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Sample records for gas liquefied natural

  1. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D.; Hayden, M.; Radebaugh, R.; Wollan, J.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It should have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The thermoacoustic natural-gas liquefier (TANGL) is based on our recent invention of the first no-moving-parts cryogenic refrigerator. In short, our invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat, with no moving parts. The required apparatus comprises nothing more than heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. Its initial experimental success in a small size lead us to propose a more ambitious application: large-energy liquefaction of natural gas, using combustion of natural gas as the energy source. TANGL was designed to be maintenance-free, inexpensive, portable, and environmentally benign.

  2. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.W.

    1997-05-01

    Cryenco and Los Alamos are collaborating to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that will have no moving parts and require no electrical power. It will have useful efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at only 115 Kelvin at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 invention of the thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse-tube refrigerator (TA-DOPTR) provides cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts for the first time. In short, this invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The required apparatus consists of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. In the Cryenco-Los Alamos collaboration, the authors are developing a version of this invention suitable for use in the natural-gas industry. The project is known as acoustic liquefier for short. The present program plans call for a two-phase development. Phase 1, with capacity of 500 gallon per day (i.e., approximately 40,000 scfd, requiring a refrigeration power of about 7 kW), is large enough to illuminate all the issues of large-scale acoustic liquefaction without undue cost, and to demonstrate the liquefaction of 60--70% of input gas, while burning 30--40%. Phase 2 will target versions of approximately 10{sup 6} scfd = 10,000 gallon per day capacity. In parallel with both, they continue fundamental research on the technology, directed toward increased efficiency, to build scientific foundations and a patent portfolio for future acoustic liquefiers.

  3. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    In collaboration with Cryenco Inc. and NIST-Boulder, we intend to develop a natural gas-powered natural-gas liquefier which has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It will have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. Progress on the liquefier to be constructed at Cryenco continues satisfactorily. The thermoacoustic driver is still ahead of the pulse tube refrigerator, because of NIST`s schedule. We completed the thermoacoustics design in the fall of 1994, with Los Alamos providing physics input and checks of all aspects, and Cryenco providing engineering to ASME code, drafting, etc. Completion of this design represents a significant amount of work, especially in view of the many unexpected problems encountered. Meanwhile, Cryenco and NIST have almost completed the design of the pulse tube refrigerator. At Los Alamos, we have assembled a half-size scale model of the thermoacoustic portion of the 500 gal/day TANGL. This scale model will enable easy experimentation in harmonic suppression techniques, new stack geometries, new heat-exchanger geometries, resonator coiling, and other areas. As of March 1995, the scale model is complete and we are performing routine debugging tests and modifications.

  4. Liquefied Natural Gas Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Chicago Bridge & Iron Company's tanks and associated piping are parts of system for transferring liquefied natural gas from ship to shore and storing it. LNG is a "cryogenic" fluid meaning that it must be contained and transferred at very low temperatures, about 260 degrees below Fahrenheit. Before the LNG can be pumped from the ship to the storage tanks, the two foot diameter transfer pipes must be cooled in order to avoid difficulties associated with sharp differences of temperature between the supercold fluid and relatively warm pipes. Cooldown is accomplished by sending small steady flow of the cryogenic substance through the pipeline; the rate of flow must be precisely controlled or the transfer line will be subjected to undesirable thermal stress.

  5. Bibliography on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordin, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    Approximately 600 citations concerning safety of liquefied natural gas and liquid methane are presented. Each entry includes the title, author, abstract, source, description of figures, key references, and major descriptors for retrieving the document. An author index is provided as well as an index of descriptors.

  6. Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status and Outlook, The

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook was undertaken to characterize the global liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and to examine recent trends and future prospects in the LNG market.

  7. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) dispenser verification device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Maotao; Yang, Jie-bin; Zhao, Pu-jun; Yu, Bo; Deng, Wan-quan

    2013-01-01

    The composition of working principle and calibration status of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) dispenser in China are introduced. According to the defect of weighing method in the calibration of LNG dispenser, LNG dispenser verification device has been researched. The verification device bases on the master meter method to verify LNG dispenser in the field. The experimental results of the device indicate it has steady performance, high accuracy level and flexible construction, and it reaches the international advanced level. Then LNG dispenser verification device will promote the development of LNG dispenser industry in China and to improve the technical level of LNG dispenser manufacture.

  8. Risk management of liquefied natural gas installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.; Coutinho, J. De C.

    1976-01-01

    In connection with the construction of four major liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in New York City, the New York City Fire Commissioner has asked NASA for assistance. It was decided that the Kennedy Space Center should develop a risk management system (RMS) for the use of the New York Fire Department (NYFD). The RMS provides for a published set of safety regulations by the NYFD. A description of the RMS is presented as an example of an application of aerospace technology to a civilian sector, namely LNG facilities.

  9. Lightweight Tanks for Storing Liquefied Natural Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Single-walled, jacketed aluminum tanks have been conceived for storing liquefied natural gas (LNG) in LNG-fueled motor vehicles. Heretofore, doublewall steel tanks with vacuum between the inner and outer walls have been used for storing LNG. In comparison with the vacuum- insulated steel tanks, the jacketed aluminum tanks weigh less and can be manufactured at lower cost. Costs of using the jacketed aluminum tanks are further reduced in that there is no need for the vacuum pumps heretofore needed to maintain vacuum in the vacuum-insulated tanks.

  10. Fuel tank for liquefied natural gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A storage tank is provided for storing liquefied natural gas on, for example, a motor vehicle such as a bus or truck. The storage tank includes a metal liner vessel encapsulated by a resin-fiber composite layer. A foam insulating layer, including an outer protective layer of epoxy or of a truck liner material, covers the composite layer. A non-conducting protective coating may be painted on the vessel between the composite layer and the vessel so as to inhibit galvanic corrosion.

  11. Regasification of liquefied natural gas and hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonkonog, V. G.; Tukmakov, A. L.; Muchitova, K. M.; Agalakov, U. A.; Serazetdinov, F. Sh; Gromov, B. C.

    2016-06-01

    Liquefied natural gas and hydrogen gasification process is suggested, in which vapor phase is generated by the decrease of internal energy of the liquid. Methane and hydrogen gasification processes have been numerically modeled. Flow rates of the methane and hydrogen through choke channel were defined. A satisfactory match between the modeled and experimental data for liquid nitrogen has been acquired. Technical suitability of the suggested process is proved. Based on the initial parameters of the cryogenic fluid, the amount of vapor phase is 5-20% of the flow rate.

  12. Development of a thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier.

    SciTech Connect

    Wollan, J. J.; Swift, G. W.; Backhaus, S. N.; Gardner, D. L.

    2002-01-01

    Praxair, in conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is developing a new technology, thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators, for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems will be developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed. In February 2001 Praxair, Inc. purchased the acoustic heat engine and refrigeration development program from Chart Industries. Chart (formerly Cryenco, which Chart purchased in 1997) and Los Alamos had been working on the technology development program since 1994. The purchase included assets and intellectual property rights for thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse tube refrigerators (TADOPTR), a new and revolutionary Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engine (TASHE) technology, aspects of Orifice Pulse Tube Refrigeration (OPTR) and linear motor compressors as OPTR drivers. Praxair, in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the licensor of the TADOPTR and TASHE patents, is continuing the development of TASHE-OPTR natural gas powered, natural gas liquefiers. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at -161 C (-259 F) at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 TADOPTR invention by Drs. Greg Swift (LANL) and Ray Radebaugh (NIST) demonstrated the first technology to produce cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators use acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The basic driver and refrigerator consist of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances

  13. Risk management technique for liquefied natural gas facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.

    1975-01-01

    Checklists have been compiled for planning, design, construction, startup and debugging, and operation of liquefied natural gas facilities. Lists include references to pertinent safety regulations. Methods described are applicable to handling of other hazardous materials.

  14. 75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License.... Coast Guard received an application from Liberty Natural Gas LLC for all Federal authorizations required... the transportation, storage, and further handling of oil or natural gas for transportation to...

  15. 76 FR 4417 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License... Deepwater Port License Application. The application describes an offshore natural gas deepwater port... appeared in the Federal Register on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477), see PRIVACY ACT. You may view...

  16. 78 FR 46581 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas During June 2013... authority to import and export natural gas and to import liquefied natural gas. These orders are summarized... of Fossil Energy, Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities, Docket Room 3E-033, Forrestal...

  17. 77 FR 19277 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During February 2012 FE..., ULC 12-13-NG ENCANA NATURAL GAS INC 11-163-NG ALCOA INC 12-11-NG JPMORGAN LNG CO 12-15-LNG CNE GAS... 2012, it issued Orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural...

  18. 78 FR 35014 - Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, and to Import Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, and to Import Liquefied Natural Gas During April 2013... INC 13-41-NG CASCADE NATURAL GAS CORPORATION 13-43-NG ENCANA MARKETING (USA) INC 13-44-NG CITIGROUP... natural gas and to import liquefied natural gas. These orders are summarized in the attached appendix...

  19. 77 FR 31838 - Notice of Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... of Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During April... Capital International, LLC....... 12-33-NG Phillips 66 Company 12-34-NG Northwest Natural Gas Company 12..., it issued Orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas....

  20. 77 FR 12274 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During January 2012.... DOMINION COVE POINT LNG, LP 11-98-LNG ENERGY PLUS NATURAL GAS LLC 11-155-NG BROOKFIELD ENERGY MARKETING L.P... 2012, it issued Orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural...

  1. 78 FR 19696 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas and Vacating Prior Authority During December 2012 FE Docket Nos. DIAMOND CAPITAL INTERNATIONAL... during December 2012, it issued orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and...

  2. 49 CFR 191.17 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. 191.17 Section 191.17 Transportation Other Regulations... OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE...; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. (a) Transmission or Gathering....

  3. 49 CFR 191.15 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report. 191.15 Section 191.15 Transportation Other Regulations... OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE...; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report. (a) Transmission or...

  4. 49 CFR 191.17 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. 191.17 Section 191.17 Transportation Other Regulations... OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE...; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. (a) Transmission or Gathering....

  5. 49 CFR 191.15 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report. 191.15 Section 191.15 Transportation Other Regulations... OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE...; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report. (a) Transmission or...

  6. 49 CFR 191.17 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. 191.17 Section 191.17 Transportation Other Regulations... OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE...; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. (a) Transmission or Gathering....

  7. 49 CFR 191.15 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report. 191.15 Section 191.15 Transportation Other Regulations... OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE...; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report. (a) Transmission or...

  8. 49 CFR 191.15 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report. 191.15 Section 191.15 Transportation Other Regulations... OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE...; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report. (a) Transmission or...

  9. 49 CFR 191.17 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. 191.17 Section 191.17 Transportation Other Regulations... OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE...; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. (a) Transmission or Gathering....

  10. Control method for mixed refrigerant based natural gas liquefier

    DOEpatents

    Kountz, Kenneth J.; Bishop, Patrick M.

    2003-01-01

    In a natural gas liquefaction system having a refrigerant storage circuit, a refrigerant circulation circuit in fluid communication with the refrigerant storage circuit, and a natural gas liquefaction circuit in thermal communication with the refrigerant circulation circuit, a method for liquefaction of natural gas in which pressure in the refrigerant circulation circuit is adjusted to below about 175 psig by exchange of refrigerant with the refrigerant storage circuit. A variable speed motor is started whereby operation of a compressor is initiated. The compressor is operated at full discharge capacity. Operation of an expansion valve is initiated whereby suction pressure at the suction pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 30 psig and discharge pressure at the discharge pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 350 psig. Refrigerant vapor is introduced from the refrigerant holding tank into the refrigerant circulation circuit until the suction pressure is reduced to below about 15 psig, after which flow of the refrigerant vapor from the refrigerant holding tank is terminated. Natural gas is then introduced into a natural gas liquefier, resulting in liquefaction of the natural gas.

  11. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620 Protection of... exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all the... natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have maximum engine power at or above 250...

  12. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620 Protection of... exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all the... natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have maximum engine power at or above 250...

  13. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620 Protection of... exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all the... natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have maximum engine power at or above 250...

  14. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620 Protection of... exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all the... natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have maximum engine power at or above 250...

  15. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620 Protection of... exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all the... natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have maximum engine power at or above 250...

  16. 78 FR 21349 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Compressed Natural Gas, Vacating Prior Authority and Denying Request for Rehearing During January 2013 ] FE Docket... GAS LLC 12-168-CNG MERRILL LYNCH COMMODITIES CANADA, ULC 12-169-NG GAS NATURAL PUERTO RICO INC...

  17. 77 FR 4028 - Orders Granting, Amending and Vacating Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... Granting, Amending and Vacating Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas FE Docket Nos. Gas Natural Caxitlan, S. DE R.L 11-147-NG Jordan Cove Energy Project, L.P 11-127-LNG Irving..., amending and vacating authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas. These...

  18. 78 FR 65304 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import and Export Liquefied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import and Export Liquefied Natural Gas During... issued orders granting authority to import and export natural gas, and to import and export liquefied natural gas. These orders are summarized in the attached appendix and may be found on the FE Web site...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... navigable waters within a 1000-yard radius of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tankers during their inbound... Natural Gas tankers while they are moored at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″ N and 151°24′10″ W....

  20. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... navigable waters within a 1000-yard radius of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tankers during their inbound... Natural Gas tankers while they are moored at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″ N and 151°24′10″ W....

  1. 40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-5 Table W-5 of Subpart W—Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG storage Emission factor...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... navigable waters within a 1000-yard radius of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tankers during their inbound... Natural Gas tankers while they are moored at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″ N and 151°24′10″ W....

  3. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... navigable waters within a 1000-yard radius of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tankers during their inbound... Natural Gas tankers while they are moored at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″ N and 151°24′10″ W....

  4. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... navigable waters within a 1000-yard radius of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tankers during their inbound... Natural Gas tankers while they are moored at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″ N and 151°24′10″ W....

  5. 76 FR 2093 - Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY... November 30, 2010, by Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC (Eni USA), requesting blanket authorization to export... purchasing and marketing supplies of natural gas and LNG. Eni USA is a customer of the Cameron Terminal...

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A THERMOACOUSTIC NATURAL GAS LIQUEFIER-UPDATE

    SciTech Connect

    J. WOLLAN; G. SWIFT

    2001-05-01

    Thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators are being developed for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems are developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed.

  7. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas.... Deepwater port means any facility or structure meeting the definition of deepwater port in 33 CFR...

  8. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas.... Deepwater port means any facility or structure meeting the definition of deepwater port in 33 CFR...

  9. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas.... Deepwater port means any facility or structure meeting the definition of deepwater port in 33 CFR...

  10. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas.... Deepwater port means any facility or structure meeting the definition of deepwater port in 33 CFR...

  11. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas.... Deepwater port means any facility or structure meeting the definition of deepwater port in 33 CFR...

  12. 78 FR 38024 - Magnolia LNG, LLC; Liquefied Natural Gas Limited; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Magnolia LNG, LLC; Liquefied Natural Gas Limited; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Planned Magnolia Liquefied Natural Gas Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues,...

  13. 78 FR 4401 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import and Export Liquefied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import and Export Liquefied Natural Gas, and... ENERGY INC 12-124-NG GLACIAL NATURAL GAS, INC 12-125-NG YANKEE GAS SERVICES COMPANY 12-129-NG NATIONAL..., INC 12-132-NG CONNECTICUT NATURAL GAS CORPORATION 12-133-NG THE SOUTHERN CONNECTICUT GAS COMPANY...

  14. Some insights in novel risk modeling of liquefied natural gas carrier maintenance operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwaoha, T. C.; John, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    This study discusses the analysis of various modeling approaches and maintenance techniques applicable to the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier operations in the maritime environment. Various novel modeling techniques are discussed; including genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and evidential reasoning. We also identify the usefulness of these algorithms in the LNG carrier industry in the areas of risk assessment and maintenance modeling.

  15. Some insights in novel risk modeling of liquefied natural gas carrier maintenance operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwaoha, T. C.; John, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    This study discusses the analysis of various modeling approaches and maintenance techniques applicable to the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier operations in the maritime environment. Various novel modeling techniques are discussed; including genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and evidential reasoning. We also identify the usefulness of these algorithms in the LNG carrier industry in the areas of risk assessment and maintenance modeling.

  16. 33 CFR 165.502 - Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. 165.502 Section 165.502 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.502 Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural...

  17. 33 CFR 165.502 - Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. 165.502 Section 165.502 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.502 Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural...

  18. 33 CFR 165.502 - Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. 165.502 Section 165.502 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.502 Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural...

  19. 33 CFR 165.502 - Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. 165.502 Section 165.502 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.502 Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural...

  20. 33 CFR 165.502 - Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. 165.502 Section 165.502 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.502 Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural...

  1. Comparative analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) used by transit agencies in Texas. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Lede, N.W.

    1997-09-01

    This study is a detailed comparative analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG). The study provides data on two alternative fuels used by transit agencies in Texas. First, we examine the `state-of-the- art` in alternative fuels to established a framework for the study. Efforts were made to examine selected characteristics of two types of natural gas demonstrations in terms of the following properties: energy source characteristics, vehicle performance and emissions, operations, maintenance, reliability, safety costs, and fuel availability. Where feasible, two alternative fuels were compared with conventional gasoline and diesel fuel. Environmental considerations relative to fuel distribution and use are analyzed, with a focus on examining flammability an other safety-related issues. The objectives of the study included: (1) assess the state-of-the-art and document relevant findings pertaining to alternative fuels; (2) analyze and synthesize existing databases on two natural gas alternatives: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG): and (3) compare two alterative fuels used by transit properties in Texas, and address selected aspects of alternative fuels such as energy source characteristics, vehicle performance and emissions, safety, costs, maintenance and operations, environmental and related issues.

  2. Liquefied natural gas as a transportation fuel for heavy-duty trucks: Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This document contains Volume 1 of a three-volume manual designed for use with a 2- to 3-day liquefied natural gas (LNG) training course. Transportation and off-road agricultural, mining, construction, and industrial applications are discussed. This volume provides a brief introduction to the physics and chemistry of LNG; an overview of several ongoing LNG projects, economic considerations, LNG fuel station technology, LNG vehicles, and a summary of federal government programs that encourage conversion to LNG.

  3. On the application of computational fluid dynamics codes for liquefied natural gas dispersion.

    SciTech Connect

    Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Koopman, Ronald P.; Ermak, Donald

    2006-02-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are increasingly being used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry to predict natural gas dispersion distances. This paper addresses several issues regarding the use of CFD for LNG dispersion such as specification of the domain, grid, boundary and initial conditions. A description of the k-{var_epsilon} model is presented, along with modifications required for atmospheric flows. Validation issues pertaining to the experimental data from the Burro, Coyote, and Falcon series of LNG dispersion experiments are also discussed. A description of the atmosphere is provided as well as discussion on the inclusion of the Coriolis force to model very large LNG spills.

  4. 78 FR 75337 - Eos LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From Domestic Natural Gas Resources to Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries for a 25-Year Period AGENCY: Office of Fossil... natural gas, or 1.6 Bcf per day (Bcf/d). Eos seeks authorization to export the LNG for a 25-year term...

  5. 78 FR 75339 - Barca LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From Domestic Natural Gas Resources to Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries for a 25-Year Period AGENCY: Office of...) of natural gas, or 1.6 Bcf per day (Bcf/d). Barca seeks authorization to export the LNG for a...

  6. Analysis of temperature and pressure changes in liquefied natural gas (LNG) cryogenic tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q.-S.; Wegrzyn, J.; Prasad, V.

    2004-10-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a transportation fuel for heavy vehicles such as trucks and transit buses, to lessen the dependency on oil and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The LNG stations are properly designed to prevent the venting of natural gas (NG) from LNG tanks, which can cause evaporative greenhouse gas emissions and result in fluctuations of fuel flow and changes of fuel composition. Boil-off is caused by the heat added into the LNG fuel during the storage and fueling. Heat can leak into the LNG fuel through the shell of tank during the storage and through hoses and dispensers during the fueling. Gas from tanks onboard vehicles, when returned to LNG tanks, can add additional heat into the LNG fuel. A thermodynamic and heat transfer model has been developed to analyze different mechanisms of heat leak into the LNG fuel. The evolving of properties and compositions of LNG fuel inside LNG tanks is simulated. The effect of a number of buses fueled each day on the possible total fuel loss rate has been analyzed. It is found that by increasing the number of buses, fueled each day, the total fuel loss rate can be reduced significantly. It is proposed that an electric generator be used to consume the boil-off gas or a liquefier be used to re-liquefy the boil-off gas to reduce the tank pressure and eliminate fuel losses. These approaches can prevent boil-off of natural gas emissions, and reduce the costs of LNG as transportation fuel.

  7. Development of a Small-Scale Natural Gas Liquefier. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kountz, K.; Kriha, K.; Liss, W.; Perry, M.; Richards, M.; Zuckerman, D.

    2003-04-30

    This final report describes the progress during the contract period March 1, 1998 through April 30, 2003, on the design, development, and testing of a novel mixed-refrigerant-based 1000 gal/day natural gas liquefier, together with the associated gas cleanup equipment. Based on the work, it is concluded that a cost-effective 1000 gal/day liquefaction system is technically and economically feasible. A unit based on the same developed technology, with 5000 gal/day capacity, would have much improved economics.

  8. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Sturges, Andy; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2009-12-09

    An increasing share of natural gas supplies distributed to residential appliances in the U.S. may come from liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports. The imported gas will be of a higher Wobbe number than domestic gas, and there is concern that it could produce more pollutant emissions at the point of use. This report will review recently undertaken studies, some of which have observed substantial effects on various appliances when operated on different mixtures of imported LNG. While we will summarize findings of major studies, we will not try to characterize broad effects of LNG, but describe how different components of the appliance itself will be affected by imported LNG. This paper considers how the operation of each major component of the gas appliances may be impacted by a switch to LNG, and how this local impact may affect overall safety, performance and pollutant emissions.

  9. Effect of Increased Levels of Liquefied Natural Gas Exports on U.S. Energy Markets

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    This report responds to a May 29, 2014 request from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE) for an update of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) January 2012 study of liquefied natural gas (LNG) export scenarios. This updated study, like the prior one, is intended to serve as an input to be considered in the evaluation of applications to export LNG from the United States under Section 3 of the Natural Gas Act, which requires DOE to grant a permit to export domestically produced natural gas unless it finds that such action is not consistent with the public interest. Appendix A provides a copy of the DOE/FE request letter.

  10. Breach and safety analysis of spills over water from large liquefied natural gas carriers.

    SciTech Connect

    Hightower, Marion Michael; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Attaway, Stephen W.

    2008-05-01

    In 2004, at the request of the Department of Energy, Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) prepared a report, ''Guidance on the Risk and Safety Analysis of Large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Spills Over Water''. That report provided framework for assessing hazards and identifying approaches to minimize the consequences to people and property from an LNG spill over water. The report also presented the general scale of possible hazards from a spill from 125,000 m3 o 150,000 m3 class LNG carriers, at the time the most common LNG carrier capacity.

  11. 40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W Protection of Environment... Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-5 Table W-5 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG storage Emission factor...

  12. 40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W Protection of Environment... Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-5 Table W-5 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG storage Emission factor...

  13. Leak response gelling of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Final report Jan-Oct 81

    SciTech Connect

    Tarpley, W.B. Jr; Twesme, E.N.; Zatko, J.R.

    1981-03-01

    Techniques for thixotropic gelling of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in response to leak or rupture in an LNG container were examined, and the hazard-reducing potential of the technique was demonstrated by limiting mobility and reducing evaporation and burning rate. Of 30 candidate gelants for liquefied methane evaluated, gels of highest yield stress and lowest evaporation rate were obtained with carbon blacks and pyrogenic silica, and means were investigated for reducing the volume requirements of these low bulk-density materials; these included the addition of a surfactant, gelant concentration in a liquid carrier at least partially soluble in methane, and pelletization. All of these techniques showed promise, and pelletization of the low-density gelants reduced required gelant volume to 11 percent of the undensified volume. High-shear mixing of the densified gelants as well as of high-density gelants such as bentonite clay into a methane homolog at room temperature improved the speed of gelation. Other dispersion techniques were investigated. It is recommended that future research optimize gelling and dispersion techniques for industry use and develop hardware designs for long-term gelant storage and rapid introduction in the event of spillage.

  14. The influence of liquefied natural gas composition on its behavior as a coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbano, A.; Nasuti, F.

    2013-03-01

    Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is a suitable propellant to be used, together with liquid oxygen as oxidizer, in a liquid rocket engine, because of possible advantages with respect to hydrogen in specific applications. Often approximated as pure methane, LNG is a mixture of methane, other heavier hydrocarbons and nitrogen. If LNG is to be used in a regeneratively cooled liquid rocket engine, the knowledge of the thermodynamic and heat transfer characteristics when it flows in the cooling channels is of primary importance. The aim of the present work is to understand how the composition of LNG can influence the flow in the cooling channels. A parametric study is carried out considering different LNG compositions and heat flux levels. Attention is devoted to the pressure drop and cooling capabilities, which are the aspects that have to be controlled in a regenerative cooling system.

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) production cycle in APCI process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezhad, Shahrooz Abbasi; Shabani, Bezhan; Soleimani, Majid

    2012-12-01

    The appropriate production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) with least consuming energy and maximum efficiency is quite important. In this paper, LNG production cycle by means of APCI Process has been studied. Energy equilibrium equations and exergy equilibrium equations of each equipment in the APCI cycle were established. The equipments are described using rigorous thermodynamics and no significant simplification is assumed. Taken some operating parameters as key parameters, influences of these parameters on coefficient of performance (COP) and exergy efficiency of the cascading cycle were analyzed. The results indicate that COP and exergy efficiency will be improved with the increasing of the inlet pressure of MR (mixed refrigerant) compressors, the decreasing of the NG and MR after precooling process, outlet pressure of turbine, inlet temperature of MR compressor and NG temperature after cooling in main cryogenic heat exchanger (MCHE). The COP and exergy efficiency of the APCI cycle will be above 2% and 40%, respectively, after optimizing the key parameters.

  16. Supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mulan Xiaofeng

    My dissertation concentrates on several aspects of supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry, including gas pipeline transportations, ocean LNG shipping logistics, and downstream storage. Chapter 1 briefly introduces the natural gas and LNG industries, and the topics studied in this thesis. Chapter 2 studies how to value U.S. natural gas pipeline network transport contracts as real options. It is common for natural gas shippers to value and manage contracts by simple adaptations of financial spread option formulas that do not fully account for the implications of the capacity limits and the network structure that distinguish these contracts. In contrast, we show that these operational features can be fully captured and integrated with financial considerations in a fairly easy and managerially significant manner by a model that combines linear programming and simulation. We derive pathwise estimators for the so called deltas and structurally characterize them. We interpret them in a novel fashion as discounted expectations, under a specific weighing distribution, of the amounts of natural gas to be procured/marketed when optimally using pipeline capacity. Based on the actual prices of traded natural gas futures and basis swaps, we show that an enhanced version of the common approach employed in practice can significantly underestimate the true value of natural gas pipeline network capacity. Our model also exhibits promising financial (delta) hedging performance. Thus, this model emerges as an easy to use and useful tool that natural gas shippers can employ to support their valuation and delta hedging decisions concerning natural gas pipeline network transport capacity contracts. Moreover, the insights that follow from our data analysis have broader significance and implications in terms of the management of real options beyond our specific application. Motivated by current developments

  17. Economic and environmental assessment of liquefied natural gas as a supplemental aircraft fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withers, Mitch R.; Malina, Robert; Gilmore, Christopher K.; Gibbs, Jonathan M.; Trigg, Chris; Wolfe, Philip J.; Trivedi, Parthsarathi; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2014-04-01

    In 2013, natural gas is 70-80% cheaper than jet fuel on an energy basis. As an alternative aviation fuel, natural gas may reduce operating costs. In this paper, we assess the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a supplemental aircraft fuel in a military context, with detailed assessments of the Lockheed Martin C-130H and C-130J transport aircraft. We estimate the cost of retrofitting these aircraft to use LNG and the savings from reduced fuel expenses. We evaluate the societal impacts of LNG within a cost-benefit framework, taking into account resource consumption, human health impacts related to air quality, and climate damage. In order to compare alternative uses of natural gas in aviation, we include in our analysis Fischer-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas as a drop-in alternative. Uncertainty analysis is performed with Monte Carlo simulations. We find that aircraft operators can save up to 14% on fuel expenses (retrofit costs included) by employing LNG retrofits, with a 95% confidence interval of 2-23%. Society can also benefit by 12% (3-20%) from LNG use as a result of improved surface air quality, lower resource consumption, and net climate neutrality. These results are highly dependent on fuel prices, the quantity and cost of the LNG retrofits, and the frequency and length of missions. FT jet fuel is not cost-competitive with conventional fuel and results in increased fuel expenses by 17%. FT fuel provides marginal societal benefits relative to jet fuel.

  18. Portable, fast-response gas sensor for measuring methane and ethane and propane in liquefied natural gas spills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, G. E.; Kiefer, R. D.; Gillespie, C. H.; McRae, T. G.; Goldwire, H. C.; Koopman, R. P.

    1983-10-01

    We have developed a four-band, IR radiometer for measuring methane and ethane plus propane in the 1% to 100% gas per volume of air range in liquefied natural gas spills. The instrument is a small and lightweight open-cell, pyroelectric detector-based sensor designed for field use. It compensates for attenuation because of dense fog and is sufficiently hardened to allow continuous operation in the transient flame front of an ignited natural gas cloud. The sensor transmits five determinations of the gas concentration each second to a data-collection station on an interrupt-driven, serial data link. It has an operational power requirement of 15 W at 12 V dc.

  19. Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi; Olewski, Tomasz; Vechot, Luc; Mannan, M Sam

    2014-09-15

    With increasing consumption of natural gas, the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) utilization has become an issue that requires a comprehensive study on the risk of LNG spillage in facilities with mitigation measures. The immediate hazard associated with an LNG spill is the vapor hazard, i.e., a flammable vapor cloud at the ground level, due to rapid vaporization and dense gas behavior. It was believed that high expansion foam mitigated LNG vapor hazard through warming effect (raising vapor buoyancy), but the boil-off effect increased vaporization rate due to the heat from water drainage of foam. This work reveals the existence of blocking effect (blocking convection and radiation to the pool) to reduce vaporization rate. The blanketing effect on source term (vaporization rate) is a combination of boil-off and blocking effect, which was quantitatively studied through seven tests conducted in a wind tunnel with liquid nitrogen. Since the blocking effect reduces more heat to the pool than the boil-off effect adds, the blanketing effect contributes to the net reduction of heat convection and radiation to the pool by 70%. Water drainage rate of high expansion foam is essential to determine the effectiveness of blanketing effect, since water provides the boil-off effect. PMID:25194555

  20. AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect

    Carerras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Lunden, Melissa; Singer, Brett

    2011-07-01

    The effects of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on pollutant emission inventories and air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California were evaluated using recent LNG emission measurements by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas), and with a state-of-the-art air quality model. Pollutant emissions can be affected by LNG owing to differences in composition and physical properties, including the Wobbe index, a measure of energy delivery rate. This analysis uses LNG distribution scenarios developed by modeling Southern California gas flows, including supplies from the LNG receiving terminal in Baja California, Mexico. Based on these scenarios, the projected penetratino of LNG in the South Coast Air Basin is expected to be limited. In addition, the increased Wobbe index of delivered gas (resulting from mixtures of LNG and conventional gas supplies) is expected to cause increases smaller than 0.05 percent in overall (area-wide) emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). BAsed on the photochemical state of the South Coast Air Basin, any increase in NOx is expected to cause an increase in the highest local ozone concentrations, and this is reflected in model results. However, the magnitude of the increase is well below the generally accepted accuracy of the model and would not be discernible with the existing monitoring network. Modeling of hypothetical scenarios indicates that discernible changes to ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations would occur only at LNG distribution rates that are not achievable with current or planned infrastructure and with Wobbe index vlaues that exceed current gas quality tariffs. Results of these hypothetical scenarios are presented for consideration of any proposed substantial expansion of LNG supply infrastructure in Southern California.

  1. Proposing a novel combined cycle for optimal exergy recovery of liquefied natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimpour, M. R.; Zahedi, M. A.

    2012-08-01

    The effective utilization of the cryogenic exergy associated with liquefied natural gas (LNG) vaporization is important. In this paper, a novel combined power cycle is proposed which utilizes LNG in different ways to enhance the power generation of a power plant. In addition to the direct expansion in the appropriate expander, LNG is used as a low-temperature heat sink for a middle-pressure gas cycle which uses nitrogen as working fluid. Also, LNG is used to cool the inlet air of an open Brayton gas turbine cycle. These measures are accomplished to improve the exergy recovery of LNG. In order to analyze the performance of the system, the influence of several key parameters such as pressure ratio of LNG turbine, ratio of the mass flow rate of LNG to the mass flow rate of air, pressure ratio of different compressors, LNG pressure and inlet pressure of nitrogen compressor, on the thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency of the offered cycle is investigated. Finally, the proposed combined cycle is optimized on the basis of first and second laws of thermodynamics.

  2. Supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mulan Xiaofeng

    My dissertation concentrates on several aspects of supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry, including gas pipeline transportations, ocean LNG shipping logistics, and downstream storage. Chapter 1 briefly introduces the natural gas and LNG industries, and the topics studied in this thesis. Chapter 2 studies how to value U.S. natural gas pipeline network transport contracts as real options. It is common for natural gas shippers to value and manage contracts by simple adaptations of financial spread option formulas that do not fully account for the implications of the capacity limits and the network structure that distinguish these contracts. In contrast, we show that these operational features can be fully captured and integrated with financial considerations in a fairly easy and managerially significant manner by a model that combines linear programming and simulation. We derive pathwise estimators for the so called deltas and structurally characterize them. We interpret them in a novel fashion as discounted expectations, under a specific weighing distribution, of the amounts of natural gas to be procured/marketed when optimally using pipeline capacity. Based on the actual prices of traded natural gas futures and basis swaps, we show that an enhanced version of the common approach employed in practice can significantly underestimate the true value of natural gas pipeline network capacity. Our model also exhibits promising financial (delta) hedging performance. Thus, this model emerges as an easy to use and useful tool that natural gas shippers can employ to support their valuation and delta hedging decisions concerning natural gas pipeline network transport capacity contracts. Moreover, the insights that follow from our data analysis have broader significance and implications in terms of the management of real options beyond our specific application. Motivated by current developments

  3. Report on issues regarding the existing New York liquefied natural gas moratorium

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The New York Energy Planning Board has prepared this study to provide the Governor and the Legislature with information necessary to determine the need for further extension or modification of the existing State moratorium on the siting of new liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities and intrastate transportation routes as required by Chapter 385 of the laws of 1997. The report examines existing laws and regulations that would affect new LNG facilities in New York and government initiatives in other states. It reviews existing use of LNG in New York, including safety issues and potential public concerns that may arise with lifting the moratorium. It also discusses the economic and environmental effects of increased LNG usage for New York State. The study concludes that there are economic and environmental advantages for allowing the construction of new LNG facilities as well as the intrastate transportation of LNG over new routes. Additionally, it concludes that safety concerns associated with these facilities are adequately addressed by existing Federal, State and local statutes and regulations.

  4. Experimental and numerical investigation of the roll motion behavior of a floating liquefied natural gas system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, WenHua; Yang, JianMin; Hu, ZhiQiang; Xiao, LongFei; Peng, Tao

    2013-03-01

    The present paper does an experimental and numerical investigation of the hydrodynamic interaction and the response of a single point turret-moored Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) system, which is a new type of floating LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) platform that consists of a ship-type FPSO hull equipped with LNG storage tanks and liquefaction plants. In particular, this study focuses on the investigation of the roll response of FLNG hull in free-decay motions, white noise waves and also in irregular waves. Model tests of the FLNG system in 60%H filling condition excited by both white noise waves and irregular waves combined with steady wind and current have been carried out. Response Amplitude Operators (RAOs) and time histories of the responses are obtained for sway, roll and yaw motions. Obvious Low Frequency (LF) components of the roll motions are observed, which may be out of expectation. To facilitate the physical understanding of this phenomenon, we filter the roll motions at the period of 30 s into two parts: the Wave Frequency (WF) motions and the Low Frequency (LF) motions respectively. The results indicate that the LF motions are closely related to the sway and yaw motions. Possible reasons for the presence of the LF motions of roll have been discussed in detail, through the comparison with the sway and yaw motions. As for the numerical part, the simulation of the modeled case is conducted with the help of the software SESAM®. A good agreement between experiments and calculations is reported within the scope of trends. However, the numerical simulations should be further improved for the prediction of the FLNG system in the heading sea.

  5. Risks in the transport and storage of liquefied natural gas. Sub-project 5-2: Investigation into building damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouwens, C.; Dragosavic, M.

    The large reserves and increasing use of natural gas as a source of energy have resulted in its storage and transport becoming an urgent problem. Since a liquid of the same mass occupies only a fraction of the volume of a gas, it is economical to store natural gas as a liquid. Liquefied natural gas is stored in insulated tanks and also carried by ship at a temperature of -160 C to 170 C. If a serious accident allows the LNG to escape, a gas cloud forms. The results of a possible explosion from such a gas cloud are studied. The development of a leak, escape and evaporation, size and propagation of the gas cloud, the explosive pressures to be expected and the results on the environment are investigated. Damage to buildings is examined making use of the preliminary conclusions of the other sub-projects and especially the explosive pressures.

  6. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. liquefied natural gas exports: implications for end uses.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Leslie S; Samaras, Constantine; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2015-03-01

    This study analyzes how incremental U.S. liquefied natural gas (LNG) exports affect global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We find that exported U.S. LNG has mean precombustion emissions of 37 g CO2-equiv/MJ when regasified in Europe and Asia. Shipping emissions of LNG exported from U.S. ports to Asian and European markets account for only 3.5-5.5% of precombustion life cycle emissions, hence shipping distance is not a major driver of GHGs. A scenario-based analysis addressing how potential end uses (electricity and industrial heating) and displacement of existing fuels (coal and Russian natural gas) affect GHG emissions shows the mean emissions for electricity generation using U.S. exported LNG were 655 g CO2-equiv/kWh (with a 90% confidence interval of 562-770), an 11% increase over U.S. natural gas electricity generation. Mean emissions from industrial heating were 104 g CO2-equiv/MJ (90% CI: 87-123). By displacing coal, LNG saves 550 g CO2-equiv per kWh of electricity and 20 g per MJ of heat. LNG saves GHGs under upstream fugitive emissions rates up to 9% and 5% for electricity and heating, respectively. GHG reductions were found if Russian pipeline natural gas was displaced for electricity and heating use regardless of GWP, as long as U.S. fugitive emission rates remain below the estimated 5-7% rate of Russian gas. However, from a country specific carbon accounting perspective, there is an imbalance in accrued social costs and benefits. Assuming a mean social cost of carbon of $49/metric ton, mean global savings from U.S. LNG displacement of coal for electricity generation are $1.50 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf) of gaseous natural gas exported as LNG ($.028/kWh). Conversely, the U.S. carbon cost of exporting the LNG is $1.80/Mcf ($.013/kWh), or $0.50-$5.50/Mcf across the range of potential discount rates. This spatial shift in embodied carbon emissions is important to consider in national interest estimates for LNG exports. PMID:25650513

  7. 18 CFR 157.212 - Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... natural gas facilities. 157.212 Section 157.212 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES... 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section...

  8. 18 CFR 157.212 - Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... natural gas facilities. 157.212 Section 157.212 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES... 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section...

  9. 18 CFR 157.212 - Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... natural gas facilities. 157.212 Section 157.212 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES... 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section...

  10. 18 CFR 157.212 - Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... natural gas facilities. 157.212 Section 157.212 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES... 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section...

  11. 18 CFR 157.212 - Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... natural gas facilities. 157.212 Section 157.212 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES... 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section...

  12. 77 FR 38128 - Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... Maritime Administration Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied... Terminal LP's (TORP) withdrawal of the deepwater port license application for the proposed Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal (BOET). All actions related to the processing and agency coordination...

  13. Analysis of Influence of Heat Insulation on the Thermal Regime of Storage Tanks with Liquefied Natural Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimov, Vyacheslav I.; Nagornova, Tatiana A.; Glazyrin, Viktor P.; Shestakov, Igor A.

    2016-02-01

    Is numerically investigated the process of convective heat transfer in the reservoirs of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The regimes of natural convection in a closed rectangular region with different intensity of heat exchange at the external borders are investigated. Is solved the time-dependent system of energy and Navier-Stokes equations in the dimensionless variables "vorticity - the stream function". Are obtained distributions of the hydrodynamic parameters and temperatures, that characterize basic regularities of the processes. The special features of the formation of circulation flows are isolated and the analysis of the temperature distribution in the solution region is carried out. Is shown the influence of geometric characteristics and intensity of heat exchange on the outer boundaries of reservoir on the temperature field in the LNG storage.

  14. Guidance on risk analysis and safety implications of a large liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill over water.

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Gerald William; Melof, Brian Matthew; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Hightower, Marion Michael; Covan, John Morgan; Gritzo, Louis Alan; Irwin, Michael James; Kaneshige, Michael Jiro; Morrow, Charles W.

    2004-12-01

    While recognized standards exist for the systematic safety analysis of potential spills or releases from LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) storage terminals and facilities on land, no equivalent set of standards or guidance exists for the evaluation of the safety or consequences from LNG spills over water. Heightened security awareness and energy surety issues have increased industry's and the public's attention to these activities. The report reviews several existing studies of LNG spills with respect to their assumptions, inputs, models, and experimental data. Based on this review and further analysis, the report provides guidance on the appropriateness of models, assumptions, and risk management to address public safety and property relative to a potential LNG spill over water.

  15. Estimated uncertainty of calculated liquefied natural gas density from a comparison of NBS and Gaz de France densimeter test facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Siegwarth, J.D.; LaBrecque, J.F.; Roncier, M.; Philippe, R.; Saint-Just, J.

    1982-12-16

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) densities can be measured directly but are usually determined indirectly in custody transfer measurement by using a density correlation based on temperature and composition measurements. An LNG densimeter test facility at the National Bureau of Standards uses an absolute densimeter based on the Archimedes principle, while a test facility at Gaz de France uses a correlation method based on measurement of composition and density. A comparison between these two test facilities using a portable version of the absolute densimeter provides an experimental estimate of the uncertainty of the indirect method of density measurement for the first time, on a large (32 L) sample. The two test facilities agree for pure methane to within about 0.02%. For the LNG-like mixtures consisting of methane, ethane, propane, and nitrogen with the methane concentrations always higher than 86%, the calculated density is within 0.25% of the directly measured density 95% of the time.

  16. 77 FR 16471 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... contained in a PHMSA Advisory Bulletin published on January 13, 2012 (77 FR 2126). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... the Federal Register (75 FR 72878) titled: ``Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied... requirements, PHMSA issued a 60-day Federal Register notice on December 13, 2010 (75 FR 77694), and a...

  17. LNG (liquefied natural gas) as a fuel and refrigerant for diesel powered shrimp boats

    SciTech Connect

    Acker, G. Jr.; Brett, C.E.; Schaetzle, W.J.; Song, Y.K.

    1988-01-01

    A 3406-B Caterpillar and a 4.236 Perkins have been converted from their standard diesel configuration to dual-fuel engines. These engines operate using an aspirated charge of natural gas and a pilot charge of diesel fuel. The pilot is injected for combustion initiation, performing the same task as a spark plug in a spark ignition engine. Natural gas supplies 80% of the total heat addition at full load for both engines. The diesel fuel provides ignition, performs the function of idling the engine, and acts as a coolant for the injector tips. The diesel pilot setting remains constant throughout the operating range and provides a regular repeatable idle for the engine during no-load operation. A shrimp boat is being used to evaluate the dual-fuel system. The vessel normally carries 16000 1 of diesel fuel giving it a trip length of 14-21 days. To operate on natural gas with similar trip length requires liquification and cryogenic storage at -163/sup 0/C. This type of storage provides the necessary energy density needed for on board fuel storage. A 22 m shrimp boat will carry approximately 17000 1 of LNG in insulated tanks. Urethane insulation is used as both an insulator against heat leak and as a partial tank support structure.

  18. Foam production as a side effect of an offshore liquefied natural gas terminal: how do plankton deal with it?

    PubMed

    Franzo, Annalisa; Karuza, Ana; Celussi, Mauro; Fornasaro, Daniela; Beran, Alfred; Di Poi, Elena; Del Negro, Paola

    2015-06-01

    The future growing demand of fossil fuels likely will lead to an increased deployment of liquefied natural gas terminals. However, some concerns exist about their possible effects on the marine environment and biota. Such plants showed to cause the production of foam, as occurred at the still operative terminal of Porto Viro (northern Adriatic Sea). Here, we present results from two microcosm experiments focused on the effects of such foam on microbially mediated degradation processes and its consequent incorporation within the pelagic food web. Such material could be considered as a heterogeneous matrix of both living and non-living organic matter, which constitutes an important substrate for exoenzymes as suggested by the faster hydrolytic rates measured in the treatment microcosms. In the second experiment, a quite immediate and efficient carbon transfer to planktonic biomass through prokaryotic incorporation and consequent predation by heterotrophic flagellates was highlighted. Although no negative effect was evidenced on the overall microbes' growth and foam-derived C seemed to be easily reworked and transferred to higher trophic levels, an important reduction in biodiversity was evidenced for microalgae. Among them, mixotrophic organisms seemed to be favoured suggesting that the addition of foam could cause a modification of the microbial community structure. PMID:25877905

  19. An assessment of air emissions from liquefied natural gas ships using different power systems and different fuels.

    PubMed

    Afon, Yinka; Ervin, David

    2008-03-01

    The shipping industry has been an unrecognized source of criteria pollutants: nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds, coarse particulate matter (PM10), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO). Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has traditionally been transported via steam turbine (ST) ships. Recently, LNG shippers have begun using dual-fuel diesel engines (DFDEs) to propel and offload their cargoes. Both the conventional ST boilers and DFDE are capable of burning a range of fuels, from heavy fuel oil to boil-off-gas (BOG) from the LNG load. In this paper a method for estimating the emissions from ST boilers and DFDEs during LNG offloading operations at berth is presented, along with typical emissions from LNG ships during offloading operations under different scenarios ranging from worst-case fuel oil combustion to the use of shore power. The impact on air quality in nonattainment areas where LNG ships call is discussed. Current and future air pollution control regulations for ocean-going vessels (OGVs) such as LNG ships are also discussed. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare emissions of criteria pollutants from conventional ST and DFDE ships using different fuels. The results of this study suggest that newer DFDE ships have lower SO2 and PM2.5/PM10 emissions, conventional ST ships have lower NOx, volatile organic compound, and CO emissions; and DFDE ships utilizing shore power at berth produce no localized emissions because they draw their required power from the local electric grid. PMID:18376643

  20. EXAMINE AND EVALUATE A PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; D. Braxton Scherz

    2003-04-24

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy cooperative research project is to define, describe, and validate, a process to utilize salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships. The project defines the process as receiving LNG from a ship, pumping the LNG up to cavern injection pressures, warming it to cavern compatible temperatures, injecting the warmed vapor directly into salt caverns for storage, and distribution to the pipeline network. The performance of work under this agreement is based on U.S. Patent 5,511,905, and other U.S. and Foreign pending patent applications. The cost sharing participants in the research are The National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. Department of Energy), BP America Production Company, Bluewater Offshore Production Systems (U.S.A.), Inc., and HNG Storage, L.P. Initial results indicate that a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at about half the capital cost, less than half the operating costs and would have significantly higher delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. There is a significant body of knowledge and practice concerning natural gas storage in salt caverns, and there is a considerable body of knowledge and practice in handling LNG, but there has never been any attempt to develop a process whereby the two technologies can be combined. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or terrorist acts, and much more acceptable to the community. The project team developed conceptual designs of two salt cavern based LNG terminals, one with caverns located in Calcasieu Parish Louisiana, and the second in Vermilion block 179 about 50 miles offshore Louisiana. These conceptual designs were compared to conventional tank based LNG terminals and demonstrate superior security, economy and capacity. The potential for the development of LNG receiving terminals

  1. 75 FR 38092 - The Dow Chemical Company; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Gas Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000... Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042,1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585, (202) 586... and Supply docket room, 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585. The docket...

  2. A methodology for risk analysis based on hybrid Bayesian networks: application to the regasification system of liquefied natural gas onboard a floating storage and regasification unit.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marcelo Ramos; Schleder, Adriana Miralles; Droguett, Enrique López

    2014-12-01

    This article presents an iterative six-step risk analysis methodology based on hybrid Bayesian networks (BNs). In typical risk analysis, systems are usually modeled as discrete and Boolean variables with constant failure rates via fault trees. Nevertheless, in many cases, it is not possible to perform an efficient analysis using only discrete and Boolean variables. The approach put forward by the proposed methodology makes use of BNs and incorporates recent developments that facilitate the use of continuous variables whose values may have any probability distributions. Thus, this approach makes the methodology particularly useful in cases where the available data for quantification of hazardous events probabilities are scarce or nonexistent, there is dependence among events, or when nonbinary events are involved. The methodology is applied to the risk analysis of a regasification system of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on board an FSRU (floating, storage, and regasification unit). LNG is becoming an important energy source option and the world's capacity to produce LNG is surging. Large reserves of natural gas exist worldwide, particularly in areas where the resources exceed the demand. Thus, this natural gas is liquefied for shipping and the storage and regasification process usually occurs at onshore plants. However, a new option for LNG storage and regasification has been proposed: the FSRU. As very few FSRUs have been put into operation, relevant failure data on FSRU systems are scarce. The results show the usefulness of the proposed methodology for cases where the risk analysis must be performed under considerable uncertainty. PMID:25041168

  3. Comments on Potential Geologic and Seismic Hazards Affecting Proposed Liquefied Natural Gas Site in Santa Monica Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Stephanie L.; Lee, Homa J.; Parsons, Tom E.; Beyer, Larry A.; Boore, David M.; Conrad, James E.; Edwards, Brian D.; Fisher, Michael A.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Geist, Eric L.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Hough, Susan E.; Kayen, Robert E.; Lorenson, T.D.; Luco, Nicolas; McCrory, Patricia A.; McGann, Mary; Nathenson, Manuel; Nolan, Michael; Petersen, Mark D.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Powell, Charles L.; Ryan, Holly F.; Tinsley, John C., III; Wills, Chris J.; Wong, Florence L.; Xu, Jingping

    2008-01-01

    In a letter to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) dated March 25, 2008, Representative Jane Harman (California 36th district) requested advice on geologic hazards that should be considered in the review of a proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility off the California coast in Santa Monica Bay. In 2004, the USGS responded to a similar request from Representative Lois Capps, regarding two proposed LNG facilities offshore Ventura County, Calif., with a report summarizing potential geologic and seismic hazards (Ross and others, 2004). The proposed LNG Deepwater Port (DWP) facility includes single point moorings (SPMs) and 35 miles of underwater pipelines. The DWP submersible buoys, manifolds, and risers would be situated on the floor of the southern Santa Monica Basin, in 3,000 feet of water, about 23 miles offshore of the Palos Verdes Peninsula. Twin 24-inch diameter pipelines would extend northeastward from the buoys across the basin floor, up the basin slope and across the continental shelf, skirting north around the Santa Monica submarine canyon. Figure 1 provides locations of the project and geologic features. Acronyms are defined in table 1. This facility is being proposed in a region of known geologic hazards that arise from both the potential for strong earthquakes and geologic processes related to sediment transport and accumulation in the offshore environment. The probability of a damaging earthquake (considered here as magnitude 6.5 or greater) in the next 30 years within about 30 miles (50 km) of the proposed pipeline ranges from 16% at the pipeline's offshore end to 48% where it nears land (Petersen, 2008). Earthquakes of this magnitude are capable of producing strong shaking, surface fault offsets, liquefaction phenomena, landslides, underwater turbidity currents and debris flow avalanches, and tsunamis. As part of the DWP license application for the Woodside Natural Gas proposal in Santa Monica Bay (known as the OceanWay Secure Energy Project), Fugro

  4. 40 CFR 1065.720 - Liquefied petroleum gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas. 1065.720... Standards § 1065.720 Liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, liquefied petroleum gas for testing must meet the specifications in the following table: Table 1 of §...

  5. 40 CFR 1065.720 - Liquefied petroleum gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas. 1065.720... Standards § 1065.720 Liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, liquefied petroleum gas for testing must meet the specifications in the following table: Table 1 of §...

  6. 49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation of a motor vehicle or for...

  7. 49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation of a motor vehicle or for...

  8. 40 CFR 1065.720 - Liquefied petroleum gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas. 1065.720... Standards § 1065.720 Liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, liquefied petroleum gas for testing must meet the specifications in the following table: Table 1 of §...

  9. 49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation of a motor vehicle or for...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.720 - Liquefied petroleum gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas. 1065.720... Standards § 1065.720 Liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, liquefied petroleum gas for testing must meet the specifications in the following table: Table 1 of §...

  11. 49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation of a motor vehicle or for...

  12. 40 CFR 1065.720 - Liquefied petroleum gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas. 1065.720... Standards § 1065.720 Liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, liquefied petroleum gas for testing must meet the specifications in the following table: Table 1 of §...

  13. 49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation of a motor vehicle or for...

  14. 46 CFR 188.10-43 - Liquefied flammable gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas. 188.10-43 Section 188.10-43... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-43 Liquefied flammable gas. This term means any flammable gas having a Reid vapor pressure exceeding 40 p.s.i. which has been liquefied....

  15. 46 CFR 188.10-43 - Liquefied flammable gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas. 188.10-43 Section 188.10-43... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-43 Liquefied flammable gas. This term means any flammable gas having a Reid vapor pressure exceeding 40 p.s.i. which has been liquefied....

  16. 76 FR 34212 - Lake Charles Exports, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Lisa Tracy, U.S. Department of Energy (FE-34), Office of Oil and Gas Global Security and Supply, Office..., Office of Oil and Gas Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil Energy. BILLING CODE 6450-01-P ... improvements in natural gas exploration and production technology ] have changed the outlook for the...

  17. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  1. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  2. Method and apparatus for pressurizing a liquefied gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Dennis N.

    2005-07-26

    Apparatus providing at least one thermoelectric device for pressurizing a liquefied gas container and methods employing same are disclosed. A thermoelectric device including a heating surface and a cooling surface is used for pressurizing a container by vaporizing liquefied gas within the container by transferring heat energy from a portion of the liquefied gas in contact with the cooling surface to another portion of the liquefied gas in contact with the heating surface of the thermoelectric device to convert some of the liquefied gas to a vapor state. Liquefied gas vapor and/or liquid phase may be supplied by disclosed apparatus and methods. The apparatus may also be used as a vapor pump or a liquid pump, or fluid pump. Methods of operation are also disclosed.

  3. Thermodynamic Processes Involving Liquefied Natural Gas at the LNG Receiving Terminals / Procesy termodynamiczne z wykorzystaniem skroplonego gazu ziemnego w terminalach odbiorczych LNG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łaciak, Mariusz

    2013-06-01

    The increase in demand for natural gas in the world, cause that the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and in consequences its regasification becoming more common process related to its transportation. Liquefied gas is transported in the tanks at a temperature of about 111K at atmospheric pressure. The process required to convert LNG from a liquid to a gas phase for further pipeline transport, allows the use of exergy of LNG to various applications, including for electricity generation. Exergy analysis is a well known technique for analyzing irreversible losses in a separate process. It allows to specify the distribution, the source and size of the irreversible losses in energy systems, and thus provide guidelines for energy efficiency. Because both the LNG regasification and liquefaction of natural gas are energy intensive, exergy analysis process is essential for designing highly efficient cryogenic installations. Wzrost zapotrzebowania na gaz ziemny na świecie powoduje, że produkcja skroplonego gazu ziemnego (LNG), a w konsekwencji jego regazyfikacja, staje się coraz bardziej powszechnym procesem związanym z jego transportem. Skroplony gaz transportowany jest w zbiornikach w temperaturze około 111K pod ciśnieniem atmosferycznym. Przebieg procesu regazyfikacji niezbędny do zamiany LNG z fazy ciekłej w gazową dla dalszego transportu w sieci, umożliwia wykorzystanie egzergii LNG do różnych zastosowań, między innymi do produkcji energii elektrycznej. Analiza egzergii jest znaną techniką analizowania nieodwracalnych strat w wydzielonym procesie. Pozwala na określenie dystrybucji, źródła i wielkości nieodwracalnych strat w systemach energetycznych, a więc ustalić wytyczne dotyczące efektywnego zużycia energii. Ponieważ zarówno regazyfikacja LNG jak i skraplanie gazu ziemnego są energochłonne, proces analizy egzergii jest niezbędny do projektowania wysoce wydajnych instalacji kriogenicznych.

  4. 77 FR 72840 - CE FLNG, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Activities, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue SW..., Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585, (202) 586-9478; (202) 586-7991. Edward... the Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities docket room, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue...

  5. 77 FR 72837 - Golden Pass Products LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Activities, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue SW..., Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585, (202) 586-9478; (202) 586-4523; Edward... Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities docket room, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue...

  6. 77 FR 64964 - Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... Building, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Activities, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue SW... Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities docket room, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue...

  7. 46 CFR 188.10-43 - Liquefied flammable gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas. 188.10-43 Section 188.10-43 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-43 Liquefied flammable gas. This term means any flammable gas having a Reid...

  8. 46 CFR 188.10-43 - Liquefied flammable gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas. 188.10-43 Section 188.10-43 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-43 Liquefied flammable gas. This term means any flammable gas having a Reid...

  9. 46 CFR 188.10-41 - Liquefied compressed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquefied compressed gas. 188.10-41 Section 188.10-41... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-41 Liquefied compressed gas. This term means a gas which, under the charged pressure, is partially liquid at a temperature of 70 °F....

  10. 46 CFR 188.10-41 - Liquefied compressed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquefied compressed gas. 188.10-41 Section 188.10-41... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-41 Liquefied compressed gas. This term means a gas which, under the charged pressure, is partially liquid at a temperature of 70 °F....

  11. 46 CFR 188.10-41 - Liquefied compressed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquefied compressed gas. 188.10-41 Section 188.10-41... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-41 Liquefied compressed gas. This term means a gas which, under the charged pressure, is partially liquid at a temperature of 70 °F....

  12. 46 CFR 188.10-43 - Liquefied flammable gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas. 188.10-43 Section 188.10-43 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-43 Liquefied flammable gas. This term means any flammable gas having a Reid...

  13. 46 CFR 188.10-41 - Liquefied compressed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied compressed gas. 188.10-41 Section 188.10-41 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-41 Liquefied compressed gas. This term means a gas which, under the...

  14. A conceptual demonstration of freeze desalination-membrane distillation (FD-MD) hybrid desalination process utilizing liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-09-01

    The severe global water scarcity and record-high fossil oil price have greatly stimulated the research interests on new desalination technologies which can be driven by renewable energy or waste energy. In this study, a hybrid desalination process comprising freeze desalination and membrane distillation (FD-MD) processes was developed and explored in an attempt to utilize the waste cold energy released from re-gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The concept of this technology was demonstrated using indirect-contact freeze desalination (ICFD) and direct-contact membrane distillation (DCMD) configurations. By optimizing the ICFD operation parameters, namely, the usage of nucleate seeds, operation duration and feed concentration, high quality drinkable water with a low salinity ∼0.144 g/L was produced in the ICFD process. At the same time, using the optimized hollow fiber module length and packing density in the DCMD process, ultra pure water with a low salinity of 0.062 g/L was attained at a condition of high energy efficiency (EE). Overall, by combining FD and MD processes and adopting the optimized operation parameters, the hybrid FD-MD system has been successfully demonstrated. A high total water recovery of 71.5% was achieved, and the water quality obtained met the standard for drinkable water. In addition, with results from specific energy calculation, it was proven that the hybrid process is an energy-saving process and utilization of LNG cold energy could greatly reduce the total energy consumption. PMID:22682269

  15. 77 FR 70174 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Houston and Texas City, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Houston and... modify marine terminal operations in an existing facility handling Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)...

  16. 29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales. 779.360... Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas... ultimate consumer of liquefied-petroleum-gas, whether delivered in portable cylinders or in bulk to...

  17. 29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales. 779.360... Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas... ultimate consumer of liquefied-petroleum-gas, whether delivered in portable cylinders or in bulk to...

  18. 29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales. 779.360... Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas... ultimate consumer of liquefied-petroleum-gas, whether delivered in portable cylinders or in bulk to...

  19. 75 FR 62510 - Chevron U.S.A. Inc.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ..., Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585. FOR FURTHER... Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence... for inspection and copying in the Office of Oil and Gas Global Security and Supply docket room,...

  20. Hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG) over nickel catalysts supported on cationic surfactant-templated mesoporous aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jeong Gil; Youn, Min Hye; Park, Sunyoung; Jung, Ji Chul; Kim, Pil; Chung, Jin Suk; Song, In Kyu

    Two types of mesoporous γ-aluminas (denoted as A-A and A-S) are prepared by a hydrothermal method under different basic conditions using cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) as a templating agent. A-A and A-S are synthesized in a medium of ammonia solution and sodium hydroxide solution, respectively. Ni/γ-Al 2O 3 catalysts (Ni/A-A and Ni/A-S) are then prepared by an impregnation method, and are applied to hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effect of a mesoporous γ-Al 2O 3 support on the catalytic performance of Ni/γ-Al 2O 3 is investigated. The identity of basic solution strongly affects the physical properties of the A-A and A-S supports. The high surface-area of the mesoporous γ-aluminas and the strong metal-support interaction of supported catalysts greatly enhance the dispersion of nickel species on the catalyst surface. The well-developed mesopores of the Ni/A-A and Ni/A-S catalysts prohibit the polymerization of carbon species on the catalyst surface during the reaction. In the steam reforming of LNG, both Ni/A-A and Ni/A-S catalysts give better catalytic performance than the nickel catalyst supported on commercial γ-Al 2O 3 (Ni/A-C). In addition, the Ni/A-A catalyst is superior to the Ni/A-S catalyst. The relatively strong metal-support interaction of Ni/A-A catalyst effectively suppresses the sintering of metallic nickel and the carbon deposition in the steam reforming of LNG. The large pores of the Ni/A-A catalyst also play an important role in enhancing internal mass transfer during the reaction.

  1. 46 CFR 58.16-7 - Use of liquefied petroleum gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... requirements of 46 CFR 25.45-2 or 184.05, as applicable. (c) Systems using liquefied petroleum gas for cooking... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-7 Use of liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Cooking equipment using liquefied petroleum gas on vessels of 100 gross tons or more...

  2. 46 CFR 58.16-7 - Use of liquefied petroleum gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... requirements of 46 CFR 25.45-2 or 184.05, as applicable. (c) Systems using liquefied petroleum gas for cooking... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-7 Use of liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Cooking equipment using liquefied petroleum gas on vessels of 100 gross tons or more...

  3. 46 CFR 58.16-7 - Use of liquefied petroleum gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements of 46 CFR 25.45-2 or 184.05, as applicable. (c) Systems using liquefied petroleum gas for cooking... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-7 Use of liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Cooking equipment using liquefied petroleum gas on vessels of 100 gross tons or more...

  4. 46 CFR 58.16-7 - Use of liquefied petroleum gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... requirements of 46 CFR 25.45-2 or 184.05, as applicable. (c) Systems using liquefied petroleum gas for cooking... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-7 Use of liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Cooking equipment using liquefied petroleum gas on vessels of 100 gross tons or more...

  5. 46 CFR 58.16-7 - Use of liquefied petroleum gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements of 46 CFR 25.45-2 or 184.05, as applicable. (c) Systems using liquefied petroleum gas for cooking... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-7 Use of liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Cooking equipment using liquefied petroleum gas on vessels of 100 gross tons or more...

  6. Liquefied Natural Gas Storage of Variable Composition / Magazynowanie Skroplonego Gazu Ziemnego O Zmiennym Składzie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łaciak, Mariusz

    2015-03-01

    Thanks to the increasing diversification of LNG supply sources, being a result of the growing number of LNG liquefaction installations over the World, increase of short-term trade contracts and general trend to globally liberalize gas markets, reception terminals have to cope with the broad range of qualitatively diversified LNG deliveries from various sources. Different LNG deliveries potentially have different density caused by different gas composition. Although the LNG composition depends on LNG source, it mainly consists of methane, ethane, propane, butane and trace nitrogen. When a new supply of LNG is transported to the tank, the LNG composition and temperature in the tank can be different from LNG as delivered. This may lead to the liquid stratification in the tank, and consequently the rollover. As a result, LNG rapidly evaporates and the pressure in the tank increases. More and more restrictive safety regulations require fuller understanding of the formation and evolution of layers. The paper is focused on the analysis of liquid stratification in the tank which may take place when storing LNG, and which process leads to the rapid evaporation of considerable quantities of LNG. The aim was to attempt modeling of the process of liquid stratification in an LNG tank. The paper is closed with the results of modelling. Dzięki rosnącej dywersyfikacji źródeł dostaw LNG, spowodowanej zwiększającą się liczbą instalacji skraplania gazu na całym świecie, wzrostem ilości kontraktów krótkoterminowych w handlu i ogólnej tendencji do globalnej liberalizacja rynków gazu, terminale do odbioru muszą radzić sobie z coraz większą gamą różnych jakościowo dostaw LNG z różnych źródeł. Różne dostawy LNG mają potencjalnie inną gęstość dzięki różnym składom gazu. Chociaż kompozycja LNG zależy od źródła, to przede wszystkim składa się z metanu, etanu, propanu, butanu i w śladowych ilościach z azotu. Gdy nowa

  7. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordin, P. M.

    1977-01-01

    Bibliography, assembled from computer search of NASA Aerospace Safety Data Bank, including title of report, author, abstract, source, description of figures, key references, and key words or subject terms. Publication is indexed by key subjects and by authors. Items are relevant to design engineers and safety specialists.

  8. 29 CFR 1926.153 - Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... published in 49 CFR part 178, Shipping Container Specifications. (3) Definition. As used in this section... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). 1926.153 Section 1926.153... § 1926.153 Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). (a) Approval of equipment and systems. (1) Each system...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.153 - Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... published in 49 CFR part 178, Shipping Container Specifications. (3) Definition. As used in this section... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). 1926.153 Section 1926.153... § 1926.153 Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). (a) Approval of equipment and systems. (1) Each system...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.153 - Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... published in 49 CFR Part 178, Shipping Container Specifications. (3) Definition. As used in this section... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). 1926.153 Section 1926.153... § 1926.153 Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). (a) Approval of equipment and systems. (1) Each system...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.153 - Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). 1926.153 Section 1926.153 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Fire Protection and Prevention § 1926.153 Liquefied petroleum gas...

  12. 46 CFR 31.10-18a - Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-18a Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... issued for a liquefied gas vessel under § 31.05-1, the master shall ensure that the firefighting...

  13. 46 CFR 31.10-18a - Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-18a Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment... issued for a liquefied gas vessel under § 31.05-1, the master shall ensure that the firefighting...

  14. 46 CFR 30.10-39 - Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL. 30.10-39 Section 30.10-39 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-39 Liquefied flammable gas—TB/ALL. The term liquefied flammable gas means any flammable...

  15. 18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... jurisdictional natural gas facilities other than liquefied natural gas facilities caused by a hurricane... reason other than hurricane, earthquake or other natural disaster or terrorist activity, the natural...

  16. 46 CFR 30.10-39 - Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL. 30.10-39 Section 30.10-39 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-39 Liquefied flammable gas—TB/ALL. The term liquefied flammable gas means any flammable gas having a Reid vapor pressure exceeding 40...

  17. 46 CFR 30.10-39 - Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL. 30.10-39 Section 30.10-39 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-39 Liquefied flammable gas—TB/ALL. The term liquefied flammable gas means any flammable gas having a Reid vapor pressure exceeding 40...

  18. 46 CFR 30.10-39 - Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL. 30.10-39 Section 30.10-39 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-39 Liquefied flammable gas—TB/ALL. The term liquefied flammable gas means any flammable gas having a Reid vapor pressure exceeding 40...

  19. 46 CFR 30.10-39 - Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL. 30.10-39 Section 30.10-39 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-39 Liquefied flammable gas—TB/ALL. The term liquefied flammable gas means any flammable gas having a Reid vapor pressure exceeding 40...

  20. Exposure of a liquefied gas container to an external fire.

    PubMed

    Raj, Phani K

    2005-06-30

    In liquefied gas, bulk-storage facilities and plants, the separation distances between storage tanks and between a tank and a line of adjoining property that can be built are governed by local regulations and/or codes (e.g. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 58, 2004). Separation distance requirements have been in the NFPA 58 Code for over 60 years; however, no scientific foundations (either theoretical or experimental) are available for the specified distances. Even though the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) industry has operated safely over the years, there is a question as to whether the code-specified distances provide sufficient safety to LPG-storage tanks, when they are exposed to large external fires. A radiation heat-transfer-based model is presented in this paper. The temporal variation of the vapor-wetted tank-wall temperature is calculated when exposed to thermal radiation from an external, non-impinging, large, 30.5 m (100 ft) diameter, highly radiative, hydrocarbon fuel (pool) fire located at a specified distance. Structural steel wall of a pressurized, liquefied gas container (such as the ASME LP-Gas tank) begins to lose its strength, when the wall temperature approaches a critical temperature, 810 K (1000 degrees F). LP-Gas tank walls reaching close to this temperature will be a cause for major concern because of increased potential for tank failure, which could result in catastrophic consequences. Results from the model for exposure of different size ASME (LP-Gas) containers to a hydrocarbon pool fire of 30.5 m (100 ft) in diameter, located with its base edge at the separation distances specified by NFPA 58 [NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code, Table 6.3.1, 2004 ed., National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, 2004] indicate that the vapor-wetted wall temperature of the containers never reach the critical temperature under common wind conditions (0, 5 and 10 m/s), with the flame tilting towards the tank. This indicates that the

  1. U.S. Natural Gas Markets: Mid-Term Prospects for Natural Gas Supply

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    This service report describes the recent behavior of natural gas markets with respect to natural gas prices, their potential future behavior, the potential future supply contribution of liquefied natural gas and increased access to federally restricted resources, and the need for improved natural gas data.

  2. 46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111... gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a.... (2) The term “gas-dangerous” does not include the weather deck of an ammonia carrier. (c)...

  3. 46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111... gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a.... (2) The term “gas-dangerous” does not include the weather deck of an ammonia carrier. (c)...

  4. 46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111... gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a.... (2) The term “gas-dangerous” does not include the weather deck of an ammonia carrier. (c)...

  5. 46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111... gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a.... (2) The term “gas-dangerous” does not include the weather deck of an ammonia carrier. (c)...

  6. 46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111... gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a.... (2) The term “gas-dangerous” does not include the weather deck of an ammonia carrier. (c)...

  7. The unsuspected killer: Liquefied petroleum gas overexposure in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sampson, L W J; van der Schyff, N; Cupido, C

    2015-02-01

    A 21-year-old woman with no past medical history of note was found unconscious together with five of her family members after prolonged exposure to liquefied petroleum gas. She was admitted to the intensive care unit at Victoria Hospital, Wynberg, Cape Town, South Africa, following resuscitation for pulseless electrical activity. On examination the following was found: coma without focal neurology; shock requiring fluid resuscitation and adrenaline; probable pneumonitis or aspiration pneumonia; acute rhabdomyolysis with severe metabolic acidosis; and raised serum K+. A carboxyhaemoglobin test was unable to confirm or exclude carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26242505

  8. Mathematical simulation of the process of condensing natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tastandieva, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Presents a two-dimensional unsteady model of heat transfer in terms of condensation of natural gas at low temperatures. Performed calculations of the process heat and mass transfer of liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks of cylindrical shape. The influence of model parameters on the nature of heat transfer. Defined temperature regimes eliminate evaporation by cooling liquefied natural gas. The obtained dependence of the mass flow rate of vapor condensation gas temperature. Identified the possibility of regulating the process of "cooling down" liquefied natural gas in terms of its partial evaporation with low cost energy.

  9. 30 CFR 75.1106-4 - Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-4 Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... compressed gas unit, consisting of one oxygen cylinder and one additional gas cylinder, shall be used...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1106-4 - Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-4 Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... compressed gas unit, consisting of one oxygen cylinder and one additional gas cylinder, shall be used...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1106-4 - Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-4 Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... compressed gas unit, consisting of one oxygen cylinder and one additional gas cylinder, shall be used...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1106-4 - Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-4 Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... compressed gas unit, consisting of one oxygen cylinder and one additional gas cylinder, shall be used...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1106-4 - Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-4 Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... compressed gas unit, consisting of one oxygen cylinder and one additional gas cylinder, shall be used...

  14. Coyote series data report LLNL/NWC 1981 LNG spill tests dispersion, vapor burn, and rapid-phase-transition. Volume 1. [7 experiments with liquefied natural gas, 2 with liquid methane, and one with liquid nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Goldwire, H.C. Jr.; Rodean, H.C.; Cederwall, R.T.; Kansa, E.J.; Koopman, R.P.; McClure, J.W.; McRae, T.G.; Morris, L.K.; Kamppinen, L.; Kiefer, R.D.

    1983-10-01

    The Coyote series of liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill experiments was performed at the Naval Weapons Center (NWC), China Lake, California, during the summer and fall of 1981. These tests were a joint effort of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the NWC and were sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Gas Research Institute. There were ten Coyote experiments, five primarily for the study of vapor dispersion and burning vapor clouds, and five for investigating the occurrence of rapid-phase-transition (RPT) explosions. Each of the last four of the five RPT tests consisted of a series of three spills. Seven experiments were with LNG, two were with liquid methane (LCH/sub 4/), and one was with liquid nitrogen (LN/sub 2/). Three arrays of instrumentation were deployed. An array of RPT diagnostic instruments was concentrated at the spill pond and was operated during all of the tests, vapor burn as well as RPT. The wind-field array was operated during the last nine experiments to define the wind direction and speed in the area upwind and downwind of the spill pond. The gas-dispersion array was deployed mostly downwind of the spill pond to measure gas concentration, humidity, temperature, ground heat flux, infrared (IR) radiation, and flame-front passage during three of the vapor dispersion and burn experiments (Coyotes 3, 5, and 6). High-speed color motion pictures were taken during every test, and IR imagery (side and overhead) was obtained during some vapor-burn experiments. Data was obtained by radiometers during Coyotes 3, 6, and 7. This report presents a comprehensive selection of the data obtained. It does not include any data analysis except that required to determine the test conditions and the reliability of the data. Data analysis is to be reported in other publications. 19 references, 76 figures, 13 tables.

  15. 46 CFR 61.15-10 - Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking. 61.15-10 Section 61.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-10 Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking. (a)...

  16. 29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas... establishment's sales are not for resale and are recognized as retail sales in the industry, sales to...

  17. 29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas... establishment's sales are not for resale and are recognized as retail sales in the industry, sales to...

  18. Analysis of Restricted Natural Gas Supply Cases

    EIA Publications

    2004-01-01

    The four cases examined in this study have progressively greater impacts on overall natural gas consumption, prices, and supply. Compared to the Annual Energy Outlook 2004 reference case, the no Alaska pipeline case has the least impact; the low liquefied natural gas case has more impact; the low unconventional gas recovery case has even more impact; and the combined case has the most impact.

  19. Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Over Nickel-Phosphorus-Alumina Xerogel Catalyst Prepared by a Carbon-Templating Epoxide-Driven Sol-Gel Method.

    PubMed

    Bang, Yongju; Park, Seungwon; Han, Seung Ju; Yoo, Jaekyeong; Choi, Jung Ho; Kang, Tae Hun; Lee, Jinwon; Song, In Kyu

    2016-05-01

    A nickel-phosphorus-alumina xerogel catalyst was prepared by a carbon-templating epoxide-driven sol-gel method (denoted as CNPA catalyst), and it was applied to the hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). For comparison, a nickel-phosphorus-alumina xerogel catalyst was also prepared by a similar method in the absence of carbon template (denoted as NPA catalyst). The effect of carbon template addition on the physicochemical properties and catalytic activities of the catalysts in the steam reforming of LNG was investigated. Both CNPA and NPA catalysts showed excellent textural properties with well-developed mesoporous structure. However, CNPA catalyst retained a more reducible nickel aluminate phase than NPA catalyst. XRD analysis of the reduced CNPA and NPA catalysts revealed that nickel sintering on the CNPA catalyst was suppressed compared to that on the NPA catalyst. From H2-TPD and CH4-TPD measurements of the reduced CNPA and NPA catalysts, it was also revealed that CNPA catalyst with large amount of hydrogen uptake and strong hydrogen-binding sites showed larger amount of methane adsorption than NPA catalyst. In the hydrogen production by steam reforming of LNG, CNPA catalyst with large methane adsorption capacity showed a better catalytic activity than NPA catalyst. PMID:27483798

  20. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. 84.81 Section 84.81 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  1. 40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers. 80.32 Section 80.32 Protection of Environment... Controls and Prohibitions § 80.32 Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale...,660 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas per month shall equip each pump from which liquefied...

  2. 40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers. 80.32 Section 80.32 Protection of Environment... Controls and Prohibitions § 80.32 Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale...,660 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas per month shall equip each pump from which liquefied...

  3. 40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers. 80.32 Section 80.32 Protection of Environment... Controls and Prohibitions § 80.32 Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale...,660 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas per month shall equip each pump from which liquefied...

  4. 40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers. 80.32 Section 80.32 Protection of Environment... Controls and Prohibitions § 80.32 Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale...,660 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas per month shall equip each pump from which liquefied...

  5. 40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers. 80.32 Section 80.32 Protection of Environment... Controls and Prohibitions § 80.32 Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale...,660 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas per month shall equip each pump from which liquefied...

  6. Development of a Liquefied Noble Gas Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesser, Ezra; White, Aaron; Aidala, Christine

    2015-10-01

    Liquefied noble gas detectors have been used for various applications in recent years for detecting neutrinos, neutrons, photons, and potentially dark matter. The University of Michigan is developing a detector with liquid argon to produce scintillation light and ionization electrons. Our data collection method will allow high-resolution energy measurement and spatial reconstruction of detected particles by using multi-pixel silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) and a cylindrical time projection chamber (TPC) with a multi-wire endplate. We have already designed a liquid argon condenser and purification unit surrounded by an insulating vacuum, constructed circuitry for temperature and pressure sensors, and created software to obtain high-accuracy sensor readouts. The status of detector development will be presented. Funded through the Michigan Memorial Phoenix Project.

  7. 30 CFR 75.1106-3 - Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied... Fire Protection § 75.1106-3 Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... Transportation regulations. (2) Placed securely in storage areas designated by the operator for such purpose,...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1106-3 - Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied... Fire Protection § 75.1106-3 Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... Transportation regulations. (2) Placed securely in storage areas designated by the operator for such purpose,...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1106-3 - Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied... Fire Protection § 75.1106-3 Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... Transportation regulations. (2) Placed securely in storage areas designated by the operator for such purpose,...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1106-3 - Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied... Fire Protection § 75.1106-3 Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... Transportation regulations. (2) Placed securely in storage areas designated by the operator for such purpose,...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1106-3 - Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied... Fire Protection § 75.1106-3 Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... Transportation regulations. (2) Placed securely in storage areas designated by the operator for such purpose,...

  12. 78 FR 26799 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Beaumont, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public meeting: We do not now plan... SECURITY Coast Guard Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Beaumont, TX... construction to expand or modify marine terminal operations in an existing facility handling Liquefied...

  13. Tests of cryogenic pigs for use in liquefied gas pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipple, D. L.; Oneal, W. C.

    1982-09-01

    Pipeline pigs are a key element in the design of a proposed spill test facility whose purpose is to evaluate the hazards of large spills of liquefied gaseous fuels (LGFs). A long pipe runs from the LGF storage tanks to the spill point; to produce a rapid spill, the pipe is filled with LGF and a pig will be pneumatically driven through the pipe to force out the LGF quickly and cleanly. Several pig designs were tested in a 6 inch diameter, 420 foot long pipe to evaluate their performance at liquid-nitrogen temperature and compare it with their performance at ambient temperature. For each test, the pig was placed in one end of the pipe and either water or liquid nitrogen was put into the pipe in front of the pig. Then pressurized drive gas, either nitrogen or helium, was admitted to the pipe behind the pig to push the pig and the fluid ahead of it out the exit nozzle. For some tests, the drive gas supply was shut off when the pig was part way through the pipe as a method of velocity control; in these cases, the pressurized gas trapped behind the pig continued to expand until it pushed the pig the remaining distance out of the pipe.

  14. Natural Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddox, Robert N.; Moshfeghian, Mahmood; Ldol, James D.; Johannes, Arland H.

    Natural gas is a naturally occurring mixture of simple hydrocarbons and nonhydrocarbons that exists as a gas at ordinary pressures and temperatures. In the raw state, as produced from the earth, natural gas consists principally of methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H4), with fractional amounts of propane (C3H8), butane (C4H10), and other hydrocarbons, pentane (C5H12) and heavier. Occasionally, small traces of light aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and toluene may also be present.

  15. Tests of cryogenic pigs for use in liquefied gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Hipple, D.L.; O'Neal, W.C.

    1982-09-09

    Pipeline pigs are a key element in the design of a proposed spill test facility whose purpose is to evaluate the hazards of large spills of liquefied gaseous fuels (LGFs). A long pipe will run from the LGF storage tanks to the spill point; to produce a rapid spill, the pipe will be filled with LGF and a pig will be pneumatically driven through the pipe to force out the LGF quickly and cleanly. Several pig designs were tested in a 6-inch-diameter, 420-foot-long pipe to evaluate their performance at liquid-nitrogen temperature and compare it with their performance at ambient temperature. For each test, the pig was placed in one end of the pipe and either water or liquid nitrogen was put into the pipe in front of the pig. Then pressurized drive gas, either nitrogen or helium, was admitted to the pipe behind the pig to push the pig and the fluid ahead of it out the exit nozzle. For some tests, the drive gas supply was shut off when the pig was part way through the pipe as a method of velocity control; in these cases, the pressurized gas trapped behind the pig continued to expand until it pushed the pig the remaining distance out of the pipe. The tests provided information on how the effectiveness and velocity of the pig and the flow rate of the expelled fluid changed with pressure and shutoff time of the drive gas and with temperature. The pig designs that left the least liquid during the water tests were a polyurethane foam pig and a cylindrical metal pig with flexible metal wipers. In the liquid nitrogen tests, the metal pig with wipers performed best. It removed all the liquid nitrogen and survived most of the tests well.

  16. Two Heat-Transfer Improvements for Gas Liquefiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Jerry L.

    2005-01-01

    Two improvements in heat-transfer design have been investigated with a view toward increasing the efficiency of refrigerators used to liquefy gases. The improvements could contribute to the development of relatively inexpensive, portable oxygen liquefiers for medical use. A description of the heat-transfer problem in a pulse-tube refrigerator is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the first improvement. In a pulse-tube refrigerator in particular, one of in-line configuration heat must be rejected from two locations: an aftercooler (where most of the heat is rejected) and a warm heat exchanger (where a small fraction of the total input power must be rejected as heat). Rejection of heat from the warm heat exchanger can be problematic because this heat exchanger is usually inside a vacuum vessel. When an acoustic-inertance tube is used to provide a phase shift needed in the pulse-tube cooling cycle, another problem arises: Inasmuch as the acoustic power in the acoustic-inertance tube is dissipated over the entire length of the tube, the gas in the tube must be warmer than the warm heat exchanger in order to reject heat at the warm heat exchanger. This is disadvantageous because the increase in viscosity with temperature causes an undesired increase in dissipation of acoustic energy and an undesired decrease in the achievable phase shift. Consequently, the overall performance of the pulse-tube refrigerator decreases with increasing temperature in the acoustic-inertance tube. In the first improvement, the acoustic-inertance tube is made to serve as the warm heat exchanger and to operate in an approximately isothermal condition at a lower temperature, thereby increasing the achievable phase shift and the overall performance of the refrigerator. This is accomplished by placing the acoustic-inertance tube inside another tube and pumping a cooling fluid (e.g., water) in the annular space between the tubes. Another benefit of this improvement is added flexibility of

  17. 78 FR 34084 - Freeport-McMoRan Energy LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ...The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) gives notice of receipt of an application (Application) filed on February 22, 2013, by Freeport-McMoRan Energy LLC (FME), requesting long-term, multi-contract authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) produced from domestic sources in an amount up to 24 million metric tons per year (mtpa), which FME states is......

  18. 30 CFR 75.1106-2 - Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compressed gas cylinders; requirements. 75.1106-2 Section 75.1106-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-2 Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1106-2 - Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compressed gas cylinders; requirements. 75.1106-2 Section 75.1106-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-2 Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1106-2 - Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compressed gas cylinders; requirements. 75.1106-2 Section 75.1106-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-2 Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1106-2 - Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compressed gas cylinders; requirements. 75.1106-2 Section 75.1106-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-2 Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1106-2 - Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compressed gas cylinders; requirements. 75.1106-2 Section 75.1106-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-2 Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas...

  3. 46 CFR 61.15-10 - Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking. 61.15-10 Section 61.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE... piping for heating and cooking. (a) Leak tests as described in paragraph (b) of this section shall...

  4. 46 CFR 61.15-10 - Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking. 61.15-10 Section 61.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE... piping for heating and cooking. (a) Leak tests as described in paragraph (b) of this section shall...

  5. 46 CFR 61.15-10 - Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking. 61.15-10 Section 61.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE... piping for heating and cooking. (a) Leak tests as described in paragraph (b) of this section shall...

  6. 46 CFR 61.15-10 - Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking. 61.15-10 Section 61.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE... piping for heating and cooking. (a) Leak tests as described in paragraph (b) of this section shall...

  7. 78 FR 26056 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Nederland, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public meeting: We do... SECURITY Coast Guard Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Nederland... Coast Guard regulations, Sunoco Partners Marketing and Terminals has submitted a Letter of Intent and...

  8. First Operating Results of a Dynamic Gas Bearing Turbine in AN Industrial Hydrogen Liquefier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, S.; Decker, L.

    2010-04-01

    Hydrogen has been brought into focus of industry and public since fossil fuels are depleting and costs are increasing dramatically. Beside these issues new high-tech processes in the industry are in need for hydrogen at ultra pure quality. To achieve these requirements and for efficient transportation, hydrogen is liquefied in industrial plants. Linde Gas has commissioned a new 5.5 TPD Hydrogen liquefier in Leuna, Germany, which has been engineered and supplied by Linde Kryotechnik. One of the four expansion turbines installed in the liquefaction process is equipped with dynamic gas bearings. Several design features and operational characteristics of this application will be discussed. The presentation will include results of efficiency and operational reliability that have been determined from performance tests. The advantages of the Linde dynamic gas bearing turbine for future use in hydrogen liquefaction plants will be shown.

  9. FIRST OPERATING RESULTS OF A DYNAMIC GAS BEARING TURBINE IN AN INDUSTRIAL HYDROGEN LIQUEFIER

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, S.; Decker, L.

    2010-04-09

    Hydrogen has been brought into focus of industry and public since fossil fuels are depleting and costs are increasing dramatically. Beside these issues new high-tech processes in the industry are in need for hydrogen at ultra pure quality. To achieve these requirements and for efficient transportation, hydrogen is liquefied in industrial plants. Linde Gas has commissioned a new 5.5 TPD Hydrogen liquefier in Leuna, Germany, which has been engineered and supplied by Linde Kryotechnik. One of the four expansion turbines installed in the liquefaction process is equipped with dynamic gas bearings. Several design features and operational characteristics of this application will be discussed. The presentation will include results of efficiency and operational reliability that have been determined from performance tests. The advantages of the Linde dynamic gas bearing turbine for future use in hydrogen liquefaction plants will be shown.

  10. Centrifuge for separating helium from natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Theyse, F.H.; Kelling, F.E.T.

    1980-01-08

    Ultra Centrifuge Nederland N.V.'s improved centrifuge for separating helium from natural gas comprises a hollow cylindrical rotor, designated as a separating drum, within a stationary housing. Natural gas liquids that condense under pressure in the separating drum pass through openings in the drum into the space between the drum and housing. In this space, a series of openings, or throttling restrictors, allows the liquids to expand and return to gas. The gaseous component that does not liquefy in the drum remains separate for drawing off.

  11. Odor-fading prevention from organosulfur-odorized liquefied petroleum gas

    SciTech Connect

    Nevers, A.D.

    1987-10-20

    A process is described for the prevention of odor-fading from organosulfur-odorized LPG stored in containers having active interior steel surfaces. It consists of treating the surfaces with a deactivating amount of benzotriazole, tolyl triazole, mercaptobenzothiazole, benzothiazyl disulfide, or mixtures thereof, and loading the container with liquefied petroleum gas odorized with at least one reduced organosulfur compounds containing one to five carbon atoms.

  12. 77 FR 33446 - Jordan Cove Energy Project, L.P.; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Cove Energy Project, L.P.; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From Domestic and Canadian Natural Gas Resources to Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries for a 25..., multi-contract authorization to export as liquefied natural gas (LNG) both natural gas...

  13. Epoxidized natural rubber toughened aqueous resole type liquefied EFB resin: Physical and chemical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amran, Umar Adli; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua

    2013-11-01

    A preliminary study on the reaction between aqueous resole type resinified liquefied palm oil empty fruit bunches fibres (RLEFB) with epoxidized natural rubber (ENR). Liquefaction of empty fruit bunches (EFB) is carried out at different ratio of phenol to EFB (P:EFB). Resole type phenolic resin is prepared using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the catalyst with the ratio of liquefied EFB (LEFB) to formaldehyde (LEFB:F) of 1:1.8. 50% epoxidation of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR-50) is used to react with resole resin by mixing with ENR with aqueous resole resin. The cured resin is characterized with FT-IR and SEM. Aqueous system have been found to be unsuitable medium in the reaction between resin and ENR. This system produced a highly porous product when RLEFB/ENR resin is cured.

  14. Natural gas marketing II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of gas marketing, from the basic regulatory structure to the latest developments in negotiating agreements and locating markets. Topics include: Federal regulation of the gas industry; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; FERC actions encouraging competitive markets; Marketing conditions from the pipelines' perspective; State non-utility regulation of natural gas production, transportation, and marketing; Natural gas wellhead agreements and tariffs; Natural gas processing agreements; Effective management of producer's natural gas contracts; Producer-pipeline litigation; Natural gas purchasing from the perspective of industrial gas users; Gas marketing by co-owners: problems of disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners; Alternatives and new directions in marketing.

  15. Experimental investigation of mobile small-scale liquefier for 10000 NM3/D of coal bed methane gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhaohu; Wu, J. F.; Gong, Maoqiong; Guo, Ping

    2012-06-01

    There is a growing recognition that unconventional sources of gas, such as shale gas, coal bed methane (CBM) and deep tight gas will contribute a significant component of future gas supplies as technologies evolve. In recent years, the interest in such source of gas utilization technologies based on small-scale LNG production has been rising steeply. In this paper, a mobile liquefier prototype for 10000 Nm3/d of CBM has been designed, constructed and tested. It has two cascade refrigeration systems. The high-temperature refrigeration system will pre-cool the resource gas to 5oC, and the low-temperature refrigeration system will continue to cool the resource gas to the liquefied point with a Mixed Refrigerant Cycle (MRC). The kernel compressor is a conventional oil-lubricated air-conditioning compressor with the discharge pressure of 2.0 MPa. The main heat exchanger is plate-fin heat exchanger with four passages. A series of experiments have been done on the prototype liquefier at different resource gas pressures and environmental temperatures. It is less than one hour from the start of the equipment to the existence of LNG. The maximum production of LNG is about 20 m3/d when a stream of about 12500 Nm3/d of pure CBM at a process pressure of 1.3 MPa is liquefied. The energy consumption of liquefying 1 Nm3 methane is 0.612 kWh.

  16. Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its impact on Mexico City air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S.

    1995-08-18

    Alkane hydrocarbons (propane, isobutane, and n-butane) from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are present in major quantities throughout Mexico City air because of leakage of the unburned gas from numerous urban sources. These hydrocarbons, together with olefinic minor LPG components, furnish substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical reactivity, a major precursor to formation of the ozone component of urban smog. The combined processes of unburned leakage and incomplete combustion of LPG play significant role in causing the excessive ozone characteristic of Mexico City. Reductions in ozone levels should be possible through changes in LPG composition and lowered rates of leakage. 23 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guangwen; Shen, Yu; Hao, Xiaowei; Yuan, Zongming; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications. PMID:26393596

  18. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Guangwen; Shen, Yu; Hao, Xiaowei; Yuan, Zongming; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications. PMID:26393596

  19. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) poisoning: report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, T; Yamamoto, H; Tanegashima, A; Yamamoto, Y; Nishi, K

    1996-10-25

    Two autopsy cases of men who died while connecting a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) pipe are reported. Their blood concentrations of propane (the main content of LPG) were 0.12 and 3.40 mg/100 g, respectively. The cause of death after exposure of LPG has generally been considered to be asphyxia from hypoxia. The large differences in the blood propane levels found here and reported in the literature, however, suggest that direct toxic effects of propane poisoning may be the cause of death in some cases. Propane concentrations and the cause of death are reviewed and discussed. PMID:8948127

  20. Natural Gas Monthly

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported.

  1. Natural gas annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  2. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  3. 49 CFR 192.1015 - What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart? 192.1015 Section 192.1015 Transportation Other... a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart?...

  4. 49 CFR 192.1015 - What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart? 192.1015 Section 192.1015 Transportation Other... a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart?...

  5. 49 CFR 192.1015 - What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart? 192.1015 Section 192.1015 Transportation Other... a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart?...

  6. 49 CFR 192.1015 - What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart? 192.1015 Section 192.1015 Transportation Other... a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart?...

  7. 49 CFR 192.1015 - What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart? 192.1015 Section 192.1015 Transportation Other... a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart?...

  8. 33 CFR 127.203 - Portable gas detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Portable gas detectors. 127.203...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.203 Portable gas detectors. The...

  9. 33 CFR 127.203 - Portable gas detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Portable gas detectors. 127.203...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.203 Portable gas detectors. The...

  10. 33 CFR 127.203 - Portable gas detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Portable gas detectors. 127.203...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.203 Portable gas detectors. The...

  11. 33 CFR 127.203 - Portable gas detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Portable gas detectors. 127.203...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.203 Portable gas detectors. The...

  12. Ataxia with Parkinsonism and dystonia after intentional inhalation of liquefied petroleum gas

    PubMed Central

    Godani, Massimiliano; Canavese, Francesca; Migliorini, Sonia; Sette, Massimo Del

    2015-01-01

    The practice of inhaling liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) to commit suicide is uncommon and almost exclusively a prerogative of the prison population. Numerous cases of sudden deaths caused by intentional propane and/or butane inhalation have been described, but these cases survived and a description of the consequences is very rare. We describe a prisoner who survived after voluntary inhalation of LPG, and who developed ataxia, Parkinsonism, and dystonia. Brain MRI showed bilateral hyperintensity in the basal ganglia and in the cerebellar hemispheres. The clinical evolution and the MRI abnormalities are similar to those described in cases of poisoning by CO where the mechanism of brain injury is related to histotoxic hypoxia. We believe that LPG, considered until now a mixture of gas with low neurotoxic power, may have caused direct toxic damage to the brain, mediated by a mechanism of hypoxia, such as in CO intoxication. PMID:26005350

  13. Ataxia with Parkinsonism and dystonia after intentional inhalation of liquefied petroleum gas.

    PubMed

    Godani, Massimiliano; Canavese, Francesca; Migliorini, Sonia; Sette, Massimo Del

    2015-01-01

    The practice of inhaling liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) to commit suicide is uncommon and almost exclusively a prerogative of the prison population. Numerous cases of sudden deaths caused by intentional propane and/or butane inhalation have been described, but these cases survived and a description of the consequences is very rare. We describe a prisoner who survived after voluntary inhalation of LPG, and who developed ataxia, Parkinsonism, and dystonia. Brain MRI showed bilateral hyperintensity in the basal ganglia and in the cerebellar hemispheres. The clinical evolution and the MRI abnormalities are similar to those described in cases of poisoning by CO where the mechanism of brain injury is related to histotoxic hypoxia. We believe that LPG, considered until now a mixture of gas with low neurotoxic power, may have caused direct toxic damage to the brain, mediated by a mechanism of hypoxia, such as in CO intoxication. PMID:26005350

  14. Geopolitics of natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, J.

    1983-01-01

    This examines the role of gas in the world energy supply/demand. Special attention is paid to Western Europe, the Soviet Union, and the natural gas exporting countries. Forecasts of global energy demand until 2000 and data on Western Europe's proven natural gas reserves as per January 1982 are provided.

  15. Liquefaction of remote sources of natural gas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, D.W.

    1981-12-01

    The objective was to determine the technical and financial feasibility of liquefying remote reserves of natural gas and transporting the liquefied product to users. The proposed methodology included efforts to (1) identify any prohibitive or limiting laws and/or regulations; (2) identify sufficient unutilized reserves in remote areas to justify further investigation; (3) identify existing portable liquefaction equipment (or an interested manufacturer that could supply the needed equipment) to obtain cost and performance data; (4) determine site preparation, supply and production costs for use in assessing economic feasibility; and (5) identify potential users. The conclusion is that the liquefaction of natural gas in remote areas of Appalachia is not economically feasible as long as an adequate and reliable supply of pipeline gas is perceived to be available for the forseable future and the price per Btu of pipeline gas remains so far below other fuels. 3 tables.

  16. Au sensitized ZnO nanorods for enhanced liquefied petroleum gas sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakate, U. T.; Bulakhe, R. N.; Lokhande, C. D.; Kale, S. N.

    2016-05-01

    The zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods have grown on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) method using zinc acetate solution. The phase formation, surface morphology and elemental composition of ZnO films have been investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques. The liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensing response was remarkably improved by sensitization of gold (Au) surface noble metal on ZnO nanorods film. Maximum LPG response of 21% was observed for 1040 ppm of LPG, for pure ZnO nanorods sample. After Au sensitization on ZnO nanorods film sample, the LPG response greatly improved up to 48% at operating temperature 623 K. The improved LPG response is attributed Au sensitization with spill-over mechanism. Proposed model for LPG sensing mechanism discussed.

  17. Upgrading Fischer-Tropsch LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) with the Cyclar process

    SciTech Connect

    Gregor, J.H.; Gosling, C.D.; Fullerton, H.E.

    1989-04-28

    The use of the UOP/BP Cyclar{reg sign} process for upgrading Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was studied at UOP{reg sign}. The Cyclar process converts LPG into aromatics. The LPG derived from F-T is highly olefinic. Two routes for upgrading F-T LPG were investigated. In one route, olefinic LPG was fed directly to a Cyclar unit (Direct Cyclar). The alternative flow scheme used the Huels CSP process to saturate LPG olefins upstream of the Cyclar unit (Indirect Cyclar). An 18-run pilot plant study verified that each route is technically feasible. An economic evaluation procedure was designed to choose between the Direct and Indirect Cyclar options for upgrading LPG. Four situations involving three different F-T reactor technologies were defined. The main distinction between the cases was the degree of olefinicity, which ranged between 32 and 84 wt % of the fresh feed. 8 refs., 80 figs., 44 tabs.

  18. Flame synthesis of carbon nano onions using liquefied petroleum gas without catalyst.

    PubMed

    Dhand, Vivek; Prasad, J Sarada; Rao, M Venkateswara; Bharadwaj, S; Anjaneyulu, Y; Jain, Pawan Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Densely agglomerated, high specific surface area carbon nano onions with diameter of 30-40 nm have been synthesized. Liquefied petroleum gas and air mixtures produced carbon nano onions in diffusion flames without catalyst. The optimized oxidant to fuel ratio which produces carbon nano onions has been found to be 0.1 slpm/slpm. The experiment yielded 70% pure carbon nano onions with a rate of 5 g/h. X-ray diffraction, high-resolution electron microscopy and Raman spectrum reveal the densely packed sp(2) hybridized carbon with (002) semi-crystalline hexagonal graphite reflection. The carbon nano onions are thermally stable up to 600 °C. PMID:25427484

  19. Liquefied gas ship safety. Analysis of the record 1964-1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    In spite of all the disaster scenarios that can be imagined involving LNG and LPG vessels, the large body of historical evidence on their actual safety performance reveals a record superior to that of crude-oil tankers. The casualty data on liquefied-gas ships, compiled from reports published in Lloyd's List, show that since 1964, only two cargo spills have occurred - neither resulting in serious consequences - and no cargos have caught fire. Only two serious incidents (where some risk of cargo leakage or fire appeared to exist) occurred during 1979: (1) on June 29, the El Paso Paul Kayser hit a submerged rock in the Straits of Gibraltar and, though the vessel lost 850 tons of steel, the cargo-containment system remained intact and (2) on April 8, the Mostafa Ben Boulaid sustained a 15-min spill through deck fractures caused by a construction defect in a safety valve, but the cargo tank itself was not damaged.

  20. Oxygen deficiency hazards associated with liquefied gas systems development of a program of controls

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.M.; Mazur, P.O.

    1983-01-01

    The use of liquefied gases in industry and research has become commonplace. Release into the atmosphere of these gases, whether intentional or not, will result in a displacement of air and a reduction in the oxygen concentration. Exposure to reduced levels of oxygen levels may cause reduced abilities, unconsciousness, or death. This paper describes the derivation of a novel program of controls for oxygen deficiency hazards. The key to this approach is a quantitative assessment of risk for each planned operation and the application of control measures to reduce that risk to an acceptable level. Five risk levels evolve which are based on the probability of fatality. Controls such as training, oxygen monitoring equipment, self-rescue respirators, and medical surveillance are required when the probability of fatality exceeds 10/sup -7/ per hour. The quantitative nature of this program ensures an appropriate level of control without undue burden or expense. 11 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  1. Apparatus for the liquefaction of natural gas and methods relating to same

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.; McKellar, Michael G.

    2009-09-22

    An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through an expander creating work output. A compressor may be driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates a vapor from the liquid natural gas. A portion of the liquid gas is used for additional cooling. Gas produced within the system may be recompressed for reintroduction into a receiving line or recirculation within the system for further processing.

  2. World Natural Gas Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-12-01

    RAMSGAS, the Research and Development Analysis Modeling System World Natural Gas Model, was developed to support planning of unconventional gaseoues fuels research and development. The model is a scenario analysis tool that can simulate the penetration of unconventional gas into world markets for oil and gas. Given a set of parameter values, the model estimates the natural gas supply and demand for the world for the period from 1980 to 2030. RAMSGAS is based onmore » a supply/demand framwork and also accounts for the non-renewable nature of gas resources. The model has three fundamental components: a demand module, a wellhead production cost module, and a supply/demand interface module. The demand for gas is a product of total demand for oil and gas in each of 9 demand regions and the gas share. Demand for oil and gas is forecast from the base year of 1980 through 2030 for each demand region, based on energy growth rates and price-induced conservation. For each of 11 conventional and 19 unconventional gas supply regions, wellhead production costs are calculated. To these are added transportation and distribution costs estimates associated with moving gas from the supply region to each of the demand regions and any economic rents. Based on a weighted average of these costs and the world price of oil, fuel shares for gas and oil are computed for each demand region. The gas demand is the gas fuel share multiplied by the total demand for oil plus gas. This demand is then met from the available supply regions in inverse proportion to the cost of gas from each region. The user has almost complete control over the cost estimates for each unconventional gas source in each year and thus can compare contributions from unconventional resources under different cost/price/demand scenarios.« less

  3. Application of far infrared rare earth mineral composite materials to liquefied petroleum gas.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dongbin; Liang, Jinsheng; Ding, Yan; Xu, Anping

    2010-03-01

    Far infrared rare earth mineral composite materials were prepared by the coprecipitation method using tourmaline, cerium acetate, and lanthanum acetate as raw materials. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy show that tourmaline modified with the rare earths La and Ce has a better far infrared emitting performance. Through XRD analysis, we attribute the improved far infrared emission properties of the tourmaline to the unit cell shrinkage of the tourmaline arising from La enhancing the redox properties of nano-CeO2. The effect of the composite materials on the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was studied by the flue gas analysis and water boiling test. Based on the results, it was found that the composite materials could accelerate the combustion of LPG, and that the higher the emissivity of the rare earth mineral composite materials, the better the effects on combustion of LPG. In all activation styles, both air and LPG to be activated has a best effect, indicating the activations having a cumulative effect. PMID:20355556

  4. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    This report presents data on the supply and disposition of natural gas in the USA during July 1982, as well as data on production, storage, imports, exports, and consumption. Selected data are also presented on the activities of the major interstate pipeline companies. Volumes of natural gas in storage continue to run slightly ahead of year-ago levels, especially for interstate operators. Weighted average prices received for gas sold by major interstate pipeline companies during July of 19982 ranged from a low of $2.61 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf) for Kansas-Nebraska to a high of $7.09 per Mcf for Pacific Gas. These variations are attributable to the sources of supply available to the various pipeline companies and the market structures of each. September 1982 applications for determination of a maximum lawful price under the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) increased slightly for new gas (Section 102) and decreased significantly for high-cost gas (Section 107) when compared to August. Natural gas ceiling prices prescribed by the NGPA continued to move upward through the application of prescribed monthly inflation adjustments. In the 3-year period from November 1979 through November 1982, the price ceiling for new gas, for example, increased from $2.314 to $3.249 per million (MM) Btu's. The highest ceiling price permitted under the NGPA is natural gas produced from tight formations set for November 1982 at $5.396 per MMBtu. Market natural gas production during September of 1982 was 1444 billion cubic feet (Bcf) compared to the September 1981 level of 1578 Bcf. Consumption during the same period also declined from 1266 Bcf to 1176 Bcf.

  5. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This document highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data presented include volume and price, production, consumption, underground storage, and interstate pipeline activities.

  6. Natural Gas Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... by the Cass (ND) and Clay (MN) Emergency Planning Partnerships. Adapted with funding provided by Fargo Cass Public Health through the Cities Readiness Initiative (CRI) English – Natural Gas Emergencies - Last ...

  7. Venezuela natural gas for vehicles project

    SciTech Connect

    Marsicobetre, D.; Molero, T.

    1998-12-31

    The Natural Gas for Vehicles (NGV) Project in Venezuela describes the development and growth of the NGV project in the country. Venezuela is a prolific oil producer with advanced exploration, production, refining and solid marketing infrastructure. Gas production is 5.2 Bscfd. The Venezuelan Government and the oil state owned company Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), pursued the opportunity of using natural gas for vehicles based on the huge amounts of gas reserves present and produced every day associated with the oil production. A nationwide gas pipeline network crosses the country from south to west reaching the most important cities and serving domestic and industrial purposes but there are no facilities to process or export liquefied natural gas. NGV has been introduced gradually in Venezuela over the last eight years by PDVSA. One hundred forty-five NGV stations have been installed and another 25 are under construction. Work done comprises displacement or relocation of existing gasoline equipment, civil work, installation and commissioning of equipment. The acceptance and usage of the NGV system is reflected in the more than 17,000 vehicles that have been converted to date using the equivalent of 2,000 bbl oil/day.

  8. Apparatus for the liquefaction of natural gas and methods relating to same

    DOEpatents

    Wilding, Bruce M [Idaho Falls, ID; McKellar, Michael G [Idaho Falls, ID; Turner, Terry D [Ammon, ID; Carney, Francis H [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-09-29

    An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through an expander creating work output. A compressor may be driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream.

  9. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage facility study, Fort Gordon, Georgia. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-09-01

    Fort Gordon currently purchases natural gas from Atlanta Gas Light Company under a rate schedule for Large Commercial Interruptible Service. This offers a very favorable rate for `interruptible` gas service, however, Fort Gordon must maintain a base level of `firm gas`, purchased at a significantly higher cost, to assure adequate natural gas supplies during periods of curtailment to support family housing requirements and other single fuel users. It is desirable to provide a standby fuel source to meet the needs of family housing and other single fuel users and eliminate the extra costs for the firm gas commitment to Atlanta Gas Light Company. Therefore, a propane-air standby fuel system is proposed to be installed at Fort Gordon.

  10. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage facility study Fort Gordon, Georgia. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-09-01

    Fort Gordon currently purchases natural gas from Atlanta Gas Light Company under a rate schedule for Large Commercial Interruptible Service. This offers a very favorable rate for `interruptible` gas service, however, Fort Gordon must maintain a base level of `firm gas`, purchased at a significantly higher cost, to assure adequate natural gas supplies during periods of curtailment to support family housing requirements and other single fuel users. It is desirable to provide a standby fuel source to meet the needs of family housing and other single fuel users and eliminate the extra costs for the firm gas commitment to Atlanta Gas Light Company. Therefore, a propane-air standby fuel system is proposed to be installed at Fort Gordon.

  11. Ventilation of liquefied petroleum gas components from the Valley of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, S.; Blake, D.R.; Sherwood Rowland, F.; Lu, R.; Brown, M.J.; Williams, M.D.; Russell, A.G.; Bossert, J.E.; Streit, G.E.; Santoyo, M.R.; Guzman, F.; Porch, W.M.; McNair, L.A.; Keyantash, J.; Kao, C.J.; Turco, R.P.; Eichinger, W.E.

    1997-09-01

    The saturated hydrocarbons propane and the butane isomers are both indirect greenhouse gases and key species in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Leakage of LPG and its component alkanes/alkenes is now thought to explain a significant fraction of the volatile organic burden and oxidative potential in the basin which confines Mexico City. Propane and the butanes, however, are stable enough to escape from the basin. The gas chromatographic measurements which have drawn attention to their sources within the urban area are used here to estimate rates of ventilation into the free troposphere. The calculations are centered on several well studied February/March pollution episodes. Carbon monoxide observations and emissions data are first exploited to provide a rough time constant for the removal of typical inert pollutant species from the valley. The timescale obtained is validated through an examination of meteorological simulations of three-dimensional flow. Heuristic arguments and transport modeling establish that propane and the butanes are distributed through the basin in a manner analogous to CO despite differing emissions functions. Ventilation rates and mass loadings yield outbound fluxes in a box model type computation. Estimated in this fashion, escape from the Valley of Mexico constitutes of the order of half of 1{percent} of the northern hemispheric inputs for both propane and n-butane. Uncertainties in the calculations are detailed and include factors such as flow into the basin via surface winds and the size of the polluted regime. General quantification of the global propane and butane emissions from large cities will entail studies of this type in a variety of locales.{copyright} 1997 American Geophysical Union

  12. Safer Liquid Natural Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After the disaster of Staten Island in 1973 where 40 people were killed repairing a liquid natural gas storage tank, the New York Fire Commissioner requested NASA's help in drawing up a comprehensive plan to cover the design, construction, and operation of liquid natural gas facilities. Two programs are underway. The first transfers comprehensive risk management techniques and procedures which take the form of an instruction document that includes determining liquid-gas risks through engineering analysis and tests, controlling these risks by setting up redundant fail safe techniques, and establishing criteria calling for decisions that eliminate or accept certain risks. The second program prepares a liquid gas safety manual (the first of its kind).

  13. Greenhouse gas impacts of natural gas: Influence of deployment choice, methane leak rate, and methane GWP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohan, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Growing supplies of natural gas have heightened interest in the net impacts of natural gas on climate. Although its production and consumption result in greenhouse gas emissions, natural gas most often substitutes for other fossil fuels whose emission rates may be higher. Because natural gas can be used throughout the sectors of the energy economy, its net impacts on greenhouse gas emissions will depend not only on the leak rates of production and distribution, but also on the use for which natural gas is substituted. Here, we present our estimates of the net greenhouse gas emissions impacts of substituting natural gas for other fossil fuels for five purposes: light-duty vehicles, transit buses, residential heating, electricity generation, and export for electricity generation overseas. Emissions are evaluated on a fuel cycle basis, from production and transport of each fuel through end use combustion, based on recent conditions in the United States. We show that displacement of existing coal-fired electricity and heating oil furnaces yield the largest reductions in emissions. The impact of compressed natural gas replacing petroleum-based vehicles is highly uncertain, with the sign of impact depending on multiple assumptions. Export of liquefied natural gas for electricity yields a moderate amount of emissions reductions. We further show how uncertainties in upstream emission rates for natural gas and in the global warming potential of methane influence the net greenhouse gas impacts. Our presentation will make the case that how natural gas is deployed is crucial to determining how it will impact climate.

  14. Future natural gas supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despite recent optimism about the outlook for the future supply of domestic conventional natural gas, the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) finds insufficient evidence to clearly justify either an optimistic or a pessimistic view. In a technical memorandum entitled “U.S. Natural Gas Availability: Conventional Gas Supply Through the Year 2000,” released recently by Rep. Philip R. Sharp (D-Ind,), chairman of the Subcommittee on Fossil and Synthetic Fuels of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, OTA concluded that substantial technical uncertainties prevented a reliable estimation of the likely natural gas production rates for later in this century. Even ignoring the potential for significant changes in gas prices and technology, OTA estimated that conventional gas production by the lower 48 states in the year 2000 could range from 9 to 19 trillion cubic feet (TCF) (0.25 to 0.53 trillion cubic meters), compared to 1982 production of 17.5 TCF. Similarly, production in the year 1990 could range from 13 to 20 TCF.

  15. Geopolitics of natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-09

    With almost as many vital economic interests as there were attendees, two natural gas international conferences were held in North America during September and October, to share experience and forecasts. On September 26, the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) and the Calgary Chamber of Commerce sponsored the International Gas Markets Conference and drew 400 persons. And on October 5-6, at the University of Colorado at Boulder, USA, the International Research Center for Energy and Economic Development (ICEED) held its Tenth International Energy Conference on Economic and Political Issues of Natural Gas in International Trade, drawing some 200 experts. The latter seminar was preceded by a two-day seminar on Asian Energy Supplies and Requirements, which also featured natural gas in many of its presentations. To provide an overview of some of these pressing questions, Energy Detente reports on these two comprehensive seminars on natural gas. This issue also presents the fuel price/tax series and the principal industrial fuel prices for the Eastern Hemisphere for November 1983.

  16. Natural gas conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Gondouin, O.M.

    1987-11-10

    An improved process for converting all natural gas hydrocarbon components with carbon numbers of 1 to 4 into liquid hydrocarbons with carbon numbers equal to or greater than 5, and into a hydrogen-rich gaseous by-product which is described comprising the following steps: A. Splitting the natural gas feed into a rich gas stream comprising C/sub 2/, C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons and a lean gas stream comprising C/sub 1/ and C/sub 2/ hydrocarbons; B. Catalytically converting the rich gas stream in a catalytic bed reactor in which the gas-suspended solid phase is a catalyst maintained at a temperature not exceeding 600/sup 0/C.; Separating the gaseous effluent from the catalytic bed reactor into (1) a hydrogen-rich stream; (2) a lean gas stream comprising hydrogen, C/sub 1/ and C/sub 2/ hydrocarbons, (3) a rich gas stream comprising C/sub 2/ and C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons and (4) a liquid product stream comprising C/sub 5/ + hydrocarbons; D. Pre-heating all lean gas streams, including recycle, in a furnace; E. Transferring the catalyst into a short residence time reactor; F. Reacting an ionized plasma derived from the hydrogen stream with the pre-heated lean gas stream; G. Separating the gas-solid stream resulting from the reaction into a spent catalyst phase stream and a gaseous effluent stream; H. Separating the gaseous effluent stream from the disengagement means into four streams; I. Regenerating the spent catalyst stream in a regenerator by combustion of the carbon build-up on the spent catalyst in an oxidizing gas stream; J. Transferring the regenerated catalyst back into the catalytic bed reactor and into the short residence time reactor; K. Recycling all rich gas streams obtained in steps C and H back to the catalytic bed reactor; L. Recycling the lean gas stream obtained in step H back to the pre-heating furnace of step D.

  17. Natural gas as a natural' solution

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, W.T. Jr.

    1991-05-15

    This article promotes natural gas use as a means to cut US dependence on imported oil by some 28 percent over the next ten years, while improving energy efficiency and solving a portion of the global warming and acid rain problems. Topics of discussion include fuel substitution, the Clean Air Act, natural gas capacity and distribution, and natural gas exploration.

  18. Natural Gas Annual

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    Provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas in the United States. Production, transmission, storage, deliveries, and price data are published by state for the current year. Summary data are presented for each state for the previous 5 years.

  19. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-05

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. Natural gas marketing and transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Overview of the natural gas industry; Federal regulation of marketing and transportation; State regulation of transportation; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; Gas marketing options and strategies; End user agreements; Transportation on interstate pipelines; Administration of natural gas contracts; Structuring transactions with the nonconventional source fuels credit; Take-or-pay wars- a cautionary analysis for the future; Antitrust pitfalls in the natural gas industry; Producer imbalances; Natural gas futures for the complete novice; State non-utility regulation of production, transportation and marketing; Natural gas processing agreements and Disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners.

  1. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing... the container. (d) Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or...

  2. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing... the container. (d) Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or...

  3. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing... the container. (d) Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or...

  4. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing... the container. (d) Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or...

  5. Natural gas monthly, April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-06

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  6. Natural Gas Exports from Iran

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    This assessment of the natural gas sector in Iran, with a focus on Iran’s natural gas exports, was prepared pursuant to section 505 (a) of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (Public Law No: 112-158). As requested, it includes: (1) an assessment of exports of natural gas from Iran; (2) an identification of the countries that purchase the most natural gas from Iran; (3) an assessment of alternative supplies of natural gas available to those countries; (4) an assessment of the impact a reduction in exports of natural gas from Iran would have on global natural gas supplies and the price of natural gas, especially in countries identified under number (2); and (5) such other information as the Administrator considers appropriate.

  7. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  8. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  9. Natural gas monthly, October 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  10. Natural gas monthly, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  11. Natural gas monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-22

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  12. World Natural Gas, 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    World marketed production of natural gas in 1978 totaled 51.749 trillion CF (up from 50.1 TCF in 1977); this 3.3% increase, however, was slightly lower than 1977's 3.7% rise. US production, which fell 0.3% dropped to 38.6% of the world total, while the USSR share (13.137 TCF) accounted for 25.4% (for a growth rate of 7.5%). Of the world gross production of 62.032 TCF, 69.7% came from gas wells; the remainder was associated with oil. Thirty-one percent of the 10.282 TCF difference between gross and marketed gas production was used for oil reservoir repressuring, while the balance (7.094 TCF) was vented and flared. Internationally traded gas movements rose to 11.6% of production. The Netherlands, the USSR, and Canada accounted for 30.6%, 20.1% and 14.7%, respectively, of total 1978 exports. At 0.956 TCF, LNG shipments accounted for 15.9% of world trade, a 35.2% higher share than in 1977; most of this growth was due to increased Indonesia-to-Japan volumes.

  13. Natural gas monthly, April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  14. Natural Gas Monthly, March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  15. Natural gas monthly: December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. Articles are included which are designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  16. Natural gas monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-22

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  17. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-29

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  18. Natural gas monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  19. Natural gas monthly, June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  20. Natural gas monthly, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  1. Natural gas monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  2. Natural gas monthly, June 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  3. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  4. Natural gas monthly, December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  5. Natural gas monthly, February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  6. Natural gas monthly, January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  7. Natural gas monthly, November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  8. Natural gas monthly, June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-24

    The natural gas monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article for this month is Natural Gas Industry Restructuring and EIA Data Collection.

  9. Natural gas monthly, November 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``US natural gas imports and exports-1995``. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  10. Natural gas monthly, August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article is on US Natural Gas Imports and Exports 1994.

  11. Natural gas monthly: April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article focuses on preliminary highlights from the 1995 natural gas industry. 7 figs., 25 tabs.

  12. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-10

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  13. Natural gas monthly, April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are present3ed each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas pipeline and system expansions.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  14. Natural gas monthly, October 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article in this issue is a special report, ``Comparison of Natural Gas Storage Estimates from the EIA and AGA.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  15. Natural gas monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural Gas 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  16. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  17. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. Natural gas monthly, April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Estimates extend through April 1998 for many data series. The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, feature articles are presented designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This issue contains the special report, ``Natural Gas 1997: A Preliminary Summary.`` This report provides information on natural gas supply and disposition for the year 1997, based on monthly data through December from EIA surveys. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  19. Natural Gas Value-Chain and Network Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Kobos, Peter H.; Outkin, Alexander V.; Beyeler, Walter E.; Walker, LaTonya Nicole; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Myerly, Melissa M.; Vargas, Vanessa N.; Tenney, Craig M.; Borns, David J.

    2015-09-01

    The current expansion of natural gas (NG) development in the United States requires an understanding of how this change will affect the natural gas industry, downstream consumers, and economic growth in order to promote effective planning and policy development. The impact of this expansion may propagate through the NG system and US economy via changes in manufacturing, electric power generation, transportation, commerce, and increased exports of liquefied natural gas. We conceptualize this problem as supply shock propagation that pushes the NG system and the economy away from its current state of infrastructure development and level of natural gas use. To illustrate this, the project developed two core modeling approaches. The first is an Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) approach which addresses shock propagation throughout the existing natural gas distribution system. The second approach uses a System Dynamics-based model to illustrate the feedback mechanisms related to finding new supplies of natural gas - notably shale gas - and how those mechanisms affect exploration investments in the natural gas market with respect to proven reserves. The ABM illustrates several stylized scenarios of large liquefied natural gas (LNG) exports from the U.S. The ABM preliminary results demonstrate that such scenario is likely to have substantial effects on NG prices and on pipeline capacity utilization. Our preliminary results indicate that the price of natural gas in the U.S. may rise by about 50% when the LNG exports represent 15% of the system-wide demand. The main findings of the System Dynamics model indicate that proven reserves for coalbed methane, conventional gas and now shale gas can be adequately modeled based on a combination of geologic, economic and technology-based variables. A base case scenario matches historical proven reserves data for these three types of natural gas. An environmental scenario, based on implementing a $50/tonne CO 2 tax results in less proven

  20. Natural gas monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-26

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  1. CFD Investigation of Pollutant Emission in Can-Type Combustor Firing Natural Gas, LNG and Syngas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasini, H.; Fadhil, SSA; Mat Zian, N.; Om, NI

    2016-03-01

    CFD investigation of flow, combustion process and pollutant emission using natural gas, liquefied natural gas and syngas of different composition is carried out. The combustor is a can-type combustor commonly used in thermal power plant gas turbine. The investigation emphasis on the comparison of pollutant emission such in particular CO2, and NOx between different fuels. The numerical calculation for basic flow and combustion process is done using the framework of ANSYS Fluent with appropriate model assumptions. Prediction of pollutant species concentration at combustor exit shows significant reduction of CO2 and NOx for syngas combustion compared to conventional natural gas and LNG combustion.

  2. 75 FR 73071 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas... Abandonment Project proposed by Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas... affecting the quality of the human environment. The EA has been placed in the public files of the FERC...

  3. Possible health effects of liquefied petroleum gas on workers at filling and distribution stations of Gaza governorates.

    PubMed

    Sirdah, M M; Al Laham, N A; El Madhoun, R A

    2013-03-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is widely used in the Gaza Strip for domestic purposes, in agriculture and industry and, illegally, in cars. This study aimed to identify possible health effects on workers exposed to LPG in Gaza governorates. Data were collected by a questionnaire interview, and haematological and biochemical analyses of venous blood samples were made from 30 workers at filling and distribution stations and 30 apparently healthy controls. Statistically significant differences were found in all self-reported health-related complaints among LPG workers versus controls. LPG workers had significantly higher values of red blood cell counts, haemoglobin, haematocrit mean corpuscular haemoglobin and platelet counts. They also had significantly higher values of kidney function tests (urea, creatinine and uric acid) and liver function enzyme activities (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). LPG workers at Gaza Strip petroleum stations are at higher risk for health-related symptoms and clinical abnormalities. PMID:23879082

  4. Natural gas monthly, May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-24

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  5. Natural gas monthly, February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  6. Natural gas monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-25

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The NGM also features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  7. Natural gas monthly, March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  8. Natural gas monthly, October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-23

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary of the terms used in this report is provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. 6 figs., 30 tabs.

  9. Natural gas monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured article for this month is on US coalbed methane production.

  10. Natural gas conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is to design and operate a laboratory apparatus for the catalytic reforming of natural gas in order to provide data for a large-scale process. To accelerate the assembly and calibration of this equipment, a request has been made to the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for assistance, under the DOE's Industrial Visitor Exchange Program. Pr. Heinz Heinemann (Catalysis), Dr. John Apps (Geochemistry) and Dr. Robert Fulton (Mechanical Engineering) have expressed interest in supporting our request. Pr. Heinemann's recent results on the conversion of Petroleum Coke residues into CO2 and H2 mixtures using highly basic metal oxides catalysts, similar to ours, are very encouraging regarding the possibility of converting the Coke residue on our catalyst into Syngas in the Regenerator/riser, as proposed. To minimize Coke formation in the vapor phase, by the Plasmapyrolytic Methane Conversion reactions, the experimental data of H. Drost et al. (Ref. 12) have been reviewed. Work is underway to design equipment for the safe and non-polluting disposal of the two gaseous product streams of the flow loop. 2 refs.

  11. Natural gas monthly, October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-05

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. 16 figs., 33 tabs.

  12. Natural Gas Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... before you dig on your property. If you smell gas outdoors, move away from the area until you no longer smell the gas and call 911. Do not return ... it is safe to do so. If you smell gas indoors, get outside immediately, leaving doors open ...

  13. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies

  14. Natural gas leak mapper

    DOEpatents

    Reichardt, Thomas A.; Luong, Amy Khai; Kulp, Thomas J.; Devdas, Sanjay

    2008-05-20

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  15. Estimating household fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and LPG prices by census region

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to estimate individual fuel prices within the residential sector. The data from four US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, residential energy consumption surveys were used to estimate the models. For a number of important fuel types - fuel oil, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas - the estimation presents a problem because these fuels are not used by all households. Estimates obtained by using only data in which observed fuel prices are present would be biased. A correction for this self-selection bias is needed for estimating prices of these fuels. A literature search identified no past studies on application of the selectivity model for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. This report describes selectivity models that utilize the Dubin/McFadden correction method for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas in the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West census regions. Statistically significant explanatory variables are identified and discussed in each of the models. This new application of the selectivity model should be of interest to energy policy makers, researchers, and academicians.

  16. Natural gas monthly, February 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through February 1998 for many data series, and through November 1997 for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the natural gas data contained in this issue are: Preliminary estimates for January and February 1998 show that dry natural gas production, net imports, and consumption are all within 1 percent of their levels in 1997. Warmer-than-normal weather in recent months has resulted in lower consumption of natural gas by the residential sector and lower net withdrawals of gas from under round storage facilities compared with a year ago. This has resulted in an estimate of the amount of working gas in storage at the end of February 1998 that is 18 percent higher than in February 1997. The national average natural gas wellhead price is estimated to be $3.05 per thousand cubic feet in November 1997, 7 percent higher than in October. The cumulative average wellhead price for January through November 1997 is estimated to be $2.42 per thousand cubic feet, 17 percent above that of the same period in 1996. This price increase is far less than 36-percent rise that occurred between 1995 and 1996. 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  17. Natural Gas Industry and Markets

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This special report provides an overview of the supply and disposition of natural gas in 2004 and is intended as a supplement to the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Natural Gas Annual 2004 (NGA). Unless otherwise stated, all data and figures in this report are based on summary statistics published in the NGA 2004.

  18. Natural gas monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-03

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary is included. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  19. Natural gas monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-05

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

  20. Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

  1. Natural gas monthly, December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This document highlights activities, events, and analysis of interest to the public and private sector associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  2. Natural Gas Hydrates Update 1998-2000

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    Significant events have transpired on the natural gas hydrate research and development front since "Future Supply Potential of Natural Gas Hydrates" appeared in Natural Gas 1998 Issues and Trends and in the Potential Gas Committee's 1998 biennial report.

  3. Compressed natural gas measurement issues

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, C.F.; Kinast, J.A.; Freeman, P.M.

    1993-12-31

    The Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition`s Measurement and Metering Task Group (MMTG) was established on July 1st, 1992 to develop suggested revisions to National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) Handbook 44-1992 (Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Technical Requirements for Weighing and Measuring Devices) and NIST Handbook 130-1991 (Uniform Laws & Regulations). Specifically, the suggested revisions will address the sale and measurement of compressed natural gas when sold as a motor vehicle fuel. This paper briefly discusses the activities of the MMTG and its interaction with NIST. The paper also discusses the Institute of Gas Technology`s (IGT) support of the MMTG in the area of natural gas composition, their impact on metering technology applicable to high pressure fueling stations as well as conversion factors for the establishment of ``gallon gasoline equivalent`` of natural gas. The final portion of this paper discusses IGT`s meter research activities and its meter test facility.

  4. Crude oil and natural gas pricing. Chapters 300 to 499: natural gas liquids, natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    This text analyzes the federal statutes and regulations that affect the pricing and allocation of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. It does not cover refined products or imported crude oil except where necessary to place major decisions in historical context. Chapter 300 concerns natural gas liquids. For historical rather than logical reasons, these are regulated as an offshoot of crude oil controls rather than as a by-product of natural gas production. In December 1979, the Economic Regulatory Administration (ERA) deregulated butane and natural gasoline. However, it did not amend 10 CFR 212.161-212.173, and it did not deregulate propane or propane mixtures. Decontrol will be covered in the first update to this book. Chapters 400 to 468 concern natural gas. Although a great deal of attention has been focused on the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA), there has been no satisfactory description of the extent to which the Natural Gas Act (NGA; passed in 1938 and amended by the Phillips decision in 1954) still applies. This is quite a problem, since the NGPA is written in vague terms that encourage producers to disregard the NGA. The problem is compounded by the Federal Power Commission's (FPC) approach to regulatory development, which has scattered crucial regulations throughout 18 CFR. All Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) natural gas production regulations should be repealed, arranged into a systematic grouping, and reissued in a consolidated subpart of 18 CFR. Shortly after the publication of this text, the author will petition the FERC to commence a rulemaking proceeding to that effect. Chapters 480 to 498 will cover the use of natural gas. These chapters will be issued in the first revision to this text as general summaries since the programs do not directly affect gas producers.

  5. 75 FR 13524 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC, Enterprise Field Services, LLC; Notice of Application March 16, 2010. Take notice that on March 5, 2010, Northern Natural Gas...

  6. North American Natural Gas Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  7. North American Natural Gas Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  8. Natural Gas Monthly August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. Explanatory notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication.

  9. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a

  10. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The Assistant Secretary for Environment has responsibility for identifying, characterizing, and ameliorating the environmental, health, and safety issues and public concerns associated with commercial operation of specific energy systems. The need for developing a safety and environmental control assessment for liquefied gaseous fuels was identified by the Environmental and Safety Engineering Division as a result of discussions with various governmental, industry, and academic persons having expertise with respect to the particular materials involved: liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and anhydrous ammonia. This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in Fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 1 (Executive Summary) describes the background, purpose and organization of the LGF Program and contains summaries of the 25 reports presented in Volumes 2 and 3. Annotated bibliographies on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety and Environmental Control Research and on Fire Safety and Hazards of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) are included in Volume 1.

  11. Natural gas monthly, November 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through November for many data series, and through August for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the most recent data estimates are: (1) Preliminary estimates of dry natural gas production and total consumption available through November 1997 indicate that both series are on track to end the year at levels close to those of 1996. Cumulative dry production is one-half percent higher than in 1996 and consumption is one-half percent lower. (2) Natural gas production is estimated to be 52.6 billion cubic feet per day in November 1997, the highest rate since March 1997. (3) After falling 8 percent in July 1997, the national average wellhead price rose 10 percent in August 1997, reaching an estimated $2.21 per thousand cubic feet. (4) Milder weather in November 1997 compared to November 1996 has resulted in significantly lower levels of residential consumption of natural gas and net storage withdrawls than a year ago. The November 1997 estimates of residential consumption and net withdrawls are 9 and 20 percent lower, respectively, than in November 1996.

  12. 33 CFR 127.1203 - Gas detection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Limit listed in 29 CFR 1910.1000, Table Z-1 or Z-2. (c) Each gas detector required by paragraph (a) or... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gas detection. 127.1203 Section...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS...

  13. 33 CFR 127.1203 - Gas detection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Limit listed in 29 CFR 1910.1000, Table Z-1 or Z-2. (c) Each gas detector required by paragraph (a) or... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gas detection. 127.1203 Section...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS...

  14. 33 CFR 127.1203 - Gas detection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Limit listed in 29 CFR 1910.1000, Table Z-1 or Z-2. (c) Each gas detector required by paragraph (a) or... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gas detection. 127.1203 Section...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS...

  15. 33 CFR 127.1203 - Gas detection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Limit listed in 29 CFR 1910.1000, Table Z-1 or Z-2. (c) Each gas detector required by paragraph (a) or... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gas detection. 127.1203 Section...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS...

  16. 33 CFR 127.1203 - Gas detection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Limit listed in 29 CFR 1910.1000, Table Z-1 or Z-2. (c) Each gas detector required by paragraph (a) or... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gas detection. 127.1203 Section...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS...

  17. On-board measurement of emissions from liquefied petroleum gas, gasoline and diesel powered passenger cars in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Chikhi, Saâdane; Boughedaoui, Ménouèr; Kerbachi, Rabah; Joumard, Robert

    2014-08-01

    On-board measurements of unit emissions of CO, HC, NOx and CO₂ were conducted on 17 private cars powered by different types of fuels including gasoline, dual gasoline-liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline, and diesel. The tests performed revealed the effect of LPG injection technology on unit emissions and made it possible to compare the measured emissions to the European Artemis emission model. A sequential multipoint injection LPG kit with no catalyst installed was found to be the most efficient pollutant reduction device for all of the pollutants, with the exception of the NOx. Specific test results for a sub-group of LPG vehicles revealed that LPG-fueled engines with no catalyst cannot compete with catalyzed gasoline and diesel engines. Vehicle age does not appear to be a determining parameter with regard to vehicle pollutant emissions. A fuel switch to LPG offers many advantages as far as pollutant emissions are concerned, due to LPG's intrinsic characteristics. However, these advantages are being rapidly offset by the strong development of both gasoline and diesel engine technologies and catalyst converters. The LPG's performance on a chassis dynamometer under real driving conditions was better than expected. The enforcement of pollutant emission standards in developing countries is an important step towards introducing clean technology and reducing vehicle emissions. PMID:25108721

  18. Chemical analysis and ozone formation potential of exhaust from dual-fuel (liquefied petroleum gas/gasoline) light duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, T. W.; Astorga, C.; Clairotte, M.; Duane, M.; Elsasser, M.; Krasenbrink, A.; Larsen, B. R.; Manfredi, U.; Martini, G.; Montero, L.; Sklorz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; Perujo, A.

    2011-06-01

    Measures must be undertaken to lower the transport sector's contribution to anthropogenic emissions. Vehicles powered by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are an option due to their reduced emissions of air pollutants compared to engines with conventional fuels. In the present study, ten different dual-fuel LPG/gasoline light duty vehicles were tested, which all complied with European emission level legislation EURO-4. Tests with LPG and gasoline were performed on a chassis dynamometer by applying the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and emission factors and ozone formation potentials of both kinds of fuels were compared. The components investigated comprised regulated compounds, CO 2, volatile hydrocarbons and carbonyls. On-line analysis of aromatic species was carried out by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS). We demonstrate that utilization of LPG can entail some environmental benefits by reducing emissions. However, for dual-fuel LPG/gasoline vehicles running on LPG the benefits are less than expected. The main reason is that dual-fuel vehicles usually start the engine up on gasoline even when LPG is selected as fuel. This cold-start phase is crucial for the quality of the emissions. Moreover, we demonstrate an influence on the chemical composition of emissions of vehicle performance, fuel and the evaporative emission system of the vehicles.

  19. Natural gas conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Gondouin, M.

    1991-01-01

    Work continued on Task No. 3. Particular attention was given to the back pressure control at the two gaseous effluent outlets and to the incineration of these effluents prior to their disposal. Temperature of the riser/regenerator and steam requirements were predicted from the gasification kinetics of coke and of coal char experimentally determined at atmospheric pressure, but at somewhat lower temperatures by H. Heinemann. The results of interactions of CH4 molecules with a Hydrogen Plasma in the adsorbed layer at the surface of refractory oxides were compared with those in the gas phase in order to select the optimum temperature range in the Cyclone reactor.

  20. Apparatus For The Liquefaaction Of Natural Gas And Methods Relating To Same

    DOEpatents

    Wilding, Bruce M.; Bingham, Dennis N.; McKellar, Michael G.; Turner, Terry D.; Rateman, Kevin T.; Palmer, Gary L.; Klinger, Kerry M.; Vranicar, John J.

    2005-11-08

    An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating work output. A compressor is driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream. Additional features and techniques may be integrated with the liquefaction process including a water clean-up cycle and a carbon dioxide (CO2) clean-up cycle.

  1. Apparatus For The Liquefaaction Of Natural Gas And Methods Relating To Same

    DOEpatents

    Wilding, Bruce M.; Bingham, Dennis N.; McKellar, Michael G.; Turner, Terry D.; Raterman, Kevin T.; Palmer, Gary L.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Vranicar, John J.

    2005-05-03

    An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating work output. A compressor is driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream. Additional features and techniques may be integrated with the liquefaction process including a water clean-up cycle and a carbon dioxide (CO2) clean-up cycle.

  2. Apparatus For The Liquefaaction Of Natural Gas And Methods Relating To Same

    DOEpatents

    Wilding, Bruce M.; Bingham, Dennis N.; McKellar, Michael G.; Turner, Terry D.; Raterman, Kevin T.; Palmer, Gary L.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Vranicar, John J.

    2003-06-24

    An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating work output. A compressor is driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream. Additional features and techniques may be integrated with the liquefaction process including a water clean-up cycle and a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) clean-up cycle.

  3. Apparatus for the liquefaction of natural gas and methods relating to same

    DOEpatents

    Wilding, Bruce M.; Bingham, Dennis N.; McKellar, Michael G.; Turner, Terry D.; Raterman, Kevin T.; Palmer, Gary L.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Vranicar, John J.

    2007-05-22

    An apparatus and method for producing liquefied natural gas. A liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream passes through a turbo expander creating work output. A compressor is driven by the work output and compresses the process stream. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is divided into first and second portions with the first portion being expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. The second portion of the cooled, compressed process stream is also expanded and used to cool the compressed process stream. Additional features and techniques may be integrated with the liquefaction process including a water clean-up cycle and a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) clean-up cycle.

  4. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.

    2007-03-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.

  5. Natural gas monthly, March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly contains estimates for March 1999 for many natural gas data series at the national level. Estimates of national natural gas prices are available through December 1998 for most series. Highlights of the data contained in this issue are listed below. Preliminary data indicate that the national average wellhead price for 1998 declined to 16% from the previous year ($1.96 compared to $2.32 per thousand cubic feet). At the end of March, the end of the 1998--1999 heating season, the level of working gas in underground natural gas storage facilities is estimated to be 1,354 billion cubic feet, 169 billion cubic feet higher than at the end of March 1998. Gas consumption during the first 3 months of 1999 is estimated to have been 179 billion cubic feet higher than in the same period in 1998. Most of this increase (133 billion cubic feet) occurred in the residential sector due to the cooler temperatures in January and February compared to the same months last year. According to the National Weather Service, heating degree days in January 1999 were 15% greater than the previous year while February recorded a 5% increase.

  6. Natural Gas Supply SBIR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, H.D.; Gwilliam, W.J.

    1995-07-01

    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program was created in 1982 by Public Law 97-219 and reauthorized in 1992 until the year 2000 by Public Law 102-564. The purposes of the new law are to (1) expand and improve the SBIR program, 2) emphasize the program`s goal of increasing private sector commercialization of technology developed through Federal R&D, (3) increase small business participation in Federal R&D, and (4) improve the Federal Government`s dissemination of information concerning the SBIR program. DOE`s SBIR pro-ram has two features that are unique. In the 1995 DOE SBIR solicitation, the DOE Fossil Energy topics were: environmental technology for natural gas, oil, and coal; advanced recovery of oil; natural gas supply; natural gas utilization; advanced coal-based power systems; and advanced fossil fuels research. The subtopics for this solicitation`s Natural Gas Supply topic are (1) drilling, completion, and stimulation; (2) low-permeability Formations; (3) delivery and storage; and (4) natural gas upgrading.

  7. Natural gas monthly, February 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents estimates of natural gas supply and consumption through February 1997. Estimates of natural gas prices are through November 1996 except electric utility prices that are through October 1996. Cumulatively for January through February 1997, the daily average rates for several data series remain close to those of 1996. (Comparing daily rates accounts for the fact that February 1996 had 29 days.) Daily total consumption for January through February is estimated to be 83 billion cubic feet per day, 1 percent higher than during the same period in 1996. Similarly, the estimate of average daily production of 53 billion cubic feet is 1.5 percent higher than in 1996, while daily net imports during the first 2 months of 1997 are virtually unchanged from 1996.

  8. Total fuel-cycle analysis of heavy-duty vehicles using biofuels and natural gas-based alternative fuels.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Patrick E; Green, Erin H; Corbett, James J; Mas, Carl; Winebrake, James J

    2011-03-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) present a growing energy and environmental concern worldwide. These vehicles rely almost entirely on diesel fuel for propulsion and create problems associated with local pollution, climate change, and energy security. Given these problems and the expected global expansion of HDVs in transportation sectors, industry and governments are pursuing biofuels and natural gas as potential alternative fuels for HDVs. Using recent lifecycle datasets, this paper evaluates the energy and emissions impacts of these fuels in the HDV sector by conducting a total fuel-cycle (TFC) analysis for Class 8 HDVs for six fuel pathways: (1) petroleum to ultra low sulfur diesel; (2) petroleum and soyoil to biodiesel (methyl soy ester); (3) petroleum, ethanol, and oxygenate to e-diesel; (4) petroleum and natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch diesel; (5) natural gas to compressed natural gas; and (6) natural gas to liquefied natural gas. TFC emissions are evaluated for three greenhouse gases (GHGs) (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) and five other pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and sulfur oxides), along with estimates of total energy and petroleum consumption associated with each of the six fuel pathways. Results show definite advantages with biodiesel and compressed natural gas for most pollutants, negligible benefits for e-diesel, and increased GHG emissions for liquefied natural gas and Fischer-Tropsch diesel (from natural gas). PMID:21416755

  9. Centrifuge for separating helium from natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kelling, F.E.; Theyse, F.H.

    1980-01-08

    A centrifuge is claimed for the separation of gaseous mixtures with a rotor inside a housing, comprising a hollow, cylindrical or nearly cylindrical rotorpart also called a separating drum, in which drum a gaseous component may condense as a liquid. This liquid is admitted thereafter through openings in the drum to the space between drum and housing. In this space are formed a sequence of narrow openings, so called restrictors in which the liquid is brought to expansion, returning to gas form. These restrictors act also as bearings for the drum. The gaseous component that does not liquefy in the drum is drawn off.

  10. Nitrogen removal from natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    According to a 1991 Energy Information Administration estimate, U.S. reserves of natural gas are about 165 trillion cubic feet (TCF). To meet the long-term demand for natural gas, new gas fields from these reserves will have to be developed. Gas Research Institute studies reveal that 14% (or about 19 TCF) of known reserves in the United States are subquality due to high nitrogen content. Nitrogen-contaminated natural gas has a low Btu value and must be upgraded by removing the nitrogen. In response to the problem, the Department of Energy is seeking innovative, efficient nitrogen-removal methods. Membrane processes have been considered for natural gas denitrogenation. The challenge, not yet overcome, is to develop membranes with the required nitrogen/methane separation characteristics. Our calculations show that a methane-permeable membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 4 to 6 would make denitrogenation by a membrane process viable. The objective of Phase I of this project was to show that membranes with this target selectivity can be developed, and that the economics of the process based on these membranes would be competitive. Gas permeation measurements with membranes prepared from two rubbery polymers and a superglassy polymer showed that two of these materials had the target selectivity of 4 to 6 when operated at temperatures below - 20{degrees}C. An economic analysis showed that a process based on these membranes is competitive with other technologies for small streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. Hybrid designs combining membranes with other technologies are suitable for high-flow, higher-nitrogen-content streams.

  11. On-road remote sensing of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicle emissions measurement and emission factors estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Z.; Chan, T. L.

    In the present study, the real-world on-road liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicle/taxi emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and nitric oxide (NO) were investigated. A regression analysis approach based on the measured LPG vehicle emission data was also used to estimate the on-road LPG vehicle emission factors of CO, HC and NO with respect to the effects of instantaneous vehicle speed and acceleration/deceleration profiles for local urban driving patterns. The results show that the LPG vehicle model years and driving patterns have a strong correlation to their emission factors. A unique correlation of LPG vehicle emission factors (i.e., g km -1 and g l -1) on different model years for urban driving patterns has been established. Finally, a comparison was made between the average LPG, and petrol [Chan, T.L., Ning, Z., Leung, C.W., Cheung, C.S., Hung, W.T., Dong, G., 2004. On-road remote sensing of petrol vehicle emissions measurement and emission factors estimation in Hong Kong. Atmospheric Environment 38, 2055-2066 and 3541] and diesel [Chan, T.L., Ning, Z., 2005. On-road remote sensing of diesel vehicle emissions measurement and emission factors estimation in Hong Kong. Atmospheric Environment 39, 6843-6856] vehicle emission factors. It has shown that the introduction of the replacement of diesel taxis to LPG taxis has alleviated effectively the urban street air pollution. However, it has demonstrated that proper maintenance on the aged LPG taxis should also be taken into consideration.

  12. Apparatus and method for gelling liquefied gasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Adam (Inventor); DiSalvo, Roberto (Inventor); Shepherd, Phillip (Inventor); Kosier, Ryan (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method and apparatus for gelling liquid propane and other liquefied gasses includes a temperature controlled churn mixer, vacuum pump, liquefied gas transfer tank, and means for measuring amount of material entering the mixer. The apparatus and method are particularly useful for the production of high quality rocket fuels and propellants.

  13. Natural gas monthly, January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This publication, the Natural Gas Monthly, presents the most recent data on natural gas supply, consumption, and prices from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Of special interest in this issue are two articles summarizing reports recently published by EIA. The articles are {open_quotes}Natural Gas Productive Capacity{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Outlook for Natural Gas Through 2015,{close_quotes} both of which precede the {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} section. With this issue, January 1997, changes have been made to the format of the Highlights section and to several of the tabular and graphical presentations throughout the publication. The changes to the Highlights affect the discussion of developments in the industry and the presentation of weekly storage data. An overview of the developments in the industry is now presented in a brief summary followed by specific discussions of supply, end-use consumption, and prices. Spot and futures prices are discussed as appropriate in the Price section, together with wellhead and consumer prices.

  14. Staff Handbook on Natural Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorges, H. A., Ed.; Raine, L. P., Ed.

    The Department of Commerce created a Natural Gas Action Group early in the fall of 1975 to assist industrial firms and the communities they serve to cope with the effects of potentially severe and crippling curtailment situations. This action group was trained to assess a specific local situation, review the potential for remedial action and…

  15. EIA's Natural Gas Production Data

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This special report examines the stages of natural gas processing from the wellhead to the pipeline network through which the raw product becomes ready for transportation and eventual consumption, and how this sequence is reflected in the data published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA).

  16. Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This document comprises the Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan, and is a follow-up to the `Natural Gas Strategic Plan and Program Crosscut Plans,` dated July 1995. DOE`s natural gas programs are aimed at simultaneously meeting our national energy needs, reducing oil imports, protecting our environment, and improving our economy. The Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan represents a Department-wide effort on expanded development and use of natural gas and defines Federal government and US industry roles in partnering to accomplish defined strategic goals. The four overarching goals of the Natural Gas Program are to: (1) foster development of advanced natural gas technologies, (2) encourage adoption of advanced natural gas technologies in new and existing markets, (3) support removal of policy impediments to natural gas use in new and existing markets, and (4) foster technologies and policies to maximize environmental benefits of natural gas use.

  17. 75 FR 53371 - Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Obtaining Approval of Alternative Vapor-Gas Dispersion Models

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... model that accounts for additional cloud dilution which may be caused by the complex flow patterns... not to influence the flow field of the vapor cloud) and/or through a sensitivity analysis of the... data that produced the maximum arc wise concentration relative to the cloud centerline. The...

  18. 33 CFR 127.203 - Portable gas detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portable gas detectors. 127.203 Section 127.203 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling...

  19. Adsorbed Natural Gas Storage in Optimized High Surface Area Microporous Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanos, Jimmy; Rash, Tyler; Nordwald, Erik; Shocklee, Joshua Shawn; Wexler, Carlos; Pfeifer, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) is an attractive alternative technology to compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG) for the efficient storage of natural gas, in particular for vehicular applications. In adsorbants engineered to have pores of a few molecular diameters, a strong van der Walls force allows reversible physisorption of methane at low pressures and room temperature. Activated carbons were optimized for storage by varying KOH:C ratio and activation temperature. We also consider the effect of mechanical compression of powders to further enhance the volumetric storage capacity. We will present standard porous material characterization (BET surface area and pore-size distribution from subcritical N2 adsorption) and methane isotherms up to 250 bar at 293K. At sufficiently high pressure, specific surface area, methane binding energy and film density can be extracted from supercritical methane adsorption isotherms. Research supported by the California Energy Commission (500-08-022).

  20. 77 FR 55197 - LNG Development Company, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ..., Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Activities, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue SW... in the Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities docket room, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence...

  1. 77 FR 63806 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... Activities, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue SW..., Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585, (202) 586-9478; (202) 586-7991. Edward... in the Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities docket room, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence...

  2. 78 FR 17189 - Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... to the Regulation of Imported Natural Gas, 49 FR 6,684 (February 22, 1984) (``Policy Guidelines... Regulatory Activities, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue SW..., Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585, (202) 586-9478; (202) 586-7991....

  3. Meeting Asia's future gas import demand with stranded natural gas from central Asia, Russia, Southeast Asia, and Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This analysis shows the important contribution that stranded gas from central Asia, Russia, Southeast Asia, and Australia can make in meeting the projected demand for gas imports of China, India, Japan, and South Korea from 2020 to 2040. The estimated delivered costs of pipeline gas from stranded fields in Russia and central Asia at Shanghai, China, are generally less than delivered costs of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Australia and Malaysia are initially the lowest-cost LNG suppliers. In the concluding section, it is argued that Asian LNG demand is price sensitive, and that current Asian LNG pricing procedures are unlikely to be sustainable for gas import demand to attain maximum potential growth. Resource volumes in stranded fields evaluated can nearly meet projected import demands.

  4. Methods of natural gas liquefaction and natural gas liquefaction plants utilizing multiple and varying gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Wilding, Bruce M; Turner, Terry D

    2014-12-02

    A method of natural gas liquefaction may include cooling a gaseous NG process stream to form a liquid NG process stream. The method may further include directing the first tail gas stream out of a plant at a first pressure and directing a second tail gas stream out of the plant at a second pressure. An additional method of natural gas liquefaction may include separating CO.sub.2 from a liquid NG process stream and processing the CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 product stream. Another method of natural gas liquefaction may include combining a marginal gaseous NG process stream with a secondary substantially pure NG stream to provide an improved gaseous NG process stream. Additionally, a NG liquefaction plant may include a first tail gas outlet, and at least a second tail gas outlet, the at least a second tail gas outlet separate from the first tail gas outlet.

  5. Apparatus for dispensing compressed natural gas and liquified natural gas to natural gas powered vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis A.; Clark, Michael L.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Palmer, Gary L.

    2007-05-29

    A fueling facility and method for dispensing liquid natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG) or both on-demand. The fueling facility may include a source of LNG, such as cryogenic storage vessel. A low volume high pressure pump is coupled to the source of LNG to produce a stream of pressurized LNG. The stream of pressurized LNG may be selectively directed through an LNG flow path or to a CNG flow path which includes a vaporizer configured to produce CNG from the pressurized LNG. A portion of the CNG may be drawn from the CNG flow path and introduced into the CNG flow path to control the temperature of LNG flowing therethrough. Similarly, a portion of the LNG may be drawn from the LNG flow path and introduced into the CNG flow path to control the temperature of CNG flowing therethrough.

  6. Natural gas 1995: Issues and trends

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Natural Gas 1995: Issues and Trends addresses current issues affecting the natural gas industry and markets. Highlights of recent trends include: Natural gas wellhead prices generally declined throughout 1994 and for 1995 averages 22% below the year-earlier level; Seasonal patterns of natural gas production and wellhead prices have been significantly reduced during the past three year; Natural gas production rose 15% from 1985 through 1994, reaching 18.8 trillion cubic feet; Increasing amounts of natural gas have been imported; Since 1985, lower costs of producing and transporting natural gas have benefitted consumers; Consumers may see additional benefits as States examine regulatory changes aimed at increasing efficiency; and, The electric industry is being restructured in a fashion similar to the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry.

  7. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  8. Gas supplies of interstate/natural gas pipeline companies 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-18

    This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas during calendar year 1989, for use by the FERC for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to other Government agencies, the natural gas industry, as well as policy makers, analysts, and consumers interested in current levels of interstate supplies of natural gas and trends over recent years. 5 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Compressed natural gas (CNG) measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Husain, Z.D.; Goodson, F.D.

    1995-12-01

    The increased level of environmental awareness has raised concerns about pollution. One area of high attention is the internal combustion engine. The internal combustion engine in and of itself is not a major pollution threat. However, the vast number of motor vehicles in use release large quantities of pollutants. Recent technological advances in ignition and engine controls coupled with unleaded fuels and catalytic converters have reduced vehicular emissions significantly. Alternate fuels have the potential to produce even greater reductions in emissions. The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) has been a significant alternative to accomplish the goal of cleaner combustion. Of the many alternative fuels under investigation, compressed natural gas (CNG) has demonstrated the lowest levels of emission. The only vehicle certified by the State of California as an Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) was powered by CNG. The California emissions tests of the ULEV-CNG vehicle revealed the following concentrations: Non-Methane Hydrocarbons 0.005 grams/mile Carbon Monoxide 0.300 grams/mile Nitrogen Oxides 0.040 grams/mile. Unfortunately, CNG vehicles will not gain significant popularity until compressed natural gas is readily available in convenient locations in urban areas and in proximity to the Interstate highway system. Approximately 150,000 gasoline filling stations exist in the United States while number of CNG stations is about 1000 and many of those CNG stations are limited to fleet service only. Discussion in this paper concentrates on CNG flow measurement for fuel dispensers. Since the regulatory changes and market demands affect the flow metering and dispenser station design those aspects are discussed. The CNG industry faces a number of challenges.

  10. 40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065.715... PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet...

  11. 40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065.715... PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet...

  12. 40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065.715... PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065.715... PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065.715... PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet...

  15. Natural Gas Market Centers: A 2008 Update

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This special report looks at the current status of market centers in today's natural gas marketplace, examining their role and their importance to natural gas shippers, pipelines, and others involved in the transportation of natural gas over the North American pipeline network.

  16. Natural gas: Formation of hydrates -- Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaskara Rao, B.K.

    1998-07-01

    The significant growth of Natural gas based industries in India and elsewhere obviously forced the industry to hunt for new fields and sources. This has naturally led to the phenomenal growth of gas networks. The transportation of gas over thousands of kilometers through caprious ambient conditions requires a great effort. Many difficulties such as condensation of light liquids (NGLS), choking of lines due to formation of hydrates, improper distribution of gas into branches are experienced during pipe line transportation of Natural gas. The thermodynamic conditions suitable for formation of solid hydrates have been derived depending upon the constituents of natural gas. Further effects of branching in pipe line transportation have been discussed.

  17. 100th Anniversary of the Discovery of Helium in Natural Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longsworth, Ralph Cady

    2006-04-01

    December 7, 2005 marks the 100th anniversary of the discovery of helium in natural gas by H. P. Cady and D. F. McFarland at the University of Kansas. The work was done in the Chemistry building, Bailey Hall, built in 1900 and designated as a National Historic Chemical Landmark in 2000. An early air liquefier was installed in 1903 and in the same year McFarland used the liquid air to analyze a sample of natural gas that wouldn't burn. He analyzed it as having 71% nitrogen plus the expected methane and residual gas that couldn't be condensed. It took two years to assemble the apparatus that Cady used to see the helium spectrum in the residual gas. This paper includes a discussion of the discoveries related to helium, personal insights into the life and contributions of H. P. Cady, and the evolution of its production.

  18. Contracts for the new natural gas business

    SciTech Connect

    Haedicke, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    Two major developments in the natural gas industry are causing fundamental changes in natural gas contracts. The first development, financial markets for natural gas, began only recently. On April 3, 1990, the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) began trading natural gas futures for a twelve month forward period. On the opening day, 925 contracts were traded. Recently, 18,344 contracts were traded in a single day, and gas 4 futures on NYMEX are now traded for an eighteen month forward period. At the same time, the market for off-exchange products, such as natural gas swaps and trade options, has expanded considerably. Shortly, it will be hard to imagine life in the natural gas business without the emerging financial markets for natural gas, if that time has not already occurred. The second major development, deregulation of the gas industry, began with the passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978. Each of the two developments provides a catalyst for fundamental changes in natural gas contracts. This article explores the impact of these two developments on long-term fixed-price physical gas contracts and the future direction of long-term fixed-price gas contracts.

  19. Advanced Liquid Natural Gas Onboard Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Harper; Charles Powars

    2003-10-31

    Cummins Westport Incorporated (CWI) has designed and developed a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel system that includes a reciprocating pump with the cold end submerged in LNG contained in a vacuum-jacketed tank. This system was tested and analyzed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced LNG Onboard Storage System (ALOSS) program. The pumped LNG fuel system developed by CWI and tested under the ALOSS program is a high-pressure system designed for application on Class 8 trucks powered by CWI's ISX G engine, which employs high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) technology. A general ALOSS program objective was to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of a pumped LNG fuel system relative to on-vehicle fuel systems that require the LNG to be ''conditioned'' to saturation pressures that exceeds the engine fuel pressure requirements. These advantages include the capability to store more fuel mass in given-size vehicle and station tanks, and simpler lower-cost LNG refueling stations that do not require conditioning equipment. Pumped LNG vehicle fuel systems are an alternative to conditioned LNG systems for spark-ignition natural gas and port-injection dual-fuel engines (which typically require about 100 psi), and they are required for HPDI engines (which require over 3,000 psi). The ALOSS program demonstrated the feasibility of a pumped LNG vehicle fuel system and the advantages of this design relative to systems that require conditioning the LNG to a saturation pressure exceeding the engine fuel pressure requirement. LNG tanks mounted on test carts and the CWI engineering truck were repeatedly filled with LNG saturated at 20 to 30 psig. More fuel mass was stored in the vehicle tanks as well as the station tank, and no conditioning equipment was required at the fueling station. The ALOSS program also demonstrated the general viability and specific performance of the CWI pumped LNG fuel system design. The system tested as part of this program is

  20. 78 FR 38309 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Florida Gas Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Florida... Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124; on behalf of itself, Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C., and Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, (collectively,...

  1. Efficient electrochemical refrigeration power plant using natural gas with ∼100% CO2 capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-musleh, Easa I.; Mallapragada, Dharik S.; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    We propose an efficient Natural Gas (NG) based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) power plant equipped with ∼100% CO2 capture. The power plant uses a unique refrigeration based process to capture and liquefy CO2 from the SOFC exhaust. The capture of CO2 is carried out via condensation and purification using two rectifying columns operating at different pressures. The uncondensed gas mixture, comprising of relatively high purity unconverted fuel, is recycled to the SOFC and found to boost the power generation of the SOFC by 22%, when compared to a stand alone SOFC. If Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is available at the plant gate, then the refrigeration available from its evaporation is used for CO2 Capture and Liquefaction (CO2CL). If NG is utilized, then a Mixed Refrigerant (MR) vapor compression cycle is utilized for CO2CL. Alternatively, the necessary refrigeration can be supplied by evaporating the captured liquid CO2 at a lower pressure, which is then compressed to supercritical pressures for pipeline transportation. From rigorous simulations, the power generation efficiency of the proposed processes is found to be 70-76% based on lower heating value (LHV). The benefit of the proposed processes is evident when the efficiency of 73% for a conventional SOFC-Gas turbine power plant without CO2 capture is compared with an equivalent efficiency of 71.2% for the proposed process with CO2CL.

  2. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  3. The domestic natural gas shortage in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ting

    This thesis analyzes the domestic shortage in the Chinese natural gas market. Both the domestic supply and demand of natural gas are growing fast in China. However, the supply cannot catch up with the demand. Under the present pricing mechanism, the Chinese natural gas market cannot get the equilibrium by itself. Expensive imports are inadequate to fill the increasing gap between the domestic demand and supply. Therefore, the shortage problem occurs. Since the energy gap can result in the arrested development of economics, the shortage problem need to be solved. This thesis gives three suggestions to solve the problem: the use of Unconventional Gas, Natural Gas Storage and Pricing Reform.

  4. Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

    2012-01-01

    This article develops a formal model for comparing the cost structure of the two main transport options for natural gas: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG. PMID:24683269

  5. Global Natural Gas Market Trends, 2. edition

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-15

    The report provides an overview of major trends occurring in the natural gas industry and includes a concise look at the drivers behind recent rapid growth in gas usage and the challenges faced in meeting that growth. Topics covered include: an overview of Natural Gas including its history, the current market environment, and its future market potential; an analysis of the overarching trends that are driving a need for change in the Natural Gas industry; a description of new technologies being developed to increase production of Natural Gas; an evaluation of the potential of unconventional Natural Gas sources to supply the market; a review of new transportation methods to get Natural Gas from producing to consuming countries; a description of new storage technologies to support the increasing demand for peak gas; an analysis of the coming changes in global Natural Gas flows; an evaluation of new applications for Natural Gas and their impact on market sectors; and, an overview of Natural Gas trading concepts and recent changes in financial markets.

  6. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M.

    2012-01-27

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  7. Natural gas: An international perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Mabro, R.

    1986-01-01

    This book is concerned with: the prospects for trade in Western Europe, Japan, the USA and the Third World; the controversial gas pricing issue; and the influence of politics on gas investment and trade. The difficulties of devising fair and enforceable gas contracts between producing and importing countries and the problems arising from government intervention in international negotiations on gas contracts are also considered.

  8. 78 FR 21351 - Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ...-NG SOCIETE GENERALE ENERGY CORP 13-09-NG FREEPOINT COMMODITIES LLC 13-10-NG PLANET ENERGY CORP 13-13... LNG SDG, S.A. from various international sources by vessel. 3234 02/19/13 13-13-NG Planet Energy...

  9. Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today`s natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

  10. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  11. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Natural gas annual 1993 supplement: Company profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1993 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of 45 selected companies in the natural gas industry. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the companies profiled. The companies in this report are interstate pipeline companies or local distribution companies (LDC`s). Interstate pipeline companies acquire gas supplies from company owned production, purchases from producers, and receipts for transportation for account of others. Pipeline systems, service area maps, company supply and disposition data are presented.

  13. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study is to research technologies and methodologies that will reduce the costs associated with the operation and maintenance of underground natural gas storage. This effort will include a survey of public information to determine the amount of natural gas lost from underground storage fields, determine the causes of this lost gas, and develop strategies and remedial designs to reduce or stop the gas loss from selected fields. Phase I includes a detailed survey of US natural gas storage reservoirs to determine the actual amount of natural gas annually lost from underground storage fields. These reservoirs will be ranked, the resultant will include the amount of gas and revenue annually lost. The results will be analyzed in conjunction with the type (geologic) of storage reservoirs to determine the significance and impact of the gas loss. A report of the work accomplished will be prepared. The report will include: (1) a summary list by geologic type of US gas storage reservoirs and their annual underground gas storage losses in ft{sup 3}; (2) a rank by geologic classifications as to the amount of gas lost and the resultant lost revenue; and (3) show the level of significance and impact of the losses by geologic type. Concurrently, the amount of storage activity has increased in conjunction with the net increase of natural gas imports as shown on Figure No. 3. Storage is playing an ever increasing importance in supplying the domestic energy requirements.

  14. SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    COOK,Z.

    1999-02-01

    The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports provide

  15. Natural gas annual 1994: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data fro the Nation from 1930 to 1994, and by State from 1967 to 1994.

  16. Natural gas monthly, September 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-30

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  17. Arctic Oil and Natural Gas Potential

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the discovered and undiscovered Arctic oil and natural gas resource base with respect to their location and concentration. The paper also discusses the cost and impediments to developing Arctic oil and natural gas resources, including those issues associated with environmental habitats and political boundaries.

  18. Majors' Shift to Natural Gas, The

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    The Majors' Shift to Natural Gas investigates the factors that have guided the United States' major energy producers' growth in U.S. natural gas production relative to oil production. The analysis draws heavily on financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS)

  19. Natural gas monthly, October 1990. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-28

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 34 tabs.

  20. Catalytic decomposition of petroleum into natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Mango, F.D.; Hightower, J.

    1997-12-01

    Petroleum is believed to be unstable in the earth, decomposing to lighter hydrocarbons at temperatures > 150{degrees}C. Oil and gas deposits support this view: gas/oil ratios and methane concentrations tend to increase with depth above 150{degrees}C. Although oil cracking is suggested and receives wide support, laboratory pyrolysis does not give products resembling natural gas. Moreover, it is doubtful that the light hydrocarbons in wet gas (C{sub 2}-C{sub 4}) could decompose over geologic time to dry gas (>95% methane) without catalytic assistance. We now report the catalytic decomposition of crude oil to a gas indistinguishable from natural gas. Like natural gas in deep basins, it becomes progressively enriched in methane: initially 90% (wet gas) to a final composition of 100% methane (dry gas). To our knowledge, the reaction is unprecedented and unexpectedly robust (conversion of oil to gas is 100% in days, 175{degrees}C) with significant implications regarding the stability of petroleum in sedimentary basins. The existence or nonexistence of oil in the deep subsurface may not depend on the thermal stability of hydrocarbons as currently thought. The critical factor could be the presence of transition metal catalysts which destabilize hydrocarbons and promote their decomposition to natural gas.

  1. Natural gas 1994: Issues and trends

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This report provides an overview of the natural gas industry in 1993 and early 1994 (Chapter 1), focusing on the overall ability to deliver gas under the new regulatory mandates of Order 636. In addition, the report highlights a range of issues affecting the industry, including: restructuring under Order 636 (Chapter 2); adjustments in natural gas contracting (Chapter 3); increased use of underground storage (Chapter 4); effects of the new market on the financial performance of the industry (Chapter 5); continued impacts of major regulatory and legislative changes on the natural gas market (Appendix A).

  2. How EIA Estimates Natural Gas Production

    EIA Publications

    2004-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes estimates monthly and annually of the production of natural gas in the United States. The estimates are based on data EIA collects from gas producing states and data collected by the U. S. Minerals Management Service (MMS) in the Department of Interior. The states and MMS collect this information from producers of natural gas for various reasons, most often for revenue purposes. Because the information is not sufficiently complete or timely for inclusion in EIA's Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), EIA has developed estimation methodologies to generate monthly production estimates that are described in this document.

  3. Out of gas: Tenneco in the era of natural gas regulation, 1938--1978

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raley, David

    2011-12-01

    overshadowed its former core business. The 1970s brought a renewed interest in natural gas and other energy resources as the nation faced chronic energy shortages. As the FPC loosened its low rate policy in the early 1970s to encourage production, Tenneco once again invested heavily in new pipelines and gas exploration, as well as more speculative ventures in Arctic gas, liquefied natural gas, synthetic fuels, and nuclear energy. By 1978, growing public and political support led to deregulation of natural gas, plunging Tenneco into a new era where market forces, not FPC oversight, impacted the gas industry. The deregulation of natural gas in 1978 removed the guaranteed rate of return from Tenneco's bottom line and exposed the weakness of Tenneco's conglomeration---the profitable pipeline had long been used to prop-up weaker businesses. The 1980s and 1990s were characterized by a gradual dissolution of Tenneco.

  4. Natural gas monthly, September 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-18

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production distribution consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  5. IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Jason M. Keith

    2005-02-01

    This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

  6. Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.

    SciTech Connect

    Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-11-29

    In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

  7. Accelerated dilution of liquefied natural gas plumes with fences and vortex generators

    SciTech Connect

    Kothari, K.M.; Meroney, R.N.

    1982-05-01

    Wind-tunnel tests confirmed that a passive fence or vortex generator can help dilute a hazardous LNG vapor cloud, leading to a quicker dispersal of the plume. Supplying a large database on the interaction of LNG plumes with such devices, the tests determined the effects of boiloff rate, wind speed, and fence configuration on cloud dispersion.

  8. 75 FR 72877 - Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background On July 2, 2009, (74 FR 31675) PHMSA published a Notice of Proposed... distribution and hazardous liquid pipelines (August 17, 2009; 74 FR 41496). The use of these new forms were..., many of which also operate small amounts of transmission pipeline as part of their pipeline...

  9. 77 FR 2126 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... INFORMATION: I. Background PHMSA published a final rule in the Federal Register on November 26, 2010, (75 FR... Reduction Act requirements, PHMSA issued a 60-day Federal Register notice on December 13, 2010, (75 FR 77694) and a 30-day Federal Register notice on November 10, 2011, (76 FR 70217) to gather and respond...

  10. 75 FR 60095 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... LNG supplies. \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 717b. \\2\\ See 49 FR 6684, February 22, 1984. Sempra states that in DOE/FE... Supply, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW... Building, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585, (202) 586-9478; (202)...

  11. 75 FR 19954 - Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... * * * authorization * * * is completely consistent with, if not mandated by, the statutory directive.'' \\5\\ See 49 FR..., Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585. FOR FURTHER... Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000...

  12. Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal Siting in a Highly Seismic Region on the Mexican Pacific Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaczek, Yannick; Lambert, Nicolas

    A new LNG terminal should be built on the Pacific coast of Mexico, one of the most seismic regions in the world. According to International codes, a siting process must be carried out to insure the feasibility of the project, which involves, in a first step, a data collection of all existing documents related to geology, seismicity, and geotechnics. As a second step, a seismo-tectonic study has been performed, with localisation of active faults on or close to the site (aerial and satellite imagery, geophysical investigations) and determination of OBE & SSE levels. Afterwards, the site was globally characterised, with a first geotechnical report, dealing with liquefaction risks, typical soil layers, and general foundation methodology. The general site layout, the general stability of buildings, the detailed soil investigations, and the detailed foundation design are performed in the phases as described in this paper.

  13. Liquefied Natural Gas: A Potential for an Abundant Energy Supply or a Potential for Danger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Joseph

    This unit was designed to develop mathematical applications in relation to a community resource issue. It should both motivate mathematics learning and provide meaningful problems for reinforcing understanding of mathematics content and skills, including ratios and percentages, linear equations, exponential functions, graphing, and the reading and…

  14. 75 FR 13644 - TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas Deepwater Port License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Notice that appeared in the Federal Register on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) (see Privacy Act). You may... EIS for the proposed action was published in the Federal Register at 74 FR 39136, August 5, 2009 and the Draft Supplemental EIS was published in the Federal Register at 74 FR 60310, November 20,...

  15. Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of large gas hydrate accumulations in terrestrial permafrost regions of the Arctic and beneath the sea along the outer continental margins of the world's oceans has heightened interest in gas hydrates as a possible energy resource. However, significant to potentially insurmountable technical issues must be resolved before gas hydrates can be considered a viable option for affordable supplies of natural gas. The combined information from Arctic gas hydrate studies shows that, in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors, known as bottom-simulating reflectors, that have been mapped at depths below the sea floor ranging from about 100 to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Disagreements over fundamental issues such as the volume of gas stored within delineated gas hydrate accumulations and the concentration of gas hydrates within hydrate-bearing strata have demonstrated that we know little about gas hydrates. Recently, however, several countries, including Japan, India, and the United States, have launched ambitious national projects to further examine the resource potential of gas hydrates. These projects may help answer key questions dealing with the properties of gas hydrate reservoirs, the design of production systems, and, most important, the costs and economics of gas hydrate production.

  16. Sprayed zinc oxide films: Ultra-violet light-induced reversible surface wettability and platinum-sensitization-assisted improved liquefied petroleum gas response.

    PubMed

    Nakate, Umesh T; Patil, Pramila; Bulakhe, R N; Lokhande, C D; Kale, Sangeeta N; Naushad, Mu; Mane, Rajaram S

    2016-10-15

    We report the rapid (superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic) transition property and improvement in the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensing response of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) on UV-irradiation and platinum (Pt) surface sensitization, respectively. The morphological evolution of ZnO NRs is evidenced from the field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope digital images and for the structural elucidation X-ray diffraction pattern is used. Elemental survey mapping is obtained from energy dispersive X-ray analysis spectrum. The optical properties have been studied by UV-Visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements. The rapid (120sec) conversion of superhydrophobic (154°) ZnO NRs film to superhydrophilic (7°) is obtained under UV light illumination and the superhydrophobicity is regained by storing sample in dark. The mechanism for switching wettability behavior of ZnO NRs has thoroughly been discussed. In second phase, Pt-sensitized ZnO NRs film has demonstrated considerable gas sensitivity at 260ppm concentration of LPG. At 623K operating temperature, the maximum LPG response of 58% and the response time of 49sec for 1040ppm LPG concentration of Pt- sensitized ZnO NRs film are obtained. This higher LPG response of Pt-sensitized ZnO NRs film over pristine is primarily due to electronic effect and catalytic effect (spill-over effect) caused by an additional of Pt on ZnO NRs film surface. PMID:27421113

  17. Natural gas contracts in efficient portfolios

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1994-12-01

    This report addresses the {open_quotes}contracts portfolio{close_quotes} issue of natural gas contracts in support of the Domestic Natural Gas and Oil Initiative (DGOI) published by the U.S. Department of Energy in 1994. The analysis is a result of a collaborative effort with the Public Service Commission of the State of Maryland to consider {open_quotes}reforms that enhance the industry`s competitiveness{close_quotes}. The initial focus of our collaborative effort was on gas purchasing and contract portfolios; however, it became apparent that efficient contracting to purchase and use gas requires a broader consideration of regulatory reform. Efficient portfolios are obtained when the holder of the portfolio is affected by and is responsible for the performance of the portfolio. Natural gas distribution companies may prefer a diversity of contracts, but the efficient use of gas requires that the local distribution company be held accountable for its own purchases. Ultimate customers are affected by their own portfolios, which they manage efficiently by making their own choices. The objectives of the DGOI, particularly the efficient use of gas, can be achieved when customers have access to suppliers of gas and energy services under an improved regulatory framework. The evolution of the natural gas market during the last 15 years is described to account for the changing preferences toward gas contracts. Long-term contracts for natural gas were prevalent before the early 1980s, primarily because gas producers had few options other than to sell to a single pipeline company, and this pipeline company, in turn, was the only seller to a gas distribution company.

  18. North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  19. North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  20. The Canoe Ridge Natural Gas Storage Project

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve P.; Spane, Frank A.; Johnson, Vernon G.

    2003-06-18

    In 1999 the Pacific Gas and Electric Gas Transmission Northwest (GTN) drilled a borehole to investigate the feasibility of developing a natural gas-storage facility in a structural dome formed in Columbia River basalts in the Columbia Basin of south-central Washington State. The proposed aquifer storage facility will be an unconventional one where natural gas will be initially injected (and later retrieved) in one or multiple previous horizons (interflow zones) that are confined between deep (>700 meters) basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. This report summarizes the results of joint investigations on that feasibility study by GTN and the US Department of Energy.

  1. Refueling stations for natural gas vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, C.F.; Kinast, J.A.; Biederman, R.T.; Jasionowski, W.

    1991-01-01

    The unavailability of natural gas vehicle (NGV) refueling stations constitutes one of the major barriers to the wide spread utilization of natural gas in the transportation market. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate the current technical and economic status of compressed natural gas vehicle refueling stations and to identify the components or design features that offer the greatest potential for performance improvements and/or cost reductions. Both fast-fill- and slow-fill-type refueling systems will be discussed. 4 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Natural Gas Engine Development Gaps (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Zigler, B.T.

    2014-03-01

    A review of current natural gas vehicle offerings is presented for both light-duty and medium- and heavy-duty applications. Recent gaps in the marketplace are discussed, along with how they have been or may be addressed. The stakeholder input process for guiding research and development needs via the Natural Gas Vehicle Technology Forum (NGVTF) to the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission is reviewed. Current high-level natural gas engine development gap areas are highlighted, including efficiency, emissions, and the certification process.

  3. Natural gas annual 1992: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-22

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. The 1992 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production top its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1988 to 1992 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. Volume 2 of this report presents State-level historical data.

  4. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Howard S. Meyer

    2002-06-01

    A new project was initiated this quarter to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading. Efforts have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project.

  5. Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

  6. Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence? Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

  7. Incremental natural gas resources through infield reserve growth/secondary natural gas recovery. [Compartmented natural gas reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.J.; Levey, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of the Infield Growth/Secondary Natural Gas Recovery project have been: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities in reservoirs of conventional permeability cause reservoir compartmentalization and, hence, incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document practical, field-oriented examples of reserve growth from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas gulf coast basin and to use these gas reservoirs as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications of both tools and techniques to find secondary gas. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields. To transfer project results to natural gas producers, not just as field case studies, but as conceptual models of how heterogeneities determine natural gas flow and how to recognize the geologic and engineering clues that operators can use in a cost-effective manner to identify secondary gas. Accomplishments are presented for: reservoir characterization; integrated formation evaluation and engineering testing; compartmented reservoir simulator; and reservoir geophysics.

  8. Natural Gas Variability In California: Environmental Impacts And Device Performance Combustion Modeling of Pollutant Emissions From a Residential Cooking Range

    SciTech Connect

    Tonse, S. R.; Singer, B. C.

    2011-07-01

    As part of a larger study of liquefied natural gas impacts on device performance and pollutant emissions for existing equipment in California, this report describes a cmoputer modeling study of a partially premixed flame issueing from a single cooktop burner port. The model consisted of a reactive computational fluid dynamics three-dimensional spatial grid and a 71-species chemical mechanism with propane combustion capability. Simulations were conducted with a simplified fuel mixture containing methane, ethane, and propane in proportions that yield properties similar to fuels distributed throughout much of California now and in recent years (baseline fuel), as well as with two variations of simulated liquefied natural gas blends. A variety of simulations were conducted with baseline fuel to explore the effect of several key parameters on pollutant formation and other flame characteristics. Simulations started with fuel and air issuing through the burner port, igniting, and continuing until the flame was steady with time. Conditions at this point were analyzed to understand fuel, secondary air and reaction product flows, regions of pollutant formation, and exhaust concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and formaldehyde. A sensitivity study was conducted, varying the inflow parameters of this baseline gs about real-world operating conditions. Flame properties responded as expected from reactive flow theory. In the simulation, carbon monoxide levels were influenced more by the mixture's inflow velocity than by the gas-to-air ratio in the mixture issuing from the inflow port. Additional simulations were executed at two inflow conditions - high heat release and medium heat release - to examine the impact of replacing the baseline gas with two mixtures representative of liquefied natural gas. Flame properties and pollutant generation rates were very similar among the three fuel mixtures.

  9. Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer

    DOEpatents

    Pham, Ai-Quoc; Wallman, P. Henrik; Glass, Robert S.

    2000-01-01

    An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65 percent lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy by one unit of energy content in natural gas at one-quarter the cost, the hydrogen production cost will be significantly reduced. Also, it is possible to vary the ratio between the electricity and the natural gas supplied to the system in response to fluctuations in relative prices for these two energy sources. In one approach an appropriate catalyst on the anode side of the electrolyzer will promote the partial oxidation of natural gas to CO and hydrogen, called Syn-Gas, and the CO can also be shifted to CO.sub.2 to give additional hydrogen. In another approach the natural gas is used in the anode side of the electrolyzer to burn out the oxygen resulting from electrolysis, thus reducing or eliminating the potential difference across the electrolyzer membrane.

  10. Analysis of Adsorbed Natural Gas Tank Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Ernest; Schultz, Conrad; Rash, Tyler; Dohnke, Elmar; Stalla, David; Gillespie, Andrew; Sweany, Mark; Seydel, Florian; Pfeifer, Peter

    With gasoline being an ever decreasing finite resource and with the desire to reduce humanity's carbon footprint, there has been an increasing focus on innovation of alternative fuel sources. Natural gas burns cleaner, is more abundant, and conforms to modern engines. However, storing compressed natural gas (CNG) requires large, heavy gas cylinders, which limits space and fuel efficiency. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) technology allows for much greater fuel storage capacity and the ability to store the gas at a much lower pressure. Thus, ANG tanks are much more flexible in terms of their size, shape, and weight. Our ANG tank employs monolithic nanoporous activated carbon as its adsorbent material. Several different configurations of this Flat Panel Tank Assembly (FPTA) along with a Fuel Extraction System (FES) were examined to compare with the mass flow rate demands of an engine.

  11. Combustion gas properties. 2: Natural gas fuel and dry air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wear, J. D.; Jones, R. E.; Trout, A. M.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    A series of computations has been made to produce the equilibrium temperature and gas composition for natural gas fuel and dry air. The computed tables and figures provide combustion gas property data for pressures from 0.5 to 50 atmospheres and equivalence ratios from 0 to 2.0. Only samples tables and figures are provided in this report. The complete set of tables and figures is provided on four microfiche films supplied with this report.

  12. Natural gas 1996 - issues and trends

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This publication presents a summary of the latest data and information relating to the U.S. natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and financial aspects of the industry.

  13. Method for dismantling a natural gas holder

    SciTech Connect

    Settlemier, B.R.; Bone, S.R.; Tolivaisa, J.; Nugent, J.E.

    1990-10-30

    This patent describes a method of dismantling a natural gas holder. The holder has vertical support columns disposed around the periphery of the holder to which the enclosure shell of the holder is attached.

  14. A historical analysis of natural gas demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalbec, Nathan Richard

    This thesis analyzes demand in the US energy market for natural gas, oil, and coal over the period of 1918-2013 and examines their price relationship over the period of 2007-2013. Diagnostic tests for time series were used; Augmented Dickey-Fuller, Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin, Johansen cointegration, Granger Causality and weak exogeneity tests. Directed acyclic graphs were used as a complimentary test for endogeneity. Due to the varied results in determining endogeneity, a seemingly unrelated regression model was used which assumes all right hand side variables in the three demand equations were exogenous. A number of factors were significant in determining demand for natural gas including its own price, lagged demand, a number of structural break dummies, and trend, while oil indicate some substitutability with natural gas. An error correction model was used to examine the price relationships. Natural gas price was found not to have a significant cointegrating vector.

  15. Natural gas flow through critical nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. C.

    1969-01-01

    Empirical method for calculating both the mass flow rate and upstream volume flow rate through critical flow nozzles is determined. Method requires knowledge of the composition of natural gas, and of the upstream pressure and temperature.

  16. Natural gas annual 1992: Supplement: Company profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The data for the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement : Company Profiles are taken from Form EIA-176, (open quotes) Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition (close quotes). Other sources include industry literature and corporate annual reports to shareholders. The companies appearing in this report are major interstate natural gas pipeline companies, large distribution companies, or combination companies with both pipeline and distribution operations. The report contains profiles of 45 corporate families. The profiles describe briefly each company, where it operates, and any important issues that the company faces. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the 45 large companies profiled.

  17. Natural gas 1992: Issues and trends

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This report provides an overview of the natural gas industry in 1991 and 1992, focusing on trends in production, consumption, and pricing of natural gas and how they reflect the regulatory and legislative changes of the past decade (Chapter 1). Also presented are details of FERC Order 636 and the Energy Policy Act of 1992, as well as pertinent provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Chapter 2). In addition, the report highlights a range of issues affecting the industry, including: Trends in wellhead prices and natural gas supply activities (Chapter 3); Recent rate design changes for interstate pipeline companies (Chapter 4); Benefits to consumers from the more competitive marketplace (Chapter 5); Pipeline capacity expansions during the past 2 years (Chapter 6); Increasing role of the natural gas futures market (Chapter 7).

  18. Natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium Implications for the origin of natural gas

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    It is broadly accepted that so-called 'thermal' gas is the product of thermal cracking, 'primary' thermal gas from kerogen cracking, and 'secondary' thermal gas from oil cracking. Since thermal cracking of hydrocarbons does not generate products at equilibrium and thermal stress should not bring them to equilibrium over geologic time, we would not expect methane, ethane, and propane to be at equilibrium in subsurface deposits. Here we report compelling evidence of natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Molecular compositions are constrained to equilibrium, and isotopic compositions are also under equilibrium constraints: The functions [(CH4)*(C3H8)] and [(C2H6)2] exhibit a strong nonlinear correlation (R2 = 0.84) in which the quotient Q progresses to K as wet gas progresses to dry gas. There are striking similarities between natural gas and catalytic gas generated from marine shales. A Devonian/Mississippian New Albany shale generates gas with Q converging on K over time as wet gas progresses to dry gas at 200°C. The position that thermal cracking is the primary source of natural gas is no longer tenable. It is challenged by its inability to explain the composition of natural gas, natural gases at thermodynamic equilibrium, and by the existence of a catalytic path to gas that better explains gas compositions. PMID:19531233

  19. Convert natural gas into clean transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Agee, M.A.

    1997-03-01

    A new process economically converts natural gas into synthetic transportation fuels that are free of sulfur, metals, aromatics and are clear in appearance. The process, developed by Syntroleum Corp., is energy self-sufficient and can be implemented in sizes small enough to fit a large number of the world`s gas fields. The process is described.

  20. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Howard S. Meyer

    2003-04-01

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. KPS and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on field site selection. ChevronTexaco has nominated their Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX for a commercial-scale dehydration test. Potting and module materials testing were initiated. Preliminary design

  1. Will Abundant Natural Gas Solve Climate Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McJeon, H. C.; Edmonds, J.; Bauer, N.; Leon, C.; Fisher, B.; Flannery, B.; Hilaire, J.; Krey, V.; Marangoni, G.; Mi, R.; Riahi, K.; Rogner, H.; Tavoni, M.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid deployment of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies enabled the production of previously uneconomic shale gas resources in North America. Global deployment of these advanced gas production technologies could bring large influx of economically competitive unconventional gas resources to the energy system. It has been hoped that abundant natural gas substituting for coal could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which in turn could reduce climate forcing. Other researchers countered that the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas production make its lifecycle emissions higher than those of coal. In this study, we employ five state-of-the-art integrated assessment models (IAMs) of energy-economy-climate systems to assess the full impact of abundant gas on climate change. The models show large additional natural gas consumption up to +170% by 2050. The impact on CO2 emissions, however, is found to be much smaller (from -2% to +11%), and a majority of the models reported a small increase in climate forcing (from -0.3% to +7%) associated with the increased use of abundant gas. Our results show that while globally abundant gas may substantially change the future energy market equilibrium, it will not significantly mitigate climate change on its own in the absence of climate policies.

  2. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    SciTech Connect

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations using laboratory

  3. 46 CFR 54.15-25 - Minimum relief capacities for cargo tanks containing compressed or liquefied gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...(315)). Z=compressibility factor of the gas at the relieving conditions (if not known, Z=1.0). T=temperature in degrees K=(273 + degrees C) (R=(460 + degrees F)) at the relieving conditions (120% of...

  4. 46 CFR 54.15-25 - Minimum relief capacities for cargo tanks containing compressed or liquefied gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...(315)). Z=compressibility factor of the gas at the relieving conditions (if not known, Z=1.0). T=temperature in degrees K=(273 + degrees C) (R=(460 + degrees F)) at the relieving conditions (120% of...

  5. Natural Gas Hydrates: Occurrence, Distribution, and Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paull, Charles K.; Dillon, William P.

    We publish this volume at a time when there is a growing interest in gas hydrates and major expansion in international research efforts. The first recognition of natural gas hydrate on land in Arctic conditions was in the mid-1960s (by I. Makogon) and in the seabed environment only in the early 1970s, after natural seafloor gas hydrate was drilled on the Blake Ridge during Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 11. Initial scientific investigations were slow to develop because the study of natural gas hydrates is unusually challenging. Gas hydrate exists in nature in conditions of temperature and pressure where human beings cannot survive, and if gas hydrate is transported from its region of stability to normal Earth-surface conditions, it dissociates. Thus, in contrast to most minerals, we cannot depend on drilled samples to provide accurate estimates of the amount of gas hydrate present. Even the heat and changes in chemistry (methane saturation, salinity, etc.) introduced by the drilling process affect the gas hydrate, independent of the changes brought about by moving a sample to the surface. Gas hydrate has been identified in nature generally by inference from indirect evidence in drilling data or by using remotely sensed indications, mostly from seismic data. Obviously, the established techniques ofgeologic analysis, which require direct observation and sampling, do not apply to gas hydrate studies, and controversy has surrounded many interpretations. Pressure/temperature conditions appropriate for the existence of gas hydrate occur over the greater part of the shallow subsurface of the Earth beneath the ocean at water depths exceeding about 500 m (shallower beneath colder Arctic seas) and on land beneath high-latitude permafrost. Gas hydrate actually will be present in such conditions, however, only where methane is present at high concentrations. In the Arctic, these methane concentrations are often associated with petroleum deposits, whereas at continental margins

  6. Natural Gas Pipeline and System Expansions

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    This special report examines recent expansions to the North American natural gas pipeline network and the nature and type of proposed pipeline projects announced or approved for construction during the next several years in the United States. It includes those projects in Canada and Mexico that tie in with U.S. markets or projects.

  7. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Howard S. Meyer

    2003-01-01

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues.

  8. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Howard S. Meyer

    2002-06-30

    Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50--70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project.

  9. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Howard S. Meyer

    2002-06-01

    Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment has been initiated. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50--70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project.

  10. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Howard S. Meyer

    2002-10-01

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. KPS and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues.

  11. Natural gas outstrips oil as energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    Natural gas (all of it domestically produced) was the largest single source of Pakistan's 1980 energy supply, contributing 40.1% of the total, compared with 37.4% for oil, 16.6% for hydroelectricity, 5.6% for coal, and 0.3% for LP-gas, plus a very small amount of nuclear power. In 1979, gas accounted for 37.6% of the total and oil for 38.9%. Eighty percent of Pakistan's total natural gas production of nearly 300 billion CF came from the Sui field in central Pakistan, which is being developed by Pakistan Petroleum Ltd. The balance was produced in Esso's Mari field and the Oil and Gas Development Commission's Sari and Hundi fields.

  12. Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Second quarterly progress report, [October 1, 1994-- December 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, W.H.

    1994-12-01

    Emphasis of this project focuses on LNG research issues in use of liquefied natural as a transportation fuel in heavy trucking industry. These issues maybe categorized as: task 1--direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel; and task 2--short and long term storage. Accomplishments for these tasks are discussed. Task 1 consists of atomization, fundamentals of direct replacement, and distribution of emissions. Task 2 includes modified adsorbents, vent gas, and LNG storage at moderate conditions.

  13. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    Volume 2 consists of 19 reports describing technical effort performed by Government Contractors in the area of LNG Safety and Environmental Control. Report topics are: simulation of LNG vapor spread and dispersion by finite element methods; modeling of negatively buoyant vapor cloud dispersion; effect of humidity on the energy budget of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vapor cloud; LNG fire and explosion phenomena research evaluation; modeling of laminar flames in mixtures of vaporized liquefied natural gas (LNG) and air; chemical kinetics in LNG detonations; effects of cellular structure on the behavior of gaseous detonation waves under transient conditions; computer simulation of combustion and fluid dynamics in two and three dimensions; LNG release prevention and control; the feasibility of methods and systems for reducing LNG tanker fire hazards; safety assessment of gelled LNG; and a four band differential radiometer for monitoring LNG vapors.

  14. Geologic studies of deep natural gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyman, T. S., (Edited By); Kuuskraa, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995, the USGS estimated a mean resource of 114 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered technically recoverable natural gas in plays deeper than 15,000 feet/4,572 meters in onshore regions of the United States. This volume summarizes major conclusions of ongoing work. Chapters A and B address the areal extent of drilling and distribution of deep basins in the U.S. Chapter C summarizes distribution of deep sedimentary basins and potential for deep gas in the former Soviet Union. Chapters D and E are geochemical papers addressing source-rock issues and deep gas generation. Chapter F develops a probabilistic method for subdividing gas resources into depth slices, and chapter G analyzes the relative uncertainty of estimates of deep gas in plays in the Gulf Coast Region. Chapter H evaluates the mechanism of hydrogenation of deep, high-rank spent kerogen by water, with subsequent generation of methane-rich HC gas.

  15. Influence of methane emissions and vehicle efficiency on the climate implications of heavy-duty natural gas trucks.

    PubMed

    Camuzeaux, Jonathan R; Alvarez, Ramón A; Brooks, Susanne A; Browne, Joshua B; Sterner, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    While natural gas produces lower carbon dioxide emissions than diesel during combustion, if enough methane is emitted across the fuel cycle, then switching a heavy-duty truck fleet from diesel to natural gas can produce net climate damages (more radiative forcing) for decades. Using the Technology Warming Potential methodology, we assess the climate implications of a diesel to natural gas switch in heavy-duty trucks. We consider spark ignition (SI) and high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) natural gas engines and compressed and liquefied natural gas. Given uncertainty surrounding several key assumptions and the potential for technology to evolve, results are evaluated for a range of inputs for well-to-pump natural gas loss rates, vehicle efficiency, and pump-to-wheels (in-use) methane emissions. Using reference case assumptions reflecting currently available data, we find that converting heavy-duty truck fleets leads to damages to the climate for several decades: around 70-90 years for the SI cases, and 50 years for the more efficient HPDI. Our range of results indicates that these fuel switches have the potential to produce climate benefits on all time frames, but combinations of significant well-to-wheels methane emissions reductions and natural gas vehicle efficiency improvements would be required. PMID:25986359

  16. Apparatus for the liquefaction of a gas and methods relating to same

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Terry D [Idaho Falls, ID; Wilding, Bruce M [Idaho Falls, ID; McKellar, Michael G [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-12-29

    Apparatuses and methods are provided for producing liquefied gas, such as liquefied natural gas. In one embodiment, a liquefaction plant may be coupled to a source of unpurified natural gas, such as a natural gas pipeline at a pressure letdown station. A portion of the gas is drawn off and split into a process stream and a cooling stream. The cooling stream may be sequentially pass through a compressor and an expander. The process stream may also pass through a compressor. The compressed process stream is cooled, such as by the expanded cooling stream. The cooled, compressed process stream is expanded to liquefy the natural gas. A gas-liquid separator separates the vapor from the liquid natural gas. A portion of the liquid gas may be used for additional cooling. Gas produced within the system may be recompressed for reintroduction into a receiving line.

  17. Apparatus and method for gelling liquefied gasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Adam (Inventor); DiSalvo, Roberto (Inventor); Shepherd, Phillip (Inventor); Kosier, Ryan (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for gelling liquid propane and other liquefied gasses. The apparatus includes a temperature controlled churn mixer, vacuum pump, liquefied gas transfer tank, and means for measuring amount of material entering the mixer. The method uses gelling agents such as silicon dioxide, clay, carbon, or organic or inorganic polymers, as well as dopants such as titanium, aluminum, and boron powders. The apparatus and method are particularly useful for the production of high quality rocket fuels and propellants.

  18. Natural Gas Prices Forecast Comparison--AEO vs. Natural Gas Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Lekov, Alex; Dale, Larry

    2005-02-09

    This paper evaluates the accuracy of two methods to forecast natural gas prices: using the Energy Information Administration's ''Annual Energy Outlook'' forecasted price (AEO) and the ''Henry Hub'' compared to U.S. Wellhead futures price. A statistical analysis is performed to determine the relative accuracy of the two measures in the recent past. A statistical analysis suggests that the Henry Hub futures price provides a more accurate average forecast of natural gas prices than the AEO. For example, the Henry Hub futures price underestimated the natural gas price by 35 cents per thousand cubic feet (11.5 percent) between 1996 and 2003 and the AEO underestimated by 71 cents per thousand cubic feet (23.4 percent). Upon closer inspection, a liner regression analysis reveals that two distinct time periods exist, the period between 1996 to 1999 and the period between 2000 to 2003. For the time period between 1996 to 1999, AEO showed a weak negative correlation (R-square = 0.19) between forecast price by actual U.S. Wellhead natural gas price versus the Henry Hub with a weak positive correlation (R-square = 0.20) between forecasted price and U.S. Wellhead natural gas price. During the time period between 2000 to 2003, AEO shows a moderate positive correlation (R-square = 0.37) between forecasted natural gas price and U.S. Wellhead natural gas price versus the Henry Hub that show a moderate positive correlation (R-square = 0.36) between forecast price and U.S. Wellhead natural gas price. These results suggest that agencies forecasting natural gas prices should consider incorporating the Henry Hub natural gas futures price into their forecasting models along with the AEO forecast. Our analysis is very preliminary and is based on a very small data set. Naturally the results of the analysis may change, as more data is made available.

  19. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

    2012-01-17

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas. PMID:22107036

  20. Natural gas: oversupply is still a problem

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, L.V.

    1986-02-01

    Prices for natural gas at the wellhead, city gate and burner tip peaked in 1984-1985. Market softness and surplus capability (the bubble) were the contributing factors. This year, it is expected that these same factors, plus the pressure of increased imports from Canada, will drive marginal prices down even further, to below $1.75 per MCF before the market finally finds bottom. Spot sales in 1985, at ever lower prices, proliferated as producers engaging in severe gas-to-gas competition sought buyers for new gas and for old gas released under the provisions of FERC's (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) special marketing programs (SMPS). However, while certain users are enjoying or have enjoyed low cost gas made available through gas-to-gas competition, the market itself is not going anywhere. Year-to-year sales are down and show no real prospect of any improvement in 1986. The economy, which is geared to conservation and energy efficiency, is without expectations for significant gains this year and will not use more gas simply because it is cheaper.

  1. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jian; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Despite technical advances to reduce air pollution emissions, motor vehicles still account for 30 to 70% emissions of all urban air pollutants. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require 100 cities in the United States to reduce the amount of their smog within 5 to 15 years. Hence, auto emissions, the major cause of smog, must be reduced 30 to 60% by 1998. Natural gas con be combusted with less pollutant emissions. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) uses adsorbents and operates with a low storage pressure which results in lower capital costs and maintenance. This paper describes the production of an activated carbon adsorbent produced from an Illinois coal for ANG.

  2. Magnetic liquefier for hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    This document summarizes work done at the Astronautics Technology Center of the Astronautics Corporation of America (ACA) in Phase 1 of a four phase program leading to the development of a magnetic liquefier for hydrogen. The project involves the design, fabrication, installation, and operation of a hydrogen liquefier providing significantly reduced capital and operating costs, compared to present liquefiers. To achieve this goal, magnetic refrigeration, a recently developed, highly efficient refrigeration technology, will be used for the liquefaction process. Phase 1 project tasks included liquefier conceptual design and analysis, preliminary design of promising configurations, design selection, and detailed design of the selected design. Fabrication drawings and vendor specifications for the selected design were completed during detailed design. The design of a subscale, demonstration magnetic hydrogen liquefier represents a significant advance in liquefaction technology. The cost reductions that can be realized in hydrogen liquefaction in both the subscale and, more importantly, in the full-scale device are expected to have considerable impact on the use of liquid hydrogen in transportation, chemical, and electronic industries. The benefits to the nation from this technological advance will continue to have importance well into the 21st century.

  3. The efficient use of natural gas in transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

    1992-04-01

    Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

  4. The efficient use of natural gas in transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

  5. Anaerobic methanethiol degradation and methanogenic community analysis in an alkaline (pH 10) biological process for liquefied petroleum gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    van Leerdam, Robin C; Bonilla-Salinas, Monica; de Bok, Frank A M; Bruning, H; Lens, Piet N L; Stams, Alfons J M; Janssen, Albert J H

    2008-11-01

    Anaerobic methanethiol (MT) degradation by mesophilic (30 degrees C) alkaliphilic (pH 10) communities was studied in a lab-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactor inoculated with a mixture of sediments from the Wadden Sea (The Netherlands), Soap Lake (Central Washington), and Russian soda lakes. MT degradation started after 32 days of incubation. During the first 252 days, complete degradation was achieved till a volumetric loading rate of 7.5 mmol MT/L/day, and sulfide, methane, and carbon dioxide were the main reaction products. Temporary inhibition of MT degradation occurred after MT peak loads and in the presence of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), which is the autooxidation product of MT. From day 252 onwards, methanol was dosed to the reactor as co-substrate at a loading rate of 3-6 mmol/L/day to stimulate growth of methylotrophic methanogens. Methanol was completely degraded and also a complete MT degradation was achieved till a volumetric loading rate of 13 mmol MT/L/day (0.77 mmol MT/gVSS/day). However, from day 354 till the end of the experimental run (day 365), acetate was formed and MT was not completely degraded anymore, indicating that methanol-degrading homoacetogenic bacteria had partially outcompeted the methanogenic MT-degrading archea. The archeal community in the reactor sludge was analyzed by DGGE and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The methanogenic archea responsible for the degradation of MT in the reactor were related to Methanolobus oregonensis. A pure culture, named strain SODA, was obtained by serial dilutions in medium containing both trimethyl amine and dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Strain SODA degraded MT, DMS, trimethyl amine, and methanol. Flow sheet simulations revealed that for sufficient MT removal from liquefied petroleum gas, the extraction and biological degradation process should be operated above pH 9. PMID:18814290

  6. Production of carbon nanotubes: Chemical vapor deposition synthesis from liquefied petroleum gas over Fe-Co-Mo tri-metallic catalyst supported on MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setyopratomo, P.; Wulan, Praswasti P. D. K.; Sudibandriyo, M.

    2016-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes were produced by chemical vapor deposition method to meet the specifications for hydrogen storage. So far, the various catalyst had been studied outlining their activities, performances, and efficiencies. In this work, tri-metallic catalyst consist of Fe-Co-Mo supported on MgO was used. The catalyst was prepared by wet-impregnation method. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) was used as carbon source. The synthesis was conducted in atmospheric fixed bed reactor at reaction temperature range 750 - 850 °C for 30 minutes. The impregnation method applied in this study successfully deposed metal component on the MgO support surface. It found that the deposited metal components might partially replace Mg(OH)2 or MgO molecules in their crystal lattice. Compare to the original MgO powder; it was significant increases in pore volume and surface area has occurred during catalyst preparation stages. The size of obtained carbon nanotubes is ranging from about 10.83 nm OD/4.09 nm ID up to 21.84 nm OD/6.51 nm ID, which means that multiwall carbon nanotubes were formed during the synthesis. Yield as much as 2.35 g.CNT/g.catalyst was obtained during 30 minutes synthesis and correspond to carbon nanotubes growth rate of 0.2 μm/min. The BET surface area of the obtained carbon nanotubes is 181.13 m2/g and around 50 % of which is contributed by mesopores. Micropore with half pore width less than 1 nm contribute about 10% volume of total micro and mesopores volume of the carbon nanotubes. The existence of these micropores is very important to increase the hydrogen storage capacity of the carbon nanotubes.

  7. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Howard S. Meyer

    2003-10-01

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on field site selection. ChevronTexaco has nominated their Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX for a commercial-scale dehydration test. Design and cost estimation for this new site are underway. A Haz

  8. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Howard S. Meyer

    2003-07-01

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on field site selection. ChevronTexaco has nominated their Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX for a commercial-scale dehydration test. Design and cost estimation for this new site are underway. Potting

  9. Natural gas decontrol. Talk has little effect on NGPA applications. [Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Mickey, V.

    1981-05-01

    Even though the possibility of decontrol of natural gas prices is being discussed, applications under the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 continue to flood the Texas Railroad Commission. As of mid-March, 33,965 applications had been filed with the TRC seeking ceiling price designations under the Act. During the first part of the year, the commission sponsored seminars in different parts of the state to explain the provisions of the Act and the commission's procedures in handling applications filed under the NGPA. Title 1 of the NGPA contains the wellhead pricing provisions. Eight major categories of domestically-produced gas with certain statutory maximum price levels are applied to all first sales. In Texas the TRC has jurisdiction over 4 of these categories: Section 102 - new natural gas; Section 103 - new, onshore production natural gas; Section 107 - high-cost natural gas; and Section 108 - stripper well natural gas. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission in Washington has jurisdiction over the other categories which include: Section 104 - sales of natural gas dedicated to interstate commerce; Section 105 - sales under existing intrastate contracts; Section 106 - sales under roll-over contracts; and Section 109 - other categories.

  10. Natural gas pipeline leaks across Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Robert B; Down, Adrian; Phillips, Nathan G; Ackley, Robert C; Cook, Charles W; Plata, Desiree L; Zhao, Kaiguang

    2014-01-01

    Pipeline safety in the United States has increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17 fatalities and $133 M in property damage annually. Natural gas leaks are also the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. To reduce pipeline leakage and increase consumer safety, we deployed a Picarro G2301 Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a car, mapping 5893 natural gas leaks (2.5 to 88.6 ppm CH4) across 1500 road miles of Washington, DC. The δ(13)C-isotopic signatures of the methane (-38.2‰ ± 3.9‰ s.d.) and ethane (-36.5 ± 1.1 s.d.) and the CH4:C2H6 ratios (25.5 ± 8.9 s.d.) closely matched the pipeline gas (-39.0‰ and -36.2‰ for methane and ethane; 19.0 for CH4/C2H6). Emissions from four street leaks ranged from 9200 to 38,200 L CH4 day(-1) each, comparable to natural gas used by 1.7 to 7.0 homes, respectively. At 19 tested locations, 12 potentially explosive (Grade 1) methane concentrations of 50,000 to 500,000 ppm were detected in manholes. Financial incentives and targeted programs among companies, public utility commissions, and scientists to reduce leaks and replace old cast-iron pipes will improve consumer safety and air quality, save money, and lower greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:24432903

  11. Natural gas strategic plan and program crosscut plans

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The natural gas strategic plan recognizes the challenges and opportunities facing increased U.S. natural gas use. Focus areas of research include natural gas supply, delivery, and storage, power generation, industrial, residential and commercial, natural gas vehicles, and the environment. Historical aspects, mission, situation analysis, technology trends, strategic issues, performance indicators, technology program overviews, and forecasting in the above areas are described.

  12. 7 CFR 2900.4 - Natural gas requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Natural gas requirements. 2900.4 Section 2900.4..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.4 Natural gas requirements. For purposes of Section 401(c), NGPA, the natural gas requirements...

  13. 7 CFR 2900.4 - Natural gas requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natural gas requirements. 2900.4 Section 2900.4..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.4 Natural gas requirements. For purposes of Section 401(c), NGPA, the natural gas requirements...

  14. 7 CFR 2900.4 - Natural gas requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Natural gas requirements. 2900.4 Section 2900.4..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.4 Natural gas requirements. For purposes of Section 401(c), NGPA, the natural gas requirements...

  15. 77 FR 69781 - Enhanced Natural Gas Market Transparency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... Pipeline Posting Requirements under Section 23 of the Natural Gas Act, Order No. 720, 73 FR 73494 (Dec. 2...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 152 Enhanced Natural Gas Market... regulations under the natural gas market transparency provisions of section 23 of the Natural Gas Act...

  16. 7 CFR 2900.4 - Natural gas requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Natural gas requirements. 2900.4 Section 2900.4..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.4 Natural gas requirements. For purposes of Section 401(c), NGPA, the natural gas requirements...

  17. 7 CFR 2900.4 - Natural gas requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Natural gas requirements. 2900.4 Section 2900.4..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.4 Natural gas requirements. For purposes of Section 401(c), NGPA, the natural gas requirements...

  18. Mitchell firmly retrenched in natural gas services

    SciTech Connect

    Share, J.

    1997-09-01

    The past three years, Mitchell Energy and Development Corp. has undergone a massive restructuring that has changed the face of one of the nation`s largest and best-known natural gas/natural gas liquids companies. Facing a rapidly changing industry that frequently has been stung by volatile swings in energy markets, management of the independent company, founded by George Mitchell in 1946, sold off $300 million in non-core assets; reduced its long-term debt by $400 million; instituted a hiring freeze and reduced its workforce by a third, from 2,900 to 1,950, over the last three years. Mitchell negotiated a buyout of its hugely profitable North Texas gas sales contract with Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America as a means of easing its transition to a market-sensitive price environment and reducing its debt. Mitchell also took operational control. Finally, Mitchell has left the real estate business, culminating July 31 with the sale of its real estate subsidiary, The Woodlands Corporation, for $543 million ($460 million net after-tax), further reducing its workforce to 1,100. On Aug. 18, the company said it will use the proceeds to repurchase common stock, retire another $200 million of public debt, make asset niche energy acquisitions and increase capital spending for existing programs. The result is a renewed focus on its exploration and production and gas gathering, processing and marketing businesses.

  19. Coal or natural gas for ecofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Geertsema, A.

    1998-07-01

    The paper reviews the technology of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis used in the Sasal plant in South Africa. It discusses environmental aspects and economics of new FT facilities for the production of diesel fuels. Several projects are briefly described which use this technology for natural gas conversion.

  20. New Methodology for Natural Gas Production Estimates

    EIA Publications

    2010-01-01

    A new methodology is implemented with the monthly natural gas production estimates from the EIA-914 survey this month. The estimates, to be released April 29, 2010, include revisions for all of 2009. The fundamental changes in the new process include the timeliness of the historical data used for estimation and the frequency of sample updates, both of which are improved.

  1. Natural gas annual 1992. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-22

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data for the Nation from 1930 to 1992, and by State from 1967 to 1992. The Supplement of this report presents profiles of selected companies.

  2. Mexican demand for US natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kanter, M.A.; Kier, P.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study describes the Mexican natural gas industry as it exists today and the factors that have shaped the evolution of the industry in the past or that are expected to influence its progress; it also projects production and use of natural gas and estimates the market for exports of natural gas from the United States to Mexico. The study looks ahead to two periods, a near term (1993--1995) and an intermediate term (1996--2000). The bases for estimates under two scenarios are described. Under the conservative scenario, exports of natural gas from the United States would decrease from the 1992 level of 250 million cubic feet per day (MMCF/d), would return to that level by 1995, and would reach about 980 MMCF/D by 2000. Under the more optimistic scenario, exports would decrease in 1993 and would recover and rise to about 360 MMCF/D in 1995 and to 1,920 MMCF/D in 2000.

  3. Teaching about Natural Gas and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewell, John

    1994-01-01

    This article contains a foldout entitled Natural Gas and the Environment for use in helping students become more aware of the relationships that exist between humans and the environment. Suggestions for classroom integration of this subject into your curriculum are also provided. (ZWH)

  4. Minimizing liquid contaminants in natural gas liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.L.; Wines, T.H.; Williamson, K.M.

    1996-12-31

    In processing natural gas liquids, significant contamination occurs with liquid dispersions and emulsions. Natural gas liquids (NGL) and liquid petroleum gas (LPG) streams are treated with caustic to remove residual organic sulfur compounds such as mercaptans and with amines to remove hydrogen sulfide. In both cases a liquid/liquid contactor is used. Significant amounts of the caustic or amine can be carried over into the product stream in process units that are running at rates above design capacity, are treating high sulfur feed stocks, or have other operational problems. The carried over liquid results in off-spec products, excessive loses of caustic or amine, and can cause operating problems in downstream processes. In addition, water is a significant contaminant which can cause LPG and natural gasoline to be off-specification. This paper discusses a new technique for separating very stable liquid dispersions of caustic, amine, or water from natural gas liquids using liquid/liquid cartridge coalescers constructed with specially formulated polymer and fluoropolymer medium with enhanced surface properties. In addition, factors influencing the coalescer mechanism will be discussed including interfacial tension, concentration of surface active compounds, steric repulsion, and electrostatic charge affects. Results from field tests, operating data from commercial installations, and economic benefits will also be presented.

  5. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    Building upon the partitioning of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) that was conducted last quarter, the goal of the work this quarter has been to conclude evaluation of the Stratos well and the prototypical Green River Deep partition, and perform the fill resource evaluation of the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play, with the goal of defining target areas of enhanced natural fracturing. The work plan for the quarter of November 1-December 31, 1998 comprised four tasks: (1) Evaluation of the Green River Deep partition and the Stratos well and examination of potential opportunity for expanding the use of E and P technology to low permeability, naturally fractured gas reservoirs, (2) Gas field studies, and (3) Resource analysis of the balance of the partitions.

  6. Wave coagulation of a polydisperse gas suspension in the technology of gasification and Cryostatting of liquefied natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tukmakov, A. L.; Tonkonog, V. G.; Arslanova, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the flow of a polydisperse suspension of methane droplets in a plane channel with simultaneous coagulation of disperse fraction particles under the action of the wave field generated in the carrier medium—gaseous methane—by oscillating parts of the channel walls. The frequency of in-phase oscillations of the walls is equal to the fundamental frequency for the transverse cross section of the channel filled with gaseous methane. In the vicinity of the radiator, a standing wave of the velocity field forms in the direction transverse to the flow and the intensity of coagulation of particles from different fractions upon their collisions increases due to mutual displacement. We describe the evolution of the dispersiveness of a vapor-droplet flow under the action of the wave field of a standing wave whose front moves transversely to the flow.

  7. Optimize control of natural gas plants

    SciTech Connect

    Treiber, S.; Walker, J.; Tremblay, M. de ); Delgadillo, R.L.; Velasquez, R.N.; Valarde, M.J.G. )

    1994-04-01

    Multivariable constraint control (MCS) has a very beneficial and profitable impact on the operation of natural gas plants. The applications described operate completely within a distributed control system (DCS) or programmable logic controllers (PLCs). That makes MCS accessible to almost all gas plant operators. The technology's relative ease of use, low maintenance effort and software sensor,'' make it possible to operate these control applications without increasing technical support staff. MCS improves not only profitability but also regulatory compliance of gas plants. It has been applied to fractionation units, cryogenic units, amine treaters, sulfur recovery units and utilities. The application typically pay for the cost of software and engineering in less than one month. If a DCS is installed within such a project the advanced control applications can generate a payout in less than one year. In the case here (an application on the deethanizers of a 500 MMscfd gas plant) product revenue increased by over $2 million/yr.

  8. Method and apparatus for dispensing compressed natural gas and liquified natural gas to natural gas powered vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis A.; Clark, Michael L.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Palmer, Gary L.

    2005-05-31

    A fueling facility and method for dispensing liquid natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG) or both on-demand. The fueling facility may include a source of LNG, such as cryogenic storage vessel. A low volume high pressure pump is coupled to the source of LNG to produce a stream of pressurized LNG. The stream of pressurized LNG may be selectively directed through an LNG flow path or to a CNG flow path which includes a vaporizer configured to produce CNG from the pressurized LNG. A portion of the CNG may be drawn from the CNG flow path and introduced into the CNG flow path to control the temperature of LNG flowing therethrough. Similarly, a portion of the LNG may be drawn from the LNG flow path and introduced into the CNG flow path to control the temperature of CNG flowing therethrough.

  9. Natural gas legislation: a consumer's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, J.R.

    1983-08-01

    This report evaluates three major legislative proposals: accelerated decontrol of both old and new wellhead prices as proposed by the Reagan administration (S.615, H.R. 1760); imposition of new natural gas price controls at lower levels as proposed by Congressman Gephardt (H.R. 2154); and conversion of interstate gas pipelines to common carriage as proposed by Senators Dixon and Percy and by Congressman Corcoran (S. 1119, H.R. 2565). The reference or base case scenario used in the evaluation is a continuation of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) with no legislative modifications. First, projections of wellhead and burner-tip natural gas prices are presented for the period 1983-1990, and then consumer benefits under the different scenarios are estimated. All projections presented assume that legislation takes effect as of January 1, 1983 and that normal weather patterns are experienced. All prices identified in the report are given in 1982 dollars unless otherwise indicated. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Natural gas cleanup by means of membranes.

    PubMed

    Ohlrogge, Klaus; Brinkmann, Torsten

    2003-03-01

    This paper deals with the use of membranes for hydrocarbon dewpointing and dehydration of natural gas. Based on experience gained from membrane applications in separating organic vapors from off-gas and process streams, as well as the dehydration of compressed air, membranes have been developed and tested for use in high pressure applications. Membranes and membrane modules have been modified to withstand the high operating pressure. Calculation programs were developed to understand the separation performance and to provide the necessary information for optimizing membrane design. A real challenge was the introduction of the vacuum mode dehydration operation in order to achieve the highest possible dewpoint reduction with minimum methane loss. PMID:12783826

  11. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-30

    In March, work continued on characterizing probabilities for determining natural fracturing associated with the GGRB for the Upper Cretaceous tight gas plays. Structural complexity, based on potential field data and remote sensing data was completed. A resource estimate for the Frontier and Mesa Verde play was also completed. Further, work was also conducted to determine threshold economics for the play based on limited current production in the plays in the Wamsutter Ridge area. These analyses culminated in a presentation at FETC on 24 March 1999 where quantified natural fracture domains, mapped on a partition basis, which establish ''sweet spot'' probability for natural fracturing, were reviewed. That presentation is reproduced here as Appendix 1. The work plan for the quarter of January 1, 1999--March 31, 1999 comprised five tasks: (1) Evaluation of the GGRB partitions for structural complexity that can be associated with natural fractures, (2) Continued resource analysis of the balance of the partitions to determine areas with higher relative gas richness, (3) Gas field studies, (4) Threshold resource economics to determine which partitions would be the most prospective, and (5) Examination of the area around the Table Rock 4H well.

  12. Natural gas fueling of diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The focus of work performed by University of British Columbia researchers was on high-pressure (late cycle) injection of NG ignited by a pilot diesel-liquid injection(diesel/gas combustion). This was compared to the case of 100% liquid diesel (baseline diesel) fueling at the same load and speed. In typical direct-injected and conventionally fueled diesel engines, fuel is injected a few degrees before the end of the compression stroke into 750--900 K air in which it vaporizes, mixed with air, and auto ignites less than 2 ms after injection begins. The objectives of the researchers` work were to investigate the ignition delay and combustion duration of diesel/gas combustion by observing diesel and diesel/gas ignition sites and flame structure; determining ignition delay and combustion duration with pilot-diesel and natural gas injections; determining whether the pilot liquid flame is substantially influenced by the gas injection; and considering whether pilot-diesel/gas combustion is dominated by premixed or diffusion combustion.

  13. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Pridgen, V.

    1984-11-01

    This report provides information on the total reserves, production, and deliverability capabilities of the 86 interstate pipeline companies required to file the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Form 15, Interstate Pipeline's Annual Report of Gas Supply. Total dedicated domestic gas reserves, owned by or under contract to the interstate pipeline companies, decreased in 1983 by 4.2 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), or 4.3%, from 98.7 Tcf at the beginning of the year to 94.5 Tcf at the end of the year. A 5-year tabulation shows that dedicated domestic gas reserves increased slightly from 94.0 Tcf at the beginning of 1979 to 94.5 Tcf at the end of 1983, an increase of 0.5 Tcf, or 0.5%. Total gas purchased and produced from the dedicated domestic gas reserves in 1983 was 9.5 Tcf, down 13.1% from the 10.9 Tcf reported in the preceding year. The 1983 ratio of total dedicated domestic reserves to production was 10.0, significantly above the 9.0 ratio reported for 1982. Net revisions to dedicated domestic gas reserves during 1983 are calculated at -0.5 Tcf, as compared to 1.4 Tcf in 1982. Total interstate reserve additions during 1983 are reported to be 5.8 Tcf, compared to additions of 9.9 Tcf in 1982. Total natural gas imported by interstate pipeline companies from two foreign sources, Canada and Mexico, was 0.8 Tcf, 7.4% of the total gas produced and purchased in 1983. Imports of LNG from Algeria totaled only 0.09 Tcf. Total deliveries are projected to decline from 12.9 Tcf in 1984 to 7.1 Tcf by 1988. This decline is driven by the projected decline in domestic reserve deliverability. Deliveries from foreign and other sources are expected to remain relatively constant over the 5-year period. 8 figures, 18 tables.

  14. Incremental natural gas resources through infield reserve growth/secondary natural gas recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.J.; Levey, R.A.

    1992-08-01

    The objectives of the Infield Growth/Secondary Natural Gas Recovery project have been: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities in reservoirs of conventional permeability cause reservoir compartmentalization and, hence, incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document practical, field-oriented examples of reserve growth from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas gulf coast basin and to use these gas reservoirs as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications of both tools and techniques to find secondary gas. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields. To transfer project results to natural gas producers, not just as field case studies, but as conceptual models of how heterogeneities determine natural gas flow and how to recognize the geologic and engineering clues that operators can use in a cost-effective manner to identify secondary gas. Accomplishments are presented for: reservoir characterization; integrated formation evaluation and engineering testing; compartmented reservoir simulator; and reservoir geophysics.

  15. Incremental natural gas resources through infield reserve growth/secondary natural gas recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.J.; Levey, R.A.; Hardage, B.A.

    1993-12-31

    The primary objective of the Infield Reserve Growth/Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR) project is to develop, test, and verify technologies and methodologies with near- to midterm potential for maximizing the recovery of natural gasfrom conventional reservoirs in known fields. Additional technical and technology transfer objectives of the SGR project include: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities in reservoirs of conventional permeability cause reservoir compartmentalization and, hence, incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document examples of reserve growth occurrence and potential from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas gulf coast basin as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications to find secondary gas. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields. To transfer project results to a wide array of natural gas producers, not just as field case studies, but as conceptual models of how heterogeneities determine natural gas flow units and how to recognize the geologic and engineering clues that operators can use in a cost-effective manner to identify incremental, or secondary, gas.

  16. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-03-31

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The SWC represents a partnership between U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the NETL. This document serves as the twelfth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) Drafting and releasing the 2007 Request for Proposals; (2) Securing a meeting facility, scheduling and drafting plans for the 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; (3) Conducting elections and announcing representatives for the four 2007-2008 Executive Council seats; (4) 2005 Final Project Reports; (5) Personal Digital Assistant Workshops scheduled; and (6) Communications and outreach.

  17. Natural gas storage in bedded salt formations

    SciTech Connect

    Macha, G.

    1996-09-01

    In 1990 Western Resources Inc. (WRI) identified the need for additional natural gas storage capacity for its intrastate natural gas system operated in the state of Kansas. Western Resources primary need was identified as peak day deliverability with annual storage balancing a secondary objective. Consequently, an underground bedded salt storage facility, Yaggy Storage Field, was developed and placed in operation in November 1993. The current working capacity of the new field is 2.1 BCF. Seventy individual caverns are in service on the 300 acre site. The caverns vary in size from 310,000 CF to 2,600,000 CF. Additional capacity can be added on the existing acreage by increasing the size of some of the smaller existing caverns by further solution mining and by development of an additional 30 potential well sites on the property.

  18. A comparative study of the elemental composition of the exhaust emissions of cars powered by liquefied petroleum gas and unleaded petrol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, McKenzie C. H.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Morawska, Lidia; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Jayaratne, E. Rohan; Kokot, Serge

    Elements emitted from the exhausts of new Ford Falcon Forte cars powered by unleaded petrol (ULP) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were measured on a chassis dynamometer. The measurements were carried out in February, June and August 2001, and at two steady state driving conditions (60 and 80 km h -1). Thirty seven elements were quantified in the exhaust samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The total emission factors of the elements from the exhausts of ULP cars were higher than those of LPG cars at both engine speeds even though high variability in the exhaust emissions from different cars was noted. The effect of the operating conditions such as mileage of the cars, engine speed, fuel and lubricating oil compositions on the emissions was studied. To investigate the effects of these conditions, multivariate data analysis methods were employed including exploratory principal component analysis (PCA), and the multi-criteria decision making methods (MCDM), preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) and geometrical analysis for interactive aid (GAIA), for ranking the cars on the basis of the emission factors of the elements. PCA biplot of the complete data matrix showed a clear discrimination of the February, June and August emission test results. In addition, (i) platinum group elements (PGE) emissions were separated from each other in the three different clusters viz. Pt with February, Pd with June and Rh with August; (ii) the motor oil related elements, Zn and P, were particularly associated with the June and August tests (these vectors were also grouped with V, Al and Cu); and (iii) highest emissions of most major elements were associated with the August test after the cars have recorded their highest mileage. Extensive analysis with the aid of the MCDM ranking methods demonstrated clearly that cars powered by LPG outperform those powered by ULP. In general, cars tested in June perform better than

  19. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-30

    The goal of the work this quarter has been to partition and high-grade the Greater Green River basin for exploration efforts in the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play and to initiate resource assessment of the basin. The work plan for the quarter of July 1-September 30, 1998 comprised three tasks: (1) Refining the exploration process for deep, naturally fractured gas reservoirs; (2) Partitioning of the basin based on structure and areas of overpressure; (3) Examination of the Kinney and Canyon Creek fields with respect to the Cretaceous tight gas play and initiation of the resource assessment of the Vermilion sub-basin partition (which contains these two fields); and (4) Initiation analysis of the Deep Green River Partition with respect to the Stratos well and assessment of the resource in the partition.

  20. Natural Gas Pipeline Network: Changing and Growing

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    This chapter focuses upon the capabilities of the national natural gas pipeline network, examining how it has expanded during this decade and how it may expand further over the coming years. It also looks at some of the costs of this expansion, including the environmental costs which may be extensive. Changes in the network as a result of recent regional market shifts are also discussed.