta, Canada; a gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant on the North Slope; and a large liquefied natural gas (LNG) export facility at Valdez, Alaska. The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) explicitly models the pipeline and GTL options. The what if LNG option is not modeled in NEMS.

2009-01-01

205

Method of dehydrating natural gas  

SciTech Connect

A method for dehydration of natural gas is provided wherein well head gas is supplied to a three-phase inlet separator, the vapor mixture of natural gas and water removed from that inlet separator means is supplied to a turboexpander, and the resulting refrigerated mixture of natural gas and condensed water vapor is supplied to a multi-phase outlet separator. The turboexpander may have integral means for subsequent compression of the refrigerated mixture and may be coupled through reduction gears to a means for generating electricity. A portion of the refrigerated mixture may be connected to a heat exchanger for cooling the well head natural gas prior to entry into the inlet separator. The flow of refrigerated mixture to this heat exchanger may be controlled by a temperature sensitive valve downstream of the heat exchanger. Methanol may be injected into the vapor mixture prior to entry into the turboexpander. The flow of methanol into the vapor mixture may be controlled by a valve sensitive to the flow rate of the vapor mixture and the water vapor content of the refrigerated mixture. Natural gas vapor from the outlet separator may be recirculated through the turboexpander if the output water vapor content of the natural gas vapor stream is too high.

Wells, R. E.

1985-01-01

206

Natural gas pretreatment prior to liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method for pretreatment of natural gas having an elevated pressure and containing moisture and about 1.5% to 3.5% by volume of COâ prior to liquefaction of the natural gas which comprises the steps of: a. dehydrating the natural gas; b. partially cooling the natural gas by heat exchange with countercurrent streams of pretreated natural gas and

S. J. Markbreiter; I. Weiss

1989-01-01

207

A natural monopoly in natural gas transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we test for subadditivity in the cost structure associated with transporting natural gas by Trans-Canada Pipelines Ltd. and measure for possible cost savings from increased competition that could be realized by removing the monopoly status granted by the National Energy Board. In measuring subadditivity, we apply both the Baumol et al. (Contestable Markets and the Theory of

D. V. Gordon; K. Gunsch; C. V. Pawluk

2003-01-01

208

Natural Gas Monthly August 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. Explanatory notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication.

NONE

1998-08-01

209

Growing a natural gas major  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses attributes needed to succeed in the natural gas industry. Attributes identified include the ability to market multiple commodities; full integration in the midstream; an opportunistic marketing culture; and a global perspective.

Galvin, R.E.

1996-12-31

210

Costs to transport natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative Economics are discussed for transporting natural gas by four ways: converting to LNG and using LNG tankers, as a gas using on-land and subsea pipelines, converting to methanol and using conventional tankers, and compressing and using tankers with pressurized containers. Distances and routes are important factors when determining cost. Specific examples are given for transportation between : Arabian Gulf

I. Leibson; S. T. Davenport; M. H. Muenzier

1987-01-01

211

Denmark prepares for natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denmark will import natural gas from the German Ruhrgas network to reduce its dependence on oil, although oil will continue to be the major energy source. A national program of energy conservation includes conversion of oil-fired power statons to either coal or to a co-generation system with district heating and the increased use of gas to supply more of the

Jeffs

1979-01-01

212

Understanding natural gas price decontrol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of analyses concerning the natural gas market and the economy, and their reactions to change in gas prices, have been produced by government agencies, academic researchers, and consumer and industry groups. These analyses often display conflicting results because of their choices of perspective and assumptions. In response to a request from the House Subcommittee on Fossil and Synthetic

T. J. Considine; M. D. Deich; E. M. Ehrlich; P. C. Webre; P. H. ed. Johnston

1983-01-01

213

Natural gas monthly, November 1997  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through November for many data series, and through August for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the most recent data estimates are: (1) Preliminary estimates of dry natural gas production and total consumption available through November 1997 indicate that both series are on track to end the year at levels close to those of 1996. Cumulative dry production is one-half percent higher than in 1996 and consumption is one-half percent lower. (2) Natural gas production is estimated to be 52.6 billion cubic feet per day in November 1997, the highest rate since March 1997. (3) After falling 8 percent in July 1997, the national average wellhead price rose 10 percent in August 1997, reaching an estimated $2.21 per thousand cubic feet. (4) Milder weather in November 1997 compared to November 1996 has resulted in significantly lower levels of residential consumption of natural gas and net storage withdrawls than a year ago. The November 1997 estimates of residential consumption and net withdrawls are 9 and 20 percent lower, respectively, than in November 1996.

NONE

1997-11-01

214

Natural gas monthly, July 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Explanatory Notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided in the Data Sources section. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. All natural gas volumes are reported at a pressure base of 14.73 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) and at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Cubic feet are converted to cubic meters by applying a factor of 0.02831685.

NONE

1995-07-21

215

Apparatus For The Liquefaaction Of Natural Gas And Methods Relating To Same  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating work output. A compressor is driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream. Additional features and techniques may be integrated with the liquefaction process including a water clean-up cycle and a carbon dioxide (CO2) clean-up cycle.

Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID); Rateman, Kevin T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Palmer, Gary L. (Shelley, ID); Klinger, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Vranicar, John J. (Concord, CA)

2005-11-08

216

Apparatus For The Liquefaaction Of Natural Gas And Methods Relating To Same  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating work output. A compressor is driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream. Additional features and techniques may be integrated with the liquefaction process including a water clean-up cycle and a carbon dioxide (CO2) clean-up cycle.

Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID); Raterman, Kevin T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Palmer, Gary L. (Shelley, ID); Klingler, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Vranicar, John J. (Concord, CA)

2005-05-03

217

Apparatus for the liquefaction of natural gas and methods relating to same  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating work output. A compressor is driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream. Additional features and techniques may be integrated with the liquefaction process including a water clean-up cycle and a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) clean-up cycle.

Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID); Raterman, Kevin T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Palmer, Gary L. (Shelley, ID); Klingler, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Vranicar, John J. (Concord, CA)

2007-05-22

218

Apparatus For The Liquefaaction Of Natural Gas And Methods Relating To Same  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating work output. A compressor is driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream. Additional features and techniques may be integrated with the liquefaction process including a water clean-up cycle and a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) clean-up cycle.

Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID); Raterman, Kevin T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Palmer, Gary L. (Shelley, ID); Klingler, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Vranicar, John J. (Concord, CA)

2003-06-24

219

Carbon dioxide power cycles using liquid natural gas as heat sink  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is recognized as a source of usable cryogenic exergy for power cycles. The performance of conventional cycles are calculated. A binary steam–Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) at 550°C has an efficiency of about 52%, somewhat higher than that of a nitrogen Brayton cycle (50.7% at 700°C). Carbon dioxide is recognized as an almost ideal medium for implementing

Gianfranco Angelino; Costante M. Invernizzi

2009-01-01

220

Apparatus and method for gelling liquefied gasses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus for gelling liquid propane and other liquefied gasses includes a temperature controlled churn mixer, vacuum pump, liquefied gas transfer tank, and means for measuring amount of material entering the mixer. The apparatus and method are particularly useful for the production of high quality rocket fuels and propellants.

Elliott, Adam (Inventor); DiSalvo, Roberto (Inventor); Shepherd, Phillip (Inventor); Kosier, Ryan (Inventor)

2011-01-01

221

Natural gas monthly, February 1993  

SciTech Connect

This issue contains monthly data for the entire year 1992 and allows comparing this year with the previous years. Marketed production of natural gas remained at approximately the same level as in 1991, 18.6 trillion cubic feet. Marketed production has changed very little in the past 3 years, with only a 3-percent difference since 1989. Consumption of natural gas has also increased each year for the past 7 years. In 1992, the level of consumption increased by approximately 4 percent from the previous years. Imports have steadily increased over the past 7 years. Imports of natural gas in 1992 are approximately 16 percent above the 1991 level. The Iroquois Gas Transmission Line, extending from the Canadian border in New York to Long Island, accounts for a large part of this increase. This pipeline went into service in December 1991.

Not Available

1993-02-26

222

Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.

Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.

2007-03-01

223

Effect of parasitic refrigeration on the efficiency of magnetic liquefiers  

SciTech Connect

Our studies have shown that magnetic refrigerators have the potential to liquefy cryogens very efficiently. High efficiency is especially important for liquid hydrogen and natural gas applications where the liquefaction costs are a significant fraction of the total liquid cost. One of the characteristics of magnetic refrigerators is the requirement for a high-field superconducting magnet. Providing a 4.2-K bath for this magnet will require a small amount of parasitic refrigeration at 4.2 K even though the rest of the liquefier may be at 110 K (liquid natural gas) or higher. For several different refrigeration power levels at 4.2 K, we have calculated the efficiency of the magnetic liquefier as a function of power, temperature and the 4.2-K refrigerator efficiency. The results show that if the ratio of the thermal load at 4.2 K to the main refrigerator power is 0.001 or less, the effect on the efficiency of the liquefier is negligible at all temperatures below room temperature provided the 4.2-K refrigerator efficiency is high.

Barclay, J.A.; Stewart, W.F.

1982-01-01

224

Delivery of Hydrogen Produced from Natural Gas  

E-print Network

Delivery of Hydrogen Produced from Natural Gas Christopher Freitas Office of Natural Gas-derived gaseous hydrogen delivery. The focus of this presentation will be on natural gas-derived gaseous hydrogen is needed on the effects of adding hydrogen to natural gas - Feasibility of injecting hydrogen into natural

225

Asian natural gas pipeline proposed for easing energy, feedstock strains  

SciTech Connect

Nearly every country on the program at the recent Asian Natural Gas 5 Conference in Singapore reported on attempts to maximize the use of natural gas as a fuel and a feedstock. But no one made a more startling presentation than Masaru Hirata, chairman of the National Pipeline Research Society of Japan. His proposal: construct an international trunk pipeline network linking natural gas fields in Central Asia, Southeast Asia, Siberia, and North America with the main markets of Asia, primarily Japan and China. Total length -- 25,500 miles. He cites International Energy Agency data projecting a 70% increase in energy demand in the Pacific region between 1989 and 2000. Natural gas will be expected to satisfy anticipated energy needs into the next century. An important element in Hirata's thinking is the promotion of international cooperation among the beneficiaries of the network. In the Asia-Pacific region, natural gas is more plentiful than oil. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants have been built in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Australia. All of them sell LNG to Japan (the world's largest importer of LNG), South Korea, and Taiwan. Additional vast reserves are known to exist in Siberia, near Sakhalin Island, and in the western regions of China. Hirata's network is aimed at bringing the gas from these distant deposits to consumers in the coastal regions of Asia. There are six major parts to the proposed network: Turkmenistan-West China-Japan; Yakutsk-China-Korea-Japan; Alaska-Sakhalin Island-Japan; ASEAN-South China; Within ASEAN; and Australia-ASEAN. The estimated cost of the project is about $66 billion in current dollars.

Haggin, J. (C and EN, Chicago, IL (United States))

1994-06-06

226

A comparative analysis of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and kerosene related burns.  

PubMed

Previous studies from our department reflected a trend of decreasing incidence of burns culminating from rising income levels, which were bringing about a change in the cooking fuel in many urban households [1,2]. These studies also indicated a changing scenario of increased incidence of burns from LPG mishaps [2]. In the absence of much information on the subject we felt it rather imperative to comparatively study the pattern of burn injuries resulting from LPG and kerosene. This prospective study was conducted on the clinical database of consecutive patients admitted with burns sustained due to LPG and kerosene from 1st January 2009 to 31st May 2010 (17 months). Data recorded for each patient included; age, gender, religion, socioeconomic status, literacy level, type of family unit, marital status, type of dwelling unit, mode of injury and its exact mechanism, place of incident, level of cooking stove, extent of burns (%TBSA), presence of features of inhalation injury, number of patients affected in a single mishap, size of LPG cylinder used, length of hospital stay and mortality. Of 731 flame burn patients in this study, 395 (54%) were due to kerosene burns and 200 (27.4%) from LPG mishaps. Significantly, the majority of injuries, in both the groups, occurred in lower middle class families living as nuclear units, in a single room dwelling, without a separate kitchen. Majority of LPG burns (70.5%, 141 patients) resulted from a gas leak and 25.5% were from cooking negligence (51 patients). 50.5% of kerosene accidents were from 'stove mishaps' and 49% due to cooking negligence. In all kerosene accidents the stove was kept at floor level but in LPG group 20.6% had the stove placed on a platform. There was a slight difference in mean TBSA burns; 51% in kerosene group compared to 41.5% TBSA in LPG group. There were nine episodes in LPG group in which there were more than three burn victims admitted for treatment. Very importantly, 77% patients in LPG group were from a large cylinder (14.2 kg), which uses a rubber connecting tube. Mortality in kerosene group (50.6%) was far higher than in LPG group (33.5%). This study, from 200 LPG burn admissions, for the first time details the profile from LPG mishaps. It is very interesting to note that of all burns in the world the inequitable distribution bias towards LMICs (low and middle income countries) extends further towards low middle class families within the LMIC. A major risk factor is constrained living condition of a single room dwelling unit. Almost all burns from LPG mishaps were potentially preventable if more care had been practiced to ensure safety. Since majority of LPG mishaps were from gas leaks, either from the rubber tube (Fig. 1) or the stove valve, the observation of floor level cooking in 79.4% of LPG cases may be an economic compulsion of a single room dwelling unit without much impact on the injury pattern. The small LPG cylinder (5 kg) in which the burner is placed directly over the cylinder, as one unit without a connecting tube, is safer because it reduces the chances of a gas leak from an ill-fitting or a cracked rubber connecting tube (Fig. 2). PMID:21507577

Ahuja, Rajeev B; Dash, Jayant K; Shrivastava, Prabhat

2011-12-01

227

Natural gas monthly, March 1999  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly contains estimates for March 1999 for many natural gas data series at the national level. Estimates of national natural gas prices are available through December 1998 for most series. Highlights of the data contained in this issue are listed below. Preliminary data indicate that the national average wellhead price for 1998 declined to 16% from the previous year ($1.96 compared to $2.32 per thousand cubic feet). At the end of March, the end of the 1998--1999 heating season, the level of working gas in underground natural gas storage facilities is estimated to be 1,354 billion cubic feet, 169 billion cubic feet higher than at the end of March 1998. Gas consumption during the first 3 months of 1999 is estimated to have been 179 billion cubic feet higher than in the same period in 1998. Most of this increase (133 billion cubic feet) occurred in the residential sector due to the cooler temperatures in January and February compared to the same months last year. According to the National Weather Service, heating degree days in January 1999 were 15% greater than the previous year while February recorded a 5% increase.

NONE

1999-03-01

228

75 FR 53371 - Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Obtaining Approval of Alternative Vapor-Gas Dispersion Models  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Facilities: Guide to the LNG Model Validation Database, Version 11.0...assessment, model verification and model validation. The scientific assessment...model. For Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models, a grid sensitivity...

2010-08-31

229

Natural gas monthly, February 1997  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents estimates of natural gas supply and consumption through February 1997. Estimates of natural gas prices are through November 1996 except electric utility prices that are through October 1996. Cumulatively for January through February 1997, the daily average rates for several data series remain close to those of 1996. (Comparing daily rates accounts for the fact that February 1996 had 29 days.) Daily total consumption for January through February is estimated to be 83 billion cubic feet per day, 1 percent higher than during the same period in 1996. Similarly, the estimate of average daily production of 53 billion cubic feet is 1.5 percent higher than in 1996, while daily net imports during the first 2 months of 1997 are virtually unchanged from 1996.

NONE

1997-02-01

230

Natural gas hydrates: problem or opportunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas hydrates, once viewed solely as a nuisance by the gas processing industry, are rapidly gaining favorable status as an unconventional natural gas resource. Hydrates are solids which form when gas is contacted with water, both above and below 273 Kelvin. Conditions are favorable for hydrate formation in permafrost regions and in many oceans. Natural gas hydrates are solid

1981-01-01

231

Guide to new natural gas utilization technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural gas industry in the United States is undergoing a fundamental transition as the wellhead price is decontrolled. The phased decontrol of new gas under the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) has had a dramatic positive impact on the natural gas supply picture. For the first time in 15 years the U.S. gas industry - which accounts

Hay

1985-01-01

232

Separation of liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethane and other hydrocarbons of higher boiling point are separated as a liquid from natural gas to leave a gas consisting principally of methane for delivery to a pipeline. The natural gas is passed in countercurrent heat exchange with the liquid product and with the pipeline gas to cool the natural gas to a temperature at which a major part

1977-01-01

233

Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EIA attributes a more competitive industry and increases in pipeline capacity as major factors affecting increased natural gas demand in Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends. According to this recently released report, Natural gas demand has increased in the United States by fourteen percent since 1990 and electric utility consumption of natural gas rose about seventeen percent from 1990 to 1998.

234

Nitrogen removal from natural gas  

SciTech Connect

According to a 1991 Energy Information Administration estimate, U.S. reserves of natural gas are about 165 trillion cubic feet (TCF). To meet the long-term demand for natural gas, new gas fields from these reserves will have to be developed. Gas Research Institute studies reveal that 14% (or about 19 TCF) of known reserves in the United States are subquality due to high nitrogen content. Nitrogen-contaminated natural gas has a low Btu value and must be upgraded by removing the nitrogen. In response to the problem, the Department of Energy is seeking innovative, efficient nitrogen-removal methods. Membrane processes have been considered for natural gas denitrogenation. The challenge, not yet overcome, is to develop membranes with the required nitrogen/methane separation characteristics. Our calculations show that a methane-permeable membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 4 to 6 would make denitrogenation by a membrane process viable. The objective of Phase I of this project was to show that membranes with this target selectivity can be developed, and that the economics of the process based on these membranes would be competitive. Gas permeation measurements with membranes prepared from two rubbery polymers and a superglassy polymer showed that two of these materials had the target selectivity of 4 to 6 when operated at temperatures below - 20{degrees}C. An economic analysis showed that a process based on these membranes is competitive with other technologies for small streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. Hybrid designs combining membranes with other technologies are suitable for high-flow, higher-nitrogen-content streams.

NONE

1997-04-01

235

Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

This document comprises the Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan, and is a follow-up to the `Natural Gas Strategic Plan and Program Crosscut Plans,` dated July 1995. DOE`s natural gas programs are aimed at simultaneously meeting our national energy needs, reducing oil imports, protecting our environment, and improving our economy. The Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan represents a Department-wide effort on expanded development and use of natural gas and defines Federal government and US industry roles in partnering to accomplish defined strategic goals. The four overarching goals of the Natural Gas Program are to: (1) foster development of advanced natural gas technologies, (2) encourage adoption of advanced natural gas technologies in new and existing markets, (3) support removal of policy impediments to natural gas use in new and existing markets, and (4) foster technologies and policies to maximize environmental benefits of natural gas use.

NONE

1997-12-01

236

Natural gas monthly, January 1997  

SciTech Connect

This publication, the Natural Gas Monthly, presents the most recent data on natural gas supply, consumption, and prices from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Of special interest in this issue are two articles summarizing reports recently published by EIA. The articles are {open_quotes}Natural Gas Productive Capacity{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Outlook for Natural Gas Through 2015,{close_quotes} both of which precede the {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} section. With this issue, January 1997, changes have been made to the format of the Highlights section and to several of the tabular and graphical presentations throughout the publication. The changes to the Highlights affect the discussion of developments in the industry and the presentation of weekly storage data. An overview of the developments in the industry is now presented in a brief summary followed by specific discussions of supply, end-use consumption, and prices. Spot and futures prices are discussed as appropriate in the Price section, together with wellhead and consumer prices.

NONE

1997-01-01

237

GAS\\/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas\\/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas\\/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene

Howard S. Meyer

2003-01-01

238

Natural gas vehicles: An option for Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe natural gas vehicles play a minor role. A decisive reason for this is the dependence of most European countries from gas imports. Except for Italy, there is no tradition to use natural gas as fuel. In addition, there is a lack of infrastructure (e.g. fuelling stations). In contrast to Europe, in Latin American and Asian countries natural gas

Hella Engerer; Manfred Horn

2010-01-01

239

Polymeric Membranes for Natural Gas Conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

All raw natural gas needs conditioning. Polymeric membrane based gas separation processes, being cost and energy effective, environmentally friendly, as well as simple and versatile, have proven their potential as better alternatives to traditional processes for natural gas over the last three decades. In this article, the polymeric membrane based separation mechanisms for natural gas are analyzed. Two major membrane-based

H. Feng; H. Zhang; L. Xu

2007-01-01

240

Compressed natural gas measurement issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition`s Measurement and Metering Task Group (MMTG) was established on July 1st, 1992 to develop suggested revisions to National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) Handbook 44-1992 (Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Technical Requirements for Weighing and Measuring Devices) and NIST Handbook 130-1991 (Uniform Laws & Regulations). Specifically, the suggested revisions will address the sale and measurement

C. F. Blazek; J. A. Kinast; P. M. Freeman

1993-01-01

241

Meeting Asia's future gas import demand with stranded natural gas from central Asia, Russia, Southeast Asia, and Australia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This analysis shows the important contribution that stranded gas from central Asia, Russia, Southeast Asia, and Australia can make in meeting the projected demand for gas imports of China, India, Japan, and South Korea from 2020 to 2040. The estimated delivered costs of pipeline gas from stranded fields in Russia and central Asia at Shanghai, China, are generally less than delivered costs of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Australia and Malaysia are initially the lowest-cost LNG suppliers. In the concluding section, it is argued that Asian LNG demand is price sensitive, and that current Asian LNG pricing procedures are unlikely to be sustainable for gas import demand to attain maximum potential growth. Resource volumes in stranded fields evaluated can nearly meet projected import demands.

Attanasi, Emil D.; Freeman, Philip A.

2013-01-01

242

Huge natural gas reserves central to capacity work, construction plans in Iran  

SciTech Connect

Questions about oil production capacity in Iran tend to mask the country's huge potential as a producer of natural gas. Iran is second only to Russia in gas reserves, which National Iranian Gas Co. estimates at 20.7 trillion cu m. Among hurdles to Iran's making greater use of its rich endowment of natural gas are where and how to sell gas not used inside the country. The marketing logistics problem is common to other Middle East holders of gas reserves and a reason behind the recent proliferation of proposals for pipeline and liquefied natural gas schemes targeting Europe and India. But Iran's challenges are greater than most in the region. Political uncertainties and Islamic rules complicate long-term financing of transportation projects and raise questions about security of supply. As a result, Iran has remained mostly in the background of discussions about international trade of Middle Eastern gas. The country's huge gas reserves, strategic location, and existing transport infrastructure nevertheless give it the potential to be a major gas trader if the other issues can be resolved. The paper discusses oil capacity plans, gas development, gas injection for enhanced oil recovery, proposals for exports of gas, and gas pipeline plans.

Not Available

1994-07-11

243

75 FR 31430 - Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Transco's Southwest Louisiana Lateral to allow Transco to receive natural gas and regasified liquefied natural gas (LNG) in Johnsons Bayou, Cameron Parish, Louisiana, under Transco's blanket certificate issued in Docket No....

2010-06-03

244

Natural gas leakage of Mizhi gas reservoir in Ordos Basin, recorded by natural gas fluid inclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundant natural gas inclusions were found in calcite veins filled in fractures of Central Fault Belt across the centre of\\u000a Ordos Basin. Time of the calcite veins and characteristics of natural gas fluid inclusion were investigated by means of dating\\u000a of thermolum luminescence (TL) and analyzing stable isotope of fluid inclusion. Results show that natural gas inclusion formed\\u000a at 130–140°C

RongXi Li; LingJun Di; ShengLi Xi

2007-01-01

245

Natural gas 1995: Issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

Natural Gas 1995: Issues and Trends addresses current issues affecting the natural gas industry and markets. Highlights of recent trends include: Natural gas wellhead prices generally declined throughout 1994 and for 1995 averages 22% below the year-earlier level; Seasonal patterns of natural gas production and wellhead prices have been significantly reduced during the past three year; Natural gas production rose 15% from 1985 through 1994, reaching 18.8 trillion cubic feet; Increasing amounts of natural gas have been imported; Since 1985, lower costs of producing and transporting natural gas have benefitted consumers; Consumers may see additional benefits as States examine regulatory changes aimed at increasing efficiency; and, The electric industry is being restructured in a fashion similar to the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry.

NONE

1995-11-01

246

Natural Gas Ethanol Flex-Fuel  

E-print Network

Natural Gas Propane Electric Ethanol Flex-Fuel Biodiesel Vehicle Buyer's Guide Clean Cities 2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Propane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 All and emissions. Alternative fueling infrastructure is expanding in many regions, making natural gas, propane

247

Underground Natural Gas Working Storage Capacity  

EIA Publications

Working natural gas storage capacity increased by about 2% in the lower 48 states between November 2011 and November 2012, according to Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity, released by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA).

2014-01-01

248

Gas supplies of interstate/natural gas pipeline companies 1989  

SciTech Connect

This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas during calendar year 1989, for use by the FERC for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to other Government agencies, the natural gas industry, as well as policy makers, analysts, and consumers interested in current levels of interstate supplies of natural gas and trends over recent years. 5 figs., 18 tabs.

Not Available

1990-12-18

249

Natural gas depressurization power recovery and reheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for reduction in pressure of natural gas with the recovery of net power and the control of the temperature of the low pressure natural gas product by heat exchange with ambient atmosphere comprising the step of: (a) introducing high pressure natural gas at a pressure in the range of 100 to 2000 psia into an expansion

T. A. Shenoy; J. C. Tao

1987-01-01

250

Refueling stations for natural gas vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unavailability of natural gas vehicle (NGV) refueling stations constitutes one of the major barriers to the wide spread utilization of natural gas in the transportation market. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate the current technical and economic status of compressed natural gas vehicle refueling stations and to identify the components or design features that offer

C. F. Blazek; J. A. Kinast; R. T. Biederman; W. Jasionowski

1991-01-01

251

Compressed natural gas (CNG) measurement  

SciTech Connect

The increased level of environmental awareness has raised concerns about pollution. One area of high attention is the internal combustion engine. The internal combustion engine in and of itself is not a major pollution threat. However, the vast number of motor vehicles in use release large quantities of pollutants. Recent technological advances in ignition and engine controls coupled with unleaded fuels and catalytic converters have reduced vehicular emissions significantly. Alternate fuels have the potential to produce even greater reductions in emissions. The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) has been a significant alternative to accomplish the goal of cleaner combustion. Of the many alternative fuels under investigation, compressed natural gas (CNG) has demonstrated the lowest levels of emission. The only vehicle certified by the State of California as an Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) was powered by CNG. The California emissions tests of the ULEV-CNG vehicle revealed the following concentrations: Non-Methane Hydrocarbons 0.005 grams/mile Carbon Monoxide 0.300 grams/mile Nitrogen Oxides 0.040 grams/mile. Unfortunately, CNG vehicles will not gain significant popularity until compressed natural gas is readily available in convenient locations in urban areas and in proximity to the Interstate highway system. Approximately 150,000 gasoline filling stations exist in the United States while number of CNG stations is about 1000 and many of those CNG stations are limited to fleet service only. Discussion in this paper concentrates on CNG flow measurement for fuel dispensers. Since the regulatory changes and market demands affect the flow metering and dispenser station design those aspects are discussed. The CNG industry faces a number of challenges.

Husain, Z.D.; Goodson, F.D. [Daniel Flow Products, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-01

252

Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas reservoirs are obvious targets for carbon sequestration by direct carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection by virtue of their proven record of gas production and integrity against gas escape. Carbon sequestration in depleted natural gas reservoirs can be coupled with enhanced gas production by injecting CO{sub 2} into the reservoir as it is being produced, a process called Carbon Sequestration with Enhanced Gas Recovery (CSEGR). In this process, supercritical CO{sub 2} is injected deep in the reservoir while methane (CH{sub 4}) is produced at wells some distance away. The active injection of CO{sub 2} causes repressurization and CH{sub 4} displacement to allow the control and enhancement of gas recovery relative to water-drive or depletion-drive reservoir operations. Carbon dioxide undergoes a large change in density as CO{sub 2} gas passes through the critical pressure at temperatures near the critical temperature. This feature makes CO{sub 2} a potentially effective cushion gas for gas storage reservoirs. Thus at the end of the CSEGR process when the reservoir is filled with CO{sub 2}, additional benefit of the reservoir may be obtained through its operation as a natural gas storage reservoir. In this paper, we present discussion and simulation results from TOUGH2/EOS7C of gas mixture property prediction, gas injection, repressurization, migration, and mixing processes that occur in gas reservoirs under active CO{sub 2} injection.

Oldenburg, Curtis M.

2003-04-08

253

NITROGEN REMOVAL FROM NATURAL GAS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process for the denitrogenation of natural gas. Large proven reserves in the Lower-48 states cannot be produced because of the presence of nitrogen. To exploit these reserves, cost-effective, simple technology able to reduce the nitrogen content of the gas to 4-5% is required. Technology applicable to treatment of small gas streams (below 10 MMscfd) is particularly needed. In this project membranes that selectively permeate methane and reject nitrogen in the gas were developed. Preliminary calculations show that a membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 3 to 5 is required to make the process economically viable. A number of polymer materials likely to have the required selectivities were evaluated as composite membranes. Polyacetylenes such as poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) [PTMSP] and poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) [PMP] had high selectivities and fluxes, but membranes prepared from these polymers were not stable, showing decreasing flux and selectivity during tests lasting only a few hours. Parel, a poly(propylene oxide allyl glycidyl ether) had a selectivity of 3 at ambient temperatures and 4 or more at temperatures of {minus}20 C. However, Parel is no longer commercially available, and we were unable to find an equivalent material in the time available. Therefore, most of our experimental work focused on silicone rubber membranes, which have a selectivity of 2.5 at ambient temperatures, increasing to 3-4 at low temperatures. Silicone rubber composite membranes were evaluated in bench-scale module tests and with commercial-scale, 4-inch-diameter modules in a small pilot plant. Over six days of continuous operation at a feed gas temperature of {minus}5 to {minus}10 C, the membrane maintained a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 3.3. Based on the pilot plant performance data, an analysis of the economic potential of the process was prepared. We conclude that a stand-alone membrane process is the lowest-cost technology for small gas streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. The membrane process can recover more than 60-70% of the hydrocarbon content of the gas at a cost of $0.60-0.70/Mscfd. The capital cost of the process is about $100-200/Mscf. A number of small operators appear to be ready to use the technology if these costs can be demonstrated in the field. A second, and perhaps better, application of the technology is to combine the membrane process with a cryogenic process to treat large gas streams containing 10-20% nitrogen. The combination process achieves significant synergies. The membrane process performs a bulk separation of the gas, after which the cryogenic process treats the membrane residue (nitrogen-enriched) gas to recover more methane. Overall, hydrocarbon recoveries are greater than 95%. The capital cost of the combination process is lower than that of either process used alone and the processing costs are in the range $0.30-0.40/Mscf. This operating cost would be attractive to many gas producers. MTR is collaborating with a producer of cryogenic systems to further develop the combination process. A number of innovations in membrane process designs were made during the project; four U.S. patents covering various aspects of the technology were filed and issued.

K.A. Lokhandwala; M.B. Ringer; T.T. Su; Z. He; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans; A. Morisato; K. Amo; A. DaCosta; R.W. Baker; R. Olsen; H. Hassani; T. Rathkamp

1999-12-31

254

Large scale high pressure jet fires involving natural gas and natural gas\\/hydrogen mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of six large scale high pressure jet fires were conducted using natural gas and natural gas\\/hydrogen mixtures. Three tests involved natural gas and three involved a mixture of natural gas and hydrogen containing approximately 24% by volume hydrogen. For each fuel, the three tests involved horizontal releases from 20, 35 and 50mm diameter holes at a gauge pressure

B. J. Lowesmith; G. Hankinson

255

Advanced Liquid Natural Gas Onboard Storage System  

SciTech Connect

Cummins Westport Incorporated (CWI) has designed and developed a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel system that includes a reciprocating pump with the cold end submerged in LNG contained in a vacuum-jacketed tank. This system was tested and analyzed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced LNG Onboard Storage System (ALOSS) program. The pumped LNG fuel system developed by CWI and tested under the ALOSS program is a high-pressure system designed for application on Class 8 trucks powered by CWI's ISX G engine, which employs high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) technology. A general ALOSS program objective was to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of a pumped LNG fuel system relative to on-vehicle fuel systems that require the LNG to be ''conditioned'' to saturation pressures that exceeds the engine fuel pressure requirements. These advantages include the capability to store more fuel mass in given-size vehicle and station tanks, and simpler lower-cost LNG refueling stations that do not require conditioning equipment. Pumped LNG vehicle fuel systems are an alternative to conditioned LNG systems for spark-ignition natural gas and port-injection dual-fuel engines (which typically require about 100 psi), and they are required for HPDI engines (which require over 3,000 psi). The ALOSS program demonstrated the feasibility of a pumped LNG vehicle fuel system and the advantages of this design relative to systems that require conditioning the LNG to a saturation pressure exceeding the engine fuel pressure requirement. LNG tanks mounted on test carts and the CWI engineering truck were repeatedly filled with LNG saturated at 20 to 30 psig. More fuel mass was stored in the vehicle tanks as well as the station tank, and no conditioning equipment was required at the fueling station. The ALOSS program also demonstrated the general viability and specific performance of the CWI pumped LNG fuel system design. The system tested as part of this program is designed to be used on Class 8 trucks with CWI ISX G HPDI engines. Extensive test cart and engineering truck tests of the pump demonstrated good durability and the high-pressure performance needed for HPDI application. The LNG tanks manufactured by Taylor-Wharton passed SAE J2343 Recommended Practice drop tests and accelerated road-load vibration tests. NER and hold-time tests produced highly consistent results. Additional tests confirmed the design adequacy of the liquid level sensor, vaporizer, ullage volume, and other fuel system components. While the testing work performed under this program focused on a high-pressure pumped LNG fuel system design, the results also validate the feasibility of a low-pressure pumped fuel system. A low-pressure pumped fuel system could incorporate various design refinements including a simpler and lighter-weight pump, which would decrease costs somewhat relative to a high-pressure system.

Greg Harper; Charles Powars

2003-10-31

256

Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines  

PubMed Central

This article develops a formal model for comparing the cost structure of the two main transport options for natural gas: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG. PMID:24683269

Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

2012-01-01

257

Natural gas applications in waste management  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is engaged in several projects related to the use of natural gas for waste management. These projects can be classified into four categories: cyclonic incineration of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes; fluidized-bed reclamation of solid wastes; two-stage incineration of liquid and solid wastes; natural gas injection for emissions control. 5 refs., 8 figs.

Tarman, P.B.

1991-01-01

258

Controversial natural gas and oil issues tackled  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on recent activities regarding controversial natural gas and oil issues including the strategic oil reserve, expanded access to drilling in the outer continental shelf and authorization of oil and gas leasing in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, reestablishing regulation of the natural gas industry and budgeting for research and development.

Rodgers, L.M.

1991-04-15

259

Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy,

M. Rood Werpy; D. Santini; A. Burnham; M. Mintz

2010-01-01

260

Deviation of natural gas from Boyle's law  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for determining the deviation of natural gas from Boyle's law. The method consists primarily of accurate measurement by water displacement of the volume of gas at approximately atmospheric pressure which resulted from the expansion of a known volume of gas under high pressure. The measured gas volume is compared to that calculated by Boyle's law to

T. W. Johnson; W. B. Berwald

1932-01-01

261

Is natural gas injurious to flowering plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made to determine the effect of natural gas upon some common greenhouse and home plants. The plants were exposed to the natural gas in an air mixture under bell jars. The natural gas was composed of 74.6% methane, 14.2% ethane, 10.9% nitrogen, 0.2% oxygen and 0.1% carbon dioxide. Results indicate that even though some plants were more

F. G. Gustafson

1944-01-01

262

Natural gas hydrates: problem or opportunity  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas hydrates, once viewed solely as a nuisance by the gas processing industry, are rapidly gaining favorable status as an unconventional natural gas resource. Hydrates are solids which form when gas is contacted with water, both above and below 273 Kelvin. Conditions are favorable for hydrate formation in permafrost regions and in many oceans. Natural gas hydrates are solid crystalline compounds composed of cavities, formed by water molecules, which contain a natural gas guest. Hydrates are more properly called clathrates, after a general class of inclusion compounds, because they do not contain the fixed chemical formula characteristics of normal hydrates. These compounds represent a condensed form of natural gas, and each volume of the solid may contain as much as 170 volumes of gas at standard conditions. During the last decade, significant amounts of in situ hydrates have been found in permafrost regions of the earth and in deep oceans in warmer climates. Of the mechanisms proposed for recovery of gas from hydrates, all involve at least one of four principles: (1) pressure reduction; (2) thermal injection; (3) reservoir fracture; or (4) inhibitor injection, to break the hydrogen bonds of the water in the hydrate. Calculations by researchers in the United States indicate that thermal stimulation with a hot fluid, perhaps combined with reservoir fracture is energy efficient when the reservoir contains excess free gas. The question of definite reserve identification and commercialization of gas recovery is still a major challenge for this unconventional natural gas resource.

Sloan, E.D.

1981-11-01

263

Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today`s natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

NONE

1999-06-01

264

49 CFR 191.15 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission systems; gathering systems; and...SAFETY-RELATED CONDITION REPORTS § 191.15 Transmission systems; gathering systems; and...facilities: Incident report. (a) Transmission or Gathering. Each operator of...

2012-10-01

265

49 CFR 191.17 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission systems; gathering systems; and...SAFETY-RELATED CONDITION REPORTS § 191.17 Transmission systems; gathering systems; and...facilities: Annual report. (a) Transmission or Gathering. Each operator of...

2011-10-01

266

49 CFR 191.17 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission systems; gathering systems; and...SAFETY-RELATED CONDITION REPORTS § 191.17 Transmission systems; gathering systems; and...facilities: Annual report. (a) Transmission or Gathering. Each operator of...

2012-10-01

267

75 FR 72877 - Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...information is available in NPMS by state...practical at this time. It is not practical...without charge, copies of paper report...require mailing hard copies of Offshore Pipeline...indicated that hard copies of forms would continue to be available on PHMSA's Web...At the same time, PHMSA...

2010-11-26

268

75 FR 13644 - TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas Deepwater Port License...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (FSEIS...for copying and electronic scanning. If you mail your submission...proposed action requiring environmental review is the Federal licensing...conditions designed to mitigate environmental impact), or (2)...

2010-03-22

269

U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report  

SciTech Connect

The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

NONE

1996-11-01

270

US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report  

SciTech Connect

The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

NONE

1997-12-01

271

Natural gas annual 1993 supplement: Company profiles  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1993 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of 45 selected companies in the natural gas industry. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the companies profiled. The companies in this report are interstate pipeline companies or local distribution companies (LDC`s). Interstate pipeline companies acquire gas supplies from company owned production, purchases from producers, and receipts for transportation for account of others. Pipeline systems, service area maps, company supply and disposition data are presented.

Not Available

1995-02-01

272

Natural Gas Monthly, March 1985. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

Current data on natrual and supplemental gas consumption, disposition, production, prices, storage, imports, and exports in the US are provided for each year from 1978 through 1985 with monthly data for the most recent 3 years. Some data are also given by state or city; some data are also given for previous years. Operating and financial data for major interstate natural gas pipeline companies, as well as data on filings, ceiling prices, and transportation under the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978, are also included. Explanatory notes, a discussion of data sources, and a glossary are included. Three reports previously published as separate annuals are now published in this report. The three are: ''Underground Natural Gas Storage in the United States'' (DOE/EIA-0239); ''US Imports and Exports of Natural Gas'' (DOE/EIA-0188); and ''Main Line Sales of Natural Gas to Industrial Users'' (DOE/EIA-0129). 5 figs., 23 tabs.

Not Available

1985-05-01

273

Underground natural gas storage reservoir management  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to research technologies and methodologies that will reduce the costs associated with the operation and maintenance of underground natural gas storage. This effort will include a survey of public information to determine the amount of natural gas lost from underground storage fields, determine the causes of this lost gas, and develop strategies and remedial designs to reduce or stop the gas loss from selected fields. Phase I includes a detailed survey of US natural gas storage reservoirs to determine the actual amount of natural gas annually lost from underground storage fields. These reservoirs will be ranked, the resultant will include the amount of gas and revenue annually lost. The results will be analyzed in conjunction with the type (geologic) of storage reservoirs to determine the significance and impact of the gas loss. A report of the work accomplished will be prepared. The report will include: (1) a summary list by geologic type of US gas storage reservoirs and their annual underground gas storage losses in ft{sup 3}; (2) a rank by geologic classifications as to the amount of gas lost and the resultant lost revenue; and (3) show the level of significance and impact of the losses by geologic type. Concurrently, the amount of storage activity has increased in conjunction with the net increase of natural gas imports as shown on Figure No. 3. Storage is playing an ever increasing importance in supplying the domestic energy requirements.

Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.

1995-06-01

274

78 FR 17189 - Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...any relevant long-term commercial agreements...provides: ``Before any oil or gas subject to...Corp. and Marathon Oil Co., DOE/ FE Order...No. 503 (May 16, 1991...consumers, and industry, job creation, U...Activities, Office of Oil and Gas Global...

2013-03-20

275

46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...compartments containing gas-consuming appliances... Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation...compartments containing gas-consuming appliances...fitted with at least two natural ventilator ducts...

2013-10-01

276

Natural gas monthly, October 1990. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 34 tabs.

Not Available

1990-12-28

277

Natural gas monthly, September 1990. [Contains Glossary  

SciTech Connect

This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

Not Available

1990-11-30

278

Optimizing Natural Gas Use: A Case Study  

E-print Network

OPTIMIZING NATURAL GAS USE: A CASE STUDY VEN V. VENKATESAN, PATRICK SCHWEIKERT, General Manager, Senior Manager (Maintenance), VGA Engineering Consultants, Inc. Baker Petrolite 8030 Sandberry Blvd. 9100 W, 21st Street...OPTIMIZING NATURAL GAS USE: A CASE STUDY VEN V. VENKATESAN, PATRICK SCHWEIKERT, General Manager, Senior Manager (Maintenance), VGA Engineering Consultants, Inc. Baker Petrolite 8030 Sandberry Blvd. 9100 W, 21st Street...

Venkatesan, V. V.; Schweikert, P.

2007-01-01

279

Monthly Natural Gas Gross Production Report  

EIA Publications

Monthly natural gas gross withdrawals estimated from data collected on Form EIA-914 (Monthly Natural Gas Production Report) for Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico, Texas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Wyoming, other states and lower 48 states. Alaska data are from the Alaska state government and included to obtain a U.S. total.

2014-01-01

280

Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65% lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems is described. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy

A. Q. Pham; P. H. Wallman; R. S. Glass

2000-01-01

281

Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65 percent lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy by

Ai-Quoc Pham; P. Henrik Wallman; Robert S. Glass

2000-01-01

282

ELECTRICITY AND NATURAL GAS DATA COLLECTION  

E-print Network

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION HISTORICAL ELECTRICITY AND NATURAL GAS DATA COLLECTION Formsand CEC-1304 Sch 2 Generation and Fuel Use by Generator Quarterly Report .............. 13 CEC-1304 Sch 3 of Power Plants Semi-Annual Report ..................................... 44 CEC-1306D UDC Natural Gas

283

cleanenergyfuels.com Natural Gas Solutions  

E-print Network

Rollout #12;16 cleanenergyfuels.com America's Natural Gas Highway Las Vegas http://www.cleanenergyfuels.com/products Knoxville, TN #12;18 cleanenergyfuels.com 18 cleanenergyfuels.com 55 ANGH Sites Hope Hull, AL Latta, SC LCNG Station Design Industry's First #12;30 cleanenergyfuels.com Natural Gas Heavy Duty Market

Minnesota, University of

284

Natural gas annual 1994: Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data fro the Nation from 1930 to 1994, and by State from 1967 to 1994.

NONE

1995-11-01

285

Nitrogen Removal From Low Quality Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas provides more than one-fifth of all the primary energy used in the United States. It is especially important in the residential sector, where it supplies nearly half of all the energy consumed in U.S. homes. However, significant quantities of natural gas cannot be produced economically because its quality is too low to enter the pipeline transportation system without

D. B. Alvarado; M. F. Asaro; J. L. Bomben; A. S. Damle; A. S. Bhown

1997-01-01

286

Conversion of natural gas to transport fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology for the conversion of natural gas to liquid transport fuels continues to develop. Some options are already available for commercial application and more will be available by the early to mid-1990's. All of these involve the conversion of natural gas into syngas. Further processing involves either the Fischer-Tropsch or methanol conversion options. Both can be selective for gasoline or

N. W. Green; R. V. Ramanathan

1988-01-01

287

Natural gas 1994: Issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an overview of the natural gas industry in 1993 and early 1994 (Chapter 1), focusing on the overall ability to deliver gas under the new regulatory mandates of Order 636. In addition, the report highlights a range of issues affecting the industry, including: restructuring under Order 636 (Chapter 2); adjustments in natural gas contracting (Chapter 3); increased use of underground storage (Chapter 4); effects of the new market on the financial performance of the industry (Chapter 5); continued impacts of major regulatory and legislative changes on the natural gas market (Appendix A).

Not Available

1994-07-01

288

Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves  

E-print Network

current and projected U.S. energy demands. Shale gas development in Louisiana, Arkansas, Texas, Oklahoma at the end of 2008. This underscores the role of more efficient and effective shale gas explorationSummary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves 2009 November 2010 U

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

289

SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY  

SciTech Connect

The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports provide both the backdrop and the impetus for this study.

COOK,Z.

1999-02-01

290

78 FR 34084 - Freeport-McMoRan Energy LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...gas is cleaner burning than other fossil fuels, such as coal-fired generation...FE Web site at: http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/gasregulation...Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil Energy. [FR Doc....

2013-06-06

291

Natural gas monthly, September 1991. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production distribution consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

Not Available

1991-10-18

292

IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

Jason M. Keith

2005-02-01

293

The effect of parasitic refrigeration on the efficiency of magnetic liquefiers  

SciTech Connect

Studies by the authors have shown that magnetic refrigerators have the potential to liquefy cryogens very efficiently. High efficiency is especially important for liquid hydrogen and liquid natural gas applications where the liquefaction costs are a significant fraction of the total liquid cost. One of the characteristics of magnetic refrigerators is the requirement for a high-field superconducting magnet. Providing a 4.2-K bath for this magnet will require a small amount of parasitic refrigeration at 4.2 K even though the rest of the liquefier may be at 110 K (liquid natural gas) or higher. For several different refrigeration power levels at 4.2 K, the authors have calculated the efficiency of the magnetic liquefier as a function of power, temperature and the 4.2-K refrigerator efficiency. The results show that if the ratio of the thermal load at 4.2 K to the main refrigeration power is 0.001 or less, the effect on the efficiency of the liquefier is negligible at all temperatures below room temperature provided the 4.2-K refrigerator efficiency is high.

Barclay, J.A.; Stewart, W.F.

1982-08-01

294

Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

2010-11-29

295

High-sulfur natural gas project opens  

SciTech Connect

The Astrakhan' high-sulfur natural gas project, under development since 1981, yielded its first natural gas, gas liquids and recovered sulfur in late December 1986 and early January 1987. The gas project, in the desert north of Astrakhan', is being developed from the base settlement of Aksarayskiy, a railroad junction north of Astrakhan'. The initial stage now in operation has a throughput capacity of three billion cubic meters of natural gas; it is to be doubled later in 1987, to six billion m/sup 3/. Astrakhan's is the third major sour gas project to be developed in the Soviet Union; the others are at Orenburg, in the southern Urals, and at Mubarek, in the Uzbek SSR of Central Asia.

Shabad, T.

1986-07-01

296

Natural Gas Variability In California: Environmental Impacts And Device Performance Combustion Modeling of Pollutant Emissions From a Residential Cooking Range  

SciTech Connect

As part of a larger study of liquefied natural gas impacts on device performance and pollutant emissions for existing equipment in California, this report describes a cmoputer modeling study of a partially premixed flame issueing from a single cooktop burner port. The model consisted of a reactive computational fluid dynamics three-dimensional spatial grid and a 71-species chemical mechanism with propane combustion capability. Simulations were conducted with a simplified fuel mixture containing methane, ethane, and propane in proportions that yield properties similar to fuels distributed throughout much of California now and in recent years (baseline fuel), as well as with two variations of simulated liquefied natural gas blends. A variety of simulations were conducted with baseline fuel to explore the effect of several key parameters on pollutant formation and other flame characteristics. Simulations started with fuel and air issuing through the burner port, igniting, and continuing until the flame was steady with time. Conditions at this point were analyzed to understand fuel, secondary air and reaction product flows, regions of pollutant formation, and exhaust concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and formaldehyde. A sensitivity study was conducted, varying the inflow parameters of this baseline gs about real-world operating conditions. Flame properties responded as expected from reactive flow theory. In the simulation, carbon monoxide levels were influenced more by the mixture's inflow velocity than by the gas-to-air ratio in the mixture issuing from the inflow port. Additional simulations were executed at two inflow conditions - high heat release and medium heat release - to examine the impact of replacing the baseline gas with two mixtures representative of liquefied natural gas. Flame properties and pollutant generation rates were very similar among the three fuel mixtures.

Tonse, S. R.; Singer, B. C.

2011-07-01

297

Natural gas contracts in efficient portfolios  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the {open_quotes}contracts portfolio{close_quotes} issue of natural gas contracts in support of the Domestic Natural Gas and Oil Initiative (DGOI) published by the U.S. Department of Energy in 1994. The analysis is a result of a collaborative effort with the Public Service Commission of the State of Maryland to consider {open_quotes}reforms that enhance the industry`s competitiveness{close_quotes}. The initial focus of our collaborative effort was on gas purchasing and contract portfolios; however, it became apparent that efficient contracting to purchase and use gas requires a broader consideration of regulatory reform. Efficient portfolios are obtained when the holder of the portfolio is affected by and is responsible for the performance of the portfolio. Natural gas distribution companies may prefer a diversity of contracts, but the efficient use of gas requires that the local distribution company be held accountable for its own purchases. Ultimate customers are affected by their own portfolios, which they manage efficiently by making their own choices. The objectives of the DGOI, particularly the efficient use of gas, can be achieved when customers have access to suppliers of gas and energy services under an improved regulatory framework. The evolution of the natural gas market during the last 15 years is described to account for the changing preferences toward gas contracts. Long-term contracts for natural gas were prevalent before the early 1980s, primarily because gas producers had few options other than to sell to a single pipeline company, and this pipeline company, in turn, was the only seller to a gas distribution company.

Sutherland, R.J.

1994-12-01

298

North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

Not Available

1989-02-01

299

North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

Not Available

1988-12-01

300

Natural gas annual 1992: Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. The 1992 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production top its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1988 to 1992 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. Volume 2 of this report presents State-level historical data.

Not Available

1993-11-22

301

Incremental natural gas resources through infield reserve growth/secondary natural gas recovery. [Compartmented natural gas reservoir  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the Infield Growth/Secondary Natural Gas Recovery project have been: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities in reservoirs of conventional permeability cause reservoir compartmentalization and, hence, incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document practical, field-oriented examples of reserve growth from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas gulf coast basin and to use these gas reservoirs as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications of both tools and techniques to find secondary gas. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields. To transfer project results to natural gas producers, not just as field case studies, but as conceptual models of how heterogeneities determine natural gas flow and how to recognize the geologic and engineering clues that operators can use in a cost-effective manner to identify secondary gas. Accomplishments are presented for: reservoir characterization; integrated formation evaluation and engineering testing; compartmented reservoir simulator; and reservoir geophysics.

Finley, R.J.; Levey, R.A.

1992-01-01

302

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

A new project was initiated this quarter to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading. Efforts have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project.

Howard S. Meyer

2002-06-01

303

Research and Application of the Natural Gas Heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural gas heater is an indispensable piece of equipment in natural gas production, transmission, and application systems and is widely used in gas wellhead, metering station, transfer station and gas power plant etc. As a special type of furnace, the natural gas heater adopts indirect heating through heat-transfer medium and is the important energy consumption equipment in natural gas

Guo Yun; Cao Wei-wu

2009-01-01

304

Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer  

SciTech Connect

An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65% lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems is described. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy by one unit of energy content in natural gas at one-quarter the cost, the hydrogen production cost will be significantly reduced. Also, it is possible to vary the ratio between the electricity and the natural gas supplied to the system in response to fluctuations in relative prices for these two energy sources. In one approach an appropriate catalyst on the anode side of the electrolyzer will promote the partial oxidation of natural gas to CO and hydrogen, called Syn-Gas, and the CO can also be shifted to CO{sub 2} to give additional hydrogen. In another approach the natural gas is used in the anode side of the electrolyzer to burn out the oxygen resulting from electrolysis, thus reducing or eliminating the potential difference across the electrolyzer membrane.

Pham, A.Q.; Wallman, P.H.; Glass, R.S.

2000-04-18

305

Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report  

SciTech Connect

Volume 2 consists of 19 reports describing technical effort performed by Government Contractors in the area of LNG Safety and Environmental Control. Report topics are: simulation of LNG vapor spread and dispersion by finite element methods; modeling of negatively buoyant vapor cloud dispersion; effect of humidity on the energy budget of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vapor cloud; LNG fire and explosion phenomena research evaluation; modeling of laminar flames in mixtures of vaporized liquefied natural gas (LNG) and air; chemical kinetics in LNG detonations; effects of cellular structure on the behavior of gaseous detonation waves under transient conditions; computer simulation of combustion and fluid dynamics in two and three dimensions; LNG release prevention and control; the feasibility of methods and systems for reducing LNG tanker fire hazards; safety assessment of gelled LNG; and a four band differential radiometer for monitoring LNG vapors.

None

1980-10-01

306

Apparatus and method for gelling liquefied gasses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is a method and apparatus for gelling liquid propane and other liquefied gasses. The apparatus includes a temperature controlled churn mixer, vacuum pump, liquefied gas transfer tank, and means for measuring amount of material entering the mixer. The method uses gelling agents such as silicon dioxide, clay, carbon, or organic or inorganic polymers, as well as dopants such as titanium, aluminum, and boron powders. The apparatus and method are particularly useful for the production of high quality rocket fuels and propellants.

Elliott, Adam (Inventor); DiSalvo, Roberto (Inventor); Shepherd, Phillip (Inventor); Kosier, Ryan (Inventor)

2010-01-01

307

Natural gas flow through critical nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Empirical method for calculating both the mass flow rate and upstream volume flow rate through critical flow nozzles is determined. Method requires knowledge of the composition of natural gas, and of the upstream pressure and temperature.

Johnson, R. C.

1969-01-01

308

Method for dismantling a natural gas holder  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of dismantling a natural gas holder. The holder has vertical support columns disposed around the periphery of the holder to which the enclosure shell of the holder is attached.

Settlemier, B.R.; Bone, S.R.; Tolivaisa, J.; Nugent, J.E.

1990-10-30

309

STAFF REPORT 2012 NATURAL GAS RESEARCH,  

E-print Network

STAFF REPORT 2012 NATURAL GAS RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION REPORT CALIFORNIA Manager Energy Systems Research Office Mike Gravely Deputy Division Chief Energy Research and Development Division Laurie ten Hope Deputy Director Energy Research and Development Division Robert P. Oglesby

310

Natural gas 1996 - issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents a summary of the latest data and information relating to the U.S. natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and financial aspects of the industry.

NONE

1996-12-01

311

Natural gas annual 1992: Supplement: Company profiles  

SciTech Connect

The data for the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement : Company Profiles are taken from Form EIA-176, (open quotes) Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition (close quotes). Other sources include industry literature and corporate annual reports to shareholders. The companies appearing in this report are major interstate natural gas pipeline companies, large distribution companies, or combination companies with both pipeline and distribution operations. The report contains profiles of 45 corporate families. The profiles describe briefly each company, where it operates, and any important issues that the company faces. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the 45 large companies profiled.

Not Available

1994-01-01

312

Magnetic liquefier for hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes work done at the Astronautics Technology Center of the Astronautics Corporation of America (ACA) in Phase 1 of a four phase program leading to the development of a magnetic liquefier for hydrogen. The project involves the design, fabrication, installation, and operation of a hydrogen liquefier providing significantly reduced capital and operating costs, compared to present liquefiers. To achieve this goal, magnetic refrigeration, a recently developed, highly efficient refrigeration technology, will be used for the liquefaction process. Phase 1 project tasks included liquefier conceptual design and analysis, preliminary design of promising configurations, design selection, and detailed design of the selected design. Fabrication drawings and vendor specifications for the selected design were completed during detailed design. The design of a subscale, demonstration magnetic hydrogen liquefier represents a significant advance in liquefaction technology. The cost reductions that can be realized in hydrogen liquefaction in both the subscale and, more importantly, in the full-scale device are expected to have considerable impact on the use of liquid hydrogen in transportation, chemical, and electronic industries. The benefits to the nation from this technological advance will continue to have importance well into the 21st century.

NONE

1992-12-31

313

Natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Implications for the origin of natural gas.  

PubMed

It is broadly accepted that so-called 'thermal' gas is the product of thermal cracking, 'primary' thermal gas from kerogen cracking, and 'secondary' thermal gas from oil cracking. Since thermal cracking of hydrocarbons does not generate products at equilibrium and thermal stress should not bring them to equilibrium over geologic time, we would not expect methane, ethane, and propane to be at equilibrium in subsurface deposits. Here we report compelling evidence of natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Molecular compositions are constrained to equilibrium, [Formula in text] and isotopic compositions are also under equilibrium constraints: [Formula in text].The functions [(CH4)*(C3H8)] and [(C2H6)2] exhibit a strong nonlinear correlation (R2 = 0.84) in which the quotient Q progresses to K as wet gas progresses to dry gas. There are striking similarities between natural gas and catalytic gas generated from marine shales. A Devonian/Mississippian New Albany shale generates gas with Q converging on K over time as wet gas progresses to dry gas at 200 degrees C. The position that thermal cracking is the primary source of natural gas is no longer tenable. It is challenged by its inability to explain the composition of natural gas, natural gases at thermodynamic equilibrium, and by the existence of a catalytic path to gas that better explains gas compositions. PMID:19531233

Mango, Frank D; Jarvie, Daniel; Herriman, Eleanor

2009-01-01

314

Calculation of natural gas isentropic exponent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed numerical procedure for the calculation of the isentropic exponent of a natural gas is derived. The procedure follows the Redlich–Kwong solution using the AGA8\\/1992 extended virial-type characterization equation (AGA8-92DC equation) for the determination of the compression factor. The AIChE generic ideal heat capacity equations are used to derive the molar heat capacities of the natural gas mixture. The

Ivan Mari?; Antun Galovi?; Tomislav Šmuc

2005-01-01

315

About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines  

EIA Publications

This information product provides the interested reader with a broad and non-technical overview of how the U.S. natural gas pipeline network operates, along with some insights into the many individual pipeline systems that make up the network. While the focus of the presentation is the transportation of natural gas over the interstate and intrastate pipeline systems, information on subjects related to pipeline development, such as system design and pipeline expansion, are also included.

2007-01-01

316

The conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels using the Sasol Slurry Phase Distillate Process  

SciTech Connect

The natural gas and energy industries have long sought an economically attractive means of converting remote gas reserves into transportable products, such as fuels or petrochemicals. Applicable gas sources include: undeveloped gas fields in locations so remote that pipeline construction is prohibitively expensive and associated gas from oil wells that is either flared, which is becoming environmentally unacceptable in many parts of the world, or reinjected, which is costly. Projects which have been developed to exploit such feeds typically have converted the gas into one of the following: (1) liquefied natural gas (LNG)--the process plants for LNG production are expensive, need to be very large to be economically viable, have costly dedicated shipping requirements, and suffer from a limited market concentrated in few countries; (2) methanol--the market for petrochemical feedstock methanol is limited, for use as a fuel, further downstream processing is needed, for example in a methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) or methanol to gasoline (MTG) unit. Clearly, there is a need for an alternative that produces high quality fuels or value added products that can be transported to far-off markets, while yielding an attractive return on the developers` investment. The Sasol Slurry Phase Distillate Process will fulfill this need.

Silverman, R.W. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Cambridge, MA (United States); Hill, C.R. [Sastech, Johannesburg (South Africa)

1997-12-31

317

Practical natural gas engineering, 2nd edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book reports on remedial measures for gas wells and new methods for calculating the position of the stabilized performance curves for gas wells as well as the heating value for natural gases from compositional analyses. In addition, the author includes problem solutions in an appendix and a section showing the relation between the conventional empirical equation and the theoretical

1990-01-01

318

METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a project to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. his study will measure or calculate all gas industry CH4 emissions--from production at the wellhead, through the system, to the customer's meter. missions downstream of the consu...

319

Natural gas density calculator. Technical memo  

Microsoft Academic Search

A calculation procedure suitable for determining the thermodynamic properties of natural gas at cryogenic conditions is required for detailed modeling on a digital computer of oil slurry in LNG. An existing procedure developed for the American Gas Association, Inc. was programmed for testing with a desktop calculator, the HP9810A. The memorandum describes the use of that program.

Rennert

1975-01-01

320

What natural gas decontrol means this winter  

SciTech Connect

Using data from pipeline Purchase Gas Adjustment (PGA) filings and the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) of 1978, this analysis argues that gas prices to consumers will be relatively flat this winter heating season. Both federal regulation and the operation of pipeline/producer contracts will delay price increases until the spring of 1985, and market forces and renegotiated contracts could keep that relatively unchanged. The key uncertainty is whether contract renegotiation occurs. 1 figure, 1 table.

Not Available

1984-01-01

321

Value-Added Products from Remote Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

In Wyoming and throughout the United States, there are natural gas fields that are not producing because of their remoteness from gas pipelines. Some of these fields are ideal candidates for a cogeneration scheme where components suitable for chemical feedstock or direct use, such as propane and butane, are separated. Resulting low- to medium-Btu gas is fired in a gas turbine system to provide power for the separation plant. Excess power is sold to the utility, making the integrated plant a true cogeneration facility. This project seeks to identify the appropriate technologies for various subsystems of an integrated plant to recover value-added products from wet gas and/or retrograde condensate reservoirs. Various vendors and equipment manufacturers will be contacted and a data base consisting of feedstock constraints and output specifications for various subsystems and components will be developed. Based on vendor specifications, gas reservoirs suited for value-added product recovery will be identified. A candidate reservoir will then be selected, and an optimum plant layout will be developed. A facility will then be constructed and operated. The project consists of eight subtasks: Compilation of Reservoir Data; Review of Treatment and Conditioning Technologies; Review of Product Recovery and Separation Technologies; Development of Power Generation System; Integrated Plant Design for Candidate Field; System Fabrication; System Operation and Monitoring; and Economic Evaluation and Reporting. The first five tasks have been completed and the sixth is nearly complete. Systems Operations and Monitoring will start next year. The Economic Evaluation and Reporting task will be a continuous effort for the entire project. The reservoir selected for the initial demonstration of the process is the Burnt Wagon Field, Natrona County, Wyoming. The field is in a remote location with no electric power to the area and no gas transmission line. The design for the gas processing train to produce the liquefied gas products includes three gas compressors, a cryogenic separation unit, and a natural gas powered generator. Based on the equipment specifications, air quality permits for the well field and the gas processing unit were developed and the permits were issued by the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality. Also, to make state and federal reporting easier, three of the four leases that made up the Burnt Wagon were combined. All major equipment has been installed and individual component operability is being conducted. During the next project year, operability testing and the shakedown of the entire system will be completed. Once shakedown is complete, the system will be turned over to the cosponsor for day-to-day operations. During operations, data will be collected through remote linkage to the data acquisition system or analysis of the system performance to develop an economic evaluation of the process.

Lyle A. Johnson

2002-03-15

322

Shale gas--the unfolding story  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 2000s US gas production was in slow but steady decline despite increasing drilling activity. As US natural gas prices rose in response to the resulting tight market, the only supply-side solution appeared to lie in the development of liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in the Middle East and Africa for importation to the North American market. Almost

Howard Rogers

2011-01-01

323

Natural gas hydrates: myths, facts and issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas hydrates are solid-like substances naturally occurring beneath the oceans and in polar regions. They contain vast, and potentially unstable, reserves of methane and other natural gases. Many believe that, if released in the environment, the methane from hydrates would be a considerable hazard to marine ecosystems, coastal populations and infrastructures, or worse, that it would dangerously contribute to global

2004-01-01

324

Performance study using natural gas, hydrogen-supplemented natural gas and hydrogen in AVL research engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance tests with natural gas, hydrogen-supplemented CH4, and H2-fueled configurations of the AVL research engine are reported. A comparison is made of the properties of H2 and natural gas, noting that natural gas benefits such as heating value, higher ignition energy, and narrow ignition limits are at least partially offset by H2 wide ignition limits which allow elimination of throttling,

F. Duebel; K. Schmillen; B. Nagalingam

1983-01-01

325

Apparatus for the liquefaction of a gas and methods relating to same  

DOEpatents

Apparatuses and methods are provided for producing liquefied gas, such as liquefied natural gas. In one embodiment, a liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream may be sequentially pass through a compressor and an expander. The process stream may also pass through a compressor. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. A portion of the liquid gas may be used for additional cooling. Gas produced within the system may be recompressed for reintroduction into a receiving line.

Turner, Terry D. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-12-29

326

Natural gas monthly, February 1993. [Contains Glossary  

SciTech Connect

This issue contains monthly data for the entire year 1992 and allows comparing this year with the previous years. Marketed production of natural gas remained at approximately the same level as in 1991, 18.6 trillion cubic feet. Marketed production has changed very little in the past 3 years, with only a 3-percent difference since 1989. Consumption of natural gas has also increased each year for the past 7 years. In 1992, the level of consumption increased by approximately 4 percent from the previous years. Imports have steadily increased over the past 7 years. Imports of natural gas in 1992 are approximately 16 percent above the 1991 level. The Iroquois Gas Transmission Line, extending from the Canadian border in New York to Long Island, accounts for a large part of this increase. This pipeline went into service in December 1991.

Not Available

1993-02-26

327

NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS  

SciTech Connect

From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations using laboratory pyrolysis methods have provided much information on the origins of deep gas. Technologic problems are one of the greatest challenges to deep drilling. Problems associated with overcoming hostile drilling environments (e.g. high temperatures and pressures, and acid gases such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) for successful well completion, present the greatest obstacles to drilling, evaluating, and developing deep gas fields. Even though the overall success ratio for deep wells is about 50 percent, a lack of geological and geophysical information such as reservoir quality, trap development, and gas composition continues to be a major barrier to deep gas exploration. Results of recent finding-cost studies by depth interval for the onshore U.S. indicate that, on average, deep wells cost nearly 10 times more to drill than shallow wells, but well costs and gas recoveries vary widely among different gas plays in different basins. Based on an analysis of natural gas assessments, many topical areas hold significant promise for future exploration and development. One such area involves re-evaluating and assessing hypothetical unconventional basin-center gas plays. Poorly-understood basin-center gas plays could contain significant deep undiscovered technically-recoverable gas resources.

Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

2002-02-05

328

How Regulators Should Use Natural Gas Price Forecasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas prices are critical to a range of regulatory decisions covering both electric and gas utilities. Natural gas prices are often a crucial variable in electric generation capacity planning and in the benefit-cost relationship for energy-efficiency programs. High natural gas prices can make coal generation the most economical new source, while low prices can make natural gas generation the

Ken Costello

2010-01-01

329

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment has been initiated. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50--70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project.

Howard S. Meyer

2002-06-01

330

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50--70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project.

Howard S. Meyer

2002-06-30

331

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. KPS and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues.

Howard S. Meyer

2002-10-01

332

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues.

Howard S. Meyer

2003-01-01

333

Natural gas hydrates: myths, facts and issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas hydrates are solid-like substances naturally occurring beneath the oceans and in polar regions. They contain vast, and potentially unstable, reserves of methane and other natural gases. Many believe that, if released in the environment, the methane from hydrates would be a considerable hazard to marine ecosystems, coastal populations and infrastructures, or worse, that it would dangerously contribute to global warming. On the other hand, hydrates may contain enough natural gas to provide an energy supply assurance for the 21st century. This paper attempts to separate the myths, the facts and the issues that relate to natural gas hydrates beyond the doomsday environmental scenarios and overly optimistic estimates. To cite this article: B. Beauchamp, C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

Beauchamp, Beno??t

2004-07-01

334

Social costs of natural gas market rigidities  

SciTech Connect

To the extent that there are market imperfections and other constraints limiting consumption of gas to levels significantly below those dictated by underlying economic factors of cost and producibility, society bears the cost resulting from misallocation of resources and avoidable environmental deterioration. Given the regulatory and institutional setting within which the natural gas industry has been forced to operate, there is a strong presumption that such inhibitions on gas use may in fact exist. Some rigidities stem undoubtedly from characteristics unique to gas as a natural-resource commodity. This report presents a framework for reviewing potential sources of constraints, rigidities, and distortions in the functioning of natural gas markets under the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) and other legislation. The organizing principle and primary focus of the paper are the sequence of transactions between wellhead and point of consumption, with major attention to industrial and power plant use. The transactions in question are between: producers and pipelines; pipelines and distributors; distributors and end users; and pipelines and industrial end users (mainline sales). In addition to these vertical transactions, there are horizontal transactions between pipelines (off-system sales) and between distributors. 22 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

Broadman, H.G.; Darmstadter, J.; Montgomery, W.D.

1983-01-01

335

Economic evaluation of natural gas hydrate as an alternative for natural gas transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a proposed process for conversion of natural gas to natural gas hydrate, NGH, the amortized total capital investment, operation and maintenance costs and total cost for production of NGH have been obtained. The effects of different operational conditions such as seawater temperature as cooling media and hydrate storage temperature have been investigated. The economic parameters for marine transportation

J. Javanmardi; Kh. Nasrifar; S. H. Najibi; M. Moshfeghian

2005-01-01

336

The solar thermal decarbonization of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endothermic decomposition of natural gas into a carbon-rich condensed phase and a hydrogen-rich gas phase, using concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat, is considered as a model reaction for conducting a 2nd-law analysis of a solar decarbonization process in which carbon is removed from fossil fuels prior to their use for power generation. The theoretical

D. Hirsch; M. Epstein; A. Steinfeld

2001-01-01

337

The efficient use of natural gas in transportation  

SciTech Connect

Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

1992-04-01

338

The efficient use of natural gas in transportation  

SciTech Connect

Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

1992-01-01

339

Implications of Disruption to Natural Gas Deliverability  

SciTech Connect

This project was sponsored by Department of Energy/Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability and managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The primary purpose of the project was to analyze the capability of the natural gas production, transmission and supply systems to continue to provide service in the event of a major disruption in capacity of one or more natural gas transmission pipelines. The project was specifically designed to detail the ability of natural gas market to absorb facility losses and efficiently reallocate gas supplies during a significant pipeline capacity disruption in terms that allowed federal and state agencies and interests to develop effective policies and action plans to prioritize natural gas deliveries from a regional and national perspective. The analyses for each regional study were based on four primary considerations: (1) operating conditions (pipeline capacity, storage capacity, local production, power dispatch decision making and end user options); (2) weather; (3) magnitude and location of the disruption; and, (4) normal versus emergency situation. The detailed information contained in the region reports as generated from this project are Unclassified Controlled Information; and as such are subject to disclosure in accordance with the Freedom of Information Act. Therefore, this report defines the regions that were analyzed and the basic methodologies and assumptions used to completing the analysis.

Science Applications International

2008-09-30

340

Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbon  

SciTech Connect

Despite technical advances to reduce air pollution emissions, motor vehicles still account for 30 to 70% emissions of all urban air pollutants. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require 100 cities in the United States to reduce the amount of their smog within 5 to 15 years. Hence, auto emissions, the major cause of smog, must be reduced 30 to 60% by 1998. Natural gas con be combusted with less pollutant emissions. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) uses adsorbents and operates with a low storage pressure which results in lower capital costs and maintenance. This paper describes the production of an activated carbon adsorbent produced from an Illinois coal for ANG.

Sun, Jian; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

341

Method and apparatus for the cooling of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is claimed for cooling natural gas in a system in which the natural gas contains components other than methane which are separable by dewpoint condensation and the natural gas is available from a source, e.g. a well, at an elevated pressure. In accordance with the present invention, the natural gas is initially expanded in a work-producing expansion turbine

Strass

1982-01-01

342

A Critical Evaluation of Iranian Natural Gas Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, the world energy focus is shifting towards natural gas for power and heat generation as a substitute for coal and oil. Approximately 60% of world natural gas reserves are mainly concentrated in Russia, Iran, and Qatar. Iran will play a main role in the supply of world natural gas demand, if its natural gas fields can be developed effectively.

R. E. Osgouei; M. Sorgun

2012-01-01

343

Natural gas pipeline leaks across Washington, DC.  

PubMed

Pipeline safety in the United States has increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17 fatalities and $133 M in property damage annually. Natural gas leaks are also the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. To reduce pipeline leakage and increase consumer safety, we deployed a Picarro G2301 Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a car, mapping 5893 natural gas leaks (2.5 to 88.6 ppm CH4) across 1500 road miles of Washington, DC. The ?(13)C-isotopic signatures of the methane (-38.2‰ ± 3.9‰ s.d.) and ethane (-36.5 ± 1.1 s.d.) and the CH4:C2H6 ratios (25.5 ± 8.9 s.d.) closely matched the pipeline gas (-39.0‰ and -36.2‰ for methane and ethane; 19.0 for CH4/C2H6). Emissions from four street leaks ranged from 9200 to 38,200 L CH4 day(-1) each, comparable to natural gas used by 1.7 to 7.0 homes, respectively. At 19 tested locations, 12 potentially explosive (Grade 1) methane concentrations of 50,000 to 500,000 ppm were detected in manholes. Financial incentives and targeted programs among companies, public utility commissions, and scientists to reduce leaks and replace old cast-iron pipes will improve consumer safety and air quality, save money, and lower greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:24432903

Jackson, Robert B; Down, Adrian; Phillips, Nathan G; Ackley, Robert C; Cook, Charles W; Plata, Desiree L; Zhao, Kaiguang

2014-02-01

344

Russia’s Natural Gas Export Potential up to 2050  

E-print Network

Recent increases in natural gas reserve estimates and advances in shale gas technology make natural gas a fuel with good prospects to serve a bridge to a low-carbon world. Russia is an important energy supplier as it holds ...

Paltsev, Sergey

345

Oil & Natural Gas Technology DOE Award No.: FWP 49462  

E-print Network

Used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers Submitted by: John A. Veil Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, and gas shales. Figure 1 shows EIA projections of the source of natural gas supplies through 2030 productive oil and gas activities in the country today are shale gas plays. Figure 1 ­ U.S. Natural Gas

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

346

Rapidly Estimating Natural Gas Compressibility Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gases containing sour components exhibit different gas compressibility factor (Z) behavior than do sweet gases. Therefore, a new accurate method should be developed to account for these differences. Several methods are available today for calculating the Z-factor from an equation of state. However, these equations are more complex than the foregoing correlations, involving a large number of parameters, which

Alireza Bahadori; Saeid Mokhatab; Brian F. Towler

2007-01-01

347

Hydrogen-Enhanced Natural Gas Vehicle Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of HCNG fuel (30 to 50% hydrogen by volume and the remainder natural gas) to reduce emissions from light-duty on-road vehicles with no loss in performance or efficiency. The City of Las Vegas has an interest in alternative fuels and already has an existing hydrogen refueling station. Collier Technologies Inc (CT) supplied

Dan Hyde; Kirk Collier

2009-01-01

348

Natural gas annual 1992. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data for the Nation from 1930 to 1992, and by State from 1967 to 1992. The Supplement of this report presents profiles of selected companies.

Not Available

1993-11-22

349

Combined natural gas and electricity network pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of competition to electricity generation and commercialization has been the main focus of many restructuring experiences around the world. The open access to the transmission network and a fair regulated tariff have been the keystones for the development of the electricity market. Parallel to the electricity industry, the natural gas business has great interaction with the electricity market

M. S. Morais; J. W. Marangon Lima

2007-01-01

350

Natural Gas Moves Little Tykes in Hudson  

SciTech Connect

This 2-page Clean Cities fact sheet describes the use of natural gas power in buses by Hudson City Schools, located in Hudson, OH. It includes information on the history of the program, along with contact information for the local Clean Cities Coordinator and Hudson City Schools.

Not Available

2004-04-01

351

Effective kinetic inhibitors for natural gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic inhibition is a new means of preventing flow channel blockage by natural gas hydrates. In kinetic inhibition the system is allowed to exist within the hydrate thermodynamic stability zone, so that small crystals are stabilized without agglomerating to larger hydrate masses which plug pipelines. A hydrate formation mechanism is reviewed to suggest the new inhibition method. Macroscopic experiments on

J. P. Lederhos; J. P. Long; A. Sum; R. L. Christiansen; E. D. Sloan

1996-01-01

352

49 CFR 173.336 - Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen...Preparation and Packaging § 173.336 Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied. (a) Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or...

2012-10-01

353

49 CFR 173.336 - Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen...Preparation and Packaging § 173.336 Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied. (a) Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or...

2010-10-01

354

49 CFR 173.336 - Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen...Preparation and Packaging § 173.336 Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied. (a) Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or...

2011-10-01

355

49 CFR 173.336 - Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied.  

... 2014-10-01 false Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide...Packaging § 173.336 Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied. (a) Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen...

2014-10-01

356

49 CFR 173.336 - Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide...Packaging § 173.336 Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied. (a) Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen...

2013-10-01

357

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization  

SciTech Connect

Building upon the partitioning of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) that was conducted last quarter, the goal of the work this quarter has been to conclude evaluation of the Stratos well and the prototypical Green River Deep partition, and perform the fill resource evaluation of the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play, with the goal of defining target areas of enhanced natural fracturing. The work plan for the quarter of November 1-December 31, 1998 comprised four tasks: (1) Evaluation of the Green River Deep partition and the Stratos well and examination of potential opportunity for expanding the use of E and P technology to low permeability, naturally fractured gas reservoirs, (2) Gas field studies, and (3) Resource analysis of the balance of the partitions.

NONE

1999-06-01

358

A natural gas feed preheater fire  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines an incident in an ammonia plant which began when a leakage in the radiant section tube of a natural gas preheater ignited a small fire. The small fire ultimately developed into a major blaze which caused the leaky tube to burst resulting in the plant shutdown. A subsequent investigation revealed inadequate equipment safety procedures. These faulty measures included the bypassing of an instrument interlock system provided for the gas feed preheater. The bypass caused operational problems because two plants were operating from a single natural gas supply header. In the aftermath of the incident, the instrument interlock system of equipment was modified to handle an emergency shutdown in the affected plant safely and, in the process, avoid hampering other ammonia plants.

Singh, J.; Joshi, M.D.; Desai, U.R.

2000-03-31

359

Greenhouse gas emissions from heavy-duty vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions measurements obtained during several recent studies conducted by Environment Canada, Emissions Research and Measurement Division (ERMD). A variety of heavy-duty vehicles and engines operating on a range of different fuels including diesel, biodiesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), hythane (20% hydrogen, 80% CNG), and liquefied natural gas (LNG), and with different advanced aftertreatment technologies

Lisa A. Graham; Greg Rideout; Deborah Rosenblatt; Jill Hendren

2008-01-01

360

Future evolution of the liberalised European gas market: Simulation results with a dynamic model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategic behaviour by gas producers is likely to affect future gas prices and investments in the European Union (EU). To analyse this issue, a computational game theoretic model is presented that is based on a recursive-dynamic formulation. This model addresses interactions among demand, supply, pipeline and liquefied natural gas (LNG) transport, storage and investments in the natural gas market over

Wietze Lise; Benjamin F. Hobbs

2008-01-01

361

78 FR 4400 - Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Liquefied Natural Gas on a Short-Term Basis AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, DOE...natural gas on a short-term or spot market basis for a two- year period commencing on March...100 Bcf of natural gas, on a cumulative basis, over a two-year period beginning...

2013-01-22

362

Remote sensing of gas emissions on natural gas flares  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions from operational natural gas flares are examined by a remote sensing technique using a commercial moderate-resolution Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer. The thermal radiation emitted by the post-combustion gas is analysed to determine plume temperatures and concentrations of 0963-9659\\/7\\/4\\/020\\/img5 and 0963-9659\\/7\\/4\\/020\\/img6. The multicomponent air pollution software (MAPS) is applied which is based on radiative transfer line-by-line calculations and least-squares fit procedures.

Rainer Haus; Rob Wilkinson; Jörg Heland; Klaus Schäfer

1998-01-01

363

Natural gas cleanup by means of membranes.  

PubMed

This paper deals with the use of membranes for hydrocarbon dewpointing and dehydration of natural gas. Based on experience gained from membrane applications in separating organic vapors from off-gas and process streams, as well as the dehydration of compressed air, membranes have been developed and tested for use in high pressure applications. Membranes and membrane modules have been modified to withstand the high operating pressure. Calculation programs were developed to understand the separation performance and to provide the necessary information for optimizing membrane design. A real challenge was the introduction of the vacuum mode dehydration operation in order to achieve the highest possible dewpoint reduction with minimum methane loss. PMID:12783826

Ohlrogge, Klaus; Brinkmann, Torsten

2003-03-01

364

Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough

Gruy

1998-01-01

365

Conditions for Fromation of Oceanic Natural Gas Hydrate Deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the widespread nature of oceanic natural gas hydrate and associated gas concentrations on continental margins, natural gas hydrate has yet to be proven to be an economically viable unconventional gas resource. In part, this is because unequivocal models for the formation of economic hydrate deposits do not yet exist and there is no exploration methodology for identifying the high-grade

M. M. Max

2005-01-01

366

Acoustic sensor for determining combustion properties of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since natural gas is not refined its composition depends on when and where it is recovered. This variation in composition results in problems in the optimal performance of combustion systems using natural gas as a fuel. The speed of sound in natural gas can be used to measure the fuel quality, since the speed of sound in a gas changes

R. M. Lueptow; S. Phillips

1994-01-01

367

Application and Research Progress of Heater in Natural Gas Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

With high-speed development, the natural gas industry will lead and promote the development of related techniques and equipments. This article studies the application of the heater in the gas industry, and indicates that it is an indispensable piece of equipment in natural gas application systems. As a special furnace type, the natural gas heater is the main energy consumer for

Yun Guo; Wei-Wu Cao; Ping Yan; Cai-Xia Yu; Shang-Yuan Qian

2011-01-01

368

Natural gas I. C. engine-driven heat pumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural gas heat pump concept offers significant advantages in efficiency over any other natural gas heating\\/cooling system. Compared to current high efficiency condensing furnaces, gas heat pumps offer practical savings on the order of 50%. The most mature concept available to achieve this high efficiency is the natural gas I.C. engine heat pump system. Several hundred of these systems

1987-01-01

369

How regulators should use natural gas price forecasts  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas prices are critical to a range of regulatory decisions covering both electric and gas utilities. Natural gas prices are often a crucial variable in electric generation capacity planning and in the benefit-cost relationship for energy-efficiency programs. High natural gas prices can make coal generation the most economical new source, while low prices can make natural gas generation the most economical. (author)

Costello, Ken

2010-08-15

370

Incremental natural gas resources through infield reserve growth/secondary natural gas recovery  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the Infield Growth/Secondary Natural Gas Recovery project have been: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities in reservoirs of conventional permeability cause reservoir compartmentalization and, hence, incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document practical, field-oriented examples of reserve growth from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas gulf coast basin and to use these gas reservoirs as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications of both tools and techniques to find secondary gas. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields. To transfer project results to natural gas producers, not just as field case studies, but as conceptual models of how heterogeneities determine natural gas flow and how to recognize the geologic and engineering clues that operators can use in a cost-effective manner to identify secondary gas. Accomplishments are presented for: reservoir characterization; integrated formation evaluation and engineering testing; compartmented reservoir simulator; and reservoir geophysics.

Finley, R.J.; Levey, R.A.

1992-08-01

371

Incremental natural gas resources through infield reserve growth/secondary natural gas recovery  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the Infield Reserve Growth/Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR) project is to develop, test, and verify technologies and methodologies with near- to midterm potential for maximizing the recovery of natural gasfrom conventional reservoirs in known fields. Additional technical and technology transfer objectives of the SGR project include: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities in reservoirs of conventional permeability cause reservoir compartmentalization and, hence, incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document examples of reserve growth occurrence and potential from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas gulf coast basin as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications to find secondary gas. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields. To transfer project results to a wide array of natural gas producers, not just as field case studies, but as conceptual models of how heterogeneities determine natural gas flow units and how to recognize the geologic and engineering clues that operators can use in a cost-effective manner to identify incremental, or secondary, gas.

Finley, R.J.; Levey, R.A.; Hardage, B.A.

1993-12-31

372

Evaluation of Natural Gas Systems: A Comparison Study for Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

With global warming, natural gas is becoming one of the critical energy sources in the world due to low-level emission of greenhouse gases. For that reason, natural gas consumption is increasing rapidly in the world. Turkey, which is a natural bridge between Europe and the Middle East, is a developing country in the world. The demand for natural gas has

F. E. Boran; K. Boran

2012-01-01

373

FDAS hardware and firmware description, liquefied gaseous fuels (LGF) data acquisition system: 1987 update  

SciTech Connect

The FDAS are the front-end data acquisition units of the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Data Acquisition System (LGFDAS). Starting with the liquefied natural gas (LNG) dispersion and vapor burn experiments conducted at the Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California, in 1980 and 1981, they have been employed on all LLNL dispersion tests to acquire data from numerous sensors. The FDAS units work with an LSI-11 based polling and data storage system at the control room. This is a description of the hardware, functions, commands, messages, data buffer formats, and firmware of the FDAS units. This report is an update of UCID-19348 written by John Baker and reflects the latest hardware and software upgrades performed during 1984 to 1986 at LLNL by the current authors. The current version of the FDAS firmware was successfully employed in 1986 for hydrogen fluoride tests conducted by LLNL for Amoco. 5 figs.

Martins, S.; Goldwire, H.C. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.

1987-05-01

374

Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The SWC represents a partnership between U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the NETL. This document serves as the twelfth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) Drafting and releasing the 2007 Request for Proposals; (2) Securing a meeting facility, scheduling and drafting plans for the 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; (3) Conducting elections and announcing representatives for the four 2007-2008 Executive Council seats; (4) 2005 Final Project Reports; (5) Personal Digital Assistant Workshops scheduled; and (6) Communications and outreach.

Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

2007-03-31

375

Public acceptance of natural gas infrastructure development in the UK  

E-print Network

........................................................................................................5 2.2.1 Underground Natural Gas Storage ......................................................5 2.....................................................................................7 2.5 Infrastructure Planning Commission.......................................................................................................9 3.1 Underground Gas Storage - Cheshire .........................................................10

376

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the work this quarter has been to partition and high-grade the Greater Green River basin for exploration efforts in the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play and to initiate resource assessment of the basin. The work plan for the quarter of July 1-September 30, 1998 comprised three tasks: (1) Refining the exploration process for deep, naturally fractured gas reservoirs; (2) Partitioning of the basin based on structure and areas of overpressure; (3) Examination of the Kinney and Canyon Creek fields with respect to the Cretaceous tight gas play and initiation of the resource assessment of the Vermilion sub-basin partition (which contains these two fields); and (4) Initiation analysis of the Deep Green River Partition with respect to the Stratos well and assessment of the resource in the partition.

NONE

1998-11-30

377

Natural Gas Regulatory Policy: Current Issues  

E-print Network

the options of industrial energy consumers for purchasing and moving natural gas. This panel viII discuss important developments in federal and state regulatory arenas and their impacts on purchasing options. Among the issues discussed viII be: 1.... Federal Regulation a. Self-implementing transportation b. Service obligation c. Pipeline capacity brokering d. Non-regulated and partially regulated sales e. FERC Order No. 500 f. Rate treatments impacts 2. State Regulation a...

Watkins, G.

378

Performance testing of natural gas plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance testing of natural-gas-extraction plants has become a valuable tool for improving recovery of plants operating below their optimum capabilities or maintaining the optimum recovery once it has been achieved. Many plants, whether turbo-expander, lean oil absorption, or straight refrigeration type, can drift from optimum recovery for one or several of many reasons. Sometimes this drift occurs without the plant

Herrin

1983-01-01

379

LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS  

SciTech Connect

This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

VANDOR,D.

1999-03-01

380

Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the tenth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period include: {lg_bullet} 2004 SWC Final Project Reports distribution; {lg_bullet} Exhibit and present at the Midcontinent Oil and Gas Prospect Fair, Great Bend, KS, September 12, 2006; {lg_bullet} Participate and showcase current and past projects at the 2006 Oklahoma Oil and Gas Trade Expo, Oklahoma City, OK, October 26, 2006; {lg_bullet} Finalize agenda and identify exhibitors for the northeastern US, Fall SWC Technical Transfer Workshop, Pittsburghhh, PA, November 9, 2006; {lg_bullet} Continue distribution of the public broadcast documentary, ''Independent Oil: Rediscovering American's Forgotten Wells''; {lg_bullet} Communications/outreach; and {lg_bullet} New members update.

Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

2006-09-30

381

Reduced Nitrogen and Natural Gas Consumption at Deepwell Flare  

E-print Network

Facing both an economic downturn and the liklihood of steep natural gas price increases, company plants were challenged to identify and quickly implement energy saving projects that would reduce natural gas usage. Unit operating personnel...

Williams, C.

2004-01-01

382

Natural gas pricing in the Northeastern U.S.  

E-print Network

This paper examines natural gas pricing at five citygate locations in the northeastern United States using daily and weekly price series for the years 1994-97. In particular, the effects of the natural gas price at Henry ...

Gunnarshaug, Jasmin

1998-01-01

383

Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The SWC represents a partnership between U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the NETL. This document serves as the eleventh quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the Fall SWC Technology Transfer Workshop for the northeastern U.S., in Pittsburgh, PA, on November 9, 2006, and organizing and identifying projects to exhibit during the SWC/Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) joint reception on November 8, 2006; (2) Distributing a paper copy of the Texas Tech 2004 Final Report and a revised, complete compact disc of all 2004 final reports; (3) Invoicing current and potential members for FY2007; (4) Soliciting nominations for the 2007-2008 Executive Council seats; and (5) Communications and outreach.

Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

2006-12-31

384

PROGRAM OPPORTUNITY NOTICE Building Natural Gas Technology (BNGT) Grant  

E-print Network

PROGRAM OPPORTUNITY NOTICE Building Natural Gas Technology (BNGT) Grant Program PON-13-503 http ....................................................................................................................................6 KEY ACTIVITIES AND DATES

385

Assessment of the possibility of forecasting future natural gas curtailments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides a preliminary assessment of the potential for determining probabilities of future natural-gas-supply interruptions by combining long-range weather forecasts and natural-gas supply\\/demand projections. An illustrative example which measures the probability of occurrence of heating-season natural-gas curtailments for industrial users in the southeastern US is analyzed. Based on the information on existing long-range weather forecasting techniques and natural gas

Lemont

1980-01-01

386

Samson Sherman President Obama's Energy Plan & Natural Gas  

E-print Network

period. Natural Gas Natural gas is considered the cleanest of all fossil fuels. Mostly comprised of methane, releases lower emissions of CO2, NOx, and SO2 (Shown in Fossil Fuel Emission Levels table to eliminate 822 Billion cubic feet (Bcf) of methane emissions. We currently sit on 100 years of natural gas

Toohey, Darin W.

387

Measurements of Methane Emissions at Natural Gas Production Sites  

E-print Network

· Sponsors were an environmental group and nine natural gas producers ­ Environmental Defense Fund (EDFMeasurements of Methane Emissions at Natural Gas Production Sites in the United States #12;Why = 21 #12;Need for Study · Estimates of methane emissions from natural gas production , from academic

Lightsey, Glenn

388

Methodology for estimating volumes of flared and vented natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common perception in the United States that natural gas produced with oil is a valuable commodity probably dates from the 1940's. Before that time, most operators regarded natural gas associated with or dissolved in oil as a nuisance. Indeed, most associated\\/dissolved natural gas produced in the United States before World War II probably was flared or vented to the

T. R. Klett; D. L. Gautier

1993-01-01

389

Natural Gas Pipeline Leaks Across Washington, DC Robert B. Jackson,,,  

E-print Network

safety, we deployed a Picarro G2301 Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a car, mapping 5893 natural gasNatural Gas Pipeline Leaks Across Washington, DC Robert B. Jackson,,, * Adrian Down, Nathan G increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17

Jackson, Robert B.

390

West Virginia University 1 Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas  

E-print Network

) Intelligent Systems #12;2 Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Associate Professor · H. IlkinWest Virginia University 1 Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Degrees Offered · Master of science in petroleum and natural gas engineering · Master of science in engineering

Mohaghegh, Shahab

391

Cost of Natural Gas Used in Manufacturing Sector Has Fallen  

EIA Publications

Natural gas has been an important exception to the trend of rising prices for energy sources used by manufacturers. Production of natural gas in the United States increased rapidly beginning in 2007 as a result of resources found in shale formations. That increase in supply has in turn lowered the price of natural gas to manufacturers

2013-01-01

392

49 CFR 173.304 - Filling of cylinders with liquefied compressed gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fluoride, inhibited, the liquid portion of a liquefied gas may not completely fill the...C (131 °F). The liquid portion of vinyl fluoride...C (130 °F). The liquid content of the material and gas may not completely fill...

2010-10-01

393

Environmental data energy technology characterizations: natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Environmental Data Energy Technology Characterizations are publications which are intended to provide policy analysts and technical analysts with basic environmental data associated with key energy technologies. This publication provides backup documentation on natural gas. The transformation of the energy in gas into a more useful form is described in this document in terms of major activity areas in the gas cycle; that is, in terms of activities which produce either an energy product or a fuel leading to the production of an energy product in a different form. The activities discussed in this document are exploration, extraction, purification, power-plants, storage and transportation of natural gas. These activities represent both well-documented and non-documented activity areas. The former activities are characterized in terms of actual operating data with allowance for future modification where appropriate. Emissions are assumed to conform to environmental standards. The other activity areas examined are those like exploration and extraction, where reliance on engineering studies provided the data. The organization of the chapters in this volume is designed to support the tabular presentation in the summary. Each chapter begins with a brief description of the activity under consideration. The standard characteristics, size, availability, mode of functioning, and place in the fuel cycle are presented. Next, major legislative and/or technological factors influencing the commercial operation of the activity are offered. Discussions of resources consumed, residuals produced, and economics follow. To aid in comparing and linking the different activity areas, data for each area are normalized to 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy output from the activity.

Not Available

1980-04-01

394

75 FR 13524 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC, Enterprise Field...Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC, and Enterprise Field...with the Commission and open to public inspection. The filing is available for review...

2010-03-22

395

The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology  

SciTech Connect

An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Davies, J. (General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)); Zammit, M. (AC Rochester, NY (United States)); Patterson, P. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-01-01

396

The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology  

SciTech Connect

An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Davies, J. [General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Zammit, M. [AC Rochester, NY (United States); Patterson, P. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-02-01

397

Outlook bright for U.S. natural gas resources  

SciTech Connect

This series of articles by Advanced Resources International (ARI) and the US Geological Survey (USGS) provides a fresh look at new technologies and emerging natural gas plays. It begins, in this article, with three topics: (1) an overview of the controversy surrounding the adequacy of domestic natural gas resources; (2) a look at emerging gas resources in light of advances in technology; and (3) a review of the most frequently referenced natural gas assessments. Future articles in this series will address emerging natural gas resources that may add to the US resource base: deep gas resources (two parts); Barnett shale gas resources; moving into the resource pyramid, a summary of poorly understood but potentially significant emerging gas plays--such as sub-basalt gas plays, deep coalbed methane, and new shale gas resources--not yet included in resource assessments; and gas hydrates.

Kuuskraa, V.A. [Advanced Resources International Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1998-04-13

398

Drawing the line on natural gas regulation: The Harvard study on the future of natural gas  

SciTech Connect

The Harvard Study on the Future of Natural Gas Policy reflects the ideas, discussions, and debates of nine authors and more than seventy experts from business, government, and academia. These study participants constituted the Executive Working Group, which met in three sessions during 1984-1985. The executive sessions provided forums for the authors to present versions of their chapters at progressive stages of development. The results were invaluable insights and perspectives from parties directly involved in the ongoing debates over the reform of natural gas policy. In addition, a number of participants have contributed written comments on the various chapters of this book.

Kalt, J.P.; Schuller, F.C. (eds.)

1987-01-01

399

Natural gas pyrolysis in the regenerative gas heaterPart i: Natural gas thermal decomposition at a hot matrix in a regenerative gas heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of natural gas pyrolysis at a hot matrix in a high temperature regenerative gas heater. It was demonstrated that formation of pyrocarbon during thermal decomposition of natural gas significantly influences upon the process efficiency. Burn out of the carbon deposits from the matrix during the matrix heating up stage produces components

R. G Popov; E. E Shprilrain; V. M Zaytchenko

1999-01-01

400

Burn Biofuels in Gas Turbines with Improved Heat Rate and Natural Gas Level Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Lean, Premixed, Prevaporized (LPP) combustion technology has been developed that converts liquid biofuels, such as biodiesel or ethanol, into a substitute for natural gas, called LPP Gas™. This LPP Gas™ can then be burned with low emissions in virtually any combustion device in place of natural gas, providing users substantial fuel flexibility. A gas turbine utilizing LPP combustion technology

Michael J. Ramotowski; Michael S. Klassen; Leo D. Eskin; Richard J. Roby

401

Natural and artificial nobel gas hydrologic tracers  

SciTech Connect

Noble gas isotopes provide opportunities for ground water tracing. Both naturally occurring tracers and artificially injected tracers can be used. The equilibration of water with the earth`s atmosphere records the temperature and atmospheric pressure during ground water recharge. This temperature/pressure record can be used to distinguish cold recharge from warmer recharge with a resolution of 1-2 C temperature and 500m in altitude. The radioactive decay of U and Th produce large concentrations of 4He in old ground water and this 4He signature can be useful in tracing the small addition of old water (>10,000 yr.) to young water (<100 yr.). The decay of 3H present either form nuclear testing or cosmic ray interactions leads to detectable amounts of 3He in young ground water (<50 yr.). By measuring both 3H and 3He, the mean age of the 3H in the water can be calculated. In addition to these natural tracers, isotopically enriched noble gas isotopes are readily available at low cost and can be used an non-hazardous water tracers. This inert, persistent, and harmless tracing technique can used in many situations at a cost of about one dollar per million gallons of water traced.

Hudson, G.B.

1994-06-01

402

Estimation of safety distances in the vicinity of fuel gas pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, safety distances around pipelines transmitting liquefied petroleum gas and pressurized natural gas are determined considering the possible outcomes of an accidental event associated with fuel gas release from pressurized transmission systems. Possible outcomes of an accidental fuel gas release were determined by performing the Event Tree Analysis approach. Safety distances were computed for two pipeline transmission systems

Spyros Sklavounos; Fotis Rigas

2006-01-01

403

Modelling and simulation of heavy gas dispersion on the basis of modifications in plume path theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical model for heavy gas dispersion based on the modifications in plume path theory has been developed. The model takes into account the variations in temperature, density, and specific heat during the movement of heavy gas plume.The model has been tested for three hazardous gases — chlorine, natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas. The results have been compared with

Faisal I Khan; S. A Abbasi

2000-01-01

404

Large-scale hazardous gas release experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is conducting safety research under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Air Force, the US Coast Guard, and the Gas Research Institute (GRI), to determine the possible consequence of accidental releases of liquefied natural gas (LNG), nitrogen tetroxide (NâOâ), and ammonia (NHâ). The LLNL program includes both the collection of

R. P. Koopman; H. C. Jr. Goldwire; T. G. McRae

1983-01-01

405

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization  

SciTech Connect

The work plan for October 1, 1997 to September 30, 1998 consisted of investigation of a number of topical areas. These topical areas were reported in four quarterly status reports, which were submitted to DOE earlier. These topical areas are reviewed in this volume. The topical areas covered during the year were: (1) Development of preliminary tests of a production method for determining areas of natural fracturing. Advanced Resources has demonstrated that such a relationship exists in the southern Piceance basin tight gas play. Natural fracture clusters are genetically related to stress concentrations (also called stress perturbations) associated with local deformation such a faulting. The mechanical explanation of this phenomenon is that deformation generally initiates at regions where the local stress field is elevated beyond the regional. (2) Regional structural and geologic analysis of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). Application of techniques developed and demonstrated during earlier phases of the project for sweet-spot delineation were demonstrated in a relatively new and underexplored play: tight gas from continuous-typeUpper Cretaceous reservoirs of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). The effort included data acquisition/processing, base map generation, geophysical and remote sensing analysis and the integration of these data and analyses. (3) Examination of the Table Rock field area in the northern Washakie Basin of the Greater Green River Basin. This effort was performed in support of Union Pacific Resources- and DOE-planned horizontal drilling efforts. The effort comprised acquisition of necessary seismic data and depth-conversion, mapping of major fault geometry, and analysis of displacement vectors, and the development of the natural fracture prediction. (4) Greater Green River Basin Partitioning. Building on fundamental fracture characterization work and prior work performed under this contract, namely structural analysis using satellite and potential field data, the GGRB was divided into partitions that will be used to analyze the resource potential of the Frontier and Mesaverde Upper Cretaceous tight gas play. A total of 20 partitions were developed, which will be instrumental for examining the Upper Cretaceous play potential. (5) Partition Analysis. Resource assessment associated with individual partitions was initiated starting with the Vermilion Sub-basin and the Green River Deep (which include the Stratos well) partitions (see Chapter 5). (6) Technology Transfer. Tech transfer was achieved by documenting our research and presenting it at various conferences.

NONE

1998-11-30

406

Restricted Natural Gas Supply Case (released in AEO2005)  

EIA Publications

The restricted natural gas supply case provides an analysis of the energy-economic implications of a scenario in which future gas supply is significantly more constrained than assumed in the reference case. Future natural gas supply conditions could be constrained because of problems with the construction and operation of large new energy projects, and because the future rate of technological progress could be significantly lower than the historical rate. Although the restricted natural gas supply case represents a plausible set of constraints on future natural gas supply, it is not intended to represent what is likely to happen in the future.

2005-01-01

407

Economic evaluation of natural gas transportation from Iran’s South-Pars gas field to market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide consumption of natural gas is rapidly increasing. To satisfy such a demand, there are some plans to transport natural gas from South-Pars gas field, the largest natural gas field of Iran, to some energy consuming countries. There are several possible technologies for transporting gas from production fields to consuming markets as gas, including PNG (pipeline natural gas), LNG

H. Najibi; R. Rezaei; J. Javanmardi; Kh. Nasrifar; M. Moshfeghian

2009-01-01

408

Development of the Natural Gas Resources in the Marcellus Shale  

E-print Network

Development of the Natural Gas Resources in the Marcellus Shale New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia for informational purposes only and does not support or oppose development of the Marcellus Shale natural gas information regarding shale gas well development, ancillary facilities asso- ciated with that development

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

409

Renewable Natural Gas Clean-upp Challenges and Applications  

E-print Network

history > Facilities 18 Chi 18 acre campus near Chicago 200,000 ft2, 28 specialized labs $60 illi residues and agricultural wastes. RENEWABLE NATURAL GAS CAN BE CLEANED- UP AND PLACED IN THE NATURAL GAS--Anaerobic digestion of agricultural waste for on-site electricity generation Altamont Landfill--Landfill gas (LFG

410

Natural gas availability and the residential demand for energy  

SciTech Connect

The fact that not all US households have access to pipeline-delivered natural gas affects not only the demand for gas but also the demand for electricity and fuel oil. The existence of such constraints on natural gas availability has several implications for the econometric modeling of residential energy consumption. In particular, the

Blattenberger, G.R.; Taylor, L.D.; Rennhack, R.K.

1983-01-01

411

DIRECT USE OF NATURAL GAS: ANALYSIS AND POLICY OPTIONS  

E-print Network

-uses, such as space and water heating, than to burn natural gas to generate electricity to serve the end-use energy energy efficient to burn natural gas directly for space or water heating than it is to generate heating systems. #12;2 Figure 1 shows a comparison of the total gas requirements for space and water

412

Natural Gas Hydrates and their Potential for Future Energy Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years the topic of naturally occurring gas hydrates have attracted major interest worldwide due to the fact that they may play a dominant role as possible energy resources in the future. Prior to this natural gas hydrates were mainly viewed at as a source of operational problems in gas processing and transportation equipment. The historical background and development

L. R. Oellrich

413

INVENTORY OF METHANE LOSSES FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives the second year's results of an ongoing 4-year program undertaken jointly by the Gas Research Institute and the U.S. EPA to assess the methane (CH4) losses from the U.S. natural gas industry. he program's objective is to assess the acceptability of natural gas as ...

414

The cost of natural gas shortages in Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the economic implications of disruptions of one to ninety days to the supply of natural gas in Ireland. We assess the impact of a hypothetical gas supply disruption in both winter and summer in 2008 (with observed market characteristics) and in 2020 (with projected market characteristics). The cost of a natural gas outage includes the cost of

Eimear Leahy; Conor Devitt; Richard S. J. Tol

2012-01-01

415

The Cost of Natural Gas Shortages in Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the economic implications of disruptions of one to ninety days to the supply of natural gas in Ireland. We assess the impact of a hypothetical gas supply disruption in both winter and summer in 2008 (with observed market characteristics) and in 2020 (with projected market characteristics). The cost of a natural gas outage includes the cost of

Eimear Leahy; Conor Devitt; Seán Lyons; Richard S. J. Tol

2011-01-01

416

Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure  

PubMed Central

Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH4 leakage were capped at a level 45–70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH4 losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

Alvarez, Ramon A.; Pacala, Stephen W.; Winebrake, James J.; Chameides, William L.; Hamburg, Steven P.

2012-01-01

417

Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.  

PubMed

Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

Alvarez, Ramón A; Pacala, Stephen W; Winebrake, James J; Chameides, William L; Hamburg, Steven P

2012-04-24

418

Performance testing of natural gas plants  

SciTech Connect

Performance testing of natural-gas-extraction plants has become a valuable tool for improving recovery of plants operating below their optimum capabilities or maintaining the optimum recovery once it has been achieved. Many plants, whether turbo-expander, lean oil absorption, or straight refrigeration type, can drift from optimum recovery for one or several of many reasons. Sometimes this drift occurs without the plant operators being aware, or the reduction in recovery may be caused by operating problems of which the operator is aware but feels cannot be solved with the equipment available. A plant performance test may find the unknown problem or the test will show the problem can be solved and recoveries improved with existing equipment. Sometimes a computer simulation of the plant, using the test data, may be required to find or solve the problem.

Herrin, J.P.

1983-01-01

419

Natural gas conversion process. Sixth quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

Not Available

1992-12-01

420

Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

Andrew Lucero

2009-01-31

421

Performance study using natural gas, hydrogen-supplemented natural gas and hydrogen in AVL research engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance tests with natural gas, hydrogen-supplemented CH4, and H2-fueled configurations of the AVL research engine are reported. A comparison is made of the properties of H2 and natural gas, noting that natural gas benefits such as heating value, higher ignition energy, and narrow ignition limits are at least partially offset by H2 wide ignition limits which allow elimination of throttling, a higher flame velocity, and few harmful emissions. The trials were performed on a single cylinder, four-stroke, spark ignition engine with two intake and two exhaust valves. Varying gas/air ratios were explored, and 80:20 and 50:50 CH4:H2 mixtures were tested. The engine was 23 percent less efficient when burning H2, which also displayed a 12 percent decrement in thermal efficiency. However, H2 was usable over a wider range of operating ratios of air mixtures. Finally, water introduced into the intake manifold was more effective at high speeds in lowering NO emissions with the H2-fueled engine.

Duebel, F.; Schmillen, K.; Nagalingam, B.

422

Shale Gas Opportunities It's no secret that petroleum and natural gas engineers are currently in great  

E-print Network

Shale Gas Opportunities It's no secret that petroleum and natural gas engineers are currently in great demand, thanks in large part to the discovery of shale gas plays in the United States. Petroleum's Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering is competitive, with qualified applicants receiving

Mohaghegh, Shahab

423

Greenhouse gas and energy analysis of substitute natural gas from biomass for space heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the greenhouse gas and energy balances of the production and use for space heating of substitute natural gas from biomass (bio-SNG) for space heat are analysed. These balances are compared to the use of natural gas and solid biomass as wood chips to provide the same service. The reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq.) – carbon

Johanna Pucker; Robin Zwart; Gerfried Jungmeier

424

Evaluation of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for natural gas and LPG vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the CNG and LPG vehicles studied were converted to the alternative fuel after purchase. There are wide variations in the quality of the conversion hardware and the installation. This leads to questions about the overall quality of the converted vehicles, in terms of emissions, safety, and performance. There is a considerable body of emissions data for converted light-duty vehicles, and a smaller amount for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. However, very few of these data involve real world conditions, and there is growing concern about in-use emissions. This report also attempts to assess factors that could allow in-use emissions to vary from the best-case'' results normally reported. The study also addresses issues of fuel supply, fuel composition, performance, safety, and warranty waivers. The report is based on an extensive literature and product survey and on the author's experience with fuel delivery systems for light-duty vehicles.

Willson, B. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States))

1992-09-01

425

Evaluation of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for natural gas and LPG vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the CNG and LPG vehicles studied were converted to the alternative fuel after purchase. There are wide variations in the quality of the conversion hardware and the installation. This leads to questions about the overall quality of the converted vehicles, in terms of emissions, safety, and performance. There is a considerable body of emissions data for converted light-duty vehicles, and a smaller amount for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. However, very few of these data involve real world conditions, and there is growing concern about in-use emissions. This report also attempts to assess factors that could allow in-use emissions to vary from the ``best-case`` results normally reported. The study also addresses issues of fuel supply, fuel composition, performance, safety, and warranty waivers. The report is based on an extensive literature and product survey and on the author`s experience with fuel delivery systems for light-duty vehicles.

Willson, B. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1992-09-01

426

75 FR 62510 - Chevron U.S.A. Inc.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Louisiana to any country with the capacity...Policy Act of 1992. Protests, motions to intervene...invited. DATES: Protests, motions to intervene...contracted for 1.0 Bcf per day of terminal capacity...imported LNG to any country with the capacity...electronically file a protest, motion to...

2010-10-12

427

LNG (liquefied natural gas) in the Asia-Pacific region: Twenty years of trade and outlook for the future  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: the current status of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region; present structure and projected demand in the Asia-Pacific region; prospective and tentative projects; and LNG contracts: stability versus flexibility.

Kiani, B.

1990-01-01

428

Analytical research for pressure originated from expansion of freezing soil acting on underground storage tank for liquefied natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report describes the problem of the pressure originated from the expansion of freezing soil and applied onto underground storage tanks for LNG. The authors first show that the soil around the underground storage tank for LNG freezes inevitably after cool-down, secondly give an outline of the mechanism of expansion of freezing soil, and thirdly explain the result of theoretical

O. Suzuki; Y. Nojiri; S. Kijima; M. Tanaka; H. Abe

1979-01-01

429

33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a...Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40?43? N and...

2011-07-01

430

33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a...Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40?43? N and...

2013-07-01

431

33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...  

...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a...Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40?43? N and...

2014-07-01

432

33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a...Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40?43? N and...

2012-07-01

433

An internal seal for repairing natural gas mains  

E-print Network

Joint leakage from low pressure natural gas distribution mains (typical value: 0.25 ft[superscript 3] at 6 inwg gas pressure) is a persistent source of maintenance problems for utitlites. External encapsulation is the usual ...

Cooper, Samuel A.

1984-01-01

434

Creation of axial expanders on magnetic supports for natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural features and properties are provided for turboexpander units created by Turbokholod company for cooling natural\\u000a gas in main and line stations for gas recovery (Yamal, Yamburg, Shtokman fields).

V. A. Khetagurov; K. K. Sokolov

2009-01-01

435

Experimental densities and enthalpies for water-natural gas systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Burnett apparatus was used to obtain accurate P-rho-T data of water-natural gas systems over a pressure range of 5 to 2450 psia. Experimental data were obtained for three wet, sweet natural gas mixtures containing 1.85%, 5.0%, and 10.0%, water over a temperature range of 50° to 210°C. In addition, data were procured for three water and sour natural gas

Scheloske

1981-01-01

436

Natural Gas Processing Plants in the United States: 2010 Update  

EIA Publications

This special report presents an analysis of natural gas processing plants in the United States as of 2009 and highlights characteristics of this segment of the industry. The purpose of the paper is to examine the role of natural gas processing plants in the natural gas supply chain and to provide an overview and summary of processing plant characteristics in the United States, such as locations, capacities, and operations.

2011-01-01

437

Methanol from coal and natural gas  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is directed to a process which uses the methanol synthesis gas from steam reforming in a first methanol plant and effectively integrates a second methanol plant which uses as the methanol synthesis gas (a) the purge gas from the first methanol plant and (b) the clean syn-gas produced by partial oxidation.

Van Dijk, C.P.; Rovner, J.M.; Solbakken, A.

1983-10-04

438

Methanol from coal and natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention is directed to a process which uses the methanol synthesis gas from steam reforming in a first methanol plant and effectively integrates a second methanol plant which uses as the methanol synthesis gas (a) the purge gas from the first methanol plant and (b) the clean syn-gas produced by partial oxidation.

C. P. Van Dijk; J. M. Rovner; A. Solbakken

1983-01-01

439

Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer cont...

T. S. Collett

1992-01-01

440

Computer program for natural gas flow through nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Subroutines, FORTRAN 4 type, were developed for calculating isentropic natural gas mass flow rate through nozzle. Thermodynamic functions covering compressibility, entropy, enthalpy, and specific heat are included.

Johnson, R. C.

1972-01-01

441

A study of natural gas extraction in Marcellus shale  

E-print Network

With the dramatic increases in crude oil prices there has been a need to find reliable energy substitutions. One substitution that has been used in the United States is natural gas. However, with the increased use of natural ...

Boswell, Zachary (Zachary Karol)

2011-01-01

442

Compressed natural gas--the world scene  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Zealand has set the pattern for tranport CNG use. The Wellington Gas Company developed a package that embodies hydraulic gas compression principles coupled to a minimum volume of gas storage. The facility is completely installed. Cost\\/benefit and return on investment studies are made. A new code of practice (NZS 5425) has been developed to revise Dangerous Goods Regulations with

1982-01-01

443

Isotope fractionation during natural gas hydrate formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the task of pursuing the origin of hydrate-bound gas, isotope analysis is a well established tool of prediction. The carbon isotope values of methane, ethane, propane and i-butane will strongly indicate the source to either be microbial, thermogenic or of mixed origin. This is due to kinetic fractionation during microbial activity. In microbial CO2 reduction, the microbes tend to reduce ?12C molecules preferentially to ?13C. This leads to light methane and ethane in the gas from microbial activity compared to methane and ethane of thermogenic origin. Recently, isotopically light methane and ethane from hydrate-bond gas from the pockmark field of Nyegga (Norwegian Sea) has been reported. The gas has migrated from a free gas system beneath the base of gas hydrate stability and reached the seafloor through a chimney structured migration feature. The free gas layer is thought to be supported by deeper sources, and polygonal faulting that is known to lay on top of petroleum reservoirs supports speculations that the free gas layer contains thermogenic gas. The isotopic evidence classifies the hydrate gas as fractionated by microbial activity, while the composition and geological setting tell tales of a thermogenic source. This conundrum has led to the speculation upon a fractionation of carbon isotope through hydrate formation. With an experimental setup consisting of a cooling incubator and a pressure cell with controlled torque stirring, hydrates can form under controlled pressure and temperature conditions. The gas hydrates are formed with excess of gas making it possible to sample both the excess gas and hydrate gas. The gas is 99.5 % methane,

Nesheim Vaular, Espen; Corak, Djurdjica; Barth, Tanja

2010-05-01

444

Methodology for estimating volumes of flared and vented natural gas  

SciTech Connect

The common perception in the United States that natural gas produced with oil is a valuable commodity probably dates from the 1940's. Before that time, most operators regarded natural gas associated with or dissolved in oil as a nuisance. Indeed, most associated/dissolved natural gas produced in the United States before World War II probably was flared or vented to the atmosphere. This situation has changed in the United States, where flaring and venting have decreased dramatically in recent years, in part because of environmental concerns, but also because of the changing view of the value of natural gas. The idea that gas is a nuisance is beginning to change almost everywhere, as markets for gas have developed in Europe, Japan, and elsewhere, and as operators have increasingly utilized or reinjected associated-dissolved gas in their oil-production activities. Nevertheless, in some areas natural gas continues to be flared or vented to the atmosphere. Gas flares in Russia, the Niger Delta, and the Middle East are some of the brightest lights on the nighttime Earth. As we increasingly consider the global availability and utility of natural gas, and the environmental impacts of the consumption of carbon-based fuels, it is important to know how much gas has been flared or vented, how much gas is currently being flared or vented, and the distribution of flaring or venting through time. Unfortunately, estimates of the volumes of flared and vented gas are generally not available. Despite the inconsistency and inavailability of data, the extrapolation method outlined provides a reliable technique for estimating amounts of natural gas flared and vented through time. 36 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

Klett, T.R.; Gautier, D.L. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-01-01

445

Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the second quarter of 1997 (April through June).

NONE

1997-12-31

446

Advantages of natural gas as a vehicular fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages of natural gas vehicles can be broken down into four major categories: social\\/political, technical, economic, and environmental. The social\\/political advantages of natural gas as a vehicular fuel lie predominantly in its ability to substitute for petroleum fuels. This frees petroleum reserves for other uses or, in areas with dwindling reserves, it reduces the dependence on imported oil and

R. J. Remick; C. F. Blazek

1992-01-01

447

A hybrid economic–engineering model for natural gas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimal control model which generalizes the traditional economic theory of exhaustible resource production is developed and applied to natural gas wells. These generalizations, which are empirically relevant for the natural gas resources we analyze, allow (1) decreasing marginal production costs, (2) physical bounds on periodic production and (3) interdependencies between the stock of the resource, the periodic production bounds,

Janie M. Chermak; James Crafton; Suzanne M. Norquist; Robert H. Patrick

1999-01-01

448

Theories and Conflict: The Origins of Natural Gas. Instructional Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit explores a recent and controversial theory of the origin of much of the Earth's natural gas and oil. The materials provided will give students the opportunity to: (1) gain an understanding of science and what is involved in the acceptance or rejection of theories; (2) learn about fossil fuels, especially natural gas; (3) learn the…

Anderson, Susan

449

State-of-the-art Natural Gas Pipe Inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The safety of the Unites States' natural gas supply is of prime importance since 30% of the energy produced in the country is derived from it. Natural gas is supplied through a million miles of vast pipeline network (1). Pipeline companies have an impressive safety record due to the proactive role of standards and inspection of pipelines. Since the

Venugopal K. Varma

450

A Large Potential Methane Source—Natural Gas Hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas, essentially methane, can be obtained from natural gas hydrate (NGH). NGH reserves are difficult to pinpoint in the subsurface, but large sources have been identified by seismic reflection. This is particularly so below the sea floor near continental shelf plates in the oceans deeper than 300 m as NGH is stable at 4°C and 50 bar pressure. When

R. A. Dawe; S. Thomas

2007-01-01

451

Natural gas vehicles stall on way to market  

SciTech Connect

The outlook for increased use of natural gas for fueling autos depends primarily on comparative fuel prices and comparative vehicle prices, according to David E. Gushee, a senior fellow in environmental policy at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. Compressed natural gas may be a more efficient fuel than gasoline, but costs of fuel distribution and engine design can add significantly to its total price. Currently, natural gas is less expensive than gasoline at the retail level, but this price advantage depends on government and industry subsidies. For natural gas to stay competitive in the future, these subsidies likely will have to continue, says Gushee. The pump price of natural gas will have to remain low if natural gas-powered vehicles are to succeed in the market place, because such vehicles currently cost about $2,500 to $5,000 more than a comparable gasoline-powered car. Gushee says that even with mass production, the projected price difference will be about $800 per car. The challenges facing compressed natural gas are daunting, especially considering that even in nations where natural gas receives significant tax advantages, its penetration has not exceeded 15 percent.

Gushee, D.E. [Congressional Research Service, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-08-01

452

Natural Gas: Major Legislative and Regulatory Actions (1935 - 2008)  

EIA Publications

This special report Web-based product presents a chronology of some of the key federal legislative and regulatory actions that have helped shape the natural gas market, with particular emphasis on policy directives from 1978 to October 2008. Separate reports provide brief descriptions of specific legislation, regulations, or policies, and their impacts on the natural gas market.

2009-01-01

453

Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas  

EIA Publications

The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas report, published today, is a Congressionally-requested study examining the energy trends and developments in the Americas over the past decade. The report focuses on liquid fuels and natural gas—particularly reserves and resources, production, consumption, trade, and investment—given their scale and significance to the region.

2014-01-01

454

Natural Gas Utilities Options Analysis for the Hydrogen  

E-print Network

CAR and FreedomFUEL Initiatives #12;6 #12;7 Why the Study? > Premise: ­ The evolution of hydrogen energy systems> Natural Gas Utilities Options Analysis for the Hydrogen Economy Hydrogen Pipeline R&D Project > GTI focuses on energy & environmental issues ­ Specialize on natural gas & hydrogen > Our main

455

Natural gas receives thorough discussion at ECAFE seminar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE) held a ''Seminar on the Development and Utilization of Natural Gas Resources'' in Teheran, Iran, Dec. 1-12, 1964. It was aimed at promoting within the member countries of ECAFE an increased attention to natural gas developments, including discovery, production, storage, transportation and utilization. Nearly 80 papers were submitted to the

Heller

1965-01-01

456

An econometric analysis of the market for natural gas futures  

SciTech Connect

This research tests a form of the efficient markets hypothesis in the market for natural gas futures. Unlike other studies of future markets, the test for market efficiency is conducted at numerous locations which comprise the natural gas spot market in addition to the delivery location specified in the futures contract. Natural gas spot and futures prices are found to be nonstationary and accordingly are modeled using recently developed maximum likelihood cointegrated with nearly all of the spot market prices across the national network of gas pipelines. The hypothesis of market efficiency can be rejected in 3 of the 13 spot markets. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Walls, W.D. [Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

1995-12-31

457

Design optimization of a 0.1-ton/day active magnetic regenerative hydrogen liquefier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A design optimization procedure of a 0.1-ton/day active magnetic regenerative (AMR) hydrogen liquefier model is described. The liquefier is proposed for the industrial liquid hydrogen market with overall efficiency being the primary measure of performance. This performance is described here in terms of particle size, bed length, and inter-stage temperature. Efficiency comparable to larger gas cycle plants is predicted. The magnetic liquefier may be modified to operate as a two-stage magnetic refrigerator between 77 and 20 K with high efficiency. The paper describes an optimization method as applied to the design of a two-stage AMR hydrogen liquefier and presents the associated results. A five-parameter optimization process is performed since there are five changeable parameters; the low- and high-stage particle sizes, the low- and high-stage bed lengths, and the inter-stage temperature. Model results are presented and compared with experimental results of an actual liquefier.

Zhang, L.; Sherif, S. A.; DeGregoria, A. J.; Zimm, C. B.; Veziroglu, T. N.

2000-04-01

458

Commercial buildings, energy consumption, and natural gas markets  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an overview of natural gas use in the U.S. commercial energy markets. The gas industry is in the position of protecting its share in the heating market, competing vigorously for the water heating and cooking markets, and aggresively increasing its share in the space-cooling market. Energy consumption in commercial buildings in 1979 was 5.5 quads; gas provided 2.354 quads. Electricity is the largest competitor in all commercial markets. On a national basis, natural gas and electricity equally share the market for space heating and water heating applications, electricity has a stronger share of the cooking market, and the space-conditioning market is effectively all-electric. In terms of building type, office buildings consume 39% more electricity, retail buildings consume about equal amounts of electricity and natural gas, and warehouse buildings consume 26% more natural gas.

Brodrick, J.R.

1986-06-01

459

Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

Gruy, H.J.

1998-03-01

460

Method and apparatus for processing a natural gas stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a method and apparatus for processing a natural gas stream. The apparatus consists of at least three adsorbent beds, with each bed passing consecutively through an adsorption cycle, an open-type heating cycle, and an open-type cooling cycle. The gas stream is first separated into two portions so that a stripped gas leaves the first bed. The second portion

E. L. McCarthy; R. E. McMinn; M. S. Worley

1966-01-01

461

Procedure for preparation for shipment of natural gas storage vessel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for preparing a natural gas storage vessel for shipment is presented. The gas is stored at 3,000 pounds per square inch. The safety precautions to be observed are emphasized. The equipment and process for purging the tank and sampling the exit gas flow are described. A diagram of the pressure vessel and the equipment is provided.

Amawd, A. M.

1974-01-01

462

Custody transfer of natural gas by heat content  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of pricing gas independent of pressure or temperature bases, as supported by the Natural Gas Policy Act with which the trend to price gas on the basis of heating value was accelerated. Tables with base pressure conversion factors, calculated BTU values, and BTUs transferred were presented. Using the mass derived from chromatographic analysis of a stream in mol

Kilmer

1982-01-01

463

Speaker to Address Impact of Natural Gas Production on Greenhouse Gas Emissions When used for power generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon  

E-print Network

generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions, but questions have been raised whether development of shale gas resources results in an overall lower greenhouse gas, "Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas," appeared in Environmental Research Letters

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

464

Natural gas imports and exports, fourth quarter report 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

None

2000-03-01

465

Natural gas imports and exports, first quarter report 2000  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent reporting quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

None

2000-06-01

466

Natural gas imports and exports, third quarter report 2000  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

None

2000-12-01

467

System and method for producing substitute natural gas from coal  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a system and method for producing substitute natural gas and electricity, while mitigating production of any greenhouse gasses. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, to form a gas stream including natural gas and a char stream, and an oxygen burner to combust the char material to form carbon oxides. The system also includes an algae farm to convert the carbon oxides to hydrocarbon material and oxygen.

Hobbs, Raymond (Avondale, AZ)

2012-08-07

468

Program calculates Z-factor for natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fortran program called Physic presented in this article calculates the gas deviation or compressibility factor, Z, of natural gas. The author has used the program for determining discharge-piping pressure drop. The calculated Z is within 5% accuracy for natural hydrocarbon gas with a specific gravity between 0.5 and 0.8, and at a pressure below 5,000 psia.

Coker

1993-01-01

469

Final report for the Advanced Natural Gas Vehicle Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project objective was to develop the technologies necessary to prototype a dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) powered, mid-size automobile with operational capabilities comparable to gasoline automobiles. A system approach was used to design and develop the engine, gas storage system and vehicle packaging. The 2.4-liter DOHC engine was optimized for natural gas operation with high-compression pistons, hardened exhaust valves,

John Wozniak

1999-01-01

470

77 FR 23105 - Supporting Safe and Responsible Development of Unconventional Domestic Natural Gas Resources  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...by regulating oil and gas activities on public and...greater use of natural gas in transportation, supporting...aimed at improving the safety of natural gas development and transportation...development of unconventional domestic natural gas...

2012-04-17

471

FERC's natural gas rule: adapting regulation to the post-Natural Gas Policy Act world  

SciTech Connect

The changes incorporated into Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) final rule on natural gas pipeline regulation received mixed reviews, but will avert serious legislative and legal challenges. There was some positive response to the controversial proposal. The modifications included in the final rule affect transportation, take or pay, certification procedures, and block billing. FERC is unsure of how many pipelines will participate in the voluntary open transportation program, but competitive pressure should encourage both participation and lower prices for end users. FERC thinks the changes will promote a better response to legal and technical changes in the industry, but warns that it will not resolve all the problems.

Not Available

1985-11-14

472

Plentiful natural gas headed for big growth in Mideast  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas is increasingly becoming a major contributor in the industrial development of most Middle Eastern countries. Demand there will rise steeply in coming years. This is because of the abundant and growing natural gas resources in the region, the economic benefits of using local resources, as well as increased emphasis on a cleaner environment. Today, proved reserves of natural gas in the Middle East are 45 trillion cu meters (tcm), or 1,488 trillion cu ft (tcf). This is over 30% of the world's natural gas reserves. A table presents data on reserves and production of natural gas in the region. About 20% of this gross production is rein-injecting for oil field pressure maintenance, 13% is flared or vented, and 7% is accounted as losses. The remaining 60% represents consumption in power generation, water desalination, petrochemicals and fertilizers production, aluminum and copper smelting, and fuel for refineries and other industries. The use of natural gas in these various industries is discussed. Thirteen tables present data on gas consumption by country and sector, power generation capacity, major chemicals derived from natural gas, and petrochemical plant capacities.

Hamid, S.H.; Aitani, A.M. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

1995-01-23

473

Conventional natural gas resource potential, Alaska North Slope  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An estimate of total natural gas resource potential of northern Alaska can be obtained by summing known gas reserves in oil and gas fields (35 TCF), mean estimates of undiscovered nonassociated (61 TCF) and associated (12 TCF) gas resources in NPRA, and mean estimates of undiscovered nonassociated (4 TCF) and associated (5 TCF) gas resources in the 1002 area of ANWR; this yields a total of 117 TCF. When estimates of undiscovered gas resources for non-Federal lands are released in 2005, that total will increase by a non-trivial amount. Thus, the conventional natural gas resource potential of onshore and State offshore areas totals well over 100 TCF. The inclusion of the MMS mean estimate (96 TCF) for undiscovered gas resources in the Beaufort and Chukchi planning areas of the Federal offshore extends that total above 200 TCF.

Houseknecht, David W.

2004-01-01

474

Uncertainty in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from United States Natural Gas and its Effects on Policy  

E-print Network

S1 Uncertainty in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from United States Natural Gas and its in the study. A higher heating value of 38 MJ/m3 (1030 BTU/cf) for natural gas was assumed, as given S 1. Summary of domestic natural gas and LNG life cycle boundary and methods DOMESTIC NATURAL GAS

Jaramillo, Paulina

475

Highly Compressed Free Gas in Deep-Water Natural Gas Hydrate Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas, predominantly methane, is stored in a highly compact form within solid gas hydrate. The large volume of free gas that can be liberated by dissociation of hydrate (at standard surface conditions) is a prominent aspect of this potential energy resource. In contrast, the highly compressed state of free gas under pressure-temperature conditions found in deep-water marine settings is

G. A. Barth

2006-01-01

476

Indriect Measurement Of Nitrogen In A Mult-Component Natural Gas By Heating The Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of indirectly measuring the nitrogen concentration in a natural gas by heating the gas. In two embodiments, the heating energy is correlated to the speed of sound in the gas, the diluent concentrations in the gas, and constant values, resulting in a model equation. Regression analysis is used to calculate the constant values, which can then be substituted into

Thomas B. Morrow; II Behring; Kendricks A

2004-01-01

477

Roadmap for Development of Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructructure and Analysis of Vehicular Natural Gas Consumption by Niche Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicular natural gas consumption is on the rise, totaling nearly 200 million GGEs in 2005, despite declines in total NGV inventory in recent years. This may be attributed to greater deployment of higher fuel use medium- and heavy-duty NGVs as compared to the low fuel use of the natural gas-powered LDVs that exited the market through attrition, many of which

Stephen C. Yborra

2007-01-01

478

Formation and decomposition of gas hydrates of natural gas components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on our theoretical and experimental work carried out during the last decade, our understanding of the thermodynamics and the kinetics of formation and decomposition of gas hydrates is presented. Hydrate formation is modelled as a crystallization process where two distinct processes (nucleation and growth) are involved. Prior to the nucleation the concentration of the gas in the liquid water

P. Englezos; N. Kalogerakis; P. R. Bishnoi

1990-01-01

479

Method of producing natural gas from a subterranean formation. [melting natural gas containing hydrates with electric currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is given of producing gas from subterranean formations characterized by the steps of drilling and completing a plurality of at least two wells in a subterranean formation that contains at least some of the gas in the form of hydrate; melting the hydrates in the subterranean formation to free natural gas in situ; and producing to the surface

Katz

1975-01-01

480

78 FR 18968 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. CP13-97-000] Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice...that on March 8, 2013, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural...Newsome, Vice President, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC, 3250...

2013-03-28

481

76 FR 48853 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. CP11-517-000] Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice...that on July 19, 2011, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural...Products and Services, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC, 3250...

2011-08-09

482

75 FR 27774 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. CP10-424-000] Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice...that on May 6, 2010, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural...Products and Services, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC, 3250...

2010-05-18

483

75 FR 24942 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. CP10-140-000] Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice...that on April 19, 2010, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural...Products and Services, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC, 3250...

2010-05-06

484

77 FR 58126 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. CP12-505-000] Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice...that on August 30, 2012, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural...Products and Services, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC, 3250...

2012-09-19

485

77 FR 37669 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. CP12-474-000] Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice...that on June 7, 2012, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural...Products and Services, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC, 3250...

2012-06-22

486

76 FR 62395 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. CP11-547-000] Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice...on September 20, 2011, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural...Newsome, Vice President, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America, LLC,...

2011-10-07

487

76 FR 51970 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. CP11-529-000] Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice...that on August 5, 2011, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural...Products and Services, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC, 3250...

2011-08-19

488

78 FR 67350 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. CP14-10-000] Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice...that on October 18, 2013 Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural...Newsome, Vice President, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC, 3250...

2013-11-12

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