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1

Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryenco and Los Alamos are collaborating to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that will have no moving parts and require no electrical power. It will have useful efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at only 115 Kelvin at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 invention of the thermoacoustically

1997-01-01

2

Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

SciTech Connect

In collaboration with Cryenco Inc. and NIST-Boulder, we intend to develop a natural gas-powered natural-gas liquefier which has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It will have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. Progress on the liquefier to be constructed at Cryenco continues satisfactorily. The thermoacoustic driver is still ahead of the pulse tube refrigerator, because of NIST`s schedule. We completed the thermoacoustics design in the fall of 1994, with Los Alamos providing physics input and checks of all aspects, and Cryenco providing engineering to ASME code, drafting, etc. Completion of this design represents a significant amount of work, especially in view of the many unexpected problems encountered. Meanwhile, Cryenco and NIST have almost completed the design of the pulse tube refrigerator. At Los Alamos, we have assembled a half-size scale model of the thermoacoustic portion of the 500 gal/day TANGL. This scale model will enable easy experimentation in harmonic suppression techniques, new stack geometries, new heat-exchanger geometries, resonator coiling, and other areas. As of March 1995, the scale model is complete and we are performing routine debugging tests and modifications.

Swift, G.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-06-01

3

Liquefied Natural Gas Transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chicago Bridge & Iron Company's tanks and associated piping are parts of system for transferring liquefied natural gas from ship to shore and storing it. LNG is a "cryogenic" fluid meaning that it must be contained and transferred at very low temperatures, about 260 degrees below Fahrenheit. Before the LNG can be pumped from the ship to the storage tanks, the two foot diameter transfer pipes must be cooled in order to avoid difficulties associated with sharp differences of temperature between the supercold fluid and relatively warm pipes. Cooldown is accomplished by sending small steady flow of the cryogenic substance through the pipeline; the rate of flow must be precisely controlled or the transfer line will be subjected to undesirable thermal stress.

1980-01-01

4

Transportation of Liquefied Natural Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents a factual description of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) system and facilities, and the Federal regulatory process that governs their development and operations. Key portions of the LNG system that are vulnerable to technological or po...

1977-01-01

5

Bibliography on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximately 600 citations concerning safety of liquefied natural gas and liquid methane are presented. Each entry includes the title, author, abstract, source, description of figures, key references, and major descriptors for retrieving the document. An author index is provided as well as an index of descriptors.

Ordin, P. M.

1976-01-01

6

Fuel tank for liquefied natural gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A storage tank is provided for storing liquefied natural gas on, for example, a motor vehicle such as a bus or truck. The storage tank includes a metal liner vessel encapsulated by a resin-fiber composite layer. A foam insulating layer, including an outer protective layer of epoxy or of a truck liner material, covers the composite layer. A non-conducting protective coating may be painted on the vessel between the composite layer and the vessel so as to inhibit galvanic corrosion.

DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

7

Lightweight Tanks for Storing Liquefied Natural Gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single-walled, jacketed aluminum tanks have been conceived for storing liquefied natural gas (LNG) in LNG-fueled motor vehicles. Heretofore, doublewall steel tanks with vacuum between the inner and outer walls have been used for storing LNG. In comparison with the vacuum- insulated steel tanks, the jacketed aluminum tanks weigh less and can be manufactured at lower cost. Costs of using the jacketed aluminum tanks are further reduced in that there is no need for the vacuum pumps heretofore needed to maintain vacuum in the vacuum-insulated tanks.

DeLay, Tom

2008-01-01

8

Risk management of liquefied natural gas installations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In connection with the construction of four major liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in New York City, the New York City Fire Commissioner has asked NASA for assistance. It was decided that the Kennedy Space Center should develop a risk management system (RMS) for the use of the New York Fire Department (NYFD). The RMS provides for a published set of safety regulations by the NYFD. A description of the RMS is presented as an example of an application of aerospace technology to a civilian sector, namely LNG facilities.

Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.; Coutinho, J. De C.

1976-01-01

9

Development of a thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier.  

SciTech Connect

Praxair, in conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is developing a new technology, thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators, for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems will be developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed. In February 2001 Praxair, Inc. purchased the acoustic heat engine and refrigeration development program from Chart Industries. Chart (formerly Cryenco, which Chart purchased in 1997) and Los Alamos had been working on the technology development program since 1994. The purchase included assets and intellectual property rights for thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse tube refrigerators (TADOPTR), a new and revolutionary Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engine (TASHE) technology, aspects of Orifice Pulse Tube Refrigeration (OPTR) and linear motor compressors as OPTR drivers. Praxair, in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the licensor of the TADOPTR and TASHE patents, is continuing the development of TASHE-OPTR natural gas powered, natural gas liquefiers. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at -161 C (-259 F) at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 TADOPTR invention by Drs. Greg Swift (LANL) and Ray Radebaugh (NIST) demonstrated the first technology to produce cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators use acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The basic driver and refrigerator consist of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. The liquefier development program is divided into two components: Thermoacoustically driven refrigerators and linear motor driven refrigerators (LOPTRs). LOPTR technology will, for the foreseeable future, be limited to natural gas liquefaction capacities on the order of hundreds of gallons per day. TASHE-OPTR technology is expected to achieve liquefaction capacities of tens of thousands of gallons per day. This paper will focus on the TASHE-OPTR technology because its natural gas liquefaction capacity has greater market opportunity. LOPTR development will be mentioned briefly. The thermoacoustically driven refrigerator development program is now in the process of demonstrating the technology at a capacity of about 500 gallon/day (gpd) i.e., approximately 42,000 standard cubic feet/day, which requires about 7 kW of refrigeration power. This capacity is big enough to illuminate the issues of large-scale acoustic liquefaction at reasonable cost and to demonstrate the liquefaction of about 70% of an input gas stream, while burning about 30%. Subsequent to this demonstration a system with a capacity of approximately 10{sup 6} standard cubic feet/day (scfd) = 10,000 gpd with a projected liquefaction rate of about 85% of the input gas stream will be developed. When commercialized, the TASHE-OPTRs will be a totally new type of heat-driven cryogenic refrigerator, with projected low manufacturing cost, high reliability, long life, and low maintenance. A TASHE-OPTR will be able to liquefy a broad range of gases, one of the most important being natural gas (NG). Potential NG applications range from distributed liquefaction of pipeline gas as fuel for heavy-duty fleet and long haul vehicles to large-scale liquefaction at on-shore and offshore gas wellheads. An alternative to the thermoacoustic driver, but with many similar technical and market advantages, is the linear motor compressor. Linear motors convert electrical power directly into oscillating linear, or axial, motion. Attachment of a piston to the oscillator results in a direct drive compressor. Such a compressor

Wollan, J. J. (John J.); Swift, G. W. (Gregory W.); Backhaus, S. N. (Scott N.); Gardner, D. L. (David L.)

2002-01-01

10

49 CFR 191.15 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report... Each operator of a liquefied natural gas plant or facility must...

2013-10-01

11

49 CFR 191.17 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. ...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. ...Each operator of a liquefied natural gas facility must submit an...

2013-10-01

12

Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas as alternative fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of alternative fuels in the transportation industry has gained a strong support in recent years. In this paper an attempt was made to evaluate the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (NG) by 25 LPG-bifuel and 14 NG-bifuel vehicles that are operated by 33 transit systems throughout Nebraska. A set of performance measures such

Massoum Moussavi; Motasem Al-Turk

1993-01-01

13

78 FR 46581 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas During June 2013 FE Docket Nos. CONOCOPHILLIPS...orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and to import liquefied natural gas....

2013-08-01

14

75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [USCG-2010-0993] Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application AGENCY...received an application for the licensing of a natural gas deepwater port and the application...

2010-11-17

15

Clean Air Program: Liquefied Natural Gas Safety in Transit Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines the safety issues relating to the use of Liquefied natural Gas (LNG) in transit service. The surveys consisted of: (1) extensive interviews; (2) review of recrods, procedures, and plans relating to safety; (3) examination of facilities...

D. M. Friedman N. D. Malcosky

1996-01-01

16

Risk management technique for liquefied natural gas facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Checklists have been compiled for planning, design, construction, startup and debugging, and operation of liquefied natural gas facilities. Lists include references to pertinent safety regulations. Methods described are applicable to handling of other hazardous materials.

Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.

1975-01-01

17

75 FR 53371 - Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Obtaining Approval of Alternative Vapor-Gas Dispersion Models  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Technical Committee on Liquefied Natural Gas of the NFPA. Several years ago...LNG Facilities. Subject: Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Obtaining Approval of...used with justification provided for the selection of pool diameter(s),...

2010-08-31

18

Strategic Petroleum Reserve and Liquefied Natural Gas Supplies. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States is planning to import liquefied natural gas (LNG) to offset the effects of our apparent dwindling natural gas supply. These imports would begin by the 1980s and would come from Algeria, Indonesia, Pakistan, Iran, Nigeria, and possibly th...

R. J. Fink B. A. Bancroft T. M. Palmieri

1977-01-01

19

75 FR 60095 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy...of foreign sourced liquefied natural gas (LNG) for a two-year period...was filed under section 3 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), as amended by...

2010-09-29

20

75 FR 19954 - Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy...authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously had been...500 Billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas on a short-term or spot...

2010-04-16

21

75 FR 38092 - The Dow Chemical Company; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy...authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously had been...390 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas on a short-term or spot...

2010-07-01

22

Liquefied natural gas: safety issues, public concerns, and decision making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas is an important, widely used fossil fuel which is convenient and relatively non-polluting. Because U.S. domestic suppliers have been declining since 1972, suppliers have sought to import additional gas in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG), which is 1\\/600 the volume of natural gas and is therefore convenient for transportation and storage. If present plans and proposals

A. J. Van Horn; R. Wilson

1976-01-01

23

33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage...Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage...yards on each side of any liquefied natural gas carrier (LNGC) vessel while...

2013-07-01

24

Liquefied Natural Gas: Global Challenges (released in AEO2008)  

EIA Publications

U.S. imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in 2007 were more than triple the 2000 total, and they are expected to grow in the long term as North Americas conventional natural gas production declines. With U.S. dependence on LNG imports increasing, competitive forces in the international markets for natural gas in general and LNG in particular will play a larger role in shaping the U.S. market for LNG. Key factors currently shaping the future of the global LNG market include the evolution of project economics, worldwide demand for natural gas, government policies that affect the development and use of natural resources in countries with LNG facilities, and changes in seasonal patterns of LNG trade.

Information Center

2008-06-26

25

77 FR 4028 - Orders Granting, Amending and Vacating Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Amending and Vacating Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas...amending and vacating authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas. These Orders are...

2012-01-26

26

77 FR 31838 - Notice of Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During April 2012 AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy...12-34-NG Northwest Natural Gas Company............ 12-41-NG...

2012-05-30

27

78 FR 21349 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Compressed Natural Gas, Vacating Prior Authority and Denying Request for Rehearing During January...

2013-04-10

28

18 CFR 157.212 - Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities. 157.212 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline...

2010-04-01

29

18 CFR 157.212 - Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities. 157.212 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline...

2009-04-01

30

75 FR 62510 - Chevron U.S.A. Inc.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy...authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously had been...72 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas on a short-term or spot...

2010-10-12

31

Control method for mixed refrigerant based natural gas liquefier  

DOEpatents

In a natural gas liquefaction system having a refrigerant storage circuit, a refrigerant circulation circuit in fluid communication with the refrigerant storage circuit, and a natural gas liquefaction circuit in thermal communication with the refrigerant circulation circuit, a method for liquefaction of natural gas in which pressure in the refrigerant circulation circuit is adjusted to below about 175 psig by exchange of refrigerant with the refrigerant storage circuit. A variable speed motor is started whereby operation of a compressor is initiated. The compressor is operated at full discharge capacity. Operation of an expansion valve is initiated whereby suction pressure at the suction pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 30 psig and discharge pressure at the discharge pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 350 psig. Refrigerant vapor is introduced from the refrigerant holding tank into the refrigerant circulation circuit until the suction pressure is reduced to below about 15 psig, after which flow of the refrigerant vapor from the refrigerant holding tank is terminated. Natural gas is then introduced into a natural gas liquefier, resulting in liquefaction of the natural gas.

Kountz, Kenneth J. (Palatine, IL); Bishop, Patrick M. (Chicago, IL)

2003-01-01

32

40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620...engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all...operate solely on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have...

2013-07-01

33

33 CFR 165.502 - Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. 165.502 ...502 Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. (a)...

2013-07-01

34

Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with conversion companies in six states to convert approximately 900 light-duty Federal fleet vehicles to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The contracts were initiated in order to help the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) during a period

R. C. Motta; K. J. Kelly; W. W. Warnock

1996-01-01

35

Comparative analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) used by transit agencies in Texas. Research report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a detailed comparative analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG). The study provides data on two alternative fuels used by transit agencies in Texas. First, we examine the `state-of-the- art` in alternative fuels to established a framework for the study. Efforts were made to examine selected characteristics of two types of natural gas

Lede

1997-01-01

36

77 FR 2126 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2012-0001] Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators...

2012-01-13

37

77 FR 16471 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration...195 [Docket No. PHMSA-2012-0001] Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators...

2012-03-21

38

40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt...Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG...

2013-07-01

39

78 FR 65304 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import and Export Liquefied...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import and Export Liquefied Natural Gas During August 2013 FE Docket Nos...authority to import and export natural gas, and to import and export...

2013-10-31

40

On the application of computational fluid dynamics codes for liquefied natural gas dispersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are increasingly being used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry to predict natural gas dispersion distances. This paper addresses several issues regarding the use of CFD for LNG dispersion such as specification of the domain, grid, boundary and initial conditions. A description of the k–? model is presented, along with modifications required for atmospheric

Anay Luketa-Hanlin; Ronald P. Koopman; Donald L. Ermak

2007-01-01

41

Optimizing liquefied natural gas terminal design for effective supply-chain operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) supply-chain management has become more critical due to the increased gas demand and the need for imported LNG. One of the major issues is the design of LNG terminals for efficient gas flow. This paper provides a framework for analyzing the key design parameters for LNG terminals that impact profitability. Design considerations such as storage capacity,

Ertunga C. Özelkan; Alfred D’Ambrosio; S. Gary Teng

2008-01-01

42

DEVELOPMENT OF A THERMOACOUSTIC NATURAL GAS LIQUEFIER-UPDATE  

SciTech Connect

Thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators are being developed for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems are developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed.

J. WOLLAN; G. SWIFT

2001-05-01

43

Reliquefaction of boil-off from liquefied natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a process for liquifying boil-off gas resulting from the evaporation of liquified natural gas contained in a storage vessel, the boil-off gas being cooled and liquified in a closed-loop nitrogen refrigeration system and then returned to the storage vessel. The closed loop refrigeration system comprises the following steps: compressing nitrogen as a working fluid in a multi-stage

W. G. Stuber; K. W. Kovak

1989-01-01

44

Small-scale tests on control methods for some liquefied natural gas hazards. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A report of results of small scale (100 square ft) tests of some liquefied natural gas (LNG) hazard control methods and concepts. Tests were run to estimate dry chemical flow rate requirements for the extinguishment of fires from LNG pools with obstructions in the pool area and fires from LNG pools on water in a containment. Objectives were to obtain

L. E. Brown; W. E. Martinsen; S. P. Muhlenkamp; G. L. Puckett

1976-01-01

45

Analysis of the desirability of replacing petroleum-based vehicle fuel with liquefied natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several ways of organizing the production and use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a vehicle fuel are recommended on the\\u000a basis of an analysis. It is noted that it is advisable to convert filling stations for motor vehicles into combined filling\\u000a stations and to create LNG enterprises on the basis of autogas filling compressor stations.

V. A. Peredel’skii; Yu. V. Lastovskii; R. V. Darbinyan; A. I. Savitskii; A. A. Savitskii

2005-01-01

46

Metrology and availability of thermophysical property data for liquefied natural gas. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing international trade in liquefied natural gas (LNG) and the rising price of LNG has placed ever increasing importance on reducing the inaccuracies associated with the transfer of ownership (custody transfer) of this important energy commodity. This paper summarizes the available sources of accurate and wide-range data for the thermophysical properties of LNG and its constituents. The constituents include

N. A. Olien; D. B. Mann; J. A. Brennan; J. D. Siegwarth

1983-01-01

47

Gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric analysis of mercaptan odorants in liquefied petroleum gas and liquefied natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric method for the determination of mercaptan odorants (dimethyl sulfide, tert.-butylmercaptan, tetrahydrothiophene) in natural gas has been developed. The gas sample filled in a 5 l Tedlar bag was introduced into the 0.5 ml volume of a sampling loop, separated on a 50 m capillary column coated with 5% phenylmethylsilicone and detected by a mass spectrometer. Natural

Seung-Woon Myung; Soojung Huh; Jinsook Kim; Yunje Kim; Myungsoo Kim; Younggu Kim; Wonho Kim; Byunghoo Kim

1997-01-01

48

Liquefied natural gas as a transportation fuel for heavy-duty trucks: Volume I  

SciTech Connect

This document contains Volume 1 of a three-volume manual designed for use with a 2- to 3-day liquefied natural gas (LNG) training course. Transportation and off-road agricultural, mining, construction, and industrial applications are discussed. This volume provides a brief introduction to the physics and chemistry of LNG; an overview of several ongoing LNG projects, economic considerations, LNG fuel station technology, LNG vehicles, and a summary of federal government programs that encourage conversion to LNG.

NONE

1997-12-01

49

New designs of heat exchangers for natural gas liquefying and separating plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The special operational features of heat exchangers of natural gas liquefying and separating plants are shown. A new design\\u000a of coil heat exchanger having tubes finned with round wire with a statically uniform structure is described. The technical\\u000a specifications of heat exchangers finned with wire having annular intensifiers and of conventional coil flat-tube heat exchanger\\u000a are compared.

O. K. Krasnikova; O. M. Popov; V. N. Udut

2006-01-01

50

Feasibility of landfill gas as a liquefied natural gas fuel source for refuse trucks.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to evaluate the feasibility of using landfill gas (LFG) as a liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel source for heavy-duty refuse trucks operating on landfills. Using LFG as a vehicle fuel can make the landfills more self-sustaining, reduce their dependence on fossil fuels, and reduce emissions and greenhouse gases. Acrion Technologies Inc. in association with Mack Trucks Inc. developed a technology to generate LNG from LFG using the CO2 WASH process. A successful application of this process was performed at the Eco Complex in Burlington County, PA. During this application two LNG refuse trucks were operated for 600 hr each using LNG produced from gases from the landfill. The methodology developed in this paper can evaluate the feasibility of three LFG options: doing nothing, electricity generation, and producing LNG to fuel refuse trucks. The methodology involved the modeling of several components: LFG generation, energy recovery processes, fleet operations, economic feasibility, and decision-making. The economic feasibility considers factors such as capital, maintenance, operational, and fuel costs, emissions and tax benefits, and the sale of products such as surplus LNG and food-grade carbon dioxide (CO2). Texas was used as a case study. The 96 landfills in Texas were prioritized and 17 landfills were identified that showed potential for converting LFG to LNG for use as a refuse truck fuel. The methodology was applied to a pilot landfill in El Paso, TX. The analysis showed that converting LFG to LNG to fuel refuse trucks proved to be the most feasible option and that the methodology can be applied for any landfill that considers this option. PMID:18512437

Zietsman, Josias; Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul; Rand, Aaron J; Gokhale, Bhushan; Lord, Dominique; Kumar, Sunil

2008-05-01

51

Power-generating and processing plants for combined production of liquefied natural gas and electricity with extraction of helium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matters relating to mathematical simulation and optimization studies of power-generating and processing plants for combined\\u000a production of liquefied natural gas and electricity with extraction of helium are considered. The mathematical models simulating\\u000a individual elements of such plants and plants as a whole are mainly based on an original method for calculating thermodynamic\\u000a equilibrium of multicomponent steam-liquid flows.

E. A. Tyurina; V. V. Stepanov

2009-01-01

52

78 FR 65427 - Pipeline Safety: Reminder of Requirements for Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Utility Liquefied...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Safety: Reminder of Requirements for Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Utility Liquefied Petroleum Gas Pipeline Systems AGENCY: Pipeline and...reminding owners and operators of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and utility liquefied...

2013-10-31

53

Simulation and economic evaluation of natural gas hydrates [NGH] as an alternative to liquefied natural gas [LNG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that relatively little is known about the ultimate resource potential of natural gas hydrates, it is certain that gas hydrates are a vast storehouse of natural gas and significant technical challenges need to be met before this enormous resource can be considered an economically producible reserve. In this theoretical study, a simulation scheme was suggested to produce

Babiker K. Abdalla; Nayef A. Abdullatef

2005-01-01

54

78 FR 17189 - Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced from Domestic Natural Gas Resources to Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries...authorization to export domestically produced liquefied natural gas (LNG) in an amount up to of 15 million...

2013-03-20

55

Development of a Small-Scale Natural Gas Liquefier. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gas Technology Institute (GTI), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Brookhaven National Lab, developed and tested a pre-commercial small-scale natural gas liquefaction system. This cryogenic technology has potential use in a variety ...

K. Kountz, K. Kriha, W. Liss, M. Perry, M. Richards

2003-01-01

56

78 FR 26799 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Beaumont, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Basis and Purpose: Under 33 CFR 127.007(a), an owner or operator planning new construction to expand or modify marine terminal operations in an existing facility handling Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) OR Liquefied Hazardous Gas (LHG),...

2013-05-08

57

Estimated uncertainty of calculated liquefied natural gas density from a comparison of NBS and Gaz de France densimeter test facilities  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) densities can be measured directly but are usually determined indirectly in custody transfer measurement by using a density correlation based on temperature and composition measurements. An LNG densimeter test facility at the National Bureau of Standards uses an absolute densimeter based on the Archimedes principle, while a test facility at Gaz de France uses a correlation method based on measurement of composition and density. A comparison between these two test facilities using a portable version of the absolute densimeter provides an experimental estimate of the uncertainty of the indirect method of density measurement for the first time, on a large (32 L) sample. The two test facilities agree for pure methane to within about 0.02%. For the LNG-like mixtures consisting of methane, ethane, propane, and nitrogen with the methane concentrations always higher than 86%, the calculated density is within 0.25% of the directly measured density 95% of the time.

Siegwarth, J.D.; LaBrecque, J.F.; Roncier, M.; Philippe, R.; Saint-Just, J.

1982-12-16

58

76 FR 2093 - Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary of Energy's natural gas policy guidelines. Eni USA asserts...to substantial quantities of natural gas sufficient to meet U.S. domestic...forecasts increasing U.S. domestic shale gas production through...

2011-01-12

59

49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section 393...Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation...

2013-10-01

60

LNG (liquefied natural gas) as a fuel and refrigerant for diesel powered shrimp boats  

SciTech Connect

A 3406-B Caterpillar and a 4.236 Perkins have been converted from their standard diesel configuration to dual-fuel engines. These engines operate using an aspirated charge of natural gas and a pilot charge of diesel fuel. The pilot is injected for combustion initiation, performing the same task as a spark plug in a spark ignition engine. Natural gas supplies 80% of the total heat addition at full load for both engines. The diesel fuel provides ignition, performs the function of idling the engine, and acts as a coolant for the injector tips. The diesel pilot setting remains constant throughout the operating range and provides a regular repeatable idle for the engine during no-load operation. A shrimp boat is being used to evaluate the dual-fuel system. The vessel normally carries 16000 1 of diesel fuel giving it a trip length of 14-21 days. To operate on natural gas with similar trip length requires liquification and cryogenic storage at -163/sup 0/C. This type of storage provides the necessary energy density needed for on board fuel storage. A 22 m shrimp boat will carry approximately 17000 1 of LNG in insulated tanks. Urethane insulation is used as both an insulator against heat leak and as a partial tank support structure.

Acker, G. Jr.; Brett, C.E.; Schaetzle, W.J.; Song, Y.K.

1988-01-01

61

Design and Testing of a 45MW 100Hz Quadruple-Star Synchronous Motor for a Liquefied Natural Gas Turbo-Compressor Drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few decades, the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been pushing the development of elec- tric drives with increasingly high power ratings, up to several tens of megawatts. A consolidated technology in this field entails dual-star two-pole synchronous motors fed by load-commutated inverters with supply frequencies between 50 and 80 Hz. This paper presents a novel

Alberto Tessarolo; Gianfranco Zocco; Carlo Tonello

2011-01-01

62

Design and testing of a 45MW 100Hz quadruple-star synchronous motor for a Liquefied Natural Gas turbo-compressor drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few decades, the production of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) has been pushing the development of electric drives with increasingly high power ratings, up to several tens of megawatts. A consolidated technology in this field entails dual-star 2-pole synchronous motors fed by Load-Commutated Inverters (LCI) with supply frequencies between 50 and 80 Hz. This paper presents a novel

A. Tessarolo; G. Zocco; C. Tonello

2010-01-01

63

EXAMINE AND EVALUATE A PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy cooperative research project is to define, describe, and validate, a process to utilize salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships. The project defines the process as receiving LNG from a ship, pumping the LNG up to cavern injection pressures, warming it to cavern compatible temperatures, injecting the warmed vapor directly into salt caverns for storage, and distribution to the pipeline network. The performance of work under this agreement is based on U.S. Patent 5,511,905, and other U.S. and Foreign pending patent applications. The cost sharing participants in the research are The National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. Department of Energy), BP America Production Company, Bluewater Offshore Production Systems (U.S.A.), Inc., and HNG Storage, L.P. Initial results indicate that a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at about half the capital cost, less than half the operating costs and would have significantly higher delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. There is a significant body of knowledge and practice concerning natural gas storage in salt caverns, and there is a considerable body of knowledge and practice in handling LNG, but there has never been any attempt to develop a process whereby the two technologies can be combined. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or terrorist acts, and much more acceptable to the community. The project team developed conceptual designs of two salt cavern based LNG terminals, one with caverns located in Calcasieu Parish Louisiana, and the second in Vermilion block 179 about 50 miles offshore Louisiana. These conceptual designs were compared to conventional tank based LNG terminals and demonstrate superior security, economy and capacity. The potential for the development of LNG receiving terminals, utilizing salt caverns for storage and the existing comprehensive pipeline system has profound implications for the next generation of LNG terminals. LNG imports are expected to become an increasingly more important part of the U.S. energy supply and the capacities to receive LNG securely, safely, and economically must be expanded. Salt cavern LNG receiving terminals both in onshore and offshore locations can be quickly built and provide additional import capacity into the U.S. exceeding 6-10 Bcf/day in the aggregate.

Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; D. Braxton Scherz

2003-04-24

64

Costs and Financial Risks of Certain Liquefied Natural Gas Import Projects to U.S. Taxpayers and Gas Consumers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Both the Export-Import Bank and the Maritime Administration provided financial assistance for LNG projects. However, their involvement was not directly related to the U.S. importation of Algerian natural gas. The Export-Import Bank provided loans and loan...

1981-01-01

65

76 FR 34212 - Lake Charles Exports, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...gas from shale resources, making shale gas economically viable. LCE asserts that shale gas reached 23% of U.S. total natural...production in 2010 and that the share of shale gas production is expected to...

2011-06-13

66

Comments on Potential Geologic and Seismic Hazards Affecting Proposed Liquefied Natural Gas Site in Santa Monica Bay, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In a letter to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) dated March 25, 2008, Representative Jane Harman (California 36th district) requested advice on geologic hazards that should be considered in the review of a proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility off the California coast in Santa Monica Bay. In 2004, the USGS responded to a similar request from Representative Lois Capps, regarding two proposed LNG facilities offshore Ventura County, Calif., with a report summarizing potential geologic and seismic hazards (Ross and others, 2004). The proposed LNG Deepwater Port (DWP) facility includes single point moorings (SPMs) and 35 miles of underwater pipelines. The DWP submersible buoys, manifolds, and risers would be situated on the floor of the southern Santa Monica Basin, in 3,000 feet of water, about 23 miles offshore of the Palos Verdes Peninsula. Twin 24-inch diameter pipelines would extend northeastward from the buoys across the basin floor, up the basin slope and across the continental shelf, skirting north around the Santa Monica submarine canyon. Figure 1 provides locations of the project and geologic features. Acronyms are defined in table 1. This facility is being proposed in a region of known geologic hazards that arise from both the potential for strong earthquakes and geologic processes related to sediment transport and accumulation in the offshore environment. The probability of a damaging earthquake (considered here as magnitude 6.5 or greater) in the next 30 years within about 30 miles (50 km) of the proposed pipeline ranges from 16% at the pipeline's offshore end to 48% where it nears land (Petersen, 2008). Earthquakes of this magnitude are capable of producing strong shaking, surface fault offsets, liquefaction phenomena, landslides, underwater turbidity currents and debris flow avalanches, and tsunamis. As part of the DWP license application for the Woodside Natural Gas proposal in Santa Monica Bay (known as the OceanWay Secure Energy Project), Fugro West, Inc., had already prepared a document discussing geologic hazards in the area, titled 'Exhibit B Topic Report 6 - Geological Resources' (Fugro West, Inc., 2007); hereafter, this will be called the 'Geological Resources document'. The USGS agreed to evaluate the information in the Geological Resources document regarding (1) proximity of active faults to the proposed project, (2) potential magnitude of seismic events from nearby faults, (3) thoroughness of the assessment of earthquake hazards in general, (4) potential hazards from ground rupture and strong shaking, (5) potential hazards from tsunamis, and (6) other geologic hazards including landslides and debris flows. Because two new earthquake probability reports were scheduled to be released in mid-April, 2008, by the USGS and the California Geological Survey (CGS), the USGS suggested a 6-month review period to enable a thorough incorporation of this new information. Twenty-seven scientists from the USGS and the CGS reviewed various sections of the Geological Resources document. This report outlines our major conclusions. The appendix is a longer list of comments by these reviewers, grouped by section of the Geological Resources document. Before discussing our reviews, we first provide a brief overview of geologic hazards in the proposed site area. This report is a snapshot in time and any future work in the area will need to take into account ongoing research efforts. For example, USGS scientists collected seismic reflection data in the spring of 2008 to study the structure and seismic potential of several faults in the area. Their interpretations (Conrad and others, 2008a and 2008b) are too preliminary to be included in this report, but their final results, along with other researchers' studies in the project area, should be considered in any future work on the Deepwater Port project.

Ross, Stephanie L.; Lee, Homa J.; Parsons, Tom E.; Beyer, Larry A.; Boore, David M.; Conrad, James E.; Edwards, Brian D.; Fisher, Michael A.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Geist, Eric L.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Hough, Susan E.; Kayen, Robert E.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Luco, Nicolas; McCrory, Patricia A.; McGann, Mary L.; Nathenson, Manuel; Nolan, Michael; Petersen, Mark D.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Powell, Charles L.; Ryan, Holly F.; Tinsley, John C.; Wills, Chris J.; Wong, Florence L.; Xu, Jingping

2008-01-01

67

40 CFR 1065.720 - Liquefied petroleum gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas. 1065.720 Section 1065.720...Standards § 1065.720 Liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, liquefied petroleum gas for testing must meet the...

2013-07-01

68

78 FR 4401 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import and Export Liquefied...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...12-125-NG YANKEE GAS SERVICES COMPANY...12-132-NG CONNECTICUT NATURAL GAS CORPORATION...LLC. term multi-contract authority to export...LLC. term multi-contract authority to export...12 12-133-NG Connecticut Natural Order granting...12 12-129-NG Yankee Gas Services...

2013-01-22

69

78 FR 44940 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import and Export Liquefied...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...13-56-LNG CNE GAS SUPPLY, LLC...13-57-NG IDAHO POWER COMPANY...Order granting blanket Power Partners, L.P...to import natural gas from Canada. 3285...Idaho Power Company.. Order...to import natural gas from Canada....

2013-07-25

70

78 FR 53739 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import and Export Liquefied...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...L.C.. import/export natural gas from/to Canada. 3305..... 07...authority to LLC. import/export natural gas from/to Canada. 3306..... 07...the long-term contract with Total Gas & Power North America, Inc. from the...

2013-08-30

71

Thermodynamic Processes Involving Liquefied Natural Gas at the LNG Receiving Terminals / Procesy termodynamiczne z wykorzystaniem skroplonego gazu ziemnego w terminalach odbiorczych LNG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increase in demand for natural gas in the world, cause that the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and in consequences its regasification becoming more common process related to its transportation. Liquefied gas is transported in the tanks at a temperature of about 111K at atmospheric pressure. The process required to convert LNG from a liquid to a gas phase for further pipeline transport, allows the use of exergy of LNG to various applications, including for electricity generation. Exergy analysis is a well known technique for analyzing irreversible losses in a separate process. It allows to specify the distribution, the source and size of the irreversible losses in energy systems, and thus provide guidelines for energy efficiency. Because both the LNG regasification and liquefaction of natural gas are energy intensive, exergy analysis process is essential for designing highly efficient cryogenic installations. Wzrost zapotrzebowania na gaz ziemny na ?wiecie powoduje, ?e produkcja skroplonego gazu ziemnego (LNG), a w konsekwencji jego regazyfikacja, staje si? coraz bardziej powszechnym procesem zwi?zanym z jego transportem. Skroplony gaz transportowany jest w zbiornikach w temperaturze oko?o 111K pod ci?nieniem atmosferycznym. Przebieg procesu regazyfikacji niezb?dny do zamiany LNG z fazy ciek?ej w gazow? dla dalszego transportu w sieci, umo?liwia wykorzystanie egzergii LNG do ró?nych zastosowa?, mi?dzy innymi do produkcji energii elektrycznej. Analiza egzergii jest znan? technik? analizowania nieodwracalnych strat w wydzielonym procesie. Pozwala na okre?lenie dystrybucji, ?ród?a i wielko?ci nieodwracalnych strat w systemach energetycznych, a wi?c ustali? wytyczne dotycz?ce efektywnego zu?ycia energii. Poniewa? zarówno regazyfikacja LNG jak i skraplanie gazu ziemnego s? energoch?onne, proces analizy egzergii jest niezb?dny do projektowania wysoce wydajnych instalacji kriogenicznych.

?aciak, Mariusz

2013-06-01

72

30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57.4463 Section...Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to...

2013-07-01

73

77 FR 72840 - CE FLNG, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...gulf producing regions, with CE FLNG's primary source of natural gas coming from the Gulf of Mexico rather than from shale gas plays. CE FLNG is requesting this authorization to export LNG both on its own behalf and as agent for other parties...

2012-12-06

74

Method for liquefaction of natural gas  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method of altering the heating value of a liquefied natural gas by adding higher heating value components is disclosed. A portion of the liquefied natural gas is used to cool the higher heating value component stream prior to combining the higher heating value components with the liquefied natural gas to obtain a combined stream having a heating value greater than the liquefied natural gas.

2013-02-26

75

46 CFR 58.16-7 - Use of liquefied petroleum gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-7 Use of liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Cooking equipment using liquefied petroleum...requirements of this subpart. (b) Cooking equipment using liquefied...

2010-10-01

76

78 FR 38024 - Magnolia LNG, LLC; Liquefied Natural Gas Limited; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...whenever it considers the issuance of an authorization under Section 3a of the Natural Gas Act. NEPA also requires us \\2\\ to discover and address concerns the public may have about proposals. This process is referred to as scoping. The main goal of the...

2013-06-25

77

29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales. 779.360 Section...Service Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales. (a)...

2013-07-01

78

40 CFR 86.157-98 - Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. 86.157-98...Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. (a) Equipment...procedure for light-duty liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles and trucks...

2013-07-01

79

29 CFR 1926.153 - Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). 1926.153 Section...Prevention § 1926.153 Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). (a) Approval of...for transportation or storing liquefied petroleum gases. (b) Welding on LP-Gas...

2013-07-01

80

46 CFR 58.16-7 - Use of liquefied petroleum gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Use of liquefied petroleum gas. 58.16-7 Section 58...MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-7 Use of liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Cooking equipment...

2013-10-01

81

76 FR 76698 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application To Export Domestic Liquefied Natural Gas to Non-Free...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...exist to satisfy domestic demand as well as the proposed LNG exports. DCP notes that the recent phenomenon of domestic shale gas has increased gas reserves and, consequently, gas production levels are projected to continue to grow steadily....

2011-12-08

82

A conceptual demonstration of freeze desalination-membrane distillation (FD-MD) hybrid desalination process utilizing liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy.  

PubMed

The severe global water scarcity and record-high fossil oil price have greatly stimulated the research interests on new desalination technologies which can be driven by renewable energy or waste energy. In this study, a hybrid desalination process comprising freeze desalination and membrane distillation (FD-MD) processes was developed and explored in an attempt to utilize the waste cold energy released from re-gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The concept of this technology was demonstrated using indirect-contact freeze desalination (ICFD) and direct-contact membrane distillation (DCMD) configurations. By optimizing the ICFD operation parameters, namely, the usage of nucleate seeds, operation duration and feed concentration, high quality drinkable water with a low salinity ?0.144 g/L was produced in the ICFD process. At the same time, using the optimized hollow fiber module length and packing density in the DCMD process, ultra pure water with a low salinity of 0.062 g/L was attained at a condition of high energy efficiency (EE). Overall, by combining FD and MD processes and adopting the optimized operation parameters, the hybrid FD-MD system has been successfully demonstrated. A high total water recovery of 71.5% was achieved, and the water quality obtained met the standard for drinkable water. In addition, with results from specific energy calculation, it was proven that the hybrid process is an energy-saving process and utilization of LNG cold energy could greatly reduce the total energy consumption. PMID:22682269

Wang, Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

2012-09-01

83

78 FR 75339 - Barca LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of technological advances, huge reserves of domestic shale gas that were previously uneconomic to develop are now producing...century. Barca states that large volumes of domestic shale gas reserves and continued low production costs will...

2013-12-11

84

78 FR 75337 - Eos LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of technological advances, huge reserves of domestic shale gas that were previously uneconomic to develop are now producing...a century. Eos states that large volumes of domestic shale gas reserves and continued low production costs will...

2013-12-11

85

Process and apparatus for cooling and\\/or liquefying a gas or a gas mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process developed by Institut Francais du Petrole, des Carburants et Lubrifiants for cooling or liquefying natural gas greatly reduces the number of compressors and heat exchangers required, and also considerably lowers the necessary heat-exchanger surface area and the flow rate of the cooling fluid found in conventional processes. IFP's process consists of compressing a mixture of gaseous constituents

Rojey

1975-01-01

86

Tank of a low temperature liquefied gas tanker ship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bridgestone Liquefied Gas Co., Ltd.'s new LNG cargo-tank design offers increased cargo-tank capacity and improved ship stability by relatively small free surface of the liquefied gas. The tank consists of a lower-membrane-tank portion with compression-resistant heat insulation and a rigid upper-tank portion with a fluid-tight connection to the lower-tank portion. The upper central section of the upper-tank portion extends upward

1974-01-01

87

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bibliography, assembled from computer search of NASA Aerospace Safety Data Bank, including title of report, author, abstract, source, description of figures, key references, and key words or subject terms. Publication is indexed by key subjects and by authors. Items are relevant to design engineers and safety specialists.

Ordin, P. M.

1977-01-01

88

46 CFR 61.15-10 - Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking. 61.15-10 Section 61.15-10 Shipping COAST...15-10 Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking. (a) Leak tests as described in...

2010-10-01

89

42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. 84...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed...

2010-10-01

90

42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. 84...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed...

2009-10-01

91

Liquefied Noble Gas (LNG) detectors for detection of nuclear materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied-noble-gas (LNG) detectors offer, in principle, very good energy resolution for both neutrons and gamma rays, fast response time (hence high-count-rate capabilities), excellent discrimination between neutrons and gamma rays, and scalability to large volumes. They do, however, need cryogenics. LNG detectors in sizes of interest for fissionable material detection in cargo are reaching a certain level of maturity because of

J A Nikkel; T Gozani; C Brown; J Kwong; D N McKinsey; Y Shin; S Kane; C Gary; M Firestone

2012-01-01

92

Clean air program: Design guidelines for bus transit systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as an alternative fuel. Final report, July 1995-April 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) has initiated the development of `Design Guidelines for Bus Transit Systems Using Alternative Fuels.` This report provides design guidelines for the safe uses of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). It forms a part of the series of individual monographs being published by the FTA on (the guidelines for the safe use of) Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and alcohol fuels (Methanol and Ethanol). Each report in this series describes for the subject fuel the important fuel properties, guidelines for the design and operation of bus fueling, storage and maintenance facilities, issues on personnel training and emergency preparedness.

Raj, P.K.; Hathaway, W.T.; Kangas, R.

1996-09-01

93

Exposure of a liquefied gas container to an external fire.  

PubMed

In liquefied gas, bulk-storage facilities and plants, the separation distances between storage tanks and between a tank and a line of adjoining property that can be built are governed by local regulations and/or codes (e.g. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 58, 2004). Separation distance requirements have been in the NFPA 58 Code for over 60 years; however, no scientific foundations (either theoretical or experimental) are available for the specified distances. Even though the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) industry has operated safely over the years, there is a question as to whether the code-specified distances provide sufficient safety to LPG-storage tanks, when they are exposed to large external fires. A radiation heat-transfer-based model is presented in this paper. The temporal variation of the vapor-wetted tank-wall temperature is calculated when exposed to thermal radiation from an external, non-impinging, large, 30.5 m (100 ft) diameter, highly radiative, hydrocarbon fuel (pool) fire located at a specified distance. Structural steel wall of a pressurized, liquefied gas container (such as the ASME LP-Gas tank) begins to lose its strength, when the wall temperature approaches a critical temperature, 810 K (1000 degrees F). LP-Gas tank walls reaching close to this temperature will be a cause for major concern because of increased potential for tank failure, which could result in catastrophic consequences. Results from the model for exposure of different size ASME (LP-Gas) containers to a hydrocarbon pool fire of 30.5 m (100 ft) in diameter, located with its base edge at the separation distances specified by NFPA 58 [NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code, Table 6.3.1, 2004 ed., National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, 2004] indicate that the vapor-wetted wall temperature of the containers never reach the critical temperature under common wind conditions (0, 5 and 10 m/s), with the flame tilting towards the tank. This indicates that the separation distances specified in the code are adequate for non-impingement type of fires. The model can be used to test the efficacy of other similar codes and regulations for other materials. PMID:15908108

Raj, Phani K

2005-06-30

94

Monte Carlo valuation of natural gas investments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this evaluation of energy assets related to natural gas, our particular focus is on a base load natural gas combined cycle power plant and a liquefied natural gas facility in a realistic setting. We also value several American-type investment options following the least squares Monte Carlo approach. We calibrate mean-reverting stochastic processes for gas and electricity prices by using

Luis M. Abadie; José M. Chamorro

2009-01-01

95

Building natural gas locomotives  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a liquefied natural gas-fueled locomotive built by Morrison Knudsen which includes a Caterpillar 1200-horsepower V-16, a monofuel management system with double-wall super-insulated cryogenic tanks, and microprocessor-based controls. Efforts by railroad companies to reduce operating costs and meet future emissions standards have led engineers to look for innovative ways to design trains. In January, Morrison Knudsen Corp. of Boise, Idaho, powered its way into the locomotive manufacturing business when it introduced the natural gas-fueled MK1200G, to be used mostly around railroad company yards and on trips shorter than 50 miles.

O'Conner, L.

1994-04-01

96

78 FR 75359 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Construction and Operation of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Orange...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Operation of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Orange, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...Liquefied Hazardous Gas (LHG) at its Orange, Texas facility. The Coast Guard is...INVISTA, S.a.r.l. located in Orange, Texas submitted an LOI and WSA on...

2013-12-11

97

46 CFR 61.15-10 - Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking. 61.15-10 Section...Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-10 Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking....

2013-10-01

98

40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...32 Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...handling over 13,660 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas per month shall equip each pump...

2013-07-01

99

33 CFR 127.203 - Portable gas detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.203 Portable gas detectors. The marine...

2013-07-01

100

Natural gas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Natural gas is used as a means of power in households. Natural gas has no natural odor, so an odor is added to the gas. This is useful because gas leaks can be detected better and it also reduces the risk of accidents in homes.

N/A N/A (None;)

2003-07-27

101

Analysis of Restricted Natural Gas Supply Cases  

EIA Publications

The four cases examined in this study have progressively greater impacts on overall natural gas consumption, prices, and supply. Compared to the Annual Energy Outlook 2004 reference case, the no Alaska pipeline case has the least impact; the low liquefied natural gas case has more impact; the low unconventional gas recovery case has even more impact; and the combined case has the most impact.

James Kendell

2004-03-01

102

Evaluation of burn injuries related to liquefied petroleum gas.  

PubMed

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a fuel that is widely used for domestic, agricultural, and industrial purposes. LPG is also commonly used in restaurants, industries, and cars; however, the home continues to be the main site for accidents. In Turkey, the increased usage of LPG as a cooking or heating fuel has resulted in many burn injuries from LPG mishaps. Between January 2000 and June 2011, 56 LPG-burned patients were compared with 112 flame-burned patients. There were no significant differences with respect to the mean age, sex, hospitalization time, and mortality in both groups. In the LPG-caused burn cases, 41 burns (73.2%) occurred at home, seven (12.5) were work-related mishaps, and eight (14.3) were associated with car accidents. The majority of the LPG burns (82%, 46 patients) resulted from a gas leak, and 18% of them were related to the failure to close LPG tubes in the patients' kitchens (10 patients). Burns to the face and neck (82 vs 67%, P = .039) and upper (62 vs 23%, P = .000) and lower (70 vs 45%, P = .002) extremities were significantly higher in LPG-caused burn cases than flame-burned cases. General awareness regarding the risk of LPG and first aid for burns appears to be lacking. The LPG delivery system should be standardized throughout countries that widely use LPG. PMID:23799481

Tarim, Mehmet Akin

2014-01-01

103

Two Heat-Transfer Improvements for Gas Liquefiers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two improvements in heat-transfer design have been investigated with a view toward increasing the efficiency of refrigerators used to liquefy gases. The improvements could contribute to the development of relatively inexpensive, portable oxygen liquefiers for medical use. A description of the heat-transfer problem in a pulse-tube refrigerator is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the first improvement. In a pulse-tube refrigerator in particular, one of in-line configuration heat must be rejected from two locations: an aftercooler (where most of the heat is rejected) and a warm heat exchanger (where a small fraction of the total input power must be rejected as heat). Rejection of heat from the warm heat exchanger can be problematic because this heat exchanger is usually inside a vacuum vessel. When an acoustic-inertance tube is used to provide a phase shift needed in the pulse-tube cooling cycle, another problem arises: Inasmuch as the acoustic power in the acoustic-inertance tube is dissipated over the entire length of the tube, the gas in the tube must be warmer than the warm heat exchanger in order to reject heat at the warm heat exchanger. This is disadvantageous because the increase in viscosity with temperature causes an undesired increase in dissipation of acoustic energy and an undesired decrease in the achievable phase shift. Consequently, the overall performance of the pulse-tube refrigerator decreases with increasing temperature in the acoustic-inertance tube. In the first improvement, the acoustic-inertance tube is made to serve as the warm heat exchanger and to operate in an approximately isothermal condition at a lower temperature, thereby increasing the achievable phase shift and the overall performance of the refrigerator. This is accomplished by placing the acoustic-inertance tube inside another tube and pumping a cooling fluid (e.g., water) in the annular space between the tubes. Another benefit of this improvement is added flexibility of design to locate the warm heat-rejection components outside the vacuum vessel. The second improvement is the development of a compact radial-flow condenser characterized by a very high heat transfer coefficient and a small pressure drop.

Martin, Jerry L.

2005-01-01

104

33 CFR 127.1203 - Gas detection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gas detection. 127.1203 Section 127.1203 ...FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied...

2013-07-01

105

United States Imports and Exports of Natural Gas 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tables are presented on the following items: summary of US pipeline imports and exports of natural gas; volume and cost of natural gas pipeline imports; volume and cost of natural gas pipeline exports; volume and cost of liquefied natural gas imports; and...

1979-01-01

106

Natural Gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural gas is a naturally occurring mixture of simple hydrocarbons and nonhydrocarbons that exists as a gas at ordinary pressures and temperatures. In the raw state, as produced from the earth, natural gas consists principally of methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H4), with fractional amounts of propane (C3H8), butane (C4H10), and other hydrocarbons, pentane (C5H12) and heavier. Occasionally, small traces of light aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and toluene may also be present.

Maddox, Robert N.; Moshfeghian, Mahmood; Ldol, James D.; Johannes, Arland H.

107

Natural gas  

SciTech Connect

The abundance of the world reserves of natural gas and the excellence of its qualities as a fuel and a petrochemical feedstock should enable natural gas to increase its penetration on international energy markets. However, the geographic distribution of its proved reserves coincides less and less with the distribution of its consumption. Therefore, the increase in international gas trade appears more and more to be of vital necessity for the world development of its markets. On the basis of a study carried out within the Association Technique de l'Industrie du Gas en France (ATG), the present paper will attempt to analyse the outlook for international gas trade between now and the year 2000.

Valais, M.; Khayat, A.

1988-01-01

108

40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...from which liquefied petroleum gas is introduced into motor vehicles with a nozzle that has no greater than 2.0 cm3 dead space from which liquefied petroleum gas will be released upon nozzle disconnect from the vehicle, as measured from...

2010-07-01

109

40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...from which liquefied petroleum gas is introduced into motor vehicles with a nozzle that has no greater than 2.0 cm3 dead space from which liquefied petroleum gas will be released upon nozzle disconnect from the vehicle, as measured from...

2009-07-01

110

Using geographic information systems in assessment of major hazards of liquefied petroleum gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that there are hazards associated with the storage, handling and use of liquefied petroleum gas. Storage process plants of dangerous substances define the set of risk sources. Release of chemical due to accident could be severe and poses an immediate effect to workers on-site and communities off-site as well as it causes adversely a potential effect on

Mohanad El-Harbawi; Sa'ari Mustapha; S. Abdul Rashid; Thomas S. Y. Choong; Mohamed AL-Shalabi

2004-01-01

111

Scale effects with fire exposure of pressure-liquefied gas tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a tank carrying a pressure-liquefied gas (PLG) is exposed to fire impingement, there is a risk of thermal-induced rupture of the tank. If the tank ruptures, the potential hazards include blast, projectiles, fire and toxic exposure. These hazards are associated with all possible scales of PLG containers from small handheld lighters to huge storage spheres. Over the years, many

A. M. Birk

1995-01-01

112

Well fracturing method employing a liquefied gas and propping agents entrained in a fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is provided of well stimulation with little or no reservoir contamination and a high percentage of load fluid recovery. A liquefied gas and a fluid containing entrained propping agents are injected into the formations. Since the 2 fluid phases are completely miscible, they may be either blended prior to well entry, or injected separately, and blended in the

Bullen

1972-01-01

113

Odor-fading prevention from organosulfur-odorized liquefied petroleum gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for the prevention of odor-fading from organosulfur-odorized LPG stored in containers having active interior steel surfaces. It consists of treating the surfaces with a deactivating amount of benzotriazole, tolyl triazole, mercaptobenzothiazole, benzothiazyl disulfide, or mixtures thereof, and loading the container with liquefied petroleum gas odorized with at least one reduced organosulfur compounds containing one to five

Nevers

1987-01-01

114

Upgrading Fischer-Tropsch LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) with the Cyclar process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of the UOP/BP Cyclar(reg sign) process for upgrading Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was studied at UOP(reg sign). The Cyclar process converts LPG into aromatics. The LPG derived from F-T is highly olefinic. Two routes for upgr...

C. D. Gosling H. E. Fullerton J. H. Gregor

1989-01-01

115

42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...shall be permanently and legibly marked to identify their contents, e.g., compressed breathing air, compressed breathing oxygen, liquefied breathing air, or liquefied breathing oxygen. (c) Containers normally removed from apparatus...

2013-10-01

116

Extraction of odorizing sulfur compounds from natural gas and reodorization therewith  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linde AG's new approach permits natural gas odorants to be removed from natural gas before it is liquefied by peakshaving plants and to be saved for reinjection when the natural gas is vaporized. The odorants, mainly organic sulfur compounds, are removed by scrubbing natural gas prior to natural gas liquefaction and then freed of other impurities such as COâ, HâO,

A. Kruis; H. Karwat

1975-01-01

117

Measuring of compressed natural gas in automotive application: A comparative analysis of mass versus volumetric metering methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative gaseous fuels Fuels are not new, but the fuel metering systems have become very sophisticated in order to control the flow of several products, such as Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Hydrogen, Methanol and others. Alternative fuels and vehicles are now quite widespread, since they reduce emissions and dependence on foreign oil\\/energy

Furio Cascetta; Giuseppe Rotondo; Marilena Musto

2008-01-01

118

Risks of Fire and Explosion Associated With the Increasing Use of Liquefied Petroleum Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) has been in use as household fuel all over the world for several decades. Until the late 1980s,\\u000a its use in the developing world was largely confined to the economically well-off strata of the society but it has since spread\\u000a over a much larger catchment. The increasing use of LPG has enhanced and generalized the risk

S. M. Tauseef; Tasneem Abbasi; S. A. Abbasi

2010-01-01

119

Odor-fading prevention from organosulfur-odorized liquefied petroleum gas  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for the prevention of odor-fading from organosulfur-odorized LPG stored in containers having active interior steel surfaces. It consists of treating the surfaces with a deactivating amount of benzotriazole, tolyl triazole, mercaptobenzothiazole, benzothiazyl disulfide, or mixtures thereof, and loading the container with liquefied petroleum gas odorized with at least one reduced organosulfur compounds containing one to five carbon atoms.

Nevers, A.D.

1987-10-20

120

World Natural Gas: 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report, tables are presented for natural gas production by countries; gross production of natural gas by type of well; natural gas used for repressuring or wasted by countries, and world natural gas trade. (ERA citation 05:034565)

1979-01-01

121

Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its impact on Mexico City air quality  

SciTech Connect

Alkane hydrocarbons (propane, isobutane, and n-butane) from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are present in major quantities throughout Mexico City air because of leakage of the unburned gas from numerous urban sources. These hydrocarbons, together with olefinic minor LPG components, furnish substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical reactivity, a major precursor to formation of the ozone component of urban smog. The combined processes of unburned leakage and incomplete combustion of LPG play significant role in causing the excessive ozone characteristic of Mexico City. Reductions in ozone levels should be possible through changes in LPG composition and lowered rates of leakage. 23 refs., 3 tabs.

Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

1995-08-18

122

78 FR 30295 - Constellation Energy Commoditiesgroup, Inc., ENI USA Gas Marketing LLC, Sequent Energy Canada...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Energy and PetroleumServices Inc.; Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, and Vacating Prior Authority During March 2013 AGENCY: Office of Fossil...

2013-05-22

123

Apparatus for the liquefaction of natural gas and methods relating to same  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating

Bruce M. Wilding; Dennis N. Bingham; Michael G. McKellar; Terry D. Turner; Kevin T. Raterman; Gary L. Palmer; Kerry M. Klingler; John J. Vranicar

2007-01-01

124

Apparatus For The Liquefaaction Of Natural Gas And Methods Relating To Same  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating

Bruce M. Wilding; Dennis N. Bingham; Michael G. McKellar; Terry D. Turner; Kevin T. Rateman; Gary L. Palmer; Kerry M. Klinger; John J. Vranicar

2005-01-01

125

Apparatus For The Liquefaaction Of Natural Gas And Methods Relating To Same  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating

Bruce M. Wilding; Dennis N. Bingham; Michael G. McKellar; Terry D. Turner; Kevin T. Raterman; Gary L. Palmer; Kerry M. Klingler; John J. Vranicar

2003-01-01

126

Apparatus for the liquefaction of natural gas and methods relating to same  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through an expander creating work

Terry D. Turner; Bruce M. Wilding; Michael G. McKellar

2009-01-01

127

A novel liquefied gas based oral controlled release drug delivery system for liquid drug formulations.  

PubMed

A novel liquefied gas based drug delivery system for the oral delivery of liquid and semi-solid drug formulations is presented. The capsule-shaped system is equipped with a capillary as an element controlling the release rate. The delivery mechanism is based on a constant vapor pressure produced by isopentane as a low-boiling liquefied gas. The liquid drug valproic acid (VA) was used as a model compound. The viscosity was increased by the addition of povidone (PVP). The VA-PVP gel exhibited pseudoplastic rheological properties, the shear rate was above 0.1s(-1), similar to a Newtonian liquid. The gels tested in the gas based delivery system provided near-zero-order release kinetics. The longest delivery time was up to ca. 8h. The system is characterized by high flexibility of the delivery rate, which can be achieved by adjusting system parameters such as the diameter and length of the capillary, the vapor pressure of the propellant and the viscosity of the drug formulation. PMID:22426133

Haznar-Garbacz, Dorota; Garbacz, Grzegorz; Eisenächer, Friederike; Klein, Sandra; Weitschies, Werner

2012-06-01

128

World Natural Gas: 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Natural gas production by countries is presented in tabular form for the years 1972 through 1976. Data are also presented on natural gas used for repressuring or wasted and on world natural gas trade. (ERA citation 04:051121)

1978-01-01

129

49 CFR 192.1015 - What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart? 192...192.1015 What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart?...

2013-10-01

130

Optimizing the logistics of compressed natural gas transportation by marine vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compressed natural gas (CNG) has been recently proposed as a potentially economical alternative to liquefied natural gas (LNG) for marine transportation of relatively modest amounts of natural gas over short distances. Because the main capital expenditure in a CNG project is on marine transport vessels, careful design of CNG transport fleets and compatible distribution plans is important. In this work,

Michael Nikolaou

2010-01-01

131

U.S. Natural Gas Exports: New Opportunities, Uncertain Outcomes, November 4, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As estimates for the amount of U.S. natural gas resources have grown, so have the prospects of rising U.S. natural gas exports. Projects to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) have been proposed--cumulatively accounting for about 12.5% of current U.S. natu...

L. Luther M. Ratner P. W. Parfomak

2011-01-01

132

Imported LNG (liquid natural gas) as an alternative fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) first arrived in the United States in 1972 at the rate of one billion cubic feet (Bcf) per year. By 1979, they had reached 252 Bcf\\/year. However, as US as demand declined and domestic deliverability grew, inflexible LNG prices led to the complete collapse of trade during the 1980s. In 1987, all four US

1990-01-01

133

ZnO nanowires-C microfiber hybrid nanosensor for liquefied petroleum gas detection.  

PubMed

Zinc oxide nanowires are integrated onto carbon microfibers using a two-step approach which includes electrochemical deposition of zinc and its thermal oxidation. Such nano-on-micro hybrid architecture is then used as resistive gas sensor. Some properties like mechanical flexibility, low cost and large-area fabrication make this design appealing for different applications. The huge surface-to-volume ratio of such structure comes from being structured at both microscale and nanoscale (ZnO nanowires and C microfiber) and leads to a strong and rapid response/recovery times when it is used as a gas sensor. The fabrication process of the ZnO-microC device is very simple and doesn't involve any expensive lithographic step. The sensors show excellent liquefied petroleum gas sensing properties, with very fast response on gas exposure (about 3 s) and very good reversibility (less than 2%). In addition, the carbon microfiber substrate allows the use of the ZnO-microC sensor also in applications where flexibility is required (for example integrated in fabric). PMID:24757984

Le, D T T; Iannotta, S; Hieu, N V; Corradi, C; Huy, T Q; Pola, M; Tonezzer, M

2014-07-01

134

Natural Gas Annual 1996  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Natural Gas Annual_ provides information on the "supply and disposition of natural gas in the United States." It contains State level data for production, transmission, storage, deliveries, and price of natural gas. Historical data at the national level are available from the 1930's.

135

Application of far infrared rare earth mineral composite materials to liquefied petroleum gas.  

PubMed

Far infrared rare earth mineral composite materials were prepared by the coprecipitation method using tourmaline, cerium acetate, and lanthanum acetate as raw materials. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy show that tourmaline modified with the rare earths La and Ce has a better far infrared emitting performance. Through XRD analysis, we attribute the improved far infrared emission properties of the tourmaline to the unit cell shrinkage of the tourmaline arising from La enhancing the redox properties of nano-CeO2. The effect of the composite materials on the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was studied by the flue gas analysis and water boiling test. Based on the results, it was found that the composite materials could accelerate the combustion of LPG, and that the higher the emissivity of the rare earth mineral composite materials, the better the effects on combustion of LPG. In all activation styles, both air and LPG to be activated has a best effect, indicating the activations having a cumulative effect. PMID:20355556

Zhu, Dongbin; Liang, Jinsheng; Ding, Yan; Xu, Anping

2010-03-01

136

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss among Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Cylinder Infusion Workers in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the exposure levels of noise, estimated prevalence, and identify risk fac- tors of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among male workers with a cross-sectional study in a liquefied petroleum gas cylinder infusion factory in Taipei City. Male in-field workers exposed to noise and administrative controls were enrolled in 2006 and 2007. Face-to-face interviews were applied for demographics, employment history,

Shu-Ju Chang; Chin-Kuo Chang

2009-01-01

137

Geopolitics of natural gas  

SciTech Connect

This examines the role of gas in the world energy supply/demand. Special attention is paid to Western Europe, the Soviet Union, and the natural gas exporting countries. Forecasts of global energy demand until 2000 and data on Western Europe's proven natural gas reserves as per January 1982 are provided.

Russell, J.

1983-01-01

138

Natural gas treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel, low-cost gas-treating unit developed by Gulf Oil Corp. is particularly suited to the removal of moisture and higher hydrocarbons from natural gas at many small fields where conventional methods would be too expensive. Natural gas, after mixing with antifreeze, is cooled at about pipeline pressure by countercurrent heat exchange with a refrigerant to condense higher boiling point hydrocarbons.

1978-01-01

139

Liquefied natural gas-freon electricity generation system  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to an electricity generation system, using freon as an agent to circulate between a warm heat source and a cold heat sink, recapturing electrical energy on one side and alleviating thermal pollution in the environment on the other side.

Nozawa, R.

1982-05-25

140

Liquefied natural gas-freon electricity generation system  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to an electricity generation system, using freon as an agent to circulate between a warm heat source and a cold heat sink, recapturing electrical energy on one side and alleviating thermal pollution in the environment on the other side.

Nozawa, R.

1983-12-27

141

Storage and regasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion covers the historical background of LNG; a description of Columbia LNG Corp.'s LNG terminal at Cove Point, Maryland, including physical plant layout; LNG unloading facilities; the primary vaporization system, which uses submerged combustion to vaporize approximately 75% of the LNG; waste heat LNG vaporizers; four 375,000 bbl aluminum, double-wall storage tanks; the centrifugal, single-stage, pot-mounted LNG pumps; safety

Litchfield

1980-01-01

142

Japan becomes world's biggest user of liquefied natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan has been pursuing strongly a program of importing LNG and has become the world's largest consumer. Tokyo Electric Power Company began importing Alaskan LNG in 1969 not as a long-term energy strategy, but because it was there and at the time seemed the quickest, cheapest way to cut air pollution from power plants in a country facing an environmental

Gale

1979-01-01

143

Apparatus for the liquefaction of natural gas and methods relating to same  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through an expander creating work output. A compressor may be driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates a vapor from the liquid natural gas. A portion of the liquid gas is used for additional cooling. Gas produced within the system may be recompressed for reintroduction into a receiving line or recirculation within the system for further processing.

Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID) [Ammon, ID; Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-09-22

144

Alaskan Natural Gas Pipeline Developments (released in AEO2007)  

EIA Publications

The Annual Energy Outlook 2007 reference case projects that an Alaska natural gas pipeline will go into operation in 2018, based on the Energy Information Administration's current understanding of the projects time line and economics. There is continuing debate, however, about the physical configuration and the ownership of the pipeline. In addition, the issue of Alaskas oil and natural gas production taxes has been raised, in the context of a current market environment characterized by rising construction costs and falling natural gas prices. If rates of return on investment by producers are reduced to unacceptable levels, or if the project faces significant delays, other sources of natural gas, such as unconventional natural gas production and liquefied natural gas imports, could fulfill the demand that otherwise would be served by an Alaska pipeline.

Information Center

2007-02-22

145

Natural Gas Hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on gas clathrates (commonly called hydrates), which are crystalline compounds that occur when water form a cage-like structure around smaller guest molecules. Gas hydrates of interest to the natural gas hydrocarbon industry are composed of water and eight molecules: methane, ethane, propane, isobutane, normal butane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide. Hydrate formation is possible in any

E. Sloan Jr.; E. D. Jr

1991-01-01

146

Nitrogen Removal From Low Quality Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas provides more than one-fifth of all the primary energy used in the United States. It is especially important in the residential sector, where it supplies nearly half of all the energy consumed in U.S. homes. However, significant quantities of natural gas cannot be produced economically because its quality is too low to enter the pipeline transportation system without some type of processing, other than dehydration, to remove the undesired gas fraction. Such low-quality natural gas (LQNG) contains significant concentration or quantities of gas other than methane. These non- hydrocarbons are predominantly nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide, but may also include other gaseous components. The nitrogen concentrations usually exceeds 4%. Nitrogen rejection is presently an expensive operation which can present uneconomic scenarios in the potential development of natural gas fields containing high nitrogen concentrations. The most reliable and widely used process for nitrogen rejection from natural gas consists of liquefying the feed stream using temperatures in the order of - 300{degrees}F and separating the nitrogen via fractionation. In order to reduce the gas temperature to this level, the gas is compressed, cooled by mullet-stream heat exchangers, and expanded to low pressure. Significant energy for compression and expensive materials of construction are required. Water and carbon dioxide concentrations must be reduced to levels required to prevent freezing. SRI`s proposed research involves screening new nitrogen selective absorbents and developing a more cost effective nitrogen removal process from natural gas using those compounds. The long-term objective of this project is to determine the technical and economical feasibility of a N{sub 2}2 removal concept based on complexation of molecular N{sub 2} with novel complexing agents. Successful development of a selective, reversible, and stable reagent with an appropriate combination of capacity and N{sub 2} absorption/desorption characteristics will allow selective separation of N{sub 2} from LQNG.

Alvarado, D.B.; Asaro, M.F.; Bomben, J.L.; Damle, A.S.; Bhown, A.S.

1997-10-01

147

Apparatus for the liquefaction of natural gas and methods relating to same  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through an expander creating work output. A compressor may be driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream.

Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID) [Ammon, ID; Carney, Francis H. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-09-29

148

78 FR 34084 - Freeport-McMoRan Energy LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...interest. Addressing domestic natural gas supply, FME contends that the U.S. natural gas supply is more than adequate to...discusses the impact of increased shale production on domestic supply, stating that dry gas production in 2013 is...

2013-06-06

149

40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...necessary for petroleum-fueled, natural gas-fueled and liquefied...3) For gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled and liquefied...Otto-cycle and petroleum-fueled, natural gas- fueled and liquefied...selected simultaneously with the selection of an empty gaseous...

2013-07-01

150

Estimating household fuel oil\\/kerosine, natural gas, and LPG prices by census region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to estimate individual fuel prices within the residential sector. The data from four US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, residential energy consumption surveys were used to estimate the models. For a number of important fuel types - fuel oil, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas - the estimation presents a problem because these

D. A. Poyer; A. P. S. Teotia

1994-01-01

151

Natural Gas as a Fuel Option for Heavy Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) is promoting the use of natural gas as a fuel option in the transportation energy sector through its natural gas vehicle program [1]. The goal of this program is to eliminate the technical and cost barriers associated with displacing imported petroleum. This is achieved by supporting research and development in technologies that reduce manufacturing costs, reduce emissions, and improve vehicle performance and consumer acceptance for natural gas fueled vehicles. In collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory, projects are currently being pursued in (1) liquefied natural gas production from unconventional sources, (2) onboard natural gas storage (adsorbent, compressed, and liquefied), (3) natural gas delivery systems for both onboard the vehicle and the refueling station, and (4) regional and enduse strategies. This paper will provide an overview of these projects highlighting their achievements and current status. In addition, it will discuss how the individual technologies developed are being integrated into an overall program strategic plan.

James E. Wegrzyn; Wai Lin Litzke; Michael Gurevich

1999-04-26

152

29 CFR 1926.153 - Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...petroleum gases. (b) Welding on LP-Gas containers. Welding is prohibited on...appliances or mechanical ventilation air intakes. ...popularly known in the industry as “skid tanks...weight. (4) Field welding where...

2010-07-01

153

Natural gas to buoy Trinidad and Tobago petroleum sector  

SciTech Connect

Trinidad and Tobago's petroleum sector remains at a crossroads. While heavily reliant on oil and gas for domestic energy consumption and hard currency export earnings, the small Caribbean island nation faces some tough choices in reviving its hydrocarbon sector in the 1990s. Exploration and production of crude oil have stagnated in recent years, and domestic refinery utilization remains low at 36%. However, substantial natural gas reserves in Trinidad and Tobago offer the promise of a burgeoning natural gas based economy with an eye to liquefied natural gas and gas based petrochemical exports. Any solutions will involve considerable outlays by the government as well as a sizable infusion of capital by foreign companies. Therein lie some of the hard choices. The article describes the roles of oil and gas, foreign investment prospects, refining status, refining problems, gas sector foreign investment, and outlook for the rest of the 1990's.

Not Available

1993-03-01

154

Towards a two-dimensional laser induced breakdown spectroscopy mapping of liquefied petroleum gas and electrolytic oxy-hydrogen flames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional mapping of the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) signal of chemical species information in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and electrolytic oxy-hydrogen (EOH) flames was performed with in situ flame diagnostics. Base LIBS signals averaged from measurements at wavelengths of 320 nm to 350 nm describe the density information of a flame. The CN LIBS signal provides the concentration of fuel, while the H/O signal represents the fuel/air equivalence ratio. Here, we demonstrate the meaningful use of two-dimensional LIBS mappings to provide key combustion information, such as density, fuel concentration, and fuel/air equivalence ratio.

Lee, Seok Hwan; Hahn, H. Thomas; Yoh, Jack J.

2013-10-01

155

Natural gas monthly  

SciTech Connect

This document highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data presented include volume and price, production, consumption, underground storage, and interstate pipeline activities.

NONE

1996-05-01

156

Fossil Fuels: Natural Gas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the use of natural gas as an energy source. Topics include its advantages (cleanliness, fewer carbon emissions), disadvantages (difficulty in transport and storage), sources, and usage. There is also a discussion of the creation and production of natural gas, the United States' production and reserves, and some potential new sources (coal bed methane, methane hydrates). The lesson includes an activity in which students investigate porosity and permeability in simulated sediments.

Pratte, John

157

Natural Gas Monthly, June 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monthly report on the natural gas industry covers: dry gas production (wet marketed production minus extraction loss); consumption of natural gas; the average wellhead price of natural gas; the average city-gate price for natural gas delivered to dis...

1988-01-01

158

77 FR 63806 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...connects with interstate pipelines of Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company...pricing. Navigant's analysis also assumed the existence...increase in natural gas demand due to the use...nationally integrated gas pipeline grid, and will...

2012-10-17

159

Safer Liquid Natural Gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After the disaster of Staten Island in 1973 where 40 people were killed repairing a liquid natural gas storage tank, the New York Fire Commissioner requested NASA's help in drawing up a comprehensive plan to cover the design, construction, and operation of liquid natural gas facilities. Two programs are underway. The first transfers comprehensive risk management techniques and procedures which take the form of an instruction document that includes determining liquid-gas risks through engineering analysis and tests, controlling these risks by setting up redundant fail safe techniques, and establishing criteria calling for decisions that eliminate or accept certain risks. The second program prepares a liquid gas safety manual (the first of its kind).

1976-01-01

160

Geopolitics of natural gas  

SciTech Connect

With almost as many vital economic interests as there were attendees, two natural gas international conferences were held in North America during September and October, to share experience and forecasts. On September 26, the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) and the Calgary Chamber of Commerce sponsored the International Gas Markets Conference and drew 400 persons. And on October 5-6, at the University of Colorado at Boulder, USA, the International Research Center for Energy and Economic Development (ICEED) held its Tenth International Energy Conference on Economic and Political Issues of Natural Gas in International Trade, drawing some 200 experts. The latter seminar was preceded by a two-day seminar on Asian Energy Supplies and Requirements, which also featured natural gas in many of its presentations. To provide an overview of some of these pressing questions, Energy Detente reports on these two comprehensive seminars on natural gas. This issue also presents the fuel price/tax series and the principal industrial fuel prices for the Eastern Hemisphere for November 1983.

Not Available

1983-11-09

161

Future natural gas supplies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite recent optimism about the outlook for the future supply of domestic conventional natural gas, the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) finds insufficient evidence to clearly justify either an optimistic or a pessimistic view. In a technical memorandum entitled “U.S. Natural Gas Availability: Conventional Gas Supply Through the Year 2000,” released recently by Rep. Philip R. Sharp (D-Ind,), chairman of the Subcommittee on Fossil and Synthetic Fuels of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, OTA concluded that substantial technical uncertainties prevented a reliable estimation of the likely natural gas production rates for later in this century. Even ignoring the potential for significant changes in gas prices and technology, OTA estimated that conventional gas production by the lower 48 states in the year 2000 could range from 9 to 19 trillion cubic feet (TCF) (0.25 to 0.53 trillion cubic meters), compared to 1982 production of 17.5 TCF. Similarly, production in the year 1990 could range from 13 to 20 TCF.

162

What Drives Natural Gas Prices?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, fuel switching between natural gas and residual fuel oil kept natural gas prices closely aligned with those for crude oil. More recently, however, the number of U.S. facilities able to switch between natural gas and residual fuel oil has declined, and over the past seven years, U.S. natural gas prices have been on an upward trend with

Stephen P. A. Brown; Mine K. Yucel

2008-01-01

163

US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

Not Available

1990-10-05

164

100th Anniversary of the Discovery of Helium in Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

December 7, 2005 marks the 100th anniversary of the discovery of helium in natural gas by H. P. Cady and D. F. McFarland at the University of Kansas. The work was done in the Chemistry building, Bailey Hall, built in 1900 and designated as a National Historic Chemical Landmark in 2000. An early air liquefier was installed in 1903 and

Ralph Cady Longsworth

2006-01-01

165

Fire protection considerations for the design and operation of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage facilities  

SciTech Connect

This standard addresses the design, operation, and maintenance of LPG storage facilities from the standpoint of prevention and control of releases, fire-protection design, and fire-control measures, as well as the history of LPG storage facility failure, facility design philosophy, operating and maintenance procedures, and various fire-protection and firefighting approaches and presentations. The storage facilities covered are LPG installations (storage vessels and associated loading/unloading/transfer systems) at marine and pipeline terminals, natural gas processing plants, refineries, petrochemical plants, and tank farms.

Not Available

1989-01-01

166

Possible health effects of liquefied petroleum gas on workers at filling and distribution stations of Gaza governorates.  

PubMed

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is widely used in the Gaza Strip for domestic purposes, in agriculture and industry and, illegally, in cars. This study aimed to identify possible health effects on workers exposed to LPG in Gaza governorates. Data were collected by a questionnaire interview, and haematological and biochemical analyses of venous blood samples were made from 30 workers at filling and distribution stations and 30 apparently healthy controls. Statistically significant differences were found in all self-reported health-related complaints among LPG workers versus controls. LPG workers had significantly higher values of red blood cell counts, haemoglobin, haematocrit mean corpuscular haemoglobin and platelet counts. They also had significantly higher values of kidney function tests (urea, creatinine and uric acid) and liver function enzyme activities (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). LPG workers at Gaza Strip petroleum stations are at higher risk for health-related symptoms and clinical abnormalities. PMID:23879082

Sirdah, M M; Al Laham, N A; El Madhoun, R A

2013-03-01

167

Natural gas in North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost all natural gas produced in North Dakota is casinghead gas from oil pools in the Madison group along the Nesson anticline and from pools in Burke County. Relatively minor quantities of dry gas are produced from the gas fields of North Dakota part of the Cedar Creek anticline. Only the natural gas from these areas is used commercially; the

S. B. Anderson; W. P. Eastwood

1968-01-01

168

76 FR 33746 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LNG states that traditional domestic natural gas production has been supplemented by unconventional sources, such as shale gas formations, which new technologies have made economically recoverable. Freeport LNG asserts that as a result of...

2011-06-09

169

Training Simulator for the Control of Natural Gas Liquefaction Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A frequent desire expressed in connection with the international trade of liquefied gas is the improvement in relations between the signatories of the various contracts occassioned by such projects. For the exploration company, the valorization of the gas...

M. G. Montupet-L'Hermitte

1981-01-01

170

Natural gas monthly, December 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report presents information of interest to organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data are presented on natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

NONE

1995-12-01

171

Natural gas monthly, July 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1997-07-01

172

46 CFR 121.240 - Gas systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Cooking systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) must meet the following requirements...CNG system must meet ABYC A-22, âMarine Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Systems,â Chapter 6 of NFPA...

2009-10-01

173

Natural gas monthly, June 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1997-06-01

174

Natural gas monthly, July 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1994-07-20

175

Natural gas monthly, November 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1995-12-05

176

Economics of natural gas upgrading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas could be an important alternative energy source in meeting some of the market demand presently met by liquid products from crude oil. This study was initiated to analyze three energy markets to determine if greater use could be made of natural gas or natural gas derived products and if those products could be provided on an economically competitive

J. H. Hackworth; R. W. Koch

1995-01-01

177

Natural gas pipeline technology overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern

S. M. Folga

2007-01-01

178

An automatic flow system for NIR screening analysis of liquefied petroleum gas with respect to propane content.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a NIR spectrometric method for screening analysis of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) samples. The proposed method is aimed at discriminating samples with low and high propane content, which can be useful for the adjustment of burn settings in industrial applications. A gas flow system was developed to introduce the LPG sample into a NIR flow cell at constant pressure. In addition, a gas chromatographer was employed to determine the propane content of the sample for reference purposes. The results of a principal component analysis, as well as a classification study using SIMCA (soft independent modeling of class analogies), revealed that the samples can be successfully discriminated with respect to propane content by using the NIR spectrum in the range 8100-8800 cm(-1). In addition, by using SPA-LDA (linear discriminant analysis with variables selected by the successive projections algorithm), it was found that perfect discrimination can also be achieved by using only two wavenumbers (8215 and 8324 cm(-1)). This finding may be of value for the design of a dedicated, low-cost instrument for routine analyses. PMID:23598110

Dantas, Hebertty V; Barbosa, Mayara F; Nascimento, Elaine C L; Moreira, Pablo N T; Galvão, Roberto K H; Araújo, Mário C U

2013-03-15

179

World natural gas trends and gas projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study first analyses worldwide supply/demand trends of natural gas. Then it forecasts a high increase in gas demand especially in Asia, and emphasizes the need to secure future supply sources for gas imports. Several issues concerning future gas marke...

Y. H. Park K. J. Oh S. S. Choi

1994-01-01

180

A Large Helium Liquefier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large helium liquefier is described which produces 7.5 liters of liquid helium per hour through a Joule-Thomson expansion valve when operated from a compressor giving 21 cu ft.\\/min. flow at a pressure head of 320 lb.\\/sq. in. The liquid helium can readily be transferred into exterior cryostats. The consumption of liquid hydrogen, used to pre-cool the helium gas, during

J. G. Daunt; H. L. Johnston

1949-01-01

181

Natural gas monthly, May 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

NONE

1997-05-01

182

Natural gas monthly, May 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured articles for this month are: Opportunities with fuel cells, and revisions to monthly natural gas data.

Not Available

1994-05-25

183

Natural gas monthly, June 1996  

SciTech Connect

The natural gas monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article for this month is Natural Gas Industry Restructuring and EIA Data Collection.

NONE

1996-06-24

184

Natural gas monthly, June 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural Gas 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

Not Available

1994-06-01

185

Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993  

SciTech Connect

The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

Not Available

1993-11-10

186

Crude oil and natural gas pricing. Chapters 300 to 499: natural gas liquids, natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text analyzes the federal statutes and regulations that affect the pricing and allocation of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. It does not cover refined products or imported crude oil except where necessary to place major decisions in historical context. Chapter 300 concerns natural gas liquids. For historical rather than logical reasons, these are regulated as an

1980-01-01

187

Natural-gas price puzzle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rectifying natural-gas underpricing and distortions in production has benefited the overall economy, but transition costs are large, and problems and strains continue. The natural-gas price story began with the 1954 price controls that developed into a wasteful, inefficient, and unfair system of too-low gas prices that resulted in the 1978 Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA). While meeting a number of

1983-01-01

188

Natural gas monthly, September 1998  

SciTech Connect

The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1998-09-01

189

Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report  

SciTech Connect

The Assistant Secretary for Environment has responsibility for identifying, characterizing, and ameliorating the environmental, health, and safety issues and public concerns associated with commercial operation of specific energy systems. The need for developing a safety and environmental control assessment for liquefied gaseous fuels was identified by the Environmental and Safety Engineering Division as a result of discussions with various governmental, industry, and academic persons having expertise with respect to the particular materials involved: liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and anhydrous ammonia. This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in Fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 1 (Executive Summary) describes the background, purpose and organization of the LGF Program and contains summaries of the 25 reports presented in Volumes 2 and 3. Annotated bibliographies on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety and Environmental Control Research and on Fire Safety and Hazards of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) are included in Volume 1.

Not Available

1980-10-01

190

Understanding Natural Gas Price Decontrol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1978, the Congress passed the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA), which allowed gradual increases in the price of natural gas at the wellhead. The legislation sought to raise the price of most gas to the equivalent of the act's projected price of oil by 198...

1983-01-01

191

Comparative study of engine control strategies for particulate emissions from direct injection light-duty vehicle fueled with gasoline and liquid phase liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the potential of a dedicated direct injection liquefied petroleum gas (LPG-DI) vehicle, we investigated several engine control parameters that are closely related to the characteristics of mixture preparation and nano-particle emissions. The fuel supply circuit for the direct injection of LPG in liquid form was modified into a return-type system comprised of a three-way high pressure pump, a

Cha-Lee Myung; Juwon Kim; Kwanhee Choi; In Goo Hwang

192

Natural gas conversion process  

SciTech Connect

The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

Not Available

1992-01-01

193

Chemical analysis and ozone formation potential of exhaust from dual-fuel (liquefied petroleum gas/gasoline) light duty vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measures must be undertaken to lower the transport sector's contribution to anthropogenic emissions. Vehicles powered by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are an option due to their reduced emissions of air pollutants compared to engines with conventional fuels. In the present study, ten different dual-fuel LPG/gasoline light duty vehicles were tested, which all complied with European emission level legislation EURO-4. Tests with LPG and gasoline were performed on a chassis dynamometer by applying the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and emission factors and ozone formation potentials of both kinds of fuels were compared. The components investigated comprised regulated compounds, CO 2, volatile hydrocarbons and carbonyls. On-line analysis of aromatic species was carried out by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS). We demonstrate that utilization of LPG can entail some environmental benefits by reducing emissions. However, for dual-fuel LPG/gasoline vehicles running on LPG the benefits are less than expected. The main reason is that dual-fuel vehicles usually start the engine up on gasoline even when LPG is selected as fuel. This cold-start phase is crucial for the quality of the emissions. Moreover, we demonstrate an influence on the chemical composition of emissions of vehicle performance, fuel and the evaporative emission system of the vehicles.

Adam, T. W.; Astorga, C.; Clairotte, M.; Duane, M.; Elsasser, M.; Krasenbrink, A.; Larsen, B. R.; Manfredi, U.; Martini, G.; Montero, L.; Sklorz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; Perujo, A.

2011-06-01

194

Natural gas monthly, February 1996  

SciTech Connect

The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1996-03-01

195

Natural gas monthly, January 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured article for this month is on US coalbed methane production.

Not Available

1994-02-01

196

Analysis of a gas turbine and steam turbine combined cycle with liquefied hydrogen as fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performances of a combined cycle driven by the liquid hydrogen are discussed. The cycle consists of a gas turbine with a precooler system, and a steam turbine heated by the exhaust energy of gas turbine. The liquid hydrogen has not only chemical but also low temperature exergy. The latter is about 10 per cent of the total exergy and is converted to the useful work through the precooling system and an auxiliary hydrogen turbine. The specific output and thermal efficiency of the combined cycle are much higher than those of a simple cycle gas turbine, but in order to succeed the combined cycle, it is necessary to check the pinch point which may take place in the boiling process which is heated by the exhaust energy of gas turbine.

Tsujikawa, Y.; Sawada, T.

197

40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines...Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum...

2013-07-01

198

40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines...Light-Duty Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum...

2013-07-01

199

Natural gas pipeline technology overview.  

SciTech Connect

The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies. Compressor stations at required distances boost the pressure that is lost through friction as the gas moves through the steel pipes (EPA 2000). The natural gas system is generally described in terms of production, processing and purification, transmission and storage, and distribution (NaturalGas.org 2004b). Figure 1.1-2 shows a schematic of the system through transmission. This report focuses on the transmission pipeline, compressor stations, and city gates.

Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

2007-11-01

200

Apparatus and method for gelling liquefied gasses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus for gelling liquid propane and other liquefied gasses includes a temperature controlled churn mixer, vacuum pump, liquefied gas transfer tank, and means for measuring amount of material entering the mixer. The apparatus and method are particularly useful for the production of high quality rocket fuels and propellants.

Elliott, Adam (Inventor); DiSalvo, Roberto (Inventor); Shepherd, Phillip (Inventor); Kosier, Ryan (Inventor)

2011-01-01

201

Natural gas monthly, February 1998  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through February 1998 for many data series, and through November 1997 for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the natural gas data contained in this issue are: Preliminary estimates for January and February 1998 show that dry natural gas production, net imports, and consumption are all within 1 percent of their levels in 1997. Warmer-than-normal weather in recent months has resulted in lower consumption of natural gas by the residential sector and lower net withdrawals of gas from under round storage facilities compared with a year ago. This has resulted in an estimate of the amount of working gas in storage at the end of February 1998 that is 18 percent higher than in February 1997. The national average natural gas wellhead price is estimated to be $3.05 per thousand cubic feet in November 1997, 7 percent higher than in October. The cumulative average wellhead price for January through November 1997 is estimated to be $2.42 per thousand cubic feet, 17 percent above that of the same period in 1996. This price increase is far less than 36-percent rise that occurred between 1995 and 1996. 6 figs., 26 tabs.

NONE

1998-02-01

202

Natural Gas Industry and Markets  

EIA Publications

This special report provides an overview of the supply and disposition of natural gas in 2004 and is intended as a supplement to the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Natural Gas Annual 2004 (NGA). Unless otherwise stated, all data and figures in this report are based on summary statistics published in the NGA 2004.

Information Center

2006-03-03

203

Natural Gas Imports and Exports  

EIA Publications

In the face of unprecedented levels of domestic natural gas production, net imports of natural gas into the United States fell 23% in 2012. A combination of both higher exports and lower imports led to a decline in net imports. In 2012, total imports decreased by 10% to 3,135 Bcf, while total exports increased by 8% to 1,619 Bcf.

2013-07-23

204

Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

205

Natural gas leak mapper  

DOEpatents

A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

Reichardt, Thomas A. (Livermore, CA); Luong, Amy Khai (Dublin, CA); Kulp, Thomas J. (Livermore, CA); Devdas, Sanjay (Albany, CA)

2008-05-20

206

Natural gas monthly - January 1996  

SciTech Connect

This highlight discusses changes in natural gas supply, demand, and prices for the first three quarters of 1995 (January thru September) compared to the same periods in 1993 and 1994. Production for the first three quarters of 1995 lagged year-earlier levels while natural gas consumption has continued a steady upward movement. Total U.S. natural gas production through the first three quarters at 14.1 trillion cubic feet, was less than 1 percent below the 1994 period, but remained well ahead of the comparable 1993 period. The three leading producing States (Texas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma) contributed nearly 70 percent of the total. Natural gas consumption totaled 16.0 trillion cubic feet for the first three quarters, 4 percent above the same period in 1994. Net imports of natural gas reached 2.0 trillion cubic feet by the end of the third quarter 1995 and accounted for nearly 13 percent of total consumption during this period.

NONE

1996-01-01

207

Deaths involving natural gas inhalation.  

PubMed

Death due to gas inhalation is accidental or suicidal. Natural gas can be a cause of death as a result of oxygen replacement in the atmosphere. Three male victims who were killed from gas inhalation are described in this study. One 19-year-old man attempted suicide using a combination of plastic bag suffocation and natural gas tube in his mouth. The other victim (24 years old man) attempted suicide by natural gas inhalation, and the cause of death of the third victim was inhalation of the vapor from a furnace that contained crude oil or gasoline. Methanol was detected in blood and liver samples by headspace gas chromatography (HSGC) and headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSGCMS). Carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) and other drugs and poisons were not detected in blood and liver samples. PMID:20430818

Maryam, Akhgari; Elham, Bazmi

2010-07-01

208

Natural Gas Hydrates Update 1998-2000  

EIA Publications

Significant events have transpired on the natural gas hydrate research and development front since "Future Supply Potential of Natural Gas Hydrates" appeared in Natural Gas 1998 Issues and Trends and in the Potential Gas Committee's 1998 biennial report.

David F. Morehouse

2001-04-25

209

Bringing Alaska North Slope Natural Gas to Market (released in AEO2009)  

EIA Publications

At least three alternatives have been proposed over the years for bringing sizable volumes of natural gas from Alaska's remote North Slope to market in the lower 48 states: a pipeline interconnecting with the existing pipeline system in central Alberta, Canada; a gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant on the North Slope; and a large liquefied natural gas (LNG) export facility at Valdez, Alaska. The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) explicitly models the pipeline and GTL options. The what if LNG option is not modeled in NEMS.

Information Center

2009-03-31

210

Compressed natural gas measurement issues  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition`s Measurement and Metering Task Group (MMTG) was established on July 1st, 1992 to develop suggested revisions to National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) Handbook 44-1992 (Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Technical Requirements for Weighing and Measuring Devices) and NIST Handbook 130-1991 (Uniform Laws & Regulations). Specifically, the suggested revisions will address the sale and measurement of compressed natural gas when sold as a motor vehicle fuel. This paper briefly discusses the activities of the MMTG and its interaction with NIST. The paper also discusses the Institute of Gas Technology`s (IGT) support of the MMTG in the area of natural gas composition, their impact on metering technology applicable to high pressure fueling stations as well as conversion factors for the establishment of ``gallon gasoline equivalent`` of natural gas. The final portion of this paper discusses IGT`s meter research activities and its meter test facility.

Blazek, C.F.; Kinast, J.A.; Freeman, P.M.

1993-12-31

211

Natural Gas Prices Forecast Comparison AEO vs. Natural Gas Markets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper evaluates the accuracy of two methods to forecast natural gas prices: using the Energy Information Administration's Annual Energy Outlook forecasted price (AEO) and the Henry Hub compared to U.S. Wellhead futures price. A statistical analysis i...

G. Wong-Parodi A. Lekov L. Dale

2004-01-01

212

Carbon dioxide power cycles using liquid natural gas as heat sink  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is recognized as a source of usable cryogenic exergy for power cycles. The performance of conventional cycles are calculated. A binary steam–Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) at 550°C has an efficiency of about 52%, somewhat higher than that of a nitrogen Brayton cycle (50.7% at 700°C). Carbon dioxide is recognized as an almost ideal medium for implementing

Gianfranco Angelino; Costante M. Invernizzi

2009-01-01

213

High-throughput investigation of catalysts for JP-8 fuel cracking to liquefied petroleum gas.  

PubMed

Portable power technologies for military applications necessitate the production of fuels similar to LPG from existing feedstocks. Catalytic cracking of military jet fuel to form a mixture of C?-C? hydrocarbons was investigated using high-throughput experimentation. Cracking experiments were performed in a gas-phase, 16-sample high-throughput reactor. Zeolite ZSM-5 catalysts with low Si/Al ratios (?25) demonstrated the highest production of C?-C? hydrocarbons at moderate reaction temperatures (623-823 K). ZSM-5 catalysts were optimized for JP-8 cracking activity to LPG through varying reaction temperature and framework Si/Al ratio. The reducing atmosphere required during catalytic cracking resulted in coking of the catalyst and a commensurate decrease in conversion rate. Rare earth metal promoters for ZSM-5 catalysts were screened to reduce coking deactivation rates, while noble metal promoters reduced onset temperatures for coke burnoff regeneration. PMID:23879196

Bedenbaugh, John E; Kim, Sungtak; Sasmaz, Erdem; Lauterbach, Jochen

2013-09-01

214

North American Natural Gas Markets  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

Not Available

1989-02-01

215

Apparatus For The Liquefaaction Of Natural Gas And Methods Relating To Same  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating work output. A compressor is driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream. Additional features and techniques may be integrated with the liquefaction process including a water clean-up cycle and a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) clean-up cycle.

Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID); Raterman, Kevin T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Palmer, Gary L. (Shelley, ID); Klingler, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Vranicar, John J. (Concord, CA)

2003-06-24

216

Apparatus for the liquefaction of natural gas and methods relating to same  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating work output. A compressor is driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream. Additional features and techniques may be integrated with the liquefaction process including a water clean-up cycle and a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) clean-up cycle.

Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID); Raterman, Kevin T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Palmer, Gary L. (Shelley, ID); Klingler, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Vranicar, John J. (Concord, CA)

2007-05-22

217

Apparatus For The Liquefaaction Of Natural Gas And Methods Relating To Same  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating work output. A compressor is driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream. Additional features and techniques may be integrated with the liquefaction process including a water clean-up cycle and a carbon dioxide (CO2) clean-up cycle.

Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID); Rateman, Kevin T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Palmer, Gary L. (Shelley, ID); Klinger, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Vranicar, John J. (Concord, CA)

2005-11-08

218

Apparatus For The Liquefaaction Of Natural Gas And Methods Relating To Same  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating work output. A compressor is driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream. Additional features and techniques may be integrated with the liquefaction process including a water clean-up cycle and a carbon dioxide (CO2) clean-up cycle.

Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Turner, Terry D. (Ammon, ID); Raterman, Kevin T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Palmer, Gary L. (Shelley, ID); Klingler, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Vranicar, John J. (Concord, CA)

2005-05-03

219

Natural gas hydrates storage project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since economical and environmental conditions could be positively affected by greater use of natural gas, especially for peak-loading events of power plants, the feasibility of overcoming a major impediment of safe, above-ground storage in heavily populat...

R. E. Rogers

1999-01-01

220

Natural Gas Monthly August 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. Explanatory notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication.

NONE

1998-08-01

221

Natural gas monthly, November 1997  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through November for many data series, and through August for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the most recent data estimates are: (1) Preliminary estimates of dry natural gas production and total consumption available through November 1997 indicate that both series are on track to end the year at levels close to those of 1996. Cumulative dry production is one-half percent higher than in 1996 and consumption is one-half percent lower. (2) Natural gas production is estimated to be 52.6 billion cubic feet per day in November 1997, the highest rate since March 1997. (3) After falling 8 percent in July 1997, the national average wellhead price rose 10 percent in August 1997, reaching an estimated $2.21 per thousand cubic feet. (4) Milder weather in November 1997 compared to November 1996 has resulted in significantly lower levels of residential consumption of natural gas and net storage withdrawls than a year ago. The November 1997 estimates of residential consumption and net withdrawls are 9 and 20 percent lower, respectively, than in November 1996.

NONE

1997-11-01

222

Total fuel-cycle analysis of heavy-duty vehicles using biofuels and natural gas-based alternative fuels.  

PubMed

Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) present a growing energy and environmental concern worldwide. These vehicles rely almost entirely on diesel fuel for propulsion and create problems associated with local pollution, climate change, and energy security. Given these problems and the expected global expansion of HDVs in transportation sectors, industry and governments are pursuing biofuels and natural gas as potential alternative fuels for HDVs. Using recent lifecycle datasets, this paper evaluates the energy and emissions impacts of these fuels in the HDV sector by conducting a total fuel-cycle (TFC) analysis for Class 8 HDVs for six fuel pathways: (1) petroleum to ultra low sulfur diesel; (2) petroleum and soyoil to biodiesel (methyl soy ester); (3) petroleum, ethanol, and oxygenate to e-diesel; (4) petroleum and natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch diesel; (5) natural gas to compressed natural gas; and (6) natural gas to liquefied natural gas. TFC emissions are evaluated for three greenhouse gases (GHGs) (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) and five other pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and sulfur oxides), along with estimates of total energy and petroleum consumption associated with each of the six fuel pathways. Results show definite advantages with biodiesel and compressed natural gas for most pollutants, negligible benefits for e-diesel, and increased GHG emissions for liquefied natural gas and Fischer-Tropsch diesel (from natural gas). PMID:21416755

Meyer, Patrick E; Green, Erin H; Corbett, James J; Mas, Carl; Winebrake, James J

2011-03-01

223

Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a lower heat transfer rate in the internal heat exchanger than was designed. It is believed that the fins on the heat-exchanger tubes did not make proper contact with the tubes transporting the chilled glycol, and pairs of fins were too close for interior areas of fins to serve as hydrate collection sites. A correction of the fabrication fault in the heat exchanger fin attachments could be easily made to provide faster formation rates. The storage success with the POC process provides valuable information for making the process an economically viable process for safe, aboveground natural-gas storage.

Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

2006-03-31

224

Asian natural gas pipeline proposed for easing energy, feedstock strains  

SciTech Connect

Nearly every country on the program at the recent Asian Natural Gas 5 Conference in Singapore reported on attempts to maximize the use of natural gas as a fuel and a feedstock. But no one made a more startling presentation than Masaru Hirata, chairman of the National Pipeline Research Society of Japan. His proposal: construct an international trunk pipeline network linking natural gas fields in Central Asia, Southeast Asia, Siberia, and North America with the main markets of Asia, primarily Japan and China. Total length -- 25,500 miles. He cites International Energy Agency data projecting a 70% increase in energy demand in the Pacific region between 1989 and 2000. Natural gas will be expected to satisfy anticipated energy needs into the next century. An important element in Hirata's thinking is the promotion of international cooperation among the beneficiaries of the network. In the Asia-Pacific region, natural gas is more plentiful than oil. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants have been built in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Australia. All of them sell LNG to Japan (the world's largest importer of LNG), South Korea, and Taiwan. Additional vast reserves are known to exist in Siberia, near Sakhalin Island, and in the western regions of China. Hirata's network is aimed at bringing the gas from these distant deposits to consumers in the coastal regions of Asia. There are six major parts to the proposed network: Turkmenistan-West China-Japan; Yakutsk-China-Korea-Japan; Alaska-Sakhalin Island-Japan; ASEAN-South China; Within ASEAN; and Australia-ASEAN. The estimated cost of the project is about $66 billion in current dollars.

Haggin, J. (C and EN, Chicago, IL (United States))

1994-06-06

225

Natural gas production from Arctic gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural gas hydrates of the Messoyakha field in the West Siberian basin of Russia and those of the Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk River area on the North Slope of Alaska occur within a similar series of interbedded Cretaceous and Tertiary sandstone and siltstone reservoirs. Geochemical analyses of gaseous well-cuttings and production gases suggest that these two hydrate accumulations contain a mixture

1993-01-01

226

Natural gas conversion process  

SciTech Connect

Work continued on Task No. 3. Particular attention was given to the back pressure control at the two gaseous effluent outlets and to the incineration of these effluents prior to their disposal. Temperature of the riser/regenerator and steam requirements were predicted from the gasification kinetics of coke and of coal char experimentally determined at atmospheric pressure, but at somewhat lower temperatures by H. Heinemann. The results of interactions of CH4 molecules with a Hydrogen Plasma in the adsorbed layer at the surface of refractory oxides were compared with those in the gas phase in order to select the optimum temperature range in the Cyclone reactor.

Gondouin, M.

1991-01-01

227

Natural gas monthly, February 1997  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents estimates of natural gas supply and consumption through February 1997. Estimates of natural gas prices are through November 1996 except electric utility prices that are through October 1996. Cumulatively for January through February 1997, the daily average rates for several data series remain close to those of 1996. (Comparing daily rates accounts for the fact that February 1996 had 29 days.) Daily total consumption for January through February is estimated to be 83 billion cubic feet per day, 1 percent higher than during the same period in 1996. Similarly, the estimate of average daily production of 53 billion cubic feet is 1.5 percent higher than in 1996, while daily net imports during the first 2 months of 1997 are virtually unchanged from 1996.

NONE

1997-02-01

228

Natural gas: Removing the obstacles  

SciTech Connect

Defining and then figuring out how to remove whatever obstacles may be blocking the wider use of natural gas was the purpose of a conference held early last month in Phoenix, Arizona. The unique, three-day event was jointly sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC). It drew an overflow crowd of more than 500, with a registration list that read like a Who's Who of the natural gas industry. This article summarizes some of the main points of this conference.

Romo, C.

1992-03-15

229

Separation of liquid hydrocarbons from natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethane and other hydrocarbons of higher boiling point are separated as a liquid from natural gas to leave a gas consisting principally of methane for delivery to a pipeline. The natural gas is passed in countercurrent heat exchange with the liquid product and with the pipeline gas to cool the natural gas to a temperature at which a major part

1977-01-01

230

Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EIA attributes a more competitive industry and increases in pipeline capacity as major factors affecting increased natural gas demand in Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends. According to this recently released report, Natural gas demand has increased in the United States by fourteen percent since 1990 and electric utility consumption of natural gas rose about seventeen percent from 1990 to 1998.

231

Turkey's Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey's natural gas (NG) production is very small and is almost all imported. Turkish natural gas production in 2000, 23 billion cubic feet (Bcf), met around 4% of domestic natural gas consumption requirements. NG consumption is estimated at around 700 Bcf in year 2002, accounting for around 17% of Turkey's total energy consumption. Turkish natural gas demand had been projected

Mustafa Balat; Nuray Ozdemir

2005-01-01

232

New Nanomembrane Could Purify Natural Gas -- TIPSHEETS  

NSF Publications Database

... News Tip: New Nanomembrane Could Purify Natural Gas NSF Recognized for Innovation in Extending ... gas at the nanoscale, which may lead to a clean, efficient purification method. Natural gas is a ...

233

EIA's Natural Gas Production Data  

EIA Publications

This special report examines the stages of natural gas processing from the wellhead to the pipeline network through which the raw product becomes ready for transportation and eventual consumption, and how this sequence is reflected in the data published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA).

Information Center

2009-04-09

234

Staff Handbook on Natural Gas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Department of Commerce created a Natural Gas Action Group early in the fall of 1975 to assist industrial firms and the communities they serve to cope with the effects of potentially severe and crippling curtailment situations. This action group was trained to assess a specific local situation, review the potential for remedial action and…

Gorges, H. A., Ed.; Raine, L. P., Ed.

235

Natural gas monthly, January 1997  

SciTech Connect

This publication, the Natural Gas Monthly, presents the most recent data on natural gas supply, consumption, and prices from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Of special interest in this issue are two articles summarizing reports recently published by EIA. The articles are {open_quotes}Natural Gas Productive Capacity{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Outlook for Natural Gas Through 2015,{close_quotes} both of which precede the {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} section. With this issue, January 1997, changes have been made to the format of the Highlights section and to several of the tabular and graphical presentations throughout the publication. The changes to the Highlights affect the discussion of developments in the industry and the presentation of weekly storage data. An overview of the developments in the industry is now presented in a brief summary followed by specific discussions of supply, end-use consumption, and prices. Spot and futures prices are discussed as appropriate in the Price section, together with wellhead and consumer prices.

NONE

1997-01-01

236

Natural gas and electricity optimal power flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the combined natural gas and electric optimal power flow (GEOPF) problem is presented. It shows fundamental modeling of the natural gas network to be used for the GEOPF, and describes the equality constraints, which describe the energy transformation between gas and electric networks at combined nodes (i.e., generators). We also present the formulation of the natural gas

Seungwon An; Qing Li; Thomas W. Gedra

2003-01-01

237

Compressed natural gas measurement issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition`s Measurement and Metering Task Group (MMTG) was established on July 1st, 1992 to develop suggested revisions to National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) Handbook 44-1992 (Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Technical Requirements for Weighing and Measuring Devices) and NIST Handbook 130-1991 (Uniform Laws & Regulations). Specifically, the suggested revisions will address the sale and measurement

C. F. Blazek; J. A. Kinast; P. M. Freeman

1993-01-01

238

Marcellus Shale: Natural Gas Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage from the EFMR Monitoring Group provides information on the extraction of natural gas from Pennsylvania's Marcellus Shale formation. Users may read a brief overview of the extraction efforts and the environmental concerns involved. A lesson plan and resource guide is available for download in PDF file format. The document includes a number of in-class activities for elementary, middle and high school grade levels. Academic standards and a list of links are also included.

2012-12-05

239

Consolidated Natural Gas raises dividend  

SciTech Connect

The Consolidated Natural Gas Co. has increased the common stock dividend to an indicated annual rate of $1.92 a share from $1.90. At the same time, the board approved a $344 million capital budget for 1993. On a quarterly basis, the dividend would rise from 47.5 cents a share to 48 cents. The first dividend at the new rate is payable Feb. 16, 1993, to shareholders of record on Jan. 15, 1993. The planned 1993 expenditures include approximately $120 million for exploration and production activities, $112 million for gas transmission and $111 million for gas distribution. For 1992, the company's capital budget was $426 million. The lower level of capital spending planned for 1993 is due mainly to the completion in 1992 of major interstate pipeline construction projects by the company's CNG Transmission Corp. subsidiary.

Not Available

1993-02-01

240

Natural gas and gas hydrate accumulations within permafrost in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden natural gas blowouts from within the permafrost sections in West and East Siberia and some results of permafrost core samples study are presented. Topics covered include gas geochemistry, blowout intensity (gas flow rate), depth interval and permafrost rock peculiarities in places of these gas releases. Although microbial gas is widespread within permafrost, thermogenic gas can also occasionally migrate from

V. S. Yakushev; E. M. Chuvilin

2000-01-01

241

Natural gas 1995: Issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

Natural Gas 1995: Issues and Trends addresses current issues affecting the natural gas industry and markets. Highlights of recent trends include: Natural gas wellhead prices generally declined throughout 1994 and for 1995 averages 22% below the year-earlier level; Seasonal patterns of natural gas production and wellhead prices have been significantly reduced during the past three year; Natural gas production rose 15% from 1985 through 1994, reaching 18.8 trillion cubic feet; Increasing amounts of natural gas have been imported; Since 1985, lower costs of producing and transporting natural gas have benefitted consumers; Consumers may see additional benefits as States examine regulatory changes aimed at increasing efficiency; and, The electric industry is being restructured in a fashion similar to the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry.

NONE

1995-11-01

242

Natural Gas Price Increases in Kansas City.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Substantial recent increases in natural gas prices have focused considerable congressional and public attention on natural gas issues. To determine which factors contributed to an almost double-price increase in the Kansas City metropolitan area between J...

1984-01-01

243

Natural Gas Supply/Demand Accounting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a complete accounting scheme for natural gas, tracing withdrawals of natural gas from the wellhead to deliveries to final consumers. Then the utility of this methodology is exemplified through some specific applications. These applicat...

C. Everett W. Trapmann

1979-01-01

244

100th Anniversary of the Discovery of Helium in Natural Gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

December 7, 2005 marks the 100th anniversary of the discovery of helium in natural gas by H. P. Cady and D. F. McFarland at the University of Kansas. The work was done in the Chemistry building, Bailey Hall, built in 1900 and designated as a National Historic Chemical Landmark in 2000. An early air liquefier was installed in 1903 and in the same year McFarland used the liquid air to analyze a sample of natural gas that wouldn't burn. He analyzed it as having 71% nitrogen plus the expected methane and residual gas that couldn't be condensed. It took two years to assemble the apparatus that Cady used to see the helium spectrum in the residual gas. This paper includes a discussion of the discoveries related to helium, personal insights into the life and contributions of H. P. Cady, and the evolution of its production.

Longsworth, Ralph Cady

2006-04-01

245

Drying compressed natural gas with silica gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the feasibility of using the heat of compressed natural gas to regenerate the sorbent, an investigation of gas drying with silica gel at 20 MPa and regeneration of the silica gel at relatively low temperature in a pilot unit was performed. Prior to this drying method, in automotive gas-filling compressor stations, compressed natural gas was subjected

G. V. Vyalkina; Z. A. Nabutovskii; V. I. Popov; E. N. Torevskii

1986-01-01

246

World Natural Gas, 1978. Energy Data Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

World marketed production of natural gas in 1978 totaled 51,749 billion cubic feet as compared with 50,100 billion cubic feet during 1977. The following data are presented in tabular form: natural gas production by country; gross production of natural gas...

1980-01-01

247

40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065...Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet the...

2013-07-01

248

EROSIVE WEAR OF NATURAL GAS PIPELINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erosive wear can be caused by a water jet burst from leaked water pipe laid side by side to natural gas pipeline. The erosive wear behavior of natural gas pipeline eroded by sand and water jetting was investigated. This work present the erosive wear analysis of API 5L X42, steel grade pipeline which normally used for distributing natural gas to

ZULKIFLI ABDUL MAJID; RAHMAT MOHSIN; FADHLI OMAR

249

Analysis of Industrial Demand for Natural Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several analysts have proposed the theory that there is a frustrated demand for natural gas in the United States. According to this theory, the natural gas curtailments of the 1970s have convinced industrial users that natural gas is not reliable. The use...

D. B. Reister

1983-01-01

250

Natural Gas Production and Consumption: 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data are presented in tabular form on the salient statistics of natural gas in the United States (1972 to 1976); gross withdrawals and disposition of natural gas in the United States (1975 to 1976); quantity and value of marketed production of natural gas...

1978-01-01

251

Storing natural gas as frozen hydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of natural gas hydrates is a well-known problem in the petroleum and natural gas industries. Hydrates are solid materials that form when liquid water and natural gas are brought in contact under pressure. Hydrate formation need not be a problem. On the contrary, it can be an advantage. The volume of hydrates is much less than that of

J. S. Gudmundsson; A. A. Khokhar; M. Parlaktuna

1994-01-01

252

Supplementing supplies: Where did all that natural gas come from last January  

SciTech Connect

Not surprisingly, natural gas utilities in January sent out all-time record amounts of natural gas to customers who depended on it for life-sustaining heat. Many of these utilities had to work to avoid serious pressure drops in their distribution lines. In every case, the record sendout of natural gas by the local distribution company (LDC) far exceeded the amount available to it from the transmission pipelines that link it to gas production fields in such places as the southeastern United States. Half or more of the gas that many LDCs send out in the coldest months of the year comes into their systems from sources other than directly through a pipeline from the production fields. Other sources include the following: underground storage; liquefied natural gas (LNG) that is vaporized and fed into the distribution system; propane, which is mixed with air in a propane-air plant and blended with natural gas for distribution to customers; and curtailment of service to interruptible customers. Deciding on the ideal supply portfolio is no hit-or-miss operation, although it's an inexact science. By maintaining a load-profile history, developing computer models, getting detailed weather predictions and adding lots of human judgment, an LDC's gas supply department can usually hit the number pretty closely. The paper discusses the use of these four supply strategies.

Katz, M.

1994-08-01

253

75 FR 13644 - TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas Deepwater Port License...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...regasification unit (FRU) located approximately 300 meters (984 ft) from the HiLoad unit. Ambient air vaporizers (AAVs) with methanol as an intermediate fluid (IF) would be located aboard the FRU and would provide the heat required to regasify the LNG...

2010-03-22

254

75 FR 72877 - Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...addition to inpatient hospitalization...required inpatient hospitalization...treated at such facilities. INGAA...that this treatment has adversely...fire first'' events...fire first'' events...however, that inpatient hospitalization...criterion. Other treatment can vary...pipeline facilities are...

2010-11-26

255

Liquefied Natural Gas: A Potential for an Abundant Energy Supply or a Potential for Danger.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit was designed to develop mathematical applications in relation to a community resource issue. It should both motivate mathematics learning and provide meaningful problems for reinforcing understanding of mathematics content and skills, including ratios and percentages, linear equations, exponential functions, graphing, and the reading and…

Fishman, Joseph

256

Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal Siting in a Highly Seismic Region on the Mexican Pacific Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new LNG terminal should be built on the Pacific coast of Mexico, one of the most seismic regions in the world. According to International codes, a siting process must be carried out to insure the feasibility of the project, which involves, in a first step, a data collection of all existing documents related to geology, seismicity, and geotechnics. As a second step, a seismo-tectonic study has been performed, with localisation of active faults on or close to the site (aerial and satellite imagery, geophysical investigations) and determination of OBE & SSE levels. Afterwards, the site was globally characterised, with a first geotechnical report, dealing with liquefaction risks, typical soil layers, and general foundation methodology. The general site layout, the general stability of buildings, the detailed soil investigations, and the detailed foundation design are performed in the phases as described in this paper.

Zaczek, Yannick; Lambert, Nicolas

257

DOE/BNL Liquid Natural Gas Heavy Vehicle Program  

SciTech Connect

As a means of lowering greenhouse gas emissions, increasing economic growth, and reducing the dependency on imported oil, the Department of Energy and Brookhaven National Laboratory (DOE/ BNL) is promoting the substitution of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in heavy-vehicles that are currently being fueled by diesel. Heavy vehicles are defined as Class 7 and 8 trucks (> 118,000 pounds GVVV), and transit buses that have a fuel usage greater than 10,000 gallons per year and driving range of more than 300 miles. The key in making LNG market-competitive with all types of diesel fuels is in improving energy efficiency and reducing costs of LNG technologies through systems integration. This paper integrates together the three LNG technologies of: (1) production from landfills and remote well sites; (2) cryogenic fuel delivery systems; and (3) state-of-the-art storage tank and refueling facilities, with market end-use strategies. The program's goal is to develop these technologies and strategies under a ''green'' and ''clean'' strategy. This ''green'' approach reduces the net contribution of global warming gases by reducing levels of methane and carbon dioxide released by heavy vehicles usage to below recoverable amounts of natural gas from landfills and other natural resources. Clean technology refers to efficient use of energy with low environmental emissions. The objective of the program is to promote fuel competition by having LNG priced between $0.40 - $0.50 per gallon with a combined production, fuel delivery and engine systems efficiency approaching 45%. This can make LNG a viable alternative to diesel.

James E. Wegrzyn; Wai-Lin Litzke; Michael Gurevich

1998-08-11

258

77 FR 55197 - LNG Development Company, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...production, owing to drilling productivity gains that enabled rapid growth in supplies from unconventional, and particularly shale, gas-bearing formations in the United States and Canada. Oregon LNG states that improvements in drilling and...

2012-09-07

259

US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

Not Available

1993-10-18

260

Natural Gas Exports and Macroeconomic Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alberta, in volumetric terms, is Canada's leading exporter of natural gas, crude oil, bitumen, and coal. Alberta natural gas shipments to other Canadian provinces and exports to the United States have developed into an increasingly important component of Alberta economy. This article attempts to measure the impact of gas production and exports on different sectors of the Alberta economy as

ABBAS NAINI

1998-01-01

261

Natural gas safety: How sure are we  

SciTech Connect

This article examines natural gas distribution system safety and the public's response to natural gas disasters. Topics include cases of disaster, public and media response, the commission's actions and response, investigation and emergency actions to assure public safety, safety regulations, cathodic protection, and new gas safety rules developed.

Steinmeier, W.D. (Missouri Public Service Commission, Jefferson City (United States))

1991-08-01

262

Assessment of Natural Gas Resources in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past thirty years, the Geological Survey of Canada, provincial governments and industry have conducted assessments of natural gas resources. The Canadian Gas Potential Committee made the most recent study. It reported on the assessment of the natural gas resources in Canada in its second report published in September 2001, and that report forms the basis for this paper.

Robert A. Meneley

263

Natural gas safety: How sure are we  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines natural gas distribution system safety and the public's response to natural gas disasters. Topics include cases of disaster, public and media response, the commission's actions and response, investigation and emergency actions to assure public safety, safety regulations, cathodic protection, and new gas safety rules developed.

Steinmeier

1991-01-01

264

Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy,

M. Rood Werpy; D. Santini; A. Burnham; M. Mintz

2010-01-01

265

Natural gas applications in waste management  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is engaged in several projects related to the use of natural gas for waste management. These projects can be classified into four categories: cyclonic incineration of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes; fluidized-bed reclamation of solid wastes; two-stage incineration of liquid and solid wastes; natural gas injection for emissions control. 5 refs., 8 figs.

Tarman, P.B.

1991-01-01

266

Global Natural Gas Market Trends, 2. edition  

SciTech Connect

The report provides an overview of major trends occurring in the natural gas industry and includes a concise look at the drivers behind recent rapid growth in gas usage and the challenges faced in meeting that growth. Topics covered include: an overview of Natural Gas including its history, the current market environment, and its future market potential; an analysis of the overarching trends that are driving a need for change in the Natural Gas industry; a description of new technologies being developed to increase production of Natural Gas; an evaluation of the potential of unconventional Natural Gas sources to supply the market; a review of new transportation methods to get Natural Gas from producing to consuming countries; a description of new storage technologies to support the increasing demand for peak gas; an analysis of the coming changes in global Natural Gas flows; an evaluation of new applications for Natural Gas and their impact on market sectors; and, an overview of Natural Gas trading concepts and recent changes in financial markets.

NONE

2007-07-15

267

49 CFR 193.2059 - Flammable vapor-gas dispersion protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Flammable vapor-gas dispersion protection...Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL...Accident Consequence Analysesâ. The use of...

2013-10-01

268

Nitrogen Removal From Low Quality Natural Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Significant quantities of natural gas cannot be produced economically because its quality is too low to enter the pipeline transportation system without some type of processing, other than dehydration, to remove the undesired gas fraction. Such low-qualit...

D. B. Alvarado M. F. Asaro J. L. Bomben A. S. Damle A. S. Bhown

1997-01-01

269

Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.  

SciTech Connect

The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

2012-01-27

270

Natural gas hydrates; vast resource, uncertain future  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas hydrates are naturally occurring icelike solids in which water molecules trap gas molecules in a cagelike structure known as a clathrate. Although many gases form hydrates in nature, methane hydrate is by far the most common; methane is the most abundant natural gas. The volume of carbon contained in methane hydrates worldwide is estimated to be twice the amount contained in all fossil fuels on Earth, including coal.

Collett, T. S.

2001-01-01

271

Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today`s natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

NONE

1999-06-01

272

Apparatus and method for gelling liquefied gasses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is a method and apparatus for gelling liquid propane and other liquefied gasses. The apparatus includes a temperature controlled churn mixer, vacuum pump, liquefied gas transfer tank, and means for measuring amount of material entering the mixer. The method uses gelling agents such as silicon dioxide, clay, carbon, or organic or inorganic polymers, as well as dopants such as titanium, aluminum, and boron powders. The apparatus and method are particularly useful for the production of high quality rocket fuels and propellants.

Elliott, Adam (Inventor); DiSalvo, Roberto (Inventor); Shepherd, Phillip (Inventor); Kosier, Ryan (Inventor)

2010-01-01

273

Magnetic liquefier for hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes work done at the Astronautics Technology Center of the Astronautics Corporation of America (ACA) in Phase 1 of a four phase program leading to the development of a magnetic liquefier for hydrogen. The project involves the design, fabrication, installation, and operation of a hydrogen liquefier providing significantly reduced capital and operating costs, compared to present liquefiers. To achieve this goal, magnetic refrigeration, a recently developed, highly efficient refrigeration technology, will be used for the liquefaction process. Phase 1 project tasks included liquefier conceptual design and analysis, preliminary design of promising configurations, design selection, and detailed design of the selected design. Fabrication drawings and vendor specifications for the selected design were completed during detailed design. The design of a subscale, demonstration magnetic hydrogen liquefier represents a significant advance in liquefaction technology. The cost reductions that can be realized in hydrogen liquefaction in both the subscale and, more importantly, in the full-scale device are expected to have considerable impact on the use of liquid hydrogen in transportation, chemical, and electronic industries. The benefits to the nation from this technological advance will continue to have importance well into the 21st century.

NONE

1992-12-31

274

U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report  

SciTech Connect

The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

NONE

1996-11-01

275

Natural gas annual 1993 supplement: Company profiles  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1993 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of 45 selected companies in the natural gas industry. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the companies profiled. The companies in this report are interstate pipeline companies or local distribution companies (LDC`s). Interstate pipeline companies acquire gas supplies from company owned production, purchases from producers, and receipts for transportation for account of others. Pipeline systems, service area maps, company supply and disposition data are presented.

Not Available

1995-02-01

276

30 CFR 75.1106-5 - Maintenance and tests of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; accessories and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-5...gas cylinders and a suitable torchtip cleaner to maintain torches in a safe...

2013-07-01

277

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2002 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2002, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2002.

Rafi Zeinalpour

2003-12-01

278

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2003 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2003, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2003.

Rafi Zeinalpour

2004-11-01

279

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1996 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996.

Rafi Zeinalpour

1997-11-01

280

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2005 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2004, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2005

Rafi Zeinalpour

2006-12-05

281

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2004 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2004, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2004.

Rafi Zeinalpour

2005-11-30

282

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2000 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2000, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2000.

Rafi Zeinalpour

2001-12-01

283

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1999 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1999, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1999.

Rafi Zeinalpour

2000-12-01

284

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2001 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2001, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2001.

Rafi Zeinalpour

2002-11-01

285

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1998 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1998, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1998.

Rafi Zeinalpour

1999-12-01

286

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1995 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995.

Rafi Zeinalpour

1996-11-01

287

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1993 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1993, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1993.

Rafi Zeinalpour

1994-11-01

288

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1997 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997.

Rafi Zeinalpour

1998-12-01

289

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 1994 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1994, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1994.

Rafi Zeinalpour

1995-10-01

290

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2006 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2004, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2006

Information Center

2007-12-31

291

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2007 Annual Report  

EIA Publications

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2004, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 2007

Information Center

2009-02-10

292

The Design of Hydrogen Liquefiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general principles underlying the practical design of Joule-Thomson hydrogen liquefiers, utilizing the compressed hydrogen commercially available in cylinders, are discussed. The theory of heat interchangers is applied to these liquefiers and design formulae and data are presented. A typical design for the regenerative interchanger of a small scale liquefier is given. The liquid nitrogen requirements, expansion valve design, charcoal

Chauncey Starr

1941-01-01

293

40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet the specifications...Fuel Specifications for Natural Gas Item Value 1 Methane...Maximum, 0.001 mol/mol. Oxygen Maximum, 0.001 mol/mol. Inert gases (sum of CO2 and N2 )...

2010-07-01

294

GLOBAL NATURAL GAS MARKET: REALITY OR EXPECTATION?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural gas market all over the world has been suering tremendous changes for the past decades, not only because of market liberalization, but also due to industry restructuring and the strong expansion of lique…ed natural gas market (LNG) which brought the missing mechanism to achieve the integration of the regional markets, or, perhaps, the formation of a unique global

Marcela Ferreira Ramos; Amanda Pimenta Carlos; Rafael Martins de Souza

2009-01-01

295

Majors' Shift to Natural Gas, The  

EIA Publications

The Majors' Shift to Natural Gas investigates the factors that have guided the United States' major energy producers' growth in U.S. natural gas production relative to oil production. The analysis draws heavily on financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS)

Bruce Bawks

2001-09-01

296

Midcontinent natural gas reservoirs and plays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas reservoirs of the mid-continent states of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Arkansas (northern part) have produced 103 trillion cubic ft (tcf) of natural gas. Oklahoma has produced the most, having a cumulative production of 71 tcf. The major reservoirs (those that have produced more than 10 billion ft[sup 3]) have been identified and organized into 28 plays based on geologic

1993-01-01

297

World resources of natural gas - a discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional natural-gas resources are ultimately recoverable in the world in about the same quantities as crude oil. Like crude oil, there are also unconventional sources of natural gas that may someday be recovered in significant quantities. However, the availability of these unconventional resources at high flow rates and acceptable costs are not well understood. Further, the element hydrogen, available in

1993-01-01

298

Centrifuge for separating helium from natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra Centrifuge Nederland N.V.'s improved centrifuge for separating helium from natural gas comprises a hollow cylindrical rotor, designated as a separating drum, within a stationary housing. Natural gas liquids that condense under pressure in the separating drum pass through openings in the drum into the space between the drum and housing. In this space, a series of openings, or throttling

F. H. Theyse; F. E. T. Kelling

1980-01-01

299

How EIA Estimates Natural Gas Production  

EIA Publications

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes estimates monthly and annually of the production of natural gas in the United States. The estimates are based on data EIA collects from gas producing states and data collected by the U. S. Minerals Management Service (MMS) in the Department of Interior. The states and MMS collect this information from producers of natural gas for various reasons, most often for revenue purposes. Because the information is not sufficiently complete or timely for inclusion in EIA's Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), EIA has developed estimation methodologies to generate monthly production estimates that are described in this document.

Information Center

2004-02-01

300

Natural Gas Supply Subprogram Status Report, 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document discusses the status of 1987 ongoing and 1988 planned activities in GRI's Natural Gas Supply research and development program to ensure the cost-effective recovery of gas from marginal resources. Areas covered are tight gas sands, eastern dev...

1987-01-01

301

Natural gas exports and macroeconomic performance  

SciTech Connect

Alberta, in volumetric terms, is Canada`s leading exporter of natural gas, crude oil, bitumen, and coal. Alberta natural gas shipments to other Canadian provinces and exports to the United States have developed into an increasingly important component of Alberta economy. This article attempts to measure the impact of gas production and exports on different sectors of the Alberta economy as the energy producing province of Canada.

Naini, A. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Economics and Policy Development

1998-08-01

302

Mechanochemical transformations of natural gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical transformations of hydrates of natural gas from the Irelyakh gas and oil field of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)\\u000a upon vigorous mechanical treatment were studied. It was found that a general feature of mechanochemical transformations of\\u000a natural gas hydrates is an increase in the carbon chain length of hydrocarbons forming the hydrates. It was shown that the\\u000a constitution of

L. P. Kalacheva; E. Yu. Shits; A. F. Fedorova

2009-01-01

303

GRI's (Gas Research Institute's) unconventional natural gas subprogram. Status report  

SciTech Connect

This document discusses the status of 1983 ongoing and planned activities in GRI's Unconventional Natural Gas Subprogram. The program is part of a broad research program technologies for providing new gas supplies from natural and synthetic sources while also addressing economic, environmental, and safety issues. Project areas supporting the subprogram are tight gas sands, eastern Devonian gas shales, co-production of gas and water, and methane form coal deposits. Presented are objectives and goals, accomplishments, strategy and basis for each project area, and a 1983 status review sheet for projects within the project area.

Not Available

1983-12-01

304

Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

2010-11-29

305

Natural gas: key to refining future  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. Refinery capacity and product mix requirements depend largely on what happens in the natural gas industry. Potential changes in gas prices could cause large portions of the fuels market to switch between gas and fuel oil, upsetting refinery process schemes and demands for amount and type of crude. Almost one-third of current U.S. gas demand potentially is switchable to

M. Kelly; J. N. McCutchen

1984-01-01

306

US Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2001 Annual Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A newly updated publication is available from the US Energy Information Administration. The report, entitled "US Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2001 Annual Report," contains national and state estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids in the United States. The over 170-page document has chapters with titles such as National Summaries, New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields, Large Reservoir Declines, Natural Gas Plant Liquids, and Top 100 Oil Fields for 2001. Those interested can download the entire report, individual chapters, appendices, a glossary, and even previous reports for links offered by on the site.

2002-01-01

307

Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for

C. E. Clark; J. Han; A. Burnham; J. B. Dunn; M. Wang

2012-01-01

308

High-sulfur natural gas project opens  

SciTech Connect

The Astrakhan' high-sulfur natural gas project, under development since 1981, yielded its first natural gas, gas liquids and recovered sulfur in late December 1986 and early January 1987. The gas project, in the desert north of Astrakhan', is being developed from the base settlement of Aksarayskiy, a railroad junction north of Astrakhan'. The initial stage now in operation has a throughput capacity of three billion cubic meters of natural gas; it is to be doubled later in 1987, to six billion m/sup 3/. Astrakhan's is the third major sour gas project to be developed in the Soviet Union; the others are at Orenburg, in the southern Urals, and at Mubarek, in the Uzbek SSR of Central Asia.

Shabad, T.

1986-07-01

309

Coordinated scheduling of electricity and natural gas infrastructures with a transient model for natural gas flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on transient characteristics of natural gas flow in the coordinated scheduling of security-constrained electricity and natural gas infrastructures. The paper takes into account the slow transient process in the natural gas transmission systems. Considering their transient characteristics, natural gas transmission systems are modeled as a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) and algebraic equations. An implicit finite difference method is applied to approximate PDEs by difference equations. The coordinated scheduling of electricity and natural gas systems is described as a bi-level programming formulation from the independent system operator's viewpoint. The objective of the upper-level problem is to minimize the operating cost of electric power systems while the natural gas scheduling optimization problem is nested within the lower-level problem. Numerical examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed solution and to compare the solutions for steady-state and transient models of natural gas transmission systems.

Liu, Cong; Shahidehpour, Mohammad; Wang, Jianhui

2011-06-01

310

Assessment of future natural gas vehicle concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of Natural Gas Vehicles is progressing rapidly under the stimulus of recent vehicle emission regulations. The development is following what can be viewed as a three step progression. In the first step, contemporary gasoline or diesel fueled automobiles are retrofitted with equipment enabling the vehicle to operate on either natural gas or standard liquid fuels. The second step is the development of vehicles which utilize traditional internal combustion engines that have been modified to operate exclusively on natural gas. These dedicated natural gas vehicles operate more efficiently and have lower emissions than the dual fueled vehicles. The third step is the redesigning, from the ground up, of a vehicle aimed at exploiting the advantages of natural gas as an automotive fuel while minimizing its disadvantages. The current report is aimed at identifying the R&D needs in various fuel storage and engine combinations which have potential for providing increased efficiency, reduced emissions, and reductions in vehicle weight and size. Fuel suppliers, automobile and engine manufacturers, many segments of the natural gas and other industries, and regulatory authorities will influence or be affected by the development of such a third generation vehicle, and it is recommended that GRI act to bring these groups together in the near future to begin, developing the focus on a 'designed-for-natural-gas' vehicle.

Groten, B.; Arrigotti, S.

1992-10-01

311

Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions from alternative fuels in Australian heavy vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper quantifies the expected pre-combustion and combustion emissions of greenhouse gases from Australian heavy vehicles using alternative fuels. We use the term exbodied emissions for these full fuel-cycle emissions. The fuels examined are low sulfur diesel (LSD), ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULS), compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), ethanol (from lignocellulose), biodiesel and waste

Tom Beer; Tim Grant; David Williams; Harry Watson

2002-01-01

312

Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The discovery of large gas hydrate accumulations in terrestrial permafrost regions of the Arctic and beneath the sea along the outer continental margins of the world's oceans has heightened interest in gas hydrates as a possible energy resource. However, significant to potentially insurmountable technical issues must be resolved before gas hydrates can be considered a viable option for affordable supplies of natural gas. The combined information from Arctic gas hydrate studies shows that, in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors, known as bottom-simulating reflectors, that have been mapped at depths below the sea floor ranging from about 100 to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Disagreements over fundamental issues such as the volume of gas stored within delineated gas hydrate accumulations and the concentration of gas hydrates within hydrate-bearing strata have demonstrated that we know little about gas hydrates. Recently, however, several countries, including Japan, India, and the United States, have launched ambitious national projects to further examine the resource potential of gas hydrates. These projects may help answer key questions dealing with the properties of gas hydrate reservoirs, the design of production systems, and, most important, the costs and economics of gas hydrate production.

Collett, T. S.

2002-01-01

313

Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Second quarterly progress report, [October 1, 1994-- December 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Emphasis of this project focuses on LNG research issues in use of liquefied natural as a transportation fuel in heavy trucking industry. These issues maybe categorized as: task 1--direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel; and task 2--short and long term storage. Accomplishments for these tasks are discussed. Task 1 consists of atomization, fundamentals of direct replacement, and distribution of emissions. Task 2 includes modified adsorbents, vent gas, and LNG storage at moderate conditions.

Sutton, W.H.

1994-12-01

314

Natural gas contracts in efficient portfolios  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the {open_quotes}contracts portfolio{close_quotes} issue of natural gas contracts in support of the Domestic Natural Gas and Oil Initiative (DGOI) published by the U.S. Department of Energy in 1994. The analysis is a result of a collaborative effort with the Public Service Commission of the State of Maryland to consider {open_quotes}reforms that enhance the industry`s competitiveness{close_quotes}. The initial focus of our collaborative effort was on gas purchasing and contract portfolios; however, it became apparent that efficient contracting to purchase and use gas requires a broader consideration of regulatory reform. Efficient portfolios are obtained when the holder of the portfolio is affected by and is responsible for the performance of the portfolio. Natural gas distribution companies may prefer a diversity of contracts, but the efficient use of gas requires that the local distribution company be held accountable for its own purchases. Ultimate customers are affected by their own portfolios, which they manage efficiently by making their own choices. The objectives of the DGOI, particularly the efficient use of gas, can be achieved when customers have access to suppliers of gas and energy services under an improved regulatory framework. The evolution of the natural gas market during the last 15 years is described to account for the changing preferences toward gas contracts. Long-term contracts for natural gas were prevalent before the early 1980s, primarily because gas producers had few options other than to sell to a single pipeline company, and this pipeline company, in turn, was the only seller to a gas distribution company.

Sutherland, R.J.

1994-12-01

315

North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

Not Available

1989-02-01

316

Refueling stations for natural gas vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The unavailability of natural gas vehicle (NGV) refueling stations constitutes one of the major barriers to the wide spread utilization of natural gas in the transportation market. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate the current technical and economic status of compressed natural gas vehicle refueling stations and to identify the components or design features that offer the greatest potential for performance improvements and/or cost reductions. Both fast-fill- and slow-fill-type refueling systems will be discussed. 4 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

Blazek, C.F.; Kinast, J.A.; Biederman, R.T.; Jasionowski, W.

1991-01-01

317

Natural gas annual 1992: Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. The 1992 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production top its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1988 to 1992 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. Volume 2 of this report presents State-level historical data.

Not Available

1993-11-22

318

Shale gas--the unfolding story  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 2000s US gas production was in slow but steady decline despite increasing drilling activity. As US natural gas prices rose in response to the resulting tight market, the only supply-side solution appeared to lie in the development of liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in the Middle East and Africa for importation to the North American market. Almost

Howard Rogers

2011-01-01

319

Apparatus for the liquefaction of a gas and methods relating to same  

DOEpatents

Apparatuses and methods are provided for producing liquefied gas, such as liquefied natural gas. In one embodiment, a liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream may be sequentially pass through a compressor and an expander. The process stream may also pass through a compressor. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. A portion of the liquid gas may be used for additional cooling. Gas produced within the system may be recompressed for reintroduction into a receiving line.

Turner, Terry D. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-12-29

320

Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer  

DOEpatents

An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65 percent lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy by one unit of energy content in natural gas at one-quarter the cost, the hydrogen production cost will be significantly reduced. Also, it is possible to vary the ratio between the electricity and the natural gas supplied to the system in response to fluctuations in relative prices for these two energy sources. In one approach an appropriate catalyst on the anode side of the electrolyzer will promote the partial oxidation of natural gas to CO and hydrogen, called Syn-Gas, and the CO can also be shifted to CO.sub.2 to give additional hydrogen. In another approach the natural gas is used in the anode side of the electrolyzer to burn out the oxygen resulting from electrolysis, thus reducing or eliminating the potential difference across the electrolyzer membrane.

Pham, Ai-Quoc (San Jose, CA); Wallman, P. Henrik (Berkeley, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01

321

Nitrogen Removal from Natural Gas: Phase II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

SRI identified (bis)tricyclohexylphosphine molybdenum tricarbonyl as a candidate component in an absorption system for upgrading substandard natural gas to pipeline standards by removing nitrogen. The molybdenum compound reacted selectively with nitrogen ...

D. C. Bomberger J. L. Bomben A. Amirbahman M. Asaro

1999-01-01

322

Method for dismantling a natural gas holder  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of dismantling a natural gas holder. The holder has vertical support columns disposed around the periphery of the holder to which the enclosure shell of the holder is attached.

Settlemier, B.R.; Bone, S.R.; Tolivaisa, J.; Nugent, J.E.

1990-10-30

323

Natural Gas Supply Subprogram Status Report, 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1986 status report presents tactical objectives, goals, accomplishments, strategies, and contract status of ongoing projects in GRI's Natural Gas Supply R&D Subprogram that mainly address unconventional supply sources which cannot be economically expl...

1986-01-01

324

REGULATORY REFORM: LESSONS FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines regulatory reform and some possible consequences of reform designed to increase the role that competition plays in the interstate natural gas pipeline industry. The analysis first provides a conceptual framework for viewing the \\

RONALD R. BRAEUTIGAM

1990-01-01

325

Natural gas 1996 - issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents a summary of the latest data and information relating to the U.S. natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and financial aspects of the industry.

NONE

1996-12-01

326

Natural gas flow through critical nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Empirical method for calculating both the mass flow rate and upstream volume flow rate through critical flow nozzles is determined. Method requires knowledge of the composition of natural gas, and of the upstream pressure and temperature.

Johnson, R. C.

1969-01-01

327

Physical Properties of Natural Gas Hydrate Deposits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Natural gas hydrates form in polar regions and in ocean bottom sediments and they may represent a considerable energy resource. Unfortunately, so little is known about the physical properties of hydrate deposits that it is difficult to develop geophysical...

C. Pearson

1982-01-01

328

Natural Gas Price Increases: A Preliminary Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Natural gas prices in many cities are expected to increase substantially this winter. This preliminary analysis addresses--how much prices have increased since 1970 to residential, industrial, and other users nationwide and to residential users in selecte...

1982-01-01

329

Natural Gas Price Increases in Los Angeles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Natural gas price increases in recent years captured congressional and public attention. To determine which factors contributed to an average price increase of 61 percent in the Los Angeles, California, area between April 1981 and April 1983, GAO obtained...

1984-01-01

330

Natural gas as a powerplant fuel  

SciTech Connect

The industry's ability to manage this clean'' fuel resource speaks volumes about its current dominance for capacity additions. This article examines whether natural gas can become the fuel of choice for large-scale baseload capacity. Once banned by Congress as a power-plant fuel by the Fuel Use Act of 1978 (FUA), natural gas is now the current powerplant fuel of choice.'' And most forecasts predict that natural gas will continue to play a dominant role in certain industry sectors, most notably the non-utility-generation (NUG) market, although overall it may not dominate to the extent that many of its proponents suggest. In any case, two major areas are important to better understand natural-gas-fired generation: Resource economics and risk management.

Not Available

1994-02-01

331

Phase equilibria in natural gas systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously unavailable information on the phase equilibria of helium-bearing natural gas is presented. The solubility of helium in the equilibrium liquid phases, the percentage of helium condensed, and equilibrium coefficient data for methane, nitrogen, and helium are considered.

L. W. Brandt; L. Stroud; J. E. Miller

1961-01-01

332

Helium in Natural Gas in the Witwatersrand  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING a visit to the Union of South Africa in the spring of 1957 I observed escapes of natural gas associated with faults and fissures in the underground workings of some of the gold-uranium mines of the Witwatersrand.

S. H. U. Bowie

1958-01-01

333

Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas in the United States during calendar year 1990, for use by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to ...

1992-01-01

334

USSR: development of its natural gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas production in Russia currently stands at 13 tcf compared to US production of 20 tcf. Russian production is expected to increase to 15.4 tcf in 1980 and will surpass the US production total by 1985 (estimated 24.72 tcf). Natural gas reserves in the USSR are estimated at 990 tcf, amounting to a 72-yr life index at the 1976

Lippitt; H. F. II

1979-01-01

335

Natural Gas and the Marcellus Shale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework problem introduces students to Marcellus shale natural gas and how an unconventional reservoir rock can become an attractive hydrocarbon target. It is designed to expand students' understanding of hydrocarbon resources by introducing an unconventional natural gas play. Students explore the technological factors that make conventional source rocks attractive reservoir rocks and how this advance impacts both U.S. energy supply and the environment.

Halsor, Sid; Collection, Serc -.

336

Natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium Implications for the origin of natural gas  

PubMed Central

It is broadly accepted that so-called 'thermal' gas is the product of thermal cracking, 'primary' thermal gas from kerogen cracking, and 'secondary' thermal gas from oil cracking. Since thermal cracking of hydrocarbons does not generate products at equilibrium and thermal stress should not bring them to equilibrium over geologic time, we would not expect methane, ethane, and propane to be at equilibrium in subsurface deposits. Here we report compelling evidence of natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Molecular compositions are constrained to equilibrium, and isotopic compositions are also under equilibrium constraints: The functions [(CH4)*(C3H8)] and [(C2H6)2] exhibit a strong nonlinear correlation (R2 = 0.84) in which the quotient Q progresses to K as wet gas progresses to dry gas. There are striking similarities between natural gas and catalytic gas generated from marine shales. A Devonian/Mississippian New Albany shale generates gas with Q converging on K over time as wet gas progresses to dry gas at 200°C. The position that thermal cracking is the primary source of natural gas is no longer tenable. It is challenged by its inability to explain the composition of natural gas, natural gases at thermodynamic equilibrium, and by the existence of a catalytic path to gas that better explains gas compositions.

2009-01-01

337

Natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Implications for the origin of natural gas.  

PubMed

It is broadly accepted that so-called 'thermal' gas is the product of thermal cracking, 'primary' thermal gas from kerogen cracking, and 'secondary' thermal gas from oil cracking. Since thermal cracking of hydrocarbons does not generate products at equilibrium and thermal stress should not bring them to equilibrium over geologic time, we would not expect methane, ethane, and propane to be at equilibrium in subsurface deposits. Here we report compelling evidence of natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Molecular compositions are constrained to equilibrium, [Formula in text] and isotopic compositions are also under equilibrium constraints: [Formula in text].The functions [(CH4)*(C3H8)] and [(C2H6)2] exhibit a strong nonlinear correlation (R2 = 0.84) in which the quotient Q progresses to K as wet gas progresses to dry gas. There are striking similarities between natural gas and catalytic gas generated from marine shales. A Devonian/Mississippian New Albany shale generates gas with Q converging on K over time as wet gas progresses to dry gas at 200 degrees C. The position that thermal cracking is the primary source of natural gas is no longer tenable. It is challenged by its inability to explain the composition of natural gas, natural gases at thermodynamic equilibrium, and by the existence of a catalytic path to gas that better explains gas compositions. PMID:19531233

Mango, Frank D; Jarvie, Daniel; Herriman, Eleanor

2009-01-01

338

Effects of natural gas contaminants on corrosion in compressed natural gas storage cylinders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes work being performed to define natural gas contaminant concentration levels necessary to insure that internal corrosion of compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders does not constitute a hazard over the lifetimes of the cylinders. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests have been performed on typical steel and aluminum CNG cylinder materials using representative natural gases collected from

F. F. Jr. Lyle; H. C. Jr. Burghard

1986-01-01

339

Hydrogen Liquefiers since 1950  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a review of hydrogen liquefiers and refrigerators over the last half century. Attention is given to the unusual shape of the hydrogen cooling curve at higher pressures and to the problem of ortho-para conversion. High and low pressure liquefaction cycles are reviewed including the innovative discussion by Quack [9] in Volume 47A of ``Advances.'' Heat exchangers are discussed in detail. Requirements for other components are identified and safety considerations are listed. Future trends are projected.

McIntosh, G. E.

2004-06-01

340

METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a project to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. his study will measure or calculate all gas industry CH4 emissions--from production at the wellhead, through the system, to the customer's meter. missions downstream of the consu...

341

Natural gas liquids remain strong petrochemical feedstock  

SciTech Connect

The supply of petrochemical feedstocks in the USA are discussed. The US petrochemical network starts with three main sources, i.e., olefins, aromatics, and natural gas. Petrochemical technology has been pushed to lower costs and improve yields in the face of a determined market drive from new petrochemical producing regions with vast supplies of low-cost gas liquids.

Greek, B.F.

1984-03-12

342

The environmental impact of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlining the environmental impact of natural gas firstly describes the recent and increasing importance of gas in Western Europe, and its discovery in the North Sea. The effects resulting from its utilisation are also described. These include the effect on the implementation of the Clean Air Act and the changes brought about in land use pattern. In making

C. Hibberd

1977-01-01

343

Natural Gas Price Increases in Detroit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Natural gas prices increased an average 38 percent in the Detroit, Michigan, area between January 1981 and January 1983. GAO found that about two-thirds of the price increase was due to (1) the depletion of old and less expensive gas reserves and the addi...

1985-01-01

344

18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 ...Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resourcesânatural gas. (a)(1) The national...

2010-04-01

345

18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 ...Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resourcesânatural gas. (a)(1) The national...

2009-04-01

346

NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep

Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

2002-01-01

347

Viscosity Prediction for Natural Gas Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The viscosity of multicomponent natural gas-mixtures containing hydrocarbons (C1 through C7) is predicted by modifying a previously published dilute-gas viscosity model and extending its applicability to a wide range of temperature and pressure conditions including liquid and gas states. Nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and helium are also included among components of mixtures for which published viscosity data are available. The

Z. Shan; R. T Jacobsen; S. G. Penoncello

2001-01-01

348

Ideal-gas thermodynamic properties for natural-gas applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculating caloric properties from a thermal equation of state requires information such as isobaric heat capacities in the ideal-gas state as a function of temperature. In this work, values for the parameters of thecp0 correlation proposed by Aly and Lee were newly determined for 21 pure gases which are compounds of natural gas mixtures. The values of the parameters were

M. Jaeschke; P. Schley

1995-01-01

349

Combustion gas properties. 2: Natural gas fuel and dry air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of computations has been made to produce the equilibrium temperature and gas composition for natural gas fuel and dry air. The computed tables and figures provide combustion gas property data for pressures from 0.5 to 50 atmospheres and equivalence ratios from 0 to 2.0. Only samples tables and figures are provided in this report. The complete set of tables and figures is provided on four microfiche films supplied with this report.

Wear, J. D.; Jones, R. E.; Trout, A. M.; Mcbride, B. J.

1985-01-01

350

59 FR- Standards for Emissions From Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Motor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...methane, and subtracting methane from THC to obtain NMHC...the exhaust HC is primarily methane, whereas for other vehicles the exhaust methane tends to be a much lower...potential options for improved, direct NMHC measurement....

1994-09-21

351

26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21 Section... § 48.4041-21 Compressed natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of...imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel...

2013-04-01

352

49 CFR 393.68 - Compressed natural gas fuel containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Compressed natural gas fuel containers. 393.68 ...Systems § 393.68 Compressed natural gas fuel containers. (a) Applicability...this section apply to compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel containers...

2013-10-01

353

77 FR 69781 - Enhanced Natural Gas Market Transparency  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. RM13-1-000] Enhanced Natural Gas Market Transparency AGENCY: Federal...made to its regulations under the natural gas market transparency provisions of section 23 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), as adopted in...

2012-11-21

354

18 CFR 157.210 - Mainline natural gas facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Mainline natural gas facilities. 157.210 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline...

2010-04-01

355

18 CFR 157.210 - Mainline natural gas facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Mainline natural gas facilities. 157.210 Section...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline...

2009-04-01

356

Natural gas hydrates: myths, facts and issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas hydrates are solid-like substances naturally occurring beneath the oceans and in polar regions. They contain vast, and potentially unstable, reserves of methane and other natural gases. Many believe that, if released in the environment, the methane from hydrates would be a considerable hazard to marine ecosystems, coastal populations and infrastructures, or worse, that it would dangerously contribute to global

2004-01-01

357

NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS  

SciTech Connect

From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations using laboratory pyrolysis methods have provided much information on the origins of deep gas. Technologic problems are one of the greatest challenges to deep drilling. Problems associated with overcoming hostile drilling environments (e.g. high temperatures and pressures, and acid gases such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) for successful well completion, present the greatest obstacles to drilling, evaluating, and developing deep gas fields. Even though the overall success ratio for deep wells is about 50 percent, a lack of geological and geophysical information such as reservoir quality, trap development, and gas composition continues to be a major barrier to deep gas exploration. Results of recent finding-cost studies by depth interval for the onshore U.S. indicate that, on average, deep wells cost nearly 10 times more to drill than shallow wells, but well costs and gas recoveries vary widely among different gas plays in different basins. Based on an analysis of natural gas assessments, many topical areas hold significant promise for future exploration and development. One such area involves re-evaluating and assessing hypothetical unconventional basin-center gas plays. Poorly-understood basin-center gas plays could contain significant deep undiscovered technically-recoverable gas resources.

Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

2002-02-05

358

A comparative study of the elemental composition of the exhaust emissions of cars powered by liquefied petroleum gas and unleaded petrol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elements emitted from the exhausts of new Ford Falcon Forte cars powered by unleaded petrol (ULP) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were measured on a chassis dynamometer. The measurements were carried out in February, June and August 2001, and at two steady state driving conditions (60 and 80 km h -1). Thirty seven elements were quantified in the exhaust samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The total emission factors of the elements from the exhausts of ULP cars were higher than those of LPG cars at both engine speeds even though high variability in the exhaust emissions from different cars was noted. The effect of the operating conditions such as mileage of the cars, engine speed, fuel and lubricating oil compositions on the emissions was studied. To investigate the effects of these conditions, multivariate data analysis methods were employed including exploratory principal component analysis (PCA), and the multi-criteria decision making methods (MCDM), preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) and geometrical analysis for interactive aid (GAIA), for ranking the cars on the basis of the emission factors of the elements. PCA biplot of the complete data matrix showed a clear discrimination of the February, June and August emission test results. In addition, (i) platinum group elements (PGE) emissions were separated from each other in the three different clusters viz. Pt with February, Pd with June and Rh with August; (ii) the motor oil related elements, Zn and P, were particularly associated with the June and August tests (these vectors were also grouped with V, Al and Cu); and (iii) highest emissions of most major elements were associated with the August test after the cars have recorded their highest mileage. Extensive analysis with the aid of the MCDM ranking methods demonstrated clearly that cars powered by LPG outperform those powered by ULP. In general, cars tested in June perform better than those tested in August, which suggested that mileage was the key criterion of car performance on the basis of elemental emission factors.

Lim, McKenzie C. H.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Morawska, Lidia; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Jayaratne, E. Rohan; Kokot, Serge

359

Advance Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 2000 Annual Report. November 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids proved reserves estimates increased in 2000. Exploratory and development drilling was focused on natural gas in 2000. Natural gas proved reserves additions replaced 152 percent of gas production. Such u...

2001-01-01

360

Geologic studies of deep natural gas resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1995, the USGS estimated a mean resource of 114 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered technically recoverable natural gas in plays deeper than 15,000 feet/4,572 meters in onshore regions of the United States. This volume summarizes major conclusions of ongoing work. Chapters A and B address the areal extent of drilling and distribution of deep basins in the U.S. Chapter C summarizes distribution of deep sedimentary basins and potential for deep gas in the former Soviet Union. Chapters D and E are geochemical papers addressing source-rock issues and deep gas generation. Chapter F develops a probabilistic method for subdividing gas resources into depth slices, and chapter G analyzes the relative uncertainty of estimates of deep gas in plays in the Gulf Coast Region. Chapter H evaluates the mechanism of hydrogenation of deep, high-rank spent kerogen by water, with subsequent generation of methane-rich HC gas.

edited by Dyman, T. S.; Kuuskraa, V. A.

2001-01-01

361

Production of acetone butanol (AB) from liquefied corn starch, a commercial substrate, using Clostridium beijerinckii coupled with product recovery by gas stripping  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potential industrial substrate (liquefied corn starch; LCS) has been employed for successful acetone butanol ethanol (ABE)\\u000a production. Fermentation of LCS (60 g l?1) in a batch process resulted in the production of 18.4 g l?1 ABE, comparable to glucose: yeast extract based medium (control experiment, 18.6 g l?1 ABE). A batch fermentation of LCS integrated with product recovery resulted in 92% utilization of sugars present

Thaddeus C. Ezeji; Nasib Qureshi; Hans P. Blaschek

2007-01-01

362

Shake, Rattle, and Liquefy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity demonstrates to students what happens to sandy soils when the shaking of an earthquake causes them to liquefy. They will construct a model river valley with sand and wooden blocks or toy houses to represent buildings. When water is added to the sand and the container is shaken, the 'buildings' can be seen to collapse or sink into the sand. This is because during an earthquake, the shaking causes individual grains of sand within a deposit collapse on each other and the sediment of which they are a part loses its structure and strength.

363

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves. 2006 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2006 Annual Report is the 30th prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill its responsibility to gather and report annual proved reserves estimates. The EIA annual re...

2007-01-01

364

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves: 2007 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2007 Annual Report is the 31st prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill its responsibility to gather and report annual proved reserves estimates. The EIA annual re...

2009-01-01

365

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 1998 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1998, as well as production volumes for the United States and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1998. Estimates are p...

D. F. Morehouse J. H. Wood R. M. Zeinalpour R. S. Green S. G. Grape

1999-01-01

366

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves: 2004 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 2004, as well as production volumes for the United States and producing States and State subdivisions for the year 2004. Estimates are ...

J. H. Wood R. Zeinalpour R. S. Green S. G. Grape

2005-01-01

367

Economic evaluation of natural gas hydrate as an alternative for natural gas transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a proposed process for conversion of natural gas to natural gas hydrate, NGH, the amortized total capital investment, operation and maintenance costs and total cost for production of NGH have been obtained. The effects of different operational conditions such as seawater temperature as cooling media and hydrate storage temperature have been investigated. The economic parameters for marine transportation

J. Javanmardi; Kh. Nasrifar; S. H. Najibi; M. Moshfeghian

2005-01-01

368

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 2001 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2001 Annual Report is the 25th prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill its responsibility to gather and report annual proved reserves estimates. The EIA annual re...

2002-01-01

369

U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 2002 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves 2002 Annual Report is the 26th prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill its responsibility to gather and report annual proved reserves estimates. The EIA annual re...

2002-01-01

370

UPGRADING NATURAL GAS VIA MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROCESSES  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the present study is to assess the potential usefulness of membrane separation processes for removing CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S from low-quality natural gas containing substantial amounts of both these ''acid'' gases, e.g., up to 40 mole-% CO{sub 2} and 10 mole-% H{sub 2}S. The membrane processes must be capable of upgrading the crude natural gas to pipeline specifications ({le} 2 mole-% CO{sub 2}, {le} 4 ppm H{sub 2}S). Moreover, these processes must also be economically competitive with the conventional separation techniques, such as gas absorption, utilized for this purpose by the gas industry.

S.A.Stern; P.A. Rice; J. Hao

2000-03-01

371

The solar thermal decarbonization of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endothermic decomposition of natural gas into a carbon-rich condensed phase and a hydrogen-rich gas phase, using concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat, is considered as a model reaction for conducting a 2nd-law analysis of a solar decarbonization process in which carbon is removed from fossil fuels prior to their use for power generation. The theoretical

D. Hirsch; M. Epstein; A. Steinfeld

2001-01-01

372

The efficient use of natural gas in transportation  

SciTech Connect

Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

1992-01-01

373

The efficient use of natural gas in transportation  

SciTech Connect

Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

1992-04-01

374

Implications of Disruption to Natural Gas Deliverability  

SciTech Connect

This project was sponsored by Department of Energy/Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability and managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The primary purpose of the project was to analyze the capability of the natural gas production, transmission and supply systems to continue to provide service in the event of a major disruption in capacity of one or more natural gas transmission pipelines. The project was specifically designed to detail the ability of natural gas market to absorb facility losses and efficiently reallocate gas supplies during a significant pipeline capacity disruption in terms that allowed federal and state agencies and interests to develop effective policies and action plans to prioritize natural gas deliveries from a regional and national perspective. The analyses for each regional study were based on four primary considerations: (1) operating conditions (pipeline capacity, storage capacity, local production, power dispatch decision making and end user options); (2) weather; (3) magnitude and location of the disruption; and, (4) normal versus emergency situation. The detailed information contained in the region reports as generated from this project are Unclassified Controlled Information; and as such are subject to disclosure in accordance with the Freedom of Information Act. Therefore, this report defines the regions that were analyzed and the basic methodologies and assumptions used to completing the analysis.

Science Applications International

2008-09-30

375

Greenhouse gas emissions from heavy-duty vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions measurements obtained during several recent studies conducted by Environment Canada, Emissions Research and Measurement Division (ERMD). A variety of heavy-duty vehicles and engines operating on a range of different fuels including diesel, biodiesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), hythane (20% hydrogen, 80% CNG), and liquefied natural gas (LNG), and with different advanced aftertreatment technologies

Lisa A. Graham; Greg Rideout; Deborah Rosenblatt; Jill Hendren

2008-01-01

376

Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbon  

SciTech Connect

Despite technical advances to reduce air pollution emissions, motor vehicles still account for 30 to 70% emissions of all urban air pollutants. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require 100 cities in the United States to reduce the amount of their smog within 5 to 15 years. Hence, auto emissions, the major cause of smog, must be reduced 30 to 60% by 1998. Natural gas con be combusted with less pollutant emissions. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) uses adsorbents and operates with a low storage pressure which results in lower capital costs and maintenance. This paper describes the production of an activated carbon adsorbent produced from an Illinois coal for ANG.

Sun, Jian; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

377

Natural gas hydrate occurrence and issues  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Naturally occurring gas hydrate is found in sediment of two regions: (1) continental, including continental shelves, at high latitudes where surface temperatures are very cold, and (2) submarine outer continental margins where pressures are very high and bottom-water temperatures are near 0??C. Continental gas hydrate is found in association with onshore and offshore permafrost. Submarine gas hydrate is found in sediment of continental slopes and rises. The amount of methane present in gas hydrate is thought to be very large, but the estimates that have been made are more speculative than real. Nevertheless, at the present time there has been a convergence of ideas regarding the amount of methane in gas hydrate deposits worldwide at about 2 x 1016 m3 or 7 x 1017 ft3 = 7 x 105 Tcf [Tcf = trillion (1012) ft3]. The potentially large amount of methane in gas hydrate and the shallow depth of gas hydrate deposits are two of the principal factors driving research concerning this substance. Such a large amount of methane, if it could be commercially produced, provides a potential energy resource for the future. Because gas hydrate is metastable, changes of surface pressure and temperature affect its stability. Destabilized gas hydrate beneath the sea floor leads to geologic hazards such as submarine mass movements. Examples of submarine slope failures attributed to gas hydrate are found worldwide. The metastability of gas hydrate may also have an effect on climate. The release of methane, a 'greenhouse' gas, from destabilized gas hydrate may contribute to global warming and be a factor in global climate change.

Kvenvolden, K. A.

1994-01-01

378

Vehicle fuel of the future. [Compressed natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the first uses for natural gas could become one of the most important uses of natural gas in the future. Compressed natural gas has the potential to power many millions of vehicles in North America and around the world, in almost any application and for almost any purpose. The idea of using natural or manufactured gas to fuel

1986-01-01

379

Natural gas pipeline\\/producer contracts: a preliminary analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to obtain a preliminary assessment of current natural gas contract provisions in the event of the deregulation of natural gas prices. The principal focus of the study is interstae natural gas contracts in force prior to the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA). Also included in the study are pre-NGPA contracts in the intrastate markets, post-NGPA offshore

R. ONeill; J. Heinkel; R. Stokes

1981-01-01

380

Evaluation Of Empirical Correlations For Natural Gas Hydrate Predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great number of petroleum engineering calculations require knowledge of natural gas hydrate formation conditions. Ideally, natural gas hydrate formation conditions are determined experimentally in the laboratory, but these data are not always available. Correlations are consequently used to determine values for natural gas hydrate formation conditions. In this research, the correlations of natural gas hydrate formation conditions determined by

Khaled Ahmed

2004-01-01

381

Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.  

PubMed

The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas. PMID:22107036

Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

2012-01-17

382

Natural Gas: Imports and Exports Fourth Quarter Report, 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Oil and Gas Global Security and Supply, Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly ...

2007-01-01

383

Mitchell firmly retrenched in natural gas services  

SciTech Connect

The past three years, Mitchell Energy and Development Corp. has undergone a massive restructuring that has changed the face of one of the nation`s largest and best-known natural gas/natural gas liquids companies. Facing a rapidly changing industry that frequently has been stung by volatile swings in energy markets, management of the independent company, founded by George Mitchell in 1946, sold off $300 million in non-core assets; reduced its long-term debt by $400 million; instituted a hiring freeze and reduced its workforce by a third, from 2,900 to 1,950, over the last three years. Mitchell negotiated a buyout of its hugely profitable North Texas gas sales contract with Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America as a means of easing its transition to a market-sensitive price environment and reducing its debt. Mitchell also took operational control. Finally, Mitchell has left the real estate business, culminating July 31 with the sale of its real estate subsidiary, The Woodlands Corporation, for $543 million ($460 million net after-tax), further reducing its workforce to 1,100. On Aug. 18, the company said it will use the proceeds to repurchase common stock, retire another $200 million of public debt, make asset niche energy acquisitions and increase capital spending for existing programs. The result is a renewed focus on its exploration and production and gas gathering, processing and marketing businesses.

Share, J.

1997-09-01

384

Combined natural gas and electricity network pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of competition to electricity generation and commercialization has been the main focus of many restructuring experiences around the world. The open access to the transmission network and a fair regulated tariff have been the keystones for the development of the electricity market. Parallel to the electricity industry, the natural gas business has great interaction with the electricity market

M. S. Morais; J. W. Marangon Lima

2007-01-01

385

Mexican demand for US natural gas  

SciTech Connect

This study describes the Mexican natural gas industry as it exists today and the factors that have shaped the evolution of the industry in the past or that are expected to influence its progress; it also projects production and use of natural gas and estimates the market for exports of natural gas from the United States to Mexico. The study looks ahead to two periods, a near term (1993--1995) and an intermediate term (1996--2000). The bases for estimates under two scenarios are described. Under the conservative scenario, exports of natural gas from the United States would decrease from the 1992 level of 250 million cubic feet per day (MMCF/d), would return to that level by 1995, and would reach about 980 MMCF/D by 2000. Under the more optimistic scenario, exports would decrease in 1993 and would recover and rise to about 360 MMCF/D in 1995 and to 1,920 MMCF/D in 2000.

Kanter, M.A.; Kier, P.H.

1993-09-01

386

New Methodology for Natural Gas Production Estimates  

EIA Publications

A new methodology is implemented with the monthly natural gas production estimates from the EIA-914 survey this month. The estimates, to be released April 29, 2010, include revisions for all of 2009. The fundamental changes in the new process include the timeliness of the historical data used for estimation and the frequency of sample updates, both of which are improved.

Information Center

2010-04-26

387

Effective kinetic inhibitors for natural gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic inhibition is a new means of preventing flow channel blockage by natural gas hydrates. In kinetic inhibition the system is allowed to exist within the hydrate thermodynamic stability zone, so that small crystals are stabilized without agglomerating to larger hydrate masses which plug pipelines. A hydrate formation mechanism is reviewed to suggest the new inhibition method. Macroscopic experiments on

J. P. Lederhos; J. P. Long; A. Sum; R. L. Christiansen; E. D. Sloan

1996-01-01

388

Natural Gas Hydrates in the Alaskan Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of in-situ natural gas hydrates in the arctic North Slope of Alaska is governed by several thermodynamic and geologic parameters, such as mean annual surface temperature, geothermal gradients above and below the base of the permafrost, pore-fluid salinity, permafrost base depth and temperature, subsurface pressure, and composition. Accurate knowledge of these parameters is necessary to determine the depths

S. P. Godbole; V. A. Kamath; C. Ehlig-Economides

1988-01-01

389

Analysis of Restricted Natural Gas Supply Cases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This analysis of four scenarios that restrict future natural gas supply responds to a request by Representative Barbara Cubin, Chairman of the Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources of the U.S. House Committee on Resources, on February 3, 2004. The ...

2004-01-01

390

Teaching about Natural Gas and the Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article contains a foldout entitled Natural Gas and the Environment for use in helping students become more aware of the relationships that exist between humans and the environment. Suggestions for classroom integration of this subject into your curriculum are also provided. (ZWH)

Shewell, John

1994-01-01

391

First big LNG unit seen boosting East's gas supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquefied natural gas (LNG) importation project, scheduled to begin operating at Cove Pt., Maryland in mid-March, will provide seven eastern states with one million cubic feet of gas per day for 25 years. Seven southern states will be served by a second terminal at Savannah, Georgia. Three pipelines will buy the Algerian gas. The project has enabled gas utilities

Ruth

1978-01-01

392

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization  

SciTech Connect

Building upon the partitioning of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) that was conducted last quarter, the goal of the work this quarter has been to conclude evaluation of the Stratos well and the prototypical Green River Deep partition, and perform the fill resource evaluation of the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play, with the goal of defining target areas of enhanced natural fracturing. The work plan for the quarter of November 1-December 31, 1998 comprised four tasks: (1) Evaluation of the Green River Deep partition and the Stratos well and examination of potential opportunity for expanding the use of E and P technology to low permeability, naturally fractured gas reservoirs, (2) Gas field studies, and (3) Resource analysis of the balance of the partitions.

NONE

1999-06-01

393

Synergistic combustion of coal with natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Engineers, using an improved coal devolatilization model and a simple char-burnout model, explored possible synergisms in the simultaneous combustion of coal and natural gas in boilers and kilns, for example. In the case of direct use of pulverized coal or of coal-water slurries with gas augmentation, the researchers identified those interactions in cofiring that speed up char burnout. In the second case - the two-stage use of pulverized coal or coal-water slurries with gas augmentation - they discovered that the primary role of the first stage is the methanogasification of coal analogous to, and possibly more effective than the hydrogasification of coal. In both instances, simultaneous coal/gas combustion appeared to be synergistic.

Green, A.E.S.; Pamidimukkala, K.M.

1984-01-01

394

29 CFR 1910.110 - Storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...distinct odor, the presence of gas down to concentration in air...lower limit of flammability. Odorization, however, is not required if...processing of the liquefied petroleum gas, or if odorization will serve no useful...

2011-07-01

395

29 CFR 1910.110 - Storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...distinct odor, the presence of gas down to concentration in air...lower limit of flammability. Odorization, however, is not required if...processing of the liquefied petroleum gas, or if odorization will serve no useful...

2012-07-01

396

Northern gas fields and NGH technology. A feasibility study to develop natural gas hydrate technology for the international gas markets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two natural gas fields have been studied for three different technological solutions using two different economic theories. The aim was to examine whether a new technology for transporting natural gas, Natural Gas Hydrates (NGH), can compete with the exis...

T. R. Ramsland E. F. Loy S. Doesen

1997-01-01

397

DEFINING A RIGHT OF ACCESS TO INTERSTATE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decontrol of the wellhead price of natural gas under the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 ended the general shortage of natural gas, which had begun in the 1960s. It also led to dislocations in gas markets because of regulatory uncertainties that created difficulties in renegotiating contracts made during the shortage period. Together, the decontrol and dislocations led to a

RODNEY T. SMITH; ARTHUR S. DE VANY; ROBERT J. MICHAELS

1990-01-01

398

Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough

Gruy

1998-01-01

399

IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter,

Jason M. Keith

2005-01-01

400

Helium production in natural gas reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 11,000 published natural gas analyses of helium are used in the estimation of the average global scale accumulation and concentration of radiogenic helium in sediments. Simple lognormal statistics is employed to derive a net accumulation rate between 1†105 to 6.7†105 helium atoms per cubic meter of reservoir rock per second. This acccumulation rate permitted to infer an average helium

E. B. Pereira; J. A. S. Adams

1982-01-01

401

Helium production in natural gas reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 11,000 published natural gas analyses of helium are used in the estimation of the average global scale accumulation and concentration of radiogenic helium in sediments. Simple lognormal statistics is employed to derive a net accumulation rate between 1dagger10⁵ to 6.7dagger10⁵ helium atoms per cubic meter of reservoir rock per second. This acccumulation rate permitted to infer an average helium

E. B. Pereira; J. A. S. Adams

1982-01-01

402

US Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves Annual Report 1996: Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EIA has published "the estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids in the United States as of December 31, 1996, compiled from EIA's oil and gas operator survey." The report shows that while reserves of natural gas have increased, crude oil reserves have declined.

403

LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS  

SciTech Connect

This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

VANDOR,D.

1999-03-01

404

Hydrogen-Enhanced Natural Gas Vehicle Program  

SciTech Connect

The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of HCNG fuel (30 to 50% hydrogen by volume and the remainder natural gas) to reduce emissions from light-duty on-road vehicles with no loss in performance or efficiency. The City of Las Vegas has an interest in alternative fuels and already has an existing hydrogen refueling station. Collier Technologies Inc (CT) supplied the latest design retrofit kits capable of converting nine compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled, light-duty vehicles powered by the Ford 5.4L Triton engine. CT installed the kits on the first two vehicles in Las Vegas, trained personnel at the City of Las Vegas (the City) to perform the additional seven retrofits, and developed materials for allowing other entities to perform these retrofits as well. These vehicles were used in normal service by the City while driver impressions, reliability, fuel efficiency and emissions were documented for a minimum of one year after conversion. This project has shown the efficacy of operating vehicles originally designed to operate on compressed natural gas with HCNG fuel incorporating large quantities of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). There were no safety issues experienced with these vehicles. The only maintenance issue in the project was some rough idling due to problems with the EGR valve and piping parts. Once the rough idling was corrected no further maintenance issues with these vehicles were experienced. Fuel economy data showed no significant changes after conversion even with the added power provided by the superchargers that were part of the conversions. Driver feedback for the conversions was very favorable. The additional power provided by the HCNG vehicles was greatly appreciated, especially in traffic. The drivability of the HCNG vehicles was considered to be superior by the drivers. Most of the converted vehicles showed zero oxides of nitrogen throughout the life of the project using the State of Nevada emissions station.

Hyde, Dan; Collier, Kirk

2009-01-22

405

76 FR 12721 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...18, 2011, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103...section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part...place three horizontal compressor units at its Sunray Compressor Station and associated...

2011-03-08

406

75 FR 48321 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission authorization, enlarge or expand its natural gas distribution facilities. Corning also requests a...requirements ordinarily applicable to interstate natural gas pipelines under the NGA and other such relief the...

2010-08-10

407

Support grows for trans-Australia gas pipeline  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nationwide pipeline network to carry natural gas from Australia's North-West Shelf to eastern states is gaining in popularity, according to a recent report. Engineering and economic feasibility studies support a transcontinental system that would meet energy demands until the end of the century. An estimated 6400 km of pipeline is needed. A 20-year agreement for liquefied natural gas (LNG)

1977-01-01

408

Arrangement and method for the production of liquid natural gas  

SciTech Connect

An arrangement and a method for the increase in the production of liquid natural gas and the conservation of energy and reduction of flash gas in a liquid natural gas manufacturing installation and, more particularly, the reduction in the quantity of formed flash gas through the novel utilization of a hydraulic expander in the installation for extracting work from the flow of liquid natural gas prior to flashing thereof.

Brundige, V.L. Jr.

1984-06-26

409

Gas exchange measurements in natural systems  

SciTech Connect

Direct knowledge of the rates of gas exchange in lakes and the ocean is based almost entirely on measurements of the isotopes /sup 14/C, /sup 222/Rn and /sup 3/He. The distribution of natural radiocarbon has yielded the average rate of CO/sub 2/ exchange for the ocean and for several closed basin lakes. That of bomb produced radiocarbon has been used in the same systems. The /sup 222/Rn to /sup 226/Ra ratio in open ocean surface water has been used to give local short term gas exchange rates. The radon method generally cannot be used in lakes, rivers, estuaries or shelf areas because of the input of radon from sediments. A few attempts have been made to use the excess /sup 3/He produced by decay of bomb produced tritium in lakes to give gas transfer rates. The uncertainty in the molecular diffusivity of helium and in the diffusivity dependence of the rate of gas transfer holds back the application of this method. A few attempts have been made to enrich the surface waters of small lakes with /sup 226/Ra and /sup 3/H in order to allow the use of the /sup 222/Rn and /sup 3/He methods. While these studies give broadly concordant results, many questions remain unanswered. The wind velocity dependence of gas exchange rate has yet to be established in field studies. The dependence of gas exchange rate on molecular diffusivity also remains in limbo. Finally, the degree of enhancement of CO/sub 2/ exchange through chemical reactions has been only partially explored. 49 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

Broecker, W.S.; Peng, T.H.

1983-01-01

410

Compressed natural gas vehicles: Motoring towards a cleaner Beijing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper first describes the state-of-the-art of compressed natural gas (CNG) technologies and evaluates the market prospects for CNG vehicles in Beijing. An analysis of the natural gas resource supply for fleet vehicles follows. The costs and benefits of establishing natural gas filling stations and promoting the development of vehicle technology are evaluated. The quantity of GHG reduction is calculated.

Guo Xiao Yan; Wang Tian Min

1997-01-01

411

75 FR 67352 - Liberty Natural Gas, LLC; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Pipeline is a part of the Liberty Natural Gas Project, which will include...Vessels that will transport natural gas from sources around the world in a liquid state (LNG) and...reach the Port. The regasified natural gas will then be...

2010-11-02

412

U.S. Natural Gas Imports and Exports, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the face of unprecedented levels of domestic natural gas production, net imports of natural gas into the United States fell 25 percent in 2011. Net imports as a percentage of total natural gas delivered to consumers decreased to around 9 percent in 201...

2012-01-01

413

Expansion of the U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Network  

EIA Publications

Additions in 2008 and Projects through 2011. This report examines new natural gas pipeline capacity added to the U.S. natural gas pipeline system during 2008. In addition, it discusses and analyzes proposed natural gas pipeline projects that may be developed between 2009 and 2011, and the market factors supporting these initiatives.

Information Center

2009-09-30

414

NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES AND PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the second phase of this project, the newly developed membrane module for natural gas dehydration was tested and evaluated in a pilot plant located at a commercial natural gas treatment site. This phase was undertaken jointly with UOP LLC, our commercialization partner. The field test demonstrated that a commercial-size membrane module for natural gas dehydration was successfully manufactured. The

Ben Bikson; Sal Giglia; Jibin Hao

2003-01-01

415

Transportation of natural gas as a hydrate. [submerged vessel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus is described for transporting a natural gas in the form of a hydrate. The method utilizes the pressure and temperature conditions of a submerged vessel to facilitate the formation and maintenance of natural gas as a hydrate during the subsea voyage and the subsequent reconversion of the hydrate to a natural gas when the destination of

Nierman

1976-01-01

416

Erdgas heute und morgen. (Natural gas today and tomorrow).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The situation of natural gas in the Federal Republic of Germany is described, with particular emphasis on the advantages and consequences of natural gas supply. The brochure discusses the role of natural gas on the energy market, the reliability of natura...

1991-01-01

417

Turkey's natural gas necessity, consumption and future perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey is an important candidate to be the “energy corridor” in the transmission of the abundant oil and natural gas resources of the Middle East and Middle Asia countries to the Western market. Furthermore, Turkey is planning to increase its oil and gas pipeline infrastructure to accommodate its increased energy consumption. Naturally, Turkish natural gas usage is projected to increase

A. M. Kiliç

2006-01-01

418

Estimation of safety distances in the vicinity of fuel gas pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, safety distances around pipelines transmitting liquefied petroleum gas and pressurized natural gas are determined considering the possible outcomes of an accidental event associated with fuel gas release from pressurized transmission systems. Possible outcomes of an accidental fuel gas release were determined by performing the Event Tree Analysis approach. Safety distances were computed for two pipeline transmission systems

Spyros Sklavounos; Fotis Rigas

2006-01-01

419

Flowmetering of natural gas pipelines by tracer gas pulse injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the tracer gas pulse injection method for flowmetering of natural gas pipelines. The principle of the measurement consists of detecting the passage of the pulse at two locations along the pipeline, from which the time of passage is calculated. The measurement accuracy depends on how the pulse form evolves due to turbulent diffusion and convective distortion in the pipe, as well as due to the influence of bends. We discuss these factors to evaluate the applicability of the method to pipelines of kilometer distances. We also perform a three-dimensional numerical analysis to understand the spatial pulse dispersion, and numerical analysis shows that the influence of pipe bends was not significant. Both experimental and theoretical results indicate the existence of axial diffusion coefficients, even in pipelines with bends. These results enable us to predict the evolution of the pulse concentration profile. Finally, we demonstrate acceptable precision for practical flowmetering applications in actual utility pipelines.

Takeuchi, Tomoaki; Murai, Yuichi

2010-01-01

420

Evaluation of the Effects of Natural Gas Contaminants on Corrosion in Compressed Natural Gas Storage Systems: Phase 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a research program that was conducted to define natural gas contaminant levels necessary to insure that internal corrosion of compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders does not constitute a hazard over the lifetimes of the cylinders. A ...

F. F. Lyle

1989-01-01

421

Can magnetic refrigerators liquefy hydrogen at high efficiency  

SciTech Connect

A concept for a hydrogen liquefier based on the magnetocaloric effect is introduced. A second-law analysis of the general device is described. The calculation predicts that efficiencies approx. 50% of Carnot are probable. A brief comparison to gas refrigeration systems is made.

Barclay, J.A.

1981-01-01

422

Changes in Natural Gas Prices and Supplies Since Passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Through the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978, the Congress intended to stimulate production and exploration for reserves by permitting producers higher prices for gas from areas where production was previously not economic and for gas produced from new well...

1981-01-01

423

Outlook bright for U.S. natural gas resources  

SciTech Connect

This series of articles by Advanced Resources International (ARI) and the US Geological Survey (USGS) provides a fresh look at new technologies and emerging natural gas plays. It begins, in this article, with three topics: (1) an overview of the controversy surrounding the adequacy of domestic natural gas resources; (2) a look at emerging gas resources in light of advances in technology; and (3) a review of the most frequently referenced natural gas assessments. Future articles in this series will address emerging natural gas resources that may add to the US resource base: deep gas resources (two parts); Barnett shale gas resources; moving into the resource pyramid, a summary of poorly understood but potentially significant emerging gas plays--such as sub-basalt gas plays, deep coalbed methane, and new shale gas resources--not yet included in resource assessments; and gas hydrates.

Kuuskraa, V.A. [Advanced Resources International Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1998-04-13

424

Environmental effects of submarine seeping natural gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is suspected that most shallow reservoirs of natural gas vent to the surface to some degree. This seeping may be through diffusion of dissolved gas or by a flow of gas bubbles which entrain interstitial water during the rise through the sediments to the surface. Methane bubbles dissolved other gases, notably hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide, during their ascent. Under suitable temperature-pressure conditions gas hydrates may be formed close to or at the seabed Black suphide-rich sediments and mats of sulphur oxidizing bacteria are frequently observed close to the sediments surface at seep sites, including a sharp oxic/anoxic boundary. Animal species associated with these gas seeps include both species which obtain nutrition from symbiotic methane-oxidizing bacteria and species with symbolic sulphur-oxidizing bacteria. It is suspected that at some microseepage an enhanced biomass of meiofauna and macrofauna is supported by a food chain based on free-living and symbiotic sulphur-oxidizing and methane-oxidizing bacteria. The most common seep-related features of sea floor topography are local depressions including pockmark craters. Winnowing of the sediment during their creation leads to an accumulation of larger detritis in the depressions. Where the deprssions overlies salt diapirs they may be filled with hypersaline solutions. In some areas dome-shaped features are associated with seepage and these may be colonized by coral reefs. Other reefs, "hard-grounds", columnar and disc-shaped protrusions, all formed of carbonate-cemented sediments, are common on the sea floor in seep areas. Much of the carbonate appears to be derived from carbon dioxide formed as a result of methane oxidation. The resulting hard-bottoms on the sea floor are often colonized by species not found on the neighboring soft-bottoms. As a result seep areas may be characterized by the presence of a rich epifauna.

Dando, P. R.; Hovland, M.

1992-10-01

425

Advance Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 2005 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reserves additions replaced 164 percent of 2005 dry gas production as U.S. gas reserves increased for the seventh year in a row. Proved reserves of natural gas increased by 6 percent in 2005, the largest annual increase in natural gas proved reserves sinc...

2006-01-01

426

Evaluation of the effects of natural gas contaminants on corrosion in compressed natural gas storage systems: Phase 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a research program that was conducted to define natural gas contaminant levels necessary to insure that internal corrosion of compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders does not constitute a hazard over the lifetimes of the cylinders. A literature search was performed and companies in the natural gas transmission and distribution industries were contacted: to identify and determine the

Fred F. Lyle; F. F. Jr

1989-01-01

427

Economic comparison between coal-fired and liquefied natural gas combined cycle power plants considering carbon tax: Korean case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic growth is main cause of environmental pollution and has been identified as a big threat to sustainable development. Considering the enormous role of electricity in the national economy, it is essential to study the effect of environmental regulations on the electricity sector. This paper aims at making an economic analysis of Korea's power plant utilities by comparing electricity generation

Suk-Jae Jeong; Kyung-Sup Kim; Jin-Won Park; Dong-soon Lim; Seung-moon Lee

2008-01-01

428

33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a...Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40â²43â³ N and...

2013-07-01

429

LNG (liquefied natural gas) in the Asia-Pacific region: Twenty years of trade and outlook for the future  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: the current status of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region; present structure and projected demand in the Asia-Pacific region; prospective and tentative projects; and LNG contracts: stability versus flexibility.

Kiani, B.

1990-01-01

430

Natural and artificial nobel gas hydrologic tracers  

SciTech Connect

Noble gas isotopes provide opportunities for ground water tracing. Both naturally occurring tracers and artificially injected tracers can be used. The equilibration of water with the earth`s atmosphere records the temperature and atmospheric pressure during ground water recharge. This temperature/pressure record can be used to distinguish cold recharge from warmer recharge with a resolution of 1-2 C temperature and 500m in altitude. The radioactive decay of U and Th produce large concentrations of 4He in old ground water and this 4He signature can be useful in tracing the small addition of old water (>10,000 yr.) to young water (<100 yr.). The decay of 3H present either form nuclear testing or cosmic ray interactions leads to detectable amounts of 3He in young ground water (<50 yr.). By measuring both 3H and 3He, the mean age of the 3H in the water can be calculated. In addition to these natural tracers, isotopically enriched noble gas isotopes are readily available at low cost and can be used an non-hazardous water tracers. This inert, persistent, and harmless tracing technique can used in many situations at a cost of about one dollar per million gallons of water traced.

Hudson, G.B.

1994-06-01

431

Weak oil prices seen hindrance to pace of increase in gas use  

SciTech Connect

World demand for gas is expected to rocket, yet future natural gas and liquefied natural gas projects remain threatened by the link of gas prices to crude oil prices. This is the main message that emerged from the 19th World Gas Conference in Milan last week. A number of reports predicted regional demand for gas. All foresaw a rise. International Gas Union (IGU), organizer of the conference, and said world natural gas production has continued to rise despite a significant downturn in industrial production. The paper discusses gas demand in Europe, the correlation between oil and gas prices, the natural gas industry in Indonesia, Russia, and southern Europe.

Not Available

1994-06-27

432

Compressed natural gas storage optimization for natural gas vehicles. Final report, August 1993December 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major obstacle confronting the widespread acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is their substantial cost premium over conventionally fueled vehicles. Currently, as much as 70 percent of the cost premium can be related to on-board storage costs. Market growth is dependent on making NGVs more affordable and storage costs are the primary element. This report identifies and assesses the

M. E. Richards; C. F. Blazek; C. Webster; J. Wong; L. Gambone

1996-01-01

433

Current issues in natural gas lubrication  

SciTech Connect

Because of the ability of natural gas to burn completely relatively easily, supplying excess oxygen to promote complete reactions is a viable alternative to catalysts. Hence, lean burn technology has a natural fit for this industry. Lube oil is not adversely affected by lean burn operation. There is a slight tendency to cause more oil nitration than oxidation, but the real difference is not significant. Operators may notice somewhat more varnish (caramel color) and less sludge (black) as a result. Because the fuel is burned more completely, there is less problem with fuel-derived oil contamination. Also because of the excess air in the combustion chamber, overall cylinder temperature is lower, causing less stress on the oil. Oil life is generally lengthened. One common misconception that lean burn engines require different lubricants may stem from a change at Waukesha Engine Division--Dresser Industries. Waukesha has changed its lube oil requirements for VHP 3521, 5115, 7042, 9390 GL turbocharged and lean burn model engines. The lube oil specification for these engines is 1% to 1.7% ash with the same 0.10% zinc maximum. This change is not because of the lean burn nature of these engines, rather it is because of drastically decreased lube oil consumption. With less oil consumption, less ash is carried to the critical exhaust valve seat area to prevent valve recession.

Reber, J. [Conoco Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-10-01

434

Development of a liquid natural gas pump and its application to directinjection liquid natural gas engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct injection gas engines operated with liquid natural gas (LNG)\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009look promising because the energy density-volume ratio of LNG is\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009three times higher than that of compressed natural gas (CNG) and\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009pressurization of LNG to injection pressures is much easier and expends\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009less energy. Based on these considerations, a prototype of an LNG\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009high-pressure pump, which can achieve a pressure

Y Goto

2002-01-01

435

Design optimization of a 0.1-ton/day active magnetic regenerative hydrogen liquefier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A design optimization procedure of a 0.1-ton/day active magnetic regenerative (AMR) hydrogen liquefier model is described. The liquefier is proposed for the industrial liquid hydrogen market with overall efficiency being the primary measure of performance. This performance is described here in terms of particle size, bed length, and inter-stage temperature. Efficiency comparable to larger gas cycle plants is predicted. The magnetic liquefier may be modified to operate as a two-stage magnetic refrigerator between 77 and 20 K with high efficiency. The paper describes an optimization method as applied to the design of a two-stage AMR hydrogen liquefier and presents the associated results. A five-parameter optimization process is performed since there are five changeable parameters; the low- and high-stage particle sizes, the low- and high-stage bed lengths, and the inter-stage temperature. Model results are presented and compared with experimental results of an actual liquefier.

Zhang, L.; Sherif, S. A.; DeGregoria, A. J.; Zimm, C. B.; Veziroglu, T. N.

2000-04-01

436

Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation.  

PubMed

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/ LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. PMID:17937317

Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

2007-09-01

437

Generating Aromatics From CO2 on Mars or Natural Gas on Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methane to aromatics on Mars ( METAMARS ) is the name of a process originally intended as a means of converting Martian atmospheric carbon dioxide to aromatic hydrocarbons and oxygen, which would be used as propellants for spacecraft to return to Earth. The process has been demonstrated on Earth on a laboratory scale. A truncated version of the process could be used on Earth to convert natural gas to aromatic hydrocarbon liquids. The greater (relative to natural gas) density of aromatic hydrocarbon liquids makes it more economically feasible to ship them to distant markets. Hence, this process makes it feasible to exploit some reserves of natural gas that, heretofore, have been considered as being "stranded" too far from markets to be of economic value. In the full version of METAMARS, carbon dioxide is frozen out of the atmosphere and fed to a Sabatier reactor along with hydrogen (which, on Mars, would have been brought from Earth). In the Sabatier reactor, these feedstocks are converted to methane and water. The water is condensed and electrolyzed to oxygen (which is liquefied) and hydrogen (which is recycled to the Sabatier reactor). The methane is sent to an aromatization reactor, wherein, over a molybdenum-on-zeolite catalyst at a temperature 700 C, it is partially converted into aromatic hydrocarbons (specifically, benzene, toluene, and naphthalene) along with hydrogen. The aromatics are collected by freezing, while unreacted methane and hydrogen are separated by a membrane. Most of the hydrogen is recycled to the Sabatier reactor, while the methane and a small portion of the hydrogen are recycled to the aromatization reactor. The partial recycle of hydrogen to the aromatization reactor greatly increases the catalyst lifetime and eases its regeneration by preventing the formation of graphitic carbon, which could damage the catalyst. (Moreover, if graphitic carbon were allowed to form, it would be necessary to use oxygen to remove it.) Because the aromatics contain only one hydrogen atom per carbon atom, METAMARS produces four times as much propellant from a given amount of hydrogen as does a related process that includes the Sabatier reaction and electrolysis but not aromatization. In the terrestrial version of METAMARS, the Sabatier reactor and electrolyzer would be omitted, while the hydrogen/ methane membrane-separating membrane, the aromatization reactor, and the unreacted-gas-recycling subsystem would be retained. Natural gas would be fed directly to the aromatization reactor. Because natural gas consists of higher hydrocarbons in addition to methane, the aromatization subprocess should be more efficient than it is for methane alone.

Muscatello, Anthony C.; Zubrin, Robert; Berggren, Mark

2006-01-01

438

Restricted Natural Gas Supply Case (released in AEO2005)  

EIA Publications

The restricted natural gas supply case provides an analysis of the energy-economic implications of a scenario in which future gas supply is significantly more constrained than assumed in the reference case. Future natural gas supply conditions could be constrained because of problems with the construction and operation of large new energy projects, and because the future rate of technological progress could be significantly lower than the historical rate. Although the restricted natural gas supply case represents a plausible set of constraints on future natural gas supply, it is not intended to represent what is likely to happen in the future.

Information Center

2005-02-01

439

Preliminary report on the commercial viability of gas production from natural gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic studies on simulated gas hydrate reservoirs have been compiled to estimate the price of natural gas that may lead to economically viable production from the most promising gas hydrate accumulations. As a first estimate, $CDN2005 12\\/Mscf is the lowest gas price that would allow economically viable production from gas hydrates in the absence of associated free gas, while an

Matthew R. Walsh; Steve H. Hancock; Scott J. Wilson; Shirish L. Patil; George J. Moridis; Ray Boswell; Timothy S. Collett; Carolyn A. Koh; E. Dendy Sloan

2009-01-01

440

Systems analysis of hydrogen supplementation in natural gas pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for hydrogen supplementation in natural gas pipelines is analyzed for a specific site from both mid-term (1985) and long-term perspectives. The concept of supplementing natural gas with the addition of hydrogen in the existing gas pipeline system serves to provide a transport and storage medium for hydrogen while eliminating the high investment costs associated with constructing separate hydrogen

A. Hermelee; M. Beller; J. DAcierno

1981-01-01

441

INVENTORY OF METHANE LOSSES FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives the second year's results of an ongoing 4-year program undertaken jointly by the Gas Research Institute and the U.S. EPA to assess the methane (CH4) losses from the U.S. natural gas industry. he program's objective is to assess the acceptability of natural gas as ...

442

Direct conversion of natural gas to methanol by controlled oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for converting natural gas containing methane to methanol, comprising: thoroughly and intimately mixing natural gas with gaseous air or oxygen to achieve substantially complete homogeneity of these gases; feeding the resulting gas mixture to an inert reactor under elevated pressure, the inert reactor having an internal surface surrounding a zone in which the gases react. The

H. D. Gesser; N. R. Hunter; L. Morton

1986-01-01

443

Fire detection and suppression in natural gas pipeline compressor stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of fires in natural gas compressor stations is fortunately infrequent. The consequences, however, can be severe. This paper discusses the design concepts and experience of Pacific Gas Transmission Company (PGT) with fire detection and suppression systems in its natural gas pipeline compressor stations.

1987-01-01

444

Impact of Natural Gas Infrastructure on Electric Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The restructuring of electricity has introduced new risks associated with the security of natural gas infrastructure on a significantly large scale, which entails changes in physical capabilities of pipelines, operational procedures, sensors and communications, contracting (supply and transportation), and tariffs. This paper will discuss the essence of the natural gas infrastructure for supplying the ever-increasing number of gas-powered units and

MOHAMMAD SHAHIDEHPOUR; Yong Fu; THOMAS WIEDMAN

2005-01-01

445

Performance testing of natural gas plants  

SciTech Connect

Performance testing of natural-gas-extraction plants has become a valuable tool for improving recovery of plants operating below their optimum capabilities or maintaining the optimum recovery once it has been achieved. Many plants, whether turbo-expander, lean oil absorption, or straight refrigeration type, can drift from optimum recovery for one or several of many reasons. Sometimes this drift occurs without the plant operators being aware, or the reduction in recovery may be caused by operating problems of which the operator is aware but feels cannot be solved with the equipment available. A plant performance test may find the unknown problem or the test will show the problem can be solved and recoveries improved with existing equipment. Sometimes a computer simulation of the plant, using the test data, may be required to find or solve the problem.

Herrin, J.P.

1983-01-01

446

Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.  

PubMed

Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

Alvarez, Ramón A; Pacala, Stephen W; Winebrake, James J; Chameides, William L; Hamburg, Steven P

2012-04-24

447

Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure  

PubMed Central

Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH4 leakage were capped at a level 45–70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH4 losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas.

Alvarez, Ramon A.; Pacala, Stephen W.; Winebrake, James J.; Chameides, William L.; Hamburg, Steven P.

2012-01-01

448

Natural gas conversion process. Sixth quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

Not Available

1992-12-01

449

Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

Andrew Lucero

2009-01-31

450

Model of joint resource extraction: natural gas and helium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical model is developed to analyze jointly extracted natural resource, as exemplified by natural gas and helium. The model incorporates general properties of joint resources as well as several properties specific to natural gas and helium, and characterizes the behavior of perfectly competitive owners of the joint resource. Under the assumption of perfect foresight, the resulting intertemporal equilibrium is

Hughey

1984-01-01

451

Study on gas hydrates for the solid transportation of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas hydrate typically contains 85 wt.% water and 15 wt.% natural gas, and commonly belongs to cubic structure I and\\u000a II. When referred to standard conditions, 1 m3 solid hydrate contains up to 200 m3 of natural gas depending on pressure and temperature. Such the large volume of natural gas hydrate can be utilized to store\\u000a and transport a

Nam-Jin Kim; Chong-Bo Kim

2004-01-01

452

GRI's (Gas Research Institute's) Natural Gas Supply Subprogram Status Report, 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1989 status report discusses activities within the GRI Natural Gas Supply subprogram. The objectives, strategies, accomplishments, and contract status are described for projects within these project areas: Tight Gas Sands, Eastern Devonian Gas Shales,...

1989-01-01

453

IMPROVED NATURAL GAS STORAGE WELL REMEDIATION  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the research conducted during Budget Period One on the project ''Improved Natural Gas Storage Well Remediation''. The project team consisted of Furness-Newburge, Inc., the technology developer; TechSavants, Inc., the technology validator; and Nicor Technologies, Inc., the technology user. The overall objectives for the project were: (1) To develop, fabricate and test prototype laboratory devices using sonication and underwater plasma to remove scale from natural gas storage well piping and perforations; (2) To modify the laboratory devices into units capable of being used downhole; (3) To test the capability of the downhole units to remove scale in an observation well at a natural gas storage field; (4) To modify (if necessary) and field harden the units and then test the units in two pressurized injection/withdrawal gas storage wells; and (5) To prepare the project's final report. This report covers activities addressing objectives 1-3. Prototype laboratory units were developed, fabricated, and tested. Laboratory testing of the sonication technology indicated that low-frequency sonication was more effective than high-frequency (ultrasonication) at removing scale and rust from pipe sections and tubing. Use of a finned horn instead of a smooth horn improves energy dispersal and increases the efficiency of removal. The chemical data confirmed that rust and scale were removed from the pipe. The sonication technology showed significant potential and technical maturity to warrant a field test. The underwater plasma technology showed a potential for more effective scale and rust removal than the sonication technology. Chemical data from these tests also confirmed the removal of rust and scale from pipe sections and tubing. Focusing of the underwater plasma's energy field through the design and fabrication of a parabolic shield will increase the technology's efficiency. Power delivered to the underwater plasma unit by a sparkplug repeatedly was interrupted by sparkplug failure. The lifecycle for the plugs was less than 10 hours. An electrode feed system for delivering continuous power needs to be designed and developed. As a result, further work on the underwater plasma technology was terminated. It needs development of a new sparking system and a redesign of the pulsed power supply system to enable the unit to operate within a well diameter of less than three inches. Both of these needs were beyond the scope of the project. Meanwhile, the laboratory sonication unit was waterproofed and hardened, enabling the unit to be used as a field prototype, operating at temperatures to 350 F and depths of 15,000 feet. The field prototype was extensively tested at a field service company's test facility before taking it to the field site. The field test was run in August 2001 in a Nicor Gas storage field observation well at Pontiac, Illinois. Segmented bond logs, gamma ray neutron logs, water level measurements and water chemistry samples were obtained before and after the downhole demonstration. Fifteen tests were completed in the field. Results from the water chemistry analysis showed an increase in the range of calcium from 1755-1984 mg/l before testing to 3400-4028 mg/l after testing. For magnesium, the range increased from 285-296 mg/l to 461-480 mg/l. The change in pH from a range of 3.11-3.25 to 8.23-8.45 indicated a buffering of the acidic well water, probably due to the increased calcium available for buffering. The segmented bond logs showed no damage to the cement bond in the well and the gamma ray neutron log showed no increase in the amount of hydrocarbons present in the formation where the testing took place. Thus, the gas storage bubble in the aquifer was not compromised. A review of all the field test data collected documents the fact that the application of low-frequency sonication technology definitely removes scale from well pipe. Phase One of this project took sonication technology from the concept stage through a successful ''proof-of-concept'' downhole application in a natural gas storage field

James C. Furness; Donald O. Johnson; Michael L. Wilkey; Lynn Furness; Keith Vanderlee; P. David Paulsen

2001-12-01

454

Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)  

SciTech Connect

Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work has consisted of both modeling and single cylinder engine experiments to quantify DIGN performance. The air handling systems of natural gas engines dissipate a percentage of available energy as a result of both flow losses and turbomachinery inefficiencies. An analytical study was initiated to increase compressor efficiency by employing a 2-stage inter-cooled compressor. Caterpillar also studied a turbo-compound system that employs a power turbine to recover energy from the exhaust gases for improved engine efficiency. Several other component and system investigations were undertaken during the final phase of the program to reach the ultimate ARES goals. An intake valve actuation system was developed and tested to improve engine efficiency, durability and load acceptance. Analytical modeling and materials testing were performed to evaluate the performance of steel pistons and compacted graphite iron cylinder head. Effort was made to improve the detonation sensing system by studying and comparing the performance of different pressure sensors. To reduce unburned hydrocarbon emissions, different camshafts were designed and built to investigate the effect of exhaust valve opening timing and value overlap. 1-D & 3-D coupled simulation was used to study intake and exhaust manifold dynamics with the goal of reducing load in-balance between cylinders. Selective catalytic reduction with on-board reductant generation to reduce NOx emissions was also engine tested. An effective mean to successfully deploy ARES technologies into the energy markets is to deploy demonstration projects in the field. In 2010, NETL and Caterpillar agreed to include a new “opportunity fuel” deliverable and two field demonstrations in the ARES program. An Organic Rankine Cycle system was designed with production intent incorporating lessons learned from the Phase II demonstration. Unfortunately, business conditions caused Caterpillar to cancel this demonstration in 2011. Nonetheless, Caterpillar partnered with a local dealer to deploy an ARES class engine using syngas from a biomass gasifier as

Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

2009-09-30

455

Natural gas recovery, storage, and utilization SBIR program  

SciTech Connect

A Fossil Energy natural-gas topic has been a part of the DOE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program since 1988. To date, 50 Phase SBIR natural-gas applications have been funded. Of these 50, 24 were successful in obtaining Phase II SBIR funding. The current Phase II natural-gas research projects awarded under the SBIR program and managed by METC are presented by award year. The presented information on these 2-year projects includes project title, awardee, and a project summary. The 1992 Phase II projects are: landfill gas recovery for vehicular natural gas and food grade carbon dioxide; brine disposal process for coalbed gas production; spontaneous natural as oxidative dimerization across mixed conducting ceramic membranes; low-cost offshore drilling system for natural gas hydrates; motorless directional drill for oil and gas wells; and development of a multiple fracture creation process for stimulation of horizontally drilled wells.The 1993 Phase II projects include: process for sweetening sour gas by direct thermolysis of hydrogen sulfide; remote leak survey capability for natural gas transport storage and distribution systems; reinterpretation of existing wellbore log data using neural-based patter recognition processes; and advanced liquid membrane system for natural gas purification.

Shoemaker, H.D.

1993-12-31

456

Natural gas from shale: Texas revolution goes global  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Texas experiment in extracting natural gas from the Barnett Shale proved the technical feasibility of shale gas development and brought costs within bounds that promise to give shale gas an important role in global energy supplies for decades to come. ; Shale gas cost estimates vary widely, partly because of limited experience in a few basins and partly because

Robert W. Gilmer; Emily Kerr

2010-01-01

457

18 CFR 284.3 - Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act. 284.3 Section 284...ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED...CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY...

2009-04-01

458

18 CFR 284.3 - Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act. 284.3 Section 284...ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED...CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY...

2010-04-01

459

77 FR 65508 - Annual Charge Filing Procedures for Natural Gas Pipelines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...natural gas pipelines resulting from...the natural gas industry...Environmental Analysis 18. The Commission...of natural gas that requires...description and analysis of final rules...standard for pipelines transporting natural gas, stating...

2012-10-29

460

Greenhouse gas and energy analysis of substitute natural gas from biomass for space heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the greenhouse gas and energy balances of the production and use for space heating of substitute natural gas from biomass (bio-SNG) for space heat are analysed. These balances are compared to the use of natural gas and solid biomass as wood chips to provide the same service. The reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq.) – carbon

Johanna Pucker; Robin Zwart; Gerfried Jungmeier

461

Natural gas for electric generation: The challenge of gas and electric industry coordination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project examines the issues involved in integrating the planning and operation of gas-fired electric generation with the supply of natural gas by pipelines and gas distribution utilities. The report is designed to help electric utilities and their natural gas suppliers understand potential problems and identify approaches that each electric utility can use to develop the solutions that will be

W. R. Hughes; S. Thumb; J. Stamberg; J. Jensen

1992-01-01

462

GRI's (Gas Research Institute's) Natural Gas Supply Subprogram Status Report, 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major focus of GRI's natural gas supply R&D is on the development of new or improved technology to ensure the cost-effective recovery of gas from known, but marginally economic, gas resources. The Natural Gas Supply Subprogram is organized into six pr...

1988-01-01

463

Automated Natural Gas and Crude Helium Measurement System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines--Helium Field Operations has developed an automated system to fulfill its natural gas and crude helium measurement requirements. The system provides current gas flow information, automatic system calibration, daily flow volumes, and a ...

T. R. Spisak

1989-01-01

464

Natural Gas Industry Restructuring and EIA Data Collection  

EIA Publications

The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Reserves and Natural Gas Division has undertaken an in-depth reevaluation of its programs in an effort to improve the focus and quality of the natural gas data that it gathers and reports. This article is to inform natural gas data users of proposed changes and of the opportunity to provide comments and input on the direction that EIA is taking to improve its data.

Information Center

1996-06-01

465

Natural gas recovery, storage, and utilization SBIR program  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Fossil Energy natural-gas topic has been a part of the DOE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program since 1988. To date, 50 Phase SBIR natural-gas applications have been funded. Of these 50, 24 were successful in obtaining Phase II SBIR funding. The current Phase II natural-gas research projects awarded under the SBIR program and managed by METC are presented

1993-01-01

466

Natural Gas Processing Plants in the United States: 2010 Update  

EIA Publications

This special report presents an analysis of natural gas processing plants in the United States as of 2009 and highlights characteristics of this segment of the industry. The purpose of the paper is to examine the role of natural gas processing plants in the natural gas supply chain and to provide an overview and summary of processing plant characteristics in the United States, such as locations, capacities, and operations.

2011-06-17

467

Optimization of natural-gas pipeline systems via dynamic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity and expense of operating natural-gas pipeline systems have made optimum operation and planning of increased interest to the natural-gas pipeline industries. Since the operations of natural-gas pipeline sytems are characterized by inherent nonlinearities and numerous constraints, dynamic programming provides an extremely powerful method for optimizing such systems. This paper summarizes the application of dynamic programming techniques to solve

P. Wong; R. Larson

1968-01-01

468

Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer cont...

T. S. Collett

1992-01-01

469

Computer program for natural gas flow through nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Subroutines, FORTRAN 4 type, were developed for calculating isentropic natural gas mass flow rate through nozzle. Thermodynamic functions covering compressibility, entropy, enthalpy, and specific heat are included.

Johnson, R. C.

1972-01-01

470

Crystallographic study on natural gas hydrates recovered from the eastern Nankai Trough  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas hydrates are crystalline clathrate compounds, which encage a large amount of natural gas. The crystallographic structure of natural gas hydrates depends on the encaged natural gas components. In addition, the amount of hydrate-bound natural gas is attributed to the crystallographic structure. Massive and pore-space natural gas hydrates were obtained from the eastern Nankai Trough area during Japan's Methane

Masato Kida; Hiroyuki Suzuki; Kiyofumi Suzuki; Jiro Nagao; Hideo Narita

2010-01-01

471

Enhanced Prognosis for Abiotic Natural Gas and Petroleum Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prognosis for potential resources of abiotic natural gas and petroleum depends critically upon the nature and circumstances of Earth formation. Until recently, that prognosis has been considered solely within the framework of the so-called \\

J. Marvin Herndon

2006-01-01

472

Natural-gas-supply subprogram status report, 1987  

SciTech Connect

This document discusses the status of 1987 ongoing and 1988 planned activities in GRI's Natural Gas Supply research and development program to ensure the cost-effective recovery of gas from marginal resources. Areas covered are tight gas sands, eastern devonian gas shales, secondary gas recovery technologies, advanced technologies for exploration and production, and methane from coal deposits. Presented are objectives and goals, accomplishments, strategy and basis for each project area, and a status review sheet for projects within the project area.

Not Available

1987-12-01

473

Methane hydrates and the future of natural gas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For decades, gas hydrates have been discussed as a potential resource, particularly for countries with limited access to conventional hydrocarbons or a strategic interest in establishing alternative, unconventional gas reserves. Methane has never been produced from gas hydrates at a commercial scale and, barring major changes in the economics of natural gas supply and demand, commercial production at a large scale is considered unlikely to commence within the next 15 years. Given the overall uncertainty still associated with gas hydrates as a potential resource, they have not been included in the EPPA model in MITEI’s Future of Natural Gas report. Still, gas hydrates remain a potentially large methane resource and must necessarily be included in any consideration of the natural gas supply beyond two decades from now.

Ruppel, Carolyn

2011-01-01

474

Southern Natural modernizes its gas compressor stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how more fuel-efficient gas turbines are taking the place of horizontal compressors which served a gas utility for 50 years. It shows that horizontal engines were labor intensive, fuel inefficient, and that reliability was suspect. It discusses engine block removal, pulsation and manpower requirements.It concludes that the modernization has resulted in plentiful gas supplies, and due to

Harbor

1982-01-01

475

Discussion of gas enrichment mechanism and natural gas origin in marine sedimentary basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are abundant natural gas resources in Chinese marine sedimentary basin. The exploration hot shots of natural gas are\\u000a the Palaeozoic marine strata here in recent years, and several large scale gas fields have been discovered. Chinese Palaeozoic\\u000a high-post matured and coal measure hydrocarbon source rocks are mainly prone to gas generation in the present. This research\\u000a considered that gas

GuangYou Zhu; WenZhi Zhao; ShuiChang Zhang; YingBo Liang; ZhengJun Wang

2007-01-01

476

New roles for natural gas in the 1990s  

SciTech Connect

A probable increase in the use of natural gas is predicted to occur over the next decade because heightened concerns by the public over air quality are likely to place severe constraints on increased use of coal and petroleum as primary fuels. Congress and the states appear to be preparing to legislate new clean air standards that will be difficult to achieve under present economic conditions using the current mix of hydrocarbon fuels. Natural gas is a favorable fuel for several reasons. Because it has a high hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, it produces the least amount of carbon dioxide per calorie of any of the hydrocarbon fuels. Combustion of gas in modern burners does not produce significant CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, or any of the complex photochemicals responsible for smog and ozone pollution. Supplies of gas are plentiful, with a total domestic recoverable resource base of over 980 tcf estimated by the Potential Gas Agency. Additional gas, not counted in reserve estimates, is present in abandoned fields, where secondary recovery techniques may produce significant quantities. A promising area for increased natural gas usage in the next decade is electrical power generation, either by substituting gas for oil and coal as a boiler fuel or by generating electricity directly using chemical fuel cells powered by natural gas and air. Natural gas-fueled vehicles are another favored technology, due to very low emission levels and because natural gas can be run in a standard automotive engine with only minor mechanical modifications. Vehicles must carry compressed natural gas in high-pressure cylinders, but adsorptive materials are being developed to transport significant quantities at reduced pressure. Current technology can pack a 2,400-psi volume-equivalent of natural gas onto adsorptive material in the same space at only 500 psi.

Soeder, D.J. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA))

1990-05-01

477

Energy Data Reports: sales of liquefied petroleum gases and ethane in 1979  

SciTech Connect

In 1979, sales of liquefied petroleum gases and ethane totaled 18.9 billion gallons. Sales for use as raw materials in chemical manufactures, the largest end use category amounted to 8.2 billion gallons in 1979, accounting for 43.1% of total reported sales. Residential and commercial fuel use sales, the second largest, aggregated 4.7 billion gallons representing 25.1% of the total. The remaining end use categories include industrial use (including refinery fuels use) with sales of 2.1 billion gallons; internal combustion engine fuel use (excluding use in farm machinery), 0.4 billion gallons; gas utilities (peak shaving), 0.8 billion gallons; and miscellaneous uses, 2.7 billion gallons. Miscellaneous uses include all farm uses, use in synthetic natural gas (SNG) manufacture, and secondary recovery use. 10 tabs.

Not Available

1980-11-12

478

Natural gas vehicles stall on way to market  

SciTech Connect

The outlook for increased use of natural gas for fueling autos depends primarily on comparative fuel prices and comparative vehicle prices, according to David E. Gushee, a senior fellow in environmental policy at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. Compressed natural gas may be a more efficient fuel than gasoline, but costs of fuel distribution and engine design can add significantly to its total price. Currently, natural gas is less expensive than gasoline at the retail level, but this price advantage depends on government and industry subsidies. For natural gas to stay competitive in the future, these subsidies likely will have to continue, says Gushee. The pump price of natural gas will have to remain low if natural gas-powered vehicles are to succeed in the market place, because such vehicles currently cost about $2,500 to $5,000 more than a comparable gasoline-powered car. Gushee says that even with mass production, the projected price difference will be about $800 per car. The challenges facing compressed natural gas are daunting, especially considering that even in nations where natural gas receives significant tax advantages, its penetration has not exceeded 15 percent.

Gushee, D.E. [Congressional Research Service, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-08-01

479

Erdgas heute und morgen. (Natural gas today and tomorrow).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the role of natural gas in the energy markets of the former Federal Republic of Germany and in the new provinces of unified Germany, the reliability of energy supplies, the low-pollution, low-CO(sub 2) consumption of natural gas, ene...

1992-01-01

480

Adsorption of natural gas and biogas components on activated carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results are presented for the adsorption equilibria of methane, ethane, propane, butane, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen, as well as natural gas odorants tert-butyl mercaptan and tetrahydrothiophene, on an activated carbon with the desirable characteristics for use in a guard bed for adsorbed natural gas storage, but that can also be applied for separation of biogas components, such as carbon

Isabel A. A. C. Esteves; Marta S. S. Lopes; Pedro M. C. Nunes; José P. B. Mota

2008-01-01

481

On the Pricing of Natural Gas Pipeline Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pipelines play a critical role in matching the supply and demand of natural gas. The pricing of their capacity is an important problem in practice, both for pipeline companies and shippers, the users of this capacity, including natural gas merchants, producers, and local distribution companies. This paper conducts a normative analysis of how pipeline capacity should be priced by each

Nicola Secomandi

2010-01-01

482

Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the second quarter of 1997 (April through June).

NONE

1997-12-31

483

Natural Gas Transportation - Infrastructure Issues and Operational Trends  

EIA Publications

This report examines how well the current national natural gas pipeline network has been able to handle today's market demand for natural gas. In addition, it identifies those areas of the country where pipeline utilization is continuing to grow rapidly and where new pipeline capacity is needed or is planned over the next several years.

Information Center

2001-10-01

484

A Large Potential Methane Source—Natural Gas Hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas, essentially methane, can be obtained from natural gas hydrate (NGH). NGH reserves are difficult to pinpoint in the subsurface, but large sources have been identified by seismic reflection. This is particularly so below the sea floor near continental shelf plates in the oceans deeper than 300 m as NGH is stable at 4°C and 50 bar pressure. When

R. A. Dawe; S. Thomas

2007-01-01

485

Natural Gas: Major Legislative and Regulatory Actions (1935 - 2008)  

EIA Publications

This special report Web-based product presents a chronology of some of the key federal legislative and regulatory actions that have helped shape the natural gas market, with particular emphasis on policy directives from 1978 to October 2008. Separate reports provide brief descriptions of specific legislation, regulations, or policies, and their impacts on the natural gas market.

Information Center

2009-01-30

486

Testing for Market Integration: Crude Oil, Coal, and Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prompted by the contemporaneous spike in coal, oil, and natural gas prices, this paper evaluates the degree of market integration both within and between crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets. Our approach yields parameters that can be readily tested against a priori conjectures. Using daily price data for five very different crude oils, we conclude that the world oil

Lance J. Bachmeier; James M. Griffin

2006-01-01

487

U.S. oil, natural gas demand still climbing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steady economic growth and slightly lower prices will boost demand for petroleum and natural gas in the US again this year. Economic growth will lag behind last year`s level but will remain strong. Increased worldwide petroleum production should lower oil prices and encourage fuel-switching, which will suppress natural gas prices. In the US, total energy consumption will grow less rapidly

Beck

1997-01-01

488

PROJECTIONS OF REGIONAL FUEL OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents delivered regional oil and natural gas price forecasts for the industrial and electric utility sectors. Delivered energy price projections by Federal region through the year 2045 are provided for distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, and natural gas. Methodo...

489

Coal, oil, natural gas, helium, and uranium in Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data presented in this publication were assembled to assist in developing a fundamental understanding and a geological perspective of occurrence of coal, petroleum, natural gas, helium, and uranium in Arizona. The data are presented in three parts: (1) coals; (2) oil, natural gas, and helium; and (3) uranium. A bibliography is presented at the end of the report. Numerous

H. W. Peirce; S. B. Keith; J. C. Wilt

1970-01-01

490

Process for recovering helium from a natural gas stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for cryogenically separating and recovering a gaseous product stream consisting of at least about 50 volume percent of helium, the balance being substantially nitrogen, from a helium-bearing natural gas received at an elevated temperature and pressure containing helium, nitrogen, methane and condensable Câ and higher hydrocarbon compounds, is described comprising the steps of: cooling the natural gas feed

E. K. Mitchell; D. N. Reed; T. L. Rodkey

1988-01-01

491

75 FR 62519 - Rocky Mountain Natural Gas LLC; KeySpan Gas East Corporation; ECOP Gas Company, LLC; MGTC, Inc...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PR10-136-000 (Not Consolidated)] Rocky Mountain Natural Gas LLC; KeySpan Gas East Corporation; ECOP Gas Company, LLC; MGTC, Inc; Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC; Southern California Gas Company; ETC Katy Pipeline, Ltd.; Notice of Baseline...

2010-10-12

492

An econometric analysis of the market for natural gas futures  

SciTech Connect

This research tests a form of the efficient markets hypothesis in the market for natural gas futures. Unlike other studies of future markets, the test for market efficiency is conducted at numerous locations which comprise the natural gas spot market in addition to the delivery location specified in the futures contract. Natural gas spot and futures prices are found to be nonstationary and accordingly are modeled using recently developed maximum likelihood cointegrated with nearly all of the spot market prices across the national network of gas pipelines. The hypothesis of market efficiency can be rejected in 3 of the 13 spot markets. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Walls, W.D. [Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

1995-12-31

493

Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

Gruy, H.J.

1998-03-01

494

Psychrometric charts for water vapour in natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychrometric charts present in a graphical form physical property data for gas systems involving one or more non-condensing gas components and a single condensing vapour component. Originally limited to studying the humid air system of water vapour in dry air, the theory behind preparing psychrometric charts for water vapour in natural gas is presented. To illustrate the technique two charts

David C. Shallcross

2008-01-01

495

Fundamental principles and applications of natural gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas hydrates are solid, non-stoichiometric compounds of small gas molecules and water. They form when the constituents come into contact at low temperature and high pressure. The physical properties of these compounds, most notably that they are non-flowing crystalline solids that are denser than typical fluid hydrocarbons and that the gas molecules they contain are effectively compressed, give rise

E. Dendy Sloan

2003-01-01

496

Depressurization of natural gas hydrates in berea sandstone cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

D. W. Davidsonet al. [7] were among the first to recognize significant deposits of natural gas clathrate hydrates in the Western Hemisphere. This work discusses the recovery of gas from such deposits, through laboratory measurement and modeling of a depressurization scheme. The work provides a determination of the volume of gas produced and the position of the hydrate interface, as

M. H. Yousif; P. M. Li; M. S. Selim; E. D. Sloan

1990-01-01

497

Capturing fugitive methane emissions from natural gas compressor buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fugitive methane emissions account for about 50% of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Canadian conventional oil and gas sector. Sources include leaks in natural gas transmission facilities such as pipelines and compressor stations. There are three sources of methane emissions in a compressor station. The first is emissions resulting from incomplete combustion in the engine; the second is

R. Litto; R. E. Hayes; B. Liu

2007-01-01

498

The catalytic decomposition of petroleum into natural gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petroleum is believed to be unstable in the earth, decomposing to lighter hydrocarbons at temperatures > 150°C. Oil and gas deposits support this view: gas/oil ratios and methane concentrations tend to increase with depth above 150°C. Although oil cracking is suggested and receives wide support, laboratory pyrolysis does not give products resembling natural gas. Moreover, it is doubtful that the light hydrocarbons in wet gas (C 2?C 4) could decompose over geologic time to dry gas (> 95% methane) without catalytic assistance. We now report the catalytic decomposition of crude oil to a gas indistinguishable from natural gas. Like natural gas in deep basins, it becomes progressively enriched in methane: initially 80% (wet gas) to a final composition of 100% methane (dry gas). To our knowledge, the reaction is unprecedented and unexpectedly robust (conversion of oil to gas is 100% in days, 175°C) with significant implications regarding the stability of petroleum in sedimentary basins. The existence or nonexistence of oil in the deep subsurface may not depend on the thermal stability of hydrocarbons as currently thought. The critical factor could be the presence of transition metal catalysts which destabilize hydrocarbons and promote their decomposition to natural gas.

Mango, Frank D.; Hightower, Joe

1997-12-01

499

Catalytic partial oxidation of natural gas to syngas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We trace the development of catalytic partial oxidation technology for the conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas (CO + H2) from steam reforming to autothermal reforming to direct oxidation. Synthesis gas which has applications in methanol, ammonia and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis has been conventionally produced by endothermic steam reforming processes in fired tube furnaces. Catalytic partial oxidation is much faster,

S. S. Bharadwaj; L. D. Schmidt

1995-01-01

500

Procedure for preparation for shipment of natural gas storage vessel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for preparing a natural gas storage vessel for shipment is presented. The gas is stored at 3,000 pounds per square inch. The safety precautions to be observed are emphasized. The equipment and process for purging the tank and sampling the exit gas flow are described. A diagram of the pressure vessel and the equipment is provided.

Amawd, A. M.

1974-01-01