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1

Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It should have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The thermoacoustic natural-gas liquefier (TANGL) is based on our

G. Swift; D. Gardner; M. Hayden; R. Radebaugh; J. Wollan

1996-01-01

2

Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryenco and Los Alamos are collaborating to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that will have no moving parts and require no electrical power. It will have useful efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at only 115 Kelvin at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 invention of the thermoacoustically

1997-01-01

3

Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It should have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The thermoacoustic natural-gas liquefier (TANGL) is based on our recent invention of the first no-moving-parts cryogenic refrigerator. In short, our invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat, with no moving parts. The required apparatus comprises nothing more than heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. Its initial experimental success in a small size lead us to propose a more ambitious application: large-energy liquefaction of natural gas, using combustion of natural gas as the energy source. TANGL was designed to be maintenance-free, inexpensive, portable, and environmentally benign.

Swift, G.; Gardner, D.; Hayden, M.; Radebaugh, R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Wollan, J. [Cryenco, Inc. (United States)

1996-07-01

4

Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

SciTech Connect

Cryenco and Los Alamos are collaborating to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that will have no moving parts and require no electrical power. It will have useful efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at only 115 Kelvin at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 invention of the thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse-tube refrigerator (TA-DOPTR) provides cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts for the first time. In short, this invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The required apparatus consists of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. In the Cryenco-Los Alamos collaboration, the authors are developing a version of this invention suitable for use in the natural-gas industry. The project is known as acoustic liquefier for short. The present program plans call for a two-phase development. Phase 1, with capacity of 500 gallon per day (i.e., approximately 40,000 scfd, requiring a refrigeration power of about 7 kW), is large enough to illuminate all the issues of large-scale acoustic liquefaction without undue cost, and to demonstrate the liquefaction of 60--70% of input gas, while burning 30--40%. Phase 2 will target versions of approximately 10{sup 6} scfd = 10,000 gallon per day capacity. In parallel with both, they continue fundamental research on the technology, directed toward increased efficiency, to build scientific foundations and a patent portfolio for future acoustic liquefiers.

Swift, G.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group

1997-05-01

5

Liquefied natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book summarizes recent developments in the general area of natural gas liquefaction and use. Treatment is technical rather than theoretical and thermodynamics, economic evaluations, and statistical data are relegated to the appendixes. The main part of the review consists of an introduction dealing with the historical development of cryogenics and gas liquefaction and their application in the gas industry.

Lom

1974-01-01

6

Safety issues relating to the liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas and liquefied natural gas  

SciTech Connect

The Railroad Commission of Texas, LP-Gas Division, is statutorily responsible for the safety aspects of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) most commonly known as LP-gas or propane, compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG). This presentation will address the safety issues relating to their use as alternative fuels. The paper discusses the safety of pressure vessels used for storage of the fuels at refueling facilities and the containers mounted in vehicles. Other topics include the lack of odorants in LNG, the use of protective clothing when handling cryogenic fluids, and where to obtain a copy of the safety regulations for handling these three fuels.

Petru, T.D. [Railroad Commission of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). LP-Gas Div.

1995-12-31

7

Bibliography on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximately 600 citations concerning safety of liquefied natural gas and liquid methane are presented. Each entry includes the title, author, abstract, source, description of figures, key references, and major descriptors for retrieving the document. An author index is provided as well as an index of descriptors.

Ordin, P. M.

1976-01-01

8

Liquefied Natural Gas for Trucks and Buses  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a heavy vehicle fuel. The reason for developing LNG is to reduce our dependency on imported oil by eliminating technical and costs barriers associated with its usage. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a program, currently in its third year, to develop and advance cost-effective technologies for operating and refueling natural gas-fueled heavy vehicles (Class 7-8 trucks). The objectives of the DOE Natural Gas Vehicle Systems Program are to achieve market penetration by reducing vehicle conversion and fuel costs, to increase consumer acceptance by improving the reliability and efficiency, and to improve air quality by reducing tailpipe emissions. One way to reduce fuel costs is to develop new supplies of cheap natural gas. Significant progress is being made towards developing more energy-efficient, low-cost, small-scale natural gas liquefiers for exploiting alternative sources of natural gas such as from landfill and remote gas sites. In particular, the DOE program provides funds for research and development in the areas of; natural gas clean up, LNG production, advanced vehicle onboard storage tanks, improved fuel delivery systems and LNG market strategies. In general, the program seeks to integrate the individual components being developed into complete systems, and then demonstrate the technology to establish technical and economic feasibility. The paper also reviews the importance of cryogenics in designing LNG fuel delivery systems.

James Wegrzyn; Michael Gurevich

2000-06-19

9

78 FR 21351 - Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, and Vacating Prior Authority During February...authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas and vacating prior authority. These...

2013-04-10

10

Development of a thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier.  

SciTech Connect

Praxair, in conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is developing a new technology, thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators, for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems will be developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed. In February 2001 Praxair, Inc. purchased the acoustic heat engine and refrigeration development program from Chart Industries. Chart (formerly Cryenco, which Chart purchased in 1997) and Los Alamos had been working on the technology development program since 1994. The purchase included assets and intellectual property rights for thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse tube refrigerators (TADOPTR), a new and revolutionary Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engine (TASHE) technology, aspects of Orifice Pulse Tube Refrigeration (OPTR) and linear motor compressors as OPTR drivers. Praxair, in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the licensor of the TADOPTR and TASHE patents, is continuing the development of TASHE-OPTR natural gas powered, natural gas liquefiers. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at -161 C (-259 F) at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 TADOPTR invention by Drs. Greg Swift (LANL) and Ray Radebaugh (NIST) demonstrated the first technology to produce cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators use acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The basic driver and refrigerator consist of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. The liquefier development program is divided into two components: Thermoacoustically driven refrigerators and linear motor driven refrigerators (LOPTRs). LOPTR technology will, for the foreseeable future, be limited to natural gas liquefaction capacities on the order of hundreds of gallons per day. TASHE-OPTR technology is expected to achieve liquefaction capacities of tens of thousands of gallons per day. This paper will focus on the TASHE-OPTR technology because its natural gas liquefaction capacity has greater market opportunity. LOPTR development will be mentioned briefly. The thermoacoustically driven refrigerator development program is now in the process of demonstrating the technology at a capacity of about 500 gallon/day (gpd) i.e., approximately 42,000 standard cubic feet/day, which requires about 7 kW of refrigeration power. This capacity is big enough to illuminate the issues of large-scale acoustic liquefaction at reasonable cost and to demonstrate the liquefaction of about 70% of an input gas stream, while burning about 30%. Subsequent to this demonstration a system with a capacity of approximately 10{sup 6} standard cubic feet/day (scfd) = 10,000 gpd with a projected liquefaction rate of about 85% of the input gas stream will be developed. When commercialized, the TASHE-OPTRs will be a totally new type of heat-driven cryogenic refrigerator, with projected low manufacturing cost, high reliability, long life, and low maintenance. A TASHE-OPTR will be able to liquefy a broad range of gases, one of the most important being natural gas (NG). Potential NG applications range from distributed liquefaction of pipeline gas as fuel for heavy-duty fleet and long haul vehicles to large-scale liquefaction at on-shore and offshore gas wellheads. An alternative to the thermoacoustic driver, but with many similar technical and market advantages, is the linear motor compressor. Linear motors convert electrical power directly into oscillating linear, or axial, motion. Attachment of a piston to the oscillator results in a direct drive compressor. Such a compressor

Wollan, J. J. (John J.); Swift, G. W. (Gregory W.); Backhaus, S. N. (Scott N.); Gardner, D. L. (David L.)

2002-01-01

11

An economic analysis of Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG)  

E-print Network

This report includes a discussion of the potential production of stranded natural gas reserves through the implementation of Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) in a world of growing energy demand followed by an analysis ...

Marmolejo, Phillip Christian

2014-01-01

12

Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas as alternative fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of alternative fuels in the transportation industry has gained a strong support in recent years. In this paper an attempt was made to evaluate the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (NG) by 25 LPG-bifuel and 14 NG-bifuel vehicles that are operated by 33 transit systems throughout Nebraska. A set of performance measures such

Massoum Moussavi; Motasem Al-Turk

1993-01-01

13

78 FR 35014 - Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, and to Import Liquefied Natural Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, and to Import Liquefied Natural Gas During April 2013...import and export natural gas and to import liquefied natural gas. These orders are summarized in the...

2013-06-11

14

77 FR 12274 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During January 2012 AGENCY: Office of Fossil...authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas. These Orders are summarized in the...

2012-02-29

15

77 FR 19277 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During February 2012 FE Docket Nos. FREEPORT...authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas. These Orders are summarized in the...

2012-03-30

16

Analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) release prevention systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is playing an important role in meeting the energy needs of the U.S. and other countries. Since one unit volume of LNG is equivalent to 600 unit volumes of natural gas, liquefaction permits large volumes of gas to be economically stored and transported. In the United States, LNG has a twenty-year record of safe handling and

P. J. Pelto; E. G. Baker

1984-01-01

17

Supply Chain Optimization for the Liquefied Natural Gas Business  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of natural gas as an energy source is increasing. Natural gas has traditionally been transported in pipelines,\\u000a but ships are more efficient for transportation over long distances. When the gas is cooled down to liquid state it is called\\u000a liquefied natural gas (LNG). The LNG supply chain consists of exploration, extraction, liquefaction, transportation, storage and regasification.\\u000a Maritime transportation

Roar Grønhaug; Marielle Christiansen

18

Liquefied natural gas: safety issues, public concerns, and decision making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas is an important, widely used fossil fuel which is convenient and relatively non-polluting. Because U.S. domestic suppliers have been declining since 1972, suppliers have sought to import additional gas in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG), which is 1\\/600 the volume of natural gas and is therefore convenient for transportation and storage. If present plans and proposals

A. J. Van Horn; R. Wilson

1976-01-01

19

Liquefied natural gas. operations and measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of natural gas liquefaction and measurement in custody transfer covers the four segments of a natural gas liquefaction plant, i.e., gas cleanup, liquefaction (cold box section), storage, and docking or loading facilities; processes for liquefaction and handling before and after the liquefaction treatment; required transportation functions, e.g., cargo tank cleaning before and after LNG storage; and the dependence

1974-01-01

20

49 CFR 191.17 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report.  

...gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. 191.17 Section 191.17 Transportation...SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE...systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities:...

2014-10-01

21

Development of a thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Praxair, in conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is developing a new technology, thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators, for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons\\/day, has been built and tested. The power

John J. Wollan; Gregory W. Swift; S. N. Backhaus; D. L. Gardner

2002-01-01

22

Fourth international conference on liquefied natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papers were presented concerning world trade in LNG, LNG transport, natural gas liquefaction, LNG handling, LNG storage, and economic and legal aspects. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. (JRD)

1974-01-01

23

Offshore LNG (liquefied natural gas) production and storage systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A barge, outfitted with gas liquefaction processing equipment and liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks, is suggested as a possible way to exploit remote offshore gas production. A similar study with a barge-mounted methanol plant was conducted several years ago, also using remote offshore feed gas. This barge-mounted, LNG system is bow-moored to a single point mooring through which feed

Barden

1982-01-01

24

77 FR 38128 - Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port Application AGENCY: Maritime...construct, and operate a deepwater port for a liquefied natural gas deepwater port facility, located...

2012-06-26

25

Liquefied Natural Gas: Global Challenges (released in AEO2008)  

EIA Publications

U.S. imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in 2007 were more than triple the 2000 total, and they are expected to grow in the long term as North Americas conventional natural gas production declines. With U.S. dependence on LNG imports increasing, competitive forces in the international markets for natural gas in general and LNG in particular will play a larger role in shaping the U.S. market for LNG. Key factors currently shaping the future of the global LNG market include the evolution of project economics, worldwide demand for natural gas, government policies that affect the development and use of natural resources in countries with LNG facilities, and changes in seasonal patterns of LNG trade.

2008-01-01

26

18 CFR 157.212 - Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities. 157.212 Section 157...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket...

2010-04-01

27

Liquefaction, storage and transportation of liquefied natural gas: recent French developments and projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the discovery of large natural gas reserves in the Sahara, a great deal of work has been achieved in France on the transportation of liquefied natural gas. This paper gives a general description of the overall scheme designed for the importation of liquefied natural gas between Arzew and Le Havre. The liquefaction plant, tankers, storage and evaporation units at

M. Pilloy; M. Grenier; M. Perret

1967-01-01

28

49 CFR 191.15 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report.  

...systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report. 191.15 Section 191.15 Transportation...SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE...operator of a liquefied natural gas plant or facility...a) or (b) of this section, the operator...

2014-10-01

29

Control method for mixed refrigerant based natural gas liquefier  

DOEpatents

In a natural gas liquefaction system having a refrigerant storage circuit, a refrigerant circulation circuit in fluid communication with the refrigerant storage circuit, and a natural gas liquefaction circuit in thermal communication with the refrigerant circulation circuit, a method for liquefaction of natural gas in which pressure in the refrigerant circulation circuit is adjusted to below about 175 psig by exchange of refrigerant with the refrigerant storage circuit. A variable speed motor is started whereby operation of a compressor is initiated. The compressor is operated at full discharge capacity. Operation of an expansion valve is initiated whereby suction pressure at the suction pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 30 psig and discharge pressure at the discharge pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 350 psig. Refrigerant vapor is introduced from the refrigerant holding tank into the refrigerant circulation circuit until the suction pressure is reduced to below about 15 psig, after which flow of the refrigerant vapor from the refrigerant holding tank is terminated. Natural gas is then introduced into a natural gas liquefier, resulting in liquefaction of the natural gas.

Kountz, Kenneth J. (Palatine, IL); Bishop, Patrick M. (Chicago, IL)

2003-01-01

30

40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...  

...engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620...engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all...operate solely on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have...

2014-07-01

31

40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620...engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all...operate solely on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have...

2011-07-01

32

40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620...engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all...operate solely on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have...

2012-07-01

33

40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620...engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all...operate solely on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have...

2010-07-01

34

40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620...engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all...operate solely on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have...

2013-07-01

35

Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with conversion companies in six states to convert approximately 900 light-duty Federal fleet vehicles to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The contracts were initiated in order to help the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) during a period

R. C. Motta; K. J. Kelly; W. W. Warnock

1996-01-01

36

Comparative analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) used by transit agencies in Texas. Research report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a detailed comparative analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG). The study provides data on two alternative fuels used by transit agencies in Texas. First, we examine the `state-of-the- art` in alternative fuels to established a framework for the study. Efforts were made to examine selected characteristics of two types of natural gas

Lede

1997-01-01

37

77 FR 2126 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2012-0001] Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators...

2012-01-13

38

Developments in non-utility uses of liquefied natural gas (LNG)  

SciTech Connect

The development uses, and market for liquefied natural gas (LNG) is addressed. Applications discussed include aircraft fuel, rocket fuel, diesel locomotive fuel, and as a refrigeration source for a shrimp boat in a demonstration program. 3 figs. (CBS)

Anderson, P.J.

1988-01-01

39

Liquefied natural gas: moving energy from here. [Includes discussion of peak-shaving facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Bureau of Standards has been developing and improving methods for getting natural gas from producer to consumer in the liquefied form. LNG is important to the whole natural gas system because of the economics of transportation and storage. A major factor is the obvious advantage of transporting natural gas as LNG by ship to and from foreign countries

Higgins

1977-01-01

40

40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage  

...Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table...GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt...Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG...

2014-07-01

41

Control method for mixed refrigerant based natural gas liquefier  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a natural gas liquefaction system having a refrigerant storage circuit, a refrigerant circulation circuit in fluid communication with the refrigerant storage circuit, and a natural gas liquefaction circuit in thermal communication with the refrigerant circulation circuit, a method for liquefaction of natural gas in which pressure in the refrigerant circulation circuit is adjusted to below about 175 psig by

Kenneth J. Kountz; Patrick M. Bishop

2003-01-01

42

DEVELOPMENT OF A THERMOACOUSTIC NATURAL GAS LIQUEFIER-UPDATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators are being developed for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons\\/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems are developed with liquefaction

J. WOLLAN; G. SWIFT

2001-01-01

43

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve and liquefied natural gas supplies. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States is planning to import liquefied natural gas (LNG) to offset the effects of our apparent dwindling natural gas supply. These imports would begin by the 1980s and would come from Algeria, Indonesia, Pakistan, Iran, Nigeria, and possibly the Soviet Union. If a disruption in LNG supplies were to occur, the impact to the nation could be eased

R. J. Fink; B. A. Bancroft; T. M. Palmieri

1977-01-01

44

3 , LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) -165oC  

E-print Network

Temperature to be maintained Gravity Contents in 1 m3 solid liquid -20oC -162oC 0.85 ~ 0.95 0.42 ~ 0.47 Natural Gas : 170 Nm3 Water : 0.8 m3 Natural Gas : 600 Nm3 #12; . PNG LNG . . , . 170cc 1cc -20oC -162oC LNG , . #12; LNG Boil-Off Gas (BOG

Hong, Deog Ki

45

DEVELOPMENT OF A THERMOACOUSTIC NATURAL GAS LIQUEFIER-UPDATE  

SciTech Connect

Thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators are being developed for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems are developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed.

J. WOLLAN; G. SWIFT

2001-05-01

46

Impact of Liquefied Natural Gas usage and payload size on Hybrid Wing Body aircraft fuel efficiency  

E-print Network

This work assessed Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft in the context of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) fuel usage and payload/range scalability at three scales: H1 (B737), H2 (B787) and H3 (B777). The aircraft were optimized for ...

Mody, Pritesh (Pritesh Chetan)

2010-01-01

47

Forced Dispersion of Liquefied Natural Gas Vapor Clouds with Water Spray Curtain Application  

E-print Network

There has been, and will continue to be, tremendous growth in the use and distribution of liquefied natural gas (LNG). As LNG poses the hazard of flammable vapor cloud formation from a release, which may result in a massive fire, increased public...

Rana, Morshed A.

2011-02-22

48

Comparative analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) used by transit agencies in Texas. Research report  

SciTech Connect

This study is a detailed comparative analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG). The study provides data on two alternative fuels used by transit agencies in Texas. First, we examine the `state-of-the- art` in alternative fuels to established a framework for the study. Efforts were made to examine selected characteristics of two types of natural gas demonstrations in terms of the following properties: energy source characteristics, vehicle performance and emissions, operations, maintenance, reliability, safety costs, and fuel availability. Where feasible, two alternative fuels were compared with conventional gasoline and diesel fuel. Environmental considerations relative to fuel distribution and use are analyzed, with a focus on examining flammability an other safety-related issues. The objectives of the study included: (1) assess the state-of-the-art and document relevant findings pertaining to alternative fuels; (2) analyze and synthesize existing databases on two natural gas alternatives: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG): and (3) compare two alterative fuels used by transit properties in Texas, and address selected aspects of alternative fuels such as energy source characteristics, vehicle performance and emissions, safety, costs, maintenance and operations, environmental and related issues.

Lede, N.W.

1997-09-01

49

An exergy analysis of small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) liquefaction processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four processes for small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) production are evaluated. These include a single-stage mixed refrigerant (SMR), a two-stage expander nitrogen refrigerant and two open-loop expander processes. Steady-state simulations were undertaken to ensure that each process was compared on an identical basis, was fully optimised and was in agreement with published results. Composite curves for the feed and recycle

C. W. Remeljej; A. F. A. Hoadley

2006-01-01

50

On the application of computational fluid dynamics codes for liquefied natural gas dispersion.  

PubMed

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are increasingly being used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry to predict natural gas dispersion distances. This paper addresses several issues regarding the use of CFD for LNG dispersion such as specification of the domain, grid, boundary and initial conditions. A description of the k-epsilon model is presented, along with modifications required for atmospheric flows. Validation issues pertaining to the experimental data from the Burro, Coyote, and Falcon series of LNG dispersion experiments are also discussed. A description of the atmosphere is provided as well as discussion on the inclusion of the Coriolis force to model very large LNG spills. PMID:17113710

Luketa-Hanlin, Anay; Koopman, Ronald P; Ermak, Donald L

2007-02-20

51

On the application of computational fluid dynamics codes for liquefied natural gas dispersion.  

SciTech Connect

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are increasingly being used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry to predict natural gas dispersion distances. This paper addresses several issues regarding the use of CFD for LNG dispersion such as specification of the domain, grid, boundary and initial conditions. A description of the k-{var_epsilon} model is presented, along with modifications required for atmospheric flows. Validation issues pertaining to the experimental data from the Burro, Coyote, and Falcon series of LNG dispersion experiments are also discussed. A description of the atmosphere is provided as well as discussion on the inclusion of the Coriolis force to model very large LNG spills.

Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Koopman, Ronald P. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Ermak, Donald (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA)

2006-02-01

52

Development of a Small-Scale Natural Gas Liquefier. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This final report describes the progress during the contract period March 1, 1998 through April 30, 2003, on the design, development, and testing of a novel mixed-refrigerant-based 1000 gal/day natural gas liquefier, together with the associated gas cleanup equipment. Based on the work, it is concluded that a cost-effective 1000 gal/day liquefaction system is technically and economically feasible. A unit based on the same developed technology, with 5000 gal/day capacity, would have much improved economics.

Kountz, K.; Kriha, K.; Liss, W.; Perry, M.; Richards, M.; Zuckerman, D.

2003-04-30

53

Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review  

SciTech Connect

An increasing share of natural gas supplies distributed to residential appliances in the U.S. may come from liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports. The imported gas will be of a higher Wobbe number than domestic gas, and there is concern that it could produce more pollutant emissions at the point of use. This report will review recently undertaken studies, some of which have observed substantial effects on various appliances when operated on different mixtures of imported LNG. While we will summarize findings of major studies, we will not try to characterize broad effects of LNG, but describe how different components of the appliance itself will be affected by imported LNG. This paper considers how the operation of each major component of the gas appliances may be impacted by a switch to LNG, and how this local impact may affect overall safety, performance and pollutant emissions.

Lekov, Alex; Sturges, Andy; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

2009-12-09

54

Effect of Increased Levels of Liquefied Natural Gas Exports on U.S. Energy Markets  

EIA Publications

This report responds to a May 29, 2014 request from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE) for an update of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) January 2012 study of liquefied natural gas (LNG) export scenarios. This updated study, like the prior one, is intended to serve as an input to be considered in the evaluation of applications to export LNG from the United States under Section 3 of the Natural Gas Act, which requires DOE to grant a permit to export domestically produced natural gas unless it finds that such action is not consistent with the public interest. Appendix A provides a copy of the DOE/FE request letter.

2014-01-01

55

[Ecological/hygienic and toxicological evaluation of combustion products of aviation kerosene and liquefied natural gas].  

PubMed

Products of kerosene combustion in the present-day aeroengines contain more than 200 compounds of incomplete combustion, partial oxidation, and thermal decomposition of fuel and oil. Most of these are strong toxicants for humans. Increase of temperature in the turbine engine combustion chamber led to production of very toxic nitrogen oxides. In search for the ecologically safe and less toxic alternative attention of fuel engineers was drawn to liquefied natural gas which compares well and even excels kerosene in ecological, economic and many other respects. PMID:16999075

Afanas'ev, R V; Berezin, G I; Raznoschikov, V V

2006-01-01

56

Strategic petroleum reserve and liquefied natural gas supplies. Final report. [Impact of LNG and\\/or oil embargo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States is planning to import liquefied natural gas (LNG) to offset the effects of our apparent dwindling natural gas supply. These imports would begin by the 1980s and would come from Algeria, Indonesia, Pakistan, Iran, Nigeria, and possibly the Soviet Union. If a disruption in LNG supplies were to occur, the impact to the nation could be eased

R. J. Fink; B. A. Bancroft; T. M. Palmieri

1977-01-01

57

Environmental problem definition for petroleum refineries, synthetic natural gas plants, and liquefied natural gas plants. Final report, Jan--Oct 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives process descriptions for petroleum refineries, for synthetic natural gas plants based on liquid hydrocarbon feedstock, and for liquefied natural gas plants. It compares these process descriptions with those for other types of energy conversion plants, such as coal gasification and coal liquefaction. It identifies potential ambient air emissions, liquid effluents, and solid wastes, and discusses monitoring methods

E. C. Cavanaugh; J. D. Colley; P. S. Dzierlenga; V. M. Felix; D. C. Jones

1975-01-01

58

Feasibility of landfill gas as a liquefied natural gas fuel source for refuse trucks.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to evaluate the feasibility of using landfill gas (LFG) as a liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel source for heavy-duty refuse trucks operating on landfills. Using LFG as a vehicle fuel can make the landfills more self-sustaining, reduce their dependence on fossil fuels, and reduce emissions and greenhouse gases. Acrion Technologies Inc. in association with Mack Trucks Inc. developed a technology to generate LNG from LFG using the CO2 WASH process. A successful application of this process was performed at the Eco Complex in Burlington County, PA. During this application two LNG refuse trucks were operated for 600 hr each using LNG produced from gases from the landfill. The methodology developed in this paper can evaluate the feasibility of three LFG options: doing nothing, electricity generation, and producing LNG to fuel refuse trucks. The methodology involved the modeling of several components: LFG generation, energy recovery processes, fleet operations, economic feasibility, and decision-making. The economic feasibility considers factors such as capital, maintenance, operational, and fuel costs, emissions and tax benefits, and the sale of products such as surplus LNG and food-grade carbon dioxide (CO2). Texas was used as a case study. The 96 landfills in Texas were prioritized and 17 landfills were identified that showed potential for converting LFG to LNG for use as a refuse truck fuel. The methodology was applied to a pilot landfill in El Paso, TX. The analysis showed that converting LFG to LNG to fuel refuse trucks proved to be the most feasible option and that the methodology can be applied for any landfill that considers this option. PMID:18512437

Zietsman, Josias; Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul; Rand, Aaron J; Gokhale, Bhushan; Lord, Dominique; Kumar, Sunil

2008-05-01

59

Implications of the US-Algerian liquefied natural gas price dispute and LNG imports  

SciTech Connect

In early 1980 Algeria demanded a 200% increase in the price of its liquefied natural gas. When the US company involved refused to pay this price, Algeria stopped LNG deliveries. The Energy Department, which is now the primary US negotiator with Algeria, says it will not agree to the price demand. If it did Canada and Mexico, at least in the long run, would probably request equivalent prices for their gas. If their price requests were met, US natural gas import bills, at present import levels, would increase by about 79%, or $3.5 billion. However, as the prices increased, demand for imported gas would probably drop substantially. GAO does not believe importing large amounts of LNG from OPEC countries is in the national interest. LNG imports generally trade oil dependence for gas dependence. It makes little sense to increase US dependence on gas at a time when extraordinary steps are being taken to reduce dependence on oil. Current indications are, however, that not many more proposals for LNG from OPEC countries will be forthcoming in the next few years.

Staats, E.B.

1980-12-16

60

Semi-analytical models of hydroelastic sloshing impact in tanks of liquefied natural gas vessels.  

PubMed

The present paper deals with the methods for the evaluation of the hydroelastic interactions that appear during the violent sloshing impacts inside the tanks of liquefied natural gas carriers. The complexity of both the fluid flow and the structural behaviour (containment system and ship structure) does not allow for a fully consistent direct approach according to the present state of the art. Several simplifications are thus necessary in order to isolate the most dominant physical aspects and to treat them properly. In this paper, choice was made of semi-analytical modelling for the hydrodynamic part and finite-element modelling for the structural part. Depending on the impact type, different hydrodynamic models are proposed, and the basic principles of hydroelastic coupling are clearly described and validated with respect to the accuracy and convergence of the numerical results. PMID:21690141

Ten, I; Malenica, Š; Korobkin, A

2011-07-28

61

Economic and environmental assessment of liquefied natural gas as a supplemental aircraft fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2013, natural gas is 70-80% cheaper than jet fuel on an energy basis. As an alternative aviation fuel, natural gas may reduce operating costs. In this paper, we assess the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a supplemental aircraft fuel in a military context, with detailed assessments of the Lockheed Martin C-130H and C-130J transport aircraft. We estimate the cost of retrofitting these aircraft to use LNG and the savings from reduced fuel expenses. We evaluate the societal impacts of LNG within a cost-benefit framework, taking into account resource consumption, human health impacts related to air quality, and climate damage. In order to compare alternative uses of natural gas in aviation, we include in our analysis Fischer-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas as a drop-in alternative. Uncertainty analysis is performed with Monte Carlo simulations. We find that aircraft operators can save up to 14% on fuel expenses (retrofit costs included) by employing LNG retrofits, with a 95% confidence interval of 2-23%. Society can also benefit by 12% (3-20%) from LNG use as a result of improved surface air quality, lower resource consumption, and net climate neutrality. These results are highly dependent on fuel prices, the quantity and cost of the LNG retrofits, and the frequency and length of missions. FT jet fuel is not cost-competitive with conventional fuel and results in increased fuel expenses by 17%. FT fuel provides marginal societal benefits relative to jet fuel.

Withers, Mitch R.; Malina, Robert; Gilmore, Christopher K.; Gibbs, Jonathan M.; Trigg, Chris; Wolfe, Philip J.; Trivedi, Parthsarathi; Barrett, Steven R. H.

2014-04-01

62

77 FR 72840 - CE FLNG, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...authorization to export up to 8 million tons per annum (mtpa) of domestically produced liquefied natural gas...units (FLSO), each capable of producing up to 4 mtpa of LNG for a total capacity of 8 mtpa of LNG. CE FLNG states that the units will...

2012-12-06

63

Supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

My dissertation concentrates on several aspects of supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry, including gas pipeline transportations, ocean LNG shipping logistics, and downstream storage. Chapter 1 briefly introduces the natural gas and LNG industries, and the topics studied in this thesis. Chapter 2 studies how to value U.S. natural gas pipeline network transport contracts as real options. It is common for natural gas shippers to value and manage contracts by simple adaptations of financial spread option formulas that do not fully account for the implications of the capacity limits and the network structure that distinguish these contracts. In contrast, we show that these operational features can be fully captured and integrated with financial considerations in a fairly easy and managerially significant manner by a model that combines linear programming and simulation. We derive pathwise estimators for the so called deltas and structurally characterize them. We interpret them in a novel fashion as discounted expectations, under a specific weighing distribution, of the amounts of natural gas to be procured/marketed when optimally using pipeline capacity. Based on the actual prices of traded natural gas futures and basis swaps, we show that an enhanced version of the common approach employed in practice can significantly underestimate the true value of natural gas pipeline network capacity. Our model also exhibits promising financial (delta) hedging performance. Thus, this model emerges as an easy to use and useful tool that natural gas shippers can employ to support their valuation and delta hedging decisions concerning natural gas pipeline network transport capacity contracts. Moreover, the insights that follow from our data analysis have broader significance and implications in terms of the management of real options beyond our specific application. Motivated by current developments in the LNG industry, Chapter 3 studies the operations of LNG supply chains facing both supply and price risk. To model the supply uncertainty, we employ a closed-queuing-network (CQN) model to represent upstream LNG production and shipping, via special oceans-going tankers, to a downstream re-gasification facility in the U.S, which sells natural gas into the wholesale spot market. The CQN shipping model analytically generates the unloaded amount probability distribution. Price uncertainty is captured by the spot price, which experiences both volatility and significant seasonality, i.e., higher prices in winter. We use a trinomial lattice to model the price uncertainty, and calibrate to the extended forward curves. Taking the outputs from the CQN model and the spot price model as stochastic inputs, we formulate a real option inventory-release model to study the benefit of optimally managing a downstream LNG storage facility. This allows characterization of the structure of the optimal inventory management policy. An interesting finding is that when it is optimal to sell, it is not necessarily optimal to sell the entire available inventory. The model can be used by LNG players to value and manage the real option to store LNG at a re-gasification facility, and is easy to be implemented. For example, this model is particularly useful to value leasing contracts for portions of the facility capacity. Real data is used to assess the value of the real option to store LNG at the downstream re-gasification facility, and, contrary to what has been claimed by some practitioners, we find that it has significant value (several million dollars). Chapter 4 studies the importance of modeling the shipping variability when valuing and managing a downstream LNG storage facility. The shipping model presented in Chapter 3 uses a "rolling forward" method to generate the independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) unloaded amount in each decision period. We study the merit of the i.i.d. assumption by using simulation and developing an upper bound. We show that the model

Wang, Mulan Xiaofeng

64

AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA  

SciTech Connect

The effects of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on pollutant emission inventories and air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California were evaluated using recent LNG emission measurements by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas), and with a state-of-the-art air quality model. Pollutant emissions can be affected by LNG owing to differences in composition and physical properties, including the Wobbe index, a measure of energy delivery rate. This analysis uses LNG distribution scenarios developed by modeling Southern California gas flows, including supplies from the LNG receiving terminal in Baja California, Mexico. Based on these scenarios, the projected penetratino of LNG in the South Coast Air Basin is expected to be limited. In addition, the increased Wobbe index of delivered gas (resulting from mixtures of LNG and conventional gas supplies) is expected to cause increases smaller than 0.05 percent in overall (area-wide) emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). BAsed on the photochemical state of the South Coast Air Basin, any increase in NOx is expected to cause an increase in the highest local ozone concentrations, and this is reflected in model results. However, the magnitude of the increase is well below the generally accepted accuracy of the model and would not be discernible with the existing monitoring network. Modeling of hypothetical scenarios indicates that discernible changes to ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations would occur only at LNG distribution rates that are not achievable with current or planned infrastructure and with Wobbe index vlaues that exceed current gas quality tariffs. Results of these hypothetical scenarios are presented for consideration of any proposed substantial expansion of LNG supply infrastructure in Southern California.

Carerras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Lunden, Melissa; Singer, Brett

2011-07-01

65

Proposing a novel combined cycle for optimal exergy recovery of liquefied natural gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effective utilization of the cryogenic exergy associated with liquefied natural gas (LNG) vaporization is important. In this paper, a novel combined power cycle is proposed which utilizes LNG in different ways to enhance the power generation of a power plant. In addition to the direct expansion in the appropriate expander, LNG is used as a low-temperature heat sink for a middle-pressure gas cycle which uses nitrogen as working fluid. Also, LNG is used to cool the inlet air of an open Brayton gas turbine cycle. These measures are accomplished to improve the exergy recovery of LNG. In order to analyze the performance of the system, the influence of several key parameters such as pressure ratio of LNG turbine, ratio of the mass flow rate of LNG to the mass flow rate of air, pressure ratio of different compressors, LNG pressure and inlet pressure of nitrogen compressor, on the thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency of the offered cycle is investigated. Finally, the proposed combined cycle is optimized on the basis of first and second laws of thermodynamics.

Salimpour, M. R.; Zahedi, M. A.

2012-08-01

66

LNG plants in the US and abroad. [Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Gas Technology recently conducted a comprehensive survey of LNG production and storage facilities in North America. This survey was performed as part of IGT's LNG Observer newsletter which covers both domestic and international LNG news, reports on LNG related economics and statistics, and routinely conducts interviews with key industry leaders. In addition to providing consulting services to the LNG industry, IGT has cosponsored the International Conference on Liquefied Natural Gas for the part 20 years. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of our recent survey results as well as provide an overview of world LNG trade. This information is important in assessing the potential near term availability of LNG for transportation applications. The IGT LNG Survey appraised the capacity and current market activity of LNG peak shaving, satellite storage, and import receiving facilities in the United States and Canada. Information was requested from facilities on three main topics: liquefaction, storage, and regasification. Additional questions were posed regarding the year of operation, designer/contractor for liquefaction cycle and storage, source of LNG (for storage-only facilities), plans for expansion, and level of interest in providing LNG as a vehicle fuel. The IGT LNG Survey has to date received information on 56 LNG peak shaving facilities, 28 satellite storage facilities, and 4 LNG import receiving terminals.

Blazek, C.F.; Biederman, R.T.

1992-01-01

67

Experimental and numerical investigation of the roll motion behavior of a floating liquefied natural gas system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper does an experimental and numerical investigation of the hydrodynamic interaction and the response of a single point turret-moored Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) system, which is a new type of floating LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) platform that consists of a ship-type FPSO hull equipped with LNG storage tanks and liquefaction plants. In particular, this study focuses on the investigation of the roll response of FLNG hull in free-decay motions, white noise waves and also in irregular waves. Model tests of the FLNG system in 60%H filling condition excited by both white noise waves and irregular waves combined with steady wind and current have been carried out. Response Amplitude Operators (RAOs) and time histories of the responses are obtained for sway, roll and yaw motions. Obvious Low Frequency (LF) components of the roll motions are observed, which may be out of expectation. To facilitate the physical understanding of this phenomenon, we filter the roll motions at the period of 30 s into two parts: the Wave Frequency (WF) motions and the Low Frequency (LF) motions respectively. The results indicate that the LF motions are closely related to the sway and yaw motions. Possible reasons for the presence of the LF motions of roll have been discussed in detail, through the comparison with the sway and yaw motions. As for the numerical part, the simulation of the modeled case is conducted with the help of the software SESAM®. A good agreement between experiments and calculations is reported within the scope of trends. However, the numerical simulations should be further improved for the prediction of the FLNG system in the heading sea.

Zhao, WenHua; Yang, JianMin; Hu, ZhiQiang; Xiao, LongFei; Peng, Tao

2013-03-01

68

An Assessment of Air Emissions from Liquefied Natural Gas Ships Using Different Power Systems and Different Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shipping industry has been an unrecognized source of criteria pollutants: nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds, coarse particulate matter (PM10), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO). Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has traditionally been transported via steam turbine (ST) ships. Recently, LNG shippers have begun using dual-fuel diesel engines (DFDEs) to propel and offload their

Yinka Afon; David Ervin; Victoria Aleksandropoulou; Jan Hanssen; Christian Dye; Kostantinos Eleftheriadis; Eleftheria Katsivela; Donald Martello; Natalie Pekney; Richard Anderson; Cliff Davidson; Philip Hopke; Eugene Kim; William Christensen; Nolan Mangelson; Delbert Eatough; Saqib Mukhtar; Atilla Mutlu; Sergio Capareda; Calvin Parnell; Andrew Rutter; Katy Hanford; Jaime Zwers; Anthony Perillo-Nicholas; James Schauer; Mark Olson; Paul Scott; Deborah Proctor; Li Wang; Praveen Kolar; James Kastner; Brian Herner; Yifang Zhu; David Fung; Nola Kennedy; William Hinds; Arantzazu Eiguren-Fernandez; David Stieb; Richard Burnett; Marc Smith-Doiron; Orly Brion; Hwashin Shin; Vanita Economou; Rich Cook; Vlad Isakov; Jawad Touma; William Benjey; James Thurman; Ellen Kinnee; Darrell Ensley

2008-01-01

69

Risks in the transport and storage of liquefied natural gas. Sub-project 5-2: Investigation into building damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large reserves and increasing use of natural gas as a source of energy have resulted in its storage and transport becoming an urgent problem. Since a liquid of the same mass occupies only a fraction of the volume of a gas, it is economical to store natural gas as a liquid. Liquefied natural gas is stored in insulated tanks and also carried by ship at a temperature of -160 C to 170 C. If a serious accident allows the LNG to escape, a gas cloud forms. The results of a possible explosion from such a gas cloud are studied. The development of a leak, escape and evaporation, size and propagation of the gas cloud, the explosive pressures to be expected and the results on the environment are investigated. Damage to buildings is examined making use of the preliminary conclusions of the other sub-projects and especially the explosive pressures.

Gouwens, C.; Dragosavic, M.

70

78 FR 65427 - Pipeline Safety: Reminder of Requirements for Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Utility Liquefied...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Safety: Reminder of Requirements for Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Utility Liquefied Petroleum Gas Pipeline Systems AGENCY: Pipeline and...reminding owners and operators of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and utility liquefied...

2013-10-31

71

Investigation on the heat transfer characteristics during flow boiling of liquefied natural gas in a vertical micro-fin tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an experimental investigation on the heat transfer characteristics of liquefied natural gas flow boiling in a vertical micro-fin tube. The effect of heat flux, mass flux and inlet pressure on the flow boiling heat transfer coefficients was analyzed. The Kim, Koyama, and two kinds of Wellsandt correlations with different Ftp coefficients were used to predict the flow boiling heat transfer coefficients. The predicted results showed that the Koyama correlation was the most accurate over the range of experimental conditions.

Xu, Bin; Shi, Yumei; Chen, Dongsheng

2014-03-01

72

Liquid hydrogen as energy source - Economic considerations through a comparison with imported liquefied natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processes of liquefaction, transport, and distribution of natural gas, regarded as achieved technologies, are used as a basis for comparing the corresponding processes for liquid hydrogen. The main factor in the economic picture is the fact that the minimum energy per unit mass required for hydrogen liquefaction is about 13 times higher than that for natural gas liquefaction. Solar

G. Kandler

1977-01-01

73

Estimated uncertainty of calculated liquefied natural gas density from a comparison of NBS and Gaz de France densimeter test facilities  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) densities can be measured directly but are usually determined indirectly in custody transfer measurement by using a density correlation based on temperature and composition measurements. An LNG densimeter test facility at the National Bureau of Standards uses an absolute densimeter based on the Archimedes principle, while a test facility at Gaz de France uses a correlation method based on measurement of composition and density. A comparison between these two test facilities using a portable version of the absolute densimeter provides an experimental estimate of the uncertainty of the indirect method of density measurement for the first time, on a large (32 L) sample. The two test facilities agree for pure methane to within about 0.02%. For the LNG-like mixtures consisting of methane, ethane, propane, and nitrogen with the methane concentrations always higher than 86%, the calculated density is within 0.25% of the directly measured density 95% of the time.

Siegwarth, J.D.; LaBrecque, J.F.; Roncier, M.; Philippe, R.; Saint-Just, J.

1982-12-16

74

49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.  

... 2014-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section 393...Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation...

2014-10-01

75

40 CFR 1065.720 - Liquefied petroleum gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas. 1065.720 Section 1065.720...Standards § 1065.720 Liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, liquefied petroleum gas for testing must meet the...

2010-07-01

76

49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section 393...Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation...

2012-10-01

77

49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section 393...Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation...

2013-10-01

78

40 CFR 1065.720 - Liquefied petroleum gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas. 1065.720 Section 1065.720...Standards § 1065.720 Liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, liquefied petroleum gas for testing must meet the...

2012-07-01

79

40 CFR 1065.720 - Liquefied petroleum gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas. 1065.720 Section 1065.720...Standards § 1065.720 Liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, liquefied petroleum gas for testing must meet the...

2011-07-01

80

49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section 393...Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation...

2011-10-01

81

40 CFR 1065.720 - Liquefied petroleum gas.  

... 2014-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas. 1065.720 Section 1065.720...Standards § 1065.720 Liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, liquefied petroleum gas for testing must meet the...

2014-07-01

82

40 CFR 1065.720 - Liquefied petroleum gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas. 1065.720 Section 1065.720...Standards § 1065.720 Liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, liquefied petroleum gas for testing must meet the...

2013-07-01

83

49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section 393...Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation...

2010-10-01

84

The design, development and performance of a Duplex Stirling natural gas liquefier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea of using a Duplex Stirling System for natural gas liquefaction has long been considered by Sunpower as an attractive application for Stirling engines. A few years ago an internally funded project was embarked upon to build a small demonstration Duplex Stirling unit. This machine was designed around the Model M-100 engine which was then being produced commercially. The

Berchowitz

1982-01-01

85

Analysis and Optimization of the Power Cycle Based on the Cold Energy of Liquefied Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid natural gas (LNG) delivered by sea-ships contains considerable cryogenic energy which can be used for power generation before its evaporation and introduction into the system of pipe line. Electric power generation utilizing LNG cold energy is a major research direction. There are two kinds of LNG cold energy utilization in electric power generation, that is, independent thermal cycle with

Lu Yuanwei; Yang Hongchang; Ma Chongfang

2011-01-01

86

30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57.4463 Section...Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to...

2012-07-01

87

30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57.4463 Section...Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to...

2014-07-01

88

30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57.4463 Section...Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to...

2011-07-01

89

30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57.4463 Section...Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to...

2013-07-01

90

30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57.4463 Section...Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to...

2010-07-01

91

Political activism and local/extralocal relations in complex society: controversy over a liquefied natural gas import terminal  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation examines the relationships among a variety of political actors, ranging from the local to the international level, in their interaction over particular issue - American liquefied natural gas (LNG) import policy. Relevant actors include Massachusetts BLAST, a locally-based activist group concerned with LNG safety problems; Distrigas, an LNG-importing company; many government agencies - local, state, and national; and the national and international LNG industries. Their relationships are explored in order to elucidate the nature of the political structure of the United States. The thesis is that the general character of energy policy, like other policy areas, must be understood as a result of the structure of the American political system. It is concluded that the centralization of power within the government is only partial; various agencies retain a degree of autonomy, with their own interest and resource base, sometimes resulting in conflicting courses of action. Also, action taken by any one unit of the system, especially smaller, less powerful ones, is likely to have only a limited effect on the total political structure, due to its extreme complexity. Thus, alliances among units are important to effect major change.

Fuda, K.K.

1983-01-01

92

Natural convection along a heated vertical plate immersed in a nonlinearly stratified medium: application to liquefied gas storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider free convection driven by a heated vertical plate immersed in a nonlinearly stratified medium. The plate supplies a uniform horizontal heat flux to a fluid, the bulk of which has a stable stratification, characterized by a non-uniform vertical temperature gradient. This gradient is assumed to have a typical length scale of variation, denoted Z0, while 0, and the physical properties of the medium.We then apply the new theory to the natural convection affecting the vapour phase in a liquefied pure gas tank (e.g. the cryogenic storage of hydrogen). It is assumed that the cylindrical storage tank is subject to a constant uniform heat flux on its lateral and top walls. We are interested in the vapour motion above a residual layer of liquid in equilibrium with the vapour. High-precision axisymmetric numerical computations show that the flow remains steady for a large range of parameters, and that a bulk stratification characterized by a quadratic temperature profile is undoubtedly present. The application of the theory permits a comparison of the numerical and analytic results, showing that the theory satisfactorily predicts the primary dynamical and thermal properties of the storage tank.

Forestier, M.; Haldenwang, P.

93

An assessment of air emissions from liquefied natural gas ships using different power systems and different fuels.  

PubMed

The shipping industry has been an unrecognized source of criteria pollutants: nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds, coarse particulate matter (PM10), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO). Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has traditionally been transported via steam turbine (ST) ships. Recently, LNG shippers have begun using dual-fuel diesel engines (DFDEs) to propel and offload their cargoes. Both the conventional ST boilers and DFDE are capable of burning a range of fuels, from heavy fuel oil to boil-off-gas (BOG) from the LNG load. In this paper a method for estimating the emissions from ST boilers and DFDEs during LNG offloading operations at berth is presented, along with typical emissions from LNG ships during offloading operations under different scenarios ranging from worst-case fuel oil combustion to the use of shore power. The impact on air quality in nonattainment areas where LNG ships call is discussed. Current and future air pollution control regulations for ocean-going vessels (OGVs) such as LNG ships are also discussed. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare emissions of criteria pollutants from conventional ST and DFDE ships using different fuels. The results of this study suggest that newer DFDE ships have lower SO2 and PM2.5/PM10 emissions, conventional ST ships have lower NOx, volatile organic compound, and CO emissions; and DFDE ships utilizing shore power at berth produce no localized emissions because they draw their required power from the local electric grid. PMID:18376643

Afon, Yinka; Ervin, David

2008-03-01

94

EXAMINE AND EVALUATE A PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy cooperative research project is to define, describe, and validate, a process to utilize salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships. The project defines the process as receiving LNG from a ship, pumping the LNG up to cavern injection pressures, warming it to cavern compatible temperatures, injecting the warmed vapor directly into salt caverns for storage, and distribution to the pipeline network. The performance of work under this agreement is based on U.S. Patent 5,511,905, and other U.S. and Foreign pending patent applications. The cost sharing participants in the research are The National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. Department of Energy), BP America Production Company, Bluewater Offshore Production Systems (U.S.A.), Inc., and HNG Storage, L.P. Initial results indicate that a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at about half the capital cost, less than half the operating costs and would have significantly higher delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. There is a significant body of knowledge and practice concerning natural gas storage in salt caverns, and there is a considerable body of knowledge and practice in handling LNG, but there has never been any attempt to develop a process whereby the two technologies can be combined. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or terrorist acts, and much more acceptable to the community. The project team developed conceptual designs of two salt cavern based LNG terminals, one with caverns located in Calcasieu Parish Louisiana, and the second in Vermilion block 179 about 50 miles offshore Louisiana. These conceptual designs were compared to conventional tank based LNG terminals and demonstrate superior security, economy and capacity. The potential for the development of LNG receiving terminals, utilizing salt caverns for storage and the existing comprehensive pipeline system has profound implications for the next generation of LNG terminals. LNG imports are expected to become an increasingly more important part of the U.S. energy supply and the capacities to receive LNG securely, safely, and economically must be expanded. Salt cavern LNG receiving terminals both in onshore and offshore locations can be quickly built and provide additional import capacity into the U.S. exceeding 6-10 Bcf/day in the aggregate.

Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; D. Braxton Scherz

2003-04-24

95

Analysis and optimization of a cascading power cycle with liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effective utilization of the cryogenic energy associated with LNG vaporization is quite important. In this paper a cascading power cycle with LNG directly expanding consisting of a Rankine cycle with ammonia–water as working fluid and a power cycle of combustion gas is proposed to recover cryogenic energy of LNG. Energy equilibrium equations and exergy equilibrium equations of each equipment

T. Lu

2009-01-01

96

A methodology for risk analysis based on hybrid bayesian networks: application to the regasification system of liquefied natural gas onboard a floating storage and regasification unit.  

PubMed

This article presents an iterative six-step risk analysis methodology based on hybrid Bayesian networks (BNs). In typical risk analysis, systems are usually modeled as discrete and Boolean variables with constant failure rates via fault trees. Nevertheless, in many cases, it is not possible to perform an efficient analysis using only discrete and Boolean variables. The approach put forward by the proposed methodology makes use of BNs and incorporates recent developments that facilitate the use of continuous variables whose values may have any probability distributions. Thus, this approach makes the methodology particularly useful in cases where the available data for quantification of hazardous events probabilities are scarce or nonexistent, there is dependence among events, or when nonbinary events are involved. The methodology is applied to the risk analysis of a regasification system of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on board an FSRU (floating, storage, and regasification unit). LNG is becoming an important energy source option and the world's capacity to produce LNG is surging. Large reserves of natural gas exist worldwide, particularly in areas where the resources exceed the demand. Thus, this natural gas is liquefied for shipping and the storage and regasification process usually occurs at onshore plants. However, a new option for LNG storage and regasification has been proposed: the FSRU. As very few FSRUs have been put into operation, relevant failure data on FSRU systems are scarce. The results show the usefulness of the proposed methodology for cases where the risk analysis must be performed under considerable uncertainty. PMID:25041168

Martins, Marcelo Ramos; Schleder, Adriana Miralles; Droguett, Enrique López

2014-12-01

97

Comments on Potential Geologic and Seismic Hazards Affecting Proposed Liquefied Natural Gas Site in Santa Monica Bay, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In a letter to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) dated March 25, 2008, Representative Jane Harman (California 36th district) requested advice on geologic hazards that should be considered in the review of a proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility off the California coast in Santa Monica Bay. In 2004, the USGS responded to a similar request from Representative Lois Capps, regarding two proposed LNG facilities offshore Ventura County, Calif., with a report summarizing potential geologic and seismic hazards (Ross and others, 2004). The proposed LNG Deepwater Port (DWP) facility includes single point moorings (SPMs) and 35 miles of underwater pipelines. The DWP submersible buoys, manifolds, and risers would be situated on the floor of the southern Santa Monica Basin, in 3,000 feet of water, about 23 miles offshore of the Palos Verdes Peninsula. Twin 24-inch diameter pipelines would extend northeastward from the buoys across the basin floor, up the basin slope and across the continental shelf, skirting north around the Santa Monica submarine canyon. Figure 1 provides locations of the project and geologic features. Acronyms are defined in table 1. This facility is being proposed in a region of known geologic hazards that arise from both the potential for strong earthquakes and geologic processes related to sediment transport and accumulation in the offshore environment. The probability of a damaging earthquake (considered here as magnitude 6.5 or greater) in the next 30 years within about 30 miles (50 km) of the proposed pipeline ranges from 16% at the pipeline's offshore end to 48% where it nears land (Petersen, 2008). Earthquakes of this magnitude are capable of producing strong shaking, surface fault offsets, liquefaction phenomena, landslides, underwater turbidity currents and debris flow avalanches, and tsunamis. As part of the DWP license application for the Woodside Natural Gas proposal in Santa Monica Bay (known as the OceanWay Secure Energy Project), Fugro West, Inc., had already prepared a document discussing geologic hazards in the area, titled 'Exhibit B Topic Report 6 - Geological Resources' (Fugro West, Inc., 2007); hereafter, this will be called the 'Geological Resources document'. The USGS agreed to evaluate the information in the Geological Resources document regarding (1) proximity of active faults to the proposed project, (2) potential magnitude of seismic events from nearby faults, (3) thoroughness of the assessment of earthquake hazards in general, (4) potential hazards from ground rupture and strong shaking, (5) potential hazards from tsunamis, and (6) other geologic hazards including landslides and debris flows. Because two new earthquake probability reports were scheduled to be released in mid-April, 2008, by the USGS and the California Geological Survey (CGS), the USGS suggested a 6-month review period to enable a thorough incorporation of this new information. Twenty-seven scientists from the USGS and the CGS reviewed various sections of the Geological Resources document. This report outlines our major conclusions. The appendix is a longer list of comments by these reviewers, grouped by section of the Geological Resources document. Before discussing our reviews, we first provide a brief overview of geologic hazards in the proposed site area. This report is a snapshot in time and any future work in the area will need to take into account ongoing research efforts. For example, USGS scientists collected seismic reflection data in the spring of 2008 to study the structure and seismic potential of several faults in the area. Their interpretations (Conrad and others, 2008a and 2008b) are too preliminary to be included in this report, but their final results, along with other researchers' studies in the project area, should be considered in any future work on the Deepwater Port project.

Ross, Stephanie L.; Lee, Homa J.; Parsons, Tom E.; Beyer, Larry A.; Boore, David M.; Conrad, James E.; Edwards, Brian D.; Fisher, Michael A.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Geist, Eric L.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Hough, Susan E.; Kayen, Robert E.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Luco, Nicolas; McCrory, Patricia A.; McGann, Mary L.; Nathenson, Manuel; Nolan, Michael; Petersen, Mark D.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Powell, Charles L.; Ryan, Holly F.; Tinsley, John C.; Wills, Chris J.; Wong, Florence L.; Xu, Jingping

2008-01-01

98

Thermodynamic Processes Involving Liquefied Natural Gas at the LNG Receiving Terminals / Procesy termodynamiczne z wykorzystaniem skroplonego gazu ziemnego w terminalach odbiorczych LNG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increase in demand for natural gas in the world, cause that the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and in consequences its regasification becoming more common process related to its transportation. Liquefied gas is transported in the tanks at a temperature of about 111K at atmospheric pressure. The process required to convert LNG from a liquid to a gas phase for further pipeline transport, allows the use of exergy of LNG to various applications, including for electricity generation. Exergy analysis is a well known technique for analyzing irreversible losses in a separate process. It allows to specify the distribution, the source and size of the irreversible losses in energy systems, and thus provide guidelines for energy efficiency. Because both the LNG regasification and liquefaction of natural gas are energy intensive, exergy analysis process is essential for designing highly efficient cryogenic installations. Wzrost zapotrzebowania na gaz ziemny na ?wiecie powoduje, ?e produkcja skroplonego gazu ziemnego (LNG), a w konsekwencji jego regazyfikacja, staje si? coraz bardziej powszechnym procesem zwi?zanym z jego transportem. Skroplony gaz transportowany jest w zbiornikach w temperaturze oko?o 111K pod ci?nieniem atmosferycznym. Przebieg procesu regazyfikacji niezb?dny do zamiany LNG z fazy ciek?ej w gazow? dla dalszego transportu w sieci, umo?liwia wykorzystanie egzergii LNG do ró?nych zastosowa?, mi?dzy innymi do produkcji energii elektrycznej. Analiza egzergii jest znan? technik? analizowania nieodwracalnych strat w wydzielonym procesie. Pozwala na okre?lenie dystrybucji, ?ród?a i wielko?ci nieodwracalnych strat w systemach energetycznych, a wi?c ustali? wytyczne dotycz?ce efektywnego zu?ycia energii. Poniewa? zarówno regazyfikacja LNG jak i skraplanie gazu ziemnego s? energoch?onne, proces analizy egzergii jest niezb?dny do projektowania wysoce wydajnych instalacji kriogenicznych.

?aciak, Mariusz

2013-06-01

99

Efficient liquefaction cycles for natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural Gas is liquefied for storage and transportation purposes. Large quantity of Natural Gas is liquefied on a daily basis. Therefore, there is a need for efficient refrigeration cycles to liquefy natural gas. Refrigeration cycles are energy intensive processes. In such systems, the compressors are the main power consumers. A given refrigeration task can be achieved by many configurations and

Easa Ismail Al-Musleh

2010-01-01

100

77 FR 72837 - Golden Pass Products LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...cubic feet (Bcf) of domestically produced natural gas per year, equal to approximately 15.6 million metric tons per annum (mtpa), for a period of 25 years beginning on the earlier of the date of first export or seven years from the date the...

2012-12-06

101

Economic Analysis of Mixed-Refrigerant Cycle and Nitrogen Expander Cycle in Small Scale Natural Gas Liquefier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of natural gas liquefaction processes, mixed-refrigerant cycle and nitrogen expander cycle were simulated. Their process parameters were optimized and compared. Their economic characteristics were analyzed. Although the mixed-refrigerant liquefaction process is more complicated than nitrogen expander cycle, its energy consumption is only 46% of the nitrogen expander cycle. The operation costs of mixed-refrigerant process are lower than those

Q. S. Yin; H. Y. Li; Q. H. Fan; L. X. Jia

2008-01-01

102

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF MIXED-REFRIGERANT CYCLE AND NITROGEN EXPANDER CYCLE IN SMALL SCALE NATURAL GAS LIQUEFIER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of natural gas liquefaction processes, mixed-refrigerant cycle and nitrogen expander cycle were simulated. Their process parameters were optimized and compared. Their economic characteristics were analyzed. Although the mixed-refrigerant liquefaction process is more complicated than nitrogen expander cycle, its energy consumption is only 46% of the nitrogen expander cycle. The operation costs of mixed-refrigerant process are lower than those

Q. S. Yin; H. Y. Li; Q. H. Fan; L. X. Jia

2008-01-01

103

29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales. 779.360 Section...Service Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales. (a)...

2013-07-01

104

29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales. 779.360 Section...Service Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales. (a)...

2011-07-01

105

29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.  

... Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales. 779.360 Section...Service Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales. (a)...

2014-07-01

106

40 CFR 86.157-98 - Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. 86.157-98...Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. (a) Equipment...procedure for light-duty liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles and trucks...

2012-07-01

107

40 CFR 86.157-98 - Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. 86.157-98...Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. (a) Equipment...procedure for light-duty liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles and trucks...

2011-07-01

108

29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales. 779.360 Section...Service Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales. (a)...

2010-07-01

109

29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales. 779.360 Section...Service Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales. (a)...

2012-07-01

110

40 CFR 86.157-98 - Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. 86.157-98...Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. (a) Equipment...procedure for light-duty liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles and trucks...

2013-07-01

111

40 CFR 86.157-98 - Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. 86.157-98...Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. (a) Equipment...procedure for light-duty liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles and trucks...

2010-07-01

112

40 CFR 86.157-98 - Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles.  

...Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. 86.157-98...Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. (a) Equipment...procedure for light-duty liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles and trucks...

2014-07-01

113

29 CFR 1926.153 - Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). 1926.153 Section...Prevention § 1926.153 Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). (a) Approval of...for transportation or storing liquefied petroleum gases. (b) Welding on LP-Gas...

2012-07-01

114

29 CFR 1926.153 - Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).  

... 2014-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). 1926.153 Section...Prevention § 1926.153 Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). (a) Approval of...for transportation or storing liquefied petroleum gases. (b) Welding on LP-Gas...

2014-07-01

115

29 CFR 1926.153 - Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). 1926.153 Section...Prevention § 1926.153 Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). (a) Approval of...for transportation or storing liquefied petroleum gases. (b) Welding on LP-Gas...

2010-07-01

116

29 CFR 1926.153 - Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). 1926.153 Section...Prevention § 1926.153 Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). (a) Approval of...for transportation or storing liquefied petroleum gases. (b) Welding on LP-Gas...

2013-07-01

117

29 CFR 1926.153 - Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). 1926.153 Section...Prevention § 1926.153 Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). (a) Approval of...for transportation or storing liquefied petroleum gases. (b) Welding on LP-Gas...

2011-07-01

118

33 CFR 165.1151 - Security Zones; liquefied hazardous gas tank vessels, San Pedro Bay, California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Zones; liquefied hazardous gas tank vessels, San Pedro Bay, California. 165.1151 Section 165.1151 Navigation and Navigable...Zones; liquefied hazardous gas tank vessels, San Pedro Bay, California. (a) Definition. “Liquefied Hazardous...

2010-07-01

119

33 CFR 165.1151 - Security Zones; liquefied hazardous gas tank vessels, San Pedro Bay, California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Zones; liquefied hazardous gas tank vessels, San Pedro Bay, California. 165.1151 Section 165.1151 Navigation and Navigable...Zones; liquefied hazardous gas tank vessels, San Pedro Bay, California. (a) Definition. “Liquefied Hazardous...

2013-07-01

120

33 CFR 165.1151 - Security Zones; liquefied hazardous gas tank vessels, San Pedro Bay, California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Zones; liquefied hazardous gas tank vessels, San Pedro Bay, California. 165.1151 Section 165.1151 Navigation and Navigable...Zones; liquefied hazardous gas tank vessels, San Pedro Bay, California. (a) Definition. “Liquefied Hazardous...

2012-07-01

121

33 CFR 165.1151 - Security Zones; liquefied hazardous gas tank vessels, San Pedro Bay, California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Zones; liquefied hazardous gas tank vessels, San Pedro Bay, California. 165.1151 Section 165.1151 Navigation and Navigable...Zones; liquefied hazardous gas tank vessels, San Pedro Bay, California. (a) Definition. “Liquefied Hazardous...

2011-07-01

122

33 CFR 165.1151 - Security Zones; liquefied hazardous gas tank vessels, San Pedro Bay, California.  

...Zones; liquefied hazardous gas tank vessels, San Pedro Bay, California. 165.1151 Section 165.1151 Navigation and Navigable...Zones; liquefied hazardous gas tank vessels, San Pedro Bay, California. (a) Definition. “Liquefied Hazardous...

2014-07-01

123

46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111.105-32 Section...105-32 Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a cargo, cargo residue, or...

2010-10-01

124

46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111.105-32 Section...105-32 Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a cargo, cargo residue, or...

2012-10-01

125

46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111.105-32 Section...105-32 Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a cargo, cargo residue, or...

2013-10-01

126

46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.  

...false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111.105-32 Section...105-32 Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a cargo, cargo residue, or...

2014-10-01

127

46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111.105-32 Section...105-32 Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a cargo, cargo residue, or...

2011-10-01

128

46 CFR 58.16-7 - Use of liquefied petroleum gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Use of liquefied petroleum gas. 58.16-7 Section 58...MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-7 Use of liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Cooking equipment...

2010-10-01

129

46 CFR 58.16-7 - Use of liquefied petroleum gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Use of liquefied petroleum gas. 58.16-7 Section 58...MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-7 Use of liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Cooking equipment...

2012-10-01

130

46 CFR 58.16-7 - Use of liquefied petroleum gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Use of liquefied petroleum gas. 58.16-7 Section 58...MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-7 Use of liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Cooking equipment...

2013-10-01

131

46 CFR 58.16-7 - Use of liquefied petroleum gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Use of liquefied petroleum gas. 58.16-7 Section 58...MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-7 Use of liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Cooking equipment...

2011-10-01

132

Dual mixed refrigerant natural gas liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process and apparatus is described for liquefying natural gas using two closed cycle, multicomponent refrigerants wherein a low level refrigerant cools and liquefies the gas by indirect heat exchange and a high level refrigerant cools and partially liquefies the low level refrigerant by indirect multistage heat exchange. The high level refrigerant is phase separated in order to use lighter

Y.-N. Liu; J. W. Pervier

1985-01-01

133

Natural gas industry directory  

SciTech Connect

This directory has information on the following: associations and organizations; exploration and production; gas compression; gas processors; gathering and transmission companies; liquefied natural gas; local distribution companies; marketing firms; regulatory agencies; service companies; suppliers and manufacturers; and regional buyer`s guide.

NONE

1999-11-01

134

Safety device for underground storage of liquefied gas  

SciTech Connect

A liquefied gas such as propane is stored in underground galleries wherein there is a gaseous phase above a liquid phase and at the bottom, water in a sunk draining trap. The storage is worked, i.e., gas is introduced or extracted through tubes extending into the lower part of the liquefied gas. In case of emergency, failure or damage to the implements, the stored product is isolated. The water level is raised for covering the lower end of the tubes and water is allowed to rise up in the tubes until the pressures are in balance.

Berezoutzky, G.

1983-11-29

135

Liquefaction of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for the liquefaction of natural gas by heat exchange, initially with a first multicomponent mixture and thereafter with a second multicomponent mixture, each of these mixtures, respectively in a closed refrigeration cycle, being compressed, at least partially liquefied, and expanded, characterized in that the first multicomponent mixture, after the partial liquefaction thereof, is subjected to a

Foerg

1978-01-01

136

Apparatus for filling tanks with liquefied gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an apparatus for filling tanks with a liquid gas which consists of in combination, a carrier for receiving tanks for holding a liquid gas, a drive connected to the carrier for moving the carrier to transfer the tanks from one station to another in the apparatus, a filling station filler at the filling station for delivering liquid

Nalbach

1986-01-01

137

Alternative development strategies for natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant increases in worldwide natural-gas consumption during the last decade indicate that gas is increasingly considered a valuable and economic commodity. A summary of worldwide natural-gas reserves, production, and consumption statistics shows that worldwide gas use is not resource constrained. Only 10 percent of the gas produced is traded internationally and less than 3 percent is converted to liquefied natural

Attanasi

1993-01-01

138

Feed gas drier precooling in mixed refrigerant natural gas liquefaction processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for the liquefaction of a natural gas feedstream using two closed cycle, multicomponent refrigerants wherein a high level refrigerant cools a low level refrigerant and the low level refrigerant cools and liquefies the natural gas feedstream which includes: cooling and liquefying a natural gas stream by heat exchange with a low level multicomponent refrigerant in a

Y. N. Liu; C. L. Newton

1988-01-01

139

The Liquefaction of Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history and significance of natural gas liquefaction is traced showing that the main developments have occurred since 1960. The thermodynamics of liquefaction is reviewed paying special attention to the effect of the supply pressure of the gas, and its composition, on the minimum work requirement. It is shown that liquefier design requires highly accurate thermodynamic data for the process

G. G. Haselden

1977-01-01

140

Question & Answers Natural Gas Fueling Infrastructure Solicitation  

E-print Network

to be renewable to get the 60% award? (Answer) A minimum of 30% of compressed natural gas or liquefied naturalQuestion & Answers Natural Gas Fueling Infrastructure Solicitation PON12605 1. If you of the Solicitation which defines renewable natural gas. 3. Do the projects have to be for new stations

141

46 CFR 61.15-10 - Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking. 61.15-10 Section...Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-10 Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking....

2011-10-01

142

46 CFR 61.15-10 - Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking. 61.15-10 Section...Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-10 Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking....

2010-10-01

143

46 CFR 61.15-10 - Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking. 61.15-10 Section...Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-10 Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking....

2012-10-01

144

46 CFR 61.15-10 - Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking. 61.15-10 Section...Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-10 Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking....

2013-10-01

145

Building natural gas locomotives  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a liquefied natural gas-fueled locomotive built by Morrison Knudsen which includes a Caterpillar 1200-horsepower V-16, a monofuel management system with double-wall super-insulated cryogenic tanks, and microprocessor-based controls. Efforts by railroad companies to reduce operating costs and meet future emissions standards have led engineers to look for innovative ways to design trains. In January, Morrison Knudsen Corp. of Boise, Idaho, powered its way into the locomotive manufacturing business when it introduced the natural gas-fueled MK1200G, to be used mostly around railroad company yards and on trips shorter than 50 miles.

O'Conner, L.

1994-04-01

146

40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...32 Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...handling over 13,660 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas per month shall equip each pump...

2010-07-01

147

40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.  

...false Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...32 Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...handling over 13,660 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas per month shall equip each pump...

2014-07-01

148

40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...32 Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...handling over 13,660 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas per month shall equip each pump...

2011-07-01

149

40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...32 Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...handling over 13,660 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas per month shall equip each pump...

2013-07-01

150

40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...32 Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers...handling over 13,660 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas per month shall equip each pump...

2012-07-01

151

Supply Chain Management and Economic Valuation of Real Options in the Natural Gas  

E-print Network

Supply Chain Management and Economic Valuation of Real Options in the Natural Gas and Liquefied options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry, including gas pipeline transportation Natural Gas Industry Mulan Xiaofeng Wang Submitted to the Tepper School of Business in Partial Fulfillment

Sadeh, Norman M.

152

Mathematical simulation of the process of condensing natural gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presents a two-dimensional unsteady model of heat transfer in terms of condensation of natural gas at low temperatures. Performed calculations of the process heat and mass transfer of liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks of cylindrical shape. The influence of model parameters on the nature of heat transfer. Defined temperature regimes eliminate evaporation by cooling liquefied natural gas. The obtained dependence of the mass flow rate of vapor condensation gas temperature. Identified the possibility of regulating the process of "cooling down" liquefied natural gas in terms of its partial evaporation with low cost energy.

Tastandieva, G. M.

2015-01-01

153

International Trade in Natural Gas: Golden Age of LNG?  

E-print Network

The introduction of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as an option for international trade has created a market for natural gas where global prices may eventually be differentiated by the transportation costs between world ...

Du, Y.

154

Dual mixed refrigerant natural gas liquefaction with staged compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and process for liquefying natural gas using two closed-cycle, multicomponent refrigerants; a low level refrigerant which cools the natural gas and a high level refrigerant which cools the low level refrigerant wherein the improvement comprises phase separating the high level refrigerant after compression and fully liquefying the vapor phase stream against external cooling fluid after additional compression.

1985-01-01

155

Domestic liquefied petroleum gas: are we using a kitchen bomb?  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to understand the aetiological factors and pattern of burns caused by the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). This hospital based study was conducted on consecutive patients admitted with major burns from September 2011 to August 2012. The data was recorded on predesigned data sheet. Age, gender, mode of injury, its exact mechanism, place of incidence, extent of burn and inhalation injury were recorded for every patient. 182 patients with LPG related burn injury were admitted in one year. This is 11% of total burn patients received during the same period (182/1656). 147 incidents caused these burns due to gas leak from various parts of the LPG cooking system. Leakage was either from the cylinder, pipe or stove in 52%, 36% and 2% incidents respectively. Human error accounted for 3% incidents while in 7% the mechanism could not be ascertained. Leakage from 5kg cylinder with pipe was the commonest aetiological factor. There were 14 group casualties with more than one victim involved. LPG related burns are preventable to a large extent. There is a need to improve the safety standards in the LPG stove system. Public awareness needs to be improved. PMID:24480369

Paliwal, G; Agrawal, K; Srivastava, R K; Sharma, S

2014-09-01

156

Natural gas liquefaction with nitrogen rejection stabilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a system for liquefying natural gas containing more than about 1.5 percent nitrogen in which the natural gas is cooled by refrigeration and heat exchange with initial flashing of liquid at a pressure to remove substantialy all of the container nitrogen and with additional stages of flashing of liquid with low pressure flash liquid being passed to liquid natural

D. M. Bailey; E. A. Harper

1980-01-01

157

Two Heat-Transfer Improvements for Gas Liquefiers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two improvements in heat-transfer design have been investigated with a view toward increasing the efficiency of refrigerators used to liquefy gases. The improvements could contribute to the development of relatively inexpensive, portable oxygen liquefiers for medical use. A description of the heat-transfer problem in a pulse-tube refrigerator is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the first improvement. In a pulse-tube refrigerator in particular, one of in-line configuration heat must be rejected from two locations: an aftercooler (where most of the heat is rejected) and a warm heat exchanger (where a small fraction of the total input power must be rejected as heat). Rejection of heat from the warm heat exchanger can be problematic because this heat exchanger is usually inside a vacuum vessel. When an acoustic-inertance tube is used to provide a phase shift needed in the pulse-tube cooling cycle, another problem arises: Inasmuch as the acoustic power in the acoustic-inertance tube is dissipated over the entire length of the tube, the gas in the tube must be warmer than the warm heat exchanger in order to reject heat at the warm heat exchanger. This is disadvantageous because the increase in viscosity with temperature causes an undesired increase in dissipation of acoustic energy and an undesired decrease in the achievable phase shift. Consequently, the overall performance of the pulse-tube refrigerator decreases with increasing temperature in the acoustic-inertance tube. In the first improvement, the acoustic-inertance tube is made to serve as the warm heat exchanger and to operate in an approximately isothermal condition at a lower temperature, thereby increasing the achievable phase shift and the overall performance of the refrigerator. This is accomplished by placing the acoustic-inertance tube inside another tube and pumping a cooling fluid (e.g., water) in the annular space between the tubes. Another benefit of this improvement is added flexibility of design to locate the warm heat-rejection components outside the vacuum vessel. The second improvement is the development of a compact radial-flow condenser characterized by a very high heat transfer coefficient and a small pressure drop.

Martin, Jerry L.

2005-01-01

158

Capturing, Purifying, and Liquefying Landfill Gas for Transportation Fuel  

E-print Network

Description This research will evaluate and analyze methods to overcome the technological challenges, pipeline quality natural gas that will be used primarily to fuel the fleet vehicles of Waste Management forth) through onsite electricity generation. Schematic of landfill gas extraction Image credit

159

Short term storage of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linde AG developed a method to reduce the energy losses occurring during natural gas cooling, liquefaction, and storage by providing a cryophore to absorb and emit the heat as needed. Such a system is particularly suited for short-term fluctuations in demand. In such an application, excess natural gas is liquefied at night by heat exchange with the cold cryophore, and

1973-01-01

160

Liquefied Noble Gas (LNG) detectors for detection of nuclear materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquefied-noble-gas (LNG) detectors offer, in principle, very good energy resolution for both neutrons and gamma rays, fast response time (hence high-count-rate capabilities), excellent discrimination between neutrons and gamma rays, and scalability to large volumes. They do, however, need cryogenics. LNG detectors in sizes of interest for fissionable material detection in cargo are reaching a certain level of maturity because of the ongoing extensive R&}D effort in high-energy physics regarding their use in the search for dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. The unique properties of LNG detectors, especially those using Liquid Argon (LAr) and Liquid Xenon (LXe), call for a study to determine their suitability for Non-Intrusive Inspection (NII) for Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) and possibly for other threats in cargo. Rapiscan Systems Laboratory, Yale University Physics Department, and Adelphi Technology are collaborating in the investigation of the suitability of LAr as a scintillation material for large size inspection systems for air and maritime containers and trucks. This program studies their suitability for NII, determines their potential uses, determines what improvements in performance they offer and recommends changes to their design to further enhance their suitability. An existing 3.1 liter LAr detector (microCLEAN) at Yale University, developed for R&}D on the detection of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) was employed for testing. A larger version of this detector (15 liters), more suitable for the detection of higher energy gamma rays and neutrons is being built for experimental evaluation. Results of measurements and simulations of gamma ray and neutron detection in microCLEAN and a larger detector (326 liter CL38) are presented.

Nikkel, J. A.; Gozani, T.; Brown, C.; Kwong, J.; McKinsey, D. N.; Shin, Y.; Kane, S.; Gary, C.; Firestone, M.

2012-03-01

161

Natural Gas Liquefaction Process for Small-scale LNG Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of natural gas liquefaction, the small-scale natural gas liquefier has been attracting more and more attentions home and abroad, thanks to its small volume, mobile transportation, easy start-up and shut-down, as well as skid-mounted package. A study was made to choose the optimum liquefaction process to improve the economy of small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant. The

Cao Wensheng

2012-01-01

162

International Trade in Natural Gas: Golden Age of LNG?  

E-print Network

International Trade in Natural Gas: Golden Age of LNG? Yichen Du and Sergey Paltsev Report No. 271;1 International Trade in Natural Gas: Golden Age of LNG? Yichen Du* and Sergey Paltsev* Abstract The introduction of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as an option for international trade has created a market for natural gas where

Gabrieli, John

163

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as an alternative fuel in spark ignition engine: Performance and emission characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the performance and emission characteristics of a four-stroke spark ignition engine operated on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were investigated experimentally. The LPG was supplied from a LPG tank which was purchased from a local gas distributor. The primary content of LPG is 60% propane and 40% butane. The four-stroke spark ignition engine has an engine capacity

K. F. Mustafa; H. W. Gitano-Briggs

2009-01-01

164

Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its impact on Mexico City air quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkane hydrocarbons (propane, isobutane, and n-butane) from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are present in major quantities throughout Mexico City air because of leakage of the unburned gas from numerous urban sources. These hydrocarbons, together with olefinic minor LPG components, furnish substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical reactivity, a major precursor to formation of the ozone component of urban smog. The combined

D. R. Blake; F. S. Rowland

1995-01-01

165

33 CFR 127.203 - Portable gas detectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portable gas detectors. 127.203 Section 127.203 Navigation... WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied...

2010-07-01

166

Assessment of reducing ozone forming potential for vehicles using liquefied petroleum gas as an alternative fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is currently used in a small fleet of taxis as an alternative fuel to gasoline in Taipei, Taiwan as part of an incentive program promoted by Taiwan EPA to improve urban air quality. Under the test procedure in accordance with the US FTP-75 protocol to simulate an average urban driving pattern, the exhaust from four LPG

Chih-Chung Chang; Jiunn-Guang Lo; Jia-Lin Wang

2001-01-01

167

U.S. Natural Gas Supply to 2030 Larry Hughes  

E-print Network

that this is the reference case; the "side cases", based upon the volume of projected LNG (liquefied natural gas) importsERG/200603 U.S. Natural Gas Supply to 2030 Larry Hughes Energy Research Group Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Dalhousie University 29 March 2006 #12;Hughes: U.S. natural gas outlook 1

Hughes, Larry

168

Efficient liquefaction cycles for natural gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural Gas is liquefied for storage and transportation purposes. Large quantity of Natural Gas is liquefied on a daily basis. Therefore, there is a need for efficient refrigeration cycles to liquefy natural gas. Refrigeration cycles are energy intensive processes. In such systems, the compressors are the main power consumers. A given refrigeration task can be achieved by many configurations and use of refrigerant mediums. In principle, all possible configurations utilize vapor compression and/or expander cycles. However, identifying an energy efficient configuration along with the proper choice of refrigerants is not a straightforward technique. In the refrigeration literature, many methods have been proposed to identify efficient refrigeration configurations for a given task. However, these methods rely on detailed simulations and mathematical programming and do not provide much physical insights to design a good refrigeration process. As a result, our motivation is to develop physical insights through systematic evaluation of refrigerants and cycle configurations. We have identified key features of different refrigeration systems for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) applications. This was achieved through detailed simulations and thermodynamic analysis. Such features are essential to understand the limits of different configurations. Moreover, they can lead to process developments and improvements.

Al-Musleh, Easa Ismail

169

Extraction of odorizing sulfur compounds from natural gas and reodorization therewith  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linde AG's new approach permits natural gas odorants to be removed from natural gas before it is liquefied by peakshaving plants and to be saved for reinjection when the natural gas is vaporized. The odorants, mainly organic sulfur compounds, are removed by scrubbing natural gas prior to natural gas liquefaction and then freed of other impurities such as COâ, HâO,

A. Kruis; H. Karwat

1975-01-01

170

STATE OF CALIFORNIA --THE NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY ARNOLD SCHWARZENEGGER, Governor CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION  

E-print Network

Management Sun Valley Liquefied Natural Gas/Liquefied Compressed Natural Gas Refueling Station · Bay Area Air Quality Management District Oakland Liquefied Natural Gas Infrastructure Project · South Coast Air Quality Trading Coachella Valley Regional Liquefied Natural Gas Infrastructure Project · Ecofinal Alternative Fuel

171

Cryogenic plant for natural gas liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is essential to develop an efficient, compact, and safe plant for recondensation of natural gas vapors formed during shipping\\u000a of liquefied natural gas (LNG) by large methane tankers. A test bench that simulates the operation of a full-scale cryogenic\\u000a plant for production of up to 2884 kg\\/h LNG has been built for comprehensive studies. The refrigeration required for this

Yu. S. Bukholdin; S. V. Sukhostavets; I. I. Petukhov

2007-01-01

172

77 FR 38790 - Noble Americas Gas & Power Corp., LNG Development Company, LLC, LNG Development Company, LLC (d/b...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During May 2012 AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy...authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas. These Orders are summarized in the...

2012-06-29

173

Measuring of compressed natural gas in automotive application: A comparative analysis of mass versus volumetric metering methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative gaseous fuels Fuels are not new, but the fuel metering systems have become very sophisticated in order to control the flow of several products, such as Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Hydrogen, Methanol and others. Alternative fuels and vehicles are now quite widespread, since they reduce emissions and dependence on foreign oil\\/energy

Furio Cascetta; Giuseppe Rotondo; Marilena Musto

2008-01-01

174

Emission factor estimation in regional air quality studies of residential natural gas fuel interchangeability  

E-print Network

in composition. As newer sources of natural gas become available (such as Liquefied Natural Gas and shale gasEmission factor estimation in regional air quality studies of residential natural gas fuel for natural gas burner emissions data. The method is built to compensate for the typically small sample size

Dabdub, Donald

175

Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its impact on Mexico City air quality  

SciTech Connect

Alkane hydrocarbons (propane, isobutane, and n-butane) from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are present in major quantities throughout Mexico City air because of leakage of the unburned gas from numerous urban sources. These hydrocarbons, together with olefinic minor LPG components, furnish substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical reactivity, a major precursor to formation of the ozone component of urban smog. The combined processes of unburned leakage and incomplete combustion of LPG play significant role in causing the excessive ozone characteristic of Mexico City. Reductions in ozone levels should be possible through changes in LPG composition and lowered rates of leakage. 23 refs., 3 tabs.

Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

1995-08-18

176

A novel liquefied gas based oral controlled release drug delivery system for liquid drug formulations.  

PubMed

A novel liquefied gas based drug delivery system for the oral delivery of liquid and semi-solid drug formulations is presented. The capsule-shaped system is equipped with a capillary as an element controlling the release rate. The delivery mechanism is based on a constant vapor pressure produced by isopentane as a low-boiling liquefied gas. The liquid drug valproic acid (VA) was used as a model compound. The viscosity was increased by the addition of povidone (PVP). The VA-PVP gel exhibited pseudoplastic rheological properties, the shear rate was above 0.1s(-1), similar to a Newtonian liquid. The gels tested in the gas based delivery system provided near-zero-order release kinetics. The longest delivery time was up to ca. 8h. The system is characterized by high flexibility of the delivery rate, which can be achieved by adjusting system parameters such as the diameter and length of the capillary, the vapor pressure of the propellant and the viscosity of the drug formulation. PMID:22426133

Haznar-Garbacz, Dorota; Garbacz, Grzegorz; Eisenächer, Friederike; Klein, Sandra; Weitschies, Werner

2012-06-01

177

40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL...Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle...Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied...7) The interference gases listed shall...

2010-07-01

178

Apparatus for the liquefaction of natural gas and methods relating to same  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating

Bruce M. Wilding; Dennis N. Bingham; Michael G. McKellar; Terry D. Turner; Kevin T. Raterman; Gary L. Palmer; Kerry M. Klingler; John J. Vranicar

2007-01-01

179

Apparatus For The Liquefaaction Of Natural Gas And Methods Relating To Same  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating

Bruce M. Wilding; Dennis N. Bingham; Michael G. McKellar; Terry D. Turner; Kevin T. Raterman; Gary L. Palmer; Kerry M. Klingler; John J. Vranicar

2005-01-01

180

Apparatus for the liquefaction of natural gas and methods relating to same  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through an expander creating work

Bruce M. Wilding; Michael G. McKellar; Terry D. Turner; Francis H. Carney

2009-01-01

181

Apparatus For The Liquefaaction Of Natural Gas And Methods Relating To Same  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating

Bruce M. Wilding; Dennis N. Bingham; Michael G. McKellar; Terry D. Turner; Kevin T. Raterman; Gary L. Palmer; Kerry M. Klingler; John J. Vranicar

2003-01-01

182

Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops a formal model for comparing the cost structure of the two main transport options for natural gas: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly

Marte Ulvestad; Indra Overland

2012-01-01

183

Thermodynamic Cycle Selection for Distributed Natural Gas Liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas liquefaction plants with cooling capacities of approximately 100 kW are facilitating the development of a distributed LNG infrastructure. To be economically viable, liquefiers of this scale must be able to operate on a variety of feed gases while offering relatively low capital costs, short delivery time, and good performance. This paper opens with a discussion of a natural

M. A. Barclay; D. F. Gongaware; K. Dalton; M. P. Skrzypkowski

2004-01-01

184

49 CFR 192.1015 - What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this...  

...2014-10-01 false What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart? 192...192.1015 What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart?...

2014-10-01

185

49 CFR 192.1015 - What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart? 192...192.1015 What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart?...

2011-10-01

186

49 CFR 192.1015 - What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart? 192...192.1015 What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart?...

2010-10-01

187

49 CFR 192.1015 - What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart? 192...192.1015 What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart?...

2013-10-01

188

49 CFR 192.1015 - What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart? 192...192.1015 What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart?...

2012-10-01

189

Active constraint regions for a natural gas liquefaction process Magnus G. Jacobsen a  

E-print Network

Keywords: Self-optimizing control Liquefied natural gas LNG PRICO Disturbances Optimal operation a b s t rActive constraint regions for a natural gas liquefaction process Magnus G. Jacobsen a , Sigurd. This paper addresses optimal operation of a simple natural gas liquefaction process e the PRICO process

Skogestad, Sigurd

190

Notes on Sable Natural Gas Production December 1999 to November 2005  

E-print Network

, as well as its embracing of the proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities at Bear Head and GuysboroERG/200601 Notes on Sable Natural Gas Production December 1999 to November 2005 Larry Hughes Energy;Hughes: Notes on Sable Natural Gas Production 1 1. Background The Sable Offshore Energy Project consists

Hughes, Larry

191

Optimizing the logistics of compressed natural gas transportation by marine vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compressed natural gas (CNG) has been recently proposed as a potentially economical alternative to liquefied natural gas (LNG) for marine transportation of relatively modest amounts of natural gas over short distances. Because the main capital expenditure in a CNG project is on marine transport vessels, careful design of CNG transport fleets and compatible distribution plans is important. In this work,

Michael Nikolaou

2010-01-01

192

78 FR 37878 - Deepwater Port License Application: Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Port Ambrose Deepwater Port  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the Application Liberty Natural Gas, LLC is proposing to construct...own, and operate a liquefied natural gas (LNG) deepwater port...application submitted by Liberty Natural Gas, LLC in 2010. Port...acknowledged and considered in the processing of the Port Ambrose...

2013-06-24

193

Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) for Hawaii: Policy, Economic, and Technical Questions  

E-print Network

Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) for Hawaii: Policy, Economic, and Technical Questions This report Natural Gas for Hawai`i: Policy Economic and Technical Questions Prepared for the U.S. Department Hawai`i Energy Sustainability Program Task 4: Deliverable on Liquefied Natural Gas Prepared by FACTS

194

Process for the liquefaction and subcooling of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linde AG improved the Claude closed refrigerating cycle for liquefying and subcooling natural gas by using a mixture of nitrogen and methane as the cycle medium. This mixture allows the temperature range of evaporation to be easily adapted to the temperature range of subcooling, improves refrigerating capacity, and compensates for leakage losses of the cycle medium at less cost by

W. Foerg; P. Grimm

1974-01-01

195

An Examination of the International Natural Gas Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractRecent developments in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry, particularly the ongoing projects of liquefaction and regasification and the increasing number of LNG-carriers to be delivered in forthcoming years, have led some specialists to argue that LNG is today at the crossroads between regionalisation and globalisation. Other specialists think that, by 2010, LNG's share of the total international trade of

Ahmed Mazighi

2003-01-01

196

Natural Gas Flare  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A natural gas flare. Sometimes, often due to lack of transportation or storage capacity, natural gas that is co-produced with oil will be burned in a flare. This wellpad is in the Tuscaloosa Marine Shale....

197

Natural Gas Monthly  

EIA Publications

Highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported.

2014-01-01

198

Natural gas annual 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

NONE

1996-11-01

199

Conversion of a Waste Gas to Liquid Natural Gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The choice of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a heavy-duty vehicular fuel is growing rapidly due to improved LNG economics, diesel price uncertainties caused by the dependence on imported crude oil, liabilities associated with environmental and health concerns, and governmental programs related to concerns over greenhouse gas emissions. However, vehicle owners who wish to use LNG are impeded by a lack of refueling infrastructure and reliable supply of inexpensive fuel. These barriers are being overcome by the development of innovative purifier/liquefier systems that economically convert a wide array of distributed, low cost methane gas sources into high quality LNG. This paper describes the engineering design, manufacture, installation, and initial operations of two such systems. One unit was a pilot-scale system using an innovative cryogenic freezing process to remove bulk concentrations of carbon dioxide from the landfill gas (LFG). The second unit converts stranded well gas containing ˜ 18% nitrogen gas into LNG. The paper closes with a summary of lessons learned from these two installations and directions for future improvements.

Gongaware, D. F.; Barclay, M. A.; Barclay, J. A.; Skrzypkowski, M. P.

2004-06-01

200

State-of-the-art assessment of refrigerated liquefied gas storage systems using flat-bottom tanks  

SciTech Connect

Storage of refrigerated liquefied gas in flat-bottom cylindrical metal tanks began in the 1950s; since then, it has become the most commonly used method for storage of liquefied gas in large volume. This paper presents a brief historical overview as a frame of reference for reviewing development of the flat-bottom tank, discusses and evaluates major elements of the storage system, and examines the properties of the gases stored. Although flat-bottom tanks, particularly those constructed to API Standard 620, have had a successful record, some have proposed ways of providing additional safety. The implications of some of these proposals are discussed, along with the effects of major changes being made in Appendix R and Appendix Q of API Standard 620.

Pieper, C.J.; LaFave, I.V.; Zick, L.P.

1982-05-01

201

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage facility study Fort Gordon, Georgia. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Fort Gordon currently purchases natural gas from Atlanta Gas Light Company under a rate schedule for Large Commercial Interruptible Service. This offers a very favorable rate for `interruptible` gas service, however, Fort Gordon must maintain a base level of `firm gas`, purchased at a significantly higher cost, to assure adequate natural gas supplies during periods of curtailment to support family housing requirements and other single fuel users. It is desirable to provide a standby fuel source to meet the needs of family housing and other single fuel users and eliminate the extra costs for the firm gas commitment to Atlanta Gas Light Company. Therefore, a propane-air standby fuel system is proposed to be installed at Fort Gordon.

NONE

1992-09-01

202

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage facility study, Fort Gordon, Georgia. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Fort Gordon currently purchases natural gas from Atlanta Gas Light Company under a rate schedule for Large Commercial Interruptible Service. This offers a very favorable rate for `interruptible` gas service, however, Fort Gordon must maintain a base level of `firm gas`, purchased at a significantly higher cost, to assure adequate natural gas supplies during periods of curtailment to support family housing requirements and other single fuel users. It is desirable to provide a standby fuel source to meet the needs of family housing and other single fuel users and eliminate the extra costs for the firm gas commitment to Atlanta Gas Light Company. Therefore, a propane-air standby fuel system is proposed to be installed at Fort Gordon.

NONE

1992-09-01

203

Conceptual Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminal design for Kuwait  

E-print Network

portion of the study. A finite element model of the MGBCS was developed using an industry standard finite element code that allows preliminary sizes of structural models to meet appropriate design codes. A variety of parametric and design load scenarios...

Aljeeran, Fares

2006-08-16

204

Simulation and integration of liquefied natural gas (lng) processes  

E-print Network

Figure 1.2 World energy consumption by fuel.................................................. 3 Figure 1.3 Worldwide LNG exports in 2005..................................................... 8 Figure 1.4 Worldwide LNG imports in 2005... for exchanger E1_2_1 ..................... 84 Table 6.7 ICARUS fixed cost estimation for exchanger E1_3_1 ..................... 85 Table 6.8 ICARUS fixed cost estimation for exchanger E7_13_2 ................... 86 Table 6.9 ICARUS fixed cost...

Al-Sobhi, Saad Ali

2009-05-15

205

Liquefied natural gas experience of a large transit fleet  

SciTech Connect

The Houston Metropolitan Transit Authority (METRO) is the mass transit authority for an area of 1,275 square miles and a population of 3.5 million. METRO is organized as an independent authority responsible to an appointed board of directors. METRO operates over 1,160 buses which use approximately 2,000 miles of bus routes. Each year METRO provides over 60 million passenger trips. The low cost to the customer can only be achieved through aggressive cost control and efficient operation with effective equipment maintenance and availability. METRO utilizes approximately nine million gallons of diesel fuel per year. Fuel costs are approximately 4.5% of operating costs equivalent to approximately $.18 cents per mile. METRO has demonstrated the technical and economic feasibility of LNG fuel usage for a centrally refueled fleet. This pioneering effort used the free market and intense cooperation with suppliers to create an LNG supply where there was none, convert theoretical concepts to on the road hardware and mobilize a large organization to accommodate a drastic change in operations. Experience leads them to recommend others considering this approach to fully commit their own resources to the tasks, cooperate and exchange information openly with all concerned and only accept project participants which have the competence and resources to persevere through developments.

Pentz, R. [Houston Metropolitan Transit Authority, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

206

The liquefied natural gas pipeline: a system study  

E-print Network

and wall resistances were calculated from conven- tional formulas associated with radial heat flow through an 29 insulated pipe. ( / ) R. i (3. 10) and ln(r /r ) R w (3. 11) The thermal conductivity of the polyurethane foam insulation was taken... jacket and polyurethane foam. The cost of constructing and maintaining a vacuum jacket type insulation has been shown to be prohibitive in pipeline applications [15] and for this reason polyurethane foam was the only insulation considered. 31...

Hazel, Thomas Ray

2012-06-07

207

Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

2007-01-01

208

Natural gas annual 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

NONE

1998-10-01

209

Texas plant treats natural gas for use as alternative fuel  

SciTech Connect

Pushed by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County is using clean-burning liquefied methane to fuel some of Houston`s city buses. Houston Metro`s primary supply of liquefied methane is a 12 MMscfd amine-treating unit in Willis, TX. The willis plant uses Dow Chemical Co.`s GAS/SPEC process to treat natural gas. The GAS/SPEC process uses a specialty amine solvent to remove carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and hydrogen sulfide from natural gas. To convert natural gas to a liquid, processors cool the gas to cryogenic temperatures and compress it. If the gas contains carbon dioxide, the CO{sub 2} will freeze, subsequently blocking transmission lines and damaging equipment. Processors therefore must remove CO{sub 2} from natural gas to prevent these problems. The natural gas processed at the Willis amine treater contains 1.5--2.5% CO{sub 2}. During treatment, the CO{sub 2} concentration is reduced to 50 ppm. The solvent used in the Willis plant is called GAS/SPEC CS-Plus. Dow makes seven other solvents for use with the process.

NONE

1996-02-19

210

Alaskan Natural Gas Pipeline Developments (released in AEO2007)  

EIA Publications

The Annual Energy Outlook 2007 reference case projects that an Alaska natural gas pipeline will go into operation in 2018, based on the Energy Information Administration's current understanding of the projects time line and economics. There is continuing debate, however, about the physical configuration and the ownership of the pipeline. In addition, the issue of Alaskas oil and natural gas production taxes has been raised, in the context of a current market environment characterized by rising construction costs and falling natural gas prices. If rates of return on investment by producers are reduced to unacceptable levels, or if the project faces significant delays, other sources of natural gas, such as unconventional natural gas production and liquefied natural gas imports, could fulfill the demand that otherwise would be served by an Alaska pipeline.

2007-01-01

211

Nitrogen Removal From Low Quality Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas provides more than one-fifth of all the primary energy used in the United States. It is especially important in the residential sector, where it supplies nearly half of all the energy consumed in U.S. homes. However, significant quantities of natural gas cannot be produced economically because its quality is too low to enter the pipeline transportation system without some type of processing, other than dehydration, to remove the undesired gas fraction. Such low-quality natural gas (LQNG) contains significant concentration or quantities of gas other than methane. These non- hydrocarbons are predominantly nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide, but may also include other gaseous components. The nitrogen concentrations usually exceeds 4%. Nitrogen rejection is presently an expensive operation which can present uneconomic scenarios in the potential development of natural gas fields containing high nitrogen concentrations. The most reliable and widely used process for nitrogen rejection from natural gas consists of liquefying the feed stream using temperatures in the order of - 300{degrees}F and separating the nitrogen via fractionation. In order to reduce the gas temperature to this level, the gas is compressed, cooled by mullet-stream heat exchangers, and expanded to low pressure. Significant energy for compression and expensive materials of construction are required. Water and carbon dioxide concentrations must be reduced to levels required to prevent freezing. SRI`s proposed research involves screening new nitrogen selective absorbents and developing a more cost effective nitrogen removal process from natural gas using those compounds. The long-term objective of this project is to determine the technical and economical feasibility of a N{sub 2}2 removal concept based on complexation of molecular N{sub 2} with novel complexing agents. Successful development of a selective, reversible, and stable reagent with an appropriate combination of capacity and N{sub 2} absorption/desorption characteristics will allow selective separation of N{sub 2} from LQNG.

Alvarado, D.B.; Asaro, M.F.; Bomben, J.L.; Damle, A.S.; Bhown, A.S.

1997-10-01

212

Natural gas liquefaction processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The liquefaction of natural gas using a mixed refrigerant process was first proposed by Kleemenko in 1959 [50]. Mixed refrigerant\\u000a processes were subsequently adopted for the commercial liquefaction of natural gas nearly 40 years ago. Over 95% of the base-load\\u000a LNG plants operate on mixed refrigerant processes, with the remaining few operating on conventional cascade processes. The\\u000a enthalpy of natural

Gadhiraju Venkatarathnam

2008-01-01

213

Venezuela natural gas for vehicles project  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas for Vehicles (NGV) Project in Venezuela describes the development and growth of the NGV project in the country. Venezuela is a prolific oil producer with advanced exploration, production, refining and solid marketing infrastructure. Gas production is 5.2 Bscfd. The Venezuelan Government and the oil state owned company Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), pursued the opportunity of using natural gas for vehicles based on the huge amounts of gas reserves present and produced every day associated with the oil production. A nationwide gas pipeline network crosses the country from south to west reaching the most important cities and serving domestic and industrial purposes but there are no facilities to process or export liquefied natural gas. NGV has been introduced gradually in Venezuela over the last eight years by PDVSA. One hundred forty-five NGV stations have been installed and another 25 are under construction. Work done comprises displacement or relocation of existing gasoline equipment, civil work, installation and commissioning of equipment. The acceptance and usage of the NGV system is reflected in the more than 17,000 vehicles that have been converted to date using the equivalent of 2,000 bbl oil/day.

Marsicobetre, D.; Molero, T. [Corpoven S.A., Miami, FL (United States)

1998-12-31

214

Electrical Network Design Studies for Natural Gas Liquefaction Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process requirements of liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants demand a high level of reliability from the supporting electrical power system. Extensive power system studies are required to confirm that the proposed electrical system meets the stringent design requirements. This paper outlines the load-flow, short-circuit, transient-stability and harmonic studies typically undertaken as part of the front end engineering design (FEED)

R. C. Wilson; C. L. Dall; K. S. Smith

2006-01-01

215

Natural gas to buoy Trinidad and Tobago petroleum sector  

SciTech Connect

Trinidad and Tobago's petroleum sector remains at a crossroads. While heavily reliant on oil and gas for domestic energy consumption and hard currency export earnings, the small Caribbean island nation faces some tough choices in reviving its hydrocarbon sector in the 1990s. Exploration and production of crude oil have stagnated in recent years, and domestic refinery utilization remains low at 36%. However, substantial natural gas reserves in Trinidad and Tobago offer the promise of a burgeoning natural gas based economy with an eye to liquefied natural gas and gas based petrochemical exports. Any solutions will involve considerable outlays by the government as well as a sizable infusion of capital by foreign companies. Therein lie some of the hard choices. The article describes the roles of oil and gas, foreign investment prospects, refining status, refining problems, gas sector foreign investment, and outlook for the rest of the 1990's.

Not Available

1993-03-01

216

Natural Gas as a Fuel Option for Heavy Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) is promoting the use of natural gas as a fuel option in the transportation energy sector through its natural gas vehicle program [1]. The goal of this program is to eliminate the technical and cost barriers associated with displacing imported petroleum. This is achieved by supporting research and development in technologies that reduce manufacturing costs, reduce emissions, and improve vehicle performance and consumer acceptance for natural gas fueled vehicles. In collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory, projects are currently being pursued in (1) liquefied natural gas production from unconventional sources, (2) onboard natural gas storage (adsorbent, compressed, and liquefied), (3) natural gas delivery systems for both onboard the vehicle and the refueling station, and (4) regional and enduse strategies. This paper will provide an overview of these projects highlighting their achievements and current status. In addition, it will discuss how the individual technologies developed are being integrated into an overall program strategic plan.

James E. Wegrzyn; Wai Lin Litzke; Michael Gurevich

1999-04-26

217

Fossil Fuels: Natural Gas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the use of natural gas as an energy source. Topics include its advantages (cleanliness, fewer carbon emissions), disadvantages (difficulty in transport and storage), sources, and usage. There is also a discussion of the creation and production of natural gas, the United States' production and reserves, and some potential new sources (coal bed methane, methane hydrates). The lesson includes an activity in which students investigate porosity and permeability in simulated sediments.

John Pratte

218

Liquid natural gas regasification combined with adsorbed natural gas filling system.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article provides an introduction to innovative method of Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) physical exergy practical utilization. The energy spent to liquefy natural gas (a thermodynamic minimum is about 0.13 kWh/l of LNG depending on pressure and chemical composition) can be partly recovered in the system making use either of the LNG low temperature (111 K) or its ability to increase the pressure in a storage vessel by heat absorption from the environment. The paper presents estimation of the LNG physical exergy and its dependence on the pressure and temperature. Then description and comparison of available natural gas storage methods (liquefaction, compression, adsorption) is given, with a special attention paid to Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) technology. Original data concerning adsorption isotherms of methane with activated carbon MaxsorbIII are presented. A concept of ANG storage technology coupled with the LNG regasification, is a promising technique of utilization of the LNG cold exergy. The energy efficient combination of ANG with LNG may help market progress of adsorption technology in natural gas storage and distribution. The ANG/LNG coupling is especially perspective in case of small capacity and distributed natural gas deposits exploitation.

Roszak, Eliza Anna; Chorowski, Maciej

2012-06-01

219

30 CFR 75.1106-5 - Maintenance and tests of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; accessories and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Maintenance and tests of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed...75.1106-5 Maintenance and tests of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed...safe operating condition. (d) Tests for leaks on the hose valves or gages...

2010-07-01

220

Energy policy and planning in New Zealand: natural gas as a growth fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Zealand's goal of having natural gas provide half its gasoline requirements by 1990 includes building a synthetic-fuels facility to convert methanol to gasoline and increasing the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as automotive fuels. These steps plus adding a hydrocracker to the country's single crude-oil refinery will meet virtually all the petroleum-product demand.

Sen

1982-01-01

221

Natural Gas Expanders-Compressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas expanders-compressors serve a variety of natural gas plants, ranging from primary treatment at the well (installations for comprehensive treatment of natural gas) to liquefaction for separation, storage, and transport. Natural gas expanders-compressors take on particular importance for wells with throttling cold. The growing demand for this equipment has been satisfied by imports until recently. The most popular was

V. M. Kulakov; V. V. Kulakov; A. V. Kulakov

2002-01-01

222

Choice of Compressor Equipment for Compression-Throttling Cycles of Natural Gas Liquefaction Using a Mixed Refrigerant  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the prospects of improving compression-throttling cycles, the operating pressures of flows of a mixed refrigerant, the effect of the compressor efficiency on the specific energy inputs, the specifics of the hydrocarbon mixtures, and the economic aspects of liquefied natural gas production when compressors with a natural gas engine are used.

V. E. Gerasimov; R. V. Darbinyan; V. A. Peredel’skii

2005-01-01

223

75 FR 57766 - Notice of Petition To Amend Authorizations Under Section 3 of the Natural Gas Act; Cameron LNG, LLC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notice of Petition To Amend Authorizations Under Section 3 of the Natural Gas Act; Cameron LNG, LLC September 15, 2010...2003, in Docket No. CP02-378- 000 under section 3 of the Natural Gas Act operate its existing liquefied...

2010-09-22

224

FDAS hardware and firmware description, Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Data-Acquisition System. [LNG dispersion, vapor burn experiments  

SciTech Connect

The FDAS are the front-end data acquisition units of the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Data Acquisition System (LGFDAS). They acquired data from numerous sensors during liquefied natural gas (LNG) dispersion and vapor burn experiments conducted at the Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California, in 1980 and 1981. This is a description of the hardware, functions, commands, messages, and firmware of the FDAS units.

Baker, J.

1982-03-01

225

US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

Not Available

1990-10-05

226

Clean Cities Natural Gas  

E-print Network

2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide Clean Cities Natural Gas Propane Biodiesel Electric Hybrid Ethanol Flex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Plug-In Hybrid Electric . . . . . . . . . . 18 Hybrid Electric vehicles, and hybrid luxury cars are now in the marketplace. Early in the 2013 calendar year the number

227

Natural Gas Annual  

EIA Publications

Provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas in the United States. Production, transmission, storage, deliveries, and price data are published by state for the current year. Summary data are presented for each state for the previous 5 years.

2014-01-01

228

Fabrication of iron titanium oxide thin film and its application as opto-electronic humidity and liquefied petroleum gas sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present paper explores the synthesis, characterization, and opto-electronic humidity as well as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensing applications of iron titanium oxide nanocomposite. Thin film of iron titanium oxide was deposited on an equilateral borosilicate glass prism using sol-gel spin coating process. X-ray diffraction reveals the formation of iron titanium oxide having minimum crystallite size 9 nm. The opto-electronic humidity sensing properties of the fabricated film were investigated at different angles of incidence of the light. It was observed that the intensity of reflected light increased with an increase in relative humidity (%RH) in the range 5-95. The fabricated film shows maximum sensitivity 4.5 ?W/%RH, which is quite significant for sensor fabrication purposes. The maximum percentage sensor response for LPG was found 2600 which is many folds more than the earlier reported titania based LPG sensor.

Verma, Nidhi; Singh, Satyendra; Srivastava, Richa; Yadav, B. C.

2014-04-01

229

Natural gas purchases  

SciTech Connect

In the 1970`s gas and boilers were like oil and water as far as policy makers were concerned, culminating in the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act (perhaps a more appropriate title would have been the Fuel Non-Use Act or the Gas Non-Use Act). But now, the last two Administrations have made gas the centerpiece of their energy and environmental strategies, including promotion of gas use for boilers and electric generation. The FERC`s Order 636 almost completes the Commission`s restructuring of the gas industry that began with Order 380 (eliminating commodity minimum bills) and progressed sharply with Orders 436 and 500. It is Order 636 that has transformed the interstate pipeline business into a transportation business, with the pipelines virtually out of the merchant business altogether because the Commission is not resting on its laurels after completing implementation of Order 636. Rather, it is exploring new ways to expand the growing competitive market for gas, including the possibility of using market-based rates for interstate pipeline transportation services. Methods for the procurement of natural gas supplies are discussed.

Grenier, E.J. Jr. [Partner, Sutherland, Asbill and Brennan, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-09-01

230

76 FR 4417 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to a 9.2 mile onshore pipeline that will traverse through Perth Amboy, Woodbridge and Carteret in Middlesex County, New Jersey...9.2 mile long Onshore Pipeline that would traverse through Perth Amboy, Woodbridge and Carteret in Middlesex County, New...

2011-01-25

231

Technical, economic, and environmental impact study of converting Uzbekistan transportation fleets to natural gas operation. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

This study, conducted by Radian International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report assesses the feasibility (technical, economic and environmental) of converting the Uzbek transportation fleets to natural gas operation. The study focuses on the conversion of high fuel use vehicles and locomotives to liquefied natural gas (LNG) and the conversion of moderate fuel use veicles to compressed natural gas (CNG). The report is divided into the following sections: Executive Summary; (1.0) Introduction; (2.0) Country Background; (3.0) Characterization of Uzbek Transportation Fuels; (4.0) Uzbek Vehicle and Locomotive Fleet Characterization; (5.0) Uzbek Natural Gas Vehicle Conversion Shops; (6.0) Uzbek Natural Gas Infrastructure; (7.0) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) for Vehicular Fuel in Uzbekistan; (8.0) Economic Feasibility Study; (9.0) Environmental Impact Analysis; References; Appendices A - S.

NONE

1997-04-30

232

Improving the performance of dual fuel engines running on natural gas\\/LPG by using pilot fuel derived from jojoba seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of jojoba methyl ester as a pilot fuel was investigated for almost the first time as a way to improve the performance of dual fuel engine running on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) at part load. The dual fuel engine used was Ricardo E6 variable compression diesel engine and it used either compressed natural gas (CNG)

Mohamed Y. E. Selim; M. S. Radwan; H. E. Saleh

2008-01-01

233

49 CFR 173.304b - Additional requirements for shipment of liquefied compressed gases in UN pressure receptacles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (a) General . Liquefied gases and gas mixtures must be offered for...transportation of liquefied compressed gases and gas mixtures as specified in this section...3) For high pressure liquefied gases or gas mixtures, the maximum...

2010-10-01

234

Natural Gas Exports from Iran  

EIA Publications

This assessment of the natural gas sector in Iran, with a focus on Iran’s natural gas exports, was prepared pursuant to section 505 (a) of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (Public Law No: 112-158). As requested, it includes: (1) an assessment of exports of natural gas from Iran; (2) an identification of the countries that purchase the most natural gas from Iran; (3) an assessment of alternative supplies of natural gas available to those countries; (4) an assessment of the impact a reduction in exports of natural gas from Iran would have on global natural gas supplies and the price of natural gas, especially in countries identified under number (2); and (5) such other information as the Administrator considers appropriate.

2012-01-01

235

Natural gas monthly, September 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1993-09-27

236

46 CFR 121.240 - Gas systems.  

... Cooking systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) must meet the following requirements...CNG system must meet ABYC A-22, “Marine Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Systems,” Chapter 6 of NFPA...

2014-10-01

237

46 CFR 121.240 - Gas systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Cooking systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) must meet the following requirements...CNG system must meet ABYC A-22, “Marine Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Systems,” Chapter 6 of NFPA...

2012-10-01

238

46 CFR 184.240 - Gas systems.  

... Cooking systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) must meet the following requirements...CNG system must meet ABYC A-22, “Marine Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Systems,” Chapter 6 of NFPA...

2014-10-01

239

46 CFR 184.240 - Gas systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Cooking systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) must meet the following requirements...CNG system must meet ABYC A-22, “Marine Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Systems,” Chapter 6 of NFPA...

2012-10-01

240

46 CFR 121.240 - Gas systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Cooking systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) must meet the following requirements...CNG system must meet ABYC A-22, “Marine Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Systems,” Chapter 6 of NFPA...

2013-10-01

241

46 CFR 184.240 - Gas systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Cooking systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) must meet the following requirements...CNG system must meet ABYC A-22, “Marine Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Systems,” Chapter 6 of NFPA...

2013-10-01

242

Natural gas monthly, July 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1993-07-27

243

Natural gas monthly: September 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1996-09-01

244

Natural gas monthly, July 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1994-07-20

245

Natural gas monthly, August 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

Not Available

1994-08-24

246

Natural gas monthly, November 1996  

SciTech Connect

The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``US natural gas imports and exports-1995``. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

NONE

1996-11-01

247

Natural gas monthly, June 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural Gas 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

Not Available

1994-06-01

248

Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993  

SciTech Connect

The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

Not Available

1993-11-10

249

Natural gas monthly, April 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are present3ed each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas pipeline and system expansions.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1997-04-01

250

Natural gas monthly, August 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article is on US Natural Gas Imports and Exports 1994.

NONE

1995-08-24

251

Natural gas monthly, March 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas analysis and geographic information systems.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

NONE

1997-03-01

252

Natural gas monthly, April 1998  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Estimates extend through April 1998 for many data series. The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, feature articles are presented designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This issue contains the special report, ``Natural Gas 1997: A Preliminary Summary.`` This report provides information on natural gas supply and disposition for the year 1997, based on monthly data through December from EIA surveys. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

NONE

1998-04-01

253

Chemical analysis and ozone formation potential of exhaust from dual-fuel (liquefied petroleum gas/gasoline) light duty vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measures must be undertaken to lower the transport sector's contribution to anthropogenic emissions. Vehicles powered by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are an option due to their reduced emissions of air pollutants compared to engines with conventional fuels. In the present study, ten different dual-fuel LPG/gasoline light duty vehicles were tested, which all complied with European emission level legislation EURO-4. Tests with LPG and gasoline were performed on a chassis dynamometer by applying the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and emission factors and ozone formation potentials of both kinds of fuels were compared. The components investigated comprised regulated compounds, CO 2, volatile hydrocarbons and carbonyls. On-line analysis of aromatic species was carried out by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS). We demonstrate that utilization of LPG can entail some environmental benefits by reducing emissions. However, for dual-fuel LPG/gasoline vehicles running on LPG the benefits are less than expected. The main reason is that dual-fuel vehicles usually start the engine up on gasoline even when LPG is selected as fuel. This cold-start phase is crucial for the quality of the emissions. Moreover, we demonstrate an influence on the chemical composition of emissions of vehicle performance, fuel and the evaporative emission system of the vehicles.

Adam, T. W.; Astorga, C.; Clairotte, M.; Duane, M.; Elsasser, M.; Krasenbrink, A.; Larsen, B. R.; Manfredi, U.; Martini, G.; Montero, L.; Sklorz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; Perujo, A.

2011-06-01

254

On-board measurement of emissions from liquefied petroleum gas, gasoline and diesel powered passenger cars in Algeria.  

PubMed

On-board measurements of unit emissions of CO, HC, NOx and CO? were conducted on 17 private cars powered by different types of fuels including gasoline, dual gasoline-liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline, and diesel. The tests performed revealed the effect of LPG injection technology on unit emissions and made it possible to compare the measured emissions to the European Artemis emission model. A sequential multipoint injection LPG kit with no catalyst installed was found to be the most efficient pollutant reduction device for all of the pollutants, with the exception of the NOx. Specific test results for a sub-group of LPG vehicles revealed that LPG-fueled engines with no catalyst cannot compete with catalyzed gasoline and diesel engines. Vehicle age does not appear to be a determining parameter with regard to vehicle pollutant emissions. A fuel switch to LPG offers many advantages as far as pollutant emissions are concerned, due to LPG's intrinsic characteristics. However, these advantages are being rapidly offset by the strong development of both gasoline and diesel engine technologies and catalyst converters. The LPG's performance on a chassis dynamometer under real driving conditions was better than expected. The enforcement of pollutant emission standards in developing countries is an important step towards introducing clean technology and reducing vehicle emissions. PMID:25108721

Chikhi, Saâdane; Boughedaoui, Ménouèr; Kerbachi, Rabah; Joumard, Robert

2014-08-01

255

Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report  

SciTech Connect

The Assistant Secretary for Environment has responsibility for identifying, characterizing, and ameliorating the environmental, health, and safety issues and public concerns associated with commercial operation of specific energy systems. The need for developing a safety and environmental control assessment for liquefied gaseous fuels was identified by the Environmental and Safety Engineering Division as a result of discussions with various governmental, industry, and academic persons having expertise with respect to the particular materials involved: liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and anhydrous ammonia. This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in Fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 1 (Executive Summary) describes the background, purpose and organization of the LGF Program and contains summaries of the 25 reports presented in Volumes 2 and 3. Annotated bibliographies on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety and Environmental Control Research and on Fire Safety and Hazards of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) are included in Volume 1.

Not Available

1980-10-01

256

Natural gas monthly, February 1996  

SciTech Connect

The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1996-03-01

257

Natural gas monthly, October 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary of the terms used in this report is provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. 6 figs., 30 tabs.

NONE

1995-10-23

258

49 CFR 173.304 - Filling of cylinders with liquefied compressed gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...liquefied compressed gases. (a) General...liquefied compressed gas (except gas...mixture of compressed gas must be shipped in...Refrigerant and dispersant gases. Nontoxic and nonflammable...flammable compressed gas or gases must be shipped...

2010-10-01

259

Natural Gas Regulation and Its Effect on Natural Gas Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas is an environmentally benign, domestically abundand, and competitively priced fossil fuel. Despite these advantages, natural gas consumption in the industrial and electric-generation sectors has fallen significantly over the past two decades. The primary obstruction has been a regulatory morass that has created an atmosphere not condusive to the investment decisions necessary to expand the market for producers, transporters,

Rob Tyson

1992-01-01

260

Natural gas monthly, October 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. 16 figs., 33 tabs.

Not Available

1991-11-05

261

A Texas natural gas model  

SciTech Connect

The Railroad Commission of Texas, through its Gas Services Division, is responsible for the safety and economic regulation of natural gas downstream of the wellhead, including the gathering, processing, storage, transmission and distribution of natural gas. This responsibility requires an understanding of the movement of natural gas in Texas, which was the objective of a recently completed project of the Gas Services Division. The authors goal was to trace a molecule of gas from wellhead to burner tip and identify the incremental value added by each of the components along the path. The authors developed a Texas Natural Gas Model that relates the components of the path so that flow within individual segments of the industry, or between segments of the industry, can be analyzed. The Model links information on wellhead production and prices, marketing costs (reflecting gathering, processing, and compression), transmission costs, and end user consumption and costs. End user information is presented for the primary Texas local distribution companies (LDC) and electric utilities, as well as on an aggregate basis for industrial consumption. LDC costs are further subdivided into the city gate gas costs and average delivered cost to the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. The Model also quantifies by pipeline the significant amount of gas that leaves the state through the interstate pipeline system. The Texas Natural Gas Model provides a comprehensive volume and value balance of the natural gas system within Texas, recognizing the relationship between all segments of the industry.

Nalepa, K.J.; Feng, N.

1999-07-01

262

Natural gas pipeline technology overview.  

SciTech Connect

The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies. Compressor stations at required distances boost the pressure that is lost through friction as the gas moves through the steel pipes (EPA 2000). The natural gas system is generally described in terms of production, processing and purification, transmission and storage, and distribution (NaturalGas.org 2004b). Figure 1.1-2 shows a schematic of the system through transmission. This report focuses on the transmission pipeline, compressor stations, and city gates.

Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

2007-11-01

263

Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions  

SciTech Connect

U.S. natural gas composition is expected to be more variable in the future. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Unconventional gas supplies, like coal-bed methane, are also expected to grow. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from existing domestic natural gas supplies. To allow the greatest use of gas supplies, end-use equipment should be able to accommodate the widest possible gas composition. For this reason, the effect of gas composition on combustion behavior is of interest. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 589K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx emissions. These results vary from data reported in the literature for some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences are discussed.

D. Straub; D. Ferguson; K. Casleton; G. Richards

2006-03-01

264

Natural gas monthly, February 1998  

SciTech Connect

This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through February 1998 for many data series, and through November 1997 for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the natural gas data contained in this issue are: Preliminary estimates for January and February 1998 show that dry natural gas production, net imports, and consumption are all within 1 percent of their levels in 1997. Warmer-than-normal weather in recent months has resulted in lower consumption of natural gas by the residential sector and lower net withdrawals of gas from under round storage facilities compared with a year ago. This has resulted in an estimate of the amount of working gas in storage at the end of February 1998 that is 18 percent higher than in February 1997. The national average natural gas wellhead price is estimated to be $3.05 per thousand cubic feet in November 1997, 7 percent higher than in October. The cumulative average wellhead price for January through November 1997 is estimated to be $2.42 per thousand cubic feet, 17 percent above that of the same period in 1996. This price increase is far less than 36-percent rise that occurred between 1995 and 1996. 6 figs., 26 tabs.

NONE

1998-02-01

265

Natural gas monthly, July 1990  

SciTech Connect

This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary is included. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

Not Available

1990-10-03

266

Natural Gas Imports and Exports  

EIA Publications

In the face of unprecedented levels of domestic natural gas production, net imports of natural gas into the United States fell 23% in 2012. A combination of both higher exports and lower imports led to a decline in net imports. In 2012, total imports decreased by 10% to 3,135 Bcf, while total exports increased by 8% to 1,619 Bcf.

2013-01-01

267

Natural gas monthly, August 1990  

SciTech Connect

This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

Not Available

1990-11-05

268

Natural gas monthly, December 1996  

SciTech Connect

This document highlights activities, events, and analysis of interest to the public and private sector associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

NONE

1996-12-01

269

Natural gas industry restructuring issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of the natural gas industry appears to be evolving towards one in which transportation service will be offered separately from the gas commodity itself, which is being withdrawn from government regulation in favor of pricing competition. Industry observers disagree on how to interpret the separation of transportation service and the gas commodity. This volume presents views of several

1986-01-01

270

Natural gas monthly - January 1996  

SciTech Connect

This highlight discusses changes in natural gas supply, demand, and prices for the first three quarters of 1995 (January thru September) compared to the same periods in 1993 and 1994. Production for the first three quarters of 1995 lagged year-earlier levels while natural gas consumption has continued a steady upward movement. Total U.S. natural gas production through the first three quarters at 14.1 trillion cubic feet, was less than 1 percent below the 1994 period, but remained well ahead of the comparable 1993 period. The three leading producing States (Texas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma) contributed nearly 70 percent of the total. Natural gas consumption totaled 16.0 trillion cubic feet for the first three quarters, 4 percent above the same period in 1994. Net imports of natural gas reached 2.0 trillion cubic feet by the end of the third quarter 1995 and accounted for nearly 13 percent of total consumption during this period.

NONE

1996-01-01

271

High-throughput investigation of catalysts for JP-8 fuel cracking to liquefied petroleum gas.  

PubMed

Portable power technologies for military applications necessitate the production of fuels similar to LPG from existing feedstocks. Catalytic cracking of military jet fuel to form a mixture of C?-C? hydrocarbons was investigated using high-throughput experimentation. Cracking experiments were performed in a gas-phase, 16-sample high-throughput reactor. Zeolite ZSM-5 catalysts with low Si/Al ratios (?25) demonstrated the highest production of C?-C? hydrocarbons at moderate reaction temperatures (623-823 K). ZSM-5 catalysts were optimized for JP-8 cracking activity to LPG through varying reaction temperature and framework Si/Al ratio. The reducing atmosphere required during catalytic cracking resulted in coking of the catalyst and a commensurate decrease in conversion rate. Rare earth metal promoters for ZSM-5 catalysts were screened to reduce coking deactivation rates, while noble metal promoters reduced onset temperatures for coke burnoff regeneration. PMID:23879196

Bedenbaugh, John E; Kim, Sungtak; Sasmaz, Erdem; Lauterbach, Jochen

2013-09-01

272

Effect of parasitic refrigeration on the efficiency of magnetic liquefiers  

SciTech Connect

Our studies have shown that magnetic refrigerators have the potential to liquefy cryogens very efficiently. High efficiency is especially important for liquid hydrogen and natural gas applications where the liquefaction costs are a significant fraction of the total liquid cost. One of the characteristics of magnetic refrigerators is the requirement for a high-field superconducting magnet. Providing a 4.2-K bath for this magnet will require a small amount of parasitic refrigeration at 4.2 K even though the rest of the liquefier may be at 110 K (liquid natural gas) or higher. For several different refrigeration power levels at 4.2 K, we have calculated the efficiency of the magnetic liquefier as a function of power, temperature and the 4.2-K refrigerator efficiency. The results show that if the ratio of the thermal load at 4.2 K to the main refrigerator power is 0.001 or less, the effect on the efficiency of the liquefier is negligible at all temperatures below room temperature provided the 4.2-K refrigerator efficiency is high.

Barclay, J.A.; Stewart, W.F.

1982-01-01

273

Bringing Alaska North Slope Natural Gas to Market (released in AEO2009)  

EIA Publications

At least three alternatives have been proposed over the years for bringing sizable volumes of natural gas from Alaska's remote North Slope to market in the lower 48 states: a pipeline interconnecting with the existing pipeline system in central Alberta, Canada; a gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant on the North Slope; and a large liquefied natural gas (LNG) export facility at Valdez, Alaska. The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) explicitly models the pipeline and GTL options. The what if LNG option is not modeled in NEMS.

2009-01-01

274

North American Natural Gas Markets  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

Not Available

1989-02-01

275

Natural gas pretreatment prior to liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method for pretreatment of natural gas having an elevated pressure and containing moisture and about 1.5% to 3.5% by volume of COâ prior to liquefaction of the natural gas which comprises the steps of: a. dehydrating the natural gas; b. partially cooling the natural gas by heat exchange with countercurrent streams of pretreated natural gas and

S. J. Markbreiter; I. Weiss

1989-01-01

276

75 FR 53371 - Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Obtaining Approval of Alternative Vapor-Gas Dispersion Models  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...clearly state the limitations of the model related to its ability to model sloping terrain, including any special methods to model (e.g., gravity vector adjustment, sub-model for adjusting Cartesian grids, etc). Unique modeling...

2010-08-31

277

Carbon dioxide power cycles using liquid natural gas as heat sink  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is recognized as a source of usable cryogenic exergy for power cycles. The performance of conventional cycles are calculated. A binary steam–Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) at 550°C has an efficiency of about 52%, somewhat higher than that of a nitrogen Brayton cycle (50.7% at 700°C). Carbon dioxide is recognized as an almost ideal medium for implementing

Gianfranco Angelino; Costante M. Invernizzi

2009-01-01

278

Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a lower heat transfer rate in the internal heat exchanger than was designed. It is believed that the fins on the heat-exchanger tubes did not make proper contact with the tubes transporting the chilled glycol, and pairs of fins were too close for interior areas of fins to serve as hydrate collection sites. A correction of the fabrication fault in the heat exchanger fin attachments could be easily made to provide faster formation rates. The storage success with the POC process provides valuable information for making the process an economically viable process for safe, aboveground natural-gas storage.

Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

2006-03-31

279

Natural Gas Monthly August 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. Explanatory notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication.

NONE

1998-08-01

280

78 FR 17189 - Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to of 15 million metric tons per annum (mtpa), the equivalent of 730 billion cubic...of 1.8 Bcf/d of natural gas (13.7 mtpa of LNG); a peak send-out capacity of...LCE and TLNG Export will not exceed 15 mtpa (approximately 730 Bcf/y)....

2013-03-20

281

Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.

Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.

2007-03-01

282

40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system. 86.1509...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF...New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle...

2010-07-01

283

Natural gas transmission pricing and investment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US natural gas industry has been restructuring for the past twenty years, since phased wellhead gas price decontrol eras prescribed in the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978. Today, natural gas production is completely deregulated, interstate pipelines are regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and local gas distribution companies are regulated by state and local utility commissions.

M. L. Barcella

1999-01-01

284

Process for the liquefaction of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention is a process for the liquefaction of high pressure natural gas. The natural gas is expanded through a turboexpander to reduce its pressure and thereby cool it. The natural gas is then passed through a demethanizer to remove the heavier components therefrom. The natural gas is then precooled, before substantial warming occurs, by heat exchange with a

Chiu

1985-01-01

285

Natural gas treating system including mercury trap  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a system for processing natural gas and removing mercury therefrom. It comprises means for moving compounds from natural gas which interfere with liquefaction thereof; a main heat exchanger; means for conveying natural gas to the means for removing and to the main heat exchanger; means for cooling natural gas to about -10° C immediately prior to its

D. J. Gammie; T. Y. Yan

1992-01-01

286

Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EIA attributes a more competitive industry and increases in pipeline capacity as major factors affecting increased natural gas demand in Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends. According to this recently released report, Natural gas demand has increased in the United States by fourteen percent since 1990 and electric utility consumption of natural gas rose about seventeen percent from 1990 to 1998.

287

Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

This document comprises the Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan, and is a follow-up to the `Natural Gas Strategic Plan and Program Crosscut Plans,` dated July 1995. DOE`s natural gas programs are aimed at simultaneously meeting our national energy needs, reducing oil imports, protecting our environment, and improving our economy. The Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan represents a Department-wide effort on expanded development and use of natural gas and defines Federal government and US industry roles in partnering to accomplish defined strategic goals. The four overarching goals of the Natural Gas Program are to: (1) foster development of advanced natural gas technologies, (2) encourage adoption of advanced natural gas technologies in new and existing markets, (3) support removal of policy impediments to natural gas use in new and existing markets, and (4) foster technologies and policies to maximize environmental benefits of natural gas use.

NONE

1997-12-01

288

Adsorbed Natural Gas Storage in Optimized High Surface Area Microporous Carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) is an attractive alternative technology to compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG) for the efficient storage of natural gas, in particular for vehicular applications. In adsorbants engineered to have pores of a few molecular diameters, a strong van der Walls force allows reversible physisorption of methane at low pressures and room temperature. Activated carbons were optimized for storage by varying KOH:C ratio and activation temperature. We also consider the effect of mechanical compression of powders to further enhance the volumetric storage capacity. We will present standard porous material characterization (BET surface area and pore-size distribution from subcritical N2 adsorption) and methane isotherms up to 250 bar at 293K. At sufficiently high pressure, specific surface area, methane binding energy and film density can be extracted from supercritical methane adsorption isotherms. Research supported by the California Energy Commission (500-08-022).

Romanos, Jimmy; Rash, Tyler; Nordwald, Erik; Shocklee, Joshua Shawn; Wexler, Carlos; Pfeifer, Peter

2011-03-01

289

Natural gas monthly, January 1997  

SciTech Connect

This publication, the Natural Gas Monthly, presents the most recent data on natural gas supply, consumption, and prices from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Of special interest in this issue are two articles summarizing reports recently published by EIA. The articles are {open_quotes}Natural Gas Productive Capacity{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Outlook for Natural Gas Through 2015,{close_quotes} both of which precede the {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} section. With this issue, January 1997, changes have been made to the format of the Highlights section and to several of the tabular and graphical presentations throughout the publication. The changes to the Highlights affect the discussion of developments in the industry and the presentation of weekly storage data. An overview of the developments in the industry is now presented in a brief summary followed by specific discussions of supply, end-use consumption, and prices. Spot and futures prices are discussed as appropriate in the Price section, together with wellhead and consumer prices.

NONE

1997-01-01

290

Floating natural gas liquefaction plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floating LNG plants offer a technically feasible and economical method to produce natural gas from marginal offshore fields and are under certain circumstances an economical alternative to land-based LNG plants. The presented floating, semisubmersible plant can keep up production under northern North Sea conditions all the year round.

Meyer-Detring

1977-01-01

291

STATE OF CALIFORNIA NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN JR., Governor February 7, 2012  

E-print Network

vehicle weight (GVW) are as follows: Natural Gas and Propane Vehicle Incentives Incentive Amounts GVW (lbs Diesel Gallon Equivalent (DGE) 190 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) or 90 Diesel Gallon Equivalent (DGE

292

Huge natural gas reserves central to capacity work, construction plans in Iran  

SciTech Connect

Questions about oil production capacity in Iran tend to mask the country's huge potential as a producer of natural gas. Iran is second only to Russia in gas reserves, which National Iranian Gas Co. estimates at 20.7 trillion cu m. Among hurdles to Iran's making greater use of its rich endowment of natural gas are where and how to sell gas not used inside the country. The marketing logistics problem is common to other Middle East holders of gas reserves and a reason behind the recent proliferation of proposals for pipeline and liquefied natural gas schemes targeting Europe and India. But Iran's challenges are greater than most in the region. Political uncertainties and Islamic rules complicate long-term financing of transportation projects and raise questions about security of supply. As a result, Iran has remained mostly in the background of discussions about international trade of Middle Eastern gas. The country's huge gas reserves, strategic location, and existing transport infrastructure nevertheless give it the potential to be a major gas trader if the other issues can be resolved. The paper discusses oil capacity plans, gas development, gas injection for enhanced oil recovery, proposals for exports of gas, and gas pipeline plans.

Not Available

1994-07-11

293

Compressed natural gas measurement issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition`s Measurement and Metering Task Group (MMTG) was established on July 1st, 1992 to develop suggested revisions to National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) Handbook 44-1992 (Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Technical Requirements for Weighing and Measuring Devices) and NIST Handbook 130-1991 (Uniform Laws & Regulations). Specifically, the suggested revisions will address the sale and measurement

C. F. Blazek; J. A. Kinast; P. M. Freeman

1993-01-01

294

Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves  

E-print Network

Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves 2009 November 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply Statistics U.S. Department or other Federal agencies. #12;#12;1 U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

295

Methods of natural gas liquefaction and natural gas liquefaction plants utilizing multiple and varying gas streams  

DOEpatents

A method of natural gas liquefaction may include cooling a gaseous NG process stream to form a liquid NG process stream. The method may further include directing the first tail gas stream out of a plant at a first pressure and directing a second tail gas stream out of the plant at a second pressure. An additional method of natural gas liquefaction may include separating CO.sub.2 from a liquid NG process stream and processing the CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 product stream. Another method of natural gas liquefaction may include combining a marginal gaseous NG process stream with a secondary substantially pure NG stream to provide an improved gaseous NG process stream. Additionally, a NG liquefaction plant may include a first tail gas outlet, and at least a second tail gas outlet, the at least a second tail gas outlet separate from the first tail gas outlet.

Wilding, Bruce M; Turner, Terry D

2014-12-02

296

NOx Formation by Synthesis Gas - Natural Gas Co-firing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis gas from biomass gasification was examined by co-firing with natural gas. Calculations were performed to study the effect of increasing the fraction of synthesis gas in the syngas- natural gas fuel mixture on flame temperature and other combustion parameters. Combustion of this mixture was achieved in two different furnace and by two different firing method. NOx and CO2 emissions

K. Valler; Á. Wopera; Á. B. Palotás; K. J. Whitty

297

STAFF REPORT 2012 NATURAL GAS RESEARCH,  

E-print Network

STAFF REPORT 2012 NATURAL GAS RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION REPORT CALIFORNIA 854, Statutes of 1996), California's electric utility restructuring legislation. This law required Public Utilities Commission to impose a surcharge on all natural gas consumed in California to fund

298

Underground Natural Gas Working Storage Capacity  

EIA Publications

Working natural gas storage capacity increased by about 2% in the lower 48 states between November 2011 and November 2012, according to Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity, released by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA).

2014-01-01

299

Natural gas 1995: Issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

Natural Gas 1995: Issues and Trends addresses current issues affecting the natural gas industry and markets. Highlights of recent trends include: Natural gas wellhead prices generally declined throughout 1994 and for 1995 averages 22% below the year-earlier level; Seasonal patterns of natural gas production and wellhead prices have been significantly reduced during the past three year; Natural gas production rose 15% from 1985 through 1994, reaching 18.8 trillion cubic feet; Increasing amounts of natural gas have been imported; Since 1985, lower costs of producing and transporting natural gas have benefitted consumers; Consumers may see additional benefits as States examine regulatory changes aimed at increasing efficiency; and, The electric industry is being restructured in a fashion similar to the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry.

NONE

1995-11-01

300

Optimizing Natural Gas Use: A Case Study  

E-print Network

Optimization of Steam & Energy systems in any continuously operating process plant results in substantial reduction in Natural gas purchases. During periods of natural gas price hikes, this would benefit the plant to control their fuel budget...

Venkatesan, V. V.; Schweikert, P.

2007-01-01

301

Gas supplies of interstate/natural gas pipeline companies 1989  

SciTech Connect

This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas during calendar year 1989, for use by the FERC for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to other Government agencies, the natural gas industry, as well as policy makers, analysts, and consumers interested in current levels of interstate supplies of natural gas and trends over recent years. 5 figs., 18 tabs.

Not Available

1990-12-18

302

U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

NONE

1998-12-01

303

49 CFR 173.313 - UN Portable Tank Table for Liquefied Compressed Gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for Liquefied Compressed Gases is referenced in...transport liquefied compressed gases. The table applies to each liquefied compressed gas that is identified...NA, 1954 Insecticide gases, flammable , n.o...2-tetrafluoroethane or Refrigerant gas R 114 7.0...

2010-10-01

304

Drying compressed natural gas with silica gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the feasibility of using the heat of compressed natural gas to regenerate the sorbent, an investigation of gas drying with silica gel at 20 MPa and regeneration of the silica gel at relatively low temperature in a pilot unit was performed. Prior to this drying method, in automotive gas-filling compressor stations, compressed natural gas was subjected

G. V. Vyalkina; Z. A. Nabutovskii; V. I. Popov; E. N. Torevskii

1986-01-01

305

40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section...Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration...1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as...Specifications for Natural Gas Item Value 1 Methane...001 mol/mol. Inert gases (sum of CO2 and...

2010-07-01

306

Evaluating metalorganic frameworks for natural gas storage  

E-print Network

suited for light-duty passenger vehicles. For instance, compressed natural gas (CNG) requires expensive of the low critical temperature of CH4 (190.6 K, Table 1), natural gas cannot be liqueed by compression aloneEvaluating metal­organic frameworks for natural gas storage Jarad A. Mason,a Mike Veenstrab

307

40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.  

...2014-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065.715 Protection...paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must...paragraph (a) of this section. (d) At ambient conditions, natural gas must have a...

2014-07-01

308

The DOE/NREL Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program - An Overview  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle (NG-NGV) Program that is led by the U.S. Department Of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The goal of this program is to develop and implement one Class 3-6 compressed natural gas (CNG) prototype vehicle and one Class 7-8 liquefied natural gas (LNG) prototype vehicle in the 2004 to 2007 timeframe. OHVT intends for these vehicles to have 0.5 g/bhp-hr or lower emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) by 2004 and 0.2 g/bhp-hr or lower NOx by 2007. These vehicles will also have particulate matter (PM) emissions of 0.01 g/bhp-hr or lower by 2004. In addition to ambitious emissions goals, these vehicles will target life-cycle economics that are compatible with their conventionally fueled counterparts.

Kevin Walkowicz; Denny Stephens; Kevin Stork

2001-05-14

309

Preliminary assessment of the availability of U.S. natural gas resources to meet U.S. transportation energy demand.  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies have indicated that substitutes for conventional petroleum resources will be needed to meet U.S. transportation energy demand in the first half of this century. One possible substitute is natural gas which can be used as a transportation fuel directly in compressed natural gas or liquefied natural gas vehicles or as resource fuel for the production of hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles. This paper contains a preliminary assessment of the availability of U.S. natural gas resources to meet future U.S. transportation fuel demand. Several scenarios of natural gas demand, including transportation demand, in the U.S. to 2050 are developed. Natural gas resource estimates for the U. S. are discussed. Potential Canadian and Mexican exports to the U.S. are estimated. Two scenarios of potential imports from outside North America are also developed. Considering all these potential imports, U.S. natural gas production requirements to 2050 to meet the demand scenarios are developed and compared with the estimates of U.S. natural gas resources. The comparison results in a conclusion that (1) given the assumptions made, there are likely to be supply constraints on the availability of U.S. natural gas supply post-2020 and (2) if natural gas use in transportation grows substantially, it will have to compete with other sectors of the economy for that supply-constrained natural gas.

Singh, M. K.; Moore, J. S.

2002-03-04

310

Natural gas monthly, October 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 prompted an increase of natural gas market centers (trading hubs) across the United States and Canada. These regulations allow customers (end users) to select services directly from producers and marketers. Pipeline companies must provide transportation unbundled from sales services, provide open access to transportation, and provide open access to storage. FERC Order 636-B also requires market centers to be fairly small, i.e., a 30-mile radius around a central point. Some market centers are designed to offer a variety of physical services, including storage, parking, wheeling, pooling, balancing, and peaking. Financial or transactional services, such as title transfers, capacity release, nomination, electronic trading, risk management, and credit are also being offered. The Electronic Bulletin Board (EBB) services through these centers will provide a variety of information on pricing; weather; cash trading to match bids; physical gas offers; as well as financial, regulatory, and industry news.

Not Available

1994-10-01

311

Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines.  

PubMed

THIS ARTICLE DEVELOPS A FORMAL MODEL FOR COMPARING THE COST STRUCTURE OF THE TWO MAIN TRANSPORT OPTIONS FOR NATURAL GAS: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG. PMID:24683269

Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

2012-06-01

312

Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines  

PubMed Central

This article develops a formal model for comparing the cost structure of the two main transport options for natural gas: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG. PMID:24683269

Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

2012-01-01

313

Efficient electrochemical refrigeration power plant using natural gas with ?100% CO2 capture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an efficient Natural Gas (NG) based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) power plant equipped with ?100% CO2 capture. The power plant uses a unique refrigeration based process to capture and liquefy CO2 from the SOFC exhaust. The capture of CO2 is carried out via condensation and purification using two rectifying columns operating at different pressures. The uncondensed gas mixture, comprising of relatively high purity unconverted fuel, is recycled to the SOFC and found to boost the power generation of the SOFC by 22%, when compared to a stand alone SOFC. If Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is available at the plant gate, then the refrigeration available from its evaporation is used for CO2 Capture and Liquefaction (CO2CL). If NG is utilized, then a Mixed Refrigerant (MR) vapor compression cycle is utilized for CO2CL. Alternatively, the necessary refrigeration can be supplied by evaporating the captured liquid CO2 at a lower pressure, which is then compressed to supercritical pressures for pipeline transportation. From rigorous simulations, the power generation efficiency of the proposed processes is found to be 70-76% based on lower heating value (LHV). The benefit of the proposed processes is evident when the efficiency of 73% for a conventional SOFC-Gas turbine power plant without CO2 capture is compared with an equivalent efficiency of 71.2% for the proposed process with CO2CL.

Al-musleh, Easa I.; Mallapragada, Dharik S.; Agrawal, Rakesh

2015-01-01

314

49 CFR 173.304a - Additional requirements for shipment of liquefied compressed gases in specification cylinders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of liquefied compressed gases in specification cylinders...requirements. Liquefied gases (except gas in solution) must be...part. (2) For the gases named, the following...173.316): Kind of gas Maximum permitted...

2010-10-01

315

NITROGEN REMOVAL FROM NATURAL GAS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process for the denitrogenation of natural gas. Large proven reserves in the Lower-48 states cannot be produced because of the presence of nitrogen. To exploit these reserves, cost-effective, simple technology able to reduce the nitrogen content of the gas to 4-5% is required. Technology applicable to treatment of small gas streams (below 10 MMscfd) is particularly needed. In this project membranes that selectively permeate methane and reject nitrogen in the gas were developed. Preliminary calculations show that a membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 3 to 5 is required to make the process economically viable. A number of polymer materials likely to have the required selectivities were evaluated as composite membranes. Polyacetylenes such as poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) [PTMSP] and poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) [PMP] had high selectivities and fluxes, but membranes prepared from these polymers were not stable, showing decreasing flux and selectivity during tests lasting only a few hours. Parel, a poly(propylene oxide allyl glycidyl ether) had a selectivity of 3 at ambient temperatures and 4 or more at temperatures of {minus}20 C. However, Parel is no longer commercially available, and we were unable to find an equivalent material in the time available. Therefore, most of our experimental work focused on silicone rubber membranes, which have a selectivity of 2.5 at ambient temperatures, increasing to 3-4 at low temperatures. Silicone rubber composite membranes were evaluated in bench-scale module tests and with commercial-scale, 4-inch-diameter modules in a small pilot plant. Over six days of continuous operation at a feed gas temperature of {minus}5 to {minus}10 C, the membrane maintained a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 3.3. Based on the pilot plant performance data, an analysis of the economic potential of the process was prepared. We conclude that a stand-alone membrane process is the lowest-cost technology for small gas streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. The membrane process can recover more than 60-70% of the hydrocarbon content of the gas at a cost of $0.60-0.70/Mscfd. The capital cost of the process is about $100-200/Mscf. A number of small operators appear to be ready to use the technology if these costs can be demonstrated in the field. A second, and perhaps better, application of the technology is to combine the membrane process with a cryogenic process to treat large gas streams containing 10-20% nitrogen. The combination process achieves significant synergies. The membrane process performs a bulk separation of the gas, after which the cryogenic process treats the membrane residue (nitrogen-enriched) gas to recover more methane. Overall, hydrocarbon recoveries are greater than 95%. The capital cost of the combination process is lower than that of either process used alone and the processing costs are in the range $0.30-0.40/Mscf. This operating cost would be attractive to many gas producers. MTR is collaborating with a producer of cryogenic systems to further develop the combination process. A number of innovations in membrane process designs were made during the project; four U.S. patents covering various aspects of the technology were filed and issued.

K.A. Lokhandwala; M.B. Ringer; T.T. Su; Z. He; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans; A. Morisato; K. Amo; A. DaCosta; R.W. Baker; R. Olsen; H. Hassani; T. Rathkamp

1999-12-31

316

Advanced Liquid Natural Gas Onboard Storage System  

SciTech Connect

Cummins Westport Incorporated (CWI) has designed and developed a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel system that includes a reciprocating pump with the cold end submerged in LNG contained in a vacuum-jacketed tank. This system was tested and analyzed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced LNG Onboard Storage System (ALOSS) program. The pumped LNG fuel system developed by CWI and tested under the ALOSS program is a high-pressure system designed for application on Class 8 trucks powered by CWI's ISX G engine, which employs high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) technology. A general ALOSS program objective was to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of a pumped LNG fuel system relative to on-vehicle fuel systems that require the LNG to be ''conditioned'' to saturation pressures that exceeds the engine fuel pressure requirements. These advantages include the capability to store more fuel mass in given-size vehicle and station tanks, and simpler lower-cost LNG refueling stations that do not require conditioning equipment. Pumped LNG vehicle fuel systems are an alternative to conditioned LNG systems for spark-ignition natural gas and port-injection dual-fuel engines (which typically require about 100 psi), and they are required for HPDI engines (which require over 3,000 psi). The ALOSS program demonstrated the feasibility of a pumped LNG vehicle fuel system and the advantages of this design relative to systems that require conditioning the LNG to a saturation pressure exceeding the engine fuel pressure requirement. LNG tanks mounted on test carts and the CWI engineering truck were repeatedly filled with LNG saturated at 20 to 30 psig. More fuel mass was stored in the vehicle tanks as well as the station tank, and no conditioning equipment was required at the fueling station. The ALOSS program also demonstrated the general viability and specific performance of the CWI pumped LNG fuel system design. The system tested as part of this program is designed to be used on Class 8 trucks with CWI ISX G HPDI engines. Extensive test cart and engineering truck tests of the pump demonstrated good durability and the high-pressure performance needed for HPDI application. The LNG tanks manufactured by Taylor-Wharton passed SAE J2343 Recommended Practice drop tests and accelerated road-load vibration tests. NER and hold-time tests produced highly consistent results. Additional tests confirmed the design adequacy of the liquid level sensor, vaporizer, ullage volume, and other fuel system components. While the testing work performed under this program focused on a high-pressure pumped LNG fuel system design, the results also validate the feasibility of a low-pressure pumped fuel system. A low-pressure pumped fuel system could incorporate various design refinements including a simpler and lighter-weight pump, which would decrease costs somewhat relative to a high-pressure system.

Greg Harper; Charles Powars

2003-10-31

317

75 FR 13644 - TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas Deepwater Port License...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...telephone: 202-366-8805, e-mail: Patrick.Marchman@dot.gov; or LT Hannah Kawamoto, U.S. Coast Guard, telephone: 202-372-1437, e-mail: Hannah.K.Kawamoto@uscg.mil. If you have questions on viewing the docket,...

2010-03-22

318

Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal Siting in a Highly Seismic Region on the Mexican Pacific Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new LNG terminal should be built on the Pacific coast of Mexico, one of the most seismic regions in the world. According to International codes, a siting process must be carried out to insure the feasibility of the project, which involves, in a first step, a data collection of all existing documents related to geology, seismicity, and geotechnics. As a second step, a seismo-tectonic study has been performed, with localisation of active faults on or close to the site (aerial and satellite imagery, geophysical investigations) and determination of OBE & SSE levels. Afterwards, the site was globally characterised, with a first geotechnical report, dealing with liquefaction risks, typical soil layers, and general foundation methodology. The general site layout, the general stability of buildings, the detailed soil investigations, and the detailed foundation design are performed in the phases as described in this paper.

Zaczek, Yannick; Lambert, Nicolas

319

Control of Vapor Dispersion and Pool Fire of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) with Expansion Foam  

E-print Network

, this study aimed to obtain key parameters, such as the temperature changes of methane and foam and the extent reduction of vapor concentration. This study also focused on identifying the effectiveness of foam and thermal exclusion zone by investigating...

Yun, Geun Woong

2011-10-21

320

77 FR 16471 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 191, 192...Docket No. PHMSA-2012-0001] Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry...AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT....

2012-03-21

321

US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

Not Available

1993-10-18

322

The domestic natural gas shortage in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis analyzes the domestic shortage in the Chinese natural gas market. Both the domestic supply and demand of natural gas are growing fast in China. However, the supply cannot catch up with the demand. Under the present pricing mechanism, the Chinese natural gas market cannot get the equilibrium by itself. Expensive imports are inadequate to fill the increasing gap between the domestic demand and supply. Therefore, the shortage problem occurs. Since the energy gap can result in the arrested development of economics, the shortage problem need to be solved. This thesis gives three suggestions to solve the problem: the use of Unconventional Gas, Natural Gas Storage and Pricing Reform.

Guo, Ting

323

Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.  

SciTech Connect

The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

2012-01-27

324

78 FR 34084 - Freeport-McMoRan Energy LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...gas is cleaner burning than other fossil fuels, such as coal-fired generation...FE Web site at: http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/gasregulation...Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil Energy. [FR Doc....

2013-06-06

325

Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today`s natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

NONE

1999-06-01

326

US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report  

SciTech Connect

The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

NONE

1997-12-01

327

Natural gas annual 1993 supplement: Company profiles  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1993 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of 45 selected companies in the natural gas industry. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the companies profiled. The companies in this report are interstate pipeline companies or local distribution companies (LDC`s). Interstate pipeline companies acquire gas supplies from company owned production, purchases from producers, and receipts for transportation for account of others. Pipeline systems, service area maps, company supply and disposition data are presented.

Not Available

1995-02-01

328

Magnetic liquefier for hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes work done at the Astronautics Technology Center of the Astronautics Corporation of America (ACA) in Phase 1 of a four phase program leading to the development of a magnetic liquefier for hydrogen. The project involves the design, fabrication, installation, and operation of a hydrogen liquefier providing significantly reduced capital and operating costs, compared to present liquefiers. To achieve this goal, magnetic refrigeration, a recently developed, highly efficient refrigeration technology, will be used for the liquefaction process. Phase 1 project tasks included liquefier conceptual design and analysis, preliminary design of promising configurations, design selection, and detailed design of the selected design. Fabrication drawings and vendor specifications for the selected design were completed during detailed design. The design of a subscale, demonstration magnetic hydrogen liquefier represents a significant advance in liquefaction technology. The cost reductions that can be realized in hydrogen liquefaction in both the subscale and, more importantly, in the full-scale device are expected to have considerable impact on the use of liquid hydrogen in transportation, chemical, and electronic industries. The benefits to the nation from this technological advance will continue to have importance well into the 21st century.

NONE

1992-12-31

329

Out of gas: Tenneco in the era of natural gas regulation, 1938--1978  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Federal regulation over the natural gas industry spanned 1938--1978, during which time both the industry and the nature of the regulation changed. The original intent of the law was to reform an industry stagnating because of the Depression, but regulation soon evolved into a public-private partnership to win World War II, then to a framework for the creation and management of a nationwide natural gas grid in the prosperous post-war years, and finally to a confused and chaotic system of wellhead price regulation which produced shortages and discouraged new production during the 1950s and 1960s. By the 1970s, regulation had become ineffective, leading to deregulation in 1978. The natural gas industry operated under the oversight of the Federal Power Commission (FPC) which set gas rates, regulated profits and competition, and established rules for entry and exit into markets. Over the course of four decades, the FPC oversaw the development of a truly national industry built around a system of large diameter pipelines. Tennessee Gas Transmission Company (later Tenneco) was an integral part of this industry. At first, Tenneco prospered under regulation. Regulation provided Tenneco with the means to build its first pipeline and a secure revenue stream for decades. A series of conflicts with the FPC and the difficulties imposed by the Phillips vs. Wisconsin case in 1954 soon interfered with the ambitious long-term goals of Tenneco CEO and president Gardiner Symonds. Tenneco first diversified into unregulated businesses in the 1940s, which accelerated as regulatory changes constrained the company's growth. By the 1960s the company was at the forefront of the conglomeration movement, when Tenneco included a variety of disparate businesses, including oil and gas production, chemicals, consumer packaging, manufacturing, shipbuilding, and food production, among others. Gas transmission became a minority interest in Tenneco's portfolio as newer and larger divisions overshadowed its former core business. The 1970s brought a renewed interest in natural gas and other energy resources as the nation faced chronic energy shortages. As the FPC loosened its low rate policy in the early 1970s to encourage production, Tenneco once again invested heavily in new pipelines and gas exploration, as well as more speculative ventures in Arctic gas, liquefied natural gas, synthetic fuels, and nuclear energy. By 1978, growing public and political support led to deregulation of natural gas, plunging Tenneco into a new era where market forces, not FPC oversight, impacted the gas industry. The deregulation of natural gas in 1978 removed the guaranteed rate of return from Tenneco's bottom line and exposed the weakness of Tenneco's conglomeration---the profitable pipeline had long been used to prop-up weaker businesses. The 1980s and 1990s were characterized by a gradual dissolution of Tenneco.

Raley, David

2011-12-01

330

Regulatory Mechanisms of Gas for Power Generation in Electricity Markets in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chinese government has promoted the natural gas use for the purpose of emissions reduction and diversification of energy supply. One of gas supply sources is liquefied natural gas (LNG) import. The large scale LNG projects need stable gas consumers like gas-fired power plants. The objective of this paper is to analyze the challenges faced by the gas-fired power plants

Jun Dong; Xu Li

2006-01-01

331

Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report  

SciTech Connect

Volume 2 consists of 19 reports describing technical effort performed by Government Contractors in the area of LNG Safety and Environmental Control. Report topics are: simulation of LNG vapor spread and dispersion by finite element methods; modeling of negatively buoyant vapor cloud dispersion; effect of humidity on the energy budget of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vapor cloud; LNG fire and explosion phenomena research evaluation; modeling of laminar flames in mixtures of vaporized liquefied natural gas (LNG) and air; chemical kinetics in LNG detonations; effects of cellular structure on the behavior of gaseous detonation waves under transient conditions; computer simulation of combustion and fluid dynamics in two and three dimensions; LNG release prevention and control; the feasibility of methods and systems for reducing LNG tanker fire hazards; safety assessment of gelled LNG; and a four band differential radiometer for monitoring LNG vapors.

None

1980-10-01

332

Oil and natural gas on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

On Earth, according to conventional theory, the largest, by mass and volume, identifiable trace of past life is subsurface oil and natural gas deposits. Nearly all coal and oil on Earth and most sedimentary source rocks associated with coal, oil, and natural gas contain molecules of biological origin and is proof of past life. If Mars possessed an Earth-like biosphere

John F. McGowan

2000-01-01

333

Monthly Natural Gas Gross Production Report  

EIA Publications

Monthly natural gas gross withdrawals estimated from data collected on Form EIA-914 (Monthly Natural Gas Production Report) for Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico, Texas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Wyoming, other states and lower 48 states. Alaska data are from the Alaska state government and included to obtain a U.S. total.

2014-01-01

334

Natural gas monthly, October 1990. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 34 tabs.

Not Available

1990-12-28

335

Natural gas monthly, September 1990. [Contains Glossary  

SciTech Connect

This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

Not Available

1990-11-30

336

Environmental effects of submarine seeping natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suspected that most shallow reservoirs of natural gas vent to the surface to some degree. This seeping may be through diffusion of dissolved gas or by a flow of gas bubbles which entrain interstitial water during the rise through the sediments to the surface. Methane bubbles dissolved other gases, notably hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide, during their ascent.

P. R. Dando; M. Hovland

1992-01-01

337

Defect Analysis of Vehicle Compressed Natural Gas  

E-print Network

Defect Analysis of Vehicle Compressed Natural Gas Composite Cylinder A China Paper on Type 4 during the gas compressing and releasing processes are the direct causes for liner defect - Since;Industrial Computed Tomography (CT) Examination of Composite Gas Cylinder #12;CT of 01-01 Layer at 4.8MPa

338

PARTICLE EMISSIONS FROM COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS ENGINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of measurements conducted to determine particle and gas emissions from two large compressed natural gas (CNG) spark ignition (SI) engines. Particle size distributions in the range from 0.01–30?m, and gas composition were measured for five power settings of the engines: 35, 50, 65, 80 and 100% of full power. Particle emissions in the size range

Z. D. Ristovski; L. Morawska; J. Hitchins; S. Thomas; C. Greenaway; D. Gilbert

2000-01-01

339

Tables are turned on natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Rising natural gas prices are giving fuel oil dealers a competitive edge in marketing to industrial and residential customers. Gas prices increased 18.5% vs. 9% for heating oil in 1981; in the first half of 1982, gas rose 14% while oil fell 4.8%. The Cabot Consulting Group forecasts that by 1985, the price of natural gas will exceed that of oil in traditional heating-oil regions. Gas utilities are already complaining about industrial fuel-switching in some areas. Another opportunity for oil marketers is to encourage homebuilders to put oil systems in the homes of tomorrow.

Decker, M.

1982-11-01

340

Tackling with Natural Monopoly in Electricity and Natural Gas Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter attempts to provide a theoretical work on natural monopoly versus perfect markets through concentrating on the\\u000a energy sector. In specific we discuss the natural monopolistic structure of Turkish natural gas and electricity markets by\\u000a comparing those of various countries in Europe. In this vein, our chapter starts with the introduction of natural monopoly\\u000a in both electricity and natural

Özgür Arslan; Hasan Kazdagùli

341

IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

Jason M. Keith

2005-02-01

342

SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY  

SciTech Connect

The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports provide both the backdrop and the impetus for this study.

COOK,Z.

1999-02-01

343

Anaerobic methanethiol degradation and methanogenic community analysis in an alkaline (pH 10) biological process for liquefied petroleum gas desulfurization.  

PubMed

Anaerobic methanethiol (MT) degradation by mesophilic (30 degrees C) alkaliphilic (pH 10) communities was studied in a lab-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactor inoculated with a mixture of sediments from the Wadden Sea (The Netherlands), Soap Lake (Central Washington), and Russian soda lakes. MT degradation started after 32 days of incubation. During the first 252 days, complete degradation was achieved till a volumetric loading rate of 7.5 mmol MT/L/day, and sulfide, methane, and carbon dioxide were the main reaction products. Temporary inhibition of MT degradation occurred after MT peak loads and in the presence of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), which is the autooxidation product of MT. From day 252 onwards, methanol was dosed to the reactor as co-substrate at a loading rate of 3-6 mmol/L/day to stimulate growth of methylotrophic methanogens. Methanol was completely degraded and also a complete MT degradation was achieved till a volumetric loading rate of 13 mmol MT/L/day (0.77 mmol MT/gVSS/day). However, from day 354 till the end of the experimental run (day 365), acetate was formed and MT was not completely degraded anymore, indicating that methanol-degrading homoacetogenic bacteria had partially outcompeted the methanogenic MT-degrading archea. The archeal community in the reactor sludge was analyzed by DGGE and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The methanogenic archea responsible for the degradation of MT in the reactor were related to Methanolobus oregonensis. A pure culture, named strain SODA, was obtained by serial dilutions in medium containing both trimethyl amine and dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Strain SODA degraded MT, DMS, trimethyl amine, and methanol. Flow sheet simulations revealed that for sufficient MT removal from liquefied petroleum gas, the extraction and biological degradation process should be operated above pH 9. PMID:18814290

van Leerdam, Robin C; Bonilla-Salinas, Monica; de Bok, Frank A M; Bruning, H; Lens, Piet N L; Stams, Alfons J M; Janssen, Albert J H

2008-11-01

344

Coordinated scheduling of electricity and natural gas infrastructures with a transient model for natural gas flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on transient characteristics of natural gas flow in the coordinated scheduling of security-constrained electricity and natural gas infrastructures. The paper takes into account the slow transient process in the natural gas transmission systems. Considering their transient characteristics, natural gas transmission systems are modeled as a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) and algebraic equations. An implicit finite difference method is applied to approximate PDEs by difference equations. The coordinated scheduling of electricity and natural gas systems is described as a bi-level programming formulation from the independent system operator's viewpoint. The objective of the upper-level problem is to minimize the operating cost of electric power systems while the natural gas scheduling optimization problem is nested within the lower-level problem. Numerical examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed solution and to compare the solutions for steady-state and transient models of natural gas transmission systems.

Liu, Cong; Shahidehpour, Mohammad; Wang, Jianhui

2011-06-01

345

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

A new project was initiated this quarter to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading. Efforts have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project.

Howard S. Meyer

2002-06-01

346

North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

Not Available

1989-02-01

347

The Canoe Ridge Natural Gas Storage Project  

SciTech Connect

In 1999 the Pacific Gas and Electric Gas Transmission Northwest (GTN) drilled a borehole to investigate the feasibility of developing a natural gas-storage facility in a structural dome formed in Columbia River basalts in the Columbia Basin of south-central Washington State. The proposed aquifer storage facility will be an unconventional one where natural gas will be initially injected (and later retrieved) in one or multiple previous horizons (interflow zones) that are confined between deep (>700 meters) basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. This report summarizes the results of joint investigations on that feasibility study by GTN and the US Department of Energy.

Reidel, Steve P.; Spane, Frank A.; Johnson, Vernon G.

2003-06-18

348

Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions from alternative fuels in Australian heavy vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper quantifies the expected pre-combustion and combustion emissions of greenhouse gases from Australian heavy vehicles using alternative fuels. We use the term exbodied emissions for these full fuel-cycle emissions. The fuels examined are low sulfur diesel (LSD), ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULS), compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), ethanol (from lignocellulose), biodiesel and waste

Tom Beer; Tim Grant; David Williams; Harry Watson

2002-01-01

349

Natural gas annual 1992: Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. The 1992 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production top its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1988 to 1992 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. Volume 2 of this report presents State-level historical data.

Not Available

1993-11-22

350

Refueling stations for natural gas vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The unavailability of natural gas vehicle (NGV) refueling stations constitutes one of the major barriers to the wide spread utilization of natural gas in the transportation market. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate the current technical and economic status of compressed natural gas vehicle refueling stations and to identify the components or design features that offer the greatest potential for performance improvements and/or cost reductions. Both fast-fill- and slow-fill-type refueling systems will be discussed. 4 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

Blazek, C.F.; Kinast, J.A.; Biederman, R.T.; Jasionowski, W.

1991-01-01

351

Natural Gas Engine Development Gaps (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

A review of current natural gas vehicle offerings is presented for both light-duty and medium- and heavy-duty applications. Recent gaps in the marketplace are discussed, along with how they have been or may be addressed. The stakeholder input process for guiding research and development needs via the Natural Gas Vehicle Technology Forum (NGVTF) to the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission is reviewed. Current high-level natural gas engine development gap areas are highlighted, including efficiency, emissions, and the certification process.

Zigler, B.T.

2014-03-01

352

23rd World Gas Conference, Amsterdam 2006 DEVELOPMENT OF THE WORLD'S LARGEST ABOVE-GROUND  

E-print Network

LNG STORAGE TANK 1. INTRODUCTION Since the first introduction of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in Korea in 1986, the Korean LNG industry grew up very fast. The consumption of natural gas in domestic the growing needs of natural gas, Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) had to build a lot of LNG storage tanks around

Laughlin, Robert B.

353

Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer  

SciTech Connect

An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65% lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems is described. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy by one unit of energy content in natural gas at one-quarter the cost, the hydrogen production cost will be significantly reduced. Also, it is possible to vary the ratio between the electricity and the natural gas supplied to the system in response to fluctuations in relative prices for these two energy sources. In one approach an appropriate catalyst on the anode side of the electrolyzer will promote the partial oxidation of natural gas to CO and hydrogen, called Syn-Gas, and the CO can also be shifted to CO{sub 2} to give additional hydrogen. In another approach the natural gas is used in the anode side of the electrolyzer to burn out the oxygen resulting from electrolysis, thus reducing or eliminating the potential difference across the electrolyzer membrane.

Pham, A.Q.; Wallman, P.H.; Glass, R.S.

2000-04-18

354

Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer  

DOEpatents

An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65 percent lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy by one unit of energy content in natural gas at one-quarter the cost, the hydrogen production cost will be significantly reduced. Also, it is possible to vary the ratio between the electricity and the natural gas supplied to the system in response to fluctuations in relative prices for these two energy sources. In one approach an appropriate catalyst on the anode side of the electrolyzer will promote the partial oxidation of natural gas to CO and hydrogen, called Syn-Gas, and the CO can also be shifted to CO.sub.2 to give additional hydrogen. In another approach the natural gas is used in the anode side of the electrolyzer to burn out the oxygen resulting from electrolysis, thus reducing or eliminating the potential difference across the electrolyzer membrane.

Pham, Ai-Quoc (San Jose, CA); Wallman, P. Henrik (Berkeley, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01

355

Oil and natural gas on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On Earth, according to conventional theory, the largest, by mass and volume, identifiable trace of past life is subsurface oil and natural gas deposits. Nearly all coal and oil on Earth and most sedimentary source rocks associated with coal, oil, and natural gas contain molecules of biological origin and is proof of past life. If Mars possessed an Earth-like biosphere in the past, Mars may contain subsurface deposits of oil and natural gas indicating past life. Life might still exist in these deposits. Subsurface oil and natural gas on Mars would probably cause seepage of hydrocarbon gases such as methane at favorable locations on the Martian surface. Further, if Mars contains substantial subsurface* life, the most detectable signature of this life on the Martian surface would be gases generated by the life percolating up to the surface and venting into the Martian atmosphere. In this paper, systems that can detect evidence of subsurface oil and gas, including ground penetrating radar and infrared gas sensors are explored. The limitations and future prospects of infrared gas detection and imaging technologies are explored. The power, mass, and volume requirements for infrared instruments able to detect venting gases, especially methane, from an aerobot is estimated. The maximum range from the infrared sensor to the gas vent and the minimum detectable gas density or fraction of the Martian atmosphere -- as appropriate for the instrument type -- is estimated. The bit rate and bit error rate requirements for transmitting the data back to Earth are also estimated.

McGowan, John F.

2000-12-01

356

Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Second quarterly progress report, [October 1, 1994-- December 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Emphasis of this project focuses on LNG research issues in use of liquefied natural as a transportation fuel in heavy trucking industry. These issues maybe categorized as: task 1--direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel; and task 2--short and long term storage. Accomplishments for these tasks are discussed. Task 1 consists of atomization, fundamentals of direct replacement, and distribution of emissions. Task 2 includes modified adsorbents, vent gas, and LNG storage at moderate conditions.

Sutton, W.H.

1994-12-01

357

Vessel having natural gas liquefaction capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is disclosed a vessel having natural gas liquefaction capabilities formed of a plurality of self-contained liquefaction assemblies, each of which being disposed in a separate liquefaction compartment.

Kniel

1977-01-01

358

Natural gas 1996 - issues and trends  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents a summary of the latest data and information relating to the U.S. natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and financial aspects of the industry.

NONE

1996-12-01

359

Value-Added Products from Remote Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

In Wyoming and throughout the United States, there are natural gas fields that are not producing because of their remoteness from gas pipelines. Some of these fields are ideal candidates for a cogeneration scheme where components suitable for chemical feedstock or direct use, such as propane and butane, are separated. Resulting low- to medium-Btu gas is fired in a gas turbine system to provide power for the separation plant. Excess power is sold to the utility, making the integrated plant a true cogeneration facility. This project seeks to identify the appropriate technologies for various subsystems of an integrated plant to recover value-added products from wet gas and/or retrograde condensate reservoirs. Various vendors and equipment manufacturers will be contacted and a data base consisting of feedstock constraints and output specifications for various subsystems and components will be developed. Based on vendor specifications, gas reservoirs suited for value-added product recovery will be identified. A candidate reservoir will then be selected, and an optimum plant layout will be developed. A facility will then be constructed and operated. The project consists of eight subtasks: Compilation of Reservoir Data; Review of Treatment and Conditioning Technologies; Review of Product Recovery and Separation Technologies; Development of Power Generation System; Integrated Plant Design for Candidate Field; System Fabrication; System Operation and Monitoring; and Economic Evaluation and Reporting. The first five tasks have been completed and the sixth is nearly complete. Systems Operations and Monitoring will start next year. The Economic Evaluation and Reporting task will be a continuous effort for the entire project. The reservoir selected for the initial demonstration of the process is the Burnt Wagon Field, Natrona County, Wyoming. The field is in a remote location with no electric power to the area and no gas transmission line. The design for the gas processing train to produce the liquefied gas products includes three gas compressors, a cryogenic separation unit, and a natural gas powered generator. Based on the equipment specifications, air quality permits for the well field and the gas processing unit were developed and the permits were issued by the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality. Also, to make state and federal reporting easier, three of the four leases that made up the Burnt Wagon were combined. All major equipment has been installed and individual component operability is being conducted. During the next project year, operability testing and the shakedown of the entire system will be completed. Once shakedown is complete, the system will be turned over to the cosponsor for day-to-day operations. During operations, data will be collected through remote linkage to the data acquisition system or analysis of the system performance to develop an economic evaluation of the process.

Lyle A. Johnson

2002-03-15

360

PVT measurements for five natural gas mixtures  

E-print Network

Major Subject: Chemical Engineering PVT MEASUREMENTS FOR FIVE NATURAL GAS MIXTURES A Thesis by PHILIP PARAYIL SIMON Approved as to style and content by: James C. Holste (Chair of Committee) Kenneth N. Marsh (Member) Randolph C. Wilhoit (Member...) Raymond W. Flumerfelt (Head of Department) August 1991 ABSTRACT PVT Measurements for Five Natural Gas Mixtures (August 1991) Philip Parayil Simon, B. Tech. , Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. James C. Holste...

Simon, Philip Parayil

1991-01-01

361

About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines  

EIA Publications

This information product provides the interested reader with a broad and non-technical overview of how the U.S. natural gas pipeline network operates, along with some insights into the many individual pipeline systems that make up the network. While the focus of the presentation is the transportation of natural gas over the interstate and intrastate pipeline systems, information on subjects related to pipeline development, such as system design and pipeline expansion, are also included.

2007-01-01

362

Effects of natural gas contaminants on corrosion in compressed natural gas storage cylinders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes work being performed to define natural gas contaminant concentration levels necessary to insure that internal corrosion of compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders does not constitute a hazard over the lifetimes of the cylinders. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests have been performed on typical steel and aluminum CNG cylinder materials using representative natural gases collected from

F. F. Jr. Lyle; H. C. Jr. Burghard

1986-01-01

363

Process for liquefaction of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous process for natural gas liquefaction permits the use of recirculated cooled gas as the cooling medium in the heat exchangers. The gas is first regulated to an input pressure above 800 psig, cooled at the input pressure down to about 0°F, and expanded to reduce the pressure to 600 psig or less at a temperature of about -100°F.

1979-01-01

364

Thailand natural-gas project moves ahead  

Microsoft Academic Search

The longest offshore pipeline currently under construction in the world is the 264-mile 34-in. submarine transmission line connecting Union Oil's natural gas production platform in the Gulf of Thailand to the 99-mile 28-in. onshore pipeline being laid from the landfall point to Bangkok. The entire facility will be operating by Sept. 15, 1981. Custody of the gas will be transferred

R. N. Knapp-Fisher; S. Paritpokee

1981-01-01

365

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. KPS and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on field site selection. ChevronTexaco has nominated their Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX for a commercial-scale dehydration test. Potting and module materials testing were initiated. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues.

Howard S. Meyer

2003-04-01

366

18 CFR 157.210 - Mainline natural gas facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Mainline natural gas facilities. 157.210 Section 157...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket...

2010-04-01

367

49 CFR 393.68 - Compressed natural gas fuel containers.  

... false Compressed natural gas fuel containers. 393.68 Section 393.68 Transportation...393.68 Compressed natural gas fuel containers... The rules in this section apply to compressed natural gas (CNG)...

2014-10-01

368

77 FR 51795 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets Supplemental Notice of Technical...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000...Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No....

2012-08-27

369

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues.

Howard S. Meyer

2003-01-01

370

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50--70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project.

Howard S. Meyer

2002-06-30

371

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment has been initiated. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50--70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project.

Howard S. Meyer

2002-06-01

372

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. KPS and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues.

Howard S. Meyer

2002-10-01

373

How Regulators Should Use Natural Gas Price Forecasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas prices are critical to a range of regulatory decisions covering both electric and gas utilities. Natural gas prices are often a crucial variable in electric generation capacity planning and in the benefit-cost relationship for energy-efficiency programs. High natural gas prices can make coal generation the most economical new source, while low prices can make natural gas generation the

Ken Costello

2010-01-01

374

How regulators should use natural gas price forecasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas prices are critical to a range of regulatory decisions covering both electric and gas utilities. Natural gas prices are often a crucial variable in electric generation capacity planning and in the benefit-cost relationship for energy-efficiency programs. High natural gas prices can make coal generation the most economical new source, while low prices can make natural gas generation the

Costello

2010-01-01

375

U. S. natural gas demand through the year 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on predictions by the U.S. Gas Association, the demand for natural gas (PG) in the country may rise by 1.5 times from 1980 to the year 2000. This prediction counts on an increase in the extraction of natural gas in Alaska and on the import of natural gas from Canada and Mexico and in some variants, liquified natural gas

Itteilag

1983-01-01

376

NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS  

SciTech Connect

From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations using laboratory pyrolysis methods have provided much information on the origins of deep gas. Technologic problems are one of the greatest challenges to deep drilling. Problems associated with overcoming hostile drilling environments (e.g. high temperatures and pressures, and acid gases such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) for successful well completion, present the greatest obstacles to drilling, evaluating, and developing deep gas fields. Even though the overall success ratio for deep wells is about 50 percent, a lack of geological and geophysical information such as reservoir quality, trap development, and gas composition continues to be a major barrier to deep gas exploration. Results of recent finding-cost studies by depth interval for the onshore U.S. indicate that, on average, deep wells cost nearly 10 times more to drill than shallow wells, but well costs and gas recoveries vary widely among different gas plays in different basins. Based on an analysis of natural gas assessments, many topical areas hold significant promise for future exploration and development. One such area involves re-evaluating and assessing hypothetical unconventional basin-center gas plays. Poorly-understood basin-center gas plays could contain significant deep undiscovered technically-recoverable gas resources.

Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

2002-02-05

377

49 CFR 173.302b - Additional requirements for shipment of non-liquefied (permanent) compressed gases in UN pressure...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging...non-liquefied (permanent) compressed gases in UN pressure receptacles...filled with a non-liquefied gas must be offered for transportation...of non-liquefied compressed gases as specified in this...

2010-10-01

378

Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.  

PubMed

The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas. PMID:22107036

Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

2012-01-17

379

Natural gas decontrol. Talk has little effect on NGPA applications. [Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though the possibility of decontrol of natural gas prices is being discussed, applications under the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 continue to flood the Texas Railroad Commission. As of mid-March, 33,965 applications had been filed with the TRC seeking ceiling price designations under the Act. During the first part of the year, the commission sponsored seminars in different

Mickey

1981-01-01

380

Natural Gas Prices Forecast Comparison--AEO vs. Natural Gas Markets  

SciTech Connect

This paper evaluates the accuracy of two methods to forecast natural gas prices: using the Energy Information Administration's ''Annual Energy Outlook'' forecasted price (AEO) and the ''Henry Hub'' compared to U.S. Wellhead futures price. A statistical analysis is performed to determine the relative accuracy of the two measures in the recent past. A statistical analysis suggests that the Henry Hub futures price provides a more accurate average forecast of natural gas prices than the AEO. For example, the Henry Hub futures price underestimated the natural gas price by 35 cents per thousand cubic feet (11.5 percent) between 1996 and 2003 and the AEO underestimated by 71 cents per thousand cubic feet (23.4 percent). Upon closer inspection, a liner regression analysis reveals that two distinct time periods exist, the period between 1996 to 1999 and the period between 2000 to 2003. For the time period between 1996 to 1999, AEO showed a weak negative correlation (R-square = 0.19) between forecast price by actual U.S. Wellhead natural gas price versus the Henry Hub with a weak positive correlation (R-square = 0.20) between forecasted price and U.S. Wellhead natural gas price. During the time period between 2000 to 2003, AEO shows a moderate positive correlation (R-square = 0.37) between forecasted natural gas price and U.S. Wellhead natural gas price versus the Henry Hub that show a moderate positive correlation (R-square = 0.36) between forecast price and U.S. Wellhead natural gas price. These results suggest that agencies forecasting natural gas prices should consider incorporating the Henry Hub natural gas futures price into their forecasting models along with the AEO forecast. Our analysis is very preliminary and is based on a very small data set. Naturally the results of the analysis may change, as more data is made available.

Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Lekov, Alex; Dale, Larry

2005-02-09

381

UPGRADING NATURAL GAS VIA MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROCESSES  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the present study is to assess the potential usefulness of membrane separation processes for removing CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S from low-quality natural gas containing substantial amounts of both these ''acid'' gases, e.g., up to 40 mole-% CO{sub 2} and 10 mole-% H{sub 2}S. The membrane processes must be capable of upgrading the crude natural gas to pipeline specifications ({le} 2 mole-% CO{sub 2}, {le} 4 ppm H{sub 2}S). Moreover, these processes must also be economically competitive with the conventional separation techniques, such as gas absorption, utilized for this purpose by the gas industry.

S.A.Stern; P.A. Rice; J. Hao

2000-03-01

382

Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbon  

SciTech Connect

Despite technical advances to reduce air pollution emissions, motor vehicles still account for 30 to 70% emissions of all urban air pollutants. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require 100 cities in the United States to reduce the amount of their smog within 5 to 15 years. Hence, auto emissions, the major cause of smog, must be reduced 30 to 60% by 1998. Natural gas con be combusted with less pollutant emissions. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) uses adsorbents and operates with a low storage pressure which results in lower capital costs and maintenance. This paper describes the production of an activated carbon adsorbent produced from an Illinois coal for ANG.

Sun, Jian; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

383

STATE OF CALIFORNIA NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN JR., Governor CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION  

E-print Network

, · Diesel Substitutes, and · Natural Gas (compresses or liquefied). The maximum funding available Infrastructure: Electric, Natural Gas, Propane, E85, and Diesel Substitutes Terminals April 24, 2012 On February Package entitled "Alternative Fuels Infrastructure: Electric, Natural Gas, Propane, E85, and Diesel

384

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on field site selection. ChevronTexaco has nominated their Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX for a commercial-scale dehydration test. Design and cost estimation for this new site are underway. A HazOp review was conducted. Potting and module materials testing continued. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues. A status meeting was held in Morgantown, WV with the DOE Project Manager.

Howard S. Meyer

2003-10-01

385

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on field site selection. ChevronTexaco has nominated their Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX for a commercial-scale dehydration test. Design and cost estimation for this new site are underway. Potting and module materials testing continued. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues.

Howard S. Meyer

2003-07-01

386

Market Structure and the Pricing of Electricity and Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

US Electricity and natural gas markets have traditionally been serviced by one of two market structures. In some markets, electricity and natural gas are sold by a regulated dual-product monopolist, while in other markets, electricity and natural gas are sold by separate regulated single-product monopolies. I analyze whether electricity and natural gas prices depend on the market structure and compare

Christopher R. Knittelw

2003-01-01

387

Natural gas strategic plan and program crosscut plans  

SciTech Connect

The natural gas strategic plan recognizes the challenges and opportunities facing increased U.S. natural gas use. Focus areas of research include natural gas supply, delivery, and storage, power generation, industrial, residential and commercial, natural gas vehicles, and the environment. Historical aspects, mission, situation analysis, technology trends, strategic issues, performance indicators, technology program overviews, and forecasting in the above areas are described.

NONE

1995-06-01

388

FDAS hardware and firmware description, liquefied gaseous fuels (LGF) data acquisition system: 1987 update  

SciTech Connect

The FDAS are the front-end data acquisition units of the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Data Acquisition System (LGFDAS). Starting with the liquefied natural gas (LNG) dispersion and vapor burn experiments conducted at the Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California, in 1980 and 1981, they have been employed on all LLNL dispersion tests to acquire data from numerous sensors. The FDAS units work with an LSI-11 based polling and data storage system at the control room. This is a description of the hardware, functions, commands, messages, data buffer formats, and firmware of the FDAS units. This report is an update of UCID-19348 written by John Baker and reflects the latest hardware and software upgrades performed during 1984 to 1986 at LLNL by the current authors. The current version of the FDAS firmware was successfully employed in 1986 for hydrogen fluoride tests conducted by LLNL for Amoco. 5 figs.

Martins, S.; Goldwire, H.C. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.

1987-05-01

389

Natural gas pipeline leaks across Washington, DC.  

PubMed

Pipeline safety in the United States has increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17 fatalities and $133 M in property damage annually. Natural gas leaks are also the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. To reduce pipeline leakage and increase consumer safety, we deployed a Picarro G2301 Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a car, mapping 5893 natural gas leaks (2.5 to 88.6 ppm CH4) across 1500 road miles of Washington, DC. The ?(13)C-isotopic signatures of the methane (-38.2‰ ± 3.9‰ s.d.) and ethane (-36.5 ± 1.1 s.d.) and the CH4:C2H6 ratios (25.5 ± 8.9 s.d.) closely matched the pipeline gas (-39.0‰ and -36.2‰ for methane and ethane; 19.0 for CH4/C2H6). Emissions from four street leaks ranged from 9200 to 38,200 L CH4 day(-1) each, comparable to natural gas used by 1.7 to 7.0 homes, respectively. At 19 tested locations, 12 potentially explosive (Grade 1) methane concentrations of 50,000 to 500,000 ppm were detected in manholes. Financial incentives and targeted programs among companies, public utility commissions, and scientists to reduce leaks and replace old cast-iron pipes will improve consumer safety and air quality, save money, and lower greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:24432903

Jackson, Robert B; Down, Adrian; Phillips, Nathan G; Ackley, Robert C; Cook, Charles W; Plata, Desiree L; Zhao, Kaiguang

2014-02-01

390

Mitchell firmly retrenched in natural gas services  

SciTech Connect

The past three years, Mitchell Energy and Development Corp. has undergone a massive restructuring that has changed the face of one of the nation`s largest and best-known natural gas/natural gas liquids companies. Facing a rapidly changing industry that frequently has been stung by volatile swings in energy markets, management of the independent company, founded by George Mitchell in 1946, sold off $300 million in non-core assets; reduced its long-term debt by $400 million; instituted a hiring freeze and reduced its workforce by a third, from 2,900 to 1,950, over the last three years. Mitchell negotiated a buyout of its hugely profitable North Texas gas sales contract with Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America as a means of easing its transition to a market-sensitive price environment and reducing its debt. Mitchell also took operational control. Finally, Mitchell has left the real estate business, culminating July 31 with the sale of its real estate subsidiary, The Woodlands Corporation, for $543 million ($460 million net after-tax), further reducing its workforce to 1,100. On Aug. 18, the company said it will use the proceeds to repurchase common stock, retire another $200 million of public debt, make asset niche energy acquisitions and increase capital spending for existing programs. The result is a renewed focus on its exploration and production and gas gathering, processing and marketing businesses.

Share, J.

1997-09-01

391

Combined natural gas and electricity network pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of competition to electricity generation and commercialization has been the main focus of many restructuring experiences around the world. The open access to the transmission network and a fair regulated tariff have been the keystones for the development of the electricity market. Parallel to the electricity industry, the natural gas business has great interaction with the electricity market

M. S. Morais; J. W. Marangon Lima

2007-01-01

392

Delivery of Hydrogen Produced from Natural Gas  

E-print Network

technologies · Materials development - Research hydrogen embrittlement of metals and requirements for low - Trucks - On-site reforming · Liquid hydrogen · Liquid carriers · Solid carriers (e.g., hydrides) · Other and demonstrate if, and under what conditions, existing natural gas and liquid pipelines are suitable

393

Mexican demand for US natural gas  

SciTech Connect

This study describes the Mexican natural gas industry as it exists today and the factors that have shaped the evolution of the industry in the past or that are expected to influence its progress; it also projects production and use of natural gas and estimates the market for exports of natural gas from the United States to Mexico. The study looks ahead to two periods, a near term (1993--1995) and an intermediate term (1996--2000). The bases for estimates under two scenarios are described. Under the conservative scenario, exports of natural gas from the United States would decrease from the 1992 level of 250 million cubic feet per day (MMCF/d), would return to that level by 1995, and would reach about 980 MMCF/D by 2000. Under the more optimistic scenario, exports would decrease in 1993 and would recover and rise to about 360 MMCF/D in 1995 and to 1,920 MMCF/D in 2000.

Kanter, M.A.; Kier, P.H.

1993-09-01

394

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization  

SciTech Connect

Building upon the partitioning of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) that was conducted last quarter, the goal of the work this quarter has been to conclude evaluation of the Stratos well and the prototypical Green River Deep partition, and perform the fill resource evaluation of the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play, with the goal of defining target areas of enhanced natural fracturing. The work plan for the quarter of November 1-December 31, 1998 comprised four tasks: (1) Evaluation of the Green River Deep partition and the Stratos well and examination of potential opportunity for expanding the use of E and P technology to low permeability, naturally fractured gas reservoirs, (2) Gas field studies, and (3) Resource analysis of the balance of the partitions.

NONE

1999-06-01

395

Natural gas legislation: a consumer's perspective  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates three major legislative proposals: accelerated decontrol of both old and new wellhead prices as proposed by the Reagan administration (S.615, H.R. 1760); imposition of new natural gas price controls at lower levels as proposed by Congressman Gephardt (H.R. 2154); and conversion of interstate gas pipelines to common carriage as proposed by Senators Dixon and Percy and by Congressman Corcoran (S. 1119, H.R. 2565). The reference or base case scenario used in the evaluation is a continuation of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) with no legislative modifications. First, projections of wellhead and burner-tip natural gas prices are presented for the period 1983-1990, and then consumer benefits under the different scenarios are estimated. All projections presented assume that legislation takes effect as of January 1, 1983 and that normal weather patterns are experienced. All prices identified in the report are given in 1982 dollars unless otherwise indicated. 5 figs., 1 tab.

Lemon, J.R.

1983-08-01

396

DRAFT DRAFT Electricity and Natural Gas Sector Description  

E-print Network

DRAFT DRAFT Electricity and Natural Gas Sector Description For Public Distribution AB 32 Scoping of electricity and natural gas; including electricity generation, combined heat and power, and electricity and natural gas end uses for residential and commercial purposes. Use of electricity and/or gas for industrial

397

Interfuel substitution and natural gas trade in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Institutional changes in North American natural gas markets have created much uncertainty about the prospects for gas trade between Canada, Mexico, and the US. This dissertation describes the formulations of the Gas Trade Model (GTM) and the submodel of US gas demand. Together, they provide a modeling framework within which international gas trade after the deregulation of the US natural

Beltramo

1986-01-01

398

Gas extrusion in natural products total synthesis.  

PubMed

The thermodynamic driving force from the release of a gaseous molecule drives a broad range of synthetic transformations. This review focuses on gas expulsion in key reactions within natural products total syntheses, selected from the past two decades. The highlighted examples survey transformations that generate sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbonyl sulfide, or nitrogen through polar, radical, pericyclic, photochemical, or organometallic mechanisms. Of particular interest are applications wherein the gas extrusion enables formation of a synthetically challenging motif, such as an unusually hindered or strained bond. PMID:22940671

Jiang, Xuefeng; Shi, Lei; Liu, Hui; Khan, Akbar H; Chen, Jason S

2012-11-14

399

Natural biodegradation may suffice at natural gas production sites  

SciTech Connect

Biodegradation of organic contaminants in soil and ground water by indigenous microbes is very common, but the contribution of this intrinsic process to site remediation has sometimes been overlooked as too slow or ineffective. Some recent RCRA corrective measure studies and CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility studies are challenging this mentality. One recent investigation evaluated the potential for intrinsic bioremediation to act as the sole remedial measure at a natural gas production site, possibly supporting a no-intervention decision. The site in question is contaminated with hydrocarbon condensate from natural gas production wells. Amoco Oil (Tulsa, Oklahoma), which operates the wells, evaluated intrinsic aerobic and anaerobic bioremediation at that location. Preliminary results are promising. This evaluation is described in this paper. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

NONE

1996-05-01

400

Evaluation of Natural Gas Systems: A Comparison Study for Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

With global warming, natural gas is becoming one of the critical energy sources in the world due to low-level emission of greenhouse gases. For that reason, natural gas consumption is increasing rapidly in the world. Turkey, which is a natural bridge between Europe and the Middle East, is a developing country in the world. The demand for natural gas has

F. E. Boran; K. Boran

2012-01-01

401

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the work this quarter has been to partition and high-grade the Greater Green River basin for exploration efforts in the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play and to initiate resource assessment of the basin. The work plan for the quarter of July 1-September 30, 1998 comprised three tasks: (1) Refining the exploration process for deep, naturally fractured gas reservoirs; (2) Partitioning of the basin based on structure and areas of overpressure; (3) Examination of the Kinney and Canyon Creek fields with respect to the Cretaceous tight gas play and initiation of the resource assessment of the Vermilion sub-basin partition (which contains these two fields); and (4) Initiation analysis of the Deep Green River Partition with respect to the Stratos well and assessment of the resource in the partition.

NONE

1998-11-30

402

Regulation, competition in natural gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional regulatory and rate-making tools are not adequate to deal with today`s natural-gas market, according to Richard P. O`Neill and Charles S. Whitmore of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission in Washington, D.C. {open_quotes}Competitive market forces can substitute for many activities that traditionally have been regulated,{close_quotes} say O`Neill and Whitmore. {open_quotes}However, market-based solutions are only effective if traditional regulations is replaced

C. S. Whitmore

1995-01-01

403

Failure analysis of natural gas pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incident involving failures of 6months old API 5L X42 (NPS8) and SDR 17, 125mm medium density polyethylene pipe (MDPE) supplying natural gas to an industrial customer has caused serious 7h supply disruption. Study was performed to identify the most probable cause of the pipes failures. The study conducted by reviewing the existing design and construction data, visual physical inspection, pipe

Z. A. Majid; R. Mohsin; Z. Yaacob; Z. Hassan

2010-01-01

404

Development of natural gas rotary engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of natural gas-fueled rotary engines was pursued on the parallel paths of converted Mazda automotive engines and of establishing technology and demonstration of a test model of a larger John Deer Technologies Incorporated (JDTI) rotary engine with power capability of 250 HP per power section for future production of multi-rotor engines with power ratings 250, 500, and 1000 HP and upward. Mazda engines were converted to natural gas and were characterized by a laboratory which was followed by nearly 12,000 hours of testing in three different field installations. To develop technology for the larger JDTI engine, laboratory and engine materials testing was accomplished. Extensive combustion analysis computer codes were modified, verified, and utilized to predict engine performance, to guide parameters for actual engine design, and to identify further improvements. A single rotor test engine of 5.8 liter displacement was designed for natural gas operation based on the JDTI 580 engine series. This engine was built and tested. It ran well and essentially achieved predicted performance. Lean combustion and low NOW emission were demonstrated.

Mack, J. R.

1991-08-01

405

Oil & Natural Gas Technology DOE Award No.: FWP 49462  

E-print Network

Used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers Submitted by: John A. Veil Argonne National Laboratory Argonne productive oil and gas activities in the country today are shale gas plays. Figure 1 ­ U.S. Natural Gas. Shale Gas Resources in the United States Important shale gas formations are found in many parts

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

406

The pricing of natural gas in U.S. markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stephen Brown and Mine Yücel examine how different natural gas users and the market institutions serving them affect the transmission of price changes throughout various markets for natural gas. Electrical utilities and industrial users buy much of their natural gas in a competitive spot market served by brokers and interstate pipeline companies. In contrast, most commercial and residential customers are

Stephen P. A. Brown; Mine K. Yücel

1993-01-01

407

Security-Constrained Unit Commitment With Natural Gas Transmission Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of this paper focuses on the development of a security-based methodology for the solution of short-term SCUC when considering the impact of natural gas transmission system. The proposed methodology examines the interdependency of electricity and natural gas in a highly complex transmission system. The natural gas transmission system is modeled as a set of nonlinear equations. The proposed

Cong Liu; Mohammad Shahidehpour; Yong Fu; Zuyi Li

2009-01-01

408

Application research of price discrimination method in natural gas pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural gas industry is an important industry which involves the national economy and the people's livelihood. There is great significance for introducing the investment and expanding the market to research natural gas pricing. From the regulated economics analysis, this paper has presented some problems existing in natural gas price formulation in China. Moreover, there are many methods on pricing

Chen Shao-gang; Xue Feng

2009-01-01

409

Compressed natural gas vehicles: Motoring towards a cleaner Beijing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper first describes the state-of-the-art of compressed natural gas (CNG) technologies and evaluates the market prospects for CNG vehicles in Beijing. An analysis of the natural gas resource supply for fleet vehicles follows. The costs and benefits of establishing natural gas filling stations and promoting the development of vehicle technology are evaluated. The quantity of GHG reduction is calculated.

Guo Xiao Yan; Wang Tian Min

1997-01-01

410

Natural Gas Imports by South Asia: Pipelines or Pipedreams?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There must be few other situations where there are eager purchasers of natural gas (India and Pakistan), willing suppliers of natural gas (Turkmenistan, Iran, Qatar and Oman), and yet, no pipeline. The distances involved are modest, and techno-economic viability appears straightforward. This paper examines in detail the policy, technology, and economics of an overland pipeline supplying natural gas to Pakistan

Rahul Tongia; V. S. Arunachalam

1998-01-01

411

INTEGRATED NATURAL GAS-ELECTRICITY RESOURCE ADEQUACY PLANNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin America has emerged in the recent years as one of the most dynamic regions for natural gas and electricity developments. The continent boasts abundant natural gas reserves and high-growth energy markets. The need to diversify away from heavy investments on hydropower and expensive oil is driving many countries to promote natural gas use, especially for power generation. On the

Luiz Augusto Barroso; Thomas J Hammons; Hugh Rudnick

412

Outlook bright for U.S. natural gas resources  

SciTech Connect

This series of articles by Advanced Resources International (ARI) and the US Geological Survey (USGS) provides a fresh look at new technologies and emerging natural gas plays. It begins, in this article, with three topics: (1) an overview of the controversy surrounding the adequacy of domestic natural gas resources; (2) a look at emerging gas resources in light of advances in technology; and (3) a review of the most frequently referenced natural gas assessments. Future articles in this series will address emerging natural gas resources that may add to the US resource base: deep gas resources (two parts); Barnett shale gas resources; moving into the resource pyramid, a summary of poorly understood but potentially significant emerging gas plays--such as sub-basalt gas plays, deep coalbed methane, and new shale gas resources--not yet included in resource assessments; and gas hydrates.

Kuuskraa, V.A. [Advanced Resources International Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1998-04-13

413

Natural gas gathering and transportation issues, 1998 Texas perspective  

SciTech Connect

In 1996 and 1997, the natural gas industry was intensely focused on the debate surrounding proposed new rules governing the gathering and transportation of natural gas in Texas by the Railroad Commission. This paper reviews that debate and several other regulatory issues that could impact the natural gas and gas processing industries over the next few years. In addition to the review of the Code of Conduct, this paper focuses on results of the informal complaint process, implementation of new legislation requiring the approval of construction of sour gas pipelines and several other natural gas related issues.

Kitchens, R.L. [Railroad Commission of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1998-12-31

414

Evaluation of the effects of natural gas contaminants on corrosion in compressed natural gas storage systems: Phase 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a research program that was conducted to define natural gas contaminant levels necessary to insure that internal corrosion of compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders does not constitute a hazard over the lifetimes of the cylinders. A literature search was performed and companies in the natural gas transmission and distribution industries were contacted: to identify and determine the

Fred F. Lyle; F. F. Jr

1989-01-01

415

Economic comparison between coal-fired and liquefied natural gas combined cycle power plants considering carbon tax: Korean case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic growth is main cause of environmental pollution and has been identified as a big threat to sustainable development. Considering the enormous role of electricity in the national economy, it is essential to study the effect of environmental regulations on the electricity sector. This paper aims at making an economic analysis of Korea's power plant utilities by comparing electricity generation

Suk-Jae Jeong; Kyung-Sup Kim; Jin-Won Park; Dong-soon Lim; Seung-moon Lee

2008-01-01

416

78 FR 38024 - Magnolia LNG, LLC; Liquefied Natural Gas Limited; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...106. Currently Identified Environmental Issues We have already identified...planned facilities and the environmental information provided by Magnolia...water quality impacts from dredging; visual effects on surrounding...should focus on the potential environmental effects, reasonable...

2013-06-25

417

33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a...Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40?43? N and...

2013-07-01

418

33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a...Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40?43? N and...

2010-07-01

419

33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a...Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40?43? N and...

2011-07-01

420

33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...  

...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a...Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40?43? N and...

2014-07-01

421

33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a...Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40?43? N and...

2012-07-01

422

The application of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) to suppress LNG vapor and LNG pool fire thermal radiation  

E-print Network

of the strategies used in the LNG industry and recommended by federal regulation National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 59A is to use expansion foam to suppress LNG vapors and to control LNG fire by reducing the fire size. In its application, expansion foam...

Suardin, Jaffee Arizon

2009-05-15

423

78 FR 53739 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import and Export Liquefied...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Authority During July 2013...notice that during July 2013, it issued orders granting...www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/gasregulation...authorizations/Orders-2013.html. They are also...Filed 8-29-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

2013-08-30

424

78 FR 44940 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import and Export Liquefied...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...notice that during May 2013, it issued orders granting...www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/gasregulation...authorizations/Orders-2013.html. They are also...FR Doc. 2013-17897 Filed 7-24-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

2013-07-25

425

Compressed natural gas storage optimization for natural gas vehicles. Final report, August 1993December 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major obstacle confronting the widespread acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is their substantial cost premium over conventionally fueled vehicles. Currently, as much as 70 percent of the cost premium can be related to on-board storage costs. Market growth is dependent on making NGVs more affordable and storage costs are the primary element. This report identifies and assesses the

M. E. Richards; C. F. Blazek; C. Webster; J. Wong; L. Gambone

1996-01-01

426

Development of a liquid natural gas pump and its application to directinjection liquid natural gas engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct injection gas engines operated with liquid natural gas (LNG)\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009look promising because the energy density-volume ratio of LNG is\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009three times higher than that of compressed natural gas (CNG) and\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009pressurization of LNG to injection pressures is much easier and expends\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009less energy. Based on these considerations, a prototype of an LNG\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009high-pressure pump, which can achieve a pressure

Y Goto

2002-01-01

427

Restricted Natural Gas Supply Case (released in AEO2005)  

EIA Publications

The restricted natural gas supply case provides an analysis of the energy-economic implications of a scenario in which future gas supply is significantly more constrained than assumed in the reference case. Future natural gas supply conditions could be constrained because of problems with the construction and operation of large new energy projects, and because the future rate of technological progress could be significantly lower than the historical rate. Although the restricted natural gas supply case represents a plausible set of constraints on future natural gas supply, it is not intended to represent what is likely to happen in the future.

2005-01-01

428

History of natural-gas consumption in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of the natural-gas industry illustrates a complex interplay of technological advancement, economic activity, federal regulation, and competition among fuels. These factors have all influenced the industry's growth and stability. Historical statistics document how, over recent decades, gas exploration and development activities have varied greatly from high levels to low levels. Perceptions and estimates of the Nation's natural-gas resource

Fanelli

1993-01-01

429

INVENTORY OF METHANE LOSSES FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives the second year's results of an ongoing 4-year program undertaken jointly by the Gas Research Institute and the U.S. EPA to assess the methane (CH4) losses from the U.S. natural gas industry. he program's objective is to assess the acceptability of natural gas as ...

430

Renewable Natural Gas Clean-upp Challenges and Applications  

E-print Network

for a sustainable gas network", 2010 4 #12;5 Renewable Natural Gas is... Renewable Natural Gas is... > Methane pproduced from diggesters Animal manure (dairy cows, swine) Waste water treatment facilitiesWaste water treatment facilities > Methane from Landfills >> RNG produced from thermal chemical processes like

431

Development of the Natural Gas Resources in the Marcellus Shale  

E-print Network

Development of the Natural Gas Resources in the Marcellus Shale New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia for informational purposes only and does not support or oppose development of the Marcellus Shale natural gas information regarding shale gas well development, ancillary facilities asso- ciated with that development

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

432

Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure  

PubMed Central

Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH4 leakage were capped at a level 45–70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH4 losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

Alvarez, Ramón A.; Pacala, Stephen W.; Winebrake, James J.; Chameides, William L.; Hamburg, Steven P.

2012-01-01

433

Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2007-09-15

434

Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation.  

PubMed

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/ LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. PMID:17937317

Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

2007-09-01

435

New liquefaction process of natural gas  

SciTech Connect

New liquefaction process of natural gas has been developed to improve process thermal efficiency and usage of industrial standard equipment. The new process consists of pre-cooling section which uses mixed refrigerant with brazed aluminum plate-fin exchangers or spool wound heat exchanger, and liquefaction section by iso-entropic expander. As a result of design study, thermal efficiency of the new liquefaction process is confirmed to be in the highest level compared with other liquefaction processes. Also, since the new liquefaction process is constructed with industrial commonly available equipment, it can be readily adapted to liquefaction plants of any capacity without requiring expensive and specially designed equipment. 6 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi; Nakamura, Moritaka [Chiyoda Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

1996-12-31

436

Evaluation of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for natural gas and LPG vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the CNG and LPG vehicles studied were converted to the alternative fuel after purchase. There are wide variations in the quality of the conversion hardware and the installation. This leads to questions about the overall quality of the converted vehicles, in terms of emissions, safety, and performance. There is a considerable body of emissions data for converted light-duty vehicles, and a smaller amount for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. However, very few of these data involve real world conditions, and there is growing concern about in-use emissions. This report also attempts to assess factors that could allow in-use emissions to vary from the ``best-case`` results normally reported. The study also addresses issues of fuel supply, fuel composition, performance, safety, and warranty waivers. The report is based on an extensive literature and product survey and on the author`s experience with fuel delivery systems for light-duty vehicles.

Willson, B. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1992-09-01

437

Evaluation of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for natural gas and LPG vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the CNG and LPG vehicles studied were converted to the alternative fuel after purchase. There are wide variations in the quality of the conversion hardware and the installation. This leads to questions about the overall quality of the converted vehicles, in terms of emissions, safety, and performance. There is a considerable body of emissions data for converted light-duty vehicles, and a smaller amount for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. However, very few of these data involve real world conditions, and there is growing concern about in-use emissions. This report also attempts to assess factors that could allow in-use emissions to vary from the best-case'' results normally reported. The study also addresses issues of fuel supply, fuel composition, performance, safety, and warranty waivers. The report is based on an extensive literature and product survey and on the author's experience with fuel delivery systems for light-duty vehicles.

Willson, B. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States))

1992-09-01

438

Pretreatment of raw natural gas prior to liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

UOP Inc.'s new process for pretreating raw wellhead gas prior to liquefaction reduces: (1) the liquefaction refrigeration power requirements by utilizing the energy recovered in expanding the raw gas; and (2) the volume of gas that must be dried in expensive dessicant beds prior to liquefaction. High-pressure raw natural gas is prepared for liquefaction by first removing water and acid

Colton

1978-01-01

439

Pretreatment of raw natural gas prior to liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process to pretreat raw wellhead gas prior to liquefaction reduces the liquefaction refrigeration power requirements by utilizing the energy recovered in expanding the raw gas and decreases the volume of gas that must be dried in expensive desiccant beds prior to liquefaction. Basic steps in the process comprise sweetening and drying the raw natural gas at a pressure above

Colton

1979-01-01

440

Statistical Modeling of Corrosion Failures in Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines  

E-print Network

Natural gas pipelines are a critical component of the U.S. energy infrastructure. The safety of these pipelines plays a key role for the gas industry. Therefore, the understanding of failure characteristics and their consequences are very important...

Cobanoglu, Mustafa Murat

2014-03-28

441

An internal seal for repairing natural gas mains  

E-print Network

Joint leakage from low pressure natural gas distribution mains (typical value: 0.25 ft[superscript 3] at 6 inwg gas pressure) is a persistent source of maintenance problems for utitlites. External encapsulation is the usual ...

Cooper, Samuel A.

1984-01-01

442

A New Global Unconventional Natural Gas Resource Assessment  

E-print Network

In 1997, Rogner published a paper containing an estimate of the natural gas in place in unconventional reservoirs for 11 world regions. Rogner's work was assessing the unconventional gas resource base, and is now considered to be very conservative...

Dong, Zhenzhen

2012-10-19

443

Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)  

SciTech Connect

Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work has consisted of both modeling and single cylinder engine experiments to quantify DIGN performance. The air handling systems of natural gas engines dissipate a percentage of available energy as a result of both flow losses and turbomachinery inefficiencies. An analytical study was initiated to increase compressor efficiency by employing a 2-stage inter-cooled compressor. Caterpillar also studied a turbo-compound system that employs a power turbine to recover energy from the exhaust gases for improved engine efficiency. Several other component and system investigations were undertaken during the final phase of the program to reach the ultimate ARES goals. An intake valve actuation system was developed and tested to improve engine efficiency, durability and load acceptance. Analytical modeling and materials testing were performed to evaluate the performance of steel pistons and compacted graphite iron cylinder head. Effort was made to improve the detonation sensing system by studying and comparing the performance of different pressure sensors. To reduce unburned hydrocarbon emissions, different camshafts were designed and built to investigate the effect of exhaust valve opening timing and value overlap. 1-D & 3-D coupled simulation was used to study intake and exhaust manifold dynamics with the goal of reducing load in-balance between cylinders. Selective catalytic reduction with on-board reductant generation to reduce NOx emissions was also engine tested. An effective mean to successfully deploy ARES technologies into the energy markets is to deploy demonstration projects in the field. In 2010, NETL and Caterpillar agreed to include a new “opportunity fuel” deliverable and two field demonstrations in the ARES program. An Organic Rankine Cycle system was designed with production intent incorporating lessons learned from the Phase II demonstration. Unfortunately, business conditions caused Caterpillar to cancel this demonstration in 2011. Nonetheless, Caterpillar partnered with a local dealer to deploy an ARES class engine using syngas from a biomass gasifier as

Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

2009-09-30

444

Natural Gas Processing Plants in the United States: 2010 Update  

EIA Publications

This special report presents an analysis of natural gas processing plants in the United States as of 2009 and highlights characteristics of this segment of the industry. The purpose of the paper is to examine the role of natural gas processing plants in the natural gas supply chain and to provide an overview and summary of processing plant characteristics in the United States, such as locations, capacities, and operations.

2011-01-01

445

Natural Gas as a Boiler Fuel of Choice in Texas  

E-print Network

as the base year. The staff natural gas price forecast is developed by first forecasting crude oil prices for a 20-year period. Then, the historical relationship between crude oil and natural gas is used to forecast a natural gas nationwide spot (contract... of Cosl/wcll ----f"- I990SlmmBlu each fuel. The lighter (lower) band has as its midpoint the staff forecast annual "expected" values of natural gas price. The darker (upper) band contains the range of expected values of crude oil with the annual...

Kmetz, W. J.

446

A real loser. [Natural gas resource planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Energy Policy Act requires states to consider the adoption of gas integrated resource planning (IRP). In Illinois, gas IRP has not only been considered, but implemented as well. Some respected regulators and utility planners have tried to promote gas IRP as a wonderful tool by explaining all of its theoretical benefits. But the reality is that gas IRP

R. K. Kretschmer; L. J. Mraz

1994-01-01

447

Lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of coal, conventional and unconventional natural gas for electricity generation  

EPA Science Inventory

An analysis of the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with natural gas use recently published by Howarth et al. (2011) stated that use of natural gas produced from shale formations via hydraulic fracturing would generate greater lifecycle GHG emissions than petro...

448

Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common

Collett

1992-01-01

449

Speaker to Address Impact of Natural Gas Production on Greenhouse Gas Emissions When used for power generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon  

E-print Network

generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions, but questions have been raised whether development of shale gas resources results in an overall lower greenhouse gas, "Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas," appeared in Environmental Research Letters

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

450

Asian natural gas pipeline proposed for easing energy, feedstock strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly every country on the program at the recent Asian Natural Gas 5 Conference in Singapore reported on attempts to maximize the use of natural gas as a fuel and a feedstock. But no one made a more startling presentation than Masaru Hirata, chairman of the National Pipeline Research Society of Japan. His proposal: construct an international trunk pipeline network

Haggin

1994-01-01

451

Natural Gas: Major Legislative and Regulatory Actions (1935 - 2008)  

EIA Publications

This special report Web-based product presents a chronology of some of the key federal legislative and regulatory actions that have helped shape the natural gas market, with particular emphasis on policy directives from 1978 to October 2008. Separate reports provide brief descriptions of specific legislation, regulations, or policies, and their impacts on the natural gas market.

2009-01-01

452

Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas  

EIA Publications

The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas report, published today, is a Congressionally-requested study examining the energy trends and developments in the Americas over the past decade. The report focuses on liquid fuels and natural gas—particularly reserves and resources, production, consumption, trade, and investment—given their scale and significance to the region.

2014-01-01

453

State-of-the-art Natural Gas Pipe Inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The safety of the Unites States' natural gas supply is of prime importance since 30% of the energy produced in the country is derived from it. Natural gas is supplied through a million miles of vast pipeline network (1). Pipeline companies have an impressive safety record due to the proactive role of standards and inspection of pipelines. Since the

Venugopal K. Varma

454

The Natural Gas Sector in Bolivia: An Overview1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: This paper provides a thorough overview of the natural gas sector in Bolivia, with the purpose of identifying critical questions to be answered in subsequent research. The paper shows that the Bolivian benefits from natural gas exports are rather limited. The sector generates very little employment, there are few linkages with the rest of the economy, and most of

ANDEAN COMPETITIVENESS PROJECT; Lykke E. Andersen; Mauricio Meza

455

New economics of natural gas production in the Appalachian states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since at least 1920, production of natural gas in the Appalachian states has fluctuated between 400 and 500 billion cu ft\\/yr. Among the factors limiting expansion in drilling, recompletion of old wells, and introduction of new technology is the adverse wellhead prices paid to producers by purchasers under regulations applied by the federal government under the US Natural Gas Act

Jaworek

1979-01-01

456

Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle (NGNGV) Program Brochure  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Technologies is initiating the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle (NGNGV) Program to develop commercially viable medium- and heavy-duty natural gas vehicles. These new vehicles will incorporate advanced alternative fuel vehicle technologies that were developed by DOE and others.

Elling, J.

2000-10-26

457

PROJECTIONS OF REGIONAL FUEL OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents delivered regional oil and natural gas price forecasts for the industrial and electric utility sectors. Delivered energy price projections by Federal region through the year 2045 are provided for distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, and natural gas. Methodo...

458

Patenting trends in natural gas fischer-tropsch synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical transformation of Natural Gas through Fischer-Tropsch synthesis into liquid hydrocarbons which can be directly consumed as fuels has become of major interest. This is mainly due to two factors: (i) severe restrictions imposed by environmental laws promoting clean fuels; and, (ii) trends in the global energy scenario towards increased reserves of Natural Gas.The present research consists of analysis

Adelaide Antunes; Maria Simone Alencar; Fernando Tibau; Daniel Hoefle; Andressa Gusmão; Angela Ribeiro; Rodrigo Cartaxo

2007-01-01

459

76 FR 22825 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems AGENCY: Environmental...30, 2010 EPA promulgated Subpart W: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems of the Greenhouse...calculating greenhouse gas emissions for the petroleum and natural gas systems source...

2011-04-25

460

Competition in Natural Gas Pipeline Wellhead Supply Purchases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout most of the last three decades, interstate natural gas pipeline companies-operating mainly as private carriers, buying gas supplies in the field and reselling them downstream'-have competed primarily on the basis of nonprice terms. Under the regime of wellhead regulation stemming from Phillips,' in upstream (field) markets binding price ceilings meant thatinterpipeline competition in gas purchases was governed principally by

Harry G. Broadman

1987-01-01

461

Evaluation of Natural Gas Pipeline Materials and Infrastructure for  

E-print Network

Evaluation of Natural Gas Pipeline Materials and Infrastructure for Hydrogen/Mixed Gas Service Retrofitting Existing NG Pipelines fro Hydrogen/Hythane Service New Pipeline Installation and ROW Lower South Carolina Electric and Gas University of South Carolina Praxair Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group

462

Natural gas imports and exports, fourth quarter report 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

None

2000-03-01

463

Natural gas imports and exports, third quarter report 2000  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

None

2000-12-01

464

Natural gas imports and exports, first quarter report 2000  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent reporting quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

None

2000-06-01

465

System and method for producing substitute natural gas from coal  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a system and method for producing substitute natural gas and electricity, while mitigating production of any greenhouse gasses. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, to form a gas stream including natural gas and a char stream, and an oxygen burner to combust the char material to form carbon oxides. The system also includes an algae farm to convert the carbon oxides to hydrocarbon material and oxygen.

Hobbs, Raymond (Avondale, AZ)

2012-08-07

466

Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

Pike, Edward

2014-03-31

467

Performance Evaluation of Dense Gas Dispersion Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the results of a study to evaluate the performance of seven dense gas dispersion models using data from three field experiments. Two models (DEGADIS and SLAB) are in the public domain and the other five (AIRTOX, CHARM, FOCUS, SAFEMODE, and TRACE) are proprietary. The field data used are the Desert Tortoise pressurized ammonia releases, Burro liquefied natural

Jawad S. Touma; William M. Cox; Harold Thistle; James G. Zapert

1995-01-01

468

40 CFR Table W - 1A of Subpart W-Default Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production W Table... MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions...Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production...

2012-07-01

469

Use of natural gas distribution systems to deliver hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

A complex system of gas distribution equipment, consisting of many kinds of pipes, fittings, meters, regulators, valves, and other equipment typical of present-day gas distribution systems, was constructed in the laboratory at the Institute of Gas Technology. The equipment was hooked up in a loop system. The system was operated on natural gas for a few weeks before being switched to pure hydrogen for a 6-month test. The results of the test are summarized.

Gregory, D.P.

1980-01-01

470

Methane and the greenhouse-gas footprint of natural gas from shale formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas obtained by high-volume hydraulic fracturing from shale formations,\\u000a focusing on methane emissions. Natural gas is composed largely of methane, and 3.6% to 7.9% of the methane from shale-gas\\u000a production escapes to the atmosphere in venting and leaks over the life-time of a well. These methane emissions are at least\\u000a 30% more

Robert W. Howarth; Renee Santoro; Anthony Ingraffea

2011-01-01

471

Preparation of carbon fibers from liquefied wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon fibers are prepared from liquefied wood by adding hexamethylenetetramine and soaking in a solution containing hydrochloric\\u000a acid and formaldehyde as main components. Structure evolution of carbon fibers from liquefied wood (LWCFs) is investigated\\u000a by using FTIR and XRD. The results show that the structure of the precursor fibers from liquefied wood has been completely\\u000a changed after carbonization. The apparent

Ma Xiaojun; Zhao Guangjie

2010-01-01

472

Research and Development Concerning Coalbed Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

The Powder River Basin in northeastern Wyoming is one of the most active areas of coalbed natural gas (CBNG) development in the western United States. This resource provides clean energy but raises environmental concerns. Primary among these is the disposal of water that is co-produced with the gas during depressurization of the coal seam. Beginning with a few producing wells in Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) in 1987, CBNG well numbers in this area increased to over 13,600 in 2004, with projected growth to 20,900 producing wells in the PRB by 2010. CBNG development is continuing apace since 2004, and CBNG is now being produced or evaluated in four other Wyoming coal basins in addition to the PRB, with roughly 3500-4000 new CBNG wells permitted statewide each year since 2004. This is clearly a very valuable source of clean fuel for the nation, and for Wyoming the economic benefits are substantial. For instance, in 2003 alone the total value of Wyoming CBNG production was about $1.5 billion, with tax and royalty income of about $90 million to counties, $140 million to the state, and $27 million to the federal government. In Wyoming, cumulative CBNG water production from 1987 through December 2004 was just over 380,000 acre-feet (2.9 billion barrels), while producing almost 1.5 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of CBNG gas statewide. Annual Wyoming CBNG water production in 2003 was 74,457 acre-feet (577 million barrels). Total production of CBNG water across all Wyoming coal fields could total roughly 7 million acre-feet (55.5 billion barrels), if all of the recoverable CBNG in the projected reserves of 31.7 tcf were produced over the coming decades. Pumping water from coals to produce CBNG has been designated a beneficial water use by the Wyoming State Engineer's Office (SEO), though recently the SEO has limited this beneficial use designation by requiring a certain gas/water production ratio. In the eastern part of the PRB where CBNG water is generally of good quality, most of it is discharged to surface drainages or to soil (for irrigation). CBNG water quality generally declines when moving from the Cheyenne River drainage northwestward to the Belle Fourche, Little Powder, and Powder River drainages and in the central and western part of the PRB, most CBNG water goes to evaporation-infiltration ponds or is discharged directly to surface drainages. Concerns center on the salinity of the water, usually measured as total dissolved solids (TDS), or electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). Other management options currently in use include injection, managed irrigation (with additives to mitigate the effects of high salinity), atomization, and treatment by reverse osmosis or ion exchange. A key water quality issue is the cumulative effect of numerous CBNG water discharges on the overall water quality of basin streams. This leads to one of the most contentious issues in CBNG development in Wyoming's PRB: Montana's concern about the potential downstream effects of water quality degradation on rivers flowing north into Montana. Many of the benefits and costs associated with CBNG development have been debated, but dealing with CBNG water quantity and quality arguably has been the most difficult of all the issues. Given the importance of these issues for continued development of CBNG resources in Wyoming and elsewhere, the DOE-NETL funded project presented here focuses on CBNG co-produced water management. The research was organized around nine separate, but interrelated, technical project tasks and one administrative task (Task 1). The nine technical project tasks were pursued by separate research teams at the University of Wyoming, but all nine tasks were coordinated to the extent possible in order to maximize information gained about CBNG co-produced waters. In addition to project management in Task 1, the key research tasks included: (2) estimating groundwater recharge rates in the PRB; (3) groundwater contamination of trace elements from CBNG disposal ponds; (4) use of environmental tracers in assessing wate

William Ruckelshaus

2008-09-30

473

On the retrograde condensation behavior of lean natural gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of liquid dropout in natural gas pipelines may cause operational problems during storage, transport, and processing. Therefore, the availability of a model that accurately predicts the amount of liquid formed is of great importance for the natural gas industry. The objective of this study is to develop a thermodynamic model for the accurate prediction of the amount of liquid formed in natural gas pipelines at transportation conditions. As input, the model requires an accurate gas analysis. A modified Peng-Robinson equation of state was selected for the phase equilibrium calculations. Interaction parameters were optimized from experimental data at conditions of practical interest, i.e., at pressures 10 < p < 70 bar and at temperatures 250 < T < 290 K. For a number of “keysystems,” the interaction parameters were calculated from new accurate solubility data of heavy hydrocarbons in some of the main constituents of natural gas like methane and nitrogen. Also, an extensive experimental program was carried out to study the influence of minute amounts of nitrogen, ethane and carbon dioxide in methane on the solubility behavior of decane in these gas mixtures. From a sensitivity analysis, it could be concluded that the liquid dropout is influenced mainly by the concentration and characterization of C7-C13 fractions. In this work, two characterization procedures to represent these fractions are compared. For two types of lean natural gas, the model predictions are compared with field measurement data, recently supplied by the Dutch natural gas industry.

Voulgaris, M. E.; Peters, C. J.; de Swaan Arons, J.

1995-05-01

474

Regional limitations on the hedging effectiveness of natural gas futures  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the extent to which limitations in the transportation system for the natural gas market in the United States narrows the effectiveness of the NYMEX natural gas future contract as a hedging instrument and why a second contract with a different delivery point was approved during 1995. We find that the NYMEX contract is an effective hedging instrument for gas sold into pipelines for consumption in southern, eastern and Midwestern states, but does not provide an effective hedge for gas sold for Rocky Mountain and West Coast states. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

Brinkmann, E.J.; Rabinovitch, R. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

475

Major Utilization of Natural Gas for Turkey's Energy Necessity in Recent Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present article is to investigate major utilization of natural gas in Turkey and its historical development. Natural gas consumption was recently made available in Turkey, and demand has since grown quickly. Indigenous natural gas production is very small; almost all natural gas is imported. Current natural gas production in Turkey meets only 3% of indigenous consumption

M. F. Demirbas; H. Balat

2008-01-01

476

Complementarity Problems in Restructured Natural Gas Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The restructuring of the gas industry did not so far generate the same modeling activity as in electricity. While the literature\\u000a of activity in electricity market models is now abundant, it is still rather scant on the gas side. This paper surveys some\\u000a of the existing models and attempts to take advantage of the wealth of knowledge available in electricity

Steven Gabriel; Yves Smeers

2005-01-01

477

Natural gas hydrates on the North Slope of Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, mainly methane, in which a solid-water lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure, or clathrate. These substances often have been regarded as a potential (unconventional) source of natural gas. Significant quantities of naturally occurring gas hydrates have been detected in many regions of the Arctic including Siberia, the Mackenzie River Delta, and the North Slope of Alaska. On the North Slope, the methane-hydrate stability zone is areally extensive beneath most of the coastal plain province and has thicknesses as great as 1000 meters in the Prudhoe Bay area. Gas hydrates have been identified in 50 exploratory and production wells using well-log responses calibrated to the response of an interval in one well where gas hydrates were recovered in a core by ARCO Alaska and EXXON. Most of these gas hydrates occur in six laterally continuous Upper Cretaceous and lower Tertiary sandstone and conglomerate units; all these gas hydrates are geographically restricted to the area overlying the eastern part of the Kuparuk River Oil Field and the western part of the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field. The volume of gas within these gas hydrates is estimated to be about 1.0 {times} 10{sup 12} to 1.2 {times} 10{sup 12} cubic meters (37 to 44 trillion cubic feet), or about twice the volume of conventional gas in the Prudhoe Bay Field. Geochemical analyses of well samples suggest that the identified hydrates probably contain a mixture of deep-source thermogenic gas and shallow microbial gas that was either directly converted to gas hydrate or first concentrated in existing traps and later converted to gas hydrate. The thermogenic gas probably migrated from deeper reservoirs along the same faults thought to be migration pathways for the large volumes of shallow, heavy oil that occur in this area. 51 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Collett, T.S.

1991-01-01

478

Natural gas imports and exports: First quarter report 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Fuels Programs prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports with the OFP. This quarter`s focus is market penetration of gas imports into New England. Attachments show the following: % takes to maximum firm contract levels and weighted average per unit price for the long-term importers, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters, volumes and prices for gas imported on short-term or spot market basis, and gas exported short-term to Canada and Mexico.

NONE

1995-07-01

479

Natural gas value chain. Topical report, August 1995-February 1996  

SciTech Connect

A study is reported which developed a representation of the natural gas value chain depicting all key activities of the industry in the finding and production of natural gas. The data provides the basis for quantifying and reporting revenues, expenses, and margins along the value chain. The database of performance and operational information on many segments of the value chain is based on three years of data from 39 companies primarily engaged in the finding, drilling, and producing of natural gas, including both large and small independent oil and gas companies as well as integrated majors. The data is representative of approximately 17% of total U.S. domestic production and 47% of gas processed in the United States. This report includes an overall industry value chain with national data summarizing performance, and the subsets of the overall value chain with supporting regional data. Appendixes outline the source and use of data and explain the calculation of value added ratio.

Roussel, D.C.

1996-05-01

480

In situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvent with natural gas  

SciTech Connect

A bioremediation system for the removal of chlorinated solvents from ground water and sediments is described. The system involves the the in-situ injection of natural gas (as a microbial nutrient) through an innovative configuration of horizontal wells.

Rabold, D.E.

1996-12-31

481

Radon measurement of natural gas using alpha scintillation cells.  

PubMed

Due to their sensitivity and ease of use, alpha-scintillation cells are being increasingly utilized for measurements of radon ((222)Rn) in natural gas. Laboratory studies showed an average increase of 7.3% in the measurement efficiency of alpha-scintillation cells when filled with less-dense natural gas rather than regular air. A theoretical calculation comparing the atomic weight and density of air to that of natural gas suggests a 6-7% increase in the detection efficiency when measuring radon in the cells. A correction is also applicable when the sampling location and measurement laboratory are at different elevations. These corrections to the measurement efficiency need to be considered in order to derive accurate concentrations of radon in natural gas. PMID:25261866

Kitto, Michael E; Torres, Miguel A; Haines, Douglas K; Semkow, Thomas M

2014-12-01

482

Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas  

DOEpatents

Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Redmond, OR); Lyon, David K. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

2000-01-01

483

Evaluation of capacity release transactions in the natural gas industry  

E-print Network

The purpose of this thesis is to analyze capacity release transactions in the natural gas industry and to state some preliminary conclusions about how the capacity release market is functioning. Given FERC's attempt to ...

Lautzenhiser, Stephen

1994-01-01

484

Clean-running lube oil for natural gas engines  

SciTech Connect

Phillips 66 has completed extensive laboratory and field development of a new industrial lubricant incorporating a proprietary additive package, designed specifically for two- and four-cycle natural gas engines. Phillips 66 engineers say the commercially available Eclipse T 20W-40 ashless multigrade oil offers four distinct benefits for natural gas engines. The oil runs cleaner, is barium-free, offers the performance benefits of a multi-viscosity oil, and significantly reduces engine deposits, ring sticking and sludge. The new oil is recommended for all two-cycle natural-gas-fueled engines such as Clark, Cooper-Bessemer and Ajax, as well as Caterpillar four-cycle natural gas engines. Other four-cycle engines also have experienced reduced engine deposits and reduced downtime with Eclipse T oil and specific preventive maintenance practices, the company says. 2 figs.

Not Available

1994-04-01

485

Correlation between gas molecular weight, heating value and sonic speed under variable compositions of natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation study of likely uncertainties in molecular weight and heating value of the gas mixture as predicted from measured or calculated sonic speed. The sonic speed, molecular weight and heating value of natural gas were studied as a function of random fluctuation of the gas fractions. A method of sonic speed prediction was developed and used for over 50,000

L. Burstein; D. Ingman; Y. Michlin

1999-01-01

486

Efficiency enhancement for natural gas liquefaction with CO2 capture and sequestration through cycles innovation and process optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants are energy intensive. As a result, the power plants operating these LNG plants emit high amounts of CO2 . To mitigate global warming that is caused by the increase in atmospheric CO2, CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) using amine absorption is proposed. However, the major challenge of implementing this CCS system is the associated power requirement, increasing power consumption by about 15--25%. Therefore, the main scope of this work is to tackle this challenge by minimizing CCS power consumption as well as that of the entire LNG plant though system integration and rigorous optimization. The power consumption of the LNG plant was reduced through improving the process of liquefaction itself. In this work, a genetic algorithm (GA) was used to optimize a propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) LNG plant modeled using HYSYS software. An optimization platform coupling Matlab with HYSYS was developed. New refrigerant mixtures were found, with savings in power consumption as high as 13%. LNG plants optimization with variable natural gas feed compositions was addressed and the solution was proposed through applying robust optimization techniques, resulting in a robust refrigerant which can liquefy a range of natural gas feeds. The second approach for reducing the power consumption is through process integration and waste heat utilization in the integrated CCS system. Four waste heat sources and six potential uses were uncovered and evaluated using HYSYS software. The developed models were verified against experimental data from the literature with good agreement. Net available power enhancement in one of the proposed CCS configuration is 16% more than the conventional CCS configuration. To reduce the CO2 pressurization power into a well for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications, five CO2 pressurization methods were explored. New CO2 liquefaction cycles were developed and modeled using HYSYS software. One of the developed liquefaction cycles using NH3 as a refrigerant resulted in 5% less power consumption than the conventional multi-stage compression cycle. Finally, a new concept of providing the CO2 regeneration heat is proposed. The proposed concept is using a heat pump to provide the regeneration heat as well as process heat and CO2 liquefaction heat. Seven configurations of heat pumps integrated with CCS were developed. One of the heat pumps consumes 24% less power than the conventional system or 59% less total equivalent power demand than the conventional system with steam extraction and CO2 compression.

Alabdulkarem, Abdullah

487

Life cycle assessment of natural gas power plants in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  The main primary energy for electricity in Thailand is natural gas, accounting for 73% of the grid mix. Electricity generation\\u000a from natural gas combustion is associated with substantial air emissions. The two technologies currently used in Thailand,\\u000a thermal and combined cycle power plant, have been evaluated for the potential environmental impacts in a “cradle-to-grid”\\u000a study according to

Kamalaporn Phumpradab; Shabbir H. Gheewala; Masayuki Sagisaka

2009-01-01

488

Convergence and Divergence of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Prices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research investigates the possibility that WTI crude oil and Henry Hub natural gas prices share a stable link. Economic theory suggests that the two commodities are linked by both supply and demand given that the commodities can be coproduced and many consumers have the ability to switch between the fuels. In general, it would appear that the two commodities support this theory with natural gas prices tracking crude oil prices fairly well until late 2008. However, since the end of 2008 the two price series have diverged and appear to move independently of each other. Reduced fuel switching capabilities in U.S. industry and electric power generation coupled with increased technology and production from shale formations have potentially changed the driving force behind natural gas prices. However, a severe recession has impacted world economies over the same time period making the cause of the disparity between crude oil and natural gas prices unclear. Therefore, this research analyzed the possible long-term link between the two commodities over two timeframes. Using an error correction model that includes exogenous factors affecting the short-run dynamics of natural gas prices over the period January 1999 through September 2008, I find evidence of a long-run cointegrating relationship between natural gas and crude oil prices. Additionally, crude oil prices are found to be weakly exogenous to the system, suggesting causality runs from crude oil to natural gas prices. Extending this series through February 2012 yields much weaker evidence of a cointegrating relationship and provides evidence for the decoupling crude oil and natural gas prices.

Romagus, George M.

489

Costs Associated With Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with fueling infrastructure for compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles. It provides estimated cost ranges for various sizes and types of CNG fueling stations and an overview of factors that contribute to the total cost of an installed station. The information presented is based on input from professionals in the natural gas industry who design, sell equipment for, and/or own and operate CNG stations.

Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

2014-09-01

490

Effect of Increased Natural Gas Exports on Domestic Energy Markets  

EIA Publications

This report responds to an August 2011 request from the Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE\\/FE) for an analysis of "the impact of increased domestic natural gas demand, as exports." Appendix A provides a copy of the DOE\\/FE request letter. Specifically, DOE\\/FE asked the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) to assess how specified scenarios of increased natural gas exports could affect domestic energy markets, focusing on consumption, production, and prices.

2012-01-01

491

ARPA-E: Creating Practical, Affordable Natural Gas Storage Solutions  

ScienceCinema

Allowing people to refuel natural gas vehicles at home could revolutionize the way we power our cars and trucks. Currently, our nation faces two challenges in enabling natural gas for transportation. The first is improving the way gas tanks are built for natural gas vehicles; they need to be conformable, allowing them to fit tightly into the vehicle. The second challenge is improving the way those tanks are refueled while maintaining cost-effectiveness, safety, and reliability. This video highlights two ARPA-E project teams with innovative solutions to these challenges. REL is addressing the first challenge by developing a low-cost, conformable natural gas tank with an interconnected core structure. Oregon State University and OnBoard Dynamics are addressing the second challenge by developing a self-refueling natural gas vehicle that integrates a compressor into its engine-using one of the engine's cylinders to compress gas eliminates the need for an expensive at-home refueling system. These two distinct technologies from ARPA-E's MOVE program illustrate how the Agency takes a multi-pronged approach to problem solving and innovation.

Boysen, Dane; Loukus, Josh; Hansen, Rita

2014-03-13

492

ARPA-E: Creating Practical, Affordable Natural Gas Storage Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Allowing people to refuel natural gas vehicles at home could revolutionize the way we power our cars and trucks. Currently, our nation faces two challenges in enabling natural gas for transportation. The first is improving the way gas tanks are built for natural gas vehicles; they need to be conformable, allowing them to fit tightly into the vehicle. The second challenge is improving the way those tanks are refueled while maintaining cost-effectiveness, safety, and reliability. This video highlights two ARPA-E project teams with innovative solutions to these challenges. REL is addressing the first challenge by developing a low-cost, conformable natural gas tank with an interconnected core structure. Oregon State University and OnBoard Dynamics are addressing the second challenge by developing a self-refueling natural gas vehicle that integrates a compressor into its engine-using one of the engine's cylinders to compress gas eliminates the need for an expensive at-home refueling system. These two distinct technologies from ARPA-E's MOVE program illustrate how the Agency takes a multi-pronged approach to problem solving and innovation.

Boysen, Dane; Loukus, Josh; Hansen, Rita

2014-02-24

493

Meeting future electric power needs with natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to perceptions developed during the 1970s, this article maintains, natural gas will be available at competitive prices to fuel generating systems based on advanced technologies such as combined-cycle, cogeneration, and fuel cell power plants. These gas-fired systems offer both economic and environmental benefits over conventional coal and nuclear systems. The changed outlook for the role of gas in power

B. A. Hedman; G. K. Oates

1984-01-01

494

Easing the natural gas crisis: Reducing natural gas prices through increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Heightened natural gas prices have emerged as a key energy-policy challenge for at least the early part of the 21st century. With the recent run-up in gas prices and the expected continuation of volatile and high prices in the near future, a growing number of voices are calling for increased diversification of energy supplies. Proponents of renewable energy and energy efficiency identify these clean energy sources as an important part of the solution. Increased deployment of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) can hedge natural gas price risk in more than one way, but this paper touches on just one potential benefit: displacement of gas-fired electricity generation, which reduces natural gas demand and thus puts downward pressure on gas prices. Many recent modeling studies of increased RE and EE deployment have demonstrated that this ''secondary'' effect of lowering natural gas prices could be significant; as a result, this effect is increasingly cited as justification for policies promoting RE and EE. This paper summarizes recent studies that have evaluated the gas-price-reduction effect of RE and EE deployment, analyzes the results of these studies in light of economic theory and other research, reviews the reasonableness of the effect as portrayed in modeling studies, and develops a simple tool that can be used to evaluate the impact of RE and EE on gas prices without relying on a complex national energy model. Key findings are summarized.

Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; St. Clair, Matt

2004-12-21

495

Emerging Environmental Markets: Improving the Competitiveness of Natural Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current U.S. regulations focus on market approaches to reduce SO?, NOx, and CO? pollution, allowing affected firms to choose the least-cost compliance alternative. Natural gas, a relatively benign fuel from an environmental perspective, could realize a substantial increase in demand if it is competitive. The viability of gas as an alternative has been questioned due to high forecast price and

Janie M. Chermak

1994-01-01

496

Can a more competitive natural gas industry provide stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the question, ''Can a more competitive natural gas industry provide stability.'' When we discuss a free gas market here, we are primarily referring to a market in which flexible, accurate prices are free to adjust to achieve market equilibrium -- a balance of supply and demand. Implied is the lack of wellhead price regulations and the transmission

D. A. Hanson; T. V. Jennings; J. R. Lemon

1988-01-01

497

Energy recovery from natural-gas pressure-regulator stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the concept of generating electricity using the energy normally wasted by throttling high-pressure gas at natural gas pressure-regulator or depressurization stations. It was found that this concept is technically feasible and that by using this concept: a maximum of 40 MW of electricity could be generated in the TVA region; electricity could be generated at an overall

Hall

1983-01-01

498