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1

Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It should have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The thermoacoustic natural-gas liquefier (TANGL) is based on our

G. Swift; D. Gardner; M. Hayden; R. Radebaugh; J. Wollan

1996-01-01

2

Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In collaboration with Cryenco Inc. and NIST-Boulder, we intend to develop a natural gas-powered natural-gas liquefier which has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It will have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost...

G. W. Swift

1995-01-01

3

Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It should have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The thermoacoustic natural-gas liquefier (TANGL) is based on our recent invention of the first no-moving-parts cryogenic refrigerator. In short, our invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat, with no moving parts. The required apparatus comprises nothing more than heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. Its initial experimental success in a small size lead us to propose a more ambitious application: large-energy liquefaction of natural gas, using combustion of natural gas as the energy source. TANGL was designed to be maintenance-free, inexpensive, portable, and environmentally benign.

Swift, G.; Gardner, D.; Hayden, M.; Radebaugh, R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Wollan, J. [Cryenco, Inc. (United States)

1996-07-01

4

Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

SciTech Connect

Cryenco and Los Alamos are collaborating to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that will have no moving parts and require no electrical power. It will have useful efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at only 115 Kelvin at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 invention of the thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse-tube refrigerator (TA-DOPTR) provides cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts for the first time. In short, this invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The required apparatus consists of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. In the Cryenco-Los Alamos collaboration, the authors are developing a version of this invention suitable for use in the natural-gas industry. The project is known as acoustic liquefier for short. The present program plans call for a two-phase development. Phase 1, with capacity of 500 gallon per day (i.e., approximately 40,000 scfd, requiring a refrigeration power of about 7 kW), is large enough to illuminate all the issues of large-scale acoustic liquefaction without undue cost, and to demonstrate the liquefaction of 60--70% of input gas, while burning 30--40%. Phase 2 will target versions of approximately 10{sup 6} scfd = 10,000 gallon per day capacity. In parallel with both, they continue fundamental research on the technology, directed toward increased efficiency, to build scientific foundations and a patent portfolio for future acoustic liquefiers.

Swift, G.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group

1997-05-01

5

Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

SciTech Connect

In collaboration with Cryenco Inc. and NIST-Boulder, we intend to develop a natural gas-powered natural-gas liquefier which has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It will have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. Progress on the liquefier to be constructed at Cryenco continues satisfactorily. The thermoacoustic driver is still ahead of the pulse tube refrigerator, because of NIST`s schedule. We completed the thermoacoustics design in the fall of 1994, with Los Alamos providing physics input and checks of all aspects, and Cryenco providing engineering to ASME code, drafting, etc. Completion of this design represents a significant amount of work, especially in view of the many unexpected problems encountered. Meanwhile, Cryenco and NIST have almost completed the design of the pulse tube refrigerator. At Los Alamos, we have assembled a half-size scale model of the thermoacoustic portion of the 500 gal/day TANGL. This scale model will enable easy experimentation in harmonic suppression techniques, new stack geometries, new heat-exchanger geometries, resonator coiling, and other areas. As of March 1995, the scale model is complete and we are performing routine debugging tests and modifications.

Swift, G.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-06-01

6

Liquefied natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book summarizes recent developments in the general area of natural gas liquefaction and use. Treatment is technical rather than theoretical and thermodynamics, economic evaluations, and statistical data are relegated to the appendixes. The main part of the review consists of an introduction dealing with the historical development of cryogenics and gas liquefaction and their application in the gas industry.

Lom

1974-01-01

7

Natural Gas Liquefier for Vehicle Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project was a continuation and refinement of a feasibility prototype natural gas liquefier that had been designed, fabricated, and tested under a U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. Extensive performanc...

E. C. Owens K. R. Kohuth

1995-01-01

8

Liquefied Natural Gas for Trucks and Buses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a heavy vehicle fuel. The reason for developing LNG is to reduce our dependency on imported oil by eliminating technical and costs barriers associated with its usage. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a program, currently in its third year, to develop and advance cost-effective technologies for operating and refueling natural

James Wegrzyn; Michael Gurevich

2000-01-01

9

Liquefied Natural Gas for Trucks and Buses  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a heavy vehicle fuel. The reason for developing LNG is to reduce our dependency on imported oil by eliminating technical and costs barriers associated with its usage. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a program, currently in its third year, to develop and advance cost-effective technologies for operating and refueling natural gas-fueled heavy vehicles (Class 7-8 trucks). The objectives of the DOE Natural Gas Vehicle Systems Program are to achieve market penetration by reducing vehicle conversion and fuel costs, to increase consumer acceptance by improving the reliability and efficiency, and to improve air quality by reducing tailpipe emissions. One way to reduce fuel costs is to develop new supplies of cheap natural gas. Significant progress is being made towards developing more energy-efficient, low-cost, small-scale natural gas liquefiers for exploiting alternative sources of natural gas such as from landfill and remote gas sites. In particular, the DOE program provides funds for research and development in the areas of; natural gas clean up, LNG production, advanced vehicle onboard storage tanks, improved fuel delivery systems and LNG market strategies. In general, the program seeks to integrate the individual components being developed into complete systems, and then demonstrate the technology to establish technical and economic feasibility. The paper also reviews the importance of cryogenics in designing LNG fuel delivery systems.

James Wegrzyn; Michael Gurevich

2000-06-19

10

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) dispenser verification device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition of working principle and calibration status of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) dispenser in China are introduced. According to the defect of weighing method in the calibration of LNG dispenser, LNG dispenser verification device has been researched. The verification device bases on the master meter method to verify LNG dispenser in the field. The experimental results of the device indicate it has steady performance, high accuracy level and flexible construction, and it reaches the international advanced level. Then LNG dispenser verification device will promote the development of LNG dispenser industry in China and to improve the technical level of LNG dispenser manufacture.

Xiong, Maotao; Yang, Jie-bin; Zhao, Pu-jun; Yu, Bo; Deng, Wan-quan

2013-01-01

11

Development of a thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier.  

SciTech Connect

Praxair, in conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is developing a new technology, thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators, for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems will be developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed. In February 2001 Praxair, Inc. purchased the acoustic heat engine and refrigeration development program from Chart Industries. Chart (formerly Cryenco, which Chart purchased in 1997) and Los Alamos had been working on the technology development program since 1994. The purchase included assets and intellectual property rights for thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse tube refrigerators (TADOPTR), a new and revolutionary Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engine (TASHE) technology, aspects of Orifice Pulse Tube Refrigeration (OPTR) and linear motor compressors as OPTR drivers. Praxair, in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the licensor of the TADOPTR and TASHE patents, is continuing the development of TASHE-OPTR natural gas powered, natural gas liquefiers. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at -161 C (-259 F) at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 TADOPTR invention by Drs. Greg Swift (LANL) and Ray Radebaugh (NIST) demonstrated the first technology to produce cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators use acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The basic driver and refrigerator consist of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. The liquefier development program is divided into two components: Thermoacoustically driven refrigerators and linear motor driven refrigerators (LOPTRs). LOPTR technology will, for the foreseeable future, be limited to natural gas liquefaction capacities on the order of hundreds of gallons per day. TASHE-OPTR technology is expected to achieve liquefaction capacities of tens of thousands of gallons per day. This paper will focus on the TASHE-OPTR technology because its natural gas liquefaction capacity has greater market opportunity. LOPTR development will be mentioned briefly. The thermoacoustically driven refrigerator development program is now in the process of demonstrating the technology at a capacity of about 500 gallon/day (gpd) i.e., approximately 42,000 standard cubic feet/day, which requires about 7 kW of refrigeration power. This capacity is big enough to illuminate the issues of large-scale acoustic liquefaction at reasonable cost and to demonstrate the liquefaction of about 70% of an input gas stream, while burning about 30%. Subsequent to this demonstration a system with a capacity of approximately 10{sup 6} standard cubic feet/day (scfd) = 10,000 gpd with a projected liquefaction rate of about 85% of the input gas stream will be developed. When commercialized, the TASHE-OPTRs will be a totally new type of heat-driven cryogenic refrigerator, with projected low manufacturing cost, high reliability, long life, and low maintenance. A TASHE-OPTR will be able to liquefy a broad range of gases, one of the most important being natural gas (NG). Potential NG applications range from distributed liquefaction of pipeline gas as fuel for heavy-duty fleet and long haul vehicles to large-scale liquefaction at on-shore and offshore gas wellheads. An alternative to the thermoacoustic driver, but with many similar technical and market advantages, is the linear motor compressor. Linear motors convert electrical power directly into oscillating linear, or axial, motion. Attachment of a piston to the oscillator results in a direct drive compressor. Such a compressor

Wollan, J. J. (John J.); Swift, G. W. (Gregory W.); Backhaus, S. N. (Scott N.); Gardner, D. L. (David L.)

2002-01-01

12

Supply of liquefied natural gas to the Northeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following aspects of the supply of liquefied natural gas to the northeastern part of the U.S. are discussed: major facilities and equipment, institutional considerations and environmental impacts, site selection criteria, time required to implement an LNG (liquefied natural gas) project, projected availability and reliability of supply, projection of future imports to the northeast region, cost projections, and secondary benefits.

G. R. Bray; S. K. Julin; J. A. Simmons

1976-01-01

13

49 CFR 191.15 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report... Each operator of a liquefied natural gas plant or facility must...

2012-10-01

14

49 CFR 191.15 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report... Each operator of a liquefied natural gas plant or facility must...

2011-10-01

15

49 CFR 191.17 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. ...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. ...Each operator of a liquefied natural gas facility must submit an...

2012-10-01

16

49 CFR 191.17 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. ...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. ...Each operator of a liquefied natural gas facility must submit an...

2011-10-01

17

Agricultural demands for natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study endeavors to determine whether farmers adjust their consumption of natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas in response to changes in the unit price of energy. A demand model is specified and estimated. The conclusions suggest that the unit price of natural gas (liquefied petroleum gas) is a factor impacting the quantity of natural gas (liquefied petroleum gas) demanded

Noel D. Uri; Mohinder Gill

1992-01-01

18

78 FR 46581 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas During June 2013 FE Docket Nos. CONOCOPHILLIPS...orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and to import liquefied natural gas....

2013-08-01

19

75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [USCG-2010-0993] Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application AGENCY...received an application for the licensing of a natural gas deepwater port and the application...

2010-11-17

20

76 FR 4417 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [USCG-2010-0993] Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application AGENCY...Application. The application describes an offshore natural gas deepwater port facility that would be...

2011-01-25

21

Assessment of world trade in liquefied natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for international trade in liquefied natural gas through the late 1980's is examined in terms of the natural gas reserves in the exporting and importing countries, gas supply forecasts for importing countries, LNG price, political and commercial constraints, and specifically proposed LNG trades. Source material for this assessment is drawn in large measure from reference presentations. It is

1975-01-01

22

Analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) release prevention systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is playing an important role in meeting the energy needs of the U.S. and other countries. Since one unit volume of LNG is equivalent to 600 unit volumes of natural gas, liquefaction permits large volumes of gas to be economically stored and transported. In the United States, LNG has a twenty-year record of safe handling and

P. J. Pelto; E. G. Baker

1984-01-01

23

40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? ...exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? ...The engine must operate solely on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas....

2013-07-01

24

Probabilistic analysis of a liquefied natural gas storage tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied Natural Gas transport and storage has become very important due to its ability to occupy 1\\/600th of the volume that compressed natural gas would occupy at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. In the present work, an LNG storage tank has been computationally simulated and probabilistically evaluated in view of the several uncertainties in the fluid, structural, material and thermal

Rama Subba Reddy Gorla

2010-01-01

25

75 FR 38092 - The Dow Chemical Company; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy...authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously had been...390 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas on a short-term or spot...

2010-07-01

26

Development of a thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Praxair, in conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is developing a new technology, thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators, for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons\\/day, has been built and tested. The power

John J. Wollan; Gregory W. Swift; S. N. Backhaus; D. L. Gardner

2002-01-01

27

Risk assessment of storage and transport of liquefied natural gas and LP-gas. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for assessing the societal risk of transporting liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) is described, and is illustrated by application to the transport of LPG by tank truck and LNG by tanker ship in the U.S. Data on past experience and projected future handling of these liquefied gases are used with analysis of flammable plume

1974-01-01

28

33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage...Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage...yards on each side of any liquefied natural gas carrier (LNGC) vessel while...

2013-07-01

29

33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations...1709 Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations...1000-yard radius of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tankers during their inbound and...

2013-07-01

30

Performance metrics for evaluating liquefied natural gas, vapor dispersion models  

Microsoft Academic Search

New performance metrics are necessary to quantify the inherent margins of safety11In this paper, margin of safety is an occupational safety phrase, and it is expressed as a ratio. in vapor dispersion models for liquefied natural gas (LNG) spills. Currently, vapor dispersion model calculations in the 49 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 193 as well as Standard 59A of the

Frank A. Licari

2010-01-01

31

A rational thermodynamic use of liquefied natural gas in a waste incinerator plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the increasing global request for natural gas, the regasification of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is becoming a more widespread process. Liquefied natural gas is transported by gas tankers at a temperature of around 113K at atmospheric pressure. The successive process of regasification, necessary to inlet the gas in the pipeline network, makes it possible to use the LNG exergy

Giuseppe Oliveti; Natale Arcuri; Roberto Bruno; Marilena De Simone

32

78 FR 21349 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Compressed Natural Gas, Vacating Prior Authority and Denying Request for Rehearing During January...

2013-04-10

33

77 FR 31838 - Notice of Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During April 2012 AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy...12-34-NG Northwest Natural Gas Company............ 12-41-NG...

2012-05-30

34

Pacific transport of liquefied natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 6 years of public hearings and litigation involving California utility companies, federal and state regulatory agencies, and local interest groups, the Pac-Indonesia and Pac-Alaska LNG-import projects have received approval. Pacific Indonesia LNG Co. will buy 500 million CF\\/day of LNG from Indonesia's Pertamina for transport from Sumatra to the US, while the Pacific Alaska LNG Co. will buy natural

2009-01-01

35

75 FR 72877 - Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...operators of natural gas pipelines, hazardous liquid pipelines, and liquefied natural gas...operators of natural gas pipelines, hazardous liquid pipelines, and LNG facilities. Specifically...commodity transported. 8. Modify hazardous liquid operator telephonic notification of...

2010-11-26

36

18 CFR 157.212 - Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities. 157.212 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline...

2013-04-01

37

Assessment of the Efficiency of Producing and Transporting Synthetic Liquid Fuels and Liquefied Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In article questions of mathematical modeling and technical and economic optimization energy-technology installations of the combined production of the liquefied natural gas or synthetic liquid fuel and the electric power are considered. Results of researches of economic efficiency of various technologies of sea transport of energy of natural gas are given. Index Terms - synthetic liquid fuels, liquefied natural gas,

A. M. Kler; E. A. Tyurina; V. V. Stepanov

38

Liquefaction, storage and transportation of liquefied natural gas: recent French developments and projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the discovery of large natural gas reserves in the Sahara, a great deal of work has been achieved in France on the transportation of liquefied natural gas. This paper gives a general description of the overall scheme designed for the importation of liquefied natural gas between Arzew and Le Havre. The liquefaction plant, tankers, storage and evaporation units at

M. Pilloy; M. Grenier; M. Perret

1967-01-01

39

40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 ...of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas...it meets emission standards for engines of...

2010-07-01

40

40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 ...of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas...it meets emission standards for engines of...

2009-07-01

41

Control method for mixed refrigerant based natural gas liquefier  

DOEpatents

In a natural gas liquefaction system having a refrigerant storage circuit, a refrigerant circulation circuit in fluid communication with the refrigerant storage circuit, and a natural gas liquefaction circuit in thermal communication with the refrigerant circulation circuit, a method for liquefaction of natural gas in which pressure in the refrigerant circulation circuit is adjusted to below about 175 psig by exchange of refrigerant with the refrigerant storage circuit. A variable speed motor is started whereby operation of a compressor is initiated. The compressor is operated at full discharge capacity. Operation of an expansion valve is initiated whereby suction pressure at the suction pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 30 psig and discharge pressure at the discharge pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 350 psig. Refrigerant vapor is introduced from the refrigerant holding tank into the refrigerant circulation circuit until the suction pressure is reduced to below about 15 psig, after which flow of the refrigerant vapor from the refrigerant holding tank is terminated. Natural gas is then introduced into a natural gas liquefier, resulting in liquefaction of the natural gas.

Kountz, Kenneth J. (Palatine, IL); Bishop, Patrick M. (Chicago, IL)

2003-01-01

42

A Novel Process for Natural Gas Liquids Recovery from Oil Field Associated Gas with Liquefied Natural Gas Cryogenic Energy Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel process to recovery natural gas liquids from oil field associated gas with liquefied natural gas (LNG) cryogenic energy utilization is proposed. Compared to the current electric refrigeration process, the proposed process uses the cryogenic energy of LNG and saves 62.6% of electricity. The proposed process recovers ethane, liquid petroleum gas (propane and butane) and heavier hydrocarbons, with total

Haijun BIAN; Wendong XU; Xiuxi LI; Yu QIAN

2011-01-01

43

18 CFR 157.212 - Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities. 157.212 Section...of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR...

2010-04-01

44

18 CFR 157.212 - Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities. 157.212 Section...of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR...

2009-04-01

45

Cascade multicomponent cooling method for liquefying natural gas  

SciTech Connect

A cooling arrangement to be used in liquefying natural gas and in similar applications and having an incorporated cascade circuit with a fractional condensation of a cooling medium and with separation of the phases of the cooling medium, has such a lay-out and is so operated that the warming-up of the expanded cooling medium in a countercurrent evaporative heat exchange and the warming-up of the expanded cooling medium in a countercurrent supercooling heat exchange are in parallel to one another. The separated gaseous phase of the cooling medium is cooled in the countercurrent evaporative heat exchange to be at least partially condensed. The countercurrent supercooling heat exchange and the countercurrent evaporative heat exchange are thermally segregated from one another.

Krieger, H.

1981-12-01

46

59 FR- Standards for Emissions From Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Motor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Gaseous fuel means natural gas or liquefied petroleum...1 atm), excluding natural gas. Multi-fuel means capable...separately or simultaneously. Natural gas means a fuel whose primary...normally derived from crude oil, excluding...

1994-09-21

47

Supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

My dissertation concentrates on several aspects of supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry, including gas pipeline transportations, ocean LNG shipping logistics, and downstream storage. Chapter 1 briefly introduces the natural gas and LNG industries, and the topics studied in this thesis. Chapter 2 studies how to value

Mulan Xiaofeng Wang

2008-01-01

48

Fault-tree analysis for liquefied natural gas terminal emergency shutdown system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas, one of the cleanest, most efficient and useful of all energy sources, is a vital component of the world’s supply of energy. To make natural gas more convenient for storage and transportation, it is refined and condensed into a liquid called liquefied natural gas (LNG). In a LNG site, safety is a long-team and critical issue. The emergency

Shuenn-ren Cheng; Binshan Lin; Bi-min Hsu; Ming-hung Shu

2009-01-01

49

Liquefied natural gas: moving energy from here. [Includes discussion of peak-shaving facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Bureau of Standards has been developing and improving methods for getting natural gas from producer to consumer in the liquefied form. LNG is important to the whole natural gas system because of the economics of transportation and storage. A major factor is the obvious advantage of transporting natural gas as LNG by ship to and from foreign countries

Higgins

1977-01-01

50

78 FR 19696 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy gives notice that during December 2012, it issued orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas and vacating prior authority. These orders are summarized in the attached appendix and may be found on the FE Web site at http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/......

2013-04-02

51

40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt...Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG...

2013-07-01

52

78 FR 65304 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import and Export Liquefied...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import and Export Liquefied Natural Gas During August 2013 FE Docket Nos...authority to import and export natural gas, and to import and export...

2013-10-31

53

On the application of computational fluid dynamics codes for liquefied natural gas dispersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are increasingly being used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry to predict natural gas dispersion distances. This paper addresses several issues regarding the use of CFD for LNG dispersion such as specification of the domain, grid, boundary and initial conditions. A description of the k–? model is presented, along with modifications required for atmospheric

Anay Luketa-Hanlin; Ronald P. Koopman; Donald L. Ermak

2007-01-01

54

Heat-transfer considerations for large liquefied-natural-gas storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas is used worldwide as a practical energy source. In order to have a concentrated form of energy, natural gas is liquefied and stored under a pressure slightly above atmospheric and at a corresponding temperature just above its normal boiling point (112 K). This investigation presents a general steady-state study of the heat transfers into such a storage tank.

P. Jourda; S. D. Probert

1991-01-01

55

DEVELOPMENT OF A THERMOACOUSTIC NATURAL GAS LIQUEFIER-UPDATE  

SciTech Connect

Thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators are being developed for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems are developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed.

J. WOLLAN; G. SWIFT

2001-05-01

56

78 FR 35014 - Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, and to Import Liquefied Natural Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy gives notice that during April 2013, it issued orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and to import liquefied natural gas. These orders are summarized in the attached appendix and may be found on the FE Web site at http://www.fossil.energy.gov/ programs/gasregulation/authorizations/Orders-2012.html. They are also......

2013-06-11

57

Offshore Threats: Liquefied Natural Gas, Terrorism, and Environmental Debate in Connecticut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broadwater Energy is one of a number of recent proposals to construct a liquefied natural gas facility along the East Coast of the United States. The proposal calls for the construction of an import and regasification terminal in Long Island Sound, roughly halfway between the states of New York and Connecticut. First made public in 2004 by its sponsors, TransCanada

Blake Harrison

2008-01-01

58

Breach and safety analysis of spills over water from large liquefied natural gas carriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2004, at the request of the Department of Energy, Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) prepared a report, ''Guidance on the Risk and Safety Analysis of Large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Spills Over Water''. That report provided framework for assessing hazards and identifying approaches to minimize the consequences to people and property from an LNG spill over water. The report also

Marion Michael Hightower; Anay Josephine Luketa-Hanlin; Stephen W. Attaway

2008-01-01

59

Liquefied Natural Gas in China. Options for Markets, Institutions, and Finance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to meet the continuing demand of the power sector and ensure stability of fuel supply sources, the State Power Corporation asked for World Bank assistance to assess the viability of imported liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a fuel source for coastal provinces. In response to their request, the Bank undertook a detailed economic assessment of LNG as

D. Girdis; S. Tavoulareas; R. Tomkins

2000-01-01

60

Changing Contract Structures in the International Liquefied Natural Gas Market - A First Empirical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an empirical assessment of liquefied natural gas (LNG) supply contracts to determine optimal contract duration. We study the trade-off between contracting costs due to repeated bilateral bargaining versus flexibility. Estimation results of a simultaneous equation model show that the presence of high dedicated asset specificity results in longer contracts thus confirming the predictions of transaction cost economics,

Sophia Ruester

61

Production of liquid nitrogen using liquefied natural gas as sole refrigerant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a process for the liquefaction of a nitrogen stream produced by a cryogenic air separation unit having at least one distillation column. It comprises compressing the nitrogen stream to a pressure of at least 350 psi in a multi-stage compressor wherein interstage cooling is provided by heat exchange against vaporizing liquefied natural gas; condensing the compressed nitrogen

R. Agrawal; C. L. Ayres

1992-01-01

62

Development status of liquefied natural gas industry in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the significant economic growth in China, energy related environmental issues become more and more serious. Most of air pollutants are produced by burning coal. In order to achieve a sustainable balance between economic growth and environmental protection, China has been taking measures to expand the role played by natural gas, especially since the beginning of the 21st century. As

Guo-Hua Shi; You-Yin Jing; Song-Ling Wang; Xu-Tao Zhang

2010-01-01

63

Risks in the transport and storage of liquefied natural gas. Sub-project 5-2: Investigation into building damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large reserves and increasing use of natural gas as a source of energy have resulted in its storage and transport becoming an urgent problem. Since a liquid of the same mass occupies only a fraction of the volume of a gas, it is economical to store natural gas as a liquid. Liquefied natural gas is stored in insulated tanks

C. Gouwens; M. Dragosavic

1984-01-01

64

From NIMBY to NIABY: regional mobilization against liquefied natural gas in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only sometimes do environmental protests that begin as not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) objections to proposed facilities become translated into more universal not-in-anyone's-backyard (NIABY) mobilizations. An examination of opposition to liquefied natural gas (LNG) receiving terminals in the United States shows evidence of regional mobilization in the Gulf and West Coasts, but not in the Northeast. Opposition to LNG facilities in the United

Hilary Schaffer Boudet

2011-01-01

65

Influence of excitation frequency on slosh-induced impact pressures of liquefied natural gas tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid sloshing phenomena in No. 2 tank of 140 km3 liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers have been studied numerically and experimentally. The scale of the model tank was selected\\u000a as 1\\/55.9. Roll and pitch motions were tested. For measuring impact pressures, seventeen pressure sensors were installed on\\u000a the tank model. A large number of excitation frequencies and filling heights were

Zhong-hua Cai; De-yu Wang; Zhe Li

2011-01-01

66

New designs of heat exchangers for natural gas liquefying and separating plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The special operational features of heat exchangers of natural gas liquefying and separating plants are shown. A new design\\u000a of coil heat exchanger having tubes finned with round wire with a statically uniform structure is described. The technical\\u000a specifications of heat exchangers finned with wire having annular intensifiers and of conventional coil flat-tube heat exchanger\\u000a are compared.

O. K. Krasnikova; O. M. Popov; V. N. Udut

2006-01-01

67

On the application of computational fluid dynamics codes for liquefied natural gas dispersion.  

SciTech Connect

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are increasingly being used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry to predict natural gas dispersion distances. This paper addresses several issues regarding the use of CFD for LNG dispersion such as specification of the domain, grid, boundary and initial conditions. A description of the k-{var_epsilon} model is presented, along with modifications required for atmospheric flows. Validation issues pertaining to the experimental data from the Burro, Coyote, and Falcon series of LNG dispersion experiments are also discussed. A description of the atmosphere is provided as well as discussion on the inclusion of the Coriolis force to model very large LNG spills.

Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Koopman, Ronald P. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Ermak, Donald (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA)

2006-02-01

68

Modeling and simulation of main cryogenic heat exchanger in a base-load liquefied natural gas plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent growth in world-wide consumption of natural gas highlights its immense importance as a source of primary energy. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is the most economic way to transport natural gas over long distances. Main Cryogenic Heat Exchanger (MCHE) is a very critical equipment in an energy intensive LNG plant. To that end, modeling MCHE is the inevitable first step

MM Faruque Hasan; Iftekhar A Karimi; Hassan Alfadala; Henk Grootjans

2007-01-01

69

78 FR 38024 - Magnolia LNG, LLC; Liquefied Natural Gas Limited; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...subsidiary of Liquefied Natural Gas Limited, plans to build, own...facility would receive natural gas from North American sources via...under Section 3a of the Natural Gas Act. NEPA also requires us...general headings: Geology and soils; land use; water...

2013-06-25

70

High Natural Gas Prices Need Not Cook California's Economy: The Case for Liquefied Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

California is in the paradoxical position of being more economically dependent on natural gas than virtually any other state or nation, yet it faces limitations on available imports (restricted by transmission infrastructure capacity). The gap between growing demand and constrained supply has led to escalating prices. Since natural gas is fundamental to the production process of many products, these price

Philip J. Romero

71

Development of a Small-Scale Natural Gas Liquefier. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This final report describes the progress during the contract period March 1, 1998 through April 30, 2003, on the design, development, and testing of a novel mixed-refrigerant-based 1000 gal/day natural gas liquefier, together with the associated gas cleanup equipment. Based on the work, it is concluded that a cost-effective 1000 gal/day liquefaction system is technically and economically feasible. A unit based on the same developed technology, with 5000 gal/day capacity, would have much improved economics.

Kountz, K.; Kriha, K.; Liss, W.; Perry, M.; Richards, M.; Zuckerman, D.

2003-04-30

72

Study on Solidification of CO2 by using Cold Energy of Liquefied Natural Gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In conventional natural gas combustion power plants, vaporization heat of liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been supplied by sea water and/or air. In the plants, cold vaporization energy has been lost without any effective utilization. An advanced technology has been developed in which carbon dioxide in the flue gas is solidified and separated as dry-ice. Carbon dioxide in the flue gas of a LNG combined cycle is cooled and solidified by the evaporation of LNG. Fundamental studies on fluidized bed heat exchanger were carried out to analyze heat transfer phenomena at low temperature. And the fluidized bed type heat exchanger was confirmed that they had high efficiency by striping off frost solidified on the surface of heat exchanger tube. The heat transfer coefficient at -135°C was calculated about 330-370 (W/m2•K) at the condition where C02 gas was solidified.

Takeuchi, Yoshiyuki; Fujiwara, Atsushi

73

Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s experience  

SciTech Connect

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with conversion companies in six states to convert approximately 900 light-duty Federal fleet vehicles to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The contracts were initiated in order to help the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) during a period of limited original equipment manufacturer (OEM) model availability. Approximately 90% of all conversions were performed on compact of full-size vans and pickups, and 90% of the conversions were to bi-fuel operation. With a positive response from the fleet managers, this program helped the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT for fiscal years 1993 and 1994, despite limited OEM model availability. The conversions also helped to establish the infrastructure needed to support further growth in the use of alternative fuel vehicles. In conclusion, the program has been successful in helping the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT, establishing infrastructure, increasing the displacement of imported oil, and evaluating the emissions performance of converted vehicles. With the relatively widespread availability of OEM vehicles in the 1996 model year, the program is now being phased out.

Motta, R.C.; Kelly, K.J.; Warnock, W.W.

1996-04-01

74

Environmental problem definition for petroleum refineries, synthetic natural gas plants, and liquefied natural gas plants. Final report, Jan--Oct 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives process descriptions for petroleum refineries, for synthetic natural gas plants based on liquid hydrocarbon feedstock, and for liquefied natural gas plants. It compares these process descriptions with those for other types of energy conversion plants, such as coal gasification and coal liquefaction. It identifies potential ambient air emissions, liquid effluents, and solid wastes, and discusses monitoring methods

E. C. Cavanaugh; J. D. Colley; P. S. Dzierlenga; V. M. Felix; D. C. Jones

1975-01-01

75

Risk management technique for design and operation of liquefied natural gas facilities and equipment. Final report, June--December 1974  

Microsoft Academic Search

A risk management and facilities certification methodology applicable to liquid natural gas facilities is developed. The proposed regulation for manufacture, storage, transportation, delivery, and processing of liquefied gas prepared by the New York Fire Department was reviewed along with related codes and standards and applicable experience in the operation of cryogenic facilities. Recommendations for revision are given. A basic description

C. A. Jr. Medkief; A. W. Niergarth; W. N. Parsons

1974-01-01

76

Characterization of liquefied natural gas tanker steel from cryogenic to fire temperatures.  

SciTech Connect

The increased demand for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a fuel source in the U.S. has prompted a study to improve our capability to predict cascading damage to LNG tankers from cryogenic spills and subsequent fire. To support this large modeling and simulation effort, a suite of experiments were conducted on two tanker steels, ABS Grade A steel and ABS Grade EH steel. A thorough and complete understanding of the mechanical behavior of the tanker steels was developed that was heretofore unavailable for the span of temperatures of interest encompassing cryogenic to fire temperatures. This was accomplished by conducting several types of experiments, including tension, notched tension and Charpy impact tests at fourteen temperatures over the range of -191 C to 800 C. Several custom fixtures and special techniques were developed for testing at the various temperatures. The experimental techniques developed and the resulting data will be presented, along with a complete description of the material behavior over the temperature span.

Dempsey, J. Franklin (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Wellman, Gerald William (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Antoun, Bonnie R.; Connelly, Kevin; Kalan, Robert J. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

2010-03-01

77

Hazards to nuclear power plants from large liquefied natural gas (LNG) spills on water  

SciTech Connect

The hazards to nuclear power plants arising from large spills of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on water transportation routes are treated by deterministic analytical procedures. Global models, which address the salient features of the LNG spill phenomena are used in the analysis. A coupled computational model for the combined LNG spill, spreading, and fire scenario is developed. To predict the air blast environment in the vicinity of vapor clouds with pancake-like geometries, a scalable procedure using both analytical methods and hydrocode calculations is synthesized. Simple response criteria from the fire and weapons effects literature are used to characterize the susceptibility of safety-related power plant systems. The vulnerability of these systems is established either by direct comparison between the LNG threat and the susceptibility criteria or through simple response calculations. Results are analyzed.

Kot, C.A.; Eichler, T.V.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Pape, R.; Srinivasan, M.G.

1981-11-01

78

Guidance on risk analysis and safety implications of a large liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill over water  

Microsoft Academic Search

While recognized standards exist for the systematic safety analysis of potential spills or releases from LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) storage terminals and facilities on land, no equivalent set of standards or guidance exists for the evaluation of the safety or consequences from LNG spills over water. Heightened security awareness and energy surety issues have increased industry's and the public's attention

Gerald William Wellman; Brian Matthew Melof; Anay Josephine Luketa-Hanlin; Marion Michael Hightower; John Morgan Covan; Louis Alan Gritzo; Michael James Irwin; Michael Jiro Kaneshige; Charles W. Morrow

2004-01-01

79

Method and plant for making up nitrogen vaporization losses in nitrogen-containing liquefied natural gas carrying tankers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vaporized nitrogen-containing natural gas is drawn off from a ship's hold and at least a part is sent through a rectifying column of a separating means to separate out the nitrogen in vapor form. The separated nitrogen is then liquefied and stored for subsequent feeding into any one of a number of nitrogen-using means such as a refrigerating means

Witt

1977-01-01

80

The design, development and performance of a Duplex Stirling natural gas liquefier  

SciTech Connect

The idea of using a Duplex Stirling System for natural gas liquefaction has long been considered by Sunpower as an attractive application for Stirling engines. A few years ago an internally funded project was embarked upon to build a small demonstration Duplex Stirling unit. This machine was designed around the Model M-100 engine which was then being produced commercially. The demonstrator machine first ran in 1979 and soon proved to be a stable and reliable performer. A series of three further machines incorporating various improvements and modifications followed at which point it was confidently felt that the design of a large machine of more realistic capacity could be attempted. Work was started in August 1981 on the design and development of a preproduction natural gas liquefier with a capacity of at least 4 1/hr. The design of the larger machine borrows extensively from the experience gained from the small prototype machines. Scaling, computer simulation and optimization are used to refine the design. Presented here is a summary of the design and development of the preproduction machine.

Berchowitz, D.M.

1982-09-01

81

Seventh international conference on liquefied natural gas. Volume 2. Septieme congres international sur le gaz naturel liquefie. Tome 2  

SciTech Connect

Four sessions of the conference included: (1) LNG and world wide energy supplies; (2) liquefaction of natural gas and vaporization of LNG; (3) LNG transport, handling and storage; and (4) legal, economic and financial aspects of LNG trade. This volume contains sessions three and four. Individual papers were abstracted separately. (DP)

Not Available

1983-01-01

82

Seventh international conference on liquefied natural gas. Volume 1. Septieme Congres international sur le gaz naturel liquefie. Tome 1  

SciTech Connect

Four sessions of the conference included: (1) LNG and woroldwide energy supplies; (2) liquefaction of natural gas and vaporization of LNG; (3) LNG transport, handling and storage; and (4) legal, economic and financial aspects of LNG trade. Two volumes were published. This volume contains the sessions one and two. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual papers. (DP)

Not Available

1983-01-01

83

Safety of cargo handling and transport liquefied natural gas by sea. Dangerous properties of LNG and actual situation of LNG Fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas becomes very important source of energy. There is only one economical solution of transport natural gas to distant destination - LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas. The LNG fleet is growing very fast and fleet characteristic is changing. Very popular is myth that gas carriers are sailing bombs - is it true? Properties of LNG compare with other liquid

A. Starosta

84

Experimental and numerical investigation of the roll motion behavior of a floating liquefied natural gas system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper does an experimental and numerical investigation of the hydrodynamic interaction and the response of a single point turret-moored Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) system, which is a new type of floating LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) platform that consists of a ship-type FPSO hull equipped with LNG storage tanks and liquefaction plants. In particular, this study focuses on the investigation of the roll response of FLNG hull in free-decay motions, white noise waves and also in irregular waves. Model tests of the FLNG system in 60%H filling condition excited by both white noise waves and irregular waves combined with steady wind and current have been carried out. Response Amplitude Operators (RAOs) and time histories of the responses are obtained for sway, roll and yaw motions. Obvious Low Frequency (LF) components of the roll motions are observed, which may be out of expectation. To facilitate the physical understanding of this phenomenon, we filter the roll motions at the period of 30 s into two parts: the Wave Frequency (WF) motions and the Low Frequency (LF) motions respectively. The results indicate that the LF motions are closely related to the sway and yaw motions. Possible reasons for the presence of the LF motions of roll have been discussed in detail, through the comparison with the sway and yaw motions. As for the numerical part, the simulation of the modeled case is conducted with the help of the software SESAM®. A good agreement between experiments and calculations is reported within the scope of trends. However, the numerical simulations should be further improved for the prediction of the FLNG system in the heading sea.

Zhao, WenHua; Yang, JianMin; Hu, ZhiQiang; Xiao, LongFei; Peng, Tao

2013-03-01

85

78 FR 65427 - Pipeline Safety: Reminder of Requirements for Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Utility Liquefied...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Safety: Reminder of Requirements for Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Utility Liquefied Petroleum Gas Pipeline Systems AGENCY: Pipeline and...reminding owners and operators of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and utility liquefied...

2013-10-31

86

78 FR 21351 - Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...13-10-NG PLANET ENERGY CORP...13-13-NG STATOIL NATURAL GAS LLC...Office of Fossil Energy, Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities...granting blanket Energy Inc. authority to import/export natural gas from/to...

2013-04-10

87

Simulation and economic evaluation of natural gas hydrates [NGH] as an alternative to liquefied natural gas [LNG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that relatively little is known about the ultimate resource potential of natural gas hydrates, it is certain that gas hydrates are a vast storehouse of natural gas and significant technical challenges need to be met before this enormous resource can be considered an economically producible reserve. In this theoretical study, a simulation scheme was suggested to produce

Babiker K. Abdalla; Nayef A. Abdullatef

2005-01-01

88

Distribution and chain pattern of liquefied natural gas industry in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production and consumption of natural gas in China has been developing rapidly in recent years. It is expected that the\\u000a annual growth rate of the demand for natural gas will reach 12% in the next 15 years, and the gas consumption in the primary\\u000a energy will increase from 0.3% to 10% or more by 2020. However, since the supply

Yaoguang Zhang; Yonghong Zhao; Hongwei Chang; Dan Wang; Zhaobin Meng

2007-01-01

89

Development of a Small-Scale Natural Gas Liquefier. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gas Technology Institute (GTI), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Brookhaven National Lab, developed and tested a pre-commercial small-scale natural gas liquefaction system. This cryogenic technology has potential use in a variety ...

K. Kountz K. Kriha W. Liss M. Perry M. Richards

2003-01-01

90

75 FR 60095 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FE-34), Office of Oil and Gas Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil Energy...purchasing and marketing supplies of LNG...granted Cheniere Marketing, LLC (Cheniere...substantial quantities of natural gas sufficient...supplies, and the benefits described...

2010-09-29

91

The design, development and performance of a Duplex Stirling natural gas liquefier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea of using a Duplex Stirling System for natural gas liquefaction has long been considered by Sunpower as an attractive application for Stirling engines. A few years ago an internally funded project was embarked upon to build a small demonstration Duplex Stirling unit. This machine was designed around the Model M-100 engine which was then being produced commercially. The

Berchowitz

1982-01-01

92

Estimation of Potential Impacts from Offshore Liquefied Natural Gas Terminals on Red Snapper and Red Drum Fisheries in the Gulf of Mexico: An Alternative Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

As of October 1, 2005, seven offshore liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals have been proposed to be sited in offshore waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Six of these facilities have opted to use open-rack vaporizers (ORVs) to heat and regasify the LNG and one plans to use a combination open-closed-loop system. Each of the terminals would require on the

Benny J. Gallaway; William J. Gazey; John G. Cole; Robert G. Fechhelm

2007-01-01

93

COOLCEP (cool clean efficient power): A novel CO 2-capturing oxy-fuel power system with LNG (liquefied natural gas) coldness energy utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel liquefied natural gas (LNG) fueled power plant is proposed, which has virtually zero CO2 and other emissions and a high efficiency. The plant operates as a subcritical CO2 Rankine-like cycle. Beside the power generation, the system provides refrigeration in the CO2 subcritical evaporation process, thus it is a cogeneration system with two valued products. By coupling with the

Na Zhang; Noam Lior; Meng Liu; Wei Han

2010-01-01

94

Design and testing of a 45MW 100Hz quadruple-star synchronous motor for a Liquefied Natural Gas turbo-compressor drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few decades, the production of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) has been pushing the development of electric drives with increasingly high power ratings, up to several tens of megawatts. A consolidated technology in this field entails dual-star 2-pole synchronous motors fed by Load-Commutated Inverters (LCI) with supply frequencies between 50 and 80 Hz. This paper presents a novel

A. Tessarolo; G. Zocco; C. Tonello

2010-01-01

95

Design and Testing of a 45MW 100Hz Quadruple-Star Synchronous Motor for a Liquefied Natural Gas Turbo-Compressor Drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few decades, the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been pushing the development of elec- tric drives with increasingly high power ratings, up to several tens of megawatts. A consolidated technology in this field entails dual-star two-pole synchronous motors fed by load-commutated inverters with supply frequencies between 50 and 80 Hz. This paper presents a novel

Alberto Tessarolo; Gianfranco Zocco; Carlo Tonello

2011-01-01

96

EXAMINE AND EVALUATE A PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy cooperative research project is to define, describe, and validate, a process to utilize salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships. The project defines the process as receiving LNG from a ship, pumping the LNG up to cavern injection pressures, warming it to cavern compatible temperatures, injecting the warmed vapor directly into salt caverns for storage, and distribution to the pipeline network. The performance of work under this agreement is based on U.S. Patent 5,511,905, and other U.S. and Foreign pending patent applications. The cost sharing participants in the research are The National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. Department of Energy), BP America Production Company, Bluewater Offshore Production Systems (U.S.A.), Inc., and HNG Storage, L.P. Initial results indicate that a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at about half the capital cost, less than half the operating costs and would have significantly higher delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. There is a significant body of knowledge and practice concerning natural gas storage in salt caverns, and there is a considerable body of knowledge and practice in handling LNG, but there has never been any attempt to develop a process whereby the two technologies can be combined. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or terrorist acts, and much more acceptable to the community. The project team developed conceptual designs of two salt cavern based LNG terminals, one with caverns located in Calcasieu Parish Louisiana, and the second in Vermilion block 179 about 50 miles offshore Louisiana. These conceptual designs were compared to conventional tank based LNG terminals and demonstrate superior security, economy and capacity. The potential for the development of LNG receiving terminals, utilizing salt caverns for storage and the existing comprehensive pipeline system has profound implications for the next generation of LNG terminals. LNG imports are expected to become an increasingly more important part of the U.S. energy supply and the capacities to receive LNG securely, safely, and economically must be expanded. Salt cavern LNG receiving terminals both in onshore and offshore locations can be quickly built and provide additional import capacity into the U.S. exceeding 6-10 Bcf/day in the aggregate.

Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; D. Braxton Scherz

2003-04-24

97

78 FR 44940 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import and Export Liquefied...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...authority to import/ export natural gas from/ to Canada. 3292...authority to import/ export natural gas from/ to Canada. 3293...Coast Order granting blanket Products LLC. authority to import/ export natural gas from/ to Canada....

2013-07-25

98

77 FR 4028 - Orders Granting, Amending and Vacating Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of Fossil Energy, Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities...Puget Sound Energy, Order granting...import/export natural gas from/to Canada...Tidal Energy Order granting Marketing...authority to import natural gas from...

2012-01-26

99

LNG plants in the US and abroad. [Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Institute of Gas Technology recently conducted a comprehensive survey of LNG production and storage facilities in North America. This survey was performed as part of IGT's LNG Observer newsletter which covers both domestic and international LNG news, reports on LNG related economics and statistics, and routinely conducts interviews with key industry leaders. In addition to providing consulting services to

C. F. Blazek; R. T. Biederman

1992-01-01

100

33 CFR 165.502 - Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. 165.502 Section 165.502 ...Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. (a) Location. The following area is a safety and...Guard Captain of the Port, Baltimore, Maryland or his designated...

2013-07-01

101

Apparatus for reliquefying boil-off natural gas from a storage tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a combination of apparatus for storing liquefied natural gas which includes an insulated separation tank in which solidified carbon dioxide is settled out of liquefied natural gas and a liquefied natural gas-solidified carbon dioxide slurry accumulates, an insulated liquefied natural gas storage tank, and a conduit for delivering liquefied natural gas from the separation tank to the storage tank,

C. C. Hanke; M. Husain; Y. A. Selcukoglu

1980-01-01

102

Thermodynamic Processes Involving Liquefied Natural Gas at the LNG Receiving Terminals / Procesy termodynamiczne z wykorzystaniem skroplonego gazu ziemnego w terminalach odbiorczych LNG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increase in demand for natural gas in the world, cause that the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and in consequences its regasification becoming more common process related to its transportation. Liquefied gas is transported in the tanks at a temperature of about 111K at atmospheric pressure. The process required to convert LNG from a liquid to a gas phase for further pipeline transport, allows the use of exergy of LNG to various applications, including for electricity generation. Exergy analysis is a well known technique for analyzing irreversible losses in a separate process. It allows to specify the distribution, the source and size of the irreversible losses in energy systems, and thus provide guidelines for energy efficiency. Because both the LNG regasification and liquefaction of natural gas are energy intensive, exergy analysis process is essential for designing highly efficient cryogenic installations. Wzrost zapotrzebowania na gaz ziemny na ?wiecie powoduje, ?e produkcja skroplonego gazu ziemnego (LNG), a w konsekwencji jego regazyfikacja, staje si? coraz bardziej powszechnym procesem zwi?zanym z jego transportem. Skroplony gaz transportowany jest w zbiornikach w temperaturze oko?o 111K pod ci?nieniem atmosferycznym. Przebieg procesu regazyfikacji niezb?dny do zamiany LNG z fazy ciek?ej w gazow? dla dalszego transportu w sieci, umo?liwia wykorzystanie egzergii LNG do ró?nych zastosowa?, mi?dzy innymi do produkcji energii elektrycznej. Analiza egzergii jest znan? technik? analizowania nieodwracalnych strat w wydzielonym procesie. Pozwala na okre?lenie dystrybucji, ?ród?a i wielko?ci nieodwracalnych strat w systemach energetycznych, a wi?c ustali? wytyczne dotycz?ce efektywnego zu?ycia energii. Poniewa? zarówno regazyfikacja LNG jak i skraplanie gazu ziemnego s? energoch?onne, proces analizy egzergii jest niezb?dny do projektowania wysoce wydajnych instalacji kriogenicznych.

?aciak, Mariusz

2013-06-01

103

30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57.4463 Section...Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to...

2013-07-01

104

40 CFR 1065.720 - Liquefied petroleum gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids...liquefied petroleum gas for testing must meet the specifications...pass3 ASTM D2158-05. Corrosion, copper strip Maximum...standards. (c) When we conduct testing using liquefied...

2013-07-01

105

Method for liquefaction of natural gas  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method of altering the heating value of a liquefied natural gas by adding higher heating value components is disclosed. A portion of the liquefied natural gas is used to cool the higher heating value component stream prior to combining the higher heating value components with the liquefied natural gas to obtain a combined stream having a heating value greater than the liquefied natural gas.

Coyle; David A. (Houston, TX)

2013-02-26

106

Economic Analysis of Mixed-Refrigerant Cycle and Nitrogen Expander Cycle in Small Scale Natural Gas Liquefier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of natural gas liquefaction processes, mixed-refrigerant cycle and nitrogen expander cycle were simulated. Their process parameters were optimized and compared. Their economic characteristics were analyzed. Although the mixed-refrigerant liquefaction process is more complicated than nitrogen expander cycle, its energy consumption is only 46% of the nitrogen expander cycle. The operation costs of mixed-refrigerant process are lower than those of nitrogen expander cycle, so the process is more competitive. The energy consumption of the optimized mixed-refrigerant cycle reaches the level of propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant process, which is usually used in base-load natural gas liquefaction systems and is the lowest of the mixed-refrigerant process. The process is comparatively simple, consumes less energy and has economic benefits, so the mixed-refrigerant process is the preferred choice for small-scale natural gas liquefaction device.

Yin, Q. S.; Li, H. Y.; Fan, Q. H.; Jia, L. X.

2008-03-01

107

78 FR 4401 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import and Export Liquefied...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...b/a NATIONAL GRID.. 12-142-NG ALBERTA NORTHEAST GAS, LIMITED...Gas Regulatory Activities, Office of Oil and Gas Global Security and Supply, Office...10/18/12 12-143-NG Alberta Northeast Order granting blanket...

2013-01-22

108

Technology Characterization: Liquified Natural Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technology characterization for liquefied natural gas (LNG) was made. The scope of work was confined to a literature review of LNG processes including natural gas production, liquefaction, and revaporization. The work was divided into five major categor...

1976-01-01

109

33 CFR 165.1151 - Security Zones; liquefied hazardous gas tank vessels, San Pedro Bay, California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Zones; liquefied hazardous gas tank vessels, San Pedro Bay, California. 165.1151 Section 165.1151 Navigation and Navigable...Zones; liquefied hazardous gas tank vessels, San Pedro Bay, California. (a) Definition. âLiquefied Hazardous...

2013-07-01

110

78 FR 53739 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import and Export Liquefied...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TIDAL ENERGY MARKETING (U.S.) LLC...Energy, Office of Oil and Gas Global Security and Supply, Docket...Activities, Office of Oil and Gas Global Security and Supply, Office...Tidal Energy Marketing Order granting blanket...

2013-08-30

111

Dual mixed refrigerant natural gas liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process and apparatus is described for liquefying natural gas using two closed cycle, multicomponent refrigerants wherein a low level refrigerant cools and liquefies the gas by indirect heat exchange and a high level refrigerant cools and partially liquefies the low level refrigerant by indirect multistage heat exchange. The high level refrigerant is phase separated in order to use lighter

Y.-N. Liu; J. W. Pervier

1985-01-01

112

29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification...liquefied-petroleum-gas for the production of chemicals and synthetic rubber; and (4) Sales of liquefied-petroleum-gas for use as truck or bus fuel and the repair and servicing of...

2013-07-01

113

Liquefied Petroleum Gas as an Alternative Vehicle Fuel in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work discusses the advantages and disadvantages of three types of fuels: petrol, diesel, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Two surveys were conducted; one in the Tarkwa Municipality in the Western Region of Ghana to assess the type of fuels that taxis run on, and the other at Suame Magazine in Kumasi and Kokompe in Takoradi to verify the cost

Anthony Simons; Solomon Nunoo

2009-01-01

114

Possibilities of using liquefied oil gas in transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trends of the input of an alternative type of fuel in the transport system of the European Union are analysed. Taking into account the measures of promoting liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consumption in road transport, a bundle of specific variables was analysed to understand the consumers for making decision to use LPG in cars. It is revealed that the

Algirdas Kuprys; Jonas Kugelevi?ius

2009-01-01

115

46 CFR 30.10-39 - Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL. 30.10-39 Section 30.10-39 Shipping COAST...PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-39 Liquefied flammable gasâTB/ALL. The term liquefied flammable gas means any...

2011-10-01

116

46 CFR 58.16-7 - Use of liquefied petroleum gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Use of liquefied petroleum gas. 58.16-7 Section 58.16-7...AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-7 Use of liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Cooking equipment using...

2012-10-01

117

46 CFR 58.16-7 - Use of liquefied petroleum gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Use of liquefied petroleum gas. 58.16-7 Section 58.16-7...AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-7 Use of liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Cooking equipment using...

2011-10-01

118

Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: A Status Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported in research on the safety and environmental aspects of four principal liquefied gaseous material systems: liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), hydrogen, and ammonia. Each section of the report has been abstracte...

1979-01-01

119

18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...than liquefied natural gas facilities caused by a hurricane, earthquake or other natural disaster or terrorist activity that results...liquefied natural gas facilities by reason other than hurricane, earthquake or other natural disaster or terrorist activity, the...

2013-04-01

120

42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. 84...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed...

2010-10-01

121

42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. 84...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed...

2009-10-01

122

Adsorbent storage of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural-gas vehicle represents a cost-competitive, lower-emission alternative to the gasoline-fueled vehicle. The immediate challenge that confronts the natural-gas vehicle is extension of its driving range. This paper addresses the question of driving range by reviewing the storage technologies for natural gas. Technical comparisons are made between storage systems for adsorbent, liquefied and compressed natural gas, and estimates are made

M. Gurevich

1996-01-01

123

Alternative development strategies for natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant increases in worldwide natural-gas consumption during the last decade indicate that gas is increasingly considered a valuable and economic commodity. A summary of worldwide natural-gas reserves, production, and consumption statistics shows that worldwide gas use is not resource constrained. Only 10 percent of the gas produced is traded internationally and less than 3 percent is converted to liquefied natural

Attanasi

1993-01-01

124

Clean air program: Design guidelines for bus transit systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as an alternative fuel. Final report, July 1995-April 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) has initiated the development of `Design Guidelines for Bus Transit Systems Using Alternative Fuels.` This report provides design guidelines for the safe uses of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). It forms a part of the series of individual monographs being published by the FTA on (the guidelines for the safe use of) Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and alcohol fuels (Methanol and Ethanol). Each report in this series describes for the subject fuel the important fuel properties, guidelines for the design and operation of bus fueling, storage and maintenance facilities, issues on personnel training and emergency preparedness.

Raj, P.K.; Hathaway, W.T.; Kangas, R.

1996-09-01

125

Energy conservation in a natural gas liquids processing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Natural Gas Processing Industry has been gaining in growth since the first discovery that some of the components in a natural gas could be separated, liquefied, and stored under pressure, to offer a very convenient, clean burning, self propelled fuel. For the past several years, liquefied petroleum components have included ethane, the lightest component of natural gas except methane

D. W. Kemp; D. L. Rook

1976-01-01

126

ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORT FUELS FROM NATURAL GAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the economics of using natural gas as an alternative fuel in transport vehicles including passenger cars, taxis, buses, and trucks. It compares the cost of using conventional fuels (gasoline and diesel) in these vehicles with that of retrofitting the vehicles and using natural gas-based fuels. These fuels include compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol,

JR. R. MORENO; D. G. FALLEN BAILEY

1989-01-01

127

Building natural gas locomotives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a liquefied natural gas-fueled locomotive built by Morrison Knudsen which includes a Caterpillar 1200-horsepower V-16, a monofuel management system with double-wall super-insulated cryogenic tanks, and microprocessor-based controls. Efforts by railroad companies to reduce operating costs and meet future emissions standards have led engineers to look for innovative ways to design trains. In January, Morrison Knudsen Corp. of

OConner

1994-01-01

128

The Liquefaction of Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history and significance of natural gas liquefaction is traced showing that the main developments have occurred since 1960. The thermodynamics of liquefaction is reviewed paying special attention to the effect of the supply pressure of the gas, and its composition, on the minimum work requirement. It is shown that liquefier design requires highly accurate thermodynamic data for the process

G. G. Haselden

1977-01-01

129

Feed gas drier precooling in mixed refrigerant natural gas liquefaction processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for the liquefaction of a natural gas feedstream using two closed cycle, multicomponent refrigerants wherein a high level refrigerant cools a low level refrigerant and the low level refrigerant cools and liquefies the natural gas feedstream which includes: cooling and liquefying a natural gas stream by heat exchange with a low level multicomponent refrigerant in a

Y. N. Liu; C. L. Newton

1988-01-01

130

Coyote series data report LLNL/NWC 1981 LNG spill tests dispersion, vapor burn, and rapid-phase-transition. Volume 1. [7 experiments with liquefied natural gas, 2 with liquid methane, and one with liquid nitrogen  

SciTech Connect

The Coyote series of liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill experiments was performed at the Naval Weapons Center (NWC), China Lake, California, during the summer and fall of 1981. These tests were a joint effort of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the NWC and were sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Gas Research Institute. There were ten Coyote experiments, five primarily for the study of vapor dispersion and burning vapor clouds, and five for investigating the occurrence of rapid-phase-transition (RPT) explosions. Each of the last four of the five RPT tests consisted of a series of three spills. Seven experiments were with LNG, two were with liquid methane (LCH/sub 4/), and one was with liquid nitrogen (LN/sub 2/). Three arrays of instrumentation were deployed. An array of RPT diagnostic instruments was concentrated at the spill pond and was operated during all of the tests, vapor burn as well as RPT. The wind-field array was operated during the last nine experiments to define the wind direction and speed in the area upwind and downwind of the spill pond. The gas-dispersion array was deployed mostly downwind of the spill pond to measure gas concentration, humidity, temperature, ground heat flux, infrared (IR) radiation, and flame-front passage during three of the vapor dispersion and burn experiments (Coyotes 3, 5, and 6). High-speed color motion pictures were taken during every test, and IR imagery (side and overhead) was obtained during some vapor-burn experiments. Data was obtained by radiometers during Coyotes 3, 6, and 7. This report presents a comprehensive selection of the data obtained. It does not include any data analysis except that required to determine the test conditions and the reliability of the data. Data analysis is to be reported in other publications. 19 references, 76 figures, 13 tables.

Goldwire, H.C. Jr.; Rodean, H.C.; Cederwall, R.T.; Kansa, E.J.; Koopman, R.P.; McClure, J.W.; McRae, T.G.; Morris, L.K.; Kamppinen, L.; Kiefer, R.D.

1983-10-01

131

Natural gas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Natural gas is used as a means of power in households. Natural gas has no natural odor, so an odor is added to the gas. This is useful because gas leaks can be detected better and it also reduces the risk of accidents in homes.

N/A N/A (None;)

2003-07-27

132

DEVELOPMENT OF NATURAL GAS OCEAN TRANSPORTATION CHAIN BY MEANS OF NATURAL GAS HYDRATE (NGH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

While alternative natural gas transportation technologies against currently available pipeline or liquefied natural gas (LNG) are expected to develop to be suitable for small and medium or remote gas fields, Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. (MES) has been studying natural gas hydrate (NGH) transportation chain and advocated at ICGH2005 the NGH chain was economical compared with conventional LNG system

Tomonori Nogami; Nobutaka Oya; Hiroshige Ishida; Hitoshi Matsumoto

133

78 FR 8501 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), to amend its...operate facilities to offload liquefied natural gas (LNG) at its Garner LNG storage...will either: complete its environmental assessment (EA) and place it into...

2013-02-06

134

40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...32 Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...handling over 13,660 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas per month shall equip each pump...

2013-07-01

135

33 CFR 127.203 - Portable gas detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.203 Portable gas detectors. The marine...

2013-07-01

136

Analysis of Restricted Natural Gas Supply Cases  

EIA Publications

The four cases examined in this study have progressively greater impacts on overall natural gas consumption, prices, and supply. Compared to the Annual Energy Outlook 2004 reference case, the no Alaska pipeline case has the least impact; the low liquefied natural gas case has more impact; the low unconventional gas recovery case has even more impact; and the combined case has the most impact.

James Kendell

2004-03-01

137

Impact of globalization of the natural gas market on natural gas prices in power generation and energy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of liquefied natural gas (LNG) infrastructure that allows natural gas to be exported from gas producing regions to gas consuming regions is transforming previously regional gas markets into a global market. The panel will address the impacts of this globalization on the power generation industry that has been increasingly turning to natural gas fueled plants. Panelists from major

Tom Hammons; R. Johnson; B. Blyden

2008-01-01

138

59 FR- Phillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation and Marathon Oil Company; Application to Amend...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...94-81-NG] Phillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation and Marathon Oil Company; Application...to Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of Fossil...by Phillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation (PANGC) and Marathon Oil Company...

1994-12-09

139

59 FR- Meridian Oil Transportation Inc.; Order Granting Blanket Authorization To Export Natural Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...94-39-NG] Meridian Oil Transportation Inc...Authorization To Export Natural Gas, Including Liquefied Natural Gas, to Mexico AGENCY...order granting Meridian Oil Transportation Inc...export up to 54 Bcf of natural gas, including...

1994-06-06

140

60 FR 13721 - Phillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation and Marathon Oil Company; Order Amending Authorization to...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...94-81-LNG] Phillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation and Marathon Oil Company; Order Amending...granted to Phillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation (PANGC) and Marathon Oil Company (Marathon) to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) to Japan....

1995-03-14

141

65 FR 1856 - Office of Fossil Energy; Phillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation and Marathon Oil Company...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Energy; Phillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation and Marathon Oil Company; Application...To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of Fossil...by Phillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation (PANGC) and Marathon Oil Company...

2000-01-12

142

65 FR 25475 - Office of Fossil Energy: Phillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation and Marathon Oil Company...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Energy: Phillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation and Marathon Oil Company; Application...To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of Fossil...by Phillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation (PANGC) and Marathon Oil Company...

2000-05-02

143

62 FR 9758 - Phillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation and Marathon Oil Company; Application to Amend...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...96-99-LNG] Phillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation and Marathon Oil Company; Application...To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of Fossil...by Phillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation (PANGC) and Marathon Oil Company...

1997-03-04

144

Liquified Natural Gas—Overview of Prospectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview of different prospectives regarding manufacturing, handling, distribution, regulation, and investing in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. As sources of energy are in increased demand, LNG becomes more and more important part of the natural gas supply in the world. Its main advantage is its ability to be converted into liquid form by cooling to

Dejan Ristic

2008-01-01

145

Short term storage of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linde AG developed a method to reduce the energy losses occurring during natural gas cooling, liquefaction, and storage by providing a cryophore to absorb and emit the heat as needed. Such a system is particularly suited for short-term fluctuations in demand. In such an application, excess natural gas is liquefied at night by heat exchange with the cold cryophore, and

1973-01-01

146

Natural Gas Liquefaction Process for Small-scale LNG Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of natural gas liquefaction, the small-scale natural gas liquefier has been attracting more and more attentions home and abroad, thanks to its small volume, mobile transportation, easy start-up and shut-down, as well as skid-mounted package. A study was made to choose the optimum liquefaction process to improve the economy of small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant. The

Cao Wensheng

2012-01-01

147

Natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a review of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) certification or approval process for natural gas pipeline construction. Natural gas is an abundant domestic energy resource that can be substituted for imported oil, and is the most environmentally benign fossil fuel. This review describes the time it takes FERC to process pipeline construction applications; the factors affecting

Rezendes

1991-01-01

148

33 CFR 127.1203 - Gas detection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gas detection. 127.1203 Section 127.1203 ...FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied...

2013-07-01

149

Liquefied Natural Gas: Understanding the Basic Facts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report was prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in collaboration with the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC). DOE's Office of Fossil Energy supports technology research and policy options to ensure clean, reli...

2005-01-01

150

Liquefied Noble Gas (LNG) detectors for detection of nuclear materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquefied-noble-gas (LNG) detectors offer, in principle, very good energy resolution for both neutrons and gamma rays, fast response time (hence high-count-rate capabilities), excellent discrimination between neutrons and gamma rays, and scalability to large volumes. They do, however, need cryogenics. LNG detectors in sizes of interest for fissionable material detection in cargo are reaching a certain level of maturity because of the ongoing extensive R&}D effort in high-energy physics regarding their use in the search for dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. The unique properties of LNG detectors, especially those using Liquid Argon (LAr) and Liquid Xenon (LXe), call for a study to determine their suitability for Non-Intrusive Inspection (NII) for Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) and possibly for other threats in cargo. Rapiscan Systems Laboratory, Yale University Physics Department, and Adelphi Technology are collaborating in the investigation of the suitability of LAr as a scintillation material for large size inspection systems for air and maritime containers and trucks. This program studies their suitability for NII, determines their potential uses, determines what improvements in performance they offer and recommends changes to their design to further enhance their suitability. An existing 3.1 liter LAr detector (microCLEAN) at Yale University, developed for R&}D on the detection of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) was employed for testing. A larger version of this detector (15 liters), more suitable for the detection of higher energy gamma rays and neutrons is being built for experimental evaluation. Results of measurements and simulations of gamma ray and neutron detection in microCLEAN and a larger detector (326 liter CL38) are presented.

Nikkel, J. A.; Gozani, T.; Brown, C.; Kwong, J.; McKinsey, D. N.; Shin, Y.; Kane, S.; Gary, C.; Firestone, M.

2012-03-01

151

An Evaluation of Options for Prudhoe Bay Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates some of the reasons why the natural gas which is produced along with the oil at Prudhoe Bay is not being delivered to a market and three of the possible methods of delivering this gas energy to a market. These three alternatives include a proposal to build a natural gas pipeline through Canada, a liquefied natural gas

D. I. Corley; S. S. Marsden

1984-01-01

152

Indicators of security of natural gas supply in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas has become an increasingly valuable resource and a global commodity. The demand for it has significantly increased. Japan, Korea and Taiwan heavily rely on liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports for their gas supplies from Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, Australia and the Middle East. On the other hand, countries like Thailand and Singapore import gas via trans-border pipelines. Gas supply

Helen Cabalu

2010-01-01

153

Conversion of a Waste Gas to Liquid Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a heavy-duty vehicular fuel is growing rapidly due to improved LNG economics, diesel price uncertainties caused by the dependence on imported crude oil, liabilities associated with environmental and health concerns, and governmental programs related to concerns over greenhouse gas emissions. However, vehicle owners who wish to use LNG are impeded by a

D. F. Gongaware; M. A. Barclay; J. A. Barclay; M. P. Skrzypkowski

2004-01-01

154

Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its impact on Mexico City air quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkane hydrocarbons (propane, isobutane, and n-butane) from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are present in major quantities throughout Mexico City air because of leakage of the unburned gas from numerous urban sources. These hydrocarbons, together with olefinic minor LPG components, furnish substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical reactivity, a major precursor to formation of the ozone component of urban smog. The combined

D. R. Blake; F. S. Rowland

1995-01-01

155

Heavy Gas Releases: Recent Dispersion Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The important liquefied fuels which form heavy gases are liquefied natural gas (LNG) (comprised chiefly of methane, but with small amounts of propane and ethane), and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), (comprised of propane and butane in various ratios). In a...

J. H. Shinn D. L. Ermak R. P. Koopman

1981-01-01

156

64 FR 17649 - Office of Fossil Energy; Phillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation and Marathon Oil Company; Order...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Energy; Phillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation and Marathon Oil Company; Order Extending...held by Phillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation and Marathon Oil Company (Applicants) to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) from the...

1999-04-12

157

61 FR 60138 - Natural Gas as Fuel in Marine Applications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION [CGD 96-062] Natural Gas as Fuel in Marine Applications...studying the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) as fuel aboard commercial...and reduce the potential for oil spills. DATES: A public...

1996-11-26

158

18 CFR 380.12 - Environmental reports for Natural Gas Act applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conditioning or liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants. It must...and areas susceptible to soil liquefaction; planned...Resource Report 7âSoils. This report is required...been determined to have soils contaminated with PCBs...new liquefied natural gas (LNG)...

2010-04-01

159

Ventilation of liquefied petroleum gas components from the Valley of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The saturated hydrocarbons propane and the butane isomers are both indirect greenhouse gases and key species in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Leakage of LPG and its component alkanes\\/alkenes is now thought to explain a significant fraction of the volatile organic burden and oxidative potential in the basin which confines Mexico City. Propane and the butanes, however, are stable enough to

Scott Elliott; Donald R. Blake; F. Sherwood Rowland; Rong Lu; Michael J. Brown; Michael D. Williams; Armistead G. Russell; James E. Bossert; Gerald E. Streit; Marisa Ruiz Santoyo; Francisco Guzman; William M. Porch; Laurie A. McNair; John Keyantash; Chih-Yue Jim Kao; Richard P. Turco; William E. Eichinger

1997-01-01

160

First Operating Results of a Dynamic Gas Bearing Turbine in AN Industrial Hydrogen Liquefier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen has been brought into focus of industry and public since fossil fuels are depleting and costs are increasing dramatically. Beside these issues new high-tech processes in the industry are in need for hydrogen at ultra pure quality. To achieve these requirements and for efficient transportation, hydrogen is liquefied in industrial plants. Linde Gas has commissioned a new 5.5 TPD

S. Bischoff; L. Decker

2010-01-01

161

Assessment of reducing ozone forming potential for vehicles using liquefied petroleum gas as an alternative fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is currently used in a small fleet of taxis as an alternative fuel to gasoline in Taipei, Taiwan as part of an incentive program promoted by Taiwan EPA to improve urban air quality. Under the test procedure in accordance with the US FTP-75 protocol to simulate an average urban driving pattern, the exhaust from four LPG

Chih-Chung Chang; Jiunn-Guang Lo; Jia-Lin Wang

2001-01-01

162

Well fracturing method employing a liquefied gas and propping agents entrained in a fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is provided of well stimulation with little or no reservoir contamination and a high percentage of load fluid recovery. A liquefied gas and a fluid containing entrained propping agents are injected into the formations. Since the 2 fluid phases are completely miscible, they may be either blended prior to well entry, or injected separately, and blended in the

Bullen

1972-01-01

163

77 FR 38790 - Noble Americas Gas & Power Corp., LNG Development Company, LLC, LNG Development Company, LLC (d/b...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During May 2012 AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy...Orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas. These Orders are...

2012-06-29

164

FIRST OPERATING RESULTS OF A DYNAMIC GAS BEARING TURBINE IN AN INDUSTRIAL HYDROGEN LIQUEFIER  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen has been brought into focus of industry and public since fossil fuels are depleting and costs are increasing dramatically. Beside these issues new high-tech processes in the industry are in need for hydrogen at ultra pure quality. To achieve these requirements and for efficient transportation, hydrogen is liquefied in industrial plants. Linde Gas has commissioned a new 5.5 TPD Hydrogen liquefier in Leuna, Germany, which has been engineered and supplied by Linde Kryotechnik. One of the four expansion turbines installed in the liquefaction process is equipped with dynamic gas bearings. Several design features and operational characteristics of this application will be discussed. The presentation will include results of efficiency and operational reliability that have been determined from performance tests. The advantages of the Linde dynamic gas bearing turbine for future use in hydrogen liquefaction plants will be shown.

Bischoff, S.; Decker, L. [Linde Kryotechnik AG, Pfungen, CH-8042 (Switzerland)

2010-04-09

165

First Operating Results of a Dynamic Gas Bearing Turbine in AN Industrial Hydrogen Liquefier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen has been brought into focus of industry and public since fossil fuels are depleting and costs are increasing dramatically. Beside these issues new high-tech processes in the industry are in need for hydrogen at ultra pure quality. To achieve these requirements and for efficient transportation, hydrogen is liquefied in industrial plants. Linde Gas has commissioned a new 5.5 TPD Hydrogen liquefier in Leuna, Germany, which has been engineered and supplied by Linde Kryotechnik. One of the four expansion turbines installed in the liquefaction process is equipped with dynamic gas bearings. Several design features and operational characteristics of this application will be discussed. The presentation will include results of efficiency and operational reliability that have been determined from performance tests. The advantages of the Linde dynamic gas bearing turbine for future use in hydrogen liquefaction plants will be shown.

Bischoff, S.; Decker, L.

2010-04-01

166

77 FR 28870 - Floridian Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Comments on Environmental Issues The staff...will prepare an environmental assessment (EA) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the Floridan Natural Gas Storage Company...redeliver gas in its liquefied state to...

2012-05-16

167

Evaluation of Methods for Predictions Natural Gas Liquid Density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the importance of liquid density in process design, this study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of available correlations, equations of state, and process simulation programs. The study covers natural gas liquid (NGL), liquefied natural gas (LNG) and light hydrocarbons mixtures containing nitrogen. More than 25 binary and multicomponent systems were studies. The accuracy of several correlations, EoSs,

Hameeda Dashti; Ali Moshfeghian; Mahmood Moshfeghian

168

Method for capping cellular glass blocks for the load bearing insulation of liquefied gas storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pittsburgh Corning Corp.'s method of capping cellular glass blocks for the load-bearing insulation of liquefied-gas storage tanks provides improved compressive strength for the base insulation. The technique involves cutting the blocks to form horizontal cut faces with open hemispherical cells. A layer of irreversibly compressible inorganic particulate material, such as vermiculite, is applied by rolling or screeding on and between

Dudzinski

1978-01-01

169

Risks of Fire and Explosion Associated With the Increasing Use of Liquefied Petroleum Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) has been in use as household fuel all over the world for several decades. Until the late 1980s,\\u000a its use in the developing world was largely confined to the economically well-off strata of the society but it has since spread\\u000a over a much larger catchment. The increasing use of LPG has enhanced and generalized the risk

S. M. Tauseef; Tasneem Abbasi; S. A. Abbasi

2010-01-01

170

Flexible LNG supply, storage and price formation in a global natural gas market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The body of work included in this dissertation explores the interaction of the growing, flexible liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade with the fundamentals of pipeline gas supply, gas storage, and gas consumption. By nature of its uses---largely for residential heating and electric power generation---the consumption of natural gas is highly variable both seasonally and on less predictable daily and weekly

Mark Hanley Hayes

2007-01-01

171

Adsorbed Natural Gas Storage in Optimized High Surface Area Microporous Carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) is an attractive alternative technology to compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG) for the efficient storage of natural gas, in particular for vehicular applications. In adsorbants engineered to have pores of a few molecular diameters, a strong van der Walls force allows reversible physisorption of methane at low pressures and room temperature. Activated

Jimmy Romanos; Tyler Rash; Erik Nordwald; Joshua Shawn Shocklee; Carlos Wexler; Peter Pfeifer

2011-01-01

172

Pipeline Accident Report: Columbia Liquified Natural Gas Corporation Explosion and Fire, Cove Point, Maryland, October 6, 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

About 3:35 a.m., e.d.t., an explosion caused by liquefied natural gas vapors destroyed a transformer building at the reception facility of the Columbia LNG Corporation, Cove Point, Maryland. Odorless liquefied natural gas leaked through an inadequately ti...

1980-01-01

173

Review of ways to transport natural gas energy from countries which do not need the gas for domestic use  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of options of exporting natural gas energy from oil and gas fields to market, including pipelines, liquefied natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG), gas to solids (GtS), i.e. hydrates, gas to wire (GtW), i.e. electricity, gas to liquids (GtL), with a wide range of possible products including clean fuels, plastic precursors or methanol and gas

Sydney Thomas; Richard A. Dawe

2003-01-01

174

Liquefied petroleum gas cold burn sustained while refueling a car.  

PubMed

There have been few cases of cold burn related to the exposure of liquid petroleum gas (LPG). We present the case of a young woman exposed to LPG while refueling her car who sustained partial thickness burns to the dorsum of her hand. Contact with LPG leaking from a pressurized system causes tissue damage because of cold injury. Immediate management of LPG is extrapolated from the management of frostbite. The increasing use of LPG mandates an awareness of prevention strategies and management principles in the setting of adverse events. PMID:20152007

Scarr, Bronwyn; Mitra, Biswadev; Maini, Amit; Cleland, Heather

2010-02-01

175

78 FR 30295 - Constellation Energy Commoditiesgroup, Inc., ENI USA Gas Marketing LLC, Sequent Energy Canada...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Energy and PetroleumServices Inc.; Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, and Vacating Prior Authority During March 2013 AGENCY: Office of Fossil...

2013-05-22

176

DOE\\/BNL Liquid Natural Gas Heavy Vehicle Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a means of lowering greenhouse gas emissions, increasing economic growth, and reducing the dependency on imported oil, the Department of Energy and Brookhaven National Laboratory (DOE\\/ BNL) is promoting the substitution of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in heavy-vehicles that are currently being fueled by diesel. Heavy vehicles are defined as Class 7 and 8 trucks (> 118,000 pounds GVVV),

James E. Wegrzyn; Wai-Lin Litzke; Michael Gurevich

1998-01-01

177

40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Exhaust gas analysis...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum...Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum...times the standard...

2010-07-01

178

40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Exhaust gas analysis...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum...Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum...times the standard...

2009-07-01

179

Marine transportation of LNG (liquified natural gas) and related products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book deals with the technical and practical aspects of contemporary marine transportation, tanker design for specialty cargoes, safety standards, and what the petroleum industry is doing to drastically reduce accidental oil spills in rivers, estuaries, and oceans of the world. A great deal of effort has been expended to thoroughly explain the nature of liquefied natural gas--what it is,

Wooler

1975-01-01

180

Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops a formal model for comparing the cost structure of the two main transport options for natural gas: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly

Marte Ulvestad; Indra Overland

2012-01-01

181

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) poisoning: report of two cases and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Two autopsy cases of men who died while connecting a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) pipe are reported. Their blood concentrations of propane (the main content of LPG) were 0.12 and 3.40 mg/100 g, respectively. The cause of death after exposure of LPG has generally been considered to be asphyxia from hypoxia. The large differences in the blood propane levels found here and reported in the literature, however, suggest that direct toxic effects of propane poisoning may be the cause of death in some cases. Propane concentrations and the cause of death are reviewed and discussed. PMID:8948127

Fukunaga, T; Yamamoto, H; Tanegashima, A; Yamamoto, Y; Nishi, K

1996-10-25

182

Dimensionless lumped formulation for performance assessment of adsorbed natural gas storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) has been emerging as an attractive alternative to compressed natural gas or liquefied natural gas, on various circumstances. However, in spite of the advantages associated with ANG over other storage modes, there are some issues that need be properly addressed in order to ensure a viable employment of such alternative. One major problem is that the

M. J. M. da Silva; L. A. Sphaier

2010-01-01

183

78 FR 37878 - Deepwater Port License Application: Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Port Ambrose Deepwater Port  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the Application Liberty Natural Gas, LLC is proposing to construct...own, and operate a liquefied natural gas (LNG) deepwater port...application submitted by Liberty Natural Gas, LLC in 2010. Port...acknowledged and considered in the processing of the Port Ambrose...

2013-06-24

184

Natural gas monthly  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1998-01-01

185

Asian natural gas  

SciTech Connect

This book presents an overview of the present status and future development in Asia of domestic and export markets for natural gas and to describes gas utilization technologies that will help these markets grow. A perspective of natural gas transmission, transport, distribution, and utilization is presented. The papers in this book are organized under several topics. The topics are : Asian natural gas markets, Technology of natural gas export projects, Technology of domestic natural gas projects, and Natural gas utilization in power generation, air conditioning, and other applications.

Klass, D.L. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA)); Ohashi, T. (Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd. (Japan))

1989-01-01

186

Two-phase flows during a discharge of liquefied gases, initially at saturation. Effect of the nature of the fluid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the case of a confinement loss (breakage of a connection piece) on a pressurized liquefied gas tank, a critical two-phase (liquid-vapour) flow is generated. This thesis is aimed at the validation of models describing these flows with various fluids (wa...

P. Alix

1997-01-01

187

Imported LNG (liquid natural gas) as an alternative fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) first arrived in the United States in 1972 at the rate of one billion cubic feet (Bcf) per year. By 1979, they had reached 252 Bcf\\/year. However, as US as demand declined and domestic deliverability grew, inflexible LNG prices led to the complete collapse of trade during the 1980s. In 1987, all four US

1990-01-01

188

Natural gas annual 1996  

SciTech Connect

This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

NONE

1997-09-01

189

Natural gas annual 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

NONE

1995-11-17

190

Natural gas annual 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

NONE

1996-11-01

191

Natural Gas Annual 1996  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Natural Gas Annual_ provides information on the "supply and disposition of natural gas in the United States." It contains State level data for production, transmission, storage, deliveries, and price of natural gas. Historical data at the national level are available from the 1930's.

192

Oxygen deficiency hazards associated with liquefied gas systems development of a program of controls  

SciTech Connect

The use of liquefied gases in industry and research has become commonplace. Release into the atmosphere of these gases, whether intentional or not, will result in a displacement of air and a reduction in the oxygen concentration. Exposure to reduced levels of oxygen levels may cause reduced abilities, unconsciousness, or death. This paper describes the derivation of a novel program of controls for oxygen deficiency hazards. The key to this approach is a quantitative assessment of risk for each planned operation and the application of control measures to reduce that risk to an acceptable level. Five risk levels evolve which are based on the probability of fatality. Controls such as training, oxygen monitoring equipment, self-rescue respirators, and medical surveillance are required when the probability of fatality exceeds 10/sup -7/ per hour. The quantitative nature of this program ensures an appropriate level of control without undue burden or expense. 11 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

Miller, T.M.; Mazur, P.O.

1983-01-01

193

Natural gas sdtrategic plan  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s natural gas program is aimed at meeting simultaneously our national energy needs, reducing oil imports, protecting our environment, and improving our economy The Natural Gas Strategic Plan for 1995 represents a Department-wide effort to articulate the key issues related to the expanded development and utilization of natural gas, and defines the roles of the federal government and US industry in partnering to accomplish the strategic goals defined. The four overarching goals of the Natural Gas Strategic Plan are to: foster the development of advanced natural gas technologies; encourage the adoption of advanced natural gas technologies in new and existing markets; support the removal of policy impediments to natural gas use in new and existing markets; and foster technologies and policies to maximize the environmental benefits of natural gas use. DOE`s proposed fiscal year (FY) 1996 budget represents a commitment to natural gas research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) from reservoir to end use. DOE has redirected and increased funding for its natural gas exploration, production, delivery and storage, processing, and utilization RD&D programs, shifting funds from other energy programs to programs that will enhance efficiency and advance the role of natural gas in our domestic energy resources portfolio.

NONE

1995-06-01

194

Liquefaction of remote sources of natural gas. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective was to determine the technical and financial feasibility of liquefying remote reserves of natural gas and transporting the liquefied product to users. The proposed methodology included efforts to (1) identify any prohibitive or limiting laws and/or regulations; (2) identify sufficient unutilized reserves in remote areas to justify further investigation; (3) identify existing portable liquefaction equipment (or an interested manufacturer that could supply the needed equipment) to obtain cost and performance data; (4) determine site preparation, supply and production costs for use in assessing economic feasibility; and (5) identify potential users. The conclusion is that the liquefaction of natural gas in remote areas of Appalachia is not economically feasible as long as an adequate and reliable supply of pipeline gas is perceived to be available for the forseable future and the price per Btu of pipeline gas remains so far below other fuels. 3 tables.

Rogers, D.W.

1981-12-01

195

Application of far infrared rare earth mineral composite materials to liquefied petroleum gas.  

PubMed

Far infrared rare earth mineral composite materials were prepared by the coprecipitation method using tourmaline, cerium acetate, and lanthanum acetate as raw materials. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy show that tourmaline modified with the rare earths La and Ce has a better far infrared emitting performance. Through XRD analysis, we attribute the improved far infrared emission properties of the tourmaline to the unit cell shrinkage of the tourmaline arising from La enhancing the redox properties of nano-CeO2. The effect of the composite materials on the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was studied by the flue gas analysis and water boiling test. Based on the results, it was found that the composite materials could accelerate the combustion of LPG, and that the higher the emissivity of the rare earth mineral composite materials, the better the effects on combustion of LPG. In all activation styles, both air and LPG to be activated has a best effect, indicating the activations having a cumulative effect. PMID:20355556

Zhu, Dongbin; Liang, Jinsheng; Ding, Yan; Xu, Anping

2010-03-01

196

Method for controlling the capacity of a blower and a device for controlling the pressure in a liquefied gas storage tank utilizing said method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of controlling the capacity of a gas blower for pumping gas at a given discharge pressure involves the cooling of the gas at the suction side of the blower. The method is especially useful for controlling the pressure in a liquefied gas storage tank so as to maintain it substantially constant. The boil-off gas in the tank is

Seki

1977-01-01

197

Natural gas annual 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

NONE

1998-10-01

198

Preliminary assessment of the availability of U.S. natural gas resources to meet U.S. transportation energy demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have indicated that substitutes for conventional petroleum resources will be needed to meet U.S. transportation energy demand in the first half of this century. One possible substitute is natural gas which can be used as a transportation fuel directly in compressed natural gas or liquefied natural gas vehicles or as resource fuel for the production of hydrogen for

M. K. Singh; J. S. Moore

2002-01-01

199

Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

2007-01-01

200

Alternative transport fuels from natural gas  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the economics of using natural gas as an alternative fuel in transport vehicles including passenger cars, taxis, buses, and trucks. It compares the cost of using conventional fuels (gasoline and diesel) in these vehicles with that of retrofitting the vehicles and using natural gas-based fuels. These fuels include compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol, and synthetic gasoline and diesel. The analysis includes various scenarios to establish break-even these competing fuels under different assumptions. The study concludes that slow-fill (also known as trickle-fill) CNG is the most economic of the natural gas based fuels. The vehicles most suited for the economic use of these fuels are captive vehicle fleets with relatively high mileage and a restricted range of operation, such as buses and taxis. However, to make the transition economically viable, oil prices would have to increase significantly from their present level and remain there long enough to make the investment in the transition worth while. At present levels of crude oil prices (about US $18 per barrel), little opportunity exists for the economic substitution of natural gas based fuels for gasoline and diesel. These conclusions are based on the economic factors considered. Environmental factors, which are both difficult to measure and of increasing importance, could, however, mitigate these results.

Moreno, R. Jr.; Bailey, D.G.F.

1989-01-01

201

Japan becomes world's biggest user of liquefied natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan has been pursuing strongly a program of importing LNG and has become the world's largest consumer. Tokyo Electric Power Company began importing Alaskan LNG in 1969 not as a long-term energy strategy, but because it was there and at the time seemed the quickest, cheapest way to cut air pollution from power plants in a country facing an environmental

Gale

1979-01-01

202

NATURAL GAS COMMITTEE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government activities relating to natural gas are reported by four subcommittees covering producers, pipelines, consumers, and legislation. Each subcommittee presents a summary of regulatory actions and court decisions relating to the development of reserves and the transport and sale of natural gas. Of particular concern was the need for rate and contract reforms and offshore-leasing procedures. Major legislation was enacted

William P. Diener; Donald R. Arnett; Alfred O. Holl; Keith R. McCrea; Frederick Moring; Frederick Ritts

1978-01-01

203

Storage of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas provides about one-third of our energy. The primary method of storing it is in underground reservoirs, most of which are partially depleted gas pools. Storage is needed to permit high load factor operation of gas transmission lines and provide additional volumes near major markets during winter months. Geologically favorable conditions are necessary in establishing a storage facility. It

Grow; G. C. Jr

1976-01-01

204

Ventilation of liquefied petroleum gas components from the Valley of Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The saturated hydrocarbons propane and the butane isomers are both indirect greenhouse gases and key species in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Leakage of LPG and its component alkanes/alkenes is now thought to explain a significant fraction of the volatile organic burden and oxidative potential in the basin which confines Mexico City. Propane and the butanes, however, are stable enough to escape from the basin. The gas chromatographic measurements which have drawn attention to their sources within the urban area are used here to estimate rates of ventilation into the free troposphere. The calculations are centered on several well studied February/March pollution episodes. Carbon monoxide observations and emissions data are first exploited to provide a rough time constant for the removal of typical inert pollutant species from the valley. The timescale obtained is validated through an examination of meteorological simulations of three-dimensional flow. Heuristic arguments and transport modeling establish that propane and the butanes are distributed through the basin in a manner analogous to CO despite differing emissions functions. Ventilation rates and mass loadings yield outbound fluxes in a box model type computation. Estimated in this fashion, escape from the Valley of Mexico constitutes of the order of half of 1{percent} of the northern hemispheric inputs for both propane and n-butane. Uncertainties in the calculations are detailed and include factors such as flow into the basin via surface winds and the size of the polluted regime. General quantification of the global propane and butane emissions from large cities will entail studies of this type in a variety of locales.{copyright} 1997 American Geophysical Union

Elliott, S. [Earth and Environmental Science Division, Geoanalysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Blake, D.R.; Sherwood Rowland, F. [Chemistry Department, University of California, Irvine (United States); Lu, R. [Atmospheric Sciences Department, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Brown, M.J.; Williams, M.D. [Technology and Safety Assessment Division, Energy and Environmental Analysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Russell, A.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Bossert, J.E. [Earth and Environmental Science Division, Geoanalysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Streit, G.E. [Technology and Safety Assessment Division, Energy and Environmental Analysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Santoyo, M.R.; Guzman, F. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Gerencia de Ciencias del Ambiente, (Mexico) D.F.; Porch, W.M. [Earth and Environmental Science Division, Geoanalysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); McNair, L.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Keyantash, J. [Atmospheric Sciences Department, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Kao, C.J. [Earth and Environmental Science Division, Geoanalysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Turco, R.P. [Atmospheric Sciences Department, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Eichinger, W.E. [Earth and Environmental Science Division, Geoanalysis Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)

1997-09-01

205

Ventilation of liquefied petroleum gas components from the Valley of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The saturated hydrocarbons propane and the butane isomers are both indirect greenhouse gases and key species in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Leakage of LPG and its component alkanes/alkenes is now thought to explain a significant fraction of the volatile organic burden and oxidative potential in the basin which confines Mexico City. Propane and the butanes, however, are stable enough to escape from the basin. The gas Chromatographie measurements which have drawn attention to their sources within the urban area are used here to estimate rates of ventilation into the free troposphere. The calculations are centered on several well studied February/March pollution episodes. Carbon monoxide observations and emissions data are first exploited to provide a rough time constant for the removal of typical inert pollutant species from the valley. The timescale obtained is validated through an examination of meteorological simulations of three-dimensional flow. Heuristic arguments and transport modeling establish that propane and the butanes are distributed through the basin in a manner analogous to CO despite differing emissions functions. Ventilation rates and mass loadings yield outbound fluxes in a box model type computation. Estimated in this fashion, escape from the Valley of Mexico constitutes of the order of half of 1% of the northern hemispheric inputs for both propane and n-butane. Uncertainties in the calculations are detailed and include factors such as flow into the basin via surface winds and the size of the polluted regime. General quantification of the global propane and butane emissions from large cities will entail studies of this type in a variety of locales.

Elliott, Scott; Blake, Donald R.; Rowland, F. Sherwood; Lu, Rong; Brown, Michael J.; Williams, Michael D.; Russell, Armistead G.; Bossert, James E.; Streit, Gerald E.; Santoyo, Marisa Ruiz; Guzman, Francisco; Porch, William M.; McNair, Laurie A.; Keyantash, John; Kao, Chih-Yue Jim; Turco, Richard P.; Eichinger, William E.

1997-09-01

206

Compressed Natural Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The suitability of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an automotive fuel has been conclusively demonstrated, both overseas and in New Zealand. In addition, CNG has a number of operational advantages of great social, economic and environmental benefit. The ma...

J. P. West L. G. Brown

1979-01-01

207

Natural gas monthly  

SciTech Connect

This document highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data presented include volume and price, production, consumption, underground storage, and interstate pipeline activities.

NONE

1996-05-01

208

29 CFR 1926.153 - Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...vessels, such as tanks, cylinders, or...vehicles from bulk storage containers shall...200 250 1 New storage containers of the...industry as âskid tanksâ) shall be designed...manufacturer of the tank. (n) When LP-Gas...Marking Portable Compressed Gas Containers To...

2013-07-01

209

Adsorbed Natural Gas Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of adsorbed natural gas technology for the vehicle fueling sector is reviewed. It is shown that there are\\u000a solutions to the all of the problems associated to adsorption storage, and that it is possible to build a light, compact,\\u000a and efficient system for storage, distribution, and dispensing of natural gas. The practical achievement of this objective\\u000a is

José Paulo Mota

210

Fossil Fuels: Natural Gas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the use of natural gas as an energy source. Topics include its advantages (cleanliness, fewer carbon emissions), disadvantages (difficulty in transport and storage), sources, and usage. There is also a discussion of the creation and production of natural gas, the United States' production and reserves, and some potential new sources (coal bed methane, methane hydrates). The lesson includes an activity in which students investigate porosity and permeability in simulated sediments.

Pratte, John

211

Natural Gas as a Fuel Option for Heavy Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) is promoting the use of natural gas as a fuel option in the transportation energy sector through its natural gas vehicle program [1]. The goal of this program is to eliminate the technical and cost barriers associated with displacing imported petroleum. This is achieved by supporting research and development in technologies that reduce manufacturing costs, reduce emissions, and improve vehicle performance and consumer acceptance for natural gas fueled vehicles. In collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory, projects are currently being pursued in (1) liquefied natural gas production from unconventional sources, (2) onboard natural gas storage (adsorbent, compressed, and liquefied), (3) natural gas delivery systems for both onboard the vehicle and the refueling station, and (4) regional and enduse strategies. This paper will provide an overview of these projects highlighting their achievements and current status. In addition, it will discuss how the individual technologies developed are being integrated into an overall program strategic plan.

James E. Wegrzyn; Wai Lin Litzke; Michael Gurevich

1999-04-26

212

Natural gas to buoy Trinidad and Tobago petroleum sector  

SciTech Connect

Trinidad and Tobago's petroleum sector remains at a crossroads. While heavily reliant on oil and gas for domestic energy consumption and hard currency export earnings, the small Caribbean island nation faces some tough choices in reviving its hydrocarbon sector in the 1990s. Exploration and production of crude oil have stagnated in recent years, and domestic refinery utilization remains low at 36%. However, substantial natural gas reserves in Trinidad and Tobago offer the promise of a burgeoning natural gas based economy with an eye to liquefied natural gas and gas based petrochemical exports. Any solutions will involve considerable outlays by the government as well as a sizable infusion of capital by foreign companies. Therein lie some of the hard choices. The article describes the roles of oil and gas, foreign investment prospects, refining status, refining problems, gas sector foreign investment, and outlook for the rest of the 1990's.

Not Available

1993-03-01

213

Natural Gas Monthly, January 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribut...

2009-01-01

214

Natural Gas Monthly, January 2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribut...

2013-01-01

215

Natural Gas Monthly, January 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribut...

2011-01-01

216

Natural Gas Monthly, June 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribut...

2009-01-01

217

Natural Gas Monthly, February 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly contains estimates of natural gas data through November 2002 for many data series at the national level. National-level natural gas prices are available through October 2002 (electric utilities), or November (resident...

2003-01-01

218

Natural Gas Monthly, March 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribut...

2010-01-01

219

Estimating household fuel oil\\/kerosine, natural gas, and LPG prices by census region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to estimate individual fuel prices within the residential sector. The data from four US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, residential energy consumption surveys were used to estimate the models. For a number of important fuel types - fuel oil, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas - the estimation presents a problem because these

D. A. Poyer; A. P. S. Teotia

1994-01-01

220

42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus...Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or adapter provided with each apparatus shall be equipped...

2012-10-01

221

Liquid natural gas regasification combined with adsorbed natural gas filling system.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article provides an introduction to innovative method of Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) physical exergy practical utilization. The energy spent to liquefy natural gas (a thermodynamic minimum is about 0.13 kWh/l of LNG depending on pressure and chemical composition) can be partly recovered in the system making use either of the LNG low temperature (111 K) or its ability to increase the pressure in a storage vessel by heat absorption from the environment. The paper presents estimation of the LNG physical exergy and its dependence on the pressure and temperature. Then description and comparison of available natural gas storage methods (liquefaction, compression, adsorption) is given, with a special attention paid to Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) technology. Original data concerning adsorption isotherms of methane with activated carbon MaxsorbIII are presented. A concept of ANG storage technology coupled with the LNG regasification, is a promising technique of utilization of the LNG cold exergy. The energy efficient combination of ANG with LNG may help market progress of adsorption technology in natural gas storage and distribution. The ANG/LNG coupling is especially perspective in case of small capacity and distributed natural gas deposits exploitation.

Roszak, Eliza Anna; Chorowski, Maciej

2012-06-01

222

Characterization and utilization of natural gas in Alaska: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The natural gas in the Alaskan arctic represents a truly significant resource; a resource which should be exploited in the most appropriate manner. Currently, the proven reserves of natural gas in Alaska are estimated to be 19.7% (36.7 TSCF) of the total US reserves (186.7 TSCF). In addition, the undiscovered recoverable natural gas resources of Alaska are about 89 TSCF compared to 610 TSCF in the lower 48 states. Furthermore, the Alaskan unconventional gas resources are more than 500 TCF. The purpose is to review the potential of natural gas resources in Alaska and to address various important issues related to utilization of natural gas. This report provides a brief summary of various gas fields and their geologic settings. The different options for utilization of natural gas to lower 48 states via gas pipeline, conversion to liquefied natural gas and transport, conversion to fuel grade methanol and/or gasoline, natural gas for enhanced oil recovery, gas based petrochemical complex, gas utilization in the form of utilities are critically reviewed with respect to merits and demerits addressing engineering, economic, environmental, supply/demand, market and political aspects. 22 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Sharma, G.D.

1989-03-01

223

78 FR 26799 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Beaumont, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. USCG-2013-0125] Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied...submitted a Letter of Intent and a Waterway Suitability Assessment to the Coast Guard Captain...must also file or update a Waterway Suitability Assessment (WSA) that addresses...

2013-05-08

224

78 FR 26056 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Nederland, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. USCG-2013-0232] Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied...submitted a Letter of Intent and a Waterway Suitability Assessment to the Coast Guard Captain...must also file or update a Waterway Suitability Assessment (WSA) that addresses...

2013-05-03

225

Towards a two-dimensional laser induced breakdown spectroscopy mapping of liquefied petroleum gas and electrolytic oxy-hydrogen flames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional mapping of the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) signal of chemical species information in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and electrolytic oxy-hydrogen (EOH) flames was performed with in situ flame diagnostics. Base LIBS signals averaged from measurements at wavelengths of 320 nm to 350 nm describe the density information of a flame. The CN LIBS signal provides the concentration of fuel, while the H/O signal represents the fuel/air equivalence ratio. Here, we demonstrate the meaningful use of two-dimensional LIBS mappings to provide key combustion information, such as density, fuel concentration, and fuel/air equivalence ratio.

Lee, Seok Hwan; Hahn, H. Thomas; Yoh, Jack J.

2013-10-01

226

Heavy gas releases: recent dispersion research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The important liquefied fuels which form heavy gases are liquefied natural gas (LNG) (comprised chiefly of methane, but with small amounts of propane and ethane), and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), (comprised of propane and butane in various ratios). In addition to other fuels with these properties, there are a variety of industrial gases transported in pressurized vessels, such as hydrocarbons

J. H. Shinn; D. L. Ermak; R. P. Koopman

1981-01-01

227

Markets for Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter introduces the specific features of the natural gas market and shows why the industry has developed in a different\\u000a way than the oil industry. It then indicates the efforts being made in transforming the regional markets into a global market.\\u000a The economics of the gas market relevant to the developed and the developing countries is also presented.

Subhes C. Bhattacharyya

228

Future natural gas supplies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite recent optimism about the outlook for the future supply of domestic conventional natural gas, the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) finds insufficient evidence to clearly justify either an optimistic or a pessimistic view. In a technical memorandum entitled “U.S. Natural Gas Availability: Conventional Gas Supply Through the Year 2000,” released recently by Rep. Philip R. Sharp (D-Ind,), chairman of the Subcommittee on Fossil and Synthetic Fuels of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, OTA concluded that substantial technical uncertainties prevented a reliable estimation of the likely natural gas production rates for later in this century. Even ignoring the potential for significant changes in gas prices and technology, OTA estimated that conventional gas production by the lower 48 states in the year 2000 could range from 9 to 19 trillion cubic feet (TCF) (0.25 to 0.53 trillion cubic meters), compared to 1982 production of 17.5 TCF. Similarly, production in the year 1990 could range from 13 to 20 TCF.

229

China's expanding natural gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modern development of China's natural gas industry is portrayed against a background of historical information dating back to the 11th century. Modern Chinese governments have vigorously pushed the exploration and development of natural gas resources. At the same time that exploration and development of China's largest natural gas site (Szechwan Basin) has been taking place, discoveries of natural gas

1979-01-01

230

What Drives Natural Gas Prices?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, fuel switching between natural gas and residual fuel oil kept natural gas prices closely aligned with those for crude oil. More recently, however, the number of U.S. facilities able to switch between natural gas and residual fuel oil has declined, and over the past seven years, U.S. natural gas prices have been on an upward trend with

Stephen P. A. Brown; Mine K. Yucel

2008-01-01

231

Natural Gas Expanders-Compressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas expanders-compressors serve a variety of natural gas plants, ranging from primary treatment at the well (installations for comprehensive treatment of natural gas) to liquefaction for separation, storage, and transport. Natural gas expanders-compressors take on particular importance for wells with throttling cold. The growing demand for this equipment has been satisfied by imports until recently. The most popular was

V. M. Kulakov; V. V. Kulakov; A. V. Kulakov

2002-01-01

232

Energy-saving drying technology for porous media using liquefied DME gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process design and energy requirement for a practical plant are investigated for an energy-saving drying (dewatering) process\\u000a invented by the authors in 2002 for high-moisture porous materials. The basic concept of the process involves the extraction\\u000a of water from a high-moisture porous material by bringing it in physical contact with liquefied dimethyl ether (DME) at room\\u000a temperature. Water content of

Hideki Kanda; Hisao Makino; Minoru Miyahara

2008-01-01

233

Feed gas drier precooling in mixed refrigerant natural gas liquefaction processes  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for the liquefaction of a natural gas feedstream using two closed cycle, multicomponent refrigerants wherein a high level refrigerant cools a low level refrigerant and the low level refrigerant cools and liquefies the natural gas feedstream which includes: cooling and liquefying a natural gas stream by heat exchange with a low level multicomponent refrigerant in a first closed refrigeration cycle, which refrigerant is rewarmed during the heat exchange, compressing the rewarmed low level refrigerant to an elevated pressure and aftercooling it against an external cooling fluid, further cooling the low level refrigerant by multiple stage heat exchange against a high level multicomponent refrigerant in a second closed refrigeration cycle, which high level refrigerant is rewarmed during the heat exchange, compressing the rewarmed high level refrigerant to an elevated pressure and aftercooling it against an external cooling fluid to partially liquefy the refrigerant, phase separating the high level refrigerant into a vapor phase refrigerant stream and a liquid phase refrigerant stream.

Liu, Y.N.; Newton, C.L.

1988-07-05

234

Thermodynamic Cycle Selection for Distributed Natural Gas Liquefaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural gas liquefaction plants with cooling capacities of approximately 100 kW are facilitating the development of a distributed LNG infrastructure. To be economically viable, liquefiers of this scale must be able to operate on a variety of feed gases while offering relatively low capital costs, short delivery time, and good performance. This paper opens with a discussion of a natural gas liquefier design focusing on the refrigeration system. Linde, cascade, mixed refrigerant, and modified-Brayton cycle refrigeration systems are then discussed in context of the overall plant design. Next, a detailed comparison of the modified-Brayton and mixed refrigerant cycles is made including cycle selection's impact on main system components like the recuperative heat exchanger and compressors. In most cases, a reverse-Brayton or a mixed refrigerant cycle refrigerator is the best-suited available technology for local liquefaction. The mixed refrigerant cycle liquefier offers the potential of better real performance at lower capital costs but requires more know-how in the areas of two-phase flow and refrigerant composition management, heat exchanger design, and process control.

Barclay, M. A.; Gongaware, D. F.; Dalton, K.; Skrzypkowski, M. P.

2004-06-01

235

Investigation of poly(o-anisidine)-SnO2 nanocomposites for fabrication of low temperature operative liquefied petroleum gas sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly(o-anisidine)-tin oxide (POA-SnO2) nanocomposites has been investigated for the fabrication of low temperature operative (100 °C) liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensor. The POA-SnO2 nanocomposites have been synthesized through an in situ chemical polymerization of o-anisidine in presence of SnO2 nanoparticles. The POA-SnO2 nanocomposite shows better LPG sensing properties than that of pure POA. The nanocomposite with 50 wt. % SnO2 exhibits an excellent LPG sensing characteristics at the operating temperature of 100 °C such as higher relative gas response (~23.47% to 3.4% of LPG), extremely rapid response (~6 s), fast recovery (~33 s), good reproducibility, and remarkable selectivity. The application of POA-SnO2 nanocomposites for fabrication of the LPG sensor was demonstrated.

Patil, Dewyani; Kolhe, Kishor; Potdar, Hari S.; Patil, Pradip

2011-12-01

236

Natural gas in North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost all natural gas produced in North Dakota is casinghead gas from oil pools in the Madison group along the Nesson anticline and from pools in Burke County. Relatively minor quantities of dry gas are produced from the gas fields of North Dakota part of the Cedar Creek anticline. Only the natural gas from these areas is used commercially; the

S. B. Anderson; W. P. Eastwood

1968-01-01

237

Natural gas monthly, April 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

NONE

1999-05-06

238

A comparative study of the elemental composition of the exhaust emissions of cars powered by liquefied petroleum gas and unleaded petrol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elements emitted from the exhausts of new Ford Falcon Forte cars powered by unleaded petrol (ULP) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were measured on a chassis dynamometer. The measurements were carried out in February, June and August 2001, and at two steady state driving conditions (60 and 80kmh?1). Thirty seven elements were quantified in the exhaust samples by inductively coupled

McKenzie C. H. Lim; Godwin A. Ayoko; Lidia Morawska; Zoran D. Ristovski; E. Rohan Jayaratne; Serge Kokot

2006-01-01

239

68 FR 19981 - Transalta Chihuahua S.A. DE C.V., Meadwestvaco Corporation, Progas U.S.A. Inc., Boundary Gas, Inc...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...El Paso Production Oil & Gas Company, Usgen...Import and Export Natural Gas, Including Liquefied...03-10-NG. natural gas from and to Canada...export up Production Oil to a combined total & Gas Company, of natural gas from...

2003-04-23

240

Natural Gas Monthly, November 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and ...

2002-01-01

241

Natural gas monthly, December 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report presents information of interest to organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data are presented on natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

NONE

1995-12-01

242

Natural gas monthly, September 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1993-09-27

243

Natural gas monthly, August 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1993-08-25

244

Natural gas monthly, October 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1996-10-01

245

Natural gas monthly, July 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1997-07-01

246

Natural gas monthly, July 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1993-07-27

247

Natural gas monthly, September 1995  

SciTech Connect

The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1995-09-27

248

Natural gas monthly, June 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1993-06-22

249

Natural gas monthly, August 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1994-08-24

250

Natural gas monthly, June 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

NONE

1999-06-01

251

Natural gas monthly, July 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1994-07-20

252

Natural gas monthly, November 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1993-11-29

253

Natural gas monthly, June 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1998-06-01

254

Natural Gas Monthly, March 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1996-03-25

255

Natural gas monthly, May 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1999-05-01

256

Natural gas monthly, June 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1997-06-01

257

Natural gas monthly, October 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1998-10-01

258

Natural gas monthly, July 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

NONE

1998-07-01

259

Natural gas monthly, November 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1995-12-05

260

Natural gas monthly: September 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1996-09-01

261

Natural gas regulation and its effect on natural gas supply  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas is an environmentally benign, domestically abundand, and competitively priced fossil fuel. Despite these advantages, natural gas consumption in the industrial and electric-generation sectors has fallen significantly over the past two decades. The primary obstruction has been a regulatory morass that has created an atmosphere not condusive to the investment decisions necessary to expand the market for producers, transporters, and consumers of natural gas. This article discusses the following related topics: the public utility approach to implementation of regulation of natural gas pipelines; the creation of FERC; the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978; and order No. 436 by FERC in 1985.

Tyson, R. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-12-31

262

Possible health effects of liquefied petroleum gas on workers at filling and distribution stations of Gaza governorates.  

PubMed

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is widely used in the Gaza Strip for domestic purposes, in agriculture and industry and, illegally, in cars. This study aimed to identify possible health effects on workers exposed to LPG in Gaza governorates. Data were collected by a questionnaire interview, and haematological and biochemical analyses of venous blood samples were made from 30 workers at filling and distribution stations and 30 apparently healthy controls. Statistically significant differences were found in all self-reported health-related complaints among LPG workers versus controls. LPG workers had significantly higher values of red blood cell counts, haemoglobin, haematocrit mean corpuscular haemoglobin and platelet counts. They also had significantly higher values of kidney function tests (urea, creatinine and uric acid) and liver function enzyme activities (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). LPG workers at Gaza Strip petroleum stations are at higher risk for health-related symptoms and clinical abnormalities. PMID:23879082

Sirdah, M M; Al Laham, N A; El Madhoun, R A

2013-03-01

263

Natural gas pipeline technology overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern

S. M. Folga

2007-01-01

264

The Venezuelan natural gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venezuela's consumption energy of comes from three primary sources: hydroelectricity, liquid hydrocarbons and natural gas. In 1986, the energy consumption in the internal market was 95.5 thousand cubic meters per day of oil equivalent, of which 32% was natural gas, 46% liquid hydrocarbons and 22% hydroelectricity. The Venezuelan energy policy established natural gas usage after hydroelectricity, as a substitute of

P. V. Silva; N. Hernandez

1988-01-01

265

Economics of natural gas upgrading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas could be an important alternative energy source in meeting some of the market demand presently met by liquid products from crude oil. This study was initiated to analyze three energy markets to determine if greater use could be made of natural gas or natural gas derived products and if those products could be provided on an economically competitive

J. H. Hackworth; R. W. Koch

1995-01-01

266

Natural gas monthly, November 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1998-11-01

267

Natural gas monthly, January 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

NONE

1999-02-01

268

Natural gas monthly, February 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

NONE

1999-02-01

269

World Natural Gas, 1978  

SciTech Connect

World marketed production of natural gas in 1978 totaled 51.749 trillion CF (up from 50.1 TCF in 1977); this 3.3% increase, however, was slightly lower than 1977's 3.7% rise. US production, which fell 0.3% dropped to 38.6% of the world total, while the USSR share (13.137 TCF) accounted for 25.4% (for a growth rate of 7.5%). Of the world gross production of 62.032 TCF, 69.7% came from gas wells; the remainder was associated with oil. Thirty-one percent of the 10.282 TCF difference between gross and marketed gas production was used for oil reservoir repressuring, while the balance (7.094 TCF) was vented and flared. Internationally traded gas movements rose to 11.6% of production. The Netherlands, the USSR, and Canada accounted for 30.6%, 20.1% and 14.7%, respectively, of total 1978 exports. At 0.956 TCF, LNG shipments accounted for 15.9% of world trade, a 35.2% higher share than in 1977; most of this growth was due to increased Indonesia-to-Japan volumes.

Not Available

1980-07-01

270

Efficiency Improvement of Small Gas Bearing Turbines - Impact on Standard Helium Liquefier Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radial turbine design is dictated by criteria like specific speed and/or velocity ratios. For small capacity plants the size of the turbine wheel needs to be reduced and thus the rotational speed increased in order to reach a high efficiency. The design of a small turbine, taking mechanical and manufacturing criteria into account, will be presented as well as the impact of reducing size (lower Reynolds number, larger wheel relative clearance and blockage, etc.) An overview of the technical and operational improvements is presented as well as the first test results. The impact of the new turbine design on the capacity of standard liquefiers is calculated and analyzed. Additional tests on a standard plant with a liquefaction capacity of 65 l/h are being performed to confirm the calculated results.

Cretegny, D.; Schönfeld, H.; Decker, L.; Löhlein, K.

2004-06-01

271

Natural gas monthly, May 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

NONE

1997-05-01

272

Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993  

SciTech Connect

The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

Not Available

1993-11-10

273

Natural gas monthly, December 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1997-12-01

274

Natural gas monthly, March 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas analysis and geographic information systems.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1997-03-01

275

Natural gas monthly: April 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article focuses on preliminary highlights from the 1995 natural gas industry. 7 figs., 25 tabs.

NONE

1996-04-01

276

Natural gas monthly, October 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article in this issue is a special report, ``Comparison of Natural Gas Storage Estimates from the EIA and AGA.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

NONE

1997-10-01

277

Natural gas monthly, June 1996  

SciTech Connect

The natural gas monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article for this month is Natural Gas Industry Restructuring and EIA Data Collection.

NONE

1996-06-24

278

Natural gas monthly, April 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are present3ed each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas pipeline and system expansions.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1997-04-01

279

Natural gas monthly, August 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article is on US Natural Gas Imports and Exports 1994.

NONE

1995-08-24

280

Natural gas monthly, June 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month feature is on the value of underground storage in today`s natural gas industry.

NONE

1995-06-21

281

Natural gas monthly, November 1996  

SciTech Connect

The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``US natural gas imports and exports-1995``. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1996-11-01

282

Natural gas monthly, April 1998  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Estimates extend through April 1998 for many data series. The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, feature articles are presented designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This issue contains the special report, ``Natural Gas 1997: A Preliminary Summary.`` This report provides information on natural gas supply and disposition for the year 1997, based on monthly data through December from EIA surveys. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

NONE

1998-04-01

283

Natural gas monthly, September 1998  

SciTech Connect

The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1998-09-01

284

Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proven reserves of natural gas in Prudhoe Bay remain the single largest block of reserves under US control. The sponsors of the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System, including The Williams Companies, remain convinced that Alaskan gas will be increasingly important to meet future needs here in the lower 48 states. Both Canada and the US will increasingly have to

1984-01-01

285

Underground storage of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storing natural gas underground was first introduced in 1915 in Welland County, Ontario, Canada. In the US currently about 8 trillion standard cubic feet of gas is in storage in over 400 pools distributed in 26 states. The largest additional supply of natural gas for peak demands comes from these underground storage reservoirs. Details of many new operational procedures and

Tek

1987-01-01

286

Natural gas conversion process  

SciTech Connect

The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

Not Available

1992-01-01

287

Benthos Community Monitoring of A Dumping Area During Liquid Natural Gas Plant Construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the technical-economic substantiation (TES) of the Project “Sakhalin-II — Phase 2”, 2 marine exploration platforms\\u000a are being constructed, one of them in the Lunskoye gas field. They will be connected by pipelines to the oil terminal in Aniva\\u000a Bay (south coast of Sakhalin island) for year round exploration. Another structure, a liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant, was\\u000a also

A. D. Samatov; V. S. Labay

288

Natural gas monthly, May 1995  

SciTech Connect

The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1995-05-24

289

Natural gas monthly, February 1996  

SciTech Connect

The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1996-03-01

290

Natural gas monthly, March 1998  

SciTech Connect

The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01

291

Natural gas monthly, October 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary of the terms used in this report is provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. 6 figs., 30 tabs.

NONE

1995-10-23

292

Project plan for construction of the liquefied gaseous fuels spill test facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the LGF Spill Test Facility Project is to design and construct a safe and reliable 500-mÂł-capacity facility for storing and spill-testing liquefied gaseous fuels (LGFs) at Frenchman Flat, in the Nevada Test Site. The facility will be used to experimentally verify computer models for predicting LGF spill effects. Initially, only liquefied natural gas (LNG) will be tested,

W. C. ONeal; D. L. Hipple; W. W. Wakeman; G. M. Bianchini; R. E. Blocker; M. Ochoa

1981-01-01

293

Natural gas monthly, January 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured article for this month is on US coalbed methane production.

Not Available

1994-02-01

294

The Venezuelan natural gas industry  

SciTech Connect

Venezuela's consumption energy of comes from three primary sources: hydroelectricity, liquid hydrocarbons and natural gas. In 1986, the energy consumption in the internal market was 95.5 thousand cubic meters per day of oil equivalent, of which 32% was natural gas, 46% liquid hydrocarbons and 22% hydroelectricity. The Venezuelan energy policy established natural gas usage after hydroelectricity, as a substitute of liquid hydrocarbons, in order to increase exports of these. This policy permits a solid development of the natural gas industry, which is covered in this paper.

Silva, P.V.; Hernandez, N.

1988-01-01

295

Issues facing the future use of Alaskan NorthSlope natural gas  

SciTech Connect

The North Slope of Alaska contains over 26 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. In 1977, the President and the Congress approved construction of a 4800-mile gas pipeline to bring this gas to US consumers by 1983. However, completion of the project is not now expected until late 1989 at the earliest. This report examines the status and outlook for the Alaskan gas pipeline (the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System). It also evaluates the pros and cons of (1) alternative systems to deliver this gas to market, including a gas pipeline with Alaska for export of liquefied natural gas; (2) processing the gas in Alaska by converting it to methanol and petrochemicals for export; and (3) using the gas within Alaska.

Bowsher, C.A.

1983-05-12

296

Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report  

SciTech Connect

The Assistant Secretary for Environment has responsibility for identifying, characterizing, and ameliorating the environmental, health, and safety issues and public concerns associated with commercial operation of specific energy systems. The need for developing a safety and environmental control assessment for liquefied gaseous fuels was identified by the Environmental and Safety Engineering Division as a result of discussions with various governmental, industry, and academic persons having expertise with respect to the particular materials involved: liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and anhydrous ammonia. This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in Fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 1 (Executive Summary) describes the background, purpose and organization of the LGF Program and contains summaries of the 25 reports presented in Volumes 2 and 3. Annotated bibliographies on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety and Environmental Control Research and on Fire Safety and Hazards of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) are included in Volume 1.

Not Available

1980-10-01

297

Natural gas monthly, February 1998  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through February 1998 for many data series, and through November 1997 for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the natural gas data contained in this issue are: Preliminary estimates for January and February 1998 show that dry natural gas production, net imports, and consumption are all within 1 percent of their levels in 1997. Warmer-than-normal weather in recent months has resulted in lower consumption of natural gas by the residential sector and lower net withdrawals of gas from under round storage facilities compared with a year ago. This has resulted in an estimate of the amount of working gas in storage at the end of February 1998 that is 18 percent higher than in February 1997. The national average natural gas wellhead price is estimated to be $3.05 per thousand cubic feet in November 1997, 7 percent higher than in October. The cumulative average wellhead price for January through November 1997 is estimated to be $2.42 per thousand cubic feet, 17 percent above that of the same period in 1996. This price increase is far less than 36-percent rise that occurred between 1995 and 1996. 6 figs., 26 tabs.

NONE

1998-02-01

298

Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

299

Natural Gas Industry and Markets  

EIA Publications

This special report provides an overview of the supply and disposition of natural gas in 2004 and is intended as a supplement to the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Natural Gas Annual 2004 (NGA). Unless otherwise stated, all data and figures in this report are based on summary statistics published in the NGA 2004.

Information Center

2006-03-03

300

Natural gas monthly, July 1990  

SciTech Connect

This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary is included. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

Not Available

1990-10-03

301

Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

302

Natural gas monthly, December 1996  

SciTech Connect

This document highlights activities, events, and analysis of interest to the public and private sector associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

NONE

1996-12-01

303

Natural gas today and tomorrow  

SciTech Connect

In this article the retiring chairman of the American Gas Association reflects upon the growth in the gas industry's resource base and the success of aggressive marketing programs. Improvements in resource recovery technology and moderating prices for consumers have placed natural gas in a favorable competitive position with other fuels. Such progress, he cautions, must not be jeopardized by new regulatory constraints or instability.

Reif, L.R.

1985-10-17

304

30 CFR 75.1106-5 - Maintenance and tests of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; accessories and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Defective cylinders, cylinder accessories, torches, and other welding, cutting, and burning equipment shall be labeled âdefective...service. (c) Each qualified person assigned to perform welding, cutting, or burning with liquefied and...

2013-07-01

305

Natural gas leak mapper  

DOEpatents

A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

Reichardt, Thomas A. (Livermore, CA); Luong, Amy Khai (Dublin, CA); Kulp, Thomas J. (Livermore, CA); Devdas, Sanjay (Albany, CA)

2008-05-20

306

Natural gas monthly - January 1996  

SciTech Connect

This highlight discusses changes in natural gas supply, demand, and prices for the first three quarters of 1995 (January thru September) compared to the same periods in 1993 and 1994. Production for the first three quarters of 1995 lagged year-earlier levels while natural gas consumption has continued a steady upward movement. Total U.S. natural gas production through the first three quarters at 14.1 trillion cubic feet, was less than 1 percent below the 1994 period, but remained well ahead of the comparable 1993 period. The three leading producing States (Texas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma) contributed nearly 70 percent of the total. Natural gas consumption totaled 16.0 trillion cubic feet for the first three quarters, 4 percent above the same period in 1994. Net imports of natural gas reached 2.0 trillion cubic feet by the end of the third quarter 1995 and accounted for nearly 13 percent of total consumption during this period.

NONE

1996-01-01

307

Deaths involving natural gas inhalation.  

PubMed

Death due to gas inhalation is accidental or suicidal. Natural gas can be a cause of death as a result of oxygen replacement in the atmosphere. Three male victims who were killed from gas inhalation are described in this study. One 19-year-old man attempted suicide using a combination of plastic bag suffocation and natural gas tube in his mouth. The other victim (24 years old man) attempted suicide by natural gas inhalation, and the cause of death of the third victim was inhalation of the vapor from a furnace that contained crude oil or gasoline. Methanol was detected in blood and liver samples by headspace gas chromatography (HSGC) and headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSGCMS). Carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) and other drugs and poisons were not detected in blood and liver samples. PMID:20430818

Maryam, Akhgari; Elham, Bazmi

2010-04-29

308

Russian Natural Gas: Regional Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moreover, Russian natural gas is imported in large quantities by European countries and represents very high percentages of the total gas consumption of a number of them. (See Table 1 and Table 2). For example, Russia exported 1.3 tcf of natural gas to Germany, 0.9 tcf to Italy and to Ukraine, 0.7 tcf to Belarus, 0.5 tcf to Turkey, and

Bernard A. Gelb

309

Farm dependence on natural gas  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken to explore the impacts of natural gas price increases and supply contraints on agricultural production in order to indicate the types of adjustments farmers would need to make, and to provide state and federal policymakers with an awareness of the crop, state, and regional dependence on natural gas for farm production. A qualitative analysis involving collection of information, summarization and analysis of current operational use of natural gas on farms, and calculation of farm dependence on natural gas, by crop, state, and region was undertaken. An econometric anlaysis involving estimation of consumption functions for natural gas used for irrigation and crop drying was also undertaken. The econometric analysis conducted in this study was less successful than the qualitative analysis, most probably a result of data constraints leading to a very small sample size. The qualitative analysis showed that farmers in the Southern Plains region are most dependent on natural gas for irrigation, followed by farmers in the Northern Plains. Production of rice, cotton and grain sorghum is most dependent on natural gas for irrigation. Dependence on natural gas for crop drying is most marked in the Delta States and Northern Plains regions. Rice, peanuts and grain sorghum depend most heavily among crops on natural gas for drying. The variables which seem to have the greatest impact on the consumption of natural gas for irrigation based on the econometric estimation include the quality of land (represented by its market value), the price of fertilizer, and the price of diesel fuel (a substitute). The estimated crop drying equations did not provide useful results.

Devlin, P.J.

1981-01-01

310

40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines...Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum...

2013-07-01

311

40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines...Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum...

2013-07-01

312

Natural Gas Variability In California: Environmental Impacts And Device Performance Combustion Modeling of Pollutant Emissions From a Residential Cooking Range  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a larger study of liquefied natural gas impacts on device performance and pollutant emissions for existing equipment in California, this report describes a cmoputer modeling study of a partially premixed flame issueing from a single cooktop burner port. The model consisted of a reactive computational fluid dynamics three-dimensional spatial grid and a 71-species chemical mechanism with propane

S. R. Tonse; B. C. Singer

2011-01-01

313

NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of liquefied natural gas on pollutant emissions was evaluated experimentally with used and new appliances in the laboratory and with appliances installed in residences, targeting information gaps from previous studies. Burner selection targeted available technologies that are projected to comprise the majority of installed appliances over the next decade. Experiments were conducted on 13 cooktop sets, 12 ovens,

Brett C. Singer; Michael G. Apte; Douglas R. Black; Toshifumi Hotchi; Donald Lucas; Melissa M. Lunden; Anna G. Mirer; Michael Spears; Douglas P. Sullivan

2009-01-01

314

Natural gas monthly, August 1996  

SciTech Connect

This analysis presents the most recent data on natural gas prices, supply, and consumption from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The presentation of the latest monthly data is followed by an update on natural gas markets. The markets section examines the behavior of daily spot and futures prices based on information from trade press, as well as regional, weekly data on natural gas storage from the American Gas Association (AGA). This {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} closes with a special section comparing and contrasting EIA and AGA storage data on a monthly and regional basis. The regions used are those defined by the AGA for their weekly data collection effort: the Producing Region, the Consuming Region East, and the Consuming Region West. While data on working gas levels have tracked fairly closely between the two data sources, differences have developed recently. The largest difference is in estimates of working gas levels in the East consuming region during the heating season.

NONE

1996-08-01

315

North American Natural Gas Markets  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

Not Available

1989-02-01

316

North American Natural Gas Markets  

SciTech Connect

This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

Not Available

1988-12-01

317

Natural Gas Issues and Trends  

EIA Publications

Final issue of this report. Provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and financial aspects of the industry.

Information Center

1999-04-01

318

Petroleum and Natural Gas Outlook  

EIA Publications

A presentation to the National Association of State Energy Officials 2005 Energy Outlook Conference, in Washington, DC, on February 17, 2005, giving EIA's outlook for petroleum and natural gas supply, demand, and prices.

Information Center

2005-02-18

319

Russian Natural Gas: Regional Dependence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Russia is the dominant natural gas supplier to Europe and neighboring former Soviet states, as well as a major provider of oil. Some countries are entirely or largely dependent upon Russian energy supplies, particularly other Soviet successor states. As s...

B. A. Gelb

2007-01-01

320

On-road remote sensing of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicle emissions measurement and emission factors estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the real-world on-road liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicle/taxi emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and nitric oxide (NO) were investigated. A regression analysis approach based on the measured LPG vehicle emission data was also used to estimate the on-road LPG vehicle emission factors of CO, HC and NO with respect to the effects of instantaneous vehicle speed and acceleration/deceleration profiles for local urban driving patterns. The results show that the LPG vehicle model years and driving patterns have a strong correlation to their emission factors. A unique correlation of LPG vehicle emission factors (i.e., g km -1 and g l -1) on different model years for urban driving patterns has been established. Finally, a comparison was made between the average LPG, and petrol [Chan, T.L., Ning, Z., Leung, C.W., Cheung, C.S., Hung, W.T., Dong, G., 2004. On-road remote sensing of petrol vehicle emissions measurement and emission factors estimation in Hong Kong. Atmospheric Environment 38, 2055-2066 and 3541] and diesel [Chan, T.L., Ning, Z., 2005. On-road remote sensing of diesel vehicle emissions measurement and emission factors estimation in Hong Kong. Atmospheric Environment 39, 6843-6856] vehicle emission factors. It has shown that the introduction of the replacement of diesel taxis to LPG taxis has alleviated effectively the urban street air pollution. However, it has demonstrated that proper maintenance on the aged LPG taxis should also be taken into consideration.

Ning, Z.; Chan, T. L.

321

Effect of parasitic refrigeration on the efficiency of magnetic liquefiers  

SciTech Connect

Our studies have shown that magnetic refrigerators have the potential to liquefy cryogens very efficiently. High efficiency is especially important for liquid hydrogen and natural gas applications where the liquefaction costs are a significant fraction of the total liquid cost. One of the characteristics of magnetic refrigerators is the requirement for a high-field superconducting magnet. Providing a 4.2-K bath for this magnet will require a small amount of parasitic refrigeration at 4.2 K even though the rest of the liquefier may be at 110 K (liquid natural gas) or higher. For several different refrigeration power levels at 4.2 K, we have calculated the efficiency of the magnetic liquefier as a function of power, temperature and the 4.2-K refrigerator efficiency. The results show that if the ratio of the thermal load at 4.2 K to the main refrigerator power is 0.001 or less, the effect on the efficiency of the liquefier is negligible at all temperatures below room temperature provided the 4.2-K refrigerator efficiency is high.

Barclay, J.A.; Stewart, W.F.

1982-01-01

322

Apparatus for the liquefaction of natural gas and methods relating to same  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating work output. A compressor is driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream. Additional features and techniques may be integrated with the liquefaction process including a water clean-up cycle and a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) clean-up cycle.

Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID); Raterman, Kevin T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Palmer, Gary L. (Shelley, ID); Klingler, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Vranicar, John J. (Concord, CA)

2007-05-22

323

Apparatus For The Liquefaaction Of Natural Gas And Methods Relating To Same  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating work output. A compressor is driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream. Additional features and techniques may be integrated with the liquefaction process including a water clean-up cycle and a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) clean-up cycle.

Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID); Raterman, Kevin T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Palmer, Gary L. (Shelley, ID); Klingler, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Vranicar, John J. (Concord, CA)

2003-06-24

324

Natural Gas Imports and Exports  

EIA Publications

In the face of unprecedented levels of domestic natural gas production, net imports of natural gas into the United States fell 23 percent in 2012. A combination of both higher exports and lower imports led to a decline in net imports. In 2012, total imports decreased by 10 percent to 3,135 Bcf, while total exports increased by 8 percent to 1,619 Bcf.

2013-07-23

325

Carbon dioxide power cycles using liquid natural gas as heat sink  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is recognized as a source of usable cryogenic exergy for power cycles. The performance of conventional cycles are calculated. A binary steam–Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) at 550°C has an efficiency of about 52%, somewhat higher than that of a nitrogen Brayton cycle (50.7% at 700°C). Carbon dioxide is recognized as an almost ideal medium for implementing

Gianfranco Angelino; Costante M. Invernizzi

2009-01-01

326

Bilateral trade in natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a March 1984 address to the Canadian-American Committee, Schlesinger notes that the American natural gas producer has been the main beneficiary of Canadian export policy, which has impeded Canadian exports. He reviews the history of bilateral gas exchanges and the 1954 Phillips decision, which set up conditions that were the inverse of a normal competitive market that no

1985-01-01

327

Costs to transport natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative Economics are discussed for transporting natural gas by four ways: converting to LNG and using LNG tankers, as a gas using on-land and subsea pipelines, converting to methanol and using conventional tankers, and compressing and using tankers with pressurized containers. Distances and routes are important factors when determining cost. Specific examples are given for transportation between : Arabian Gulf

I. Leibson; S. T. Davenport; M. H. Muenzier

1987-01-01

328

Mutagenic/carcinogenic agents in indoor pollutants; the dinitropyrenes generated by kerosene heaters and fuel gas and liquefied petroleum gas burners.  

PubMed

Incomplete combustion of kerosene heater, and fuel gas and liquefied petroleum gas-burner emissions produces indoor pollutants that may be carcinogenic. The incomplete-combustion products from each type of appliance were therefore collected by adsorption on about 3 g of XAD-2 resin, and were extracted with benzene-methanol as a solvent for determination and identification of mutagens in the Salmonella-microsome test system. Benzene-methanol extracts of the particulates generated by a heater and two burners showed extreme mutagenicity for strains TA97 and TA98 without S9 mix. Based on the results of analysis, a combination of high performance liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.) and gas chromatography (GC), about 40-80% of the direct-acting mutagenicity in each crude extract showed the same h.p.l.c. and GC retention times as dinitropyrenes (1,3-, 1,6- and 1,8-isomers), and 1-nitropyrene. Moreover, other nitroarenes, 2-nitrofluorene, 1,5- and 1,8-dinitronaphthalene, and 4,4'-dinitrobiphenyl, were detectable in almost all samples, but their contribution to the mutagenicity of each extract was very low. Kerosene heaters were found to generate small amounts (0.2 ng/h) of dinitropyrenes, which are potential mutagens/carcinogens, only after 1 h of operation. PMID:3892284

Tokiwa, H; Nakagawa, R; Horikawa, K

1985-07-01

329

Natural gas monthly, November 1997  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through November for many data series, and through August for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the most recent data estimates are: (1) Preliminary estimates of dry natural gas production and total consumption available through November 1997 indicate that both series are on track to end the year at levels close to those of 1996. Cumulative dry production is one-half percent higher than in 1996 and consumption is one-half percent lower. (2) Natural gas production is estimated to be 52.6 billion cubic feet per day in November 1997, the highest rate since March 1997. (3) After falling 8 percent in July 1997, the national average wellhead price rose 10 percent in August 1997, reaching an estimated $2.21 per thousand cubic feet. (4) Milder weather in November 1997 compared to November 1996 has resulted in significantly lower levels of residential consumption of natural gas and net storage withdrawls than a year ago. The November 1997 estimates of residential consumption and net withdrawls are 9 and 20 percent lower, respectively, than in November 1996.

NONE

1997-11-01

330

Natural gas monthly, July 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Explanatory Notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided in the Data Sources section. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. All natural gas volumes are reported at a pressure base of 14.73 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) and at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Cubic feet are converted to cubic meters by applying a factor of 0.02831685.

NONE

1995-07-21

331

High-Throughput Investigation of Catalysts for JP-8 Fuel Cracking to Liquefied Petroleum Gas.  

PubMed

Portable power technologies for military applications necessitate the production of fuels similar to LPG from existing feedstocks. Catalytic cracking of military jet fuel to form a mixture of C2-C4 hydrocarbons was investigated using high-throughput experimentation. Cracking experiments were performed in a gas-phase, 16-sample high-throughput reactor. Zeolite ZSM-5 catalysts with low Si/Al ratios (?25) demonstrated the highest production of C2-C4 hydrocarbons at moderate reaction temperatures (623-823 K). ZSM-5 catalysts were optimized for JP-8 cracking activity to LPG through varying reaction temperature and framework Si/Al ratio. The reducing atmosphere required during catalytic cracking resulted in coking of the catalyst and a commensurate decrease in conversion rate. Rare earth metal promoters for ZSM-5 catalysts were screened to reduce coking deactivation rates, while noble metal promoters reduced onset temperatures for coke burnoff regeneration. PMID:23879196

Bedenbaugh, John E; Kim, Sungtak; Sasmaz, Erdem; Lauterbach, Jochen

2013-08-06

332

Natural gas production from Arctic gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural gas hydrates of the Messoyakha field in the West Siberian basin of Russia and those of the Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk River area on the North Slope of Alaska occur within a similar series of interbedded Cretaceous and Tertiary sandstone and siltstone reservoirs. Geochemical analyses of gaseous well-cuttings and production gases suggest that these two hydrate accumulations contain a mixture

1993-01-01

333

Natural gas monthly, February 1993  

SciTech Connect

This issue contains monthly data for the entire year 1992 and allows comparing this year with the previous years. Marketed production of natural gas remained at approximately the same level as in 1991, 18.6 trillion cubic feet. Marketed production has changed very little in the past 3 years, with only a 3-percent difference since 1989. Consumption of natural gas has also increased each year for the past 7 years. In 1992, the level of consumption increased by approximately 4 percent from the previous years. Imports have steadily increased over the past 7 years. Imports of natural gas in 1992 are approximately 16 percent above the 1991 level. The Iroquois Gas Transmission Line, extending from the Canadian border in New York to Long Island, accounts for a large part of this increase. This pipeline went into service in December 1991.

Not Available

1993-02-26

334

Total fuel-cycle analysis of heavy-duty vehicles using biofuels and natural gas-based alternative fuels.  

PubMed

Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) present a growing energy and environmental concern worldwide. These vehicles rely almost entirely on diesel fuel for propulsion and create problems associated with local pollution, climate change, and energy security. Given these problems and the expected global expansion of HDVs in transportation sectors, industry and governments are pursuing biofuels and natural gas as potential alternative fuels for HDVs. Using recent lifecycle datasets, this paper evaluates the energy and emissions impacts of these fuels in the HDV sector by conducting a total fuel-cycle (TFC) analysis for Class 8 HDVs for six fuel pathways: (1) petroleum to ultra low sulfur diesel; (2) petroleum and soyoil to biodiesel (methyl soy ester); (3) petroleum, ethanol, and oxygenate to e-diesel; (4) petroleum and natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch diesel; (5) natural gas to compressed natural gas; and (6) natural gas to liquefied natural gas. TFC emissions are evaluated for three greenhouse gases (GHGs) (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) and five other pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and sulfur oxides), along with estimates of total energy and petroleum consumption associated with each of the six fuel pathways. Results show definite advantages with biodiesel and compressed natural gas for most pollutants, negligible benefits for e-diesel, and increased GHG emissions for liquefied natural gas and Fischer-Tropsch diesel (from natural gas). PMID:21416755

Meyer, Patrick E; Green, Erin H; Corbett, James J; Mas, Carl; Winebrake, James J

2011-03-01

335

Asian natural gas pipeline proposed for easing energy, feedstock strains  

SciTech Connect

Nearly every country on the program at the recent Asian Natural Gas 5 Conference in Singapore reported on attempts to maximize the use of natural gas as a fuel and a feedstock. But no one made a more startling presentation than Masaru Hirata, chairman of the National Pipeline Research Society of Japan. His proposal: construct an international trunk pipeline network linking natural gas fields in Central Asia, Southeast Asia, Siberia, and North America with the main markets of Asia, primarily Japan and China. Total length -- 25,500 miles. He cites International Energy Agency data projecting a 70% increase in energy demand in the Pacific region between 1989 and 2000. Natural gas will be expected to satisfy anticipated energy needs into the next century. An important element in Hirata's thinking is the promotion of international cooperation among the beneficiaries of the network. In the Asia-Pacific region, natural gas is more plentiful than oil. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants have been built in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Australia. All of them sell LNG to Japan (the world's largest importer of LNG), South Korea, and Taiwan. Additional vast reserves are known to exist in Siberia, near Sakhalin Island, and in the western regions of China. Hirata's network is aimed at bringing the gas from these distant deposits to consumers in the coastal regions of Asia. There are six major parts to the proposed network: Turkmenistan-West China-Japan; Yakutsk-China-Korea-Japan; Alaska-Sakhalin Island-Japan; ASEAN-South China; Within ASEAN; and Australia-ASEAN. The estimated cost of the project is about $66 billion in current dollars.

Haggin, J. (C and EN, Chicago, IL (United States))

1994-06-06

336

Natural gas monthly, March 1999  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly contains estimates for March 1999 for many natural gas data series at the national level. Estimates of national natural gas prices are available through December 1998 for most series. Highlights of the data contained in this issue are listed below. Preliminary data indicate that the national average wellhead price for 1998 declined to 16% from the previous year ($1.96 compared to $2.32 per thousand cubic feet). At the end of March, the end of the 1998--1999 heating season, the level of working gas in underground natural gas storage facilities is estimated to be 1,354 billion cubic feet, 169 billion cubic feet higher than at the end of March 1998. Gas consumption during the first 3 months of 1999 is estimated to have been 179 billion cubic feet higher than in the same period in 1998. Most of this increase (133 billion cubic feet) occurred in the residential sector due to the cooler temperatures in January and February compared to the same months last year. According to the National Weather Service, heating degree days in January 1999 were 15% greater than the previous year while February recorded a 5% increase.

NONE

1999-03-01

337

Natural gas monthly, February 1997  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents estimates of natural gas supply and consumption through February 1997. Estimates of natural gas prices are through November 1996 except electric utility prices that are through October 1996. Cumulatively for January through February 1997, the daily average rates for several data series remain close to those of 1996. (Comparing daily rates accounts for the fact that February 1996 had 29 days.) Daily total consumption for January through February is estimated to be 83 billion cubic feet per day, 1 percent higher than during the same period in 1996. Similarly, the estimate of average daily production of 53 billion cubic feet is 1.5 percent higher than in 1996, while daily net imports during the first 2 months of 1997 are virtually unchanged from 1996.

NONE

1997-02-01

338

Guide to new natural gas utilization technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural gas industry in the United States is undergoing a fundamental transition as the wellhead price is decontrolled. The phased decontrol of new gas under the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) has had a dramatic positive impact on the natural gas supply picture. For the first time in 15 years the U.S. gas industry - which accounts

Hay

1985-01-01

339

Turkey's Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey's natural gas (NG) production is very small and is almost all imported. Turkish natural gas production in 2000, 23 billion cubic feet (Bcf), met around 4% of domestic natural gas consumption requirements. NG consumption is estimated at around 700 Bcf in year 2002, accounting for around 17% of Turkey's total energy consumption. Turkish natural gas demand had been projected

Mustafa Balat; Nuray Ozdemir

2005-01-01

340

Efficient use of natural gas in transportation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transp...

F. Stodolsky D. J. Santini

1992-01-01

341

Nitrogen removal from natural gas  

SciTech Connect

According to a 1991 Energy Information Administration estimate, U.S. reserves of natural gas are about 165 trillion cubic feet (TCF). To meet the long-term demand for natural gas, new gas fields from these reserves will have to be developed. Gas Research Institute studies reveal that 14% (or about 19 TCF) of known reserves in the United States are subquality due to high nitrogen content. Nitrogen-contaminated natural gas has a low Btu value and must be upgraded by removing the nitrogen. In response to the problem, the Department of Energy is seeking innovative, efficient nitrogen-removal methods. Membrane processes have been considered for natural gas denitrogenation. The challenge, not yet overcome, is to develop membranes with the required nitrogen/methane separation characteristics. Our calculations show that a methane-permeable membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 4 to 6 would make denitrogenation by a membrane process viable. The objective of Phase I of this project was to show that membranes with this target selectivity can be developed, and that the economics of the process based on these membranes would be competitive. Gas permeation measurements with membranes prepared from two rubbery polymers and a superglassy polymer showed that two of these materials had the target selectivity of 4 to 6 when operated at temperatures below - 20{degrees}C. An economic analysis showed that a process based on these membranes is competitive with other technologies for small streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. Hybrid designs combining membranes with other technologies are suitable for high-flow, higher-nitrogen-content streams.

NONE

1997-04-01

342

Flexible LNG supply, storage and price formation in a global natural gas market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The body of work included in this dissertation explores the interaction of the growing, flexible liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade with the fundamentals of pipeline gas supply, gas storage, and gas consumption. By nature of its uses---largely for residential heating and electric power generation---the consumption of natural gas is highly variable both seasonally and on less predictable daily and weekly timescales. Flexible LNG trade will interconnect previously isolated regional gas markets, each with non-correlated variability in gas demand, differing gas storage costs, and heterogeneous institutional structures. The dissertation employs a series of analytical models to address key issues that will affect the expansion of the LNG trade and the implications for gas prices, investment and energy policy. First, I employ an optimization model to evaluate the fundamentals of seasonal LNG swing between markets with non-correlated gas demand (the U.S. and Europe). The model provides insights about the interaction of LNG trade with gas storage and price formation in interconnected regional markets. I then explore how random (stochastic) variability in gas demand will drive spot cargo movements and covariation in regional gas prices. Finally, I analyze the different institutional structures of the gas markets in the U.S. and Europe and consider how managed gas markets in Europe---without a competitive wholesale gas market---may effectively "export" supply and price volatility to countries with more competitive gas markets, such as the U.S.

Hayes, Mark Hanley

343

Engineering Design and Economic Studies of the Heavy-Duty Industrial Gas Turbine in a Liquefied Petroleum Gas Carrier.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of an engineering design and economic evaluation of the installation of a 24,000 SHP Heavy Duty Industrial Gas Turbine propulsion plant in a LPG Carrier under the terms of MA Contract 5-38020 between the Maritime Administr...

1975-01-01

344

Adsorbed Natural Gas Storage in Optimized High Surface Area Microporous Carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) is an attractive alternative technology to compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG) for the efficient storage of natural gas, in particular for vehicular applications. In adsorbants engineered to have pores of a few molecular diameters, a strong van der Walls force allows reversible physisorption of methane at low pressures and room temperature. Activated carbons were optimized for storage by varying KOH:C ratio and activation temperature. We also consider the effect of mechanical compression of powders to further enhance the volumetric storage capacity. We will present standard porous material characterization (BET surface area and pore-size distribution from subcritical N2 adsorption) and methane isotherms up to 250 bar at 293K. At sufficiently high pressure, specific surface area, methane binding energy and film density can be extracted from supercritical methane adsorption isotherms. Research supported by the California Energy Commission (500-08-022).

Romanos, Jimmy; Rash, Tyler; Nordwald, Erik; Shocklee, Joshua Shawn; Wexler, Carlos; Pfeifer, Peter

2011-03-01

345

Production of acetone butanol (AB) from liquefied corn starch, a commercial substrate, using Clostridium beijerinckii coupled with product recovery by gas stripping.  

PubMed

A potential industrial substrate (liquefied corn starch; LCS) has been employed for successful acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) production. Fermentation of LCS (60 g l(-1)) in a batch process resulted in the production of 18.4 g l(-1) ABE, comparable to glucose: yeast extract based medium (control experiment, 18.6 g l(-1) ABE). A batch fermentation of LCS integrated with product recovery resulted in 92% utilization of sugars present in the feed. When ABE was recovered by gas stripping (to relieve inhibition) from the fed-batch reactor fed with saccharified liquefied cornstarch (SLCS), 81.3 g l(-1) ABE was produced compared to 18.6 g l(-1) (control). In this integrated system, 225.8 g l(-1) SLCS sugar (487 % of control) was consumed. In the absence of product removal, it is not possible for C. beijerinckii BA101 to utilize more than 46 g l(-1) glucose. A combination of fermentation of this novel substrate (LCS) to butanol together with product recovery by gas stripping may economically benefit this fermentation. PMID:17926074

Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Qureshi, Nasib; Blaschek, Hans P

2007-10-10

346

Arctic Oil and Natural Gas Potential.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Arctic could hold about 22 percent of the worlds undiscovered conventional oil and natural gas resources. The prospects for Arctic oil and natural gas production are discussed taking into consideration the nature of the resources, the cost of developi...

P. Budzik

2009-01-01

347

China's synthetic natural gas revolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China has recently pushed for investments in large-scale coal-fuelled synthetic natural gas plants. The associated carbon emissions, water needs and wider environmental impacts are, however, mostly neglected and could lock the country into an unsustainable development path.

Yang, Chi-Jen; Jackson, Robert B.

2013-10-01

348

EIA's Natural Gas Production Data  

EIA Publications

This special report examines the stages of natural gas processing from the wellhead to the pipeline network through which the raw product becomes ready for transportation and eventual consumption, and how this sequence is reflected in the data published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA).

Information Center

2009-04-09

349

Natural gas monthly, January 1997  

SciTech Connect

This publication, the Natural Gas Monthly, presents the most recent data on natural gas supply, consumption, and prices from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Of special interest in this issue are two articles summarizing reports recently published by EIA. The articles are {open_quotes}Natural Gas Productive Capacity{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Outlook for Natural Gas Through 2015,{close_quotes} both of which precede the {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} section. With this issue, January 1997, changes have been made to the format of the Highlights section and to several of the tabular and graphical presentations throughout the publication. The changes to the Highlights affect the discussion of developments in the industry and the presentation of weekly storage data. An overview of the developments in the industry is now presented in a brief summary followed by specific discussions of supply, end-use consumption, and prices. Spot and futures prices are discussed as appropriate in the Price section, together with wellhead and consumer prices.

NONE

1997-01-01

350

Staff Handbook on Natural Gas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Department of Commerce created a Natural Gas Action Group early in the fall of 1975 to assist industrial firms and the communities they serve to cope with the effects of potentially severe and crippling curtailment situations. This action group was trained to assess a specific local situation, review the potential for remedial action and…

Gorges, H. A., Ed.; Raine, L. P., Ed.

351

Natural gas - a growing market  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas is taking an increasingly large share of world energy trade: it is currently equivalent to 10% of world oil trade and could be contributing 950-1350 million tons of oil equivalent by the end of the century. By year-end 1981, published proved reserves reached 2912 trillion CF. The USSR has the most (1160 TCF), followed by the Middle East (762 TCF). The US - by far the single largest producer of gas - has 198 TCF. Western Europe, whose nations collectively form the largest consumer, has 153 TCF. An overview of production and trading trends throughtout the world confirms that natural gas is firmly rooted in the plans of every significant trading nation.

Not Available

1983-01-01

352

Natural gas cavern storage regulation  

SciTech Connect

Investigation of an incident at an LPG storage facility in Texas by U.S. Department of Transportation resulted in recommendation that state regulation of natural gas cavern storage might be improved. Interstate Oil & Gas Compact Commission has established a subcommittee to analyze the benefits and risks associated with natural gas cavern storage, and to draft a regulation model which will suggest engineering and performance specifications. The resulting analysis and regulatory language will be reviewed by I.O.G.C.C., and if approved, distributed to member states (including New York) for consideration. Should the states desire assistance in modifying the language to reflect local variables, such as policy and geology, I.O.G.C.C. may offer assistance. The proposed presentation will review the I.O.G.C.C. product (if published at that date), and discuss implications of its application in New York.

Heneman, H.

1995-09-01

353

Pipeline accident report: Columbia Liquified Natural Gas Corporation Explosion and Fire, Cove Point, Maryland, October 6, 1979  

SciTech Connect

About 3:35 a.m., e.d.t., an explosion caused by liquefied natural gas vapors destroyed a transformer building at the reception facility of the Columbia LNG Corporation, Cove Point, Maryland. Odorless liquefied natural gas leaked through an inadequately tightened LNG pump seal, vaporized, passed through approximately 210 ft of underground electrical conduit, and entered the substation building. One person was killed and one person was seriously injured. Damage to the facility was estimated at about $3 million. The National Transportation Safety Board determines that the probable cause of the accident was LNG which leaked through an inadequately tightened LNG pump seal, vaporized, and migrated through a 3-in. conduit, into a substation building where the vaporized LNG-air mixture was ignited by the arcing contacts of a circuit breaker interlock. Contributing to the accident was the absence of any combustible gas indicator to detect and warn personnel of the presence of flammable vapors in the building.

Not Available

1980-04-16

354

Future impact on natural gas pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future for natural gas pipelines is forecast by examining the sources and uses of energy today and projecting respective changes. No significant changes are expected over the next 20 yr in natural gas usage, but regionally, some demand shift could impact certain gas transmission facilities. The conclusion is that natural gas will continue to displace oil in some stationary

Croom

1982-01-01

355

Natural gas and electricity optimal power flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the combined natural gas and electric optimal power flow (GEOPF) problem is presented. It shows fundamental modeling of the natural gas network to be used for the GEOPF, and describes the equality constraints, which describe the energy transformation between gas and electric networks at combined nodes (i.e., generators). We also present the formulation of the natural gas

Seungwon An; Qing Li; Thomas W. Gedra

2003-01-01

356

Problems of gas utilities and their solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future financial health of natural gas utilities is felt to have been too pessimistically viewed by those who overlook the alternatives that natural gas offers. Large quantities of natural gas must be obtained by importing liquefied natural gas, drilling in Alaska, deep-water drilling off the Atlantic Coast, and development of synthetic and substitute processes. In spite of a trend

R. Jr

1977-01-01

357

Meeting Asia's future gas import demand with stranded natural gas from central Asia, Russia, Southeast Asia, and Australia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This analysis shows the important contribution that stranded gas from central Asia, Russia, Southeast Asia, and Australia can make in meeting the projected demand for gas imports of China, India, Japan, and South Korea from 2020 to 2040. The estimated delivered costs of pipeline gas from stranded fields in Russia and central Asia at Shanghai, China, are generally less than delivered costs of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Australia and Malaysia are initially the lowest-cost LNG suppliers. In the concluding section, it is argued that Asian LNG demand is price sensitive, and that current Asian LNG pricing procedures are unlikely to be sustainable for gas import demand to attain maximum potential growth. Resource volumes in stranded fields evaluated can nearly meet projected import demands.

Attanasi, Emil D.; Freeman, Philip A.

2013-01-01

358

Liquified natural gas conversion process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for the conversion of the paraffinic hydrocarbon components of Liquified Natural Gas (LNG), of carbon number 1 or 2, into an aromatics-rich liquid mixture of hydrocarbons having a number of carbon atoms greater than 3, and into a hydrogen-rich gaseous by-product is described comprising the following steps: (a) revaporization into a gaseous phase of LNG in heat exchangers

Gordonouin

1988-01-01

359

Huge natural gas reserves central to capacity work, construction plans in Iran  

SciTech Connect

Questions about oil production capacity in Iran tend to mask the country's huge potential as a producer of natural gas. Iran is second only to Russia in gas reserves, which National Iranian Gas Co. estimates at 20.7 trillion cu m. Among hurdles to Iran's making greater use of its rich endowment of natural gas are where and how to sell gas not used inside the country. The marketing logistics problem is common to other Middle East holders of gas reserves and a reason behind the recent proliferation of proposals for pipeline and liquefied natural gas schemes targeting Europe and India. But Iran's challenges are greater than most in the region. Political uncertainties and Islamic rules complicate long-term financing of transportation projects and raise questions about security of supply. As a result, Iran has remained mostly in the background of discussions about international trade of Middle Eastern gas. The country's huge gas reserves, strategic location, and existing transport infrastructure nevertheless give it the potential to be a major gas trader if the other issues can be resolved. The paper discusses oil capacity plans, gas development, gas injection for enhanced oil recovery, proposals for exports of gas, and gas pipeline plans.

Not Available

1994-07-11

360

Natural gas and gas hydrate accumulations within permafrost in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden natural gas blowouts from within the permafrost sections in West and East Siberia and some results of permafrost core samples study are presented. Topics covered include gas geochemistry, blowout intensity (gas flow rate), depth interval and permafrost rock peculiarities in places of these gas releases. Although microbial gas is widespread within permafrost, thermogenic gas can also occasionally migrate from

V. S. Yakushev; E. M. Chuvilin

2000-01-01

361

Natural gas 1995: Issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

Natural Gas 1995: Issues and Trends addresses current issues affecting the natural gas industry and markets. Highlights of recent trends include: Natural gas wellhead prices generally declined throughout 1994 and for 1995 averages 22% below the year-earlier level; Seasonal patterns of natural gas production and wellhead prices have been significantly reduced during the past three year; Natural gas production rose 15% from 1985 through 1994, reaching 18.8 trillion cubic feet; Increasing amounts of natural gas have been imported; Since 1985, lower costs of producing and transporting natural gas have benefitted consumers; Consumers may see additional benefits as States examine regulatory changes aimed at increasing efficiency; and, The electric industry is being restructured in a fashion similar to the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry.

NONE

1995-11-01

362

US natural gas policy and outlook for gas imports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand for natural gas has stabilized since 1978. Government policies encourage the conservation of natural gas and restrict its use as an electric power generating fuel. The market clearing price of gas (price at which gas is at approximate Btu parity with residual fuel oil) could result in different wellhead prices for different geographic regions. Methods for determining when

Lichtblau

1982-01-01

363

Storage of natural gas in the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage of natural gas can become the method of adjusting low summer demand. Natural gas has been stored in above ground holders, in high pressure spheres and pipe bottles, and in gas formations similar to those in which the gas was originally found. The porous storage rock in a geologic trap under the caprock is called a reservoir. These may

Filiatrault

1982-01-01

364

Natural gas storage in salt caverns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large differences in natural gas consumption for winter and summer together with irregularities concerning the supply with natural gas make it very important to establish gas reservoirs. It is found that an underground storage of the gas has great economic advantages compared to other types of storage and the feasibility to use in the northern part of Germany salt caverns

W. Harms

1977-01-01

365

Natural gas availability: present and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas fuel availability will be a critical factor in the ability to use gas as a motor fuel. The 1969 U.S. consumption of motor gasoline was 85.4 billion gas, equivalent to 10.6 trillion ftÂł of natural gas at 1032 Btu\\/ftÂł, which is about 50% of the total gas consumed in 1969. Between 1950 and 1970 the demand for gas

Zareski

1972-01-01

366

Gas supplies of interstate/natural gas pipeline companies 1989  

SciTech Connect

This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas during calendar year 1989, for use by the FERC for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to other Government agencies, the natural gas industry, as well as policy makers, analysts, and consumers interested in current levels of interstate supplies of natural gas and trends over recent years. 5 figs., 18 tabs.

Not Available

1990-12-18

367

40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065...Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet the...

2013-07-01

368

Microcontroller Based Smart Natural Gas Oven  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural gas is an important form of energy in the world. The misuse of natural gas increase day by day. In third world country the main cause of misuse is unconsciousness, unawareness e.t.c .This paper aim to show that a microcontroller based system designed to reduce the large amount of natural gas which turn into wastage material for unconsciousness of housewives.

Rahman, Mizanur; Ronee, Asraful Haque; Islam, Aminul

2012-08-01

369

EROSIVE WEAR OF NATURAL GAS PIPELINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erosive wear can be caused by a water jet burst from leaked water pipe laid side by side to natural gas pipeline. The erosive wear behavior of natural gas pipeline eroded by sand and water jetting was investigated. This work present the erosive wear analysis of API 5L X42, steel grade pipeline which normally used for distributing natural gas to

ZULKIFLI ABDUL MAJID; RAHMAT MOHSIN; FADHLI OMAR

370

Natural gas industry: evolution, structure, and economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US surpasses all other countries in natural gas production and consumption, partly because reserves in the Soviet Union and Middle East are not yet marketable commodities. Following a historical review of the natural gas industry's developing in the US and the evolution from manufactured to natural gas, subsequent chapters deal with the efforts during the 1970s to develop supplemental

A. R. Tussing; C. C. Barlow

1984-01-01

371

Analysis of industrial demand for natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several analysts have proposed the theory that there is a frustrated demand for natural gas in the United States. According to this theory, the natural gas curtailments of the 1970s have convinced industrial users that natural gas is not reliable. The users are willing to but fuel oil at a premium and store it to assure a reliable energy supply.

D Reister

1983-01-01

372

Storing natural gas as frozen hydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of natural gas hydrates is a well-known problem in the petroleum and natural gas industries. Hydrates are solid materials that form when liquid water and natural gas are brought in contact under pressure. Hydrate formation need not be a problem. On the contrary, it can be an advantage. The volume of hydrates is much less than that of

J. S. Gudmundsson; A. A. Khokhar; M. Parlaktuna

1994-01-01

373

Alternative sources of gas supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alternative sources considered include imported liquefied natural gas, and substitute natural gas produced from oil, coal, oil shale, peat, and biomass. Data are included on fuel prices, electricity prices, environmental impacts, fossil fuel resources, and unconventional sources of natural gas. It is noted that some of the technologies to tap these resources are in early stages of development and

1978-01-01

374

Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas reservoirs are obvious targets for carbon sequestration by direct carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection by virtue of their proven record of gas production and integrity against gas escape. Carbon sequestration in depleted natural gas reservoirs can be coupled with enhanced gas production by injecting CO{sub 2} into the reservoir as it is being produced, a process called Carbon Sequestration with Enhanced Gas Recovery (CSEGR). In this process, supercritical CO{sub 2} is injected deep in the reservoir while methane (CH{sub 4}) is produced at wells some distance away. The active injection of CO{sub 2} causes repressurization and CH{sub 4} displacement to allow the control and enhancement of gas recovery relative to water-drive or depletion-drive reservoir operations. Carbon dioxide undergoes a large change in density as CO{sub 2} gas passes through the critical pressure at temperatures near the critical temperature. This feature makes CO{sub 2} a potentially effective cushion gas for gas storage reservoirs. Thus at the end of the CSEGR process when the reservoir is filled with CO{sub 2}, additional benefit of the reservoir may be obtained through its operation as a natural gas storage reservoir. In this paper, we present discussion and simulation results from TOUGH2/EOS7C of gas mixture property prediction, gas injection, repressurization, migration, and mixing processes that occur in gas reservoirs under active CO{sub 2} injection.

Oldenburg, Curtis M.

2003-04-08

375

NITROGEN REMOVAL FROM NATURAL GAS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process for the denitrogenation of natural gas. Large proven reserves in the Lower-48 states cannot be produced because of the presence of nitrogen. To exploit these reserves, cost-effective, simple technology able to reduce the nitrogen content of the gas to 4-5% is required. Technology applicable to treatment of small gas streams (below 10 MMscfd) is particularly needed. In this project membranes that selectively permeate methane and reject nitrogen in the gas were developed. Preliminary calculations show that a membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 3 to 5 is required to make the process economically viable. A number of polymer materials likely to have the required selectivities were evaluated as composite membranes. Polyacetylenes such as poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) [PTMSP] and poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) [PMP] had high selectivities and fluxes, but membranes prepared from these polymers were not stable, showing decreasing flux and selectivity during tests lasting only a few hours. Parel, a poly(propylene oxide allyl glycidyl ether) had a selectivity of 3 at ambient temperatures and 4 or more at temperatures of {minus}20 C. However, Parel is no longer commercially available, and we were unable to find an equivalent material in the time available. Therefore, most of our experimental work focused on silicone rubber membranes, which have a selectivity of 2.5 at ambient temperatures, increasing to 3-4 at low temperatures. Silicone rubber composite membranes were evaluated in bench-scale module tests and with commercial-scale, 4-inch-diameter modules in a small pilot plant. Over six days of continuous operation at a feed gas temperature of {minus}5 to {minus}10 C, the membrane maintained a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 3.3. Based on the pilot plant performance data, an analysis of the economic potential of the process was prepared. We conclude that a stand-alone membrane process is the lowest-cost technology for small gas streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. The membrane process can recover more than 60-70% of the hydrocarbon content of the gas at a cost of $0.60-0.70/Mscfd. The capital cost of the process is about $100-200/Mscf. A number of small operators appear to be ready to use the technology if these costs can be demonstrated in the field. A second, and perhaps better, application of the technology is to combine the membrane process with a cryogenic process to treat large gas streams containing 10-20% nitrogen. The combination process achieves significant synergies. The membrane process performs a bulk separation of the gas, after which the cryogenic process treats the membrane residue (nitrogen-enriched) gas to recover more methane. Overall, hydrocarbon recoveries are greater than 95%. The capital cost of the combination process is lower than that of either process used alone and the processing costs are in the range $0.30-0.40/Mscf. This operating cost would be attractive to many gas producers. MTR is collaborating with a producer of cryogenic systems to further develop the combination process. A number of innovations in membrane process designs were made during the project; four U.S. patents covering various aspects of the technology were filed and issued.

K.A. Lokhandwala; M.B. Ringer; T.T. Su; Z. He; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans; A. Morisato; K. Amo; A. DaCosta; R.W. Baker; R. Olsen; H. Hassani; T. Rathkamp

1999-12-31

376

Impact of gas composition on natural gas storage by adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption storage is the most promising low-pressure alternative for storing natural gas, but some operational difficulties hinder the success of this technology. From a modeling perspective, this article addresses the impact of gas composition on the cyclic behavior of adsorptive natural gas storage systems. The cyclic operation of an onboard storage reservoir is modeled as a series of consecutive two-step

José P. B. Mota

1999-01-01

377

Controversial natural gas and oil issues tackled  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on recent activities regarding controversial natural gas and oil issues including the strategic oil reserve, expanded access to drilling in the outer continental shelf and authorization of oil and gas leasing in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, reestablishing regulation of the natural gas industry and budgeting for research and development.

Rodgers, L.M.

1991-04-15

378

Adsorbed natural gas storage and transportation vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) storage and transportation technology recently became competitive to compressed natural gas (CNG) method due to a high energy density capability achievements. New adsorbents such as monolithic carbons and recently compressed active carbon fibers used in noncylindrical vessels have made possible to store the same capacity of gas as CNG tanks, but at much lower pressure. New

L. L. Vasiliev; L. E. Kanonchik; D. A. Mishkinis; M. I. Rabetsky

2000-01-01

379

PLASMA CATALYTIC REFORMING OF NATURAL GAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, recent results of plasma processing of natural gas are described. The use of a plasma reformer for the generation of hydrogen rich gas from natural gas has been investigated. In an accompanying paper, progress in plasma reforming of diesel fuel is described. The reformate composition has been investigated as a function of the initial mixture of air

L. Bromberg; A. Rabinovich; N. Alexeev; D. R. Cohn

380

Natural gas safety: How sure are we  

SciTech Connect

This article examines natural gas distribution system safety and the public's response to natural gas disasters. Topics include cases of disaster, public and media response, the commission's actions and response, investigation and emergency actions to assure public safety, safety regulations, cathodic protection, and new gas safety rules developed.

Steinmeier, W.D. (Missouri Public Service Commission, Jefferson City (United States))

1991-08-01

381

Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy,

M. Rood Werpy; D. Santini; A. Burnham; M. Mintz

2010-01-01

382

Economics of natural gas conversion processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industry and academia have been pursuing the conversion of natural gas to higher valued products. Potential process routes include the manufacture of olefins and chemical intermediates, gasoline, and distillate fuels. All indirect manufacturing routes start with a synthesis gas step, which requires expensive steam reforming or partial oxidation of the natural gas feed. The direct routes to conversion seek to

Michael J. Gradassi; N. Wayne Green

1995-01-01

383

Global Natural Gas Market Trends, 2. edition  

SciTech Connect

The report provides an overview of major trends occurring in the natural gas industry and includes a concise look at the drivers behind recent rapid growth in gas usage and the challenges faced in meeting that growth. Topics covered include: an overview of Natural Gas including its history, the current market environment, and its future market potential; an analysis of the overarching trends that are driving a need for change in the Natural Gas industry; a description of new technologies being developed to increase production of Natural Gas; an evaluation of the potential of unconventional Natural Gas sources to supply the market; a review of new transportation methods to get Natural Gas from producing to consuming countries; a description of new storage technologies to support the increasing demand for peak gas; an analysis of the coming changes in global Natural Gas flows; an evaluation of new applications for Natural Gas and their impact on market sectors; and, an overview of Natural Gas trading concepts and recent changes in financial markets.

NONE

2007-07-15

384

DOE/BNL Liquid Natural Gas Heavy Vehicle Program  

SciTech Connect

As a means of lowering greenhouse gas emissions, increasing economic growth, and reducing the dependency on imported oil, the Department of Energy and Brookhaven National Laboratory (DOE/ BNL) is promoting the substitution of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in heavy-vehicles that are currently being fueled by diesel. Heavy vehicles are defined as Class 7 and 8 trucks (> 118,000 pounds GVVV), and transit buses that have a fuel usage greater than 10,000 gallons per year and driving range of more than 300 miles. The key in making LNG market-competitive with all types of diesel fuels is in improving energy efficiency and reducing costs of LNG technologies through systems integration. This paper integrates together the three LNG technologies of: (1) production from landfills and remote well sites; (2) cryogenic fuel delivery systems; and (3) state-of-the-art storage tank and refueling facilities, with market end-use strategies. The program's goal is to develop these technologies and strategies under a ''green'' and ''clean'' strategy. This ''green'' approach reduces the net contribution of global warming gases by reducing levels of methane and carbon dioxide released by heavy vehicles usage to below recoverable amounts of natural gas from landfills and other natural resources. Clean technology refers to efficient use of energy with low environmental emissions. The objective of the program is to promote fuel competition by having LNG priced between $0.40 - $0.50 per gallon with a combined production, fuel delivery and engine systems efficiency approaching 45%. This can make LNG a viable alternative to diesel.

James E. Wegrzyn; Wai-Lin Litzke; Michael Gurevich

1998-08-11

385

PRODUCTION OF ACETONE BUTANOL (AB) FROM LIQUEFIED CORN STARCH, A COMMERCIAL SUBSTRATE, USING CLOSTRIDIUM BEIJERINCKII COUPLED WITH PRODUCT RECOVERY BY GAS STRIPPING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A potential industrial substrate (liquefied corn starch) and nutrients (corn steep liquor, CSL) have been employed for acetone butanol (and ethanol) (AB or ABE) production. Fermentation of liquefied corn starch (60 gL**-1) supplemented with 5.6-6.4% (v/v) CSL solution in a batch process resulted in...

386

Cove Point liquefied natural gas operations: a preliminary review of the risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to a request from Calvert County, Maryland the Energy and Coastal Zone Administration has made an effort to evaluate the impacts associated with the transport of LNG to Cove Point. This report discusses a study that has been performed to provide a preliminary review of the risk to the public. Several tasks included in the study were: (1)

Margulies

1980-01-01

387

LNG (liquefied natural gas): A necessary part in China's future energy infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the LNG industry in China, covering LNG plants, receiving terminals, transportation, and applications. Small and medium scale LNG plants with different liquefaction processes have already been built or are being built. China's first two LNG receiving terminals have been put into operation in Guangdong and Fujian, another one is being built in Shanghai, and

Wensheng Lin; Na Zhang; Anzhong Gu

2010-01-01

388

Liquefied Natural Gas: A Potential for an Abundant Energy Supply or a Potential for Danger.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit was designed to develop mathematical applications in relation to a community resource issue. It should both motivate mathematics learning and provide meaningful problems for reinforcing understanding of mathematics content and skills, including ratios and percentages, linear equations, exponential functions, graphing, and the reading and…

Fishman, Joseph

389

Dike insulation for LNG (liquefied natural gas) vapor mitigation. Topical report, September 1987-December 1988  

SciTech Connect

Insulating materials may be applied to the surfaces of LNG impoundment areas in order to reduce the rate of heat transfer from the ground to any accidentally released LNG. This would result in a reduction of the extent of the flammable vapor cloud. Numerous studies have been carried out to develop dike insulating materials and to evaluate and compare their thermal and physical properties. This report summarizes the results of these studies. The authors conclude that an insulating polymer concrete (IPC) exhibits the most desirable thermal and mechanical characteristics. Design guidelines for the proper installation of IPC on LNG-impoundment surfaces and procedures for estimating total initial and annual maintenance costs are provided.

Atallah, S.; Peterlinz, M.E.; Shah, J.N.

1989-05-01

390

An evaluation of commercial densimeters for use in LNG (liquefied natural gas)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cryogenic fluids density reference system has been used to evaluate three basic types of densimeters: the vibrating element type, the dielectric cell type and the displacement type. These meters were used to measure densities in liquid methane and liquid methane mixtures with ethane, propane, normal butane, and nitrogen. Measurements were made over the density range from 400 to 480

J. D. Siegwarth; B. A. Younglove; J. F. LaBrecque

1977-01-01

391

Visual simulation of offshore liquefied natural gas (lng) terminals in a ...  

Treesearch

Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Exp. Stn., Forest Service, U.S. ... Description : Due to legislation passed in 1977, the Coastal Commission tock part in a ... to the maximum protection of coastal resource provisions required by the California ... top, Disclaimers | FOIA | Privacy Policy | Quality of Information | Print This Page.

392

75 FR 13644 - TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas Deepwater Port License...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal (BOET...port, the Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal (BOET...operated floating LNG transfer and regasification unit...pipelines to four existing offshore pipelines (Dauphin...facilitate movement of personnel, equipment,...

2010-03-22

393

75 FR 19954 - Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. 10-31-LNG] Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization...filed on March 23, 2010, by Cheniere Marketing, LLC (CMI), requesting blanket authorization...to reflect a name change from Cheniere Marketing, Inc to Cheniere Marketing,...

2010-04-16

394

Gas to Liquids Industry and Natural Gas Markets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Technological improvements and investment commitments from the world's largest oil companies suggest the gas to liquids (GTL) industry is likely to expand rapidly over the next decade. GTL uses large quantities of natural gas to produce liquid petroleum p...

R. Pirog

2007-01-01

395

Electricity and Heat Production Using Natural Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to describe technique, production costs and competitiveness for the production of electricity and heat from natural gas. The report deals with the production of electricity using gas turbines, conventional power plants fuelle...

E. Hakkarainen B. Olsson M. Borchers

1987-01-01

396

Troubleshooting natural gas processing: Wellhead to transmission  

SciTech Connect

This book describes practical, day-to-day problems of natural gas handling. This book combines field experience with technical principles on natural gas production treating and transmission. This volume is dominated by illustrative case histories and rules of thumb. The book also provides a checklist of distillation problems which is a summary of causes and cures of the problems encountered in the fractionation of propane, butane and natural gasoline. A glossary of terms used in natural gas transmission is another good part of this book. The author has avoided complex mechanical details in favor of simple line drawings. Among the topics discussed are; wellhead pressure and gas flow, vapor-liquid separation at the wellhead, wellhead compression, corrosion in gathering systems, gas sweetening using amines, sulfur recovery, dehydration, centrifugal gas compression, reciprocal gas compression, hydrates, gas cooling and condensate recovery.

Lieberman, N.

1987-01-01

397

Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.  

SciTech Connect

The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

2012-01-27

398

North American Natural Gas Demand — Outlook 2020  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis paper analyses natural gas demand in the United States of America, Canada and Mexico for the period 1980–2001. Visual inspections of the historical trends for natural gas demand, GDP and natural gas prices provide an initial assessment of the relationship between these variables.The paper then estimates various regressions, using the Almon polynomial distributed lag model. Several regressions, utilizing different

Salman Saif Ghouri

2004-01-01

399

Optimization Models in the Natural Gas Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With the surge of the global energy demand, natural gas plays an increasingly important role in the global energy market.\\u000a To meet the demand, optimization techniques have been widely used in the natural gas industry, and has yielded a lot of promising\\u000a results. In this chapter, we give a detailed discussion of optimization models in the natural gas industry, with

Qipeng P. Zheng; Steffen Rebennack; Niko A. Iliadis; Panos M. Pardalos

400

Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today`s natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

NONE

1999-06-01

401

U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report  

SciTech Connect

The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

NONE

1996-11-01

402

Efficient electricity generation with natural gas  

SciTech Connect

In November of 9187 two hundred representatives of the natural gas and electric utility industries, as well as various interested outside parties for governmental, engineering and environmental organizations, met to discuss the challenges and opportunities offered by a variety of innovative natural gas-based electricity generating options. This conference was the first jointly sponsored meeting of the two industries to address a host of complex, yet exciting issues{emdash}combined cycle power generation, using natural gas for environmental compliance, natural gas supplies and regional pipeline capacity, and the outlook for gas pricing and contracting. The papers presented in this volume are representative of a first step taken by the natural gas and electric utility industries to meet these challenges.

Not Available

1987-01-01

403

Natural gas annual 1993 supplement: Company profiles  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1993 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of 45 selected companies in the natural gas industry. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the companies profiled. The companies in this report are interstate pipeline companies or local distribution companies (LDC`s). Interstate pipeline companies acquire gas supplies from company owned production, purchases from producers, and receipts for transportation for account of others. Pipeline systems, service area maps, company supply and disposition data are presented.

Not Available

1995-02-01

404

Changing nature of investment risk in the natural gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In terms of variability in earnings, gas distribution and transmission companies have exhibited a substantially greater degree of risk over the past five years than during the preceding five-year period. Most importantly, the regulated gas industries have exhibited a greater degree of risk than many nonregulated industries. The author concludes that those regulating the natural gas industry must recognize this

Copan

1983-01-01

405

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2006 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2004, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2006

Information Center

2007-12-31

406

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2003 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2003, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2003.

Rafi Zeinalpour

2004-11-01

407

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1994 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1994, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1994.

Rafi Zeinalpour

1995-10-01

408

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1996 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996.

Rafi Zeinalpour

1997-11-01

409

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2002 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2002, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2002.

Rafi Zeinalpour

2003-12-01

410

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1999 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1999, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1999.

Rafi Zeinalpour

2000-12-01

411

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1993 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1993, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1993.

Rafi Zeinalpour

1994-11-01

412

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2004 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2004, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2004.

Rafi Zeinalpour

2005-11-30

413

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1998 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1998, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1998.

Rafi Zeinalpour

1999-12-01

414

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1997 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997.

Rafi Zeinalpour

1998-12-01

415

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2007 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2004, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2007

Information Center

2009-02-10

416

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2005 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2004, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2005

Rafi Zeinalpour

2006-12-05

417

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2000 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2000, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2000.

Rafi Zeinalpour

2001-12-01

418

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2001 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2001, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2001.

Rafi Zeinalpour

2002-11-01

419

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1995 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995.

Rafi Zeinalpour

1996-11-01

420

Tackling with Natural Monopoly in Electricity and Natural Gas Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter attempts to provide a theoretical work on natural monopoly versus perfect markets through concentrating on the\\u000a energy sector. In specific we discuss the natural monopolistic structure of Turkish natural gas and electricity markets by\\u000a comparing those of various countries in Europe. In this vein, our chapter starts with the introduction of natural monopoly\\u000a in both electricity and natural

Özgür Arslan; Hasan Kazdagůli

421

Natural gas monthly, October 1990. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 34 tabs.

Not Available

1990-12-28

422

Natural gas annual 1994: Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data fro the Nation from 1930 to 1994, and by State from 1967 to 1994.

NONE

1995-11-01

423

Natural gas depressurization power recovery and reheat  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for reduction in pressure of natural gas with the recovery of net power and the control of the temperature of the low pressure natural gas product by heat exchange with ambient atmosphere comprising the step of: (a) introducing high pressure natural gas at a pressure in the range of 100 to 2000 psia into an expansion turbine; (b) expanding the natural gas to a low pressure in the range of 40 to 100 psia and a resulting low temperature in the expansion turbine and recovering power from the turbine; (c) rewarming the low pressure, low temperature natural gas in at least two stages by heat exchange with an ambient atmosphere comprising: (1) indirect heat exchange of the natural gas with a refrigerant in a thermosiphon cycle which indirectly heat exchanges with the ambient atmosphere; (2) indirect heat exchange of the natural gas of substep (1) with a refrigerant in a heat pump cycle which indirectly heat exchanges with the ambient atmosphere; (d) recovering the natural gas at a low pressure and at a relatively warm temperature of at least 35/sup 0/F.

Shenoy, T.A.; Tao, J.C.

1987-07-07

424

Natural Gas in the Swedish Energy Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of natural gas in Sweden has been discussed for about ten years in Sweden. This report will give a summary of questions which are important in the energy policy when determining if natural gas ought to be introduced in Sweden as a fuel. (ERA citat...

L. Hjort

1978-01-01

425

Monthly Natural Gas Gross Production Report  

EIA Publications

Monthly natural gas gross withdrawals estimated from data collected on Form EIA-914 (Monthly Natural Gas Production Report) for Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico, Texas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Wyoming, Other States and Lower 48 States. Alaska data are from the State of Alaska and included to obtain a U.S. Total.

Information Center

2013-08-30

426

Majors' Shift to Natural Gas, The  

EIA Publications

The Majors' Shift to Natural Gas investigates the factors that have guided the United States' major energy producers' growth in U.S. natural gas production relative to oil production. The analysis draws heavily on financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS)

Bruce Bawks

2001-09-01

427

Potential Futures for Russian Natural Gas Exports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia is a dominant supplier of natural gas, especially to Europe, and has the resources to become even more dominant in the future. Nevertheless, we show that RussiaŐs ability to influence the world natural gas market is limited in the longer term by competition from alternative suppliers.

2009-01-01

428

Natural gas monthly, September 1990. [Contains Glossary  

SciTech Connect

This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

Not Available

1990-11-30

429

Nitrogen Removal From Low Quality Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas provides more than one-fifth of all the primary energy used in the United States. It is especially important in the residential sector, where it supplies nearly half of all the energy consumed in U.S. homes. However, significant quantities of natural gas cannot be produced economically because its quality is too low to enter the pipeline transportation system without

D. B. Alvarado; M. F. Asaro; J. L. Bomben; A. S. Damle; A. S. Bhown

1997-01-01

430

Natural Gas Policy Act: a strange history  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author outlines many of the complexities of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978, legislation that will require extensive accounting and staffing to implement and will be costly to both the public and the natural gas industry. Among the complexities noted are 30 price categories with varying counts due to different ways of computing prices. The Federal Energy Regulatory

1978-01-01

431

Liberalising the European natural gas market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Europe's natural gas market is changing radically. The several national markets dominated by monopolistic suppliers are integrating into one European market in which production and trade are subject to competition, while transport through the networks will be unbundled and placed under regulatory influence. What will be the consequences of these changes on natural gas prices, supply security and the environment?

Machiel Mulder

432

Throttleless Otto-cycle natural gas engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results are presented of exploratory research on establishing the feasibility of using preheated intake air for power and torque control in place of conventional throttling. The Throttleless Otto Cycle Natural Gas Engine (TONE) concept was proposed as a way to make vehicular use of natural gas fueled engines more competitive. It was shown that it is possible to increase

M. Shoda; P. D. Ronney; E. J. Durbin

1992-01-01

433

Natural gas 1994: Issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an overview of the natural gas industry in 1993 and early 1994 (Chapter 1), focusing on the overall ability to deliver gas under the new regulatory mandates of Order 636. In addition, the report highlights a range of issues affecting the industry, including: restructuring under Order 636 (Chapter 2); adjustments in natural gas contracting (Chapter 3); increased use of underground storage (Chapter 4); effects of the new market on the financial performance of the industry (Chapter 5); continued impacts of major regulatory and legislative changes on the natural gas market (Appendix A).

Not Available

1994-07-01

434

65 FR 18121 - South Baggs Area Natural Gas Development Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1310] South Baggs Area Natural Gas Development Project AGENCY...for the South Baggs Area Natural Gas Project (Project...fifty (50) additional natural gas wells in the Project area...Office. Approximately 43 oil and gas wells have...

2000-04-06

435

Catalytic decomposition of petroleum into natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum is believed to be unstable in the earth, decomposing to lighter hydrocarbons at temperatures > 150{degrees}C. Oil and gas deposits support this view: gas/oil ratios and methane concentrations tend to increase with depth above 150{degrees}C. Although oil cracking is suggested and receives wide support, laboratory pyrolysis does not give products resembling natural gas. Moreover, it is doubtful that the light hydrocarbons in wet gas (C{sub 2}-C{sub 4}) could decompose over geologic time to dry gas (>95% methane) without catalytic assistance. We now report the catalytic decomposition of crude oil to a gas indistinguishable from natural gas. Like natural gas in deep basins, it becomes progressively enriched in methane: initially 90% (wet gas) to a final composition of 100% methane (dry gas). To our knowledge, the reaction is unprecedented and unexpectedly robust (conversion of oil to gas is 100% in days, 175{degrees}C) with significant implications regarding the stability of petroleum in sedimentary basins. The existence or nonexistence of oil in the deep subsurface may not depend on the thermal stability of hydrocarbons as currently thought. The critical factor could be the presence of transition metal catalysts which destabilize hydrocarbons and promote their decomposition to natural gas.

Mango, F.D.; Hightower, J. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-12-01

436

Analyses of natural gas in Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

For nearly 50 years the Illinois State Geological Survey has been involved in the study of the geology and chemistry of natural gas in Illinois. By the end of 1979, samples from 2321 sources had been analyzed. Major sources of gas samples and the number of samples from those sources have included the following: solution gas from water wells (1402),

Meents

1981-01-01

437

Natural gas demand surges among European customers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Europe's view of natural gas as a clean fuel is driving demand faster than European producers can supply the fuel. By 2010 European gas demand is expected to rise by 50%, so imports will need to rise in step. There are plenty of gas reserves within and in reach of the European market to meet increasing needs. But current low

1993-01-01

438

Environmental benefits of natural gas for buses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a life cycle assessment comparing diesel buses with buses fueled by natural gas. The data for the emission of pollutants are based on the MEET Project of the European Commission (EC), supplemented by data measured for diesel and gas buses in Paris. The benefits of the gas fueled bus are then quantified using the damage cost estimates

Ari Rabl

2002-01-01

439

The Natural Gas Industry in Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 25 years of field price regulation, the U.S. natural gas industry is moving to a deregulated field market. This transition period has been made more difficult because of the international recession, depressed oil prices, and statutory restraints on gas use that were originally designed under assumptions of declining gas supply.

George H. Lawrence; Michael I. German

1983-01-01

440

Carbonyl sulfide hydrolysis in natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Carbonyl sulfide may naturally occur in high H/sub 2/S - CO/sub 2/ content sour natural gases. Furthermore part of the H/sub 2/S present in natural gases may be converted into COS if molecular sieves are used as H/sub 2/S removal substances in natural gas desulphurization plants. Carbonyl sulfide might then hydrolize to H/sub 2/S in the gas storage fields and transmission lines. This paper illustrates experimental data relevant to the kinetics and thermodynamics of the reaction between carbonyl sulfide and water both at gas and gas/liquid phases. Results may suggest whether carbonyl sulfide should be included in natural gas quality specifications.

Russo, F.; Caribotti, P.; Garofalo, N.

1988-01-01

441

Natural gas monthly, September 1991. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production distribution consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

Not Available

1991-10-18

442

Natural gas exports and macroeconomic performance  

SciTech Connect

Alberta, in volumetric terms, is Canada`s leading exporter of natural gas, crude oil, bitumen, and coal. Alberta natural gas shipments to other Canadian provinces and exports to the United States have developed into an increasingly important component of Alberta economy. This article attempts to measure the impact of gas production and exports on different sectors of the Alberta economy as the energy producing province of Canada.

Naini, A. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Economics and Policy Development

1998-08-01

443

Mechanochemical transformations of natural gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical transformations of hydrates of natural gas from the Irelyakh gas and oil field of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)\\u000a upon vigorous mechanical treatment were studied. It was found that a general feature of mechanochemical transformations of\\u000a natural gas hydrates is an increase in the carbon chain length of hydrocarbons forming the hydrates. It was shown that the\\u000a constitution of

L. P. Kalacheva; E. Yu. Shits; A. F. Fedorova

2009-01-01

444

SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY  

SciTech Connect

The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports provide both the backdrop and the impetus for this study.

COOK,Z.

1999-02-01

445

Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

2010-11-29

446

Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies, 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report on the gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies for caldendar year 1978 is the fifteenth report on the gas supplies of these companies. Total dedicated domestic gas reserves owned and controlled by interstate pipeline companies increased in 1978 by 1.1 trillion cubic feet, or 1.2 percent, from 92.9 trillion cubic feet at the beginning of the

1980-01-01

447

Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for

C. E. Clark; J. Han; A. Burnham; J. B. Dunn; M. Wang

2012-01-01

448

Natural gas: key to refining future  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. Refinery capacity and product mix requirements depend largely on what happens in the natural gas industry. Potential changes in gas prices could cause large portions of the fuels market to switch between gas and fuel oil, upsetting refinery process schemes and demands for amount and type of crude. Almost one-third of current U.S. gas demand potentially is switchable to

M. Kelly; J. N. McCutchen

1984-01-01

449

US Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2001 Annual Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A newly updated publication is available from the US Energy Information Administration. The report, entitled "US Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2001 Annual Report," contains national and state estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids in the United States. The over 170-page document has chapters with titles such as National Summaries, New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields, Large Reservoir Declines, Natural Gas Plant Liquids, and Top 100 Oil Fields for 2001. Those interested can download the entire report, individual chapters, appendices, a glossary, and even previous reports for links offered by on the site.

2002-01-01

450

Natural Gas Variability In California: Environmental Impacts And Device Performance Combustion Modeling of Pollutant Emissions From a Residential Cooking Range  

SciTech Connect

As part of a larger study of liquefied natural gas impacts on device performance and pollutant emissions for existing equipment in California, this report describes a cmoputer modeling study of a partially premixed flame issueing from a single cooktop burner port. The model consisted of a reactive computational fluid dynamics three-dimensional spatial grid and a 71-species chemical mechanism with propane combustion capability. Simulations were conducted with a simplified fuel mixture containing methane, ethane, and propane in proportions that yield properties similar to fuels distributed throughout much of California now and in recent years (baseline fuel), as well as with two variations of simulated liquefied natural gas blends. A variety of simulations were conducted with baseline fuel to explore the effect of several key parameters on pollutant formation and other flame characteristics. Simulations started with fuel and air issuing through the burner port, igniting, and continuing until the flame was steady with time. Conditions at this point were analyzed to understand fuel, secondary air and reaction product flows, regions of pollutant formation, and exhaust concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and formaldehyde. A sensitivity study was conducted, varying the inflow parameters of this baseline gs about real-world operating conditions. Flame properties responded as expected from reactive flow theory. In the simulation, carbon monoxide levels were influenced more by the mixture's inflow velocity than by the gas-to-air ratio in the mixture issuing from the inflow port. Additional simulations were executed at two inflow conditions - high heat release and medium heat release - to examine the impact of replacing the baseline gas with two mixtures representative of liquefied natural gas. Flame properties and pollutant generation rates were very similar among the three fuel mixtures.

Tonse, S. R.; Singer, B. C.

2011-07-01

451

Magnetic liquefier for hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes work done at the Astronautics Technology Center of the Astronautics Corporation of America (ACA) in Phase 1 of a four phase program leading to the development of a magnetic liquefier for hydrogen. The project involves the design, fabrication, installation, and operation of a hydrogen liquefier providing significantly reduced capital and operating costs, compared to present liquefiers. To achieve this goal, magnetic refrigeration, a recently developed, highly efficient refrigeration technology, will be used for the liquefaction process. Phase 1 project tasks included liquefier conceptual design and analysis, preliminary design of promising configurations, design selection, and detailed design of the selected design. Fabrication drawings and vendor specifications for the selected design were completed during detailed design. The design of a subscale, demonstration magnetic hydrogen liquefier represents a significant advance in liquefaction technology. The cost reductions that can be realized in hydrogen liquefaction in both the subscale and, more importantly, in the full-scale device are expected to have considerable impact on the use of liquid hydrogen in transportation, chemical, and electronic industries. The benefits to the nation from this technological advance will continue to have importance well into the 21st century.

NONE

1992-12-31

452

Compressed natural gas dispensing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system and method for dispensing compressed gas from a storage tank is disclosed in which the temperature and pressure in the tank is measured before and after the dispensing cycle and electric signals representative of these values are applied to a processor\\/computer which is programmed to compute from these signals the volume of gas dispensed.

H. W. Fisher; E. E. Hrivnak

1985-01-01

453

Natural gas industry in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

AT the end of March 2007, the remaining quantity of recoverable gas reserves in the country has been in excess of 28.3 trillion cubic meters that is the second gas rich country in the word. While the geological studies in certain geographical regions of the country have not been thoroughly conducted yet. it is likely to explore further reserves of

H. Omidvar

2008-01-01

454

High-sulfur natural gas project opens  

SciTech Connect

The Astrakhan' high-sulfur natural gas project, under development since 1981, yielded its first natural gas, gas liquids and recovered sulfur in late December 1986 and early January 1987. The gas project, in the desert north of Astrakhan', is being developed from the base settlement of Aksarayskiy, a railroad junction north of Astrakhan'. The initial stage now in operation has a throughput capacity of three billion cubic meters of natural gas; it is to be doubled later in 1987, to six billion m/sup 3/. Astrakhan's is the third major sour gas project to be developed in the Soviet Union; the others are at Orenburg, in the southern Urals, and at Mubarek, in the Uzbek SSR of Central Asia.

Shabad, T.

1986-07-01

455

Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The discovery of large gas hydrate accumulations in terrestrial permafrost regions of the Arctic and beneath the sea along the outer continental margins of the world's oceans has heightened interest in gas hydrates as a possible energy resource. However, significant to potentially insurmountable technical issues must be resolved before gas hydrates can be considered a viable option for affordable supplies of natural gas. The combined information from Arctic gas hydrate studies shows that, in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors, known as bottom-simulating reflectors, that have been mapped at depths below the sea floor ranging from about 100 to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Disagreements over fundamental issues such as the volume of gas stored within delineated gas hydrate accumulations and the concentration of gas hydrates within hydrate-bearing strata have demonstrated that we know little about gas hydrates. Recently, however, several countries, including Japan, India, and the United States, have launched ambitious national projects to further examine the resource potential of gas hydrates. These projects may help answer key questions dealing with the properties of gas hydrate reservoirs, the design of production systems, and, most important, the costs and economics of gas hydrate production.

Collett, T. S.

2002-01-01

456

Assessment of future natural gas vehicle concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of Natural Gas Vehicles is progressing rapidly under the stimulus of recent vehicle emission regulations. The development is following what can be viewed as a three step progression. In the first step, contemporary gasoline or diesel fueled automobiles are retrofitted with equipment enabling the vehicle to operate on either natural gas or standard liquid fuels. The second step is the development of vehicles which utilize traditional internal combustion engines that have been modified to operate exclusively on natural gas. These dedicated natural gas vehicles operate more efficiently and have lower emissions than the dual fueled vehicles. The third step is the redesigning, from the ground up, of a vehicle aimed at exploiting the advantages of natural gas as an automotive fuel while minimizing its disadvantages. The current report is aimed at identifying the R&D needs in various fuel storage and engine combinations which have potential for providing increased efficiency, reduced emissions, and reductions in vehicle weight and size. Fuel suppliers, automobile and engine manufacturers, many segments of the natural gas and other industries, and regulatory authorities will influence or be affected by the development of such a third generation vehicle, and it is recommended that GRI act to bring these groups together in the near future to begin, developing the focus on a 'designed-for-natural-gas' vehicle.

Groten, B.; Arrigotti, S.

1992-10-01

457

46 CFR 54.15-25 - Minimum relief capacities for cargo tanks containing compressed or liquefied gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...insulated holds. F=0.1 for membrane and semi-membrane tanks. G=gas factor of: ER25SE09.062 where: L=latent heat of the material being vaporized at the relieving conditions, in Kcal/kg (Btu per pound). C=constant based...

2011-10-01

458

46 CFR 54.15-25 - Minimum relief capacities for cargo tanks containing compressed or liquefied gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...insulated holds. F=0.1 for membrane and semi-membrane tanks. G=gas factor of: ER25SE09.062 where: L=latent heat of the material being vaporized at the relieving conditions, in Kcal/kg (Btu per pound). C=constant based...

2012-10-01

459

North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

Not Available

1989-02-01

460

North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

Not Available

1988-12-01

461

The gas gap: Uncertainty in the supply of natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Despite numerous attempts to predict future trends, uncertainty exists in the supply of natural gas. Forecasts of natural-gas resources have been made by many people, from scientists to economists, on the basis of historical trends, trade deficits, domestic economies, environmental concerns, and the pace of technology. Comparison of past forecasts with present trends, however, shows the difficulty in hitting the mark, in properly pinning down the fluctuations inherent in a multifaceted field. Nonetheless, optimism prevails in many of the forecasts. A guarded appreciation of what these forecasts really tell us can help us develop wise energy policies and constructively influence the future of natural gas. 9 refs., 5 figs.

Howell, D.G.; Wiese, K. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Swinchatt, J. (Earth Vision, Inc., Cheshire, CT (United States))

1993-01-01

462

Refueling stations for natural gas vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The unavailability of natural gas vehicle (NGV) refueling stations constitutes one of the major barriers to the wide spread utilization of natural gas in the transportation market. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate the current technical and economic status of compressed natural gas vehicle refueling stations and to identify the components or design features that offer the greatest potential for performance improvements and/or cost reductions. Both fast-fill- and slow-fill-type refueling systems will be discussed. 4 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

Blazek, C.F.; Kinast, J.A.; Biederman, R.T.; Jasionowski, W.

1991-01-01

463

Natural gas annual 1992: Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. The 1992 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production top its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1988 to 1992 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. Volume 2 of this report presents State-level historical data.

Not Available

1993-11-22

464

Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer  

DOEpatents

An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65 percent lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy by one unit of energy content in natural gas at one-quarter the cost, the hydrogen production cost will be significantly reduced. Also, it is possible to vary the ratio between the electricity and the natural gas supplied to the system in response to fluctuations in relative prices for these two energy sources. In one approach an appropriate catalyst on the anode side of the electrolyzer will promote the partial oxidation of natural gas to CO and hydrogen, called Syn-Gas, and the CO can also be shifted to CO.sub.2 to give additional hydrogen. In another approach the natural gas is used in the anode side of the electrolyzer to burn out the oxygen resulting from electrolysis, thus reducing or eliminating the potential difference across the electrolyzer membrane.

Pham, Ai-Quoc (San Jose, CA); Wallman, P. Henrik (Berkeley, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01

465

Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer  

SciTech Connect

An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65% lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems is described. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy by one unit of energy content in natural gas at one-quarter the cost, the hydrogen production cost will be significantly reduced. Also, it is possible to vary the ratio between the electricity and the natural gas supplied to the system in response to fluctuations in relative prices for these two energy sources. In one approach an appropriate catalyst on the anode side of the electrolyzer will promote the partial oxidation of natural gas to CO and hydrogen, called Syn-Gas, and the CO can also be shifted to CO{sub 2} to give additional hydrogen. In another approach the natural gas is used in the anode side of the electrolyzer to burn out the oxygen resulting from electrolysis, thus reducing or eliminating the potential difference across the electrolyzer membrane.

Pham, A.Q.; Wallman, P.H.; Glass, R.S.

2000-04-18

466

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

A new project was initiated this quarter to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading. Efforts have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project.

Howard S. Meyer

2002-06-01

467

Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates  

SciTech Connect

Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence? Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

Collett, T.S.

1992-10-01

468

Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates  

SciTech Connect

Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

Collett, T.S.

1992-10-01

469

Liquefied petroleum gases. Second edition, revised  

SciTech Connect

An updated, standard reference on the nature, quality, and practical handling of liquefied petroleum gases is presented. New applications such as the role of LPG as a feedstock for chemical production, as well as current safety guidelines and regulations are discussed.

Williams, A.F.; Lom, W.L.

1982-01-01

470

Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas in the United States during calendar year 1990, for use by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to ...

1992-01-01

471

Natural gas 1996 - issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents a summary of the latest data and information relating to the U.S. natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and financial aspects of the industry.

NONE

1996-12-01

472

Natural gas annual 1992: Supplement: Company profiles  

SciTech Connect

The data for the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement : Company Profiles are taken from Form EIA-176, (open quotes) Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition (close quotes). Other sources include industry literature and corporate annual reports to shareholders. The companies appearing in this report are major interstate natural gas pipeline companies, large distribution companies, or combination companies with both pipeline and distribution operations. The report contains profiles of 45 corporate families. The profiles describe briefly each company, where it operates, and any important issues that the company faces. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the 45 large companies profiled.

Not Available

1994-01-01

473

Competitive Position of Natural Gas: Industrial Baking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To quantify the competitive position of natural gas in industrial baking, market profiles were developed to define current technologies (single lap, tunnel, and Lanham ovens are predominant) and to characterize the applications and use of each technology ...

B. S. Minsker S. Y. Salama

1988-01-01

474

Physical Properties of Natural Gas Hydrate Deposits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Natural gas hydrates form in polar regions and in ocean bottom sediments and they may represent a considerable energy resource. Unfortunately, so little is known about the physical properties of hydrate deposits that it is difficult to develop geophysical...

C. Pearson

1982-01-01

475

Audit Program for Natural Gas Companies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this publication is to provide the field auditor with a set of audit guidelines for use in the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's financial/compliance examinations of jurisdictional natural gas companies. The specific audit procedures s...

1981-01-01

476

FSU's natural gas liquids business needs investment  

SciTech Connect

Production of natural gas liquids has fallen seriously behind its potential in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Restoration of the gas liquids business thus represents a rich investment opportunity. Capital, however, must come from international sources, which remain uncertain about the FSU's legal, commercial, and political systems. If these hurdles can be overcome, FSU output of liquid petroleum gas alone might double between 1990 and 2010. In the FSU, LPG is produced from associated and nonassociated natural gas, condensate, and refinery streams. It also comes from what is known in the FSU as ShFLU--a mixture of propane, butane, pentane, and hexane produced at gas processing plants in Western Siberia and fractionated elsewhere. The paper reviews FSU production of gas liquids focusing on West Siberia, gives a production outlook, and describes LPG use and business development.

Plotnikov, V.S.; Berman, M.; Angerinos, G.F. (Poten and Partners Inc., New York, NY (United States))

1995-03-13

477

UPGRADING NATURAL GAS VIA MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROCESSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study is to assess the potential usefulness of membrane separation processes for removing COâ and HâS from low-quality natural gas containing substantial amounts of both these ''acid'' gases, e.g., up to 40 mole-% COâ and 10 mole-% HâS. The membrane processes must be capable of upgrading the crude natural gas to pipeline specifications (⤠2

S. A. Stern; P. A. Rice; J. Hao

2000-01-01

478

USSR: development of its natural gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas production in Russia currently stands at 13 tcf compared to US production of 20 tcf. Russian production is expected to increase to 15.4 tcf in 1980 and will surpass the US production total by 1985 (estimated 24.72 tcf). Natural gas reserves in the USSR are estimated at 990 tcf, amounting to a 72-yr life index at the 1976

Lippitt; H. F. II

1979-01-01

479

About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines  

EIA Publications

This information product provides the interested reader with a broad and non-technical overview of how the U.S. natural gas pipeline network operates, along with some insights into the many individual pipeline systems that make up the network. While the focus of the presentation is the transportation of natural gas over the interstate and intrastate pipeline systems, information on subjects related to pipeline development, such as system design and pipeline expansion, are also included.

Information Center

2007-06-01

480

Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Second quarterly progress report, [October 1, 1994-- December 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Emphasis of this project focuses on LNG research issues in use of liquefied natural as a transportation fuel in heavy trucking industry. These issues maybe categorized as: task 1--direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel; and task 2--short and long term storage. Accomplishments for these tasks are discussed. Task 1 consists of atomization, fundamentals of direct replacement, and distribution of emissions. Task 2 includes modified adsorbents, vent gas, and LNG storage at moderate conditions.

Sutton, W.H.

1994-12-01

481

18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 ...Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resourcesânatural gas. (a)(1) The national...

2009-04-01

482

18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 ...Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resourcesânatural gas. (a)(1) The national...

2010-04-01

483

Ideal-gas thermodynamic properties for natural-gas applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculating caloric properties from a thermal equation of state requires information such as isobaric heat capacities in the ideal-gas state as a function of temperature. In this work, values for the parameters of thecp0 correlation proposed by Aly and Lee were newly determined for 21 pure gases which are compounds of natural gas mixtures. The values of the parameters were

M. Jaeschke; P. Schley

1995-01-01

484

Oil and natural gas prices and greenhouse gas emission mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hikes in hydrocarbon prices during the last years have lead to concern about investment choices in the energy system and uncertainty about the costs for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. On the one hand, high prices of oil and natural gas increase the use of coal; on the other hand, the cost difference between fossil-based energy and non-carbon energy

Bas van Ruijven; Detlef P. van Vuuren

2009-01-01

485

Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions from alternative fuels in Australian heavy vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper quantifies the expected pre-combustion and combustion emissions of greenhouse gases from Australian heavy vehicles using alternative fuels. We use the term exbodied emissions for these full fuel-cycle emissions. The fuels examined are low sulfur diesel (LSD), ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULS), compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), ethanol (from lignocellulose), biodiesel and waste

Tom Beer; Tim Grant; David Williams; Harry Watson

2002-01-01

486

Natural gas\\/diesel conversions - the outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

High conversion costs and technical inadequacies of available equipment have limited diesel to compressed natural gas (CNG) conversions, a process which can use either fumigation, pilot oil injection, or spark-ignition for vehicle ignition. An overview of Gas Research Institute conversion research projects includes a summary of major problems associated with performance, cost, and reliability of the systems. A summary table

V. B. Fiore; T. J. Joyce

1986-01-01

487

Analyses of natural gas in Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

For nearly 50 years the Illinois State Geological Survey has been involved in the study of the geology and chemistry of natural gas in Illinois. By the end of 1979, samples from 2321 sources had been analyzed. This report contains the results of analyses of these samples. Major sources of gas samples and the number of samples from those sources

Meents

1981-01-01

488

METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a project to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. his study will measure or calculate all gas industry CH4 emissions--from production at the wellhead, through the system, to the customer's meter. missions downstream of the consu...

489

Challenges and opportunities await natural gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two decades, the natural gas industry has gone through drastic changes. On one hand, deregulation and customer choice have been introduced to the industry. On the other hand, technological advances have resulted in substantial growth of available gas resources. In short, deregulation coupled with increased availability of supply has changed the way market participants interact with each

Mohasseb

1998-01-01

490

Rock mechanics for gas storage in bedded salt caverns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied petroleum gases and natural gas have been stored in caverns solution mined in domal and bedded salt for many years. The majority of the natural gas storage caverns in the United States have been developed in domal salt. This paper is a case history of three caverns that were developed specifically for natural gas storage in bedded salt in

1997-01-01

491

Natural gas from geopressured zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geopressured methane could yield large quantities of gas to help meet increasing US energy demands. Significant uncertainties must be addressed in well-conceived and coordinated research and development programs. Economic, institutional, and environmental constraints must be addressed and overcome. Specific questions that must be answered include the type and size of the resource, the long-term production rates, the impact on production

R. B. Rosenberg; J. C. Sharer

1980-01-01

492

77 FR 51795 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets Supplemental Notice of Technical...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No....

2012-08-27

493

49 CFR 393.68 - Compressed natural gas fuel containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Compressed natural gas fuel containers. 393.68 ...Systems § 393.68 Compressed natural gas fuel containers. (a) Applicability...this section apply to compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel containers...

2012-10-01

494

49 CFR 393.68 - Compressed natural gas fuel containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Compressed natural gas fuel containers. 393.68 ...Systems § 393.68 Compressed natural gas fuel containers. (a) Applicability...this section apply to compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel containers...

2011-10-01

495

7 CFR 2900.4 - Natural gas requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Natural gas requirements. 2900.4 Section 2900...AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.4 Natural gas requirements. For purposes of Section...

2013-01-01

496

18 CFR 157.210 - Mainline natural gas facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Mainline natural gas facilities. 157.210 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline...

2013-04-01

497

26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21 Section... § 48.4041-21 Compressed natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of...imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel...

2013-04-01

498

Attempt to Liquefy Helium  

Microsoft Academic Search

I HAVE received a letter from Prof. Olszewski, of Krakau, in which he informs me that having exposed a sample of helium which I sent him to the same treatment as was successful in liquefying hydrogen-namely, compressing with a pressure of 140 atmospheres, cooling to the temperature of air boiling at low pressure, and then expanding suddenly-he has been unable

William Ramsay

1895-01-01

499

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. KPS and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on field site selection. ChevronTexaco has nominated their Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX for a commercial-scale dehydration test. Potting and module materials testing were initiated. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues.

Howard S. Meyer

2003-04-01

500

Natural gas use is taking off  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes an infrared radiant heat process to de-ice aircraft. A typical 727 aircraft de-icing costs $2000--3000 using the current glycol method. The natural gas powered heater would only cost $400 per aircraft and would not pose the environmental problems that the glycol does. It is estimated that one Infratek system could consume 3.8 million cubic feet of natural gas each year during the de-icing season. Large airports might have as many as 10 units. 3.8 million cu. ft. of gas is equal to about 40 New York residential customers or eight New York commercial customers.

Kauffmann, B.G.

1995-07-01