Science.gov

Sample records for gas management options

  1. Evaluating greenhouse gas impacts of organic waste management options using life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dung; Shan, Jilei; Iacoboni, Mario; Maguin, Stephen R

    2012-08-01

    Efforts to divert organics away from landfills are viewed by many as an important measure to significantly reduce the climate change impacts of municipal solid waste management. However, the actual greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of organics diversion from landfills have yet to be thoroughly evaluated and whether such a diversion provides significant environmental benefits in terms of GHG impacts must be answered. This study, using California-specific information, aimed to analyse the GHG impacts of organics diversion through a life-cycle assessment (LCA). This LCA considered all aspects of organics management including transportation, materials handling, GHG emissions, landfill gas capture/utilization, energy impacts, and carbon sequestration. The LCA study evaluated overall GHG impacts of landfilling, and alternative management options such as composting and anaerobic digestion for diverted organic waste. The LCA analysis resulted in net GHG reductions of 0.093, 0.048, 0.065 and 0.073 tonnes carbon equivalent per tonne organic waste for landfilling, windrow composting, aerated static pile composting, and anaerobic digestion, respectively. This study confirms that all three options for organics management result in net reductions of GHG emissions, but it also shows that organics landfilling, when well-managed, generates greater GHG reductions. The LCA provides scientific insight with regards to the environmental impacts of organics management options, which should be considered in decision and policy-making. The study also highlights the importance of how site and case-specific conditions influence project outcomes when considering organic waste management options. PMID:22588112

  2. Waste management options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from paper in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickin, J. G.; Yuen, S. T. S.; Hennings, H.

    A lifecycle assessment to estimate greenhouse gas emissions in Australia from the paper cycle is summarised. The greenhouse gas emissions from paper in Australia in 1999/2000 were estimated to be 12.1 million tonnes (Mt) of CO 2 equivalent. Nearly half of this amount consisted of CH 4 emissions from landfilled waste paper. Various waste management options were modelled to investigate the greenhouse impact of a tonne of paper over its whole lifecycle. Options that keep paper out of landfills significantly reduce greenhouse emissions, waste-to-energy recovery being most effective. Recycling is also beneficial, and is of particular interest from a management perspective because it can be controlled by the pulp and paper industry. These findings can be extended to other wood-based and organic wastes.

  3. Supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mulan Xiaofeng

    My dissertation concentrates on several aspects of supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry, including gas pipeline transportations, ocean LNG shipping logistics, and downstream storage. Chapter 1 briefly introduces the natural gas and LNG industries, and the topics studied in this thesis. Chapter 2 studies how to value U.S. natural gas pipeline network transport contracts as real options. It is common for natural gas shippers to value and manage contracts by simple adaptations of financial spread option formulas that do not fully account for the implications of the capacity limits and the network structure that distinguish these contracts. In contrast, we show that these operational features can be fully captured and integrated with financial considerations in a fairly easy and managerially significant manner by a model that combines linear programming and simulation. We derive pathwise estimators for the so called deltas and structurally characterize them. We interpret them in a novel fashion as discounted expectations, under a specific weighing distribution, of the amounts of natural gas to be procured/marketed when optimally using pipeline capacity. Based on the actual prices of traded natural gas futures and basis swaps, we show that an enhanced version of the common approach employed in practice can significantly underestimate the true value of natural gas pipeline network capacity. Our model also exhibits promising financial (delta) hedging performance. Thus, this model emerges as an easy to use and useful tool that natural gas shippers can employ to support their valuation and delta hedging decisions concerning natural gas pipeline network transport capacity contracts. Moreover, the insights that follow from our data analysis have broader significance and implications in terms of the management of real options beyond our specific application. Motivated by current developments

  4. Supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mulan Xiaofeng

    My dissertation concentrates on several aspects of supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry, including gas pipeline transportations, ocean LNG shipping logistics, and downstream storage. Chapter 1 briefly introduces the natural gas and LNG industries, and the topics studied in this thesis. Chapter 2 studies how to value U.S. natural gas pipeline network transport contracts as real options. It is common for natural gas shippers to value and manage contracts by simple adaptations of financial spread option formulas that do not fully account for the implications of the capacity limits and the network structure that distinguish these contracts. In contrast, we show that these operational features can be fully captured and integrated with financial considerations in a fairly easy and managerially significant manner by a model that combines linear programming and simulation. We derive pathwise estimators for the so called deltas and structurally characterize them. We interpret them in a novel fashion as discounted expectations, under a specific weighing distribution, of the amounts of natural gas to be procured/marketed when optimally using pipeline capacity. Based on the actual prices of traded natural gas futures and basis swaps, we show that an enhanced version of the common approach employed in practice can significantly underestimate the true value of natural gas pipeline network capacity. Our model also exhibits promising financial (delta) hedging performance. Thus, this model emerges as an easy to use and useful tool that natural gas shippers can employ to support their valuation and delta hedging decisions concerning natural gas pipeline network transport capacity contracts. Moreover, the insights that follow from our data analysis have broader significance and implications in terms of the management of real options beyond our specific application. Motivated by current developments

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions of waste management processes and options: A case study.

    PubMed

    de la Barrera, Belen; Hooda, Peter S

    2016-07-01

    Increasing concern about climate change is prompting organisations to mitigate their greenhouse gas emissions. Waste management activities also contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. In the waste management sector, there has been an increasing diversion of waste sent to landfill, with much emphasis on recycling and reuse to prevent emissions. This study evaluates the carbon footprint of the different processes involved in waste management systems, considering the entire waste management stream. Waste management data from the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, London (UK), was used to estimate the carbon footprint for its (Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames) current source segregation system. Second, modelled full and partial co-mingling scenarios were used to estimate carbon emissions from these proposed waste management approaches. The greenhouse gas emissions from the entire waste management system at Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames were 12,347 t CO2e for the source-segregated scenario, and 11,907 t CO2e for the partial co-mingled model. These emissions amount to 203.26 kg CO2e t(-1) and 196.02 kg CO2e t(-1) municipal solid waste for source-segregated and partial co-mingled, respectively. The change from a source segregation fleet to a partial co-mingling fleet reduced the emissions, at least partly owing to a change in the number and type of vehicles. PMID:27236164

  6. Mixed waste management options

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  7. Economic outcomes of greenhouse gas mitigation options

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Economic outcomes of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation options are reviewed including reductions in tillage intensity, diversifying crop rotation, and N fertilizer management. The review indicates that, while reducing tillage can be a cost effective GHG mitigation practice, results vary by region and ...

  8. Peak load management: Potential options

    SciTech Connect

    Englin, J.E.; De Steese, J.G.; Schultz, R.W.; Kellogg, M.A.

    1989-10-01

    This report reviews options that may be alternatives to transmission construction (ATT) applicable both generally and at specific locations in the service area of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Some of these options have potential as specific alternatives to the Shelton-Fairmount 230-kV Reinforcement Project, which is the focus of this study. A listing of 31 peak load management (PLM) options is included. Estimated costs and normalized hourly load shapes, corresponding to the respective base load and controlled load cases, are considered for 15 of the above options. A summary page is presented for each of these options, grouped with respect to its applicability in the residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors. The report contains comments on PLM measures for which load shape management characteristics are not yet available. These comments address the potential relevance of the options and the possible difficulty that may be encountered in characterizing their value should be of interest in this investigation. The report also identifies options that could improve the efficiency of the three customer utility distribution systems supplied by the Shelton-Fairmount Reinforcement Project. Potential cogeneration options in the Olympic Peninsula are also discussed. These discussions focus on the options that appear to be most promising on the Olympic Peninsula. Finally, a short list of options is recommended for investigation in the next phase of this study. 9 refs., 24 tabs.

  9. Environmental assessment of gas management options at the Old Ammässuo landfill (Finland) by means of LCA-modeling (EASEWASTE).

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Simone; Niskanen, Antti; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-05-01

    The current landfill gas (LFG) management (based on flaring and utilization for heat generation of the collected gas) and three potential future gas management options (LFG flaring, heat generation and combined heat and power generation) for the Old Ammässuo landfill (Espoo, Finland) were evaluated by life-cycle assessment modeling. The evaluation accounts for all resource utilization and emissions to the environment related to the gas generation and management for a life-cycle time horizon of 100 yr. The assessment criteria comprise standard impact categories (global warming, photo-chemical ozone formation, stratospheric ozone depletion, acidification and nutrient enrichment) and toxicity-related impact categories (human toxicity via soil, via water and via air, eco-toxicity in soil and in water chronic). The results of the life-cycle impact assessment show that disperse emissions of LFG from the landfill surface determine the highest potential impacts in terms of global warming, stratospheric ozone depletion, and human toxicity via soil. Conversely, the impact potentials estimated for other categories are numerically-negative when the collected LFG is utilized for energy generation, demonstrating that net environmental savings can be obtained. Such savings are proportional to the amount of gas utilized for energy generation and the gas energy recovery efficiency achieved, which thus have to be regarded as key parameters. As a result, the overall best performance is found for the heat generation option - as it has the highest LFG utilization/energy recovery rates - whereas the worst performance is estimated for the LFG flaring option, as no LFG is here utilized for energy generation. Therefore, to reduce the environmental burdens caused by the current gas management strategy, more LFG should be used for energy generation. This inherently requires a superior LFG capture rate that, in addition, would reduce fugitive emissions of LFG from the landfill surface

  10. Newer Management Options in Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Rao, P Narasimha; Jain, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Newer management options are needed for leprosy control even at present, as it is predicted that new cases of leprosy will continue to appear for many more years in future. This article detail newer methods of clinical grading of peripheral nerve involvement (thickening, tenderness and nerve pain which are subjective in nature) and the advances made in the use of Ultrasonography and Colour Doppler as an objective imaging tool for nerves in leprosy. It also briefly discusses the newer drugs and alternative regimens as therapeutic management options which hold promise for leprosy in future. PMID:23372204

  11. Managing Nuclear Waste: Options Considered

    SciTech Connect

    DOE

    2002-05-02

    Starting in the 1950s, U.S. scientists began to research ways to manage highly radioactive materials accumulating at power plants and other sites nationwide. Long-term surface storage of these materials poses significant potential health, safety, and environmental risks. Scientists studied a broad range of options for managing spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The options included leaving it where it is, disposing of it in various ways, and making it safer through advanced technologies. International scientific consensus holds that these materials should eventually be disposed of deep underground in what is called a geologic repository. In a recent special report, the National Academy of Sciences summarized the various studies and emphasized that geologic disposal is ultimately necessary.

  12. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  13. New Options in Constipation Management.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mellar; Gamier, Pamela

    2015-12-01

    Constipation is common in the general population and for those on opioids and/or who are suffering from advanced cancer. Self-management consists of dietary changes, exercise, and laxatives. However, responses to self-management efforts are often inadequate to relieve the subjective and objective experience of constipation. Multiple new anti-constipating medications have recently been tested in randomized trials and the following are available commercially: probiotics, prucalopride, lubiprostone, linaclotide, elobixibat, antidepressants, methylnaltrexone, alvimopan, and naloxegol. This review will discuss the evidence-based benefits of these medications and outline an approach to managing constipation. PMID:26449843

  14. Management options in decompensated cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Neeral L; Banaei, Yasmin Pourkazemi; Hojnowski, Kristen L; Cornella, Scott L

    2015-01-01

    Chronic injury to the liver from a variety of different sources can result in irreversible scarring of the liver, known as cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA, and according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was responsible for 31,903 deaths in 2010 alone. It is thus of the utmost importance to appropriately manage these patients in the inpatient and outpatient setting to improve morbidity and mortality. In this review, we address four major areas of cirrhosis management: outpatient management of portal hypertension with decompensation, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, and bleeding/coagulation issues. Outpatient management covers recommendations for health care maintenance and screening. Hepatic encephalopathy encompasses a brief review of pathophysiology, treatment in the acute setting, and long-term prevention. Hepatorenal syndrome is discussed in regards to pathophysiology and treatment in the hospital setting. Finally, a discussion of the assessment of coagulation profiles in cirrhosis and recommendations for bleeding and thrombosis complications is included. These topics are not all encompassing with regard to this complicated population, but rather an overview of a few medical problems that are commonly encountered in their care. PMID:26203291

  15. Managing diseases in seed garlic: What are the options?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organisms (fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes) causing diseases of seed garlic are discussed in terms of their pathogenic abilities, aggressiveness, management constraints and management options. Management options for vectors (for viral diseases) are placed in context. Concise and general manag...

  16. Endocrine therapy toxicity: management options.

    PubMed

    Henry, N Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Treatment with adjuvant endocrine therapy, including tamoxifen and the aromatase inhibitors, has resulted in notable improvements in disease-free and overall survival for patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Despite their proven benefit, however, adherence to and persistence with the medications is poor in part because of bothersome side effects that can negatively affect quality of life. Retrospective analyses have identified possible predictors of development of toxicity. Reports have also suggested that development of toxicity may be a biomarker of better response to therapy. In addition, there has been considerable research investment into the management of these side effects, which may lead to improved adherence and persistence with therapy. However, although notable advances have been made, much more remains to be done to provide patients with truly personalized therapy for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. PMID:24857109

  17. Selected Energy Management Options for Small Business and Local Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Jonathan M.; Worthington, Barry K.

    This document is a checklist of 257 energy management options for small business and local government. The energy management options are categorized under: (1) Energy management strategies; (2) Buildings; (3) Lighting; (4) Water; (5) Waste operations; (6) Equipment; (7) Transportation; and (8) Food preparation. To select options for…

  18. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options Database(GMOD)and Tool

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options Database (GMOD) is a decision support database and tool that provides cost and performance information for GHG mitigation options for the power, cement, refinery, landfill and pulp and paper sectors. The GMOD includes approximately 450 studies fo...

  19. Economics of Alaska North Slope gas utilization options

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Hackworth, J.H.; North, W.B.; Robertson, E.P.

    1996-08-01

    The recoverable natural gas available for sale in the developed and known undeveloped fields on the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) total about 26 trillion cubic feet (TCF), including 22 TCF in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU) and 3 TCF in the undeveloped Point Thomson Unit (PTU). No significant commercial use has been made of this large natural gas resource because there are no facilities in place to transport this gas to current markets. To date the economics have not been favorable to support development of a gas transportation system. However, with the declining trend in ANS oil production, interest in development of this huge gas resource is rising, making it important for the U.S. Department of Energy, industry, and the State of Alaska to evaluate and assess the options for development of this vast gas resource. The purpose of this study was to assess whether gas-to-liquids (GTL) conversion technology would be an economic alternative for the development and sale of the large, remote, and currently unmarketable ANS natural gas resource, and to compare the long term economic impact of a GTL conversion option to that of the more frequently discussed natural gas pipeline/liquefied natural gas (LNG) option. The major components of the study are: an assessment of the ANS oil and gas resources; an analysis of conversion and transportation options; a review of natural gas, LNG, and selected oil product markets; and an economic analysis of the LNG and GTL gas sales options based on publicly available input needed for assumptions of the economic variables. Uncertainties in assumptions are evaluated by determining the sensitivity of project economics to changes in baseline economic variables.

  20. Therapeutic options for management of endometrial hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial hyperplasia (EH) comprises a spectrum of changes in the endometrium ranging from a slightly disordered pattern that exaggerates the alterations seen in the late proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle to irregular, hyperchromatic lesions that are similar to endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Generally, EH is caused by continuous exposure of estrogen unopposed by progesterone, polycystic ovary syndrome, tamoxifen, or hormone replacement therapy. Since it can progress, or often occur coincidentally with endometrial carcinoma, EH is of clinical importance, and the reversion of hyperplasia to normal endometrium represents the key conservative treatment for prevention of the development of adenocarcinoma. Presently, cyclic progestin or hysterectomy constitutes the major treatment option for EH without or with atypia, respectively. However, clinical trials of hormonal therapies and definitive standard treatments remain to be established for the management of EH. Moreover, therapeutic options for EH patients who wish to preserve fertility are challenging and require nonsurgical management. Therefore, future studies should focus on evaluation of new treatment strategies and novel compounds that could simultaneously target pathways involved in the pathogenesis of estradiol-induced EH. Novel therapeutic agents precisely targeting the inhibition of estrogen receptor, growth factor receptors, and signal transduction pathways are likely to constitute an optimal approach for treatment of EH. PMID:26463434

  1. Knee osteoarthritis: a review of management options.

    PubMed

    Hussain, S M; Neilly, D W; Baliga, S; Patil, S; Meek, Rmd

    2016-02-01

    Osteoarthritis of the knee is a complex peripheral joint disorder with multiple risk factors. The molecular basis of osteoarthritis has been generally accepted; however, the exact pathogenesis is still not known. Management of patients with osteoarthritis involves a comprehensive history, thorough physical examination and appropriate radiological investigation. The relative slow progress in the disease allows a stepwise algorithmic approach in treatment. Non-surgical treatment involves patient education, lifestyle modification and the use of orthotic devises. These can be achieved in the community. Surgical options include joint sparing procedures such as arthroscopyando osteotomy or joint-replacing procedures. Joint-replacing procedures can be isolated to a single compartment such as patellofemoral arthroplasty or unicompartmental knee replacement or total knee arthroplasty. The key to a successful long-term outcome is optimal patient selection, preoperative counselling and good surgical technique. PMID:27330013

  2. Domestic Options to Offshore Oil and Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kash, Don E.

    1983-01-01

    The continuing controversey over offshore oil/gas has given impetus to searching for domestic energy alternatives. The need for and types of several alternative sources are discussed. Indicates that the United States needs to pursue both offshore and other domestic liquid-fuel sources if it is to avoid becoming increasingly dependent on imports.…

  3. [Current options to manage clopidogrel poor responsiveness].

    PubMed

    Fileti, Luca; Campo, Gianluca; Valgimigli, Marco; Marchesini, Jlenia; Ferrari, Roberto

    2010-12-01

    Antiplatelet therapy (aspirin + clopidogrel) is the cornerstone of treatment for patients with acute coronary syndromes and/or undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). More than 40 million patients worldwide receive clopidogrel, but about 20% of them are nonresponders or poor responders. Many studies using different techniques, platelet agonists and definitions have shown that patients who are poor responders to clopidogrel have an increased risk of death, reinfarction and stent thrombosis. The mechanisms leading to poor responsiveness are not fully elucidated and are likely multifactorial: genetic factors, accelerated platelet turnover, up-regulation of the P2Y12 pathways, high baseline platelet reactivity, poor compliance, underdosing and drug-drug interactions. The management of these patients is very difficult, but evidence does exist showing that a strategy of higher maintenance dose or switch to different thienopyridines (e.g. ticlopidine or prasugrel) or use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors during PCI may be helpful to overcome poor responsiveness and improve the long-term clinical outcome. This review describes the impact of poor responsiveness to clopidogrel on clinical outcomes, the mechanisms leading to poor effect, and the different assays to assess it. Finally, current and future options for its management are discussed. PMID:21355335

  4. Use of influence diagrams in gas transfer system option prioritization

    SciTech Connect

    Heger, A.S.; Garcia, M.D.

    1995-08-01

    A formal decision-analysis methodology was applied to aid the Department of Energy (DOE) in deciding which of several gas transfer system (GTS) options should be selected. The decision objectives for this case study, i.e., risk and cost, were directly derived from the DOE guidelines. Influence diagrams were used to define the structure of the decision problem and clearly delineate the flow if information. A set of performance matrices wee used in conjunction with the influence diagrams to assess and evaluate the degree to which the objectives of the case study were met. These performance measures were extracted from technical models, design and operating data, and professional judgments. The results were aggregated to provide an overall evaluation of the different design options of the gas transfer system. Consequently, the results of this analysis were used as an aid to DOE to select a viable GTS option.

  5. Life cycle assessment of bagasse waste management options

    SciTech Connect

    Kiatkittipong, Worapon; Wongsuchoto, Porntip; Pavasant, Prasert

    2009-05-15

    Bagasse is mostly utilized for steam and power production for domestic sugar mills. There have been a number of alternatives that could well be applied to manage bagasse, such as pulp production, conversion to biogas and electricity production. The selection of proper alternatives depends significantly on the appropriateness of the technology both from the technical and the environmental points of view. This work proposes a simple model based on the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of various alternatives for dealing with bagasse waste. The environmental aspects of concern included global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and photochemical oxidant creation. Four waste management scenarios for bagasse were evaluated: landfilling with utilization of landfill gas, anaerobic digestion with biogas production, incineration for power generation, and pulp production. In landfills, environmental impacts depended significantly on the biogas collection efficiency, whereas incineration of bagasse to electricity in the power plant showed better environmental performance than that of conventional low biogas collection efficiency landfills. Anaerobic digestion of bagasse in a control biogas reactor was superior to the other two energy generation options in all environmental aspects. Although the use of bagasse in pulp mills created relatively high environmental burdens, the results from the LCA revealed that other stages of the life cycle produced relatively small impacts and that this option might be the most environmentally benign alternative.

  6. Management options for recycling radioactive scrap metals

    SciTech Connect

    Dehmel, J.C.; MacKinney, J.; Bartlett, J.

    1997-02-01

    The feasibility and advantages of recycling radioactive scrap metals (RSM) have yet to be assessed, given the unique technical, regulatory, safety, and cost-benefit issues that have already been raised by a concerned recycling industry. As is known, this industry has been repeatedly involved with the accidental recycling of radioactive sources and, in some cases, with costly consequences. If recycling were deemed to be a viable option, it might have to be implemented with regulatory monitoring and controls. Its implementation may have to consider various and complex issues and address the requirements and concerns of distinctly different industries. There are three basic options for the recycling of such scraps. They are: (1) recycling through the existing network of metal-scrap dealers and brokers, (2) recycling directly and only with specific steelmills, or (3) recycling through regional processing centers. Under the first option, scrap dealers and brokers would receive material from RSM generators and determine at which steelmills such scraps would be recycled. For the second option, RSM generators would deal directly with selected steelmills under specific agreements. For the third option, generators would ship scraps only to regional centers for processing and shipment to participating steelmills. This paper addresses the potential advantages of each option, identifies the types of arrangements that would need to be secured among all parties, and attempts to assess the receptivity of the recycling industry to each option.

  7. Dark circles: etiology and management options.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Daniel P; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2015-01-01

    Given their multifactorial nature and the fact that individual patients may have more than a single underlying cause, cosmetic practitioners should be well versed in a number of potential treatment options encompassing all facets of under-eye dark circles. New therapeutic options are also forthcoming. Longer-lasting HA fillers, wavelength tunable laser devices, and topicals speeding up healing and enhancing results after fractionated laser therapy will all serve to make the future of dark circle treatment unabatedly bright. PMID:25440739

  8. Use of optimization modeling to evaluate industrial waste reduction options: Application to a sour gas plant

    SciTech Connect

    Roberge, H.D. ); Sikora, R.P. ); Baetz, B.W. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    This note reports on a study of waste reduction options for the upstream oil and gas industry and involves the application of a waste reduction optimization model to a generic sour gas plant. The waste reduction optimization model is meant as an aid for decision-making relating to the implementation of waste reduction options. The generic facility was developed from process knowledge provided by industry members of a project steering committee, as well as waste management information from industry manuals and represents a facility of average capacity and typical configuration. Several waste minimization options were modeled for selected waste streams. The selected streams were chosen based upon waste flows and disposal costs and their potential for waste reduction. The results of the modeling for the generic sour gas plant have shown that a set of cost-effective waste reduction options exist, there is significant potential for reducing the total quantity of waste to be managed and disposed of, and that implementation of the options would lead to considerable cost savings. The value and usefulness of the modeling approach lie not only in the generated results, but also in the fact that to construct the model, relevant waste flows and every possible manner that these waste flows can be minimized or processed are systematically identified. Once modeled, the parameters can be readily manipulated to determine various possible waste management strategies. To effectively use the modeling approach, the waste reduction team should have knowledge of the plant processes, existing waste management practices and costs, information on potential waste reduction options and technologies, as well as experience in mathematical modeling and analysis.

  9. Melasma: clinical diagnosis and management options.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Michelle; Pandya, Amit G

    2015-08-01

    Melasma is a common acquired disorder of pigmentation most commonly seen in those with skin of colour. It has long been a condition that is frustrating for both the dermatologist and patient to treat. This article provides a review of the literature on melasma and examines, in detail, various treatment options currently available to treat it. PMID:25754098

  10. A real-world way to manage real options.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Tom; Tufano, Peter

    2004-03-01

    Each corporate growth project is an option, in the sense that managers face choices--push ahead or pull back--along the way. Yet many companies hesitate to apply options theory to initiatives such as R&D and geographic expansion, partly because these "real" options are highly complex. In this article, the authors make the case that the complexity of real options can be eased through the use of a binomial valuation model. Many of the problems with real-options analysis stem from the use of the Black-Scholes-Merton model, which isn't suited to real options. Binomial models, by contrast, are simpler mathematically, and you can tinker with a binomial model until it closely reflects the project you wish to value. Suppose your company is considering investing in a new plant. To use the binomial model, you must create an "event tree" to figure out the full range of possible values for the plant during the project's lifetime--next year, at the end of the design phase, upon completion. Then you work backward from the value at completion, factoring in the various investments, to determine the value of the project today. These calculations provide you with numbers for all the possible future values of the option at the various points where a decision needs to be made on whether to continue with the project. The authors also address another criticism of real options: that gaps often arise between theoretical and realized values of options of all types. Such gaps may be largely the result of managers exercising options at the wrong time. To improve the way it manages its real options, a company can look out for the decision trigger points that correspond to the nodes on a binomial decision tree. The trigger points should not only tell managers when they need to decide on exercise but also specify rules governing the exercise decisions. PMID:15029793

  11. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    PubMed

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer. PMID:22420272

  12. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: Therapeutic Options and Surveillance Management

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Aditi; Wheatley, Daniel; Puttanna, Amar

    2016-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic immune-mediated liver disease. Though rare, it poses several clinical concerns for the managing physician. There are currently limited therapeutic options in the management of the condition and weak evidence base behind them. Endoscopic intervention is limited to those patients with obstructing stricture-related disease, and even liver transplantation has a risk of disease recurrence. Surveillance for inflammatory bowel disorders, metabolic bone disease, and malignancy is paramount when managing such patients. This article provides an overview of the condition with further focus on current therapeutic options and guidance on surveillance management. PMID:27330336

  13. [Options for stress management in obesity treatment].

    PubMed

    Czeglédi, Edit

    2016-02-14

    Overeating and physical inactivity are of great importance in the etiology of obesity. Psychological factors are often found in the background of life style. Chronic stress can contribute to physical inactivity and behaviors that hinder the keeping of a diet (e.g., irregular eating pattern, emotional eating). Results of randomized controlled trials show that relaxation can reduce emotional eating, improve cognitive restraint, and thereby reduce weight. However, stress management is more than relaxation. It consists of adaptive emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies and skills to improve relationships. Deflection skills may help in replacing emotional eating with other behaviors. Cognitive restructuring, saying no, and problem solving help to prevent or manage conflicts and difficulties otherwise would result in overeating due to distress. Developing stress management skills may result in greater compliance with the treatment. The techniques presented in the study can be easily applied by general practitioners or specialists, and provide tools for optimizing obesity treatment. PMID:26853727

  14. MANURE MANAGEMENT: ALFALFA FIELDS GIVE US OPTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The average cow in the U.S. produces more than 18,000 lbs. of milk each year and generates about 42,000 lbs. of manure. Manure management is not the only task on the farmer's 'to do' list, but in today’s world it is increasingly important to do it right. Although alfalfa acreage is a relatively smal...

  15. Urinary Incontinence: Management and Treatment Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary incontinence, defined as the involuntary leakage of urine, is a common health problem in both women and men. Children may also suffer from this condition. Management and treatment of urinary incontinence depends primarily on the specific type of incontinence and the underlying problem causing the leakage for a given patient. Because…

  16. Management options for minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Jasmohan S

    2008-12-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is a neurocognitive dysfunction that is present in the majority of patients with cirrhosis. MHE has a characteristic cognitive profile that cannot be diagnosed clinically. This cognitive dysfunction is independent of sleep dysfunction or problems with overall intelligence. MHE has a significant impact on quality of life, the ability to function in daily life and progression to overt hepatic encephalopathy. Driving ability can be impaired in MHE and this may be a significant factor behind motor vehicle accidents. A crucial aspect of the clinical care of MHE patients is their driving history, which is often ignored during routine care and can add a vital dimension to the overall disease assessment. Driving history should be an integral part of the care of patients with MHE. The preserved communication skills and lack of specific signs and insight make MHE difficult to diagnose. The predominant strategies for MHE diagnosis are psychometric or neurophysiological testing. These are usually limited by financial, normative or time constraints. Studies into inhibitory control, cognitive drug research and critical flicker frequency tests are encouraging. These tests do not require a psychologist for administration and interpretation. Lactulose and probiotics have been studied for their potential use as therapies for MHE, but these are not standard-of-care practices at this time. Therapy can improve the quality of life in MHE patients but the natural history, specific diagnostic strategies and treatment options are still being investigated. PMID:19090738

  17. Geothermal Produced Fluids: Characteristics, Treatment Technologies, and Management Options

    SciTech Connect

    Finster, Molly; Clark, Corrie; Schroeder, Jenna; Martino, Louis

    2015-10-01

    Geothermal power plants use geothermal fluids as a resource and create waste residuals as part of the power generation process. Both the geofluid resource and the waste stream are considered produced fluids. The chemical and physical nature of produced fluids can have a major impact on the geothermal power industry and can influence the feasibility of geothermal power development, exploration approaches, power plant design, operating practices, and the reuse or disposal of residuals. In general, produced fluids include anything that comes out of a geothermal field and that subsequently must be managed on the surface. These fluids vary greatly depending on the geothermal reservoir being harnessed, power plant design, and the life cycle stage in which the fluid exists, but generally include water and fluids used to drill geothermal wells, fluids used to stimulate wells in enhanced geothermal systems, and makeup and/or cooling water used during operation of a geothermal power plant. Additional geothermal-related produced fluids include many substances that are similar to waste streams from the oil and gas industry, such as scale, flash tank solids, precipitated solids from brine treatment, hydrogen sulfide, and cooling-tower-related waste. This review paper aims to provide baseline knowledge on specific technologies and technology areas associated with geothermal power production. Specifically, this research focused on the management techniques related to fluids produced and used during the operational stage of a geothermal power plant; the vast majority of which are employed in the generation of electricity. The general characteristics of produced fluids are discussed. Constituents of interest that tend to drive the selection of treatment technologies are described, including total dissolved solids, noncondensable gases, scale and corrosion, silicon dioxide, metal sulfides, calcium carbonate, corrosion, metals, and naturally occurring radioactive material. Management

  18. Options for gas-to-liquids technology in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, E.P.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the effect of applying new technology to the economics of a proposed natural gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant, to evaluate the potential of a slower-paced, staged deployment of GTL technology, and to evaluate the effect of GTL placement of economics. Five scenarios were economically evaluated and compared: a no-major-gas-sales scenario, a gas-pipeline/LNG scenario, a fast-paced GTL development scenario, a slow-paced GTL development scenario, and a scenario which places the GTL plant in lower Alaska, instead of on the North Slope. Evaluations were completed using an after-tax discounted cash flow analysis. Results indicate that the slow-paced GTL scenario is the only one with a rate of return greater than 10%. The slow-paced GTL development would allow cost saving on subsequent expansions. These assumed savings, along with the lowering of the transportation tariff, combine to distinguish this option for marketing the North Slope gas from the other scenarios. Critical variables that need further consideration include the GTL plant cost, the GTL product premium, and operating and maintenance costs.

  19. Options for Gas-to-Liquids Technology in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Eric Partridge

    1999-10-01

    The purposes of this work was to assess the effect of applying new technology to the economics of a proposed natural gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant, to evaluate the potential of a slower-paced, staged deployment of GTL technology, and to evaluate the effect of GTL placement of economics. Five scenarios were economically evaluated and compared: a no-major-gas-sales scenario, a gas-pipeline/LNG scenario, a fast-paced GTL development scenario, a slow-paced GTL development scenario, and a scenario which places the GTL plant in lower Alaska, instead of on the North Slope. Evaluations were completed using an after-tax discounted cash flow analysis. Results indicate that the slow-paced GTL scenario is the only one with a rate of return greater than 10 percent. The slow-paced GTL development would allow cost saving on subsequent expansions. These assumed savings, along with the lowering of the transportation tariff, combine to distinquish this option for marketing the North Slope gas from the other scenarios. Critical variables that need further consideration include the GTL plant cost, the GTL product premium, and operating and maintenance costs.

  20. Onychomycosis: Evaluation, Treatment Options, Managing Recurrence, and Patient Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Vlahovic, Tracey C

    2016-07-01

    Onychomycosis is the most common nail disease seen in podiatric practice. Effective long-term management remains problematic. We need to treat onychomycosis effectively to prevent its progression into a severe, debilitating, and painful condition, and to manage recurrence. With new agents now available and greater discussion on management strategies, this article reviews the appropriate evaluation of the disease, treatment options, and optimal patient outcomes. PMID:27215153

  1. Global plutonium management: A security option

    SciTech Connect

    Sylvester, K.W.B.

    1998-12-31

    The US surplus plutonium disposition program was created to reduce the proliferation risk posed by the fissile material from thousands of retired nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy has decided to process its Put into a form as secure as Pu in civilian spent fuel. While implementation issues have been considered, a major one (Russian reciprocity) remains unresolved. Russia has made disposition action conditional on extracting the fuel value of its Pu but lacks the infrastructure to do so. Assistance in the construction of the required facilities would conflict with official US policy opposing the development of a Pu fuel cycle. The resulting stagnation provides impetus for a reevaluation of US nonproliferation objectives and Pu disposition options. A strategy for satisfying Russian fuel value concerns and reducing the proliferation risk posed by surplus weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) is proposed. The effectiveness of material alteration (e.g., isotopic, chemical, etc.{hor_ellipsis}) at reducing the desire, ability and opportunity for proliferation is assessed. Virtually all the security benefits attainable by material processing can be obtained by immobilizing Pu in large unit size/mass monoliths without a radiation barrier. Russia would be allowed to extract the Pu at a future date for use as fuel in a verifiable manner. Remote tracking capability, if proven feasible, would further improve safeguarding capability. As an alternate approach, the US could compensate Russia for its Pu, allowing it to be disposed of or processed elsewhere. A market based method for pricing Pu is proposed. Surplus Pu could represent access to nuclear fuel at a fixed price at a future date. This position can be replicated in the uranium market and priced using derivative theory. The proposed strategy attempts to meet nonproliferation objectives by recognizing technical limitations and satisfying political constraints.

  2. Shale gas wastewater management under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Sun, Alexander Y; Duncan, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an optimization framework for evaluating different wastewater treatment/disposal options for water management during hydraulic fracturing (HF) operations. This framework takes into account both cost-effectiveness and system uncertainty. HF has enabled rapid development of shale gas resources. However, wastewater management has been one of the most contentious and widely publicized issues in shale gas production. The flowback and produced water (known as FP water) generated by HF may pose a serious risk to the surrounding environment and public health because this wastewater usually contains many toxic chemicals and high levels of total dissolved solids (TDS). Various treatment/disposal options are available for FP water management, such as underground injection, hazardous wastewater treatment plants, and/or reuse. In order to cost-effectively plan FP water management practices, including allocating FP water to different options and planning treatment facility capacity expansion, an optimization model named UO-FPW is developed in this study. The UO-FPW model can handle the uncertain information expressed in the form of fuzzy membership functions and probability density functions in the modeling parameters. The UO-FPW model is applied to a representative hypothetical case study to demonstrate its applicability in practice. The modeling results reflect the tradeoffs between economic objective (i.e., minimizing total-system cost) and system reliability (i.e., risk of violating fuzzy and/or random constraints, and meeting FP water treatment/disposal requirements). Using the developed optimization model, decision makers can make and adjust appropriate FP water management strategies through refining the values of feasibility degrees for fuzzy constraints and the probability levels for random constraints if the solutions are not satisfactory. The optimization model can be easily integrated into decision support systems for shale oil/gas lifecycle

  3. Options for perioperative pain management in neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Vadivelu, Nalini; Kai, Alice M; Tran, Daniel; Kodumudi, Gopal; Legler, Aron; Ayrian, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Moderate-to-severe pain following neurosurgery is common but often does not get attention and is therefore underdiagnosed and undertreated. Compounding this problem is the traditional belief that neurosurgical pain is inconsequential and even dangerous to treat. Concerns about problematic effects associated with opioid analgesics such as nausea, vomiting, oversedation, and increased intracranial pressure secondary to elevated carbon dioxide tension from respiratory depression have often led to suboptimal postoperative analgesic strategies in caring for neurosurgical patients. Neurosurgical patients may have difficulty or be incapable of communicating their need for analgesics due to neurologic deficits, which poses an additional challenge. Postoperative pain control should be a priority, because pain adversely affects recovery and patient outcomes. Inconsistent practices and the quality of current analgesic strategies for neurosurgical patients still leave room for improvement. Given the complexity of postoperative pain management for these patients, multimodal strategies are often required to optimize pain control and at the same time limit undesired side effects. PMID:26929661

  4. [Conservative management option in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Guienne, Véronique; Parahy, Sophie; Testa, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    "Conservative management" is as an alternative care pathway offered to patients who elect not to start dialysis often because of a heavy burden of comorbid illness and advanced ages. Our research, characterized by a transdisciplinary medical and social investigation and based on a case by case analysis, intends to understand the reasons and the context in which this choice has to be made. On the first hand, the results show that all the studied cases can be explained by two variables, the latter can be combined: when the patient is suffering from important clinical pathologies; when the patient lives with this renal failure as a trouble linked to the age. On the second hand, two important questions are raised: the first one is about the medical practices and stems from the influence of criteria always present in the decisions to take (the paramedical exams and the clinical information from the interview, the patient's examination and the discussion with his/her close family member). The second one is about the patient's autonomy and can be analyzed regarding to his/her capacity to express his/her choices and share it with his close family. But also, to live in according to his age, that is to say the relation he/she has with his/her edged body and to the limits of his/her existence. The key notion of shared decision-making renewed is to refer in the consultation and the choices to take to the question of the advantages/drawbacks for the patient's life and not only to the question of the connection between the results and the medical risks, in order to exchange view with the patient on his/her future life and not only on the condition of his failed organ. PMID:26725173

  5. Grazing management options in meeting objectives of grazing experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decisions on which grazing management option to use in grazing experiments can be critical in meeting research objectives and generating information for the scientific community or technologies that meets the needs of forage-based enterprises. It is necessary to have an understanding of animal per...

  6. Thermal management system options for high power space platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadunas, J. A.; Lehtinen, A.; Parish, R.

    1985-01-01

    Thermal Management System (TMS) design options for a high power (75kWe), low earth orbit, multimodule space platform were investigated. The approach taken was to establish a baseline TMS representative of current technology, and to make incremental improvements through successive subsystem trades that lead to a candidate TMS. The TMS trades included centralized and decentralized transport, single-phase and two-phase transport, alternate working fluids, liquid loop and heat pipe radiators, deployed fixed, body mounted and steerable radiators, and thermal storage. The subsystem options were evaluated against criteria such as weight, TMS power requirement, reliability, system isothermality penalty, and growth potential.

  7. Using real options analysis to support strategic management decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabaivanov, Stanimir; Markovska, Veneta; Milev, Mariyan

    2013-12-01

    Decision making is a complex process that requires taking into consideration multiple heterogeneous sources of uncertainty. Standard valuation and financial analysis techniques often fail to properly account for all these sources of risk as well as for all sources of additional flexibility. In this paper we explore applications of a modified binomial tree method for real options analysis (ROA) in an effort to improve decision making process. Usual cases of use of real options are analyzed with elaborate study on the applications and advantages that company management can derive from their application. A numeric results based on extending simple binomial tree approach for multiple sources of uncertainty are provided to demonstrate the improvement effects on management decisions.

  8. Perioperative pain management in hip arthroscopy; what options are there?

    PubMed

    Bech, N H; Hulst, A H; Spuijbroek, J A; van Leuken, L L A; Haverkamp, D

    2016-08-01

    Hip arthroscopy is a fast growing orthopedic field of expertise. As in any field of surgery adequate postoperative pain management regimes are of utmost importance. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge on anesthetic options for perioperative pain management for hip arthroscopy. We searched the Pubmed/Medline and Embase database for literature and included 10 studies for our analysis. Because of the variety of pain scales and different ways of measured pain no meta-analysis could be performed and a descriptive review is performed. There are several types of pain regimens that can mostly be divided in two groups: local anesthetics and nerve blocks. Included studies show a rather large variation in reported visual analogue scale scores, post anesthesia care unit admission time and opioid usage. There are several anesthetic options available for hip arthroscopy. Different studies use different dosages, anesthetic regimens and different protocols; this partly explains the differences between studies with similar techniques. Peripheral nerve blocks seems promising but regarding current literature no clear recommendation can be made about what the best perioperative pain management option is, an overview of all reported techniques is given. PMID:27583156

  9. Perioperative pain management in hip arthroscopy; what options are there?

    PubMed Central

    Bech, N. H.; Hulst, A. H.; Spuijbroek, J. A.; van Leuken, L. L. A.; Haverkamp, D.

    2016-01-01

    Hip arthroscopy is a fast growing orthopedic field of expertise. As in any field of surgery adequate postoperative pain management regimes are of utmost importance. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge on anesthetic options for perioperative pain management for hip arthroscopy. We searched the Pubmed/Medline and Embase database for literature and included 10 studies for our analysis. Because of the variety of pain scales and different ways of measured pain no meta-analysis could be performed and a descriptive review is performed. There are several types of pain regimens that can mostly be divided in two groups: local anesthetics and nerve blocks. Included studies show a rather large variation in reported visual analogue scale scores, post anesthesia care unit admission time and opioid usage. There are several anesthetic options available for hip arthroscopy. Different studies use different dosages, anesthetic regimens and different protocols; this partly explains the differences between studies with similar techniques. Peripheral nerve blocks seems promising but regarding current literature no clear recommendation can be made about what the best perioperative pain management option is, an overview of all reported techniques is given. PMID:27583156

  10. Dietary and nutraceutical options for managing the hypertriglyceridemic patient.

    PubMed

    Pins, Joel J; Keenan, Joseph M

    2006-01-01

    Scientific evidence continues to accumulate regarding fasting serum triglycerides as an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. In response, the National Cholesterol Education Program has revised the acceptable level of fasting triglycerides from <200 mg/dL to <150 mg/dL. A significant percentage of Americans suffer from hypertriglyceridemia, and considering the expanding numbers of individuals who are physically inactive, overweight, and suffering from the metabolic syndrome, it is expected that these numbers will continue to rise over the next decade. Fortunately, nutraceutical and lifestyle options have been shown to substantially and consistently reduce this risk factor. This review will focus on management options for the hypertriglyceridemic patient with an emphasis on nicotinic acid, pantethine, fish oils (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids), and modified carbohydrate diets. PMID:16760691

  11. Fuel cell gas management system

    DOEpatents

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur

    2000-01-11

    A fuel cell gas management system including a cathode humidification system for transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell equal to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  12. Pharmacologic options for the treatment and management of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kobernick, Aaron K; Chambliss, Jeffrey; Burks, A Wesley

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy affects approximately 5% of adults and 8% of children in developed countries, and there is currently no cure. Current pharmacologic management is limited to using intramuscular epinephrine or oral antihistamines in response to food allergen exposure. Recent trials have examined the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous, oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapy, with varying levels of efficacy and safety demonstrated. Bacterial adjuvants, use of anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies, and Chinese herbal formulations represent exciting potential for development of future pharmacotherapeutic agents. Ultimately, immunotherapy may be a viable option for patients with food allergy, although efficacy and safety are likely to be less than ideal. PMID:26289224

  13. Agricultural land management options following large-scale environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Turcanu, Catrinel

    2011-07-01

    The recent events at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, in Japan, have raised questions about the accumulation of radionuclides in soils, the transfer in the food chain, and the possibility for restricted land use in the foreseeable future. This article summarizes what is generally understood about the application of agricultural countermeasures as a land management option to reduce the transfer of radionuclides in the food chain and to facilitate the return of potentially affected soils to agricultural practices in the vicinity of the Fukushima plant. PMID:21608113

  14. The Oil and Natural Gas Knowledge Management Database from NETL

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Knowledge Management Database (KMD) Portal provides four options for searching the documents and data that NETL-managed oil and gas research has produced over the years for DOE’s Office of Fossil Energy. Information includes R&D carried out under both historical and ongoing DOE oil and gas research and development (R&D). The Document Repository, the CD/DVD Library, the Project Summaries from 1990 to the present, and the Oil and Natural Gas Program Reference Shelf provide a wide range of flexibility and coverage.

  15. Evaluation of flammable gas monitoring options for waste tank intrusive activities

    SciTech Connect

    Shultz, M.V.

    1996-09-03

    This calc note documents an evaluation of three options for monitoring hydrogen during waste tank intrusive activities. The three options are (1) one Combustible Gas Monitor with an operator monitoring the readout, (2) two CGMs with separate operators monitoring each gas monitor, and (3) one CGM with audible alarm, no dedicated operator monitoring readout. A comparison of the failure probabilities of the three options is provided. This Calculation Note supports the Flammable Gas Analysis for TWRS FSAR and BIO. This document is not to be used as the sole basis to authorize activities or to change authorization, safety or design bases.

  16. Participatory groundwater management in Jordan: Development and analysis of options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebaane, Mohamed; El-Naser, Hazim; Fitch, Jim; Hijazi, Amal; Jabbarin, Amer

    Groundwater over-exploitation has been on the rise in Jordan. Competing demands have grown in the face of perennial water shortages, a situation which has been exacerbated by drought conditions in the past decade. This paper reports findings of a project in which management options to address over-exploitation were developed for one of Jordan's principal aquifer systems, the Amman-Zarqa Basin. Options for addressing the situation were developed through a participatory approach that involved government officials and various public and private sector interest groups. Particular efforts were made to involve well irrigators, who are likely to be heavily impacted by the changes required to reduce groundwater pumping to a sustainable level. With information obtained from a rapid appraisal survey as well as from interviews with farmers, community groups, government officials, and technical experts, an extensive set of options was identified for evaluation. Based on integrated hydrogeologic, social, and economic analysis, five complementary management options were recommended for implementation. These included the establishment of an Irrigation Advisory Service, buying out farm wells, placing firm limits on well ion and irrigated crop areas, exchanging treated wastewater for groundwater, and measures to increase the efficiency of municipal and industrial water use. Various combinations and levels of these options were grouped in scenarios, representing possible implementation strategies. The scenarios were designed to assist decision makers, well owners and other stakeholders in moving gradually towards a sustainable ion regime. Social and economic aspects of each option and scenario were analyzed and presented to stakeholders, together with a of legal, institutional and environmental ramifications. Combining scientific analysis with a participatory approach in the Amman Zarqa Basin groundwater management was devised as a prototype to be used in the management of other

  17. Strategic Environmental Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in the Canadian Agricultural Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Bram F.; Christmas, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a methodological framework for strategic environmental assessment (SEA) application. The overall objective is to demonstrate SEA as a systematic and structured policy, plan, and program (PPP) decision support tool. In order to accomplish this objective, a stakeholder-based SEA application to greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policy options in Canadian agriculture is presented. Using a mail-out impact assessment exercise, agricultural producers and nonproducers from across the Canadian prairie region were asked to evaluate five competing GHG mitigation options against 13 valued environmental components (VECs). Data were analyzed using multi-criteria and exploratory analytical techniques. The results suggest considerable variation in perceived impacts and GHG mitigation policy preferences, suggesting that a blanket policy approach to GHG mitigation will create gainers and losers based on soil type and associate cropping and on-farm management practices. It is possible to identify a series of regional greenhouse gas mitigation programs that are robust, socially meaningful, and operationally relevant to both agricultural producers and policy decision makers. The assessment demonstrates the ability of SEA to address, in an operational sense, environmental problems that are characterized by conflicting interests and competing objectives and alternatives. A structured and systematic SEA methodology provides the necessary decision support framework for the consideration of impacts, and allows for PPPs to be assessed based on a much broader set of properties, objectives, criteria, and constraints whereas maintaining rigor and accountability in the assessment process.

  18. Options and costs for offsite disposal of oil and gas exploration and production wastes.

    SciTech Connect

    Puder, M. G.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, most of the exploration and production (E&P) wastes generated at onshore oil and gas wells are disposed of or otherwise managed at the well site. Certain types of wastes are not suitable for onsite management, and some well locations in sensitive environments cannot be used for onsite management. In these situations, operators must transport the wastes offsite for disposal. In 1997, Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) prepared a report that identified offsite commercial disposal facilities in the United States. This information has since become outdated. Over the past year, Argonne has updated the study through contacts with state oil and gas agencies and commercial disposal companies. The new report, including an extensive database for more than 200 disposal facilities, provides an excellent reference for information about commercial disposal operations. This paper describes Argonne's report. The national study provides summaries of the types of offsite commercial disposal facilities found in each state. Data are presented by waste type and by disposal method. The categories of E&P wastes in the database include: contaminated soils, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), oil-based muds and cuttings, produced water, tank bottoms, and water-based muds and cuttings. The different waste management or disposal methods in the database involve: bioremediation, burial, salt cavern, discharge, evaporation, injection, land application, recycling, thermal treatment, and treatment. The database includes disposal costs for each facility. In the United States, most of the 18 billion barrels (bbl) of produced water, 149 million bbl of drilling wastes, and 21 million bbl of associated wastes generated at onshore oil and gas wells are disposed of or otherwise managed at the well site. However, under certain conditions, operators will seek offsite management options for these E&P wastes. Commercial disposal facilities are offsite businesses that

  19. An environmental analysis for comparing waste management options and strategies.

    PubMed

    Marchettini, N; Ridolfi, R; Rustici, M

    2007-01-01

    The debate on different waste management practices has become an issue of utmost importance as human activities have overloaded the assimilative capacity of the biosphere. Recent Italian law on solid waste management recommends an increase in material recycling and energy recovery, and only foresees landfill disposal for inert materials and residues from recovery and recycling. A correct waste management policy should be based on the principles of sustainable development, according to which our refuse is not simply regarded as something to eliminate but rather as a potential resource. This requires the creation of an integrated waste management plan that makes full use of all available technologies. In this context, eMergy analysis is applied to evaluate three different forms of waste treatment and construct an approach capable of assessing the whole strategy of waste management. The evaluation included how much investment is needed for each type of waste management and how much "utility" is extracted from wastes, through the use of two indicators: Environmental yield ratio (EYR) and Net eMergy. Our results show that landfill is the worst system in terms of eMergy costs and eMergy benefits. Composting is the most efficient system in recovering eMergy (highest EYR) from municipal solid waste (MSW) while incineration is capable of saving the greatest quantity of eMergy per gram of MSW (highest net eMergy). This analysis has made it possible to assess the sustainability and the efficiency of individual options but could also be used to assess a greater environmental strategy for waste management, considering a system that might include landfills, incineration, composting, etc. PMID:16765586

  20. Mixed Waste Management Options: 1995 Update. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kirner, N.; Kelly, J.; Faison, G.; Johnson, D.

    1995-05-01

    In the original mixed Waste Management Options (DOE/LLW-134) issued in December 1991, the question was posed, ``Can mixed waste be managed out of existence?`` That study found that most, but not all, of the Nation`s mixed waste can theoretically be managed out of existence. Four years later, the Nation is still faced with a lack of disposal options for commercially generated mixed waste. However, since publication of the original Mixed Waste Management Options report in 1991, limited disposal capacity and new technologies to treat mixed waste have become available. A more detailed estimate of the Nation`s mixed waste also became available when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published their comprehensive assessment, titled National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste (National Profile). These advancements in our knowledge about mixed waste inventories and generation, coupled with greater treatment and disposal options, lead to a more applied question posed for this updated report: ``Which mixed waste has no treatment option?`` Beyond estimating the volume of mixed waste requiring jointly regulated disposal, this report also provides a general background on the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). It also presents a methodical approach for generators to use when deciding how to manage their mixed waste. The volume of mixed waste that may require land disposal in a jointly regulated facility each year was estimated through the application of this methodology.

  1. Impact assessment of waste management options in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tan, Reginald B H; Khoo, Hsien H

    2006-03-01

    This paper describes the application of life cycle assessment for evaluating various waste management options in Singapore, a small-island city state. The impact assessment method by SimaPro is carried out for comparing the potential environmental impacts of waste treatment options including landfilling, incineration, recycling, and composting. The inventory data include gases and leachate from landfills, air emissions and energy recovery from incinerators, energy (and emission) savings from recycling, composting gases, and transport pollution. The impact assessment results for climate change, acidification, and ecotoxicity show that the incineration of materials imposes considerable harm to both human health and the environment, especially for the burning of plastics, paper/cardboard, and ferrous metals. The results also show that, although some amount of energy can be derived from the incineration of wastes, these benefits are outweighed by the air pollution (heavy metals and dioxins/furans) that incinerators produce. For Singapore, landfill gases and leachate generate minimal environmental damage because of the nation's policy to landfill only 10% of the total disposed wastes. Land transportation and separation of waste materials also pose minimal environmental damage. However, sea transportation to the landfill could contribute significantly to acidification because of the emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from barges. The composting of horticultural wastes hardly imposes any environmental damage. Out of all the waste strategies, the recycling of wastes offers the best solution for environmental protection and improved human health for the nation. Significant emission savings can be realized through recycling. PMID:16573187

  2. Quantitative option analysis for implementation and management of landfills.

    PubMed

    Kerestecioğlu, Merih

    2016-09-01

    The selection of the most feasible strategy for implementation of landfills is a challenging step. Potential implementation options of landfills cover a wide range, from conventional construction contracts to the concessions. Montenegro, seeking to improve the efficiency of the public services while maintaining affordability, was considering privatisation as a way to reduce public spending on service provision. In this study, to determine the most feasible model for construction and operation of a regional landfill, a quantitative risk analysis was implemented with four steps: (i) development of a global risk matrix; (ii) assignment of qualitative probabilities of occurrences and magnitude of impacts; (iii) determination of the risks to be mitigated, monitored, controlled or ignored; (iv) reduction of the main risk elements; and (v) incorporation of quantitative estimates of probability of occurrence and expected impact for each risk element in the reduced risk matrix. The evaluated scenarios were: (i) construction and operation of the regional landfill by the public sector; (ii) construction and operation of the landfill by private sector and transfer of the ownership to the public sector after a pre-defined period; and (iii) operation of the landfill by the private sector, without ownership. The quantitative risk assessment concluded that introduction of a public private partnership is not the most feasible option, unlike the common belief in several public institutions in developing countries. A management contract for the first years of operation was advised to be implemented, after which, a long term operating contract may follow. PMID:27354014

  3. LANDFILL GAS ENERGY UTILIZATION: TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS AND CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses technical, environmental, and other issues associated with using landfill gas as fuel, and presents case studies of projects in the U.S. illustrating some common energy uses. he full report begins by covering basic issues such as gas origin, composition, and ...

  4. Management options for sphincteric deficiency in adults with neurogenic bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Erik N.; Lenherr, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenic bladder is a very broad disease definition that encompasses varied disease and injury states affecting the bladder. The majority of patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction do not have concomitant intrinsic sphincteric deficiency (ISD), but when this occurs the challenges of management of urinary incontinence from neurogenic bladder are compounded. There are no guidelines for surgical correction of ISD in adults and most of the literature on treatment of the problem comes from treatment of children with congenital diseases, such as myelomeningocele. Our goal, in this review, is to present some of the common surgical options for ISD [including artificial urinary sphincters, bladder slings, bladder neck reconstruction (BNR) and urethral bulking agents] and the evidence underlying these treatments in adults with neurogenic bladder. PMID:26904420

  5. Treatment options for the management of pervasive developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Nash, Kathryn; Carter, K Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (previously known as pervasive developmental disorders) is characterized by social communication deficits, impaired functioning, and restrictive or repetitive behaviors and interests. Patients with autism spectrum disorder also commonly experience core maladaptive behaviors such as aggression and irritability, self-injurious behaviors, hyperactivity, and sleep abnormalities. These behaviors may be sources of stress for caregivers and patients alike and may require pharmacologic management. Risperidone and aripiprazole are frequently used to treat both irritability and self-injurious behavior related to autism spectrum disorder. The opioid antagonist naltrexone has also been studied for self-injurious behaviors, although long-term data are lacking when used in the autism spectrum disorder population. Methylphenidate, atomoxetine, clonidine, and guanfacine are all potential options for the treatment of hyperactivity or attention-deficient hyperactivity disorder-like symptoms in patients with autism spectrum disorder. Lastly, melatonin is the most widely researched medication strategy for the management of sleep disorders in autism spectrum disorder. Future studies reviewing new pharmacologic treatment approaches in combination with non-pharmacologic therapies are warranted to ensure that target behaviors of autism spectrum disorder are appropriately managed. PMID:27079778

  6. Management of primary cicatricial alopecias: options for treatment.

    PubMed

    Harries, M J; Sinclair, R D; Macdonald-Hull, S; Whiting, D A; Griffiths, C E M; Paus, R

    2008-07-01

    Primary cicatricial alopecias (PCAs) are a poorly understood group of disorders that result in permanent hair loss. Clinically, they are characterized not only by permanent loss of hair shafts but also of visible follicular ostia along with other visible changes in skin surface morphology, while their histopathological hallmark usually (although not always) is the replacement of follicular structures with scar-like fibrous tissue. As hair follicle neogenesis in adult human scalp skin is not yet a readily available treatment option for patients with cicatricial alopecias, the aim of treatment, currently, remains to reduce symptoms and to slow or stop PCA progression, namely the scarring process. Early treatment is the key to minimizing the extent of permanent alopecia. However, inconsistent terminology, poorly defined clinical end-points and a lack of good quality clinical trials have long made management of these conditions very challenging. As one important step towards improving the management of this under-investigated and under-serviced group of dermatoses, the current review presents evidence-based guidance for treatment, with identification of the strength of evidence, and a brief overview of clinical features of each condition. Wherever only insufficient evidence-based advice on PCA management can be given at present, this is indicated so as to highlight important gaps in our clinical knowledge that call for concerted efforts to close these in the near future. PMID:18489608

  7. Integrated Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options and Related Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased concerns over air pollution (combined with detrimental health effects) and climate change have called for more stringent emission reduction strategies for criteria air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions. However, stringent regulatory policies can possibly have a...

  8. Participatory groundwater management in Jordan: Development and analysis of options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebaane, Mohamed; El-Naser, Hazim; Fitch, Jim; Hijazi, Amal; Jabbarin, Amer

    Groundwater over-exploitation has been on the rise in Jordan. Competing demands have grown in the face of perennial water shortages, a situation which has been exacerbated by drought conditions in the past decade. This paper reports findings of a project in which management options to address over-exploitation were developed for one of Jordan's principal aquifer systems, the Amman-Zarqa Basin. Options for addressing the situation were developed through a participatory approach that involved government officials and various public and private sector interest groups. Particular efforts were made to involve well irrigators, who are likely to be heavily impacted by the changes required to reduce groundwater pumping to a sustainable level. With information obtained from a rapid appraisal survey as well as from interviews with farmers, community groups, government officials, and technical experts, an extensive set of options was identified for evaluation. Based on integrated hydrogeologic, social, and economic analysis, five complementary management options were recommended for implementation. These included the establishment of an Irrigation Advisory Service, buying out farm wells, placing firm limits on well ion and irrigated crop areas, exchanging treated wastewater for groundwater, and measures to increase the efficiency of municipal and industrial water use. Various combinations and levels of these options were grouped in scenarios, representing possible implementation strategies. The scenarios were designed to assist decision makers, well owners and other stakeholders in moving gradually towards a sustainable ion regime. Social and economic aspects of each option and scenario were analyzed and presented to stakeholders, together with a of legal, institutional and environmental ramifications. Combining scientific analysis with a participatory approach in the Amman Zarqa Basin groundwater management was devised as a prototype to be used in the management of other

  9. Reservoir management options for improving water productivity in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niasse, M.

    2003-04-01

    Although there seems to be a global consensus on the need for improving the productivity of water, little progress has been made, especially in Africa, toward applying this concept in approaches to water resources planning and management. The notion of water productivity refers to the types, amount and value of material and non material products generated from water use, and embraces therefore a broad spectrum outputs, including crop and hydropower production, livestock and fishery yields, as well as outputs from other water-based activities such as domestic and industrial water consumption. In contexts of water scarcity, like in many regions in Africa, it becomes more and more important to allocate available freshwater resources among competing sectors as efficiently as possible, while taking into account the needs of aquatic ecosystems and the concerns of equity and poverty reduction. A minimum level of control of water is often necessary for the implementation of these water allocation principles. On the basis of the water budget of the Senegal River -- a basin where a significant share of the river flow is controlled by dams since the late 1980s—and other river basins in Africa, the proposed communication analyses the merits and limitations of different reservoir management options. On this basis the paper discuss approaches to optimal and sustainable water allocation which takes into consideration multiple uses and the need for greater equity in access and reduced vulnerability of the poor.

  10. Bilateral diaphragmatic palsy after congenital heart surgery: management options.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Pradeep; Lone, Reyaz A; Sallehuddin, Ahmad; John, Jiju; Bhat, Akhlaque N; Rahmath, Muhammed R K

    2016-06-01

    Diaphragmatic paralysis following phrenic nerve injury is a major complication following congenital cardiac surgery. In contrast to unilateral paralysis, patients with bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis present a higher risk group, require different management methods, and have poorer prognosis. We retrospectively analysed seven patients who had bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis following congenital heart surgery during the period from July, 2006 to July, 2014. Considerations were given to the time to diagnosis of diaphragm paralysis, total ventilator days, interval after plication, and lengths of ICU and hospital stays. The incidence of bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis was 0.68% with a median age of 2 months (0.6-12 months). There was one neonate and six infants with a median weight of 4 kg (3-7 kg); five patients underwent unilateral plication of the paradoxical diaphragm following recovery of the other side, whereas the remaining two patients who did not demonstrate a paradoxical movement were successfully weaned from the ventilator following recovery of function in one of the diaphragms. The median ventilation time for the whole group was 48 days (20-90 days). The median length of ICU stay was 46 days (24-110 days), and the median length of hospital stay was 50 days (30-116 days). None of the patients required tracheostomy for respiratory support and there were no mortalities, although all the patients except one developed ventilator-associated pneumonia. The outcome of different management options for bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis following surgery for CHD is discussed. PMID:26345716

  11. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Test Reactor Options Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sterbentz, James William; Bayless, Paul David

    2015-08-01

    Preliminary scoping calculations are being performed for a 100 MWt gas-cooled test reactor. The initial design uses standard prismatic blocks and 15.5% enriched UCO fuel. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics simulations have been performed to identify some reactor design features to investigate further. Current status of the effort is described.

  12. Greenhouse Gas Management Program Overview (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    Program fact sheet highlighting federal requirements for GHG emissions management, FEMP services to help agencies reduce emissions, and additional resources. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) assists Federal agencies with managing their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG management entails measuring emissions and understanding their sources, setting a goal for reducing emissions, developing a plan to meet this goal, and implementing the plan to achieve reductions in emissions. FEMP provides the following services to help Federal agencies meet the requirements of inventorying and reducing their GHG emissions: (1) FEMP offers one-on-one technical assistance to help agencies understand and implement the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance and fulfill their inventory reporting requirements. (2) FEMP provides training, tools, and resources on FedCenter to help agencies complete their annual inventories. (3) FEMP serves a leadership role in the interagency Federal Working Group on Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting that develops recommendations to the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance. (4) As the focus continues to shift from measuring emissions (completing inventories) to mitigating emissions (achieving reductions), FEMP is developing a strategic planning framework and resources for agencies to prioritize among a variety of options for mitigating their GHG emissions, so that they achieve their reduction goals in the most cost-effective manner. These resources will help agencies analyze their high-quality inventories to make strategic decisions about where to use limited resources to have the greatest impact on reducing emissions. Greenhouse gases trap heat in the lower atmosphere, warming the earth's surface temperature in a natural process known as the 'greenhouse effect.' GHGs include carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4

  13. Thermal management technology for hydrogen storage: Fullerene option

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.C.; Chen, F.C.; Murphy, R.W.

    1996-10-01

    Fullerenes are selected as the first option for investigating advanced thermal management technologies for hydrogen storage because of their potentially high volumetric and gravimetric densities. Experimental results indicate that about 6 wt% of hydrogen (corresponding to C{sub 60}H{sub 48}) can be added to and taken out of fullerenes. A model assuming thermally activated hydrogenation and dehydrogenation processes was developed to explain the experimental findings. The activation energies were estimated to be 100 and 160 kJ/mole (1.0 and 1.6 eV/H{sub 2}) for the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation processes, respectively. The difference is interpreted as the heat released during hydrogenation. There are indications that the activation energies and the heat of hydrogenation can be modified by the use of catalysts. Preliminary hydrogen storage simulations for a conceptually simple device were performed. A 1-m long hollow metal cylinder with an inner diameter of 0.02 m was assumed to be filled with fullerene powders. The results indicate that the thermal diffusivity of the fullerenes controls the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation rates. The rates can be significantly modified by changing the thermal diffusivity of the material inside the cylinder, e.g., by incorporating a metal mesh. Results from the simulation suggest that thermal management is essential for efficient hydrogen storage devices using fullerenes. While the preliminary models developed in this study explain some of the observation, more controlled experiments, rigorous model development, and physical property determinations are needed for the development of practical hydrogen storage devices. The use of catalysts to optimize the hydrogen storage characteristics of fullerenes also needs to be pursued. Future cooperative work between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Material & Electrochemical Research Corporation (MER) is planned to address these needs.

  14. RealGasBrine v1.0 option of TOUGH+ v1.5

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, George

    2015-02-27

    RealGasBrine v1.0 is a numerical code that for the simulation of the behavior of gas-bearing porous and/fractured geologic media. It is an option of TOUGH+ v1.5 [Moridis, 2014], a successor to the TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1999; 2012] family of codes for multi-component, multiphase ?uid and heat ?ow developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. RealGasBrine v1.0 needs the TOUGH+ v1.5 core code in order to compile and execute. It is written in standard FORTRAN 95/2003, and can be run on any computational platform (workstation, PC, Macintosh) for which such compilers are available. RealGasBrine v1.0 describes the non-isothermal two- (for pure water) or three-phase (for brine) flow of an aqueous phase and a real gas mixture in a gas-bearing medium, with a particular focus in ultra-tight (such as tight-sand and shale gas) systems. Up to 12 individual real gases can be tracked, and salt can precipitate as solid halite. The capabilities of the code include coupled flow and thermal effects, real gas behavior, Darcy and non-Darcy flow, several isotherm options of gas sorption onto the grains of the porous media, complex fracture descriptions, gas solubility into water, and geomechanical effects on flow properties. RealGasBrine v1.0 allows the study of flow and transport of fluids and heat over a wide range of time frames and spatial scales not only in gas reservoirs, but also in any problem involving the flow of gases in geologic media, including the geologic storage of greenhouse gas mixtures, the behavior of geothermal reservoirs with multi-component condensable (H2O and CO2) and non-condensable gas mixtures, the transport of water and released H2 in nuclear waste storage applications, etc.

  15. Analysis of options for management of spent Stretford solution. [Purge of Stretford solution

    SciTech Connect

    Tallon, J.T.; Rittmeyer, R.W.; Maruhnich, E.D.

    1984-06-01

    During each cycle of the Stretford process a small percentage of the sulfide present in the feed gas is irreversibly converted to thiosulfate and sulfate, and cyanide is irreversibly convertd to thiocyanate. The accumulation of sulfates in the Stretford solution reduces the solubility of the active Stretford chemicals (i.e., sodium vanadate and anthraquinone-disulfonic acid (ADA)). This decreases the rate of oxidative regeneration. To maintain the thiosulfate, sulfate and thiocyanate concentrations at acceptable levels, a continuous purge, or blowdown, of the Stretford solution is required. The continuous purge of Stretford solution results in a loss of active chemicals which must be replaced and ultimately increases Stretford operating costs. In addition, the blowdown must be reclaimed, treated, and/or disposed which also adds to the operating costs. This report presents an analysis of waste-management alternatives for handling the blowdown stream produced from the Stretford process. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relative economics of the most promising alternatives available for managing spent Stretford solution by comparing technical feasibility, performance, and costs associated with the alternatives. The available Stretford solution-characterization data and waste-management options were identified by reviewing literature sources. The waste-management options identified were then screened based on technical, economic and environmental criteria to identify the most promising set of alternatives. Finally, a comparative economic analysis was performed on the most promising set of alternatives using the Stretford process at the Great Plains Gasification Associates (GPGA) facilty as the basis for comparison. 23 refs., 5 figs., 29 tabs.

  16. A multi-criteria decision analysis assessment of waste paper management options

    SciTech Connect

    Hanan, Deirdre; Burnley, Stephen; Cooke, David

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Isolated communities have particular problems in terms of waste management. ► An MCDA tool allowed a group of non-experts to evaluate waste management options. ► The group preferred local waste management solutions to export to the mainland. ► Gasification of paper was the preferred option followed by recycling. ► The group concluded that they could be involved in the decision making process. - Abstract: The use of Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) was investigated in an exercise using a panel of local residents and stakeholders to assess the options for managing waste paper on the Isle of Wight. Seven recycling, recovery and disposal options were considered by the panel who evaluated each option against seven environmental, financial and social criteria. The panel preferred options where the waste was managed on the island with gasification and recycling achieving the highest scores. Exporting the waste to the English mainland for incineration or landfill proved to be the least preferred options. This research has demonstrated that MCDA is an effective way of involving community groups in waste management decision making.

  17. CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES FOR INCORPORATING CLIMATIC CHANGE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT OF FOREST MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR SEQUESTERING CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential for significant environmental change over the next 100 years has resulted in efforts to develop mitigation options for reducing the rate of increase of carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere. ne of the more promising options is management of forest and agro...

  18. Management Options For Reducing The Release Of Antibiotics And Antibiotic Resistance Genes To The Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water - 77 environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. 78 Objective: To identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and 79 antibiotic resist...

  19. Modern management of adult coarctation: transcatheter and surgical options.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Heiko; Uebing, Anselm; Shore, Darryl F

    2016-08-01

    Coarctation of the aorta (CoA), a juxtaductal obstructive lesion in the descending aorta and commonly associated with hypoplasia of the aortic arch occurs in 5-8% of patients with congenital heart disease. Since the initial surgical corrections in the 1950, surgical and transcatheter options have constantly evolved. Nowadays, transcatheter options are widely accepted as the initial treatment of choice in adults presenting with native or recurrent CoA. Surgical techniques are mainly reserved for patients with complex aortic arch anatomy such as extended arch hypoplasia or stenosis or para-CoA aneurysm formation. Extended aneurysms can be covered by conformable stents but stent implantation may require preparative vascular surgery. Complex re-CoA my best be treated by an ascending to descending bypass conduit. The following review aims to describe current endovascular and surgical practice pointing out modern developments and their limitations. PMID:27243624

  20. Membrane Distillation Bioreactor (MDBR) - A lower Green-House-Gas (GHG) option for industrial wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Goh, Shuwen; Zhang, Jinsong; Liu, Yu; Fane, Anthony G

    2015-12-01

    A high-retention membrane bioreactor system, the Membrane Distillation Bioreactor (MDBR) is a wastewater reclamation process which has the potential to tap on waste heat generated in industries to produce high quality product water. There are a few key factors which could make MDBR an attractive advanced treatment option, namely tightening legal requirements due to increasing concerns on the micropollutants in industrial wastewater effluents as well as concerns over the electrical requirement of pressurized advanced treatment processes and greenhouse gas emissions associated with wastewater reclamation. This paper aims to provide a consolidated review on the current state of research for the MDBR system and to evaluate the system as a possible lower Green House Gas (GHG) emission option for wastewater reclamation using the membrane bioreactor-reverse osmosis (MBR-RO) system as a baseline for comparison. The areas for potential applications and possible configurations for MDBR applications are discussed. PMID:25262945

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from a managed grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S. K.; Rees, R. M.; Skiba, U. M.; Ball, B. C.

    2005-07-01

    Managed grasslands contribute to global warming by the exchange of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane. To reduce uncertainties of the global warming potential of European grasslands and to assess potential mitigation options, an integrated approach quantifying fluxes from all three gases is needed. Greenhouse gas emissions from a grassland site in the SE of Scotland were measured in 2002 and 2003. Closed static chambers were used for N 2O and CH 4 flux measurements, and samples were analysed by gas chromatography. Closed dynamic chambers were used for soil respiration measurements, using infrared gas analysis. Three organic manures and two inorganic fertilizers were applied at a rate of 300 kg N ha -1 a -1 (available N) and compared with a zero-N control on grassland plots in a replicated experimental design. Soil respiration from plots receiving manure was up to 1.6 times larger than CO 2 release from control plots and up to 1.7 times larger compared to inorganic treatments ( p<0.05). A highly significant ( p<0.001) effect of fertilizer and manure treatments on N 2O release was observed. Release of N 2O from plots receiving inorganic fertilizers resulted in short term peaks of up to 388 g N 2O-N ha -1 day -1. However losses from plots receiving organic manures were both longer lasting and greater in magnitude, with an emission of up to 3488 g N 2O-N ha -1 day -1 from the sewage sludge treatments. During the 2002 growing season the cumulative total N 2O flux from manure treatments was 25 times larger than that from mineral fertilizers. CH 4 emissions were only significantly increased ( p<0.001) for a short period following applications of cattle slurry. Although soil respiration in manure plots was high, model predictions and micrometeorological flux measurements at an adjacent site suggest that all plots receiving fertilizer or manure acted as a sink for CO 2. Therefore in terms of global warming potentials the contribution of N 2O from

  2. RealGasBrine v1.0 option of TOUGH+ v1.5

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-02-27

    RealGasBrine v1.0 is a numerical code that for the simulation of the behavior of gas-bearing porous and/fractured geologic media. It is an option of TOUGH+ v1.5 [Moridis, 2014], a successor to the TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1999; 2012] family of codes for multi-component, multiphase ?uid and heat ?ow developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. RealGasBrine v1.0 needs the TOUGH+ v1.5 core code in order to compile and execute. It is written in standard FORTRANmore » 95/2003, and can be run on any computational platform (workstation, PC, Macintosh) for which such compilers are available. RealGasBrine v1.0 describes the non-isothermal two- (for pure water) or three-phase (for brine) flow of an aqueous phase and a real gas mixture in a gas-bearing medium, with a particular focus in ultra-tight (such as tight-sand and shale gas) systems. Up to 12 individual real gases can be tracked, and salt can precipitate as solid halite. The capabilities of the code include coupled flow and thermal effects, real gas behavior, Darcy and non-Darcy flow, several isotherm options of gas sorption onto the grains of the porous media, complex fracture descriptions, gas solubility into water, and geomechanical effects on flow properties. RealGasBrine v1.0 allows the study of flow and transport of fluids and heat over a wide range of time frames and spatial scales not only in gas reservoirs, but also in any problem involving the flow of gases in geologic media, including the geologic storage of greenhouse gas mixtures, the behavior of geothermal reservoirs with multi-component condensable (H2O and CO2) and non-condensable gas mixtures, the transport of water and released H2 in nuclear waste storage applications, etc.« less

  3. An integrated assessment of options for rural wastewater management in Austria.

    PubMed

    Starkl, M; Ornetzeder, M; Binner, E; Holubar, P; Pollak, M; Dorninger, M; Mascher, F; Fuerhacker, M; Haberl, R

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports a recently finished, interdisciplinary project on rural wastewater management in Austria. The objective of the project was to study alternative wastewater management options based on separation of the wastewater into its constituent parts, and to compare them with conventional ones. Thereby, a feasibility study of both conventional and alternative options for wastewater management in six model regions was carried out. Life cycle costs and social acceptance were analysed by using a case study-based assessment approach. However, hygienic and environmental risks were evaluated on a more general level. In order to complement the findings, a survey on urine separation system users in the Solar City of Linz was conducted. Based on these assessments and empirical findings, the paper concludes that options using a full separation of all wastewater fractions should be considered with care. Options based on a separation of only grey water and black water or in the liquid/solid phase can offer ecological and financial advantages over conventional options. Further, options combining wastewater management and regional biogas plants were identified as an interesting solution. However, legal constraints restrict this option currently. PMID:17881843

  4. Coalbed methane-produced water quality and its management options in Raniganj Basin, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendhe, Vinod Atmaram; Mishra, Subhashree; Varma, Atul Kumar; Singh, Awanindra Pratap

    2015-09-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) recovery is associated with production of large quantity of groundwater. The coal seams are depressurized by pumping of water for regular and consistent gas production. Usually, CBM operators need to pump >10 m3 of water per day from one well, which depends on the aquifer characteristics, drainage and recharge pattern. In India, 32 CBM blocks have been awarded for exploration and production, out of which six blocks are commercially producing methane gas at 0.5 million metric standard cubic feet per day. Large amount of water is being produced from CBM producing blocks, but no specific information or data are available for geochemical properties of CBM-produced water and its suitable disposal or utilization options for better management. CBM operators are in infancy and searching for the suitable solutions for optimal management of produced water. CBM- and mine-produced water needs to be handled considering its physical and geochemical assessment, because it may have environmental as well as long-term impact on aquifer. Investigations were carried out to evaluate geochemical and hydrogeological conditions of CBM blocks in Raniganj Basin. Totally, 15 water samples from CBM well head and nine water samples from mine disposal head were collected from Raniganj Basin. The chemical signature of produced water reveals high sodium and bicarbonate concentrations with low calcium and magnesium, and very low sulphate in CBM water. It is comprehend that CBM water is mainly of Na-HCO3 type and coal mine water is of Ca-Mg-SO4 and HCO3-Cl-SO4 type. The comparative studies are also carried out for CBM- and mine-produced water considering the geochemical properties, aquifer type, depth of occurrence and lithological formations. Suitable options like impounding, reverse osmosis, irrigation and industrial use after prerequisite treatments are suggested. However, use of this huge volume of CBM- and mine-produced water for irrigation or other beneficial purposes

  5. Study of investigation-derived waste management options. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mountain, B.C.

    1993-09-01

    USAF is dedicated to the clean up of past releases of hazardous substances at its bases under the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) . Clean up decisions are based upon data produced from investigations. Large amounts of waste may be derived from investigations. Investigation-derived waste (IDW), especially that with a hazardous component, may pose significant health protection and regulatory compliance problems if neglected. This study identifies the status and the need for improvement of IDW management to avoid those problems. Information on the background of IDW management was collected through a review of environmental laws, waste management regulations, and existing guidance. Practical IDW management information was gleaned from conversations with iRP managers at twelve USAF bases around the country. This study revealed that IDW management needs improvement. All bases acknowledged IDW concerns and have adopted various methods to deal with them. However, current methods appear to rely more upon expediency rather than permanence. This study showed that critical protection and compliance issues are being overlooked. Development of specific IDW management guidance may better assure that critical issues are addressed. Waste minimization, Waste management, Environmental management, Nonhazardous wastes, Hazardous material, Solid wastes.

  6. Rice management interventions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions: a review.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Saddam; Peng, Shaobing; Fahad, Shah; Khaliq, Abdul; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2015-03-01

    Global warming is one of the gravest threats to crop production and environmental sustainability. Rice, the staple food of more than half of the world's population, is the most prominent cause of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture and gives way to global warming. The increasing demand for rice in the future has deployed tremendous concerns to reduce GHG emissions for minimizing the negative environmental impacts of rice cultivation. In this review, we presented a contemporary synthesis of existing data on how crop management practices influence emissions of GHGs in rice fields. We realized that modifications in traditional crop management regimes possess a huge potential to overcome GHG emissions. We examined and evaluated the different possible options and found that modifying tillage permutations and irrigation patterns, managing organic and fertilizer inputs, selecting suitable cultivar, and cropping regime can mitigate GHG emissions. Previously, many authors have discussed the feasibility principle and the influence of these practices on a single gas or, in particular, in the whole agricultural sector. Nonetheless, changes in management practices may influence more than one gas at the same time by different mechanisms or sometimes their effects may be antagonistic. Therefore, in the present attempt, we estimated the overall global warming potential of each approach to consider the magnitude of its effects on all gases and provided a comprehensive assessment of suitable crop management practices for reducing GHG emissions in rice culture. PMID:25354441

  7. Options for Managing Student Behavior: Adaptations for Individual Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Rita C.; Evans, Elizabeth T.

    This paper applies principles of situational leadership theory to the management of student behavior problems. First, it summarizes situational leadership, noting the theory's premise that leaders must consider two important factors to gain acceptance and compliance in managing people--the maturity level of the individuals and the nature of the…

  8. Options and opportunities for clinical management and treatment of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Udita; Gupta, Madhu; Dube, Devyani; Vyas, Suresh P

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis is a complex, multifactorial disease that appears to be influenced by immune-mediated components. For many years the pathogenesis of psoriasis has been discordant; the clinical picture suggested that the psoriasis was secondary to abnormal keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, but later the role of the T cell was revealed. A variety of treatment options range from topical agents (e.g., coal tar, dithranol, and emollients for milder forms) to systemic agents (i.e., methotrexate or cyclosporin), and phototherapy. Recently, biologics have been added to this list that target particular steps in the immune or inflammatory pathways. Various nanocarriers (e.g., liposomes, niosomes, and microemulsions) have been successfully exploited for the delivery of several antipsoriatic drugs. This review provides insight into various psoriasis treatment strategies-from conventional to novel-currently in use or in development as well as the novel targets that have been explored and/or investigated for anti-psoriatic therapy. The pathogenesis of psoriasis and some of the topical, systemic biological, and novel approaches currently in use or in development are reviewed here. The pros and cons of each treatment strategy are presented, as are some of the animal models used to study features reminiscent of psoriasis. This information can be used to better the understanding of treatment options for this disease. PMID:23510110

  9. Therapeutic options for the management of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Maria L; Rehman, Azeem A; Gondi, Christopher S

    2014-01-01

    Since its initial characterization, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has remained one of the most devastating and difficult cancers to treat. Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, resulting in an estimated 38460 deaths annually. With few screening tools available to detect this disease at an early stage, 94% of patients will die within five years of diagnosis. Despite decades of research that have led to a better understanding of the molecular and cellular signaling pathways in pancreatic cancer cells, few effective therapies have been developed to target these pathways. Other treatment options have included more sophisticated pancreatic cancer surgeries and combination therapies. While outcomes have improved modestly for these patients, more effective treatments are desperately needed. One of the greatest challenges in the future of treating this malignancy will be to develop therapies that target the tumor microenvironment and surrounding pancreatic cancer stem cells in addition to pancreatic cancer cells. Recent advances in targeting pancreatic stellate cells and the stroma have encouraged researchers to shift their focus to the role of desmoplasia in pancreatic cancer pathobiology in the hopes of developing newer-generation therapies. By combining novel agents with current cytotoxic chemotherapies and radiation therapy and personalizing them to each patient based on specific biomarkers, the goal of prolonging a patient’s life could be achieved. Here we review the most effective therapies that have been used for the treatment of pancreatic cancer and discuss the future potential of therapeutic options. PMID:25170201

  10. Options for treating high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel for repository disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Lotts, A.L.; Bond, W.D.; Forsberg, C.W.; Glass, R.W.; Harrington, F.E.; Micheals, G.E.; Notz, K.J.; Wymer, R.G.

    1992-02-01

    This report describes the options that can reasonably be considered for disposal of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel in a repository. The options include whole-block disposal, disposal with removal of graphite (either mechanically or by burning), and reprocessing of spent fuel to separate the fuel and fission products. The report summarizes what is known about the options without extensively projecting or analyzing actual performance of waste forms in a repository. The report also summarizes the processes involved in convert spent HTGR fuel into the various waste forms and projects relative schedules and costs for deployment of the various options. Fort St. Vrain Reactor fuel, which utilizes highly-enriched {sup 235}U (plus thorium) and is contained in a prismatic graphite block geometry, was used as the baseline for evaluation, but the major conclusions would not be significantly different for low- or medium-enriched {sup 235}U (without thorium) or for the German pebble-bed fuel. Future US HTGRs will be based on the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) fuel form. The whole block appears to be a satisfactory waste form for disposal in a repository and may perform better than light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel. From the standpoint of process cost and schedule (not considering repository cost or value of fuel that might be recycled), the options are ranked as follows in order of increased cost and longer schedule to perform the option: (1) whole block, (2a) physical separation, (2b) chemical separation, and (3) complete chemical processing.

  11. CAD/CAM data management needs, requirements and options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopatka, R. S.; Johnson, T. G.

    1978-01-01

    The requirements for a data management system in support of technical or scientific applications and possible courses of action were reviewed. Specific requirements were evolved while working towards higher level integration impacting all phases of the current design process and through examination of commercially marketed systems and related data base research. Arguments are proposed for varied approaches in implementing data base systems ranging from no action necessary to immediate procurement of an existing data base management system.

  12. Managing oil disruptions: issues and policy options. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Webre, P.

    1981-01-01

    The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) prepared the analysis of policy options to help Congress decide whether to extend or expand the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act of 1973, or whether to let it lapse on September 30, 1981. The central theme is that large disruptions of imported oil can deal the economy a severe blow that reduces output and increases unemployment and inflation. Alternative policies might allow this blow to be offset in different ways, but they cannot eliminate an impact. Some policies better contain the inflationary effects of a disruption, but are less effective in mitigating losses in aggregate production and higher unemployment. For others, the converse is true. Further, the appropriateness of each policy varies with the size and anticipated duration of the import disruption. Congress may wish to consider a portfolio of standby policies as well as the selection of just one. Two appendices offer further policy analyses. 10 references, 3 tables.

  13. Middle ear capillary haemangioma: Review of literature and appraisal of management options.

    PubMed

    Salamat, Ali A; Casselden, Elizabeth; Theaker, Jeffrey; Batty, Vincent; Thomas, Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    Infantile middle ear capillary haemangiomas (MECH) are a rare entity with only five reported cases in the literature. At present there is no consensus regarding the management of such lesions. Extra-cutaneous haemangiomas have been successfully managed with oral propranolol but not yet reported in MECH. We present a further case and appraise the management options. At present oral propranolol has not been used in the treatment of MECH. The literature suggests that infantile MECH have a higher propensity to spontaneously involute and a greater likelihood of response to propranolol. Surgical excision is the best option in older children and adults. PMID:26992272

  14. PHILADELPHIA AIR TOXICS STUDY: EVALUATION OF RISK MANAGEMENT OPTIONS USING MIRA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of risk management options usually takes place within single programs at the U.S. EPA. This can produce inadvertent tradeoffs among important criteria by risk managers and other decision makers; resulting in decision surprises. This study is a demonstration of a diff...

  15. Water management practices used by Fayetteville shale gas producers.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    2011-06-03

    Water issues continue to play an important role in producing natural gas from shale formations. This report examines water issues relating to shale gas production in the Fayetteville Shale. In particular, the report focuses on how gas producers obtain water supplies used for drilling and hydraulically fracturing wells, how that water is transported to the well sites and stored, and how the wastewater from the wells (flowback and produced water) is managed. Last year, Argonne National Laboratory made a similar evaluation of water issues in the Marcellus Shale (Veil 2010). Gas production in the Marcellus Shale involves at least three states, many oil and gas operators, and multiple wastewater management options. Consequently, Veil (2010) provided extensive information on water. This current study is less complicated for several reasons: (1) gas production in the Fayetteville Shale is somewhat more mature and stable than production in the Marcellus Shale; (2) the Fayetteville Shale underlies a single state (Arkansas); (3) there are only a few gas producers that operate the large majority of the wells in the Fayetteville Shale; (4) much of the water management information relating to the Marcellus Shale also applies to the Fayetteville Shale, therefore, it can be referenced from Veil (2010) rather than being recreated here; and (5) the author has previously published a report on the Fayetteville Shale (Veil 2007) and has helped to develop an informational website on the Fayetteville Shale (Argonne and University of Arkansas 2008), both of these sources, which are relevant to the subject of this report, are cited as references.

  16. How to manage fatigue in fibromyalgia: nonpharmacological options.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Anna; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this article is to suggest recommendations for the management of fatigue in fibromyalgia (FM) by reviewing and compiling findings of nonpharmacological treatment for fatigue in patients with FM. The management of fatigue in FM should incorporate regular physical exercise maintained for a longer period of time, which contributes to improved general health and facilitates coping with fatigue and other symptoms. The evidence is still low and the effect of exercise on fatigue in FM needs to be further studied. Patients with FM appear to benefit from general sleep hygiene advice and also need to develop individual strategies to manage the complex factors in everyday life that may be related to fatigue. PMID:27297077

  17. An alternative option in the management of blunt splenic injury

    PubMed Central

    Bodansky, David; Jones, Robert; Tucker, Olga N.

    2013-01-01

    Splenic injury is a preventable cause of mortality following blunt trauma. The majority of splenic injuries can be managed conservatively. Laparotomy is indicated in the haemodynamically unstable patient, or those with other intra-abdominal injuries requiring surgery. Angio-embolization can be used to achieve haemostasis and preserve splenic parenchyma. The expertise and experience of the multidisciplinary trauma team and resources of the receiving facility are critical in determining the optimal management approach. We present a patient with a successful outcome following selective angio-embolization for ongoing bleeding from a Grade 4 splenic injury. PMID:24964468

  18. New Fuel Cycle and Fuel Management Options in Heavy Liquid Metal-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Greenspan, Ehud; Hejzlar, Pavel; Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Toshinsky, Georgy; Wade, David

    2005-08-15

    Fast reactors cooled by lead or lead-bismuth alloy offer new interesting fuel cycle and fuel management options by virtue of the superb neutronics and safety features of these heavy liquid metal (HLM) coolants. One option is once-for-life cores having relatively low power density. These cores are fueled in the factory; there is no refueling or fuel shuffling on site. A second option is very long-life cores being made of a fissioning zone and a natural uranium blanket zone. The fissioning zone very slowly drifts toward the blanket. A third option is multirecycling of light water reactor (LWR) discharged fuel without partitioning of transuranics (TRUs) in fuel-self-sustaining reactors. LWR spent fuel could provide the initial fuel loading after extracting fission products and {approx}90% of its uranium. The makeup fuel is natural or depleted uranium. A fourth option is the high-burnup once-through fuel cycle using natural or depleted uranium feed. The initial fuel loading of this reactor is a mixture of enriched and natural uranium. The natural uranium utilization is 10 to 20 times higher than that of a once-through LWR. A fifth option is transmutation of TRUs from LWRs using critical HLM-cooled reactors; such reactors could be designed to have the same high actinide burning capability of accelerator-driven systems and have comparable safety, but at a substantially lower cost. These novel reactor designs and fuel management options are hereby reviewed.

  19. Agricultural management options for climate variability and change: conservation tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adapting to climate variability and change can be achieved through a broad range of management alternatives and technological advances. This publication is focused on the use of conservation tillage in crop production systems. The publication outlines ways that conservation tillage can reduce risk r...

  20. ANALYSIS OF INSECT RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR TRANSGENIC BT CORN,

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing interest in the responsible management of technology in the industrial and agricultural sectors of the economy has been met through the development of broadly applicable tools to assess the "sustainability" of new technologies. An arena ripe for application of such ana...

  1. Management options for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Danielyan, Arman; Kowatch, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    During recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the use of psychotropic medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BPD) in children. There is an emerging set of data to support this use.Mood stabilizers, including lithium and valproic acid (valproate sodium), have generally formed the mainstay of treatment in children and adolescents with BPD. However, the atypical antipsychotics, such as risperidone, aripiprazole, and quetiapine may be more effective as first-line treatment options and in some ways easier to use than the traditional mood stabilizers. As in adults, mood stabilization is often difficult to achieve in pediatric patients with BPD, and combined treatment with mood stabilizers and atypical antipscyhotics is commonly used. Data from controlled trials of psychotropic medications in children and adolescents with BPD are very limited, and hence, in the majority of cases physicians base their treatment decisions on data from case reports, case series, or open trials. More controlled studies of both monotherapy and polypharmacotherapy for BPD in children and adolescents are needed. PMID:16220995

  2. Management of patients with resistant hypertension: current treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nilay; Calhoun, David A; Dudenbostel, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Resistant hypertension (RHTN) is an increasingly common clinical problem that is often heterogeneous in etiology, risk factors, and comorbidities. It is defined as uncontrolled blood pressure on optimal doses of three antihypertensive agents, ideally one being a diuretic. The definition also includes controlled hypertension with use of four or more antihypertensive agents. Recent observational studies have advanced the characterization of patients with RHTN. Patients with RHTN have higher rates of cardiovascular events and mortality compared with patients with more easily controlled hypertension. Secondary causes of hypertension, including obstructive sleep apnea, primary aldosteronism, renovascular disease, are common in patients with RHTN and often coexist in the same patient. In addition, RHTN is often complicated by metabolic abnormalities. Patients with RHTN require a thorough evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and optimize treatment, which typically includes a combination of lifestyle adjustments, and pharmacologic and interventional treatment. Combination therapy including a diuretic, a long-acting calcium channel blocker, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, a beta blocker, and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist where warranted is the classic regimen for patients with treatment-resistant hypertension. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists like spironolactone or eplerenone have been shown to be efficacious in patients with RHTN, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and primary aldosteronism. Novel interventional therapies, including baroreflex activation and renal denervation, have shown that both of these methods may be used to lower blood pressure safely, thereby providing exciting and promising new options to treat RHTN. PMID:24231917

  3. Myelodysplastic Syndromes in the Elderly: Treatment Options and Personalized Management.

    PubMed

    Burgstaller, Sonja; Wiesinger, Petra; Stauder, Reinhard

    2015-11-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are typical diseases of the elderly, with a median age of 68-75 years at initial diagnosis. Demographic changes producing an increased proportion of elderly in our societies mean the incidence of MDS will rise dramatically. Considering the increasing number of treatment options, ranging from best supportive care to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), decision making is rather complex in this cohort of patients. Moreover, aspects of the aging process also have to be considered in therapy planning. Treatment of elderly MDS patients is dependent on the patient's individual risk and prognosis. Comorbidities play an essential role as predictors of survival and therapy tolerance. Age-adjusted models and the use of geriatric assessment scores are described as a basis for individualized treatment algorithms. Specific treatment recommendations for the different groups of patients are given. Currently available therapeutic agents, including supportive care, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), immune-modulating agents, hypomethylating agents, and HSCT are described in detail and discussed with a special focus on elderly MDS patients. The inclusion of elderly patients in clinical trials is of utmost importance to obtain data on efficacy and safety in this particular group of patients. Endpoints relevant for the elderly should be integrated, including maintenance of quality of life and functional activities as well as evaluation of use of healthcare resources. PMID:26476843

  4. Management of keloids and hypertrophic scars: current and emerging options

    PubMed Central

    Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2013-01-01

    In the context of growing aesthetic awareness, a rising number of patients feel disappointed with their scars and are frequently seeking help for functional and aesthetic improvement. However, excessive scarring following surgery or trauma remains difficult to improve despite a plethora of advocated treatment strategies as frequently observed in daily clinical routine. It is thus still preferable to prevent scarring by minimizing risk factors as much as possible. Hence, it remains crucial for the physician to be aware of basic knowledge of healing mechanisms and skin anatomy, as well as an appreciation of suture material and wound closure techniques to minimize the risk of postoperative scarring. Next to existing, well known prophylactic and therapeutic strategies for the improvement of excessive scarring, this article discusses emerging techniques such as intralesional cryotherapy, intralesional 5-fluorouracil, interferon, and bleomycin. Some of them have been successfully tested in well-designed trials and already have extended or may extend the current spectrum of excessive scar treatment in the near future. Innovative options such as imiquimod 5% cream, photodynamic therapy, or botulinum toxin A may also be of certain importance; however, the data currently available is too contradictory for definite recommendations. PMID:23637546

  5. Management Options for a High Elevation Forest in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandl, R.; Jandl, N.; Schindlbacher, A.

    2013-12-01

    We explored different management strategies for a Cembran pine forest close to the timber line with respect to maintenance of the stand structure, the sequestration of carbon in the biomass and the soil, and the economical relevance of timber production. We used the forest growth simulation model Caldis for the implementation of three management intensities (zero managment, thinning every 30 years, thinning every 50 years) under two climate scenarios (IPCC A1B and B1). The soil carbon dynamics were analyzed with the simulation model Yasso07. The ecological evaluation of our simulation data showed that the extensive management with cutting interventions every 50 years allows the maintenance of the ecosystem carbon pool. Zero managment leads to the build-up of the carbon pool because the forest stand is rather unvulnerable to disturbances (bark beetle, storm). The more intensive mangement causes a decline in the ecosystem carbon pool. The economical evaluation showed the marginal relevance of the income generated by timber production. The main challenge is the compensation for the high harvesting costs (long-distance cable logging system). Even at extremely favorable market prices for timber from Cembran pine it is impossible to extract an appropriate amount of timber to justify the temporary instalment of the harvesting system and to maintain a stand density expected for a protection forest. We conclude that timber production is not a feasible object for mountain forests close to the timber line. Even in a warmer climate the productivity situation of forests close to the timberline will not change sufficiently. Therefore it will require public subsidies and personal efforts to maintain the silvicultural intensity at a level that is required for the sustainable maintenance of protection forests.

  6. Textile industry: Profile and DSM (demand-side management) options

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Textile Industry Guidebook provides electric utility planning, marketing, and customer service staff with a practical tool to better understand the textile industry and the challenges it faces; its manufacturing processes, technologies, and energy use; and its opportunities for demand-site management (DSM). The Guidebook concludes with guidance and summary data for developing and evaluating DSM plans to realize such opportunities. 5 refs., 37 figs., 52 tabs.

  7. Management and recovery options for Ural river beluga sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Doukakis, Phaedra; Babcock, Elizabeth A; Pikitch, Ellen K; Sharov, Alexei R; Baimukhanov, Mirgaly; Erbulekov, Sagiden; Bokova, Yelena; Nimatov, Akhat

    2010-06-01

    Management of declining fisheries of anadromous species sometimes relies heavily on supplementation of populations with captive breeding, despite evidence that captive breeding can have negative consequences and may not address the root cause of decline. The beluga sturgeon (Huso huso), a species threatened by the market for black caviar and reductions in habitat quality, is managed through harvest control and hatchery supplementation, with an emphasis on the latter. We used yield per recruit and elasticity analyses to evaluate the population status and current levels of fishing and to identify the life-history stages that are the best targets for conservation of beluga of the Ural River. Harvest rates in recent years were four to five times higher than rates that would sustain population abundance. Sustainable rates of fishing mortality are similar to those for other long-lived marine species such as sharks and mammals. Yield per recruit, which is maximized if fish are first harvested at age 31 years, would be greatly enhanced by raising minimum size limits or reducing illegal take of subadults. Improving the survival of subadult and adult females would increase population productivity by 10 times that achieved by improving fecundity and survival from egg to age 1 year (i.e., hatchery supplementation). These results suggest that reducing mortality of subadults and adult wild fish is a more effective conservation strategy than hatchery supplementation. Because genetics is not factored into hatchery management practices, supplementation may even reduce the viability of the beluga sturgeon. PMID:20184647

  8. Short Bowel Syndrome: A Review of Management Options

    PubMed Central

    Seetharam, Prasad; Rodrigues, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Extensive resection of the intestinal tract frequently results in inadequate digestion and/or absorption of nutrients, a condition known as short bowel syndrome (SBS). This challenging condition demands a dedicated multidisciplinary team effort to overcome the morbidity and mortality in these patients. With advances in critical care management, more and more patients survive the immediate morbidity of massive intestinal resection to present with SBS. Several therapies, including parenteral nutrition (PN), bowel rehabilitation and surgical procedures to reconstruct bowel have been used in these patients. Novel dietary approaches, pharmacotherapy and timely surgical interventions have all added to the improved outcome in these patients. However, these treatments only partially correct the underlying problem of reduced bowel function and have limited success resulting in 30% to 50% mortality rates. However, increasing experience and encouraging results of intestinal transplantation has added a new dimension to the management of SBS. Literature available on SBS is exhaustive but inconclusive. We conducted a review of scientific literature and electronic media with search terms 'short bowel syndrome, advances in SBS and SBS’ and attempted to give a comprehensive account on this topic with emphasis on the recent advances in its management. PMID:21727727

  9. Management of hepatitis delta: Need for novel therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Zaigham; Abbas, Minaam

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is the smallest single stranded RNA virus infecting humans. The hepatitis B surface antigen envelope protein protects the HDV nucleocapsid antigen and provides a means for the virus to enter and exit the hepatocyte. Hepatitis B and D viruses exploit the human sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP), a receptor, for their entry into hepatocytes. Prenylation of the large delta antigen is a critical determinant of HDV particle assembly. Treatment with pegylated interferon results in sustained virological response six months post-treatment in one fourth of the patients. Nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) have been widely tested in hepatitis delta, but they appear to be ineffective. Combination treatment of NAs with interferon also proved to be disappointing so there is a need for novel therapeutic options. The receptor function of NTCP is blocked by Myrcludex B, a synthetic N-acylated preS1 lipopeptide that competes with infectious virions for receptor binding. There are already some approved drugs available, including irbesartan, ezetimibe, and ritonavir and cyclosporin A, with documented inhibitory effects on NTCP’s metabolic function. These drugs may have a role in HDV treatment. Interference with host-mediated post-translational changes of proteins that are crucial to the HDV life cycle, such as prenylation may become an important tool to control HDV infection and prevent replication. Lonafarnib, a prenylation inhibitor significantly reduces virus levels in hepatitis delta patients. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides which are complementary to genomic HDV ribozyme self-cleavage site and stem I regions can inhibit genomic HDV ribozyme activity. PMID:26327754

  10. Options for the destruction of chemical weapons and management of the associated risks.

    PubMed

    Manley, Ron G

    2006-09-01

    The destruction of chemical weapons is a hazardous operation. The degree of hazard posed, however, is not uniform and is dependent on the specific chemical agent and the configuration of the weapon or bulk storage vessel in which it is contained. For example, a highly volatile nerve agent in an explosively configured munition, such as a rocket, poses a very different hazard from that of a bulk storage container of viscous mustard gas. Equally the handling of recovered, often highly corroded, World War (WW)I or WWII chemical munitions will pose a very different hazard from that associated with dealing with modern chemical weapons stored under the appropriate conditions. Over the years, a number of technologies have been developed for the destruction of chemical weapons. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. None of them provide a universal solution to the problem. When assessing options for the destruction of these weapons and the management of the associated risks, therefore, it is important to give due consideration and weight to these differences. To ensure that the destruction technology selected takes due account of them and that the resulting overall risk assessment accurately reflects the actual risks involved. PMID:17119231

  11. Alternative management and funding options for aeronautics programs, Task 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Research and technology will be at lower program levels with basic military research for aviation decreasing as fewer aircraft programs are initiated and the present new aircraft programs move into the prototype and production status. The key question is can industry take on the management and financing role and meet the criteria and characteristics considered essential for a viable research and technology program. The criteria for evaluating alternative approaches include an examination of the nature of the product to be provided, responsiveness to changing needs, efficiency in terms of costs, ability to provide leadership, and to provide impartial and independent evaluation of approaches, and to provide technological inputs for regulating functions.

  12. Financial incentives: Possible options for sustainable rangeland management?

    PubMed

    Louhaichi, Mounir; Yigezu, Yigezu A; Werner, Jutta; Dashtseren, Lojoo; El-Shater, Tamer; Ahmed, Mohamed

    2016-09-15

    Large-scale mismanagement of natural resources emanating from lack of appropriate policies and regulatory framework is arguably one of the reasons that led to resource degradation and poor livelihoods in many countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Sustainable rangeland management practices (SRMPs) are considered to be a solution to feed shortages and rangeland degradation. However, the scope for SRMP adoption, has been a subject of debate. Using a case study from Syria and the application of the Minimum Data Analysis method (TOA-MD), this paper provides empirical evidence for ensuring wider adoption of SRMP. The paper argues that the introduction of financial incentives in the form of payments for agricultural-environmental services can increase the economic viability and enhance the adoption of SRMPs and is a better alternative to the unsustainable state subsidies for fodder purchases and barley cultivation on rangelands. Model results indicate that further investment in reasearch toward generating low cost technologies and tailored governance strategies including a financial incentive system would lead to better management of rangelands and improve livelihoods in the Syrian Badia. These findings are valuable for policy makers, donors as well as development and extension practitioners in the MENA region as they can better inform future courses of actions. PMID:27288553

  13. Current and emerging treatment options in the management of lupus.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Natasha; D'Cruz, David

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease with variable clinical manifestations. While the clearest guidelines for the treatment of SLE exist in the context of lupus nephritis, patients with other lupus manifestations such as neuropsychiatric, hematologic, musculoskeletal, and severe cutaneous lupus frequently require immunosuppression and/or biologic therapy. Conventional immunosuppressive agents such as mycophenolate mofetil, azathioprine, and cyclophosphamide are widely used in the management of SLE with current more rationalized treatment regimens optimizing the use of these agents while minimizing potential toxicity. The advent of biologic therapies has advanced the treatment of SLE particularly in patients with refractory disease. The CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab and the anti-BLyS agent belimumab are now widely in use in clinical practice. Several other biologic agents are in ongoing clinical trials. While immunosuppressive and biologic agents are the foundation of inflammatory disease control in SLE, the importance of managing comorbidities such as cardiovascular risk factors, bone health, and minimizing susceptibility to infection should not be neglected. PMID:27529058

  14. Management of Haemophilia in Developing Countries: Challenges and Options.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Ghosh, Kinjalka

    2016-09-01

    There are significant challenges in managing haemophilia patients in developing countries. These challenges are (i) Lack of proper health care infrastructure and human resources suitable for haemophilia care (ii) Competing health care priorities of the government. (iii) Lack of penetrance of medical insurance in the population. (iv) Lesser visibility of the haemophilia patients in health care system (v) Low awareness across the medical profession, population and the policy makers about the condition (vi) Non availability of factor concentrates (vii) Inadequate utilization of knowledge for reducing factor concentrate use. (viii) Inadequate pain relief (ix) Challenges due to inhibitor developing (x) Viral hepatitis & (xi) Lack of research publications relevant to the country are some of the challenges faced by PWH for their management in developing country. The solutions are not easy but development of a strong patient organization with linkages with World Federation of Haemophilia is an important initial step. Following that internal and international twinning, use of internal sources, strong advocacy programme targeting government, doctors, opinion makers will solve many of the challenges in the time to come. PMID:27429529

  15. Current and emerging treatment options in the management of lupus

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Natasha; D’Cruz, David

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease with variable clinical manifestations. While the clearest guidelines for the treatment of SLE exist in the context of lupus nephritis, patients with other lupus manifestations such as neuropsychiatric, hematologic, musculoskeletal, and severe cutaneous lupus frequently require immunosuppression and/or biologic therapy. Conventional immunosuppressive agents such as mycophenolate mofetil, azathioprine, and cyclophosphamide are widely used in the management of SLE with current more rationalized treatment regimens optimizing the use of these agents while minimizing potential toxicity. The advent of biologic therapies has advanced the treatment of SLE particularly in patients with refractory disease. The CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab and the anti-BLyS agent belimumab are now widely in use in clinical practice. Several other biologic agents are in ongoing clinical trials. While immunosuppressive and biologic agents are the foundation of inflammatory disease control in SLE, the importance of managing comorbidities such as cardiovascular risk factors, bone health, and minimizing susceptibility to infection should not be neglected. PMID:27529058

  16. New Pain Management Options for the Surgical Patient on Methadone and Buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sudipta; Arulkumar, Sailesh; Cornett, Elyse M; Gayle, Julie A; Flower, Ronda R; Fox, Charles J; Kaye, Alan D

    2016-03-01

    Perioperative management of patients receiving opioid addiction therapy presents a unique challenge for the anesthesiologist. The goal of pain management in this patient population is to effectively manage postoperative pain, to improve patient satisfaction and outcomes, and to reduce the cost of health care. Multimodal analgesics, including nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, intravenous acetaminophen, gabapentanoid agents, and low-dose ketamine infusions, have been used to improve postoperative pain and to reduce postoperative opioid use. Patients on long-term opioid management therapy with methadone and buprenorphine require special considerations. Recommendations and options for treating postoperative pain in patients on methadone and buprenorphine are outlined below. Other postoperative pain management options include patient-controlled analgesia, intravenous, and transdermal, in addition to neuraxial and regional anesthesia techniques. Special patient populations include the parturient on long-term opioid therapy. Recommendations for use of opioids in these patients during labor and delivery and in the postpartum period are discussed. PMID:26879874

  17. An evaluation of thermal energy storage options for precooling gas turbine inlet air

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniak, Z.I.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.

    1992-12-01

    Several approaches have been used to reduce the temperature of gas turbine inlet air. One of the most successful uses off-peak electric power to drive vapor-compression-cycle ice makers. The ice is stored until the next time high ambient temperature is encountered, when the ice is used in a heat exchanger to cool the gas turbine inlet air. An alternative concept would use seasonal thermal energy storage to store winter chill for inlet air cooling. The objective of this study was to compare the performance and economics of seasonal thermal energy storage in aquifers with diurnal ice thermal energy storage for gas turbine inlet air cooling. The investigation consisted of developing computer codes to model the performance of a gas turbine, energy storage system, heat exchangers, and ancillary equipment. The performance models were combined with cost models to calculate unit capital costs and levelized energy costs for each concept. The levelized energy cost was calculated for three technologies in two locations (Minneapolis, Minnesota and Birmingham, Alabama). Precooling gas turbine inlet air with cold water supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage system provided lower cost electricity than simply increasing the size of the turbine for meteorological and geological conditions existing in the Minneapolis vicinity. A 15 to 20% cost reduction resulted for both 0.05 and 0.2 annual operating factors. In contrast, ice storage precooling was found to be between 5 and 20% more expensive than larger gas turbines for the Minneapolis location. In Birmingham, aquifer thermal energy storage precooling was preferred at the higher capacity factor and ice storage precooling was the best option at the lower capacity factor. In both cases, the levelized cost was reduced by approximately 5% when compared to larger gas turbines.

  18. Global Change Drought in the Southwest: New Management Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udall, B. H.; Overpeck, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Long held worries about future runoff declines in the Colorado River under climate change are proving to be more than just theory. Fifteen years into this century flows of the Colorado are already declining due mostly to unprecedented temperatures, and as warming proceeds, declines in river flow will grow larger. Temperature-driven droughts, some lasting decades and much more severe than the current 15-year drought, will also become more commonplace if climate change continues unabated. Current projections of future water availability almost universally understate the risk of large Colorado flow reductions under business-as-usual warming. Betting on highly uncertain projections of increased precipitation to overcome even part of the flow reductions due to virtually certain warming is a poor risk management strategy. Many of the existing water policy arrangements in the Colorado River Basin will fail in the 21st century unless innovative new solutions are developed under leadership from the federal government and its basin state partners.

  19. Multilocular disseminated Tarlov cysts: Importance of imaging and management options

    PubMed Central

    Padma, Subramanyam; Palaniswamy, Shanmuga Sundaram

    2012-01-01

    With technological advancements and wider availability of multimodality imaging, incidental lesions are frequently identified in patients undergoing various imaging studies. We report here a case of multiloculated disseminated perineural or Tarlov cysts (TCs). The primary aim of this case study was to (1) provide a comprehensive review of the clinical, imaging, and histopathological features of TCs (2) to draw attention to the fact that multiple lumbosacral and dorsal TCs can produce nerve injuries and serious movement disturbances, and (3) to document the usefulness of the magnetic resonance imaging and bone scan in non-invasive diagnosis and guiding management in such cases. These cysts are clearly identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography imaging of the lumbosacral spine. However, there are no reports on the scintigraphic findings of multilocular disseminated TC in literature. TCs are typically benign, asymptomatic lesions that can simply be monitored. To date, no consensus exists about the best surgical strategy to use when indicated. PMID:23723584

  20. Multilocular disseminated Tarlov cysts: Importance of imaging and management options.

    PubMed

    Padma, Subramanyam; Palaniswamy, Shanmuga Sundaram

    2012-04-01

    With technological advancements and wider availability of multimodality imaging, incidental lesions are frequently identified in patients undergoing various imaging studies. We report here a case of multiloculated disseminated perineural or Tarlov cysts (TCs). The primary aim of this case study was to (1) provide a comprehensive review of the clinical, imaging, and histopathological features of TCs (2) to draw attention to the fact that multiple lumbosacral and dorsal TCs can produce nerve injuries and serious movement disturbances, and (3) to document the usefulness of the magnetic resonance imaging and bone scan in non-invasive diagnosis and guiding management in such cases. These cysts are clearly identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography imaging of the lumbosacral spine. However, there are no reports on the scintigraphic findings of multilocular disseminated TC in literature. TCs are typically benign, asymptomatic lesions that can simply be monitored. To date, no consensus exists about the best surgical strategy to use when indicated. PMID:23723584

  1. Management of stress in inflammatory bowel disease: a therapeutic option?

    PubMed

    Goodhand, James R; Wahed, Mahmood; Rampton, David S

    2009-12-01

    There is increasing evidence that psychological stress and associated mood disorders are linked with, and can adversely affect the course of, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Unfortunately, owing to methodological difficulties inherent in undertaking appropriately targeted and blinded trials, there are limited high-quality data regarding the effects on IBD of interventions aimed to ameliorate stress and mood disorders. Nevertheless, patients want psychological intervention as well as conventional medical strategies. Emerging trial evidence supports the suggestion that psychologically orientated therapy may ameliorate IBD-associated mood disorders, but there are no strong data as of yet to indicate that stress management has a beneficial effect on the activity or course of IBD. As yet, which, when and how interventions targeted at psychological stress and mood disturbances should be offered to individual patients with IBD is not clear. PMID:19929586

  2. Management options to limit nitrate leaching from grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuttle, S. P.; Scholefield, D.

    1995-12-01

    Nitrate leaching can be reduced by the adoption of less intensive grassland systems which, though requiring a greater land area to achieve the same agricultural output, result in less nitrate leaching per unit of production than do intensively managed grasslands. The economic penalties associated with reductions in output can be partly offset by greater reliance on symbiotic nitrogen fixation and the use of clover-based swards in place of synthetic N fertilisers. Alternatively, specific measures can be adopted to improve the efficiency of nitrogen use in intensively managed systems in order to maintain high outputs but with reduced losses. Controls should take account of other forms of loss and flows of nitrogen between grassland and other components of the whole-farm system and, in most instances, should result in an overall reduction in nitrogen inputs. Removing stock from the fields earlier in the grazing season will reduce the accumulation of high concentrations of potentially leachable nitrate in the soil of grazed pastures but will increase the quantity of manure produced by housed animals and the need to recycle this effectively. Supplementing grass diets with low-nitrogen forages such as maize silage will reduce the quantity of nitrogen excreted by livestock but may increase the potential for nitrate leaching elsewhere on the farm if changes to cropping patterns involve more frequent cultivation of grassland. Improved utilisation by the sward of nitrogen in animal excreta and manures and released by mineralisation of soil organic matter will permit equivalent reductions to be made in fertiliser inputs, provided that adequate information is available about the supply of nitrogen from these non-fertiliser sources.

  3. Management Options for Reducing the Release of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Genes to the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Pruden, Amy; Amézquita, Alejandro; Collignon, Peter; Brandt, Kristian K.; Graham, David W.; Lazorchak, James M.; Suzuki, Satoru; Silley, Peter; Snape, Jason R.; Topp, Edward; Zhang, Tong; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Objective: Our aim in this study was to identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistance determinants via environmental pathways, with the ultimate goal of extending the useful life span of antibiotics. We also examined incentives and disincentives for action. Methods: We focused on management options with respect to limiting agricultural sources; treatment of domestic, hospital, and industrial wastewater; and aquaculture. Discussion: We identified several options, such as nutrient management, runoff control, and infrastructure upgrades. Where appropriate, a cross-section of examples from various regions of the world is provided. The importance of monitoring and validating effectiveness of management strategies is also highlighted. Finally, we describe a case study in Sweden that illustrates the critical role of communication to engage stakeholders and promote action. Conclusions: Environmental releases of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria can in many cases be reduced at little or no cost. Some management options are synergistic with existing policies and goals. The anticipated benefit is an extended useful life span for current and future antibiotics. Although risk reductions are often difficult to quantify, the severity of accelerating worldwide morbidity and mortality rates associated with antibiotic resistance strongly indicate the need for action. PMID:23735422

  4. Greenhouse gas balances in low-productive drained boreal peatlands - is climate-friendly management possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojanen, Paavo; Minkkinen, Kari; Heikkinen, Tiina; Penttilä, Timo

    2016-04-01

    Five million hectares of peatland has been drained for forestry in Finland. About 20% of that, i.e. one million hectares, has been estimated to be so low-productive that the profitability of keeping them in forestry is questionable. At the same time, drainage has introduced changes in the ecosystem functions of these peatlands, including fluxes of greenhouse gases. Options to manage such peatlands include for example 1) no measures, i.e. leaving the drained peatlands as they are 2) increasing intensity by e.g. repetitive fertilisations and 3) restoration back to functional peatlands. Here we estimate the greenhouse gas impacts of these three management options. We collected GHG and organic carbon flux data from 50 low-productive peatlands under these management options over two years 2014-2015. Gas fluxes (CO2, CH4, N2O) were measured with closed chambers. Litter production rates of different plants above and below ground were estimated using litter traps (trees), biomass sampling (roots), through-grow nets (mosses), allometric biomass models (other vasculars) and published turnover rates (roots, other vasculars). Characteristics for estimating tree stand biomass increment were measured at each site from circular sample plots. In this presentation we will estimate the GHG impacts for the different management options, and aim to find the most climate-friendly options for the management of low-productive peatlands in the short and long term. This work was funded by Life+ LIFE12/ENV/FI/150.

  5. Real options analysis for land use management: Methods, application, and implications for policy.

    PubMed

    Regan, Courtney M; Bryan, Brett A; Connor, Jeffery D; Meyer, Wayne S; Ostendorf, Bertram; Zhu, Zili; Bao, Chenming

    2015-09-15

    Discounted cash flow analysis, including net present value is an established way to value land use and management investments which accounts for the time-value of money. However, it provides a static view and assumes passive commitment to an investment strategy when real world land use and management investment decisions are characterised by uncertainty, irreversibility, change, and adaptation. Real options analysis has been proposed as a better valuation method under uncertainty and where the opportunity exists to delay investment decisions, pending more information. We briefly review the use of discounted cash flow methods in land use and management and discuss their benefits and limitations. We then provide an overview of real options analysis, describe the main analytical methods, and summarize its application to land use investment decisions. Real options analysis is largely underutilized in evaluating land use decisions, despite uncertainty in policy and economic drivers, the irreversibility and sunk costs involved. New simulation methods offer the potential for overcoming current technical challenges to implementation as demonstrated with a real options simulation model used to evaluate an agricultural land use decision in South Australia. We conclude that considering option values in future policy design will provide a more realistic assessment of landholder investment decision making and provide insights for improved policy performance. PMID:26164637

  6. 40 CFR 60.648 - Optional procedure for measuring hydrogen sulfide in acid gas-Tutwiler Procedure. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hydrogen sulfide in acid gas-Tutwiler Procedure. 1 60.648 Section 60.648 Protection of Environment..., 2011 § 60.648 Optional procedure for measuring hydrogen sulfide in acid gas—Tutwiler Procedure. 1 1 Gas... dilute solutions are used. In principle, this method consists of titrating hydrogen sulfide in a...

  7. 40 CFR 60.5408 - What is an optional procedure for measuring hydrogen sulfide in acid gas-Tutwiler Procedure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... measuring hydrogen sulfide in acid gas-Tutwiler Procedure? 60.5408 Section 60.5408 Protection of Environment... § 60.5408 What is an optional procedure for measuring hydrogen sulfide in acid gas—Tutwiler Procedure... of titrating hydrogen sulfide in a gas sample directly with a standard solution of iodine....

  8. 40 CFR 60.648 - Optional procedure for measuring hydrogen sulfide in acid gas-Tutwiler Procedure. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hydrogen sulfide in acid gas-Tutwiler Procedure. 1 60.648 Section 60.648 Protection of Environment..., 2011 § 60.648 Optional procedure for measuring hydrogen sulfide in acid gas—Tutwiler Procedure. 1 1 Gas... dilute solutions are used. In principle, this method consists of titrating hydrogen sulfide in a...

  9. 40 CFR 60.5408 - What is an optional procedure for measuring hydrogen sulfide in acid gas-Tutwiler Procedure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... measuring hydrogen sulfide in acid gas-Tutwiler Procedure? 60.5408 Section 60.5408 Protection of Environment... § 60.5408 What is an optional procedure for measuring hydrogen sulfide in acid gas—Tutwiler Procedure... of titrating hydrogen sulfide in a gas sample directly with a standard solution of iodine....

  10. Hot asphalt burns: a review of injuries and management options.

    PubMed

    Bosse, George M; Wadia, Shernaz A; Padmanabhan, Pradeep

    2014-07-01

    Hot asphalt burns to human tissue can increase the likelihood of infection and potential conversion of partial thickness to full-thickness injuries. Successful intervention for hot asphalt burns requires immediate and effective cooling of the asphalt on the tissue followed by subsequent gradual removal of the cooled asphalt. A review of the literature reveals that multiple substances have been used to remove asphalt, including topical antibiotics, petroleum jelly, a commercial product known as De-Solv-It (ORANGE-SOL, Chandler, AZ), sunflower oil, baby oil, liquid paraffin, butter, mayonnaise, and moist-exposed burn ointment (MEBO). Although many of these products may be effective in the removal of asphalt, they may not be readily available in an emergency department setting. Topical antibiotics are readily available, are more commonly described in the medical literature, and would be expected to be effective in the removal of asphalt. We developed guidelines for on scene (first-aid) management and the initial care of such patients upon presentation to a health care facility. These guidelines emphasize the principles of early cooling, gradual removal of adherent asphalt using topical antibiotics, and avoidance of the use of topical agents, which are likely to result in tissue toxicity. PMID:24630605

  11. Analysis of options for coal combustion waste management in the Pacific Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.; Gasper, J.

    1993-10-01

    Many Pacific Basin countries rely on oil for electricity production. Alternative fuel sources such as coal, which is available in the Pacific Basin, can help mitigate adverse impacts of sudden price increases or supply disruptions. Coal combustion produces solid and potentially hazardous wastes of concern to environmental regulators and utility managers. This paper identifies issues associated with managing coal combustion wastes in the Pacific Basin, using the state of Hawaii as a case study. Hawaii is typical of many Pacific Basin locations in that it depends on oil, has limited sites, for waste management operations, and is subject to domestic and international waste management regulations. The paper discusses coal-fired utility wastes, environmental impacts of coal combustion waste disposal, and regulatory requirements that impact coal waste management. From this baseline, potential on- and off-island options for coal waste management are identified. Waste management costs are estimated and non-quantifiable issues are addressed for each option. Many options are applicable across the Pacific Rim and may serve as a basis for future fuel-use decisions.

  12. Is orthodontics an option in the management of bimaxillary protrusion?

    PubMed

    Dawjee, S M; Becker, P J; Hlongwa, P

    2010-10-01

    Successful orthodontic treatment is based on a clear perception by the clinician of a patient's facial preference and treatment needs. Bimaxillary protrusion is a normal facial trait seen in the Black population and the most acceptable bimaxillary facial profile in a sample of Black subjects was determined by Beukes et al in 2007. Variations from this ideal profile may require extractions as part of orthodontic treatment in order to attain the ideal. The objective of this study was to determine whether Black subjects with bimaxillary protrusion would want to change their facial profile to the ideal and at what financial cost. A sample of 586 school learners and 321 university students were presented with four silhouetted profiles of varying degrees of bimaxillary protrusion. One of the silhouette profiles represented the ideal and treatment procedures required to achieve this ideal were explained to the sample. They were then requested to answer a questionnaire that would assist in identifying their perception of their own profile and their desire to change their appearance. The ideal silhouette was confirmed to be the most attractive (91.51%) and the sample felt that any severe deviations from this ideal profile should be treated. The financial cost of treatment was found to be a concern, as more subjects (62.84%) would undergo the required treatment if it were free. Many subjects (43.55%) would be prepared to pay for the necessary treatment to achieve the ideal profile. Females were found to be more definite in their decision making, reflecting a greater awareness about their aesthetic appearance than their male counterparts. Findings from this study can serve as an essential tool to assist both orthodontists and maxillofacial surgeons in the treatment planning and management of Black patients with bimaxillary protrusion. PMID:21180286

  13. Life cycle analysis of management options for organic waste collected in an urban area.

    PubMed

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Different options for managing the organic fraction (OF) of municipal solid waste generated in a given urban area were analyzed by life cycle assessment (LCA) for different source segregation (SS) intensities ranging from 0 to 52%. The best management option for processing the OF remaining in the residual organic fraction (ROF) for the different SS intensities was by incineration. Landfilling and mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of ROF gave higher impacts. Aerobic treatment alone or combined with anaerobic digestion (AD) for processing the source-segregated organic fraction (SSOF) led to relevant environmental impact reduction even if the difference between the two options was quite negligible. The weighted impact showed that scenarios using incineration always gave environmental gains, whereas there was a higher environmental burden with the scenarios using MBT. PMID:25060312

  14. Parkinson's Disease and Its Management: Part 3: Nondopaminergic and Nonpharmacological Treatment Options.

    PubMed

    DeMaagd, George; Philip, Ashok

    2015-10-01

    This installment of a five-part series reviews the role of nondopaminergic pharmacotherapies and adjunctive options-such as monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors, catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors, and anticholinergic agents-in managing Parkinson's disease. Nonpharmacological treatments are also explored. PMID:26535023

  15. Disposal/recovery options for brine waters from oil and gas production in New York State. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, M.R.; Atkinson, J.F.; Bunn, M.D.; Hodge, D.S.

    1996-03-01

    Produced water from oil and gas operations, or brine as it is typically referred, may be characterized as being highly saline, with total dissolved solids greater than 100 g/L. If these bribes are disposed improperly there may be severe adverse environmental effects. Thus, it is important that brine be disposed using environmentally sound methods. Unfortunately, costs for the disposal of brine water are a significant burden to oil and gas producers in New York State. These costs and the relatively low market price of oil and natural gas have contributed to the decline in gas and oil production in New York State during the past 10 years. The objectives of this study were to evaluate new and existing options for brine disposal in New York State, examine the technical and economic merits of these options, and assess environmental impacts associated with each option. Two new disposal options investigated for New York State oil and gas producers included construction of a regional brine treatment facility to treat brine prior to discharge into a receiving water and a salt production facility that utilizes produced water as a feed stock. Both options are technically feasible; however, their economic viability depends on facility size and volume of brine treated.

  16. A Many-Objective Analysis of Supply and Demand Management Options for the Thames Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huskova, I.; Matrosov, E.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Harou, J. J.; Reed, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    In this study we link water basin simulation and many-objective evolutionary optimization to evaluate tradeoffs for the water stressed Thames water supply system in South East England which includes the city of London. We consider both infrastructure additions and demand management options to satisfy the future supply/demand balance, in order to develop management alternatives that can meet a range of fiscal and performance constraints under future supply and demand trajectories. The suite of new infrastructure options includes a new reservoir, water transfers, conjunctive use of groundwater, wastewater reuse and brackish groundwater desalination. Additionally, demand management options include leakage reduction, compulsory metering and the introduction of seasonal tariffs. Infrastructure options are evaluated using quantitative performance measures that minimize costs and energy use while maximizing engineering, social and environmental performance, subject to supply reliability constraints set by the local water utility and the Environment Agency regulator. Pareto approximate trade-off curves show the tradeoffs between engineering, cost, social and environmental performance measures. We use interactive visual analytics to show the performance of solutions across a broad range of performance measures and interrogate the impact of the infrastructure portfolios on the performance measures. Using an optimization—simulation framework enables the consideration of non-linear and rule-based phenomena, which are frequently useful or necessary to accurately describe how real water systems are managed. Results suggest that a diverse portfolio of supply-side and demand side options can aid water management in the UK. The Thames basin is modeled using a generalized computationally efficient open-source water resource simulator, Interactive River-Aquifer Simulation-2010 (IRAS-2010). The IRAS-2010 Thames system model is linked via a C++ wrapper to the Epsilon Dominance

  17. Proceedings of the 1999 Oil and Gas Conference: Technology Options for Producer Survival

    SciTech Connect

    None available

    2000-04-12

    The 1999 Oil & Gas Conference was cosponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) on June 28 to 30 in Dallas, Texas. The Oil & Gas Conference theme, Technology Options for Producer Survival, reflects the need for development and implementation of new technologies to ensure an affordable, reliable energy future. The conference was attended by nearly 250 representatives from industry, academia, national laboratories, DOE, and other Government agencies. Three preconference workshops (Downhole Separation Technologies: Is it Applicable for Your Operations, Exploring and developing Naturally Fractured Low-Permeability Gas Reservoirs from the Rocky Mountains to the Austin Chalk, and Software Program Applications) were held. The conference agenda included an opening plenary session, three platform sessions (Sessions 2 and 3 were split into 2 concurrent topics), and a poster presentation reception. The platform session topics were Converting Your Resources Into Reserves (Sessions 1 and 2A), Clarifying Your Subsurface Vision (Session 2B), and High Performance, Cost Effective Drilling, Completion, Stimulation Technologies (Session 3B). In total, there were 5 opening speakers, 30 presenters, and 16 poster presentations.

  18. GRAFEC: A New Spanish Program to Investigate Waste Management Options for Radioactive Graphite - 12399

    SciTech Connect

    Marquez, Eva; Pina, Gabriel; Rodriguez, Marina; Fachinger, Johannes; Grosse, Karl-Heinz; Leganes Nieto, Jose Luis; Quiros Gracian, Maria

    2012-07-01

    graphite in a long term stable glass matrix. The principal applicability has been already proved by FNAG. Crushed graphite mixed with a suitable glass powder has been pressed at elevated temperature under vacuum. The vacuum is required to avoid gas enclosures in the obtained product. The obtained products, named IGM for 'Impermeable Graphite Matrix', have densities above 99% of theoretical density. The amount of glass has been chosen with respect to the pore volume of the former graphite parts. The method allows the production of encapsulated graphite without increasing the disposal volume. This paper will give a short overview of characterisation results of different irradiated graphite materials obtained at CIEMAT and in the Carbowaste project as well as the proposed methods and the actual status of the program including first results about leaching of non-radioactive IGM samples and hopefully first tendencies concerning the C-14 separation from graphite of Vandellos I by thermal treatment. Both processes, the thermal treatment as well as the IGM, have the potential to solve problems related to the management of irradiated graphite in Spain. However the methods have only been tested with different types of i-graphite and virgin graphite, respectively. Only investigations with real i-graphite from Spain will reveal whether the described methods are applicable to graphite from Vandellos I. However all partners are convinced that one of these new methods or a combination of them will lead to a feasible option to manage i-graphite in Spain on an industrial scale. (authors)

  19. Technological options for management of hazardous wastes from US Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.; Newsom, D.; Barisas, S.; Humphrey, J.; Fradkin, L.; Surles, T.

    1982-08-01

    This report provides comprehensive information on the technological options for management of hazardous wastes generated at facilities owned or operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). These facilities annually generate a large quantity of wastes that could be deemed hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Included in these wastes are liquids or solids containing polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, heavy metals, waste oils, spent solvents, acids, bases, carcinogens, and numerous other pollutants. Some of these wastes consist of nonnuclear hazardous chemicals; others are mixed wastes containing radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. Nearly 20 unit processes and disposal methods are presented in this report. They were selected on the basis of their proven utility in waste management and potential applicability at DOE sites. These technological options fall into five categories: physical processes, chemical processes, waste exchange, fixation, and ultimate disposal. The options can be employed for either resource recovery, waste detoxification, volume reduction, or perpetual storage. Detailed descriptions of each technological option are presented, including information on process performance, cost, energy and environmental considerations, waste management of applications, and potential applications at DOE sites. 131 references, 25 figures, 23 tables.

  20. The Template for Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Management Options (TACCIMO): Science at Your Fingertips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, L. N.; Treasure, E.; Moore Myers, J.; McNulty, S.

    2012-12-01

    There is an ever-increasing volume of useful scientific knowledge about climate change effects and management options for natural ecosystems. Agencies such as the USDA Forest Service have been charged with the need to evaluate this body of knowledge and if necessary adapt to the impacts of climate change in their forest planning and management. However, the combined volume of existing information and rate of development of new information, lack of climate change specialists, and limited technology transfer mechanisms make efficient access and use difficult. The Template for Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Management Options (TACCIMO) addresses this difficulty through its publically accessible web-based tool that puts current and concise climate change science at the fingertips of forest planners and managers. A collaborative product of the USDA Forest Service Research Stations and the National Forest System, TACCIMO integrates peer-reviewed research with management and planning options through search and reporting tools that connect land managers with information they can trust. TACCIMO highlights elements from the wealth of climate change science with attention to what natural resource planners and managers need through a searchable repository of over 4,000 effects of climate change and close to 1,000 adaptive management options, all excerpted from a growing body of peer-reviewed scientific literature. A geospatial mapping application provides downscaled climate data for the nation and other spatially explicit models relevant to evaluating climate change impacts on forests. Report generators assist users in capturing outputs specific to a given location and resource area in a consistent and organized manner. For USDA Forest Service users, science findings can be readily linked with management conditions and capabilities from national forest management plans. The development of TACCIMO was guided by interactions with natural resource professionals, resulting

  1. Options for managing hypoxic blackwater events in river systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Janice L; Baldwin, Darren S; Whitworth, Kerry L

    2013-01-15

    Blackwater events are characterised by a high concentration of dissolved organic carbon in the water column. They occur naturally in lowland rivers with forested floodplains and bring a variety of benefits to both aquatic and floodplain biota. However, particularly when accompanied by high temperatures, respiration of the organic carbon may cause blackwater to become hypoxic. This may lead to a range of lethal and sub-lethal effects on the aquatic biota. We review the current scientific knowledge concerning the management of blackwater and hypoxia, and examine how this knowledge may be applied to the management of hypoxic blackwater events in lowland river systems. A range of management options, which aim to either prevent the development of hypoxic blackwater or to reintroduce oxygen into deoxygenated waters, are reported. Mitigation options that may be applicable to lowland river systems include manipulating the season and magnitude of floods in regulated rivers, increasing roughness in flow paths, establishing oxygenated refugia for aquatic biota and introducing hydraulic structures that promote turbulence and re-aeration. With climatic changes trending towards a scenario where extreme events leading to the development of hypoxic blackwater are more probable, it is now vital to validate and optimise management options on local and regional scales and work towards closing knowledge gaps. With judicious management of regulated rivers, it is possible to minimise the impacts of hypoxic flows while preserving the benefits brought to floodplain and river ecosystems by seasonal flooding and carbon exchange. PMID:23137913

  2. Evaluating ecosystem-based management options: Effects of trawling in Torres Strait, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Nick; Pantus, Francis; Welna, Andrzej; Butler, Alan

    2008-09-01

    A suite of management options for a prawn trawl fishery in Torres Strait, Australia was assessed for impacts on the benthic fauna using a dynamic management strategy evaluation approach. The specification of the management options was gained through consultation with stakeholders. Data for the model was drawn from several sources: the fleet data from fishery logbooks and satellite vessel monitoring systems, benthic depletion rates from trawl-down experiments, benthic recovery rates from post-experiment recovery monitoring studies, and benthic distribution from large-scale benthic surveys. Although there were large uncertainties in the resulting indicators, robust measures relevant to management were obtained by taking ratios relative to the status quo. The management control with the biggest effect was total effort; reducing trawl effort always led to increases in benthic faunal density of up to 10%. Spatial closures had a smaller benefit of up to 2%. The effect of closing a set of buffer zones around reefs to trawling was indistinguishable from the status quo option. Closing a larger area, however, was largely beneficial especially for sea cucumbers. When the spatial distributions of fauna prior to fishing were accounted for, fauna with distributions positively correlated with effort improved relative to those negatively correlated. The reduction in prawn catch under effort reduction scenarios could be ameliorated by introducing temporal closures over the full-moon period.

  3. Greenhouse gas mitigation options in the forest sector of Russia: National and project level assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, T.S.; Kolchugina, T.P.; Andrasko, K.A.

    1996-09-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation options in the Russian forest sector include: afforestation and reforestation of unforested/degraded land area; enhanced forest productivity; incorporation of nondestructive methods of wood harvesting in the forest industry; establishment of land protective forest stands; increase in stand age of final harvest in the European part of Russia; increased fire control; increased disease and pest control; and preservation of old growth forests in the Russian Far-East, which are presently threatened. Considering the implementation of all of the options presented, the GHG mitigation potential within the forest and agroforestry sectors of Russia is approximately 0.6-0.7 Pg C/yr or one half of the industrial carbon emissions of the United States. The difference between the GHG mitigation potential and the actual level of GHGs mitigated in the Russian forest sector will depend to a great degree on external financing that may be available. One possibility for external financing is through joint implementation (JI). However, under the JI process, each project will be evaluated by considering a number of criteria including also the difference between the carbon emissions or sequestration for the baseline (or reference) and the project case, the permanence of the project, and leakage. Consequently, a project level assessment must appreciate the near-term constraints that will face practitioners who attempt to realize the GHG mitigation potential in the forest and agroforestry sectors of their countries. 25 refs.

  4. Energy-saving options for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from the Mongolian energy sector

    SciTech Connect

    Dorjpurev, J.; Purevjal, O.; Erdenechimeg, Ch.

    1996-12-31

    The Energy sector is the largest contributor to GHG emission in Mongolia. The Energy sector emits 54 percent of CO2 and 4 percent of methane. All emissions of other greenhouse gases are accounted from energy related activities. The activities in this sector include coal production, fuel combustion, and biomass combustion at the thermal power stations and in private houses (stoves) for heating purposes. This paper presents some important Demand-side options considered for mitigation of CO2 emissions from energy sector such as Energy Conservation in Industrial Sector and in Buildings. Changes in energy policies and programmes in the Mongolian situation that promote more efficient and sustainable practices are presented in the paper. These energy saving measures will not only help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but will also promote economic development and alleviate other environmental problems.

  5. Internalizing production externalities: A structural estimation of real options in the upstream oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muehlenbachs, Lucija

    implies that typically wells are left inactive not because of the option to reactivate, but rather because the cost of environmental cleanup is too high. Should there be externalities from idling the wells (such as continued contamination of groundwater) that are not accounted for in the decision, then this behavior may not be socially optimal. The model predicts that a Pigouvian tax on inactive wells would have the added benefit of inciting the reactivation of oil and gas wells, however in the case of oil, a tax would incite more wells to be decommissioned than reactivated.

  6. Waste heat recovery options in a large gas-turbine combined power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upathumchard, Ularee

    This study focuses on power plant heat loss and how to utilize the waste heat in energy recovery systems in order to increase the overall power plant efficiency. The case study of this research is a 700-MW natural gas combined cycle power plant, located in a suburban area of Thailand. An analysis of the heat loss of the combustion process, power generation process, lubrication system, and cooling system has been conducted to evaluate waste heat recovery options. The design of the waste heat recovery options depends to the amount of heat loss from each system and its temperature. Feasible waste heat sources are combustion turbine (CT) room ventilation air and lubrication oil return from the power plant. The following options are being considered in this research: absorption chillers for cooling with working fluids Ammonia-Water and Water-Lithium Bromide (in comparison) and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with working fluids R134a and R245fa. The absorption cycles are modeled in three different stages; single-effect, double-effect and half-effect. ORC models used are simple ORC as a baseline, ORC with internal regenerator, ORC two-phase flash expansion ORC and ORC with multiple heat sources. Thermodynamic models are generated and each system is simulated using Engineering Equation Solver (EES) to define the most suitable waste heat recovery options for the power plant. The result will be synthesized and evaluated with respect to exergy utilization efficiency referred as the Second Law effectiveness and net output capacity. Results of the models give recommendation to install a baseline ORC of R134a and a double-effect water-lithium bromide absorption chiller, driven by ventilation air from combustion turbine compartment. The two technologies yield reasonable economic payback periods of 4.6 years and 0.7 years, respectively. The fact that this selected power plant is in its early stage of operation allows both models to economically and effectively perform waste heat

  7. Taking Action Against Ocean Acidification: A Review of Management and Policy Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billé, Raphaël; Kelly, Ryan; Biastoch, Arne; Harrould-Kolieb, Ellycia; Herr, Dorothée; Joos, Fortunat; Kroeker, Kristy; Laffoley, Dan; Oschlies, Andreas; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Ocean acidification has emerged over the last two decades as one of the largest threats to marine organisms and ecosystems. However, most research efforts on ocean acidification have so far neglected management and related policy issues to focus instead on understanding its ecological and biogeochemical implications. This shortfall is addressed here with a systematic, international and critical review of management and policy options. In particular, we investigate the assumption that fighting acidification is mainly, but not only, about reducing CO2 emissions, and explore the leeway that this emerging problem may open in old environmental issues. We review nine types of management responses, initially grouped under four categories: preventing ocean acidification; strengthening ecosystem resilience; adapting human activities; and repairing damages. Connecting and comparing options leads to classifying them, in a qualitative way, according to their potential and feasibility. While reducing CO2 emissions is confirmed as the key action that must be taken against acidification, some of the other options appear to have the potential to buy time, e.g. by relieving the pressure of other stressors, and help marine life face unavoidable acidification. Although the existing legal basis to take action shows few gaps, policy challenges are significant: tackling them will mean succeeding in various areas of environmental management where we failed to a large extent so far.

  8. The conversion of grassland to acacia forest as an effective option for net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    de Godoi, Stefânia Guedes; Neufeld, Ângela Denise Hubert; Ibarr, Mariana Alves; Ferreto, Décio Oscar Cardoso; Bayer, Cimélio; Lorentz, Leandro Homrich; Vieira, Frederico Costa Beber

    2016-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of forestation with leguminous Acacia mearnsii De Wild in native grasslands on the soil greenhouse (GHG) fluxes and their main driving factors. The experiment was conducted in the Brazilian Pampa over the period of one year in a six-year-old Acacia plantation, evaluating four treatments: Acacia (AM), Acacia with litter periodically removed (A-l), Acacia after harvest (AH) and native grassland (NG) (reference treatment). Air samples were obtained by the static chamber method, and gas concentrations were evaluated by gas chromatography. Soil and climate factors were monitored. The accumulated fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were statistically similar between the soils in the AM and NG treatments, which tended to oxidize CH4 (-1445 and -1752 g C-CH4 ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively) and had low emission of N2O (242 and 316 g N-N2O ha(-1) yr(-1)), most likely influenced by the low water-filled pore space and the low content of mineral N in the soil. However, the soil in the AH treatment presented higher emissions of both gases, totaling 1889 g C-CH4 ha(-1) yr(-1) and 1250 g N-N2O ha(-1) yr(-1). Afforestation neither significantly affected the total organic C stocks nor their lability, keeping the C management index for the forested area similar to that in the NG treatment. The conversion from grassland to Acacia forest represents an effective option for mitigating the net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, which is basically determined by C accumulation in biomass and wood products. PMID:26731308

  9. Greenhouse gas mitigation options in the forestry sector of The Gambia: Analysis based on COMAP model

    SciTech Connect

    Jallow, B.P.

    1996-12-31

    Results of the 1993 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory of The Gambia showed net CO{sub 2} emissions of over (1.66 x 10{sup 6} tons) and 1% was due to uptake by plantations (0.01 x 10{sup 6} tons). This is a clear indication that there is need to identify changes in the land-use policy, law and tenure that discourages forest clearing at the same time significantly influencing the sustainable distribution of land among forestry, rangeland and livestock, and agriculture. About 11% of the total area of The Gambia is either fallow or barren flats that once supported vegetation and hence is still capable of supporting vegetation. The US Country Study Programme has provided the Government of The Gambia through the National Climate Committee funds to conduct Assessment of Mitigation Options to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The Forestry Sector is one area for which assessment is being conducted. The assessment is expected to end in September 1996. The Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) is one of the Models supplied to the National Climate Committee by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, on behalf of the US Country Study Programme, and is being used to conduct the analysis in The Gambia.

  10. Herbal Medicine Offered as an Initiative Therapeutic Option for the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Ru; Qiu, Hong-Cong; Hu, Yang; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2016-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant cancer and is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Effective treatment of this disease is limited by the complicated molecular mechanism underlying HCC pathogenesis. Thus, therapeutic options for HCC management are urgently needed. Targeting the Wnt/β-catenin, Hedgehog, Notch, and Hippo-YAP signaling pathways in cancer stem cell development has been extensively investigated as an alternative treatment. Herbal medicine has emerged as an initiative therapeutic option for HCC management because of its multi-level, multi-target, and coordinated intervention effects. In this article, we summarized the recent progress and clinical benefits of targeting the above mentioned signaling pathways and using natural products such as herbal medicine formulas to treat HCC. Proving the clinical success of herbal medicine is expected to deepen the knowledge on herbal medicine efficiency and hasten the adoption of new therapies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26879574

  11. Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors: Part II—Management Options and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Samartzis, Dino; Gillis, Christopher C.; Shih, Patrick; O'Toole, John E.; Fessler, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Broad narrative review. Objectives Intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCT) are uncommon lesions that can affect any age group or sex. However, numerous IMSCT exist and the clinical course of each tumor varies. The following article addresses the various management options and outcomes in patients with IMSCT. Methods An extensive review of the peer-reviewed literature was performed, addressing management options and clinical outcomes of patients with IMSCT. Results Early diagnosis and intervention are essential to obtain optimal functional outcome. Each IMSCT have specific imaging characteristics, which help in the clinical decision-making and prognostication. A comprehension of the tumor pathology and the clinical course associated with each tumor can allow for the proper surgical and nonsurgical management of these tumors, and reduce any associated morbidity and mortality. Recent advances in the operative management of such lesions have increased the success rate of tumor removal while minimizing iatrogenic-related trauma to the patient and, in tandem, improving patient outcomes. Conclusions Awareness and understanding of IMSCT is imperative to design proper management and obtain optimal patient outcomes. Meticulous operative technique and the use of surgical adjuncts are essential to accomplish proper tumor removal, diminish the risk of recurrence, and preserve neurologic function. Operative management of IMSCT should be individualized and based on tumor type, location, and dimensional extensions. To assist with preoperative and intraoperative decision-making, a general algorithm is provided. PMID:26933620

  12. Life-cycle assessment of selected management options for air pollution control residues from waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Fruergaard, Thilde; Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas

    2010-09-15

    Based on available technology and emission data seven selected management options for air-pollution-control (APC) residues from waste incineration were evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASEWASTE model. Scenarios were evaluated with respect to both non-toxicity impact categories (e.g. global warming) and toxicity related impact categories (e.g. ecotoxicity and human toxicity). The assessment addressed treatment and final placement of 1 tonne of APC residue in seven scenarios: 1) direct landfilling without treatment (baseline), 2) backfilling in salt mines, 3) neutralization of waste acid, 4) filler material in asphalt, 5) Ferrox stabilization, 6) vitrification, and 7) melting with automobile shredder residues (ASR). The management scenarios were selected as examples of the wide range of different technologies available worldwide while at the same time using realistic technology data. Results from the LCA were discussed with respect to importance of: energy consumption/substitution, material substitution, leaching, air emissions, time horizon aspects for the assessment, and transportation distances. The LCA modeling showed that thermal processes were associated with the highest loads in the non-toxicity categories (energy consumption), while differences between the remaining alternatives were small and generally considered insignificant. In the toxicity categories, all treatment/utilization options were significantly better than direct landfilling without treatment (lower leaching), although the thermal processes had somewhat higher impacts than the others options (air emissions). Transportation distances did not affect the overall ranking of the management alternatives. PMID:20599249

  13. 43 CFR 3100.3-2 - Effect of option on acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect of option on acreage. 3100.3-2... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing: General § 3100.3-2 Effect of option on acreage. The acreage to which the option is...

  14. Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome: clinical presentation and management options

    PubMed Central

    Sreeramulu, Basapogu; Shyam, Naragani DVN; Ajay, Pilla; Suman, Pathipaka

    2015-01-01

    Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by diffuse palmoplantar keratoderma and precocious aggressive periodontitis, leading to premature loss of deciduous and permanent dentition at a very young age. Various etiopathogenic factors are associated with the syndrome, like immunologic alterations, genetic mutations, and the role of bacteria. Dentists play a significant role in the diagnosis and management of PLS as there are characteristic manifestations like periodontal destruction at an early age and an early eruption of permanent teeth. Here, we are presenting an elaborate review of PLS, its etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management options. PMID:26203280

  15. Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome: clinical presentation and management options.

    PubMed

    Sreeramulu, Basapogu; Shyam, Naragani Dvn; Ajay, Pilla; Suman, Pathipaka

    2015-01-01

    Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by diffuse palmoplantar keratoderma and precocious aggressive periodontitis, leading to premature loss of deciduous and permanent dentition at a very young age. Various etiopathogenic factors are associated with the syndrome, like immunologic alterations, genetic mutations, and the role of bacteria. Dentists play a significant role in the diagnosis and management of PLS as there are characteristic manifestations like periodontal destruction at an early age and an early eruption of permanent teeth. Here, we are presenting an elaborate review of PLS, its etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management options. PMID:26203280

  16. Elective preterm delivery as a management option in cryptogenic organizing pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Holder, Kelly L; Scardo, James A; Laye, M Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, now termed as cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), is a fibrotic lung disease of the small airways with the potential to progress to end-stage lung disease. COP in pregnancy carries a high risk of maternal and neonatal complications and only two prior cases have been reported. This is the first case of pre-existing COP in pregnancy. We report a 16-year-old primigravid with COP who elected inpatient management and preterm delivery as a successful management option.

  17. The RealGas and RealGasH2O options of the TOUGH+ code for the simulation of coupled fluid and heat flow in tight/shale gas systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed two new EOS additions to the TOUGH+ family of codes, the RealGasH2O and RealGas. The RealGasH2O EOS option describes the non-isothermal two-phase flow of water and a real gas mixture in gas reservoirs, with a particular focus in ultra-tight (such as tight-sand and sh...

  18. Risk management of liquefied natural gas installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.; Coutinho, J. De C.

    1976-01-01

    In connection with the construction of four major liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in New York City, the New York City Fire Commissioner has asked NASA for assistance. It was decided that the Kennedy Space Center should develop a risk management system (RMS) for the use of the New York Fire Department (NYFD). The RMS provides for a published set of safety regulations by the NYFD. A description of the RMS is presented as an example of an application of aerospace technology to a civilian sector, namely LNG facilities.

  19. Waste Management Options for Long-Duration Space Missions: When to Reject, Reuse, or Recycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.; Palaszewski, Bryan A.; Gokoglu, Suleyman; Gallo, Christopher A.; Balasubramaniam, Ramaswamy; Hegde, Uday G.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of waste generated on long-duration space missions away from Earth orbit creates the daunting challenge of how to manage the waste through reuse, rejection, or recycle. The option to merely dispose of the solid waste through an airlock to space was studied for both Earth-moon libration point missions and crewed Mars missions. Although the unique dynamic characteristics of an orbit around L2 might allow some discarded waste to intersect the lunar surface before re-impacting the spacecraft, the large amount of waste needed to be managed and potential hazards associated with volatiles recondensing on the spacecraft surfaces make this option problematic. A second option evaluated is to process the waste into useful gases to be either vented to space or used in various propulsion systems. These propellants could then be used to provide the yearly station-keeping needs at an L2 orbit, or if processed into oxygen and methane propellants, could be used to augment science exploration by enabling lunar mini landers to the far side of the moon.

  20. The challenge of faecal sludge management in urban areas--strategies, regulations and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Ingallinella, A M; Sanguinetti, G; Koottatep, T; Montanger, A; Strauss, M

    2002-01-01

    In urban centres of industrialising countries, the majority of houses are served by on-site sanitation systems such as septic tanks and unsewered toilets. The faecal sludges (FS) collected from these systems are usually discharged untreated into the urban and peri-urban environment, posing great risks to water resources and to public health. Contrary to wastewater management, the development of strategies to cope with faecal sludges, adapted to the conditions prevailing in developing countries, have long been neglected. The authors describe the current situation and discuss selected issues of FS management. A proposal is made for a rational setting of sludge quality or treatment standards in economically emerging countries. The authors stipulate that regulatory setting should take into account local economic, institutional and technical conditions. Defining suitable treatment options as critical control points in securing adequate sludge quality is better than setting and relying on numerical sludge quality standards. A separate section is devoted to the practice and to regulatory aspects of (faecal) sludge use in Argentina. An overview of treatment options, which may prove sustainable in less industrialized countries is provided. Planted sludge drying beds are one of these options. It has been piloted in Thailand for four years and details on its performance and operation are presented along with data on the hygienic quality of treated biosolids. PMID:12479483

  1. Conceptual approaches for incorporating climatic change into the development of forest management options for sequestering carbon

    SciTech Connect

    King, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The potential for significant enviromental change over the next 100 years has resulted in efforts to develop mitigation options for reducing the rate of increase of carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere. One of the more promising options is management of forest and agroforestry systems. However, most of the assessments of the potential of forest management options to sequester carbon have not factored in future environmental change (climate and CO2 concentration) into their analyses. Climate and ecological models that could be used to incorporate environmental change into forest mitigation planning efforts are reviewed in the paper in terms of their relative strengths and limitations for this particular application. Recommendations are then made as to how to use the available models to estimate the global and regional potential for sequestering carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, incorporating future environmental change into the analyses. Recommendations are also made as to how to target the most promising regions for reforestation efforts given the likelihood of future environmental change. (Copyright (c) Inter-Research 1993.)

  2. Climate change, coral reef ecosystems, and management options for marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Keller, Brian D; Gleason, Daniel F; McLeod, Elizabeth; Woodley, Christa M; Airamé, Satie; Causey, Billy D; Friedlander, Alan M; Grober-Dunsmore, Rikki; Johnson, Johanna E; Miller, Steven L; Steneck, Robert S

    2009-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) provide place-based management of marine ecosystems through various degrees and types of protective actions. Habitats such as coral reefs are especially susceptible to degradation resulting from climate change, as evidenced by mass bleaching events over the past two decades. Marine ecosystems are being altered by direct effects of climate change including ocean warming, ocean acidification, rising sea level, changing circulation patterns, increasing severity of storms, and changing freshwater influxes. As impacts of climate change strengthen they may exacerbate effects of existing stressors and require new or modified management approaches; MPA networks are generally accepted as an improvement over individual MPAs to address multiple threats to the marine environment. While MPA networks are considered a potentially effective management approach for conserving marine biodiversity, they should be established in conjunction with other management strategies, such as fisheries regulations and reductions of nutrients and other forms of land-based pollution. Information about interactions between climate change and more "traditional" stressors is limited. MPA managers are faced with high levels of uncertainty about likely outcomes of management actions because climate change impacts have strong interactions with existing stressors, such as land-based sources of pollution, overfishing and destructive fishing practices, invasive species, and diseases. Management options include ameliorating existing stressors, protecting potentially resilient areas, developing networks of MPAs, and integrating climate change into MPA planning, management, and evaluation. PMID:19636605

  3. Climate Change, Coral Reef Ecosystems, and Management Options for Marine Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Brian D.; Gleason, Daniel F.; McLeod, Elizabeth; Woodley, Christa M.; Airamé, Satie; Causey, Billy D.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Grober-Dunsmore, Rikki; Johnson, Johanna E.; Miller, Steven L.; Steneck, Robert S.

    2009-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) provide place-based management of marine ecosystems through various degrees and types of protective actions. Habitats such as coral reefs are especially susceptible to degradation resulting from climate change, as evidenced by mass bleaching events over the past two decades. Marine ecosystems are being altered by direct effects of climate change including ocean warming, ocean acidification, rising sea level, changing circulation patterns, increasing severity of storms, and changing freshwater influxes. As impacts of climate change strengthen they may exacerbate effects of existing stressors and require new or modified management approaches; MPA networks are generally accepted as an improvement over individual MPAs to address multiple threats to the marine environment. While MPA networks are considered a potentially effective management approach for conserving marine biodiversity, they should be established in conjunction with other management strategies, such as fisheries regulations and reductions of nutrients and other forms of land-based pollution. Information about interactions between climate change and more “traditional” stressors is limited. MPA managers are faced with high levels of uncertainty about likely outcomes of management actions because climate change impacts have strong interactions with existing stressors, such as land-based sources of pollution, overfishing and destructive fishing practices, invasive species, and diseases. Management options include ameliorating existing stressors, protecting potentially resilient areas, developing networks of MPAs, and integrating climate change into MPA planning, management, and evaluation.

  4. Evaluating options for balancing the water-electricity nexus in California: Part 2--greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts.

    PubMed

    Tarroja, Brian; AghaKouchak, Amir; Sobhani, Reza; Feldman, David; Jiang, Sunny; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-11-01

    A study was conducted to compare the technical potential and effectiveness of different water supply options for securing water availability in a large-scale, interconnected water supply system under historical and climate-change augmented inflow and demand conditions. Part 2 of the study focused on determining the greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts of different pathways to stabilize major surface reservoir levels. Using a detailed electric grid model and taking into account impacts on the operation of the water supply infrastructure, the greenhouse gas emissions and effect on overall grid renewable penetration level was calculated for each water supply option portfolio that successfully secured water availability from Part 1. The effects on the energy signature of water supply infrastructure were found to be just as important as that of the fundamental processes for each option. Under historical (baseline) conditions, many option portfolios were capable of securing surface reservoir levels with a net neutral or negative effect on emissions and a benefit for renewable energy utilization. Under climate change augmented conditions, however, careful selection of the water supply option portfolio was required to prevent imposing major emissions increases for the system. Overall, this analysis provided quantitative insight into the tradeoffs associated with choosing different pathways for securing California's water supply. PMID:25087186

  5. 75 FR 41790 - Address Management Services-Elimination of the Manual Card Option for Address Sequencing Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... 111 Address Management Services--Elimination of the Manual Card Option for Address Sequencing Services... Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM ) 507.8 to eliminate the manual... pricing, which requires address sequencing. For the manual option of Address Sequencing service,...

  6. Land Management Restrictions and Options for Change in Perpetual Conservation Easements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissman, Adena; Bihari, Menka; Hamilton, Christopher; Locke, Christina; Lowenstein, David; Motew, Melissa; Price, Jessica; Smail, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Conservation organizations rely on conservation easements for diverse purposes, including protection of species and natural communities, working forests, and open space. This research investigated how perpetual conservation easements incorporated property rights, responsibilities, and options for change over time in land management. We compared 34 conservation easements held by one federal, three state, and four nonprofit organizations in Wisconsin. They incorporated six mechanisms for ongoing land management decision-making: management plans (74 %), modifications to permitted landowner uses with discretionary consent (65 %), amendment clauses (53 %), easement holder rights to conduct land management (50 %), reference to laws or policies as compliance terms (47 %), and conditional use permits (12 %). Easements with purposes to protect species and natural communities had more ecological monitoring rights, organizational control over land management, and mechanisms for change than easements with general open space purposes. Forestry purposes were associated with mechanisms for change but not necessarily with ecological monitoring rights or organizational control over land management. The Natural Resources Conservation Service-Wetland Reserve Program had a particularly consistent approach with high control over land use and some discretion to modify uses through permits. Conservation staff perceived a need to respond to changing social and ecological conditions but were divided on whether climate change was likely to negatively impact their conservation easements. Many conservation easements involved significant constraints on easement holders' options for altering land management to achieve conservation purposes over time. This study suggests the need for greater attention to easement drafting, monitoring, and ongoing decision processes to ensure the public benefits of land conservation in changing landscapes.

  7. Factors that influence patient preferences for prostate cancer management options: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Showalter, Timothy N; Mishra, Mark V; Bridges, John FP

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We performed a systematic review to evaluate evidence regarding factors that influence patient preferences for management options for localized prostate cancer. Methods We followed a prespecified search protocol (PROSPERO identifier CRD42014009173) to identify studies that evaluated patient preferences for prostate cancer management options for localized prostate cancer. We queried PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) Plus, and Econ-Lit databases. Two separate reviewers completed the article selection process and review, including coding of study characteristics. Study quality was scored according to the PREFS checklist, which consists of five criteria: Purpose, Respondents, Explanation, Findings, and Significance. Reviewers summarized the primary findings of each article included in the analysis. Results Of the 606 citations identified in the literature search, there were a total of 21 articles that met all selection criteria, reporting results for a total of 4,131 subjects. Themes identified in the studies included: the importance of patient perceptions of treatment efficacy and side effects; the influence of physician recommendations on patient decision-making; and the prioritization of concerns regarding treatment side effects among those men who prefer radiation therapy or active surveillance. The articles had an average PREFS score of 3.4 (standard deviation [SD] 1.0), which is similar to a recent study for breast cancer treatment preferences. Conclusion This systematic review of factors that influence patient preferences for prostate cancer management options identified a small, but high quality, group of articles that satisfied the selection criteria. The available evidence suggests that interventions aimed at informing patients regarding the comparative effectiveness of prostate cancer management alternatives should include the influence of physician

  8. Glenohumeral Joint Preservation: A Review of Management Options for Young, Active Patients with Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    van der Meijden, Olivier A.; Gaskill, Trevor R.; Millett, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The management of osteoarthritis of the shoulder in young, active patients is a challenge, and the optimal treatment has yet to be completely established. Many of these patients wish to maintain a high level of activity, and arthroplasty may not be a practical treatment option. It is these patients who may be excellent candidates for joint-preservation procedures in an effort to avoid or delay joint replacement. Several palliative and restorative techniques are currently optional. Joint debridement has shown good results and a combination of arthroscopic debridement with a capsular release, humeral osteoplasty, and transcapsular axillary nerve decompression seems promising when humeral osteophytes are present. Currently, microfracture seems the most studied reparative treatment modality available. Other techniques, such as autologous chondrocyte implantation and osteochondral transfers, have reportedly shown potential but are currently mainly still investigational procedures. This paper gives an overview of the currently available joint preserving surgical techniques for glenohumeral osteoarthritis. PMID:22536514

  9. Options for managing impacts of climate change on a deep-sea community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thresher, Ronald E.; Guinotte, John M.; Matear, Richard J.; Hobday, Alistair J.

    2015-07-01

    The deep sea hosts some of the world's largest, oldest, and most sensitive ecosystems. Climate change and ocean acidification are likely to have severe implications for many deep-sea ecosystems and communities, but what, if anything, can be done to mitigate these threats is poorly understood. To begin to bridge this gap, we convened a stakeholder workshop to assess and prioritize options for conserving legislatively protected deep-sea coral reefs off southeast Australia that, without management intervention, are likely to be severely degraded within decades as a result of climate change. Seventeen possible options were explored that span biological, engineering and regulatory domains and that differed widely in their perceived costs, benefits, time to implementation, and risks. In the short term, the highest priority identified is the need to urgently locate and protect sites globally that are, or will become, refugia areas for the coral and its associated community as climate change progresses.

  10. Estimating option values of solar radiation management assuming that climate sensitivity is uncertain.

    PubMed

    Arino, Yosuke; Akimoto, Keigo; Sano, Fuminori; Homma, Takashi; Oda, Junichiro; Tomoda, Toshimasa

    2016-05-24

    Although solar radiation management (SRM) might play a role as an emergency geoengineering measure, its potential risks remain uncertain, and hence there are ethical and governance issues in the face of SRM's actual deployment. By using an integrated assessment model, we first present one possible methodology for evaluating the value arising from retaining an SRM option given the uncertainty of climate sensitivity, and also examine sensitivities of the option value to SRM's side effects (damages). Reflecting the governance challenges on immediate SRM deployment, we assume scenarios in which SRM could only be deployed with a limited degree of cooling (0.5 °C) only after 2050, when climate sensitivity uncertainty is assumed to be resolved and only when the sensitivity is found to be high (T2x = 4 °C). We conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis with constraining temperature rise as the objective. The SRM option value is originated from its rapid cooling capability that would alleviate the mitigation requirement under climate sensitivity uncertainty and thereby reduce mitigation costs. According to our estimates, the option value during 1990-2049 for a +2.4 °C target (the lowest temperature target level for which there were feasible solutions in this model study) relative to preindustrial levels were in the range between $2.5 and $5.9 trillion, taking into account the maximum level of side effects shown in the existing literature. The result indicates that lower limits of the option values for temperature targets below +2.4 °C would be greater than $2.5 trillion. PMID:27162346

  11. Sustainable approaches for minimizing biosolids production and maximizing reuse options in sludge management: A review.

    PubMed

    Joo, Sung Hee; Dello Monaco, Francesca; Antmann, Eric; Chorath, Philip

    2015-08-01

    Sludge generation during wastewater treatment is inevitable even with proper management and treatment. Yet proper handling and disposal of sludge are still challenging in terms of treatment cost, presence of recalcitrant contaminants of concern, sanitary issues, and public acceptance. Conventional disposal methods (i.e. landfilling, incineration) have created concerns in terms of legislative restrictions and community perception, incentivizing consideration of substitute sludge management options. Furthermore, with proper treatment, biosolids from sludge, rich in organic materials and nutrients, could be utilizable as fertilizer. Despite the challenges of dealing with sludge, no review has dealt with integrated source reduction and reuse as the best sustainable management practices for sludge treatment. In this review, we present two main approaches as potentially sustainable controls: (i) pretreatment for minimizing extensive sludge treatment, and (ii) recycling and reuse of residual sludge. Drawing on these approaches, we also suggest strategies for efficient pretreatment mechanisms and residual reuse, presenting ideas for prospective future research. PMID:26001503

  12. Women's experiences of three early miscarriage management options a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsay F; Frost, Julia; Levitas, Ruth; Bradley, Harriet; Garcia, Jo

    2006-01-01

    Background Miscarriage affects around one in six pregnancies. Much research has taken place identifying the consequences of this for parents but is mainly quantitative. Of the limited qualitative studies, none have explored women's experiences of the methods of miscarriage management received. Aim To assess the social and personal impact of different management methods (expectant, medical and surgical) on women's experience of first trimester miscarriage. Design of study Qualitative interviews using a topic guide with a purposive cohort of four categories of women (each management method plus non-participants) 6 months to 1 year after first trimester miscarriage. Focus groups with both research participants and health workers. Setting Women from three hospitals in the South West of England that participated in the Miscarriage Treatment (MIST) trial. Method Seventy-two interviews were undertaken between September 1999 and June 2000. There were also five focus groups (47 participants) and two feedback sessions (8 participants) with written feedback from 12 women. Interviews lasted 0.5–2.5 hours generating over 2000 A4 pages of transcripts. The transcripts were analysed for common themes, using standard proformas, which were filled in by individual team members and then discussed by the whole research team. Iterative readings in the light of new emerging issues ensured that new themes could be identified throughout the analytical process. All transcripts were then encoded for the identified themes using NUDIST. Results Common themes emerged across all management options although some were specific to just one or two management options. The five major themes arising out of the data analysis were: intervention; experiences of care; finality; the ‘baby’; and pain and bleeding. Conclusions Women's experiences and beliefs vary widely and their preferences need to be considered in their early miscarriage management. The three methods have different benefits and

  13. Anorectal Injuries due to Foreign Bodies: Case Reports and Review of the Management Options

    PubMed Central

    Karateke, Faruk; Das, Koray; Ozyazici, Sefa; Menekse, Ebru; Koseoglu, Zikret; Karcioglu, Ozgur

    2013-01-01

    Anorectal injuries due to autoerotic activity with rectal foreign bodies were identified in four male patients. The objects were bottle in one patient, glasses in two patients, and showerhead in one patient. Foreign bodies were extracted within lithotomy position after anal dilatation, under general anesthesia in 3 patients. One patient presented with peritoneal irritation and had a diagnosis of rectal perforation. He underwent transanal rectal repair with proximal fecal diversion. In this paper we described 4 patients who had anorectal injuries due to autoerotic activity with foreign bodies and reviewed the management options in literature. PMID:23533918

  14. Employer-based coverage and medical travel options: lessons for healthcare managers.

    PubMed

    Karuppan, Corinne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Outbound medical travel (MT) involves U.S. patients going abroad to seek medical care. Over the past decade, there has been much discussion about MT's broadening appeal to several segments of U.S. healthcare consumers, but little is known about its penetration in the employer-based coverage (EBC) marketplace. The objectives of this article are to fill this gap and identify (1) the current status of MT options in EBC, (2) the differences between adopters and nonadopters of MT options, and (3) the factors that impede adoption. The results were obtained from a nationwide survey of human resources (HR) professionals making decisions regarding medical benefits. In this sample (n = 608), 16.8% of the respondents offered outbound MT options to their employees, often bypassing their insurance providers. Besides benefiting from a strong HR function, these organizations tended to be more involved in global business transactions, more open to change, more sensitive to cost savings, and more flexible in implementing administrative innovations than nonadopters were. An organizational climate conducive to innovation may explain their propensity to downplay the importance of well-known obstacles to implementation, such as the effort required to make changes, an emphasis on short-term goals, and the fear of liability. The lessons to be learned by U.S. healthcare managers are clear. To attract a value-conscious market, they must offer an attractive package of outstanding quality (clinical outcomes and patient experience) at competitive costs. Operational excellence may thus be the key to slowing the inevitable diffusion of MT options in EBC and maintaining or even expanding the U.S. market share of elective surgeries. PMID:24988676

  15. Greenhouse gas accounting and waste management.

    PubMed

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas H; Aoustin, Emmanuelle

    2009-11-01

    Accounting of emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) is a major focus within waste management. This paper analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting in waste management including their special features and approaches: the national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the corporate level, as part of the annual reporting on environmental issues and social responsibility, life-cycle assessment (LCA), as an environmental basis for assessing waste management systems and technologies, and finally, the carbon trading methodology, and more specifically, the clean development mechanism (CDM) methodology, introduced to support cost-effective reduction in GHG emissions. These types of GHG accounting, in principle, have a common starting point in technical data on GHG emissions from specific waste technologies and plants, but the limited availability of data and, moreover, the different scopes of the accounting lead to many ways of quantifying emissions and producing the accounts. The importance of transparency in GHG accounting is emphasised regarding waste type, waste composition, time period considered, GHGs included, global warming potential (GWP) assigned to the GHGs, counting of biogenic carbon dioxide, choice of system boundaries, interactions with the energy system, and generic emissions factors. In order to enhance transparency and consistency, a format called the upstream-operating-downstream framework (UOD) is proposed for reporting basic technology-related data regarding GHG issues including a clear distinction between direct emissions from waste management technologies, indirect upstream (use of energy and materials) and indirect downstream (production of energy, delivery of secondary materials) activities. PMID:19808731

  16. A System Dynamics Approach for the Selection of Contaminated Land Management Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, U. S.; Kuebert, M.; Finkel, M.; Bieg, M.

    2006-12-01

    Large-scale contaminated land and groundwater is a widespread problem that can severely impact human health, the environment and the economy at many urban sites all over the world. Usually a considerable number of potential management solutions exist at each of these sites. A detailed investigation of all these options, however, is not economically feasible which makes streamlining of the planning and decision process a mandatory requirement. Decisions to be taken should be made as early as possible in order to reduce expenditures on site investigation. Therefore, a tiered decision-making procedure is required, including (i) identification and prioritization of focal areas of risks, (ii) feasibility screening of remediation targets and available management alternatives to narrow the range of possible options for (iii) subsequent detailed investigations of only a select group of preferable options. For each of these elements, tailored decision and investigation concepts are required. These concepts and applied methods should be specifically adapted to the type and scale of the particular decision to be taken- more target-oriented, cost-efficient investigation programs, as well as model-based assessment methods are needed (Ruegner et al. 2006). A gap exists within this framework with respect to preliminary assessment methodologies representing the first decision level. To fill this gap, a new system dynamics approach has been developed that represents the system of source- pathway-receptor sequences by means of a mass flux model. The dynamics are governed by the effects of possible remedial actions, which are described as mass flux change over time (Serapiglia et al. 2005). This approach has been implemented in the preliminary evaluation tool CARO-plus (Cost-efficiency Assessment of Remediation Options) that models the effects of potential remedial actions, including tackling the contaminant source and managing the groundwater plume. The model represents the causal

  17. Sustainability and Energy Development: Influences of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Options on Water Use in Energy Production

    SciTech Connect

    D. Craig Cooper; Gerald Sehlke

    2012-01-01

    Climate change mitigation strategies cannot be evaluated solely in terms of energy cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential. Maintaining GHGs at a 'safe' level will require fundamental change in the way we approach energy production, and a number of environmental, economic, and societal factors will come into play. Water is an essential component of energy production, and water resource constraints (e.g., insufficient supplies and competing ecological and anthropogenic needs) will limit our options for producing energy and for reducing GHG emissions. This study evaluates these potential constraints from a global perspective by revisiting the 'climate wedges' proposal of Pacala and Sokolow [1], and evaluating the potential water impacts of the 'wedges' associated with energy production. Results indicate that there is a range of water impacts, with some options reducing water demand while others increase water demand. Mitigation options that improve energy conversion and end-use efficiency have the greatest potential for reducing water resources impacts. These options provide 'win-win-win' scenarios for reducing GHG emissions, lowering energy costs and reducing water demand. Thet may merit higher priority than alternative options that emphasize deploying new low-carbon energy facilities or modifying existing facilities with energy intensive GHG mitigation technologies to reduce GHG emissions. While the latter can reduce GHG emissions, they will typically increase energy costs and water impacts.

  18. A comparison of costs associated with utility management options for dry active waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hornibrook, C.

    1995-12-31

    The economics of low level waste management is receiving more attention today than ever before. This is due to four factors: (1) the increases in the cost of processing of these wastes; (2) increases in the cost of disposal; (3) the addition of storage costs for those without access to disposal; and (4) the increasing competitive nature of the electric generation industry. These pressures are forcing the industry to update it`s evaluation of the mix of processing that will afford it the best long term economics and minimize it`s risks for unforeseen costs. Whether disposal is available or not, all utilities face the same challenge of minimizing the costs associated with the management of these wastes. There are a number of variables that will impact how a utility manages their wastes but the problem is the uncertainty of what will actually happen, i.e., will disposal be available, when and at what cost. Using the EPRI-developed WASTECOST: DAW code, this paper explores a variety of LLW management options available to utilities. Along with providing the costs and benefits, other technical considerations which play an important part in the management of these wastes are also addressed.

  19. Management of frontotemporal dementia: targeting symptom management in such a heterogeneous disease requires a wide range of therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Jicha, Gregory A; Nelson, Peter T

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY There are no US FDA-approved therapies for the management of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Evidence-based medicine that would support a FDA indication for the treatment of FTD requires large-scale, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials that do not currently exist. Progress in obtaining approval and therapeutic indications for FTD has been severely hampered by the heterogeneity of clinical and pathological phenotypes seen in various FTD disease states. These issues are often misinterpreted by clinicians, caregivers and patients suggesting that potential treatment options are nonexistent for this devastating disease. This article discusses these issues in the context of recent studies and publications investigating therapeutic options in FTD, and further suggests a rationale for individualized therapy in FTD. Targeting the myriad of symptoms seen in FTD requires recognition of such symptoms that may play primary or secondary roles in the spectrum of deficits that lead to functional disability in FTD, and the availability of a wide range of therapeutic options that may be helpful in alleviating such symptomatology. Fortunately, agents targeting the many cognitive, behavioral, psychiatric and motor symptoms that can be seen in FTD are readily available, having been previously developed and approved for symptomatic benefit in other disease states. In contrast to the widespread belief that beneficial treatments are not available for FTD today, our therapeutic armament is stocked with pharmacological tools that may improve quality of life for those suffering from this devastating and incurable class of degenerative diseases. PMID:21927623

  20. Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidi Nnorom, Innocent; Osibanjo, Oladele; Onyedikachi Nnorom, Stanley

    Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste) at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in developing countries considering the near absence of state-of-the-art recycling facilities in these countries. Life extension through product and component reuse is especially critical to electronic products because in recent years, electronics have increased in technological complexity, with new product innovations and ever shortening product life expectancy. For many products, environmentalists assume that reuse is environmentally beneficial because it replaces the manufacturing and purchase of new goods. However, on the contrary, manufacturers may oppose this type of reuse for the same reason. There is an urgent need to control the trans-boundary movement of electronic scrap especially to countries without established recycling facilities. Importations of secondhand electronics make such devices available to those who cannot afford new products. However, an international method of testing and certification is needed to ensure that exported secondhand devices are functional. Establishment of formal recycling facilities for e-waste in the developing countries will ensure resource reutilization with both economical and ecological gains. This study reviews options available in working towards eco-efficient management of e-waste in developing countries in the light of the present low-end management practices.

  1. Double J stenting: A rewarding option in the management of emphysematous pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Debiprasad; Pal, Dilip Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Context: Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is an acute necrotizing inflammation of renal parenchyma and peri-nephric tissue characterized by gas formation. In this study, we evaluated the outcome of EPN cases by medical management with or without renal decompression. Materials and Methods: We have observed prospectively 15 cases of EPN admitted in our institute in respect to age, sex, mode of presentation, presence of comorbidity, laboratory profile, urine-analysis, and outcome after medical management and drainage procedures. Results: All patients improved on medical management and drainage procedure such as JJ stenting and percutaneous nephrostomy. No mortality noted in our 15 cases of EPN. Conclusion: Emphysematous pyelonephritis can be managed conservatively by DJ stenting, wcich is a less morbid procedure or percutaneous nephrostomy with proper antibiotics and adequate glycemic control. PMID:27453644

  2. Greenhouse gas budgets of managed European grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammann, C.; Horváth, L.; Jones, S. K.

    2012-04-01

    Greenhouse gas exchange of grasslands are directly and indirectly related to the respective carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) budget. Within the framework of the NitroEurope project we investigated the greenhouse gas, carbon, and nitrogen budgets of four European grassland systems over several years: Easter Bush (UK), Oensingen intensive and extensive (CH), and Bugac (HU). They span contrasting climatic conditions, management types (grazing, cutting) and intensity. While Easter Bush (pasture) and Oensingen int. (meadow) were intensively managed and received a considerable amount of fertiliser, the unfertilised sites Bugac (pasture) and Oensingen ext. (meadow) depended on atmospheric N input (wet and dry deposition) and biological N fixation. The experimental results of the four sites were also compared to published GHG fluxes of other European grasslands. While the ecosystem CO2 exchange was measured on the field scale with the eddy covariance method, the soil fluxes of the other greenhouse gases CH4 and N2O have been detected generally by means of static chambers (only occasional application of eddy covariance). The emission of CH4 by grazing ruminant resulting from enteric fermentation was estimated by animal type specific emission factors. For characterizing the total GHG effect of the grassland sites, the contributions of the different GHGs were normalised to CO2-equivalents. Except for Oensingen ext., all sites showed positive C budgets (sequestration). The observed positive correlation between C and N sequestration (with a ratio between 10 and 20) agrees with studies reported in the literature. The magnitude of N2O emission depended mainly on management intensity (fertiliser input) and on the soil moisture conditions. Whereas for the Oensingen and the Bugac sites, the total GHG budget was dominated by the carbon budget, for Easter Bush the combined effect of N2O and CH4 emission (including animal enteric fermentation) was in the same order of magnitude as the

  3. A Many-Objective Optimization of Supply and Demand Management Options for the Thames Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrosov, Evgenii S.; Huskova, Ivana; Kasprzyk, Joseph R.; Harou, Julien J.; Reed, Patrick M.

    2013-04-01

    In this study we link a water resource management simulator and a many-objective evolutionary optimization algorithm to reveal the trade-offs mapped out by the set of Pareto-optimal water supply portfolios. The approach is applied to a case-study involving the water stressed Thames basin in South East England which includes the city of London. Such a many-objective approach could be used by regulators and stakeholders to supplement current water resource system planning which uses single-objective least-cost optimization. We consider both infrastructure additions and demand management options to produce possible water system portfolios that satisfy the future demand trajectory and meet regulatory performance constraints. Possible infrastructure options explored in the case study include a new reservoir, water transfers, conjunctive use of groundwater, wastewater reuse and brackish groundwater desalination. Demand management options include leakage reduction, the introduction of seasonal tariffs with compulsory metering and efficiency improvements. System performance is evaluated using quantitative performance measures that minimize costs and energy use while maximizing engineering and environmental performance, subject to supply reliability constraints set by the local water utility and the Environment Agency regulator. We use many-objective visual analytics to explore the Pareto approximate trade-off surfaces that show the tradeoffs between engineering, cost, social and environmental performance measures and interactively interrogate the impact of the infrastructure portfolios on the performance measures. Using trusted realistic simulators embedded into global optimzers enables the consideration of non-linear and rule-based physical and management processes that are integral to accurately describing real water systems. The Thames basin is modeled using a generalized computationally efficient open-source water resource simulator, the Interactive River

  4. User perceptions on coastal resource state and management options in Curaçao.

    PubMed

    Debrot, A O; Nagelkerken, I

    2000-12-01

    Public environmental awareness and support for management measures are key determinants of the scope for successful implementation of natural resource management. To assess user perceptions and opinions on resource state and potential management options for the coastal zone of Curaçao, we queried 250 coastal resource users from around the island (sport divers, part-time artisanal fishermen and recreational boaters) using questionnaires. There is wide awareness of a long-term decline in coastal resource condition as measured by various indicators. Even among fishermen there was wide awareness of anthropogenic contributors to the decline, broad agreement of management measures required and a general willingness to contribute to management by means of annual license fees. Some of the more salient findings include the endorsement by fishermen of the current ban on spearfishing (81%), the regulation of the beach seine fishery for scad (77%), the introduction of fish reserves (72%), special protection for sea turtles (90%), conch (82%), and lobsters (72%), and notable support for gradual elimination of trap fisheries (45%). Also, both divers (65%) and boaters (92%) expressed the importance to them of an attractive coastline, with both groups expressing preference for natural (un-built) coastline (>74%) above other categories. Management based on the concept "user pays", as already implemented in the Netherlands Antilles on Saba and Bonaire, is well supported by the resource user public. A review of other main constraints such as finances and institutional capacity, shows that conditions are quite favorable for implementation of new legislation. Modem coral reef management is urgently needed in Curaçao to safeguard a key natural resource and concerted action is called for on the part of government agencies, legislators and elected officials. PMID:15266797

  5. Placing the power of real options analysis into the hands of natural resource managers - taking the next step.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Rohan; Howden, Mark; Hayman, Peter

    2013-07-30

    This paper explores heuristic methods with potential to place the analytical power of real options analysis into the hands of natural resource managers. The complexity of real options analysis has led to patchy or ephemeral adoption even by corporate managers familiar with the financial-market origins of valuation methods. Intuitively accessible methods for estimating the value of real options have begun to evolve, but their evaluation has mostly been limited to researcher-driven applications. In this paper we work closely with Bush Heritage Australia to evaluate the potential of real options analysis to support the intuitive judgement of conservation estate managers in covenanting land with uncertain future conservation value due to climate change. The results show that modified decision trees have potential to estimate the option value of covenanting individual properties while time and ongoing research resolves their future conservation value. Complementing this, Luehrman's option space has potential to assist managers with limited budgets to increase the portfolio value of multiple properties with different conservation attributes. PMID:23702285

  6. 41 CFR 102-194.30 - What role does my agency play in the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) Standards (36 CFR part... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What role does my agency... What role does my agency play in the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program? Your agency...

  7. Non-deposit system option for waste management on small islands.

    PubMed

    Vilms, Monica; Voronova, Viktoria

    2016-08-01

    This paper analyses waste management on small islands (on a global scale these are micro-islands). In the context of the paper, small islands are islands that have an area less than 50 km(2) The study presents an overview of the problems connected with waste transport from islands to the mainland. Waste generation on islands is very much related to tourists. If tourists do not handle waste properly, it will cause problems. Four small Estonian islands in the range of 3-19 km(2) are studied in detail. For these and other small islands, the main problem is the waste produced by tourists, or related to tourists and waste transport to the mainland. Currently, the local municipality has to arrange and finance waste transport. In fact, and based on the polluter-pays principle, the tourists should bear the cost of waste management. There are different tax options available in order to collect the money from tourists - waste tax, harbour tax, tourist tax, donations, environmental tax and others. The study results revealed that the best possible solution for Estonian islands may be a non-deposit system - including an additional charge on ferry ticket prices. The extra money should cover the costs of waste management and waste shipping. The tourists arriving in their own boats should pay a harbour tax, which includes a waste tax to compensate for the cost of waste management. PMID:27344037

  8. Greenhouse gas emission impacts of alternative-fueled vehicles: Near-term vs. long-term technology options

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Q.

    1997-05-20

    Alternative-fueled vehicle technologies have been promoted and used for reducing petroleum use, urban air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, greenhouse gas emission impacts of near-term and long-term light-duty alternative-fueled vehicle technologies are evaluated. Near-term technologies, available now, include vehicles fueled with M85 (85% methanol and 15% gasoline by volume), E85 (85% ethanol that is produced from corn and 15% gasoline by volume), compressed natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. Long-term technologies, assumed to be available around the year 2010, include battery-powered electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, vehicles fueled with E85 (ethanol produced from biomass), and fuel-cell vehicles fueled with hydrogen or methanol. The near-term technologies are found to have small to moderate effects on vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand, the long-term technologies, especially those using renewable energy (such as biomass and solar energy), have great potential for reducing vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. In order to realize this greenhouse gas emission reduction potential, R and D efforts must continue on the long-term technology options so that they can compete successfully with conventional vehicle technology.

  9. Framework for managing wastes from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) sites.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-09-15

    Oil and gas companies operate in many countries around the world. Their exploration and production (E&P) operations generate many kinds of waste that must be carefully and appropriately managed. Some of these wastes are inherently part of the E&P process; examples are drilling wastes and produced water. Other wastes are generic industrial wastes that are not unique to E&P activities, such as painting wastes and scrap metal. Still other wastes are associated with the presence of workers at the site; these include trash, food waste, and laundry wash water. In some host countries, mature environmental regulatory programs are in place that provide for various waste management options on the basis of the characteristics of the wastes and the environmental settings of the sites. In other countries, the waste management requirements and authorized options are stringent, even though the infrastructure to meet the requirements may not be available yet. In some cases, regulations and/or waste management infrastructure do not exist at all. Companies operating in these countries can be confronted with limited and expensive waste management options.

  10. Current and future options for the management of phantom-limb pain.

    PubMed

    Knotkova, Helena; Cruciani, Ricardo A; Tronnier, Volker M; Rasche, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Phantom-limb pain (PLP) belongs among difficult-to-treat chronic pain syndromes. Treatment options for PLP are to a large degree implicated by the level of understanding the mechanisms and nature of PLP. Research and clinical findings acknowledge the neuropathic nature of PLP and also suggest that both peripheral as well as central mechanisms, including neuroplastic changes in central nervous system, can contribute to PLP. Neuroimaging studies in PLP have indicated a relation between PLP and the neuroplastic changes. Further, it has been shown that the pathological neuroplastic changes could be reverted, and there is a parallel between an improvement (reversal) of the neuroplastic changes in PLP and pain relief. These findings facilitated explorations of novel neuromodulatory treatment strategies, adding to the variety of treatment approaches in PLP. Overall, available treatment options in PLP include pharmacological treatment, supportive non-pharmacological non-invasive strategies (eg, neuromodulation using transcranial magnetic stimulation, visual feedback therapy, or motor imagery; peripheral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, physical therapy, reflexology, or various psychotherapeutic approaches), and invasive treatment strategies (eg, surgical destructive procedures, nerve blocks, or invasive neuromodulation using deep brain stimulation, motor cortex stimulation, or spinal cord stimulation). Venues of further development in PLP management include a technological and methodological improvement of existing treatment methods, an implementation of new techniques and products, and a development of new treatment approaches. PMID:22457600

  11. Capturing and Explaining Preference Heterogeneity for Wetland Management Options in the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speelman, Stijn; Mombo, Felister; Vandermeulen, Valerie; Phillip, Damas; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Wetland degradation has recently received considerable research attention. Although wetlands are valuable ecosystems, their actual value is difficult to measure because the services they provide often do not have market values. The current study seeks to investigate the preferences for wetland management options in the Kilombero Valley, central Tanzania using choice modeling. The results show that both respondents from the Kilombero Valley and Morogoro Municipality desire improvements in the condition of the wetlands. This indicates that the ongoing degradation is not socially optimal. A second finding is that the preferences for wetland conservation are heterogeneous and can be linked to livelihood characteristics. Communities living in the area, for example, are highly dependent on the wetland for their livelihood and would be impacted by conservation measures. Therefore, in order to reduce the pressure on wetlands, it is necessary and imperative to explore the options for alternative income-generating activities or to focus, for example, on technologies to improve efficiency and effectiveness in crop production.

  12. Capturing and explaining preference heterogeneity for wetland management options in the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Speelman, Stijn; Mombo, Felister; Vandermeulen, Valerie; Phillip, Damas; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Wetland degradation has recently received considerable research attention. Although wetlands are valuable ecosystems, their actual value is difficult to measure because the services they provide often do not have market values. The current study seeks to investigate the preferences for wetland management options in the Kilombero Valley, central Tanzania using choice modeling. The results show that both respondents from the Kilombero Valley and Morogoro Municipality desire improvements in the condition of the wetlands. This indicates that the ongoing degradation is not socially optimal. A second finding is that the preferences for wetland conservation are heterogeneous and can be linked to livelihood characteristics. Communities living in the area, for example, are highly dependent on the wetland for their livelihood and would be impacted by conservation measures. Therefore, in order to reduce the pressure on wetlands, it is necessary and imperative to explore the options for alternative income-generating activities or to focus, for example, on technologies to improve efficiency and effectiveness in crop production. PMID:25403812

  13. Toward a protocol for quantifying the greenhouse gas balance and identifying mitigation options in smallholder farming systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenstock, T. S.; Rufino, M. C.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Wollenberg, E.

    2013-06-01

    ). In that way, the research captures the balance of benefits between the private landholder and the global public good. Joint assessment of food production and emissions may produce optimal management strategies that balance the competing demands of food production and climate stabilization. For example, nitrous oxide emissions per unit of product are lowest at intermediate (not the lowest) fertilization rates (Van Groenigen et al 2010) which differs from the optimal strategy for reducing emissions per unit area. Costs associated with collecting the additional data are likely to be small relative to the operational budget for GHG field research and could viably become standard practice. Cost-differentiated measurements . Potential end users of the protocol are diverse in their purpose, resources available, and capacity to carry out research. For example, development organizations may want to determine the relative difference in emission impacts between mitigation options while governments may be interested in quantification of impacts across landscapes to develop Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions. The most useful approach to quantification therefore lies at the nexus among key constraints: objectives, resources, and capacity. The protocol develops a system of 'tiered' entry points for greenhouse gas accounting, with explicit attention directed toward the uncertainty induced from the various measurement selections. The protocol will include decision pathways to help users quickly determine the quantification options suitable for their goals and constraints to optimize the relationship among accuracy, costs, and scale. The CCAFS-CGIAR protocol is being developed and field-tested in mixed crop-livestock systems of Kenya and intensive rice production in the Philippines, with plans to expand to other sites and agroecosystems in the next year. These initial pilot projects provide a trial of the approach and methods, highlighting technical gaps and promising

  14. Environmental contamination at Finnish shooting ranges--the scope of the problem and management options.

    PubMed

    Sorvari, Jaana; Antikainen, Riina; Pyy, Outi

    2006-07-31

    In Finland, shooting ranges are among the most common activities causing soil contamination. According to our study based on questionnaires and previous regional surveys, the total number of Finnish outdoor shooting ranges is between 2000 and 2500. Most of the ranges are small and only ca. 5% exceed 20 ha. Almost a third of the ranges can cause a groundwater pollution risk, while only few cause an immediate health risk. In the first instance, 50-60 shooting ranges identified as being high-risk areas should be investigated in detail. At present, the risk management options at Finnish shooting ranges are very limited. Hence, soil excavation combined with disposal is the most common remediation technique. Some of the remediation methods used in other countries have been proven unsuitable in Finnish conditions. Therefore, new, feasible, cost-effective and economical remediation technologies are needed. To exclude future contamination, a total ban of lead shot would be the most effective way. PMID:16458952

  15. Review of biosolids management options and co-incineration of a biosolid-derived fuel.

    PubMed

    Roy, Murari Mohon; Dutta, Animesh; Corscadden, Kenny; Havard, Peter; Dickie, Lucas

    2011-11-01

    This paper reviews current biosolids management options, and identifies incineration as a promising technology. Incineration is attractive both for volume reduction and energy recovery. Reported emissions from the incineration of biosolids were compared to various regulations to identify the challenges and future direction of biosolids incineration research. Most of the gaseous and metal emissions were lower than existing regulations, or could be met by existing technologies. This paper also presents the results of an experimental study to investigate the potential use of biosolids for co-incineration with wood pellets in a conventional wood pellet stove. Pilot scale combustion tests revealed that co-incineration of 10% biosolids with 90% premium grade wood pellets resulted in successful combustion without any significant degradation of efficiency and emissions. PMID:21763120

  16. Management options for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a regional perspective on value.

    PubMed

    Ollendorf, Daniel A; Migliaccio-Walle, Kristen; Colby, Jennifer A; Pearson, Steven D

    2013-05-01

    Use of comparative effectiveness information in local healthcare decisions can be confounded by variations in practice, barriers to access and population demographics. The New England Comparative Effectiveness Public Advisory Council was convened as a public deliberative panel that considers evidence on the comparative clinical effectiveness and comparative value of a variety of therapeutic interventions. The council is tasked with making summary judgments on the evidence and recommendations for applying the evidence in medical and drug coverage policy, as well as initiating educational efforts for patients and clinicians. The New England Comparative Effectiveness Public Advisory Council met in June 2012 to discuss management options for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, guided by a recent comparative effectiveness review from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and supplementary economic analyses conducted by the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review. This article summarizes the deliberations and reflects on lessons learned regarding use of region-specific economic analyses to guide decision-making. PMID:24236625

  17. A new therapeutic option for postoperative pain management with oxycodone HCI injection

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Fentanyl is the most commonly used opioid analgesic in intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) in Korea. IV oxycodone was approved for postoperative IV PCA by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety of Korea in 2013. The approved dosage regimen for postoperative pain relief with IV oxycodone is IV bolus loading of 2 mg followed by PCA composed of demand boluses of 1 mg and no background infusion with an oxycodone concentration of 1 mg/ml. However, a simulation study indicated that the minimum effective analgesic concentration (MEAC, as indicated by relief of pain by administering rescue analgesics) of oxycodone was reached most quickly with a higher loading dose of 0.1 mg/kg and IV PCA with background infusion. Oxycodone is a therapeutic option as an analgesic for postoperative pain management. It is necessary to reduce the analgesic dose of oxycodone in elderly patients because metabolic clearance decreases with age. PMID:27274364

  18. Pain management following spinal surgeries: An appraisal of the available options

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Haldar, Rudrashish

    2015-01-01

    Spinal procedures are generally associated with intense pain in the postoperative period, especially for the initial few days. Adequate pain management in this period has been seen to correlate well with improved functional outcome, early ambulation, early discharge, and preventing the development of chronic pain. A diverse array of pharmacological options exists for the effective amelioration of post spinal surgery pain. Each of these drugs possesses inherent advantages and disadvantages which restricts their universal applicability. Therefore, combination therapy or multimodal analgesia for proper control of pain appears as the best approach in this regard. The current manuscript discussed the pathophysiology of postsurgical pain including its nature, the various tools for assessment, and the various pharmacological agents (both conventional and upcoming) available at our disposal to respond to post spinal surgery pain. PMID:26288544

  19. A new therapeutic option for postoperative pain management with oxycodone HCI injection.

    PubMed

    Choi, Byung Moon

    2016-06-01

    Fentanyl is the most commonly used opioid analgesic in intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) in Korea. IV oxycodone was approved for postoperative IV PCA by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety of Korea in 2013. The approved dosage regimen for postoperative pain relief with IV oxycodone is IV bolus loading of 2 mg followed by PCA composed of demand boluses of 1 mg and no background infusion with an oxycodone concentration of 1 mg/ml. However, a simulation study indicated that the minimum effective analgesic concentration (MEAC, as indicated by relief of pain by administering rescue analgesics) of oxycodone was reached most quickly with a higher loading dose of 0.1 mg/kg and IV PCA with background infusion. Oxycodone is a therapeutic option as an analgesic for postoperative pain management. It is necessary to reduce the analgesic dose of oxycodone in elderly patients because metabolic clearance decreases with age. PMID:27274364

  20. Surgical management of cholesteatoma: the two main options and the third way--atticotomy/limited mastoidectomy.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulos, T P; Gerbesiotis, P

    2009-09-01

    Chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma is considered an "unsafe" ear and generally requires surgical management. This is particularly challenging in children due to anatomical, pathophysiological and social reasons. There are different approaches for this objective. The two main options are the canal wall up and canal wall down mastoidectomy. The aim of this article is to compare the advantages and disadvantages of canal wall up and canal wall down method and present the third way of surgical management: the inside-outside approach through an endaural incision. This technique includes atticotomy, atticoantrostomy or mastoidectomy (mostly very limited) according to the size and location of the cholesteatoma. This technique contributes to the successful surgical management of cholesteatoma, eradicating the disease with the creation of small, dry, self-cleaning cavities and no pinna protrusion. Moreover, there is no need for meatoplasty or obliteration. However, we should never forget that in ear surgery the choice of the operative procedure should take into account the needs of the patient, the extent of the disease, and the surgeon's experience. PMID:19545913

  1. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Optional SO2 Emissions Data Protocol for Gas-Fired and Oil-Fired Peaking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Optional SO2 Emissions Data Protocol for Gas-Fired and Oil-Fired Peaking Units D Appendix D to Part 75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Pt. 75, App. D Appendix D to Part 75—Optional SO2...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Optional SO2 Emissions Data Protocol for Gas-Fired and Oil-Fired Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Optional SO2 Emissions Data Protocol for Gas-Fired and Oil-Fired Units D Appendix D to Part 75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Pt. 75, App. D Appendix D to Part 75—Optional SO2 Emissions...

  3. The management of bilateral posterior fracture dislocations of the shoulder: a case series illustrating management options

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Peter W; Packham, Iain; Crowther, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background Although dislocation of the shoulder is a relatively common event, the overwhelming majority of injuries are anterior. Posterior shoulder dislocation is more uncommon, comprising between 3% and 5% of all shoulder dislocations. One percent of shoulder dislocations involve a fracture, whereas only 0.9% of the 1500 cases reported by Neer (J Bone Joint Surg Am 1970; 52:1077–89; J Bone Joint Surg Am 1970; 52:1090–103) concerned posterior fracture dislocations. Bilateral posterior fracture dislocation is an even rarer event, comprising just 5% of all posterior fracture dislocations. Given the rarity and relative poor outcome often observed after these severe injuries, it is important that upper limb function is optimized. Methods Bilateral posterior fracture dislocations of the shoulder pose a difficult clinical challenge that requires careful management planning. To date, there have been three isolated case reports of using contralateral osteochondral humeral autograft and hemiarthroplasty. We report our experiences and clinical outcomes in managing four such cases using a variety and combination of treatments, including the first reported use of reverse shoulder arthroplasty with contralateral osteochondral humeral autografting. Results Shoulders reconstructed with humeral autograft demonstrated superior Oxford Shoulder Scores and an improved range of motion, as measured by a markerless machine vision system, compared to hemiarthroplasty. Conclusions Our results support the use of a contralateral humeral autograft in bilateral posterior shoulder fracture dislocation.

  4. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study is to research technologies and methodologies that will reduce the costs associated with the operation and maintenance of underground natural gas storage. This effort will include a survey of public information to determine the amount of natural gas lost from underground storage fields, determine the causes of this lost gas, and develop strategies and remedial designs to reduce or stop the gas loss from selected fields. Phase I includes a detailed survey of US natural gas storage reservoirs to determine the actual amount of natural gas annually lost from underground storage fields. These reservoirs will be ranked, the resultant will include the amount of gas and revenue annually lost. The results will be analyzed in conjunction with the type (geologic) of storage reservoirs to determine the significance and impact of the gas loss. A report of the work accomplished will be prepared. The report will include: (1) a summary list by geologic type of US gas storage reservoirs and their annual underground gas storage losses in ft{sup 3}; (2) a rank by geologic classifications as to the amount of gas lost and the resultant lost revenue; and (3) show the level of significance and impact of the losses by geologic type. Concurrently, the amount of storage activity has increased in conjunction with the net increase of natural gas imports as shown on Figure No. 3. Storage is playing an ever increasing importance in supplying the domestic energy requirements.

  5. A decision methodology for the evaluation of mixed low-level radioactive waste management options for DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Bassi, J.; Abashian, M.S.; Chakraborti, S.; Devarakonda, M.; Djordjevic, S.M.

    1993-03-01

    Currently, many DOE sites are developing site-specific solutions to manage their mixed low-level wastes. These site-specific MLLW programs often result in duplication of efforts between the different sites, and consequently, inefficient use of DOE system resources. A nationally integrated program for MLLW eliminates unnecessary duplication of effort, but requires a comprehensive analysis of waste management options to ensure that all site issues are addressed. A methodology for comprehensive analysis of the complete DOE MLLW system is being developed by DOE-HQ to establish an integrated and standardized solution for managing MLLW. To be effective, the comprehensive systems analysis must consider all aspects of MLLW management from cradle-to-grave (i.e. from MLLW generation to disposal). The results of the analysis will include recommendations for alternative management options for the complete DOE MLLW system based on various components such as effectiveness, cost, health and safety risks, and the probability of regulatory acceptance for an option. Because of the diverse nature of these various components and the associated difficulties in comparing between them, a decision methodology is being developed that will integrate the above components into a single evaluation scheme for performing relative comparisons between different MLLW management options. The remainder of this paper provides an overview of the roles and responsibilities of the various participants of the DOE MLLW Program, and discusses in detail the components involved in the development of the decision methodology for a comprehensive systems analysis.

  6. The RealGas and RealGasH2O options of the TOUGH+ code for the simulation of coupled fluid and heat flow in tight/shale gas systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moridis, George J.; Freeman, Craig M.

    2014-04-01

    We developed two new EOS additions to the TOUGH+ family of codes, the RealGasH2O and RealGas. The RealGasH2O EOS option describes the non-isothermal two-phase flow of water and a real gas mixture in gas reservoirs, with a particular focus in ultra-tight (such as tight-sand and shale gas) reservoirs. The gas mixture is treated as either a single-pseudo-component having a fixed composition, or as a multicomponent system composed of up to 9 individual real gases. The RealGas option has the same general capabilities, but does not include water, thus describing a single-phase, dry-gas system. In addition to the standard capabilities of all members of the TOUGH+ family of codes (fully-implicit, compositional simulators using both structured and unstructured grids), the capabilities of the two codes include coupled flow and thermal effects in porous and/or fractured media, real gas behavior, inertial (Klinkenberg) effects, full micro-flow treatment, Darcy and non-Darcy flow through the matrix and fractures of fractured media, single- and multi-component gas sorption onto the grains of the porous media following several isotherm options, discrete and fracture representation, complex matrix-fracture relationships, and porosity-permeability dependence on pressure changes. The two options allow the study of flow and transport of fluids and heat over a wide range of time frames and spatial scales not only in gas reservoirs, but also in problems of geologic storage of greenhouse gas mixtures, and of geothermal reservoirs with multi-component condensable (H2O and CH4) and non-condensable gas mixtures. The codes are verified against available analytical and semi-analytical solutions. Their capabilities are demonstrated in a series of problems of increasing complexity, ranging from isothermal flow in simpler 1D and 2D conventional gas reservoirs, to non-isothermal gas flow in 3D fractured shale gas reservoirs involving 4 types of fractures, micro-flow, non-Darcy flow and gas

  7. The RealGas and RealGasH2O Options of the TOUGH+ Code for the Simulation of Coupled Fluid and Heat Flow in Tight/Shale Gas Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, George; Freeman, Craig

    2013-09-30

    We developed two new EOS additions to the TOUGH+ family of codes, the RealGasH2O and RealGas . The RealGasH2O EOS option describes the non-isothermal two-phase flow of water and a real gas mixture in gas reservoirs, with a particular focus in ultra-tight (such as tight-sand and shale gas) reservoirs. The gas mixture is treated as either a single-pseudo-component having a fixed composition, or as a multicomponent system composed of up to 9 individual real gases. The RealGas option has the same general capabilities, but does not include water, thus describing a single-phase, dry-gas system. In addition to the standard capabilities of all members of the TOUGH+ family of codes (fully-implicit, compositional simulators using both structured and unstructured grids), the capabilities of the two codes include: coupled flow and thermal effects in porous and/or fractured media, real gas behavior, inertial (Klinkenberg) effects, full micro-flow treatment, Darcy and non-Darcy flow through the matrix and fractures of fractured media, single- and multi-component gas sorption onto the grains of the porous media following several isotherm options, discrete and fracture representation, complex matrix-fracture relationships, and porosity-permeability dependence on pressure changes. The two options allow the study of flow and transport of fluids and heat over a wide range of time frames and spatial scales not only in gas reservoirs, but also in problems of geologic storage of greenhouse gas mixtures, and of geothermal reservoirs with multi-component condensable (H2O and CH4) and non-condensable gas mixtures. The codes are verified against available analytical and semi-analytical solutions. Their capabilities are demonstrated in a series of problems of increasing complexity, ranging from isothermal flow in simpler 1D and 2D conventional gas reservoirs, to non-isothermal gas flow in 3D fractured shale gas reservoirs involving 4 types of fractures, micro-flow, non-Darcy flow and gas

  8. Managing gas plant margins through the financial commodities market

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, D.; Lafferty, L.

    1995-12-31

    Gas processors invest capital in gas plants to condition raw natural gas for market. They also attempt to upgrade the value of natural gas streams by removing gas liquids contained in these streams and selling them for a profit. Unfortunately, this is not always possible. Gas processing profit margins swing up and down in line with the volatility of the natural gas and gas liquids markets. Consequently the return on gas processors invested capital also swings up and down through ``good years`` and ``bad years``. Until recently, gas processors have had to bear the risk associated with these swings in margins. While an efficient market exists for products like crude oil on the New York Mercantile Exchange, no similar market has been available for gas liquids. The NYMEX propane contract has not developed sufficient liquidity for year round hedging of propane, much less the other gas liquids. Processors in regions without access to the Belvieu market encounter an even more difficult task attempting to use the NYMEX contract to hedge. Today this inability to manage risk is beginning to change. The natural gas markets have led the way since their deregulation with an actively traded over-the-counter forwards market firmly established. An over-the-counter forwards market for gas liquids has also started to emerge. It is through these new and emerging markets that a gas plant`s profitability can be hedged.

  9. Managing gas plant margins through the financial commodities markets

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, D.; Lafferty, L.

    1995-11-01

    Gas processors invest capital in gas plants to condition raw natural gas for market. They also attempt to upgrade the value of natural gas stream by removing gas liquids contained in these streams and selling them for a profit. Unfortunately, this is not always possible. Gas processing profit margins swing up and down in the line with the volatility of the natural gas and gas liquids markets. Consequently the return on gas processors invested capital also swings up and down through ``good years`` and ``bad years.`` Until recently, gas processors have had to bear the risk associated with these swings in margins. While an efficient market exists for products like crude oil on the New York Mercantile Exchange, no similar market has been available for gas liquids. The NYMEX propane contract has not developed sufficient liquidity for year round hedging of propane, much less the other gas liquids. Processors in regions without access to the Belvieu market encounter an even more difficult task attempting to use the NYMEX contract to hedge. Today this inability to manage risk is beginning to change. The natural gas markets have led the way since their deregulation with an actively traded over-the-counter forwards market firmly established. An over-the-encounter forward market for gas liquids has also started to emerge. It is through these new and emerging markets that a gas plant`s profitability can be hedged.

  10. Assessing management options to reduce water temperatures in regulated rivers of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike, A.; Danner, E.; Boughton, D. A.; Harrison, L.

    2014-12-01

    In many regulated rivers throughout the western United States, deliberate management of water temperature below reservoirs is crucial to the survival of endangered salmonids. However, management options at reservoirs are often limited to adjusting either the flow volume and/or release temperature to alter the downstream water temperature. Here we investigate the efficacy of this approach in three major regulated rivers in California: the Sacramento River, the Klamath River, and the St. Ynez River. We use a 1-dimensional water temperature model (RAFT) to compute heat fluxes to/from the river based on meteorological conditions, channel bathymetry, and reservoir releases. A sensitivity analysis evaluates the thermal response of the river to reservoir releases during summertime flow conditions. Results indicate that the water temperature dynamics downstream of reservoirs vary between rivers. Although both the Sacramento and Klamath Rivers exhibit cooling in response to increased flows, the Sacramento River is cooled more effectively by decreasing the release temperature. In contrast, increased flow rate in the St. Ynez River does not as strongly influence downstream temperatures due to shallower flows combined with significant thermal buffering already provided by deep alluvial streambed.

  11. Preeclampsia – Aetiology, Current Diagnostics and Clinical Management, New Therapy Options and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tallarek, A.-C.; Huppertz, B.; Stepan, H.

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a multisystem disease for which the exact causes have not yet been sufficiently clarified. However, in the past few years it has become clear that a placental imbalance between angiogenic and anti-angiogenic proteins is the decisive pathogenetic factor for the occurrence of preeclampsia. With the possibility to measure these angiogenic factors (sFlt-1/PlGF ratio) in maternal blood full new diagnostic possibilities have been opened that enable the certain diagnosis or exclusion of the diseases as well as a short-term prognosis to be made. In secondary prevention the current data situation for ASA confirms a moderate but measurable utility. The management concept depends on gestational age. In the case of early clinical manifestations (< 34th week of pregnancy) the clinical management in a perinatal centre remains unchanged with foeto-maternal monitoring and induction of pulmonary maturation, symptomatic therapy under careful blood pressure lowering and determination of the optimal delivery time. A balance must be made here between foetal immaturity and maternal risks upon prolongations. The pathomechanism of anti-angiogenic overload with sFlt-1 provides a starting point for first therapeutic interventions. The present article gives an overview of current diagnostic options and presents possible future therapeutic perspectives for discussion. PMID:26640284

  12. Axillary radiotherapy: an alternative treatment option for adjuvant axillary management of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Axillary lymph node dissection is standard management of axilla in invasive breast cancer. Radiotherapy also is important in local treatment. It is controversial as to whether axillary radiotherapy can displace axillary lymph node dissection. We performed a meta-analysis comparing axillary radiotherapy with axillary dissection. No significant difference was observed for disease free survival and overall survival between the radiation group and the dissection group. There was also no significant difference in either the axillary recurrence or the local recurrence between the two groups. But the axillary relapse rate in the radiation group was higher than in the surgery group at five-year follow-up while the local recurrence rate in the surgery group was higher than in the radiation group. A subgroup analysis showed that the difference in the axillary recurrence rate (RR = 0.20, P = 0.01) and local recurrence rate (RR = 4.7, P = 0.01) mainly appeared in the clinical node-positive subgroup. The edema rate in the surgery group was higher than in the radiation group (RR = 2.08, 95%: 1.71–2.54, P < 0.0001). We concluded that radiotherapy may be an alternative treatment option for adjuvant management of the axilla in selected sub-groups of patients. PMID:27212421

  13. Sustainability and energy development: influences of greenhouse gas emission reduction options on water use in energy production.

    PubMed

    Cooper, D Craig; Sehlke, Gerald

    2012-03-20

    Climate change mitigation strategies cannot be evaluated solely in terms of energy cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential. Maintaining GHGs at a "safe" level will require fundamental change in the way we approach energy production, and a number of environmental, economic, and societal factors will come into play. Water is an essential component of energy production, and water resource constraints will limit our options for meeting society's growing demand for energy while also reducing GHG emissions. This study evaluates these potential constraints from a global perspective by revisiting the climate wedges proposal of Pacala and Socolow (Science2004, 305 (5686), 968-972) and evaluating the potential water-use impacts of the wedges associated with energy production. GHG mitigation options that improve energy conversion or use efficiency can simultaneously reduce GHG emissions, lower energy costs, and reduce energy impacts on water resources. Other GHG mitigation options (e.g., carbon capture and sequestration, traditional nuclear, and biofuels from dedicated energy crops) increase water requirements for energy. Achieving energy sustainability requires deployment of alternatives that can reduce GHG emissions, water resource impacts, and energy costs. PMID:22283709

  14. Use of population viability analysis to evaluate CITES trade-management options for threatened marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Janelle M R; Vincent, Amanda C J

    2008-10-01

    Achieving multiple conservation objectives can be challenging, particularly under high uncertainty. Having agreed to limit seahorse (Hippocampus) exports to sustainable levels, signatories to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) were offered the option of a single 10-cm minimum size limit (MSL) as an interim management measure for all Hippocampus species (> or =34). Although diverse stakeholders supported the recommended MSL, its biological and socioeconomic implications were not assessed quantitatively. We combined population viability analysis, model sensitivity analysis, and economic information to evaluate the trade-off between conservation threat to and long-term cumulative income from these exploited marine fishes of high conservation concern. We used the European long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus) as a representative species to compare the performance of MSLs set at alternative biological reference points. Our sensitivity analyses showed that in most of our scenarios, setting the MSL just above size at maturity (9.7 cm in H. guttulatus) would not prevent exploited populations from becoming listed as vulnerable. By contrast, the relative risk of decline and extinction were almost halved--at a cost of only a 5.6% reduction in long-term catches--by increasing the MSL to the size reached after at least one full reproductive season. On the basis of our analysis, a precautionary increase in the MSL could be compatible with sustaining fishers' livelihoods and international trade. Such management tactics that aid species conservation and have minimal effects on long term catch trends may help bolster the case for CITES trade management of other valuable marine fishes. PMID:18680503

  15. Measuring and managing reservoir greenhouse gas emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with a heat trapping capacity 34 times greater than that of carbon dioxide on a 100 year time scale. Known anthropogenic CH4 sources include livestock production, rice agriculture, landfills, and natural gas...

  16. The Management Options of Water for the Development of Agriculture in Dry Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irshad, M.; Inoue, M.; Ashraf, M.; Al-Busaidi, A.

    . Without action, it has been reported that in 2025, two thirds of the world=s population would live in water stressed areas. One of the actions necessary to help avert water crisis is to educate people as to the value of this precious resource. A productive water-use system in arid and semiarid areas, where the annual rainfall is scanty, the evaporation rate is higher than precipitation and characterizes insufficient renewable water resources, is the urgent need of the farmers. This study reviews options available for improved utilization and management of water resources and examines the future prospects of sustainable agriculture in water scarce areas.

  17. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Optional SO2 Emissions Data Protocol for Gas-Fired and Oil-Fired Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for Gas-Fired and Oil-Fired Units D Appendix D to Part 75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Pt. 75, App. D Appendix D to Part 75—Optional SO2 Emissions Data Protocol for Gas-Fired and Oil-Fired Units 1....

  18. Federal and Indian oil and gas royalty valuation and management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This book covers: Royalty management-an M.M.S. overview; Payor/operator/lessee royalty liability; Royalty issues for OCS lessees; Royalty valuation procedures; Gas marketing royalty issues - industry perspective; Gas marketing royalty issues - M.M.S. perspective; Settlements of gas contract disputes Royalty reporting issues; Production reporting issues; Indian royalty issues; Litigation/regulatory updates; Over/under production on federal leases, units, and communitized areas; Audit program; and M.M.S. Reference Handbook.

  19. Toward a protocol for quantifying the greenhouse gas balance and identifying mitigation options in smallholder farming systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenstock, T. S.; Rufino, M. C.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Wollenberg, E.

    2013-06-01

    Globally, agriculture is directly responsible for 14% of annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and induces an additional 17% through land use change, mostly in developing countries (Vermeulen et al 2012). Agricultural intensification and expansion in these regions is expected to catalyze the most significant relative increases in agricultural GHG emissions over the next decade (Smith et al 2008, Tilman et al 2011). Farms in the developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia are predominately managed by smallholders, with 80% of land holdings smaller than ten hectares (FAO 2012). One can therefore posit that smallholder farming significantly impacts the GHG balance of these regions today and will continue to do so in the near future. However, our understanding of the effect smallholder farming has on the Earth's climate system is remarkably limited. Data quantifying existing and reduced GHG emissions and removals of smallholder production systems are available for only a handful of crops, livestock, and agroecosystems (Herrero et al 2008, Verchot et al 2008, Palm et al 2010). For example, fewer than fifteen studies of nitrous oxide emissions from soils have taken place in sub-Saharan Africa, leaving the rate of emissions virtually undocumented. Due to a scarcity of data on GHG sources and sinks, most developing countries currently quantify agricultural emissions and reductions using IPCC Tier 1 emissions factors. However, current Tier 1 emissions factors are either calibrated to data primarily derived from developed countries, where agricultural production conditions are dissimilar to that in which the majority of smallholders operate, or from data that are sparse or of mixed quality in developing countries (IPCC 2006). For the most part, there are insufficient emissions data characterizing smallholder agriculture to evaluate the level of accuracy or inaccuracy of current emissions estimates. Consequentially, there is no reliable information on the agricultural

  20. Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J C; Haut, R; Jahn, G; Goldman, J; Colvin, J; Karpinski, A; Dobley, A; Halfinger, J; Nagley, S; Wolf, K; Shapiro, A; Doucette, P; Hansen, P; Oke, A; Compton, D; Cobb, M; Kopps, R; Chitwood, J; Spence, W; Remacle, P; Noel, C; Vicic, J; Dee, R

    2010-02-19

    An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore, enhances the energy security of the United States in a green and environmentally friendly manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate alternatives and recommend equipment to develop into hybrid energy conversion and storage systems for deep ocean operations. Such power systems will be located on the ocean floor and will be used to power offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations. Such power systems will be located on the oceans floor, and will be used to supply oil and gas exploration activities, as well as drilling operations required to harvest petroleum reserves. The following conceptual hybrid systems have been identified as candidates for powering sub-surface oil and gas production operations: (1) PWR = Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor + Lead-Acid Battery; (2) FC1 = Line for Surface O{sub 2} + Well Head Gas + Reformer + PEMFC + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (3) FC2 = Stored O2 + Well Head Gas + Reformer + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (4) SV1 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (5) SV2 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Engine or Turbine + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (6) SV3 = Submersible Vehicle + Charge at Docking Station + ZEBRA & Li-Ion Batteries; (7) PWR TEG = PWR + Thermoelectric Generator + Lead-Acid Battery; (8) WELL TEG = Thermoelectric Generator + Well Head Waste Heat + Lead-Acid Battery; (9) GRID = Ocean Floor Electrical Grid + Lead-Acid Battery; and (10) DOC = Deep Ocean Current + Lead-Acid Battery.

  1. Changing Climate, Challenging Choices: Identifying and Evaluating Climate Change Adaptation Options for Protected Areas Management in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemieux, Christopher J.; Scott, Daniel J.

    2011-10-01

    Climate change will pose increasingly significant challenges to managers of parks and other forms of protected areas around the world. Over the past two decades, numerous scientific publications have identified potential adaptations, but their suitability from legal, policy, financial, internal capacity, and other management perspectives has not been evaluated for any protected area agency or organization. In this study, a panel of protected area experts applied a Policy Delphi methodology to identify and evaluate climate change adaptation options across the primary management areas of a protected area agency in Canada. The panel identified and evaluated one hundred and sixty five (165) adaptation options for their perceived desirability and feasibility. While the results revealed a high level of agreement with respect to the desirability of adaptation options and a moderate level of capacity pertaining to policy formulation and management direction, a perception of low capacity for implementation in most other program areas was identified. A separate panel of senior park agency decision-makers used a multiple criterion decision-facilitation matrix to further evaluate the institutional feasibility of the 56 most desirable adaptation options identified by the initial expert panel and to prioritize them for consideration in a climate change action plan. Critically, only two of the 56 adaptation options evaluated by senior decision-makers were deemed definitely implementable, due largely to fiscal and internal capacity limitations. These challenges are common to protected area agencies in developed countries and pervade those in developing countries, revealing that limited adaptive capacity represents a substantive barrier to biodiversity conservation and other protected area management objectives in an era of rapid climate change.

  2. Miscellaneous: Uruguay energy supply options study assessing the market for natural gas - executive summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Conzelmann, G.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-03-04

    Uruguay is in the midst of making critical decisions affecting the design of its future energy supply system. Momentum for change is expected to come from several directions, including recent and foreseeable upgrades and modifications to energy conversion facilities, the importation of natural gas from Argentina, the possibility for a stronger interconnection of regional electricity systems, the country's membership in MERCOSUR, and the potential for energy sector reforms by the Government of Uruguay. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of several fuel diversification strategies on Uruguay's energy supply system. The analysis pays special attention to fuel substitution trends due to potential imports of natural gas via a gas pipeline from Argentina and increasing electricity ties with neighboring countries. The Government of Uruguay has contracted with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to study several energy development scenarios with the support of several Uruguayan institutions. Specifically, ANL was asked to conduct a detailed energy supply and demand analysis, develop energy demand projections based on an analysis of past energy demand patterns with support from local institutions, evaluate the effects of potential natural gas imports and electricity exchanges, and determine the market penetration of natural gas under various scenarios.

  3. Hydrological services and biodiversity conservation under forestation scenarios: comparing options to improve watershed management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho-Santos, Claudia; Nunes, João Pedro; Sousa-Silva, Rita; Gonçalves, João; Pradinho Honrado, João

    2015-04-01

    Humans rely on ecosystems for the provision of hydrological services, namely water supply and water damage mitigation, and promoting forests is a widely used management strategy for the provision of hydrological services. Therefore, it is important to model how forests will contribute for this provision, taking into account the environmental characteristics of each region, as well as the spatio-temporal patterns of societal demand. In addition, ensuring forest protection and the delivery of forest ecosystem services is one of the aims included in the European Union biodiversity strategy to 2020. On the other hand, forest management for hydrological services must consider possible trade-offs with other services provision, as well as with biodiversity conservation. Accurate modeling and mapping of both hydrological services and biodiversity conservation value is thus important to support spatial planning and land management options involving forests. The objectives of this study were: to analyze the provision and spatial dynamics of hydrological services under two forest cover change scenarios (oak and eucalyptus/pine) compared to the current shrubland-dominated landscape; and to evaluate their spatial trade-offs with biodiversity conservation value. The Vez watershed (250km2), in northwest Portugal, was used as case-study area. SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was applied to simulate the provision of hydrological services (water supply quantity, timing and quality; soil erosion and flood regulation), and was calibrated against daily discharge, sediments, nitrates and evapotranspiration. Good agreement was obtained between model predictions and field measurements. The maps for each service under the different scenarios were produced at the Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU) level. Biodiversity conservation value was based on nature protection regimes and on expert valuation applied to a land cover map. Statistical correlations between hydrological services provision

  4. Acute vasculitis resulting in free flap failure: the importance of early recognition and options for management.

    PubMed

    Brennan, P A; Colbert, S; Spedding, A V; Herd, M K; Mellor, T K; Anand, R; McCrae, F

    2012-11-01

    Unusual or unexpected medical causes for free flap failure do occur but are uncommon. We present a rare case of a fibula free flap failure due to an acute vasculitis which was undiagnosed until after the flap had failed. In addition to two successful flap salvages and intravenous heparin, an epoprostenol infusion was commenced but a third salvage was not successful. The vasculitis resulted in marked blood vessel wall thickening, and cutaneous manifestations which presented as late signs. High peri-nuclear anti nuclear cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA) and myeloperoxidase (MOP) titres were subsequently found and histology from several blood vessels showed marked inflammation throughout the wall. A diagnosis of microscopic polyangiitis was made and high dose steroids were subsequently commenced. Interestingly, he had vasculitis several years previously treated with oral steroids but had been discharged from the rheumatology clinic. This rare case illustrates the potential hazards of free flap surgery in the vasculitides and discusses the warning signs and various management options to reduce the likelihood of flap failure in these patients. PMID:22534125

  5. Bariatric to metabolic surgery: management options and experience at a tertiary centre.

    PubMed

    Raj, P Praveen; Chandramaliteeswaran, C; Senthilnathan, P; Asokan, S; Palanivelu, C

    2010-10-01

    Obesity proves to be a growing pandemic with severe health and economic implications. Bariatric surgeries are now recognised as metabolic surgeries given the excellent resolution of metabolic derangements accompanying obesity. This concept of metabolic surgery is now applied to non-obese population with metabolic disorders. The type II diabetes mellitus remission rates as high as 95% have been reported, least with restrictive procedures and maximum with malabsorptive procedures and such effect occurs even before substantial weight loss. This has led to increased understanding of diabetes pathophysiology and formulation of foregut and hindgut hypothesis. The aim of this study was to briefly review the management options for morbid obesity and present the results at a high volume centre. Data from 518 patients who underwent laparoscopic bariatric surgeries at this institute since 2002 were taken up for analysis retrospectively. Study population included 518 patients with 310 males and 208 females. Excess body weight loss and comorbidity resolution rates were analysed. Laparoscopic bariatric surgery is safe and effective for excess body weight loss and confers excellent resolution of associated comorbidities. PMID:21510546

  6. Poor response to clopidogrel: current and future options for its management.

    PubMed

    Campo, Gianluca; Fileti, Luca; Valgimigli, Marco; Tebaldi, Matteo; Cangiano, Elisa; Cavazza, Caterina; Marchesini, Jlenia; Ferrari, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    Antiplatelet therapy is the cornerstone of treatment for patients with acute coronary syndromes and/or undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Clopidogrel, a thienopyridine antiplatelet agent, has been used to prevent vascular complication in atherothrombotic patients, to prevent stent thrombosis in patients undergoing PCI, and in long term prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. More than 40 million patients in the world receive clopidogrel but unfortunately about 20% of these are either non or poor responders. Several methods have been used to assess clopidogrel-induced antiplatelet effects. However, none of these tests have been fully standardized or fully agreed upon to measure clopidogrel responsiveness. Nevertheless, many studies using different techniques, platelet agonists and definitions, showed that patients with a poor response to clopidogrel have an increased risk of death, reinfarction and stent thrombosis. The mechanisms leading to poor responsiveness are not fully clarified and are likely multifactorial: genetic factors, accelerated platelet turnover, up-regulation of the P2Y(12) pathways, high baseline platelet reactivity, poor compliance, under-dosing and drug-drug interactions. The management of these patients is very difficult, but some evidence showed that a strategy of higher maintenance dose or switch to different thienopyridine (e.g. ticlopidine or prasugrel) or use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors during PCI may be helpful to overcome poor responsiveness and improve the long-term clinical outcome. This paper reviews the impact of clopidogrel poor responsiveness on clinical outcomes, the mechanisms leading to poor effect and the different assays to assess it. Finally, current and future options for its management is discussed. PMID:20157839

  7. Reactor-based management of used nuclear fuel: assessment of major options.

    PubMed

    Finck, Phillip J; Wigeland, Roald A; Hill, Robert N

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the current status of the ongoing Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program in the U.S. Department of Energy that is investigating the potential for using the processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel to improve radioactive waste management, including used fuel. A key element of the strategies is to use nuclear reactors for further irradiation of recovered chemical elements to transmute certain long-lived highly-radioactive isotopes into less hazardous isotopes. Both thermal and fast neutron spectrum reactors are being studied as part of integrated nuclear energy systems where separations, transmutation, and disposal are considered. Radiotoxicity is being used as one of the metrics for estimating the hazard of used fuel and the processing of wastes resulting from separations and recycle-fuel fabrication. Decay heat from the used fuel and/or wastes destined for disposal is used as a metric for use of a geologic repository. Results to date indicate that the most promising options appear to be those using fast reactors in a repeated recycle mode to limit buildup of higher actinides, since the transuranic elements are a key contributor to the radiotoxicity and decay heat. Using such an approach, there could be much lower environmental impact from the high-level waste as compared to direct disposal of the used fuel, but there would likely be greater generation of low-level wastes that will also require disposal. An additional potential waste management benefit is having the ability to tailor waste forms and contents to one or more targeted disposal environments (i.e., to be able to put waste in environments best-suited for the waste contents and forms). PMID:21399411

  8. Greenhouse gas emission mitigation relevant to changes in municipal solid waste management system.

    PubMed

    Pikoń, Krzysztof; Gaska, Krzysztof

    2010-07-01

    Standard methods for assessing the environmental impact of waste management systems are needed to underpin the development and implementation of sustainable waste management practice. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool for comprehensively ensuring such assessment and covers all impacts associated with waste management. LCA is often called "from cradle to grave" analysis. This paper integrates information on the greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of various management options for some of the most common materials in municipal solid waste (MSW). Different waste treatment options for MSW were studied in a system analysis. Different combinations of recycling (cardboard, plastics, glass, metals), biological treatment (composting), and incineration as well as land-filling were studied. The index of environmental burden in the global warming impact category was calculated. The calculations are based on LCA methodology. All emissions taking place in the whole life cycle system were taken into account. The analysis included "own emissions," or emissions from the system at all stages of the life cycle, and "linked emissions," or emissions from other sources linked with the system in an indirect way. Avoided emissions caused by recycling and energy recovery were included in the analysis. Displaced emissions of GHGs originate from the substitution of energy or materials derived from waste for alternative sources. The complex analysis of the environmental impact of municipal waste management systems before and after application of changes in MSW systems according to European Union regulations is presented in this paper. The evaluation is made for MSW systems in Poland. PMID:20681425

  9. A Study on Optimized Management Options for the Wolsong Low- and Intermediate - Level Waste Disposal Center in Korea - 13479

    SciTech Connect

    Park, JooWan; Kim, DongSun; Choi, DongEun

    2013-07-01

    The safe and effective management of radioactive waste is a national task required for sustainable generation of nuclear power and for energy self-reliance in Korea. Currently, for permanent disposal of low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW), the Wolsong LILW Disposal Center (WLDC) is under construction. It will accommodate a total of 800,000 drums at the final stage after stepwise expansion. As an implementing strategy for cost-effective development of the WLDC, various disposal options suitable for waste classification schemes would be considered. It is also needed an optimized management of the WLDC by taking a countermeasure of volume reduction treatment. In this study, various management options to be applied to each waste class are analyzed in terms of its inventory and disposal cost. For the volume reduction and stabilization of waste, the vitrification and plasma melting methods are considered for combustible and incombustible waste, respectively. (authors)

  10. Marine management efforts for the Pagerungan gas development

    SciTech Connect

    Hamzah, A.; Saleh, A.A.; Budhi, T.S.

    1996-12-31

    ARCO and Pertamina in Indonesia have developed and are producing from gas reserves in the Pagerungan Field. The substantial commercial gas reserves of Pagerungan Field were discovered 1985. The gas producing facilities were built in 1991-1993 on Pagerungan and were designed for 350 MMSCFD of dry gas and 3,500 bbl/day of condensate. About 9 of the 16 planned wells are producing. The gas and condensate sales commenced on January 1994. In Pagerungan island, the aquatic marine environment plays an important role in sustaining organisms which in turn provide both employment and business opportunities for the local people. The Pagerungan gas development has been completed with a series of environmental studies. The studies point out that the development is likely to have a significant impact on the marine environment. For this reason, the company are responsible for managing and monitoring these possible effects and taking action to mitigate potential or actual problems.

  11. A decision support tool to prioritize risk management options for contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Sorvari, Jaana; Seppälä, Jyri

    2010-03-15

    The decisions on risk management (RM) of contaminated sites in Finland have typically been driven by practical factors such as time and money. However, RM is a multifaceted task that generally involves several additional determinants, e.g. performance and environmental effects of remediation methods, psychological and social factors. Therefore, we adopted a multi-criteria decision analysis approach and developed a decision support tool (DST) that is viable in decision-making in such a complex situation. The basic components of the DST are based on the Dutch REC system. However, our DST is more case-specific and allows the consideration of the type, magnitude and scale of contamination, land use, environmental conditions and socio-cultural aspects (e.g. loss of cultural heritage, image aspects). The construction of the DST was started by structuring the decision problem using a value tree. Based on this work we adopted the Multi-Attribute Value Theory (MAVT) for data aggregation. The final DST was demonstrated by two model sites for which the RM alternatives and site-specific data were created on the basis of factual remediation projects and by interviewing experts. The demonstration of the DST was carried out in a workshop where representatives of different stakeholders were requested to rank and weight the decision criteria involved. To get information on the consistency of the ranking of the RM alternatives, we used different weighting techniques (ratio estimation and pair-wise weighting) and alternative ways to treat individual respondents' weights in calculating the preference scores for each RM alternative. These dissimilar approaches resulted in some differences in the preference order of the RM alternatives. The demonstration showed that attention has to be paid to the proper description of the site, the principles of the procedure and the decision criteria. Nevertheless, the procedure proved to enable efficient communication between different stakeholders

  12. Update on marine omega-3 fatty acids: management of dyslipidemia and current omega-3 treatment options.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Howard

    2013-10-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is currently the primary target in the management of dyslipidemia, and statins are first-line pharmacologic interventions. Adjunct therapy such as niacins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants, or cholesterol absorption inhibitors may be considered to help reduce cardiovascular risk. This review discusses the need for alternative adjunct treatment options and the potential place for omega-3 fatty acids as such. The cardiovascular benefits of fish consumption are attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and a variety of omega-3 fatty acid products are available with varied amounts of EPA and DHA. The product types include prescription drugs, food supplements, and medical foods sourced from fish, krill, algal and plant oils or purified from these oils. Two prescription omega-3 fatty acids are currently available, omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters (contains both EPA and DHA ethyl esters), and icosapent ethyl (IPE; contains high-purity EPA ethyl ester). A pharmaceutical containing free fatty acid forms of omega-3 is currently in development. Omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing EPA and DHA have been shown to increase LDL-C levels while IPE has been shown to lower triglyceride levels without raising LDL-C levels, alone or in combination with statin therapy. In addition, recent studies have not been able to demonstrate reduced cardiovascular risk following treatment with fibrates, niacins, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, or omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing both EPA and DHA in statin-treated patients; thus, there remains a need for further cardiovascular outcomes studies for adjunct therapy. PMID:24075771

  13. Production of Ceratonova shasta Myxospores from Salmon Carcasses: Carcass Removal Is Not a Viable Management Option.

    PubMed

    Foott, J S; Stone, R; Fogerty, R; True, K; Bolick, A; Bartholomew, J L; Hallett, S L; Buckles, G R; Alexander, J D

    2016-06-01

    ) and 2009 (1,799 carcasses removed) failed to measurably influence the DNA quantity of C. shasta in targeted waters. Combined with the high numbers of carcasses that contributed myxospores, we therefore deemed that this labor-intensive approach is not a viable management option to reduce the infectivity of C. shasta in Chinook Salmon in the Klamath River. Received January 23, 2015; accepted September 28, 2015. PMID:27064587

  14. ANALYSIS OF THE POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF TOXICS ON MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many alternative waste management practices and strategies are available to manage the large quantities of MSW generated every year. hese management alternatives include recycling, composting, waste-to-fuel/energy recovery, and landfilling. n choosing the best possible management...

  15. Management of a complex cavern storage facility for natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The Epe cavern storage facility operated by Ruhrgas AG has developed into one of the largest gas cavern storage facilities in the world. Currently, there are 32 caverns and 18 more are planned in the future. Working gas volume will increase from approximately 1.5 {times} 10{sup 9} to 2 {times} 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}. The stratified salt deposit containing the caverns has a surface area of approximately 7 km{sup 2} and is 250 m thick at the edge and 400 m thick in the center. Caverns are leached by a company that uses the recovered brine in the chlorine industry. Cavern dimensions are determined before leaching. The behavior of each cavern, as well as the thermodynamic properties of natural gas must be considered in cavern management. The full-length paper presents the components of a complex management system covering the design, construction, and operation of the Epe gas-storage caverns.

  16. Offsite commercial disposal of oil and gas exploration and production waste :availability, options, and cost.

    SciTech Connect

    Puder, M. G.; Veil, J. A.

    2006-09-05

    A survey conducted in 1995 by the American Petroleum Institute (API) found that the U.S. exploration and production (E&P) segment of the oil and gas industry generated more than 149 million bbl of drilling wastes, almost 18 billion bbl of produced water, and 21 million bbl of associated wastes. The results of that survey, published in 2000, suggested that 3% of drilling wastes, less than 0.5% of produced water, and 15% of associated wastes are sent to offsite commercial facilities for disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) collected information on commercial E&P waste disposal companies in different states in 1997. While the information is nearly a decade old, the report has proved useful. In 2005, Argonne began collecting current information to update and expand the data. This report describes the new 2005-2006 database and focuses on the availability of offsite commercial disposal companies, the prevailing disposal methods, and estimated disposal costs. The data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, state oil and gas regulatory officials in 31 states were contacted to determine whether their agency maintained a list of permitted commercial disposal companies dedicated to oil. In the second stage, individual commercial disposal companies were interviewed to determine disposal methods and costs. The availability of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities falls into three categories. The states with high oil and gas production typically have a dedicated network of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities in place. In other states, such an infrastructure does not exist and very often, commercial disposal companies focus on produced water services. About half of the states do not have any industry-specific offsite commercial disposal infrastructure. In those states, operators take their wastes to local municipal landfills if permitted or haul the wastes to other states. This report provides state-by-state summaries of the

  17. MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR DWPF ALTERNATE REDUCTANT FLOWSHEET OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.

    2011-07-08

    Glycolic acid and sugar are being considered as potential candidates to substitute for much of the formic acid currently being added to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed as a reductant. A series of small-scale melter tests were conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) in January 2011 to collect necessary data for the assessment of the impact of these alternate reductants on the melter off-gas flammability. The DM10 melter with a 0.021 m{sup 2} melt surface area was run with three different feeds which were prepared at SRNL based on; (1) the baseline formic/nitric acid flowsheet, (2) glycolic/formic/nitric acid flowsheet, and (3) sugar/formic/nitric acid flowsheet - these feeds will be called the baseline, glycolic, and sugar flowsheet feeds, respectively, hereafter. The actual addition of sugar to the sugar flowsheet feed was made at VSL before it was fed to the melter. For each feed, the DM10 was run under both bubbled (with argon) and non-bubbled conditions at varying melter vapor space temperatures. The goal was to lower its vapor space temperature from nominal 500 C to less than 300 C at 50 C increments and maintain steady state at each temperature at least for one hour, preferentially for two hours, while collecting off-gas data including CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} concentrations. Just a few hours into the first test with the baseline feed, it was discovered that the DM10 vapor space temperature would not readily fall below 350 C simply by ramping up the feed rate as the test plan called for. To overcome this, ambient air was introduced directly into the vapor space through a dilution air damper in addition to the natural air inleakage occurring at the operating melter pressure of -1 inch H{sub 2}O. A detailed description of the DM10 run along with all the data taken is given in the report issued by VSL. The SRNL personnel have analyzed the DM10 data and identified 25 steady state periods lasting from 32 to 92 minutes for all

  18. Characterization of options and their analysis requirements for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrin, J.W.; Rosen, R.S.; Zoller, J.N.; Harri, J.W.; Schwertz, N.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is examining alternative strategies for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) currently stored at the gaseous diffusion plants at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky, and on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This paper describes the methodology for the comprehensive and ongoing technical analysis of the options being considered. An overview of these options, along with several of the suboptions being considered, is presented. The long-term management strategy alternatives fall into three broad categories: use, storage, or disposal. Conversion of the depleted UF6 to another form such as oxide or metal is needed to implement most of these alternatives. Likewise, transportation of materials is an integral part of constructing the complete pathway between the current storage condition and ultimate disposition. The analysis of options includes development of pre-conceptual designs; estimates of effluents, wastes, and emissions; specification of resource requirements; and preliminary hazards assessments. The results of this analysis will assist DOE in selecting a strategy by providing the engineering information necessary to evaluate the environmental impacts and costs of implementing the management strategy alternatives.

  19. A risk-based framework for water resource management under changing water availability, policy options, and irrigation expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Wheater, Howard; Gober, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    Long-term water resource management requires the capacity to evaluate alternative management options in the face of various sources of uncertainty in the future conditions of water resource systems. This study proposes a generic framework for determining the relative change in probabilistic characteristics of system performance as a result of changing water availability, policy options and irrigation expansion. These probabilistic characteristics can be considered to represent the risk of failure in the system performance due to the uncertainty in future conditions. Quantifying the relative change in the performance risk can provide a basis for understanding the effects of multiple changing conditions on the system behavior. This framework was applied to the water resource system of the Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB) in Saskatchewan, Canada. A "bottom-up" flow reconstruction algorithm was used to generate multiple realizations for water availability within a feasible range of change in streamflow characteristics. Consistent with observed data and projected change in streamflow characteristics, the historical streamflow was perturbed to stochastically generate feasible future flow sequences, based on various combinations of changing annual flow volume and timing of the annual peak. In addition, five alternative policy options, with and without potential irrigation expansion, were considered. All configurations of water availability, policy decisions and irrigation expansion options were fed into a hydro-economic water resource system model to obtain empirical probability distributions for system performance - here overall and sectorial net benefits - under the considered changes. Results show that no one specific policy can provide the optimal option for water resource management under all flow conditions. In addition, it was found that the joint impacts of changing water availability, policy, and irrigation expansion on system performance are complex and

  20. Blood gas strategies and management during pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Dee Ann

    2005-01-01

    Blood gas management during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass may be corrected by pH stat or alpha stat strategy. The pH stat philosophy is to maintain the blood pH constant at any temperature. Carbon dioxide must be introduced to the oxygenator in order to maintain the pH and pCO2 during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Conversely, during alpha stat blood gas management pH is maintained according to 37 degrees C despite the patient temperature. Alpha stat management preserves intracellular pH and autoregulation of cerebral vasculature by following the natural shift of the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve. In-line blood gas analysis is a practical tool in assessing adequate blood gas management, because this technology provides immediate detection for modification of air/oxygen/carbon dioxide parameters. Results from several studies favor the pH stat strategy during neonatal cardiopulmonary bypass. This strategy increases tissue oxygenation and cerebral blood flow while cooling. Data also suggest that pH stat management results in better outcomes with shorter ventilation times and intensive care unit stays after pediatric cardiac surgery. PMID:16322734

  1. DRUMS: Disk Repository with Update Management and Select option for high throughput sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background New technologies for analyzing biological samples, like next generation sequencing, are producing a growing amount of data together with quality scores. Moreover, software tools (e.g., for mapping sequence reads), calculating transcription factor binding probabilities, estimating epigenetic modification enriched regions or determining single nucleotide polymorphism increase this amount of position-specific DNA-related data even further. Hence, requesting data becomes challenging and expensive and is often implemented using specialised hardware. In addition, picking specific data as fast as possible becomes increasingly important in many fields of science. The general problem of handling big data sets was addressed by developing specialized databases like HBase, HyperTable or Cassandra. However, these database solutions require also specialized or distributed hardware leading to expensive investments. To the best of our knowledge, there is no database capable of (i) storing billions of position-specific DNA-related records, (ii) performing fast and resource saving requests, and (iii) running on a single standard computer hardware. Results Here, we present DRUMS (Disk Repository with Update Management and Select option), satisfying demands (i)-(iii). It tackles the weaknesses of traditional databases while handling position-specific DNA-related data in an efficient manner. DRUMS is capable of storing up to billions of records. Moreover, it focuses on optimizing relating single lookups as range request, which are needed permanently for computations in bioinformatics. To validate the power of DRUMS, we compare it to the widely used MySQL database. The test setting considers two biological data sets. We use standard desktop hardware as test environment. Conclusions DRUMS outperforms MySQL in writing and reading records by a factor of two up to a factor of 10000. Furthermore, it can work with significantly larger data sets. Our work focuses on mid-sized data

  2. Phytoremediation of hydrocarbon contaminants in subantarctic soils: an effective management option.

    PubMed

    Bramley-Alves, Jessica; Wasley, Jane; King, Catherine K; Powell, Shane; Robinson, Sharon A

    2014-09-01

    Accidental fuel spills on world heritage subantarctic Macquarie Island have caused considerable contamination. Due to the island's high latitude position, its climate, and its fragile ecosystem, traditional methods of remediation are unsuitable for on-site clean up. We investigated the tolerance of a subantarctic native tussock grass, Poa foliosa (Hook. f.), to Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) diesel fuel and its potential to reduce SAB fuel contamination via phytoremediation. Toxicity of SAB fuel to P. foliosa was assessed in an 8 month laboratory growth trial under growth conditions which simulated the island's environment. Single seedlings were planted into 1 L pots of soil spiked with SAB fuel at concentrations of 1000, 5 000, 10,000, 2000 and 40,000 mg/kg (plus control). Plants were harvested at 0, 2, 4 and 8 months and a range of plant productivity endpoints were measured (biomass production, plant morphology and photosynthetic efficiency). Poa foliosa was highly tolerant across all SAB fuel concentrations tested with respect to biomass, although higher concentrations of 20,000 and 40,000 mg SAB/kg soil caused slight reductions in leaf length, width and area. To assess the phytoremediation potential of P. foliosa (to 10 000 mg/kg), soil from the planted pots was compared with that from paired unplanted pots at each SAB fuel concentration. The effect of the plant on SAB fuel concentrations and the associated microbial communities found within the soil (total heterotrophs and hydrocarbon degraders) were compared between planted and unplanted treatments at the 0, 2, 4 and 8 month harvest periods. The presence of plants resulted in significantly less SAB fuel in soils at 2 months and a return to background concentration by 8 months. Microbes did not appear to be the sole driving force behind the observed hydrocarbon loss. This study provides evidence that phytoremediation using P. foliosa is a valuable remediation option for use at Macquarie Island, and may be

  3. Using the Cancer Risk Management Model to evaluate colorectal cancer screening options for Canada

    PubMed Central

    Coldman, A.J.; Phillips, N.; Brisson, J.; Flanagan, W.; Wolfson, M.; Nadeau, C.; Fitzgerald, N.; Miller, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several screening methods for colorectal cancer (crc) are available, and some have been shown by randomized trials to be effective. In the present study, we used a well-developed population health simulation model to compare the risks and benefits of a variety of screening scenarios. Tests considered were the fecal occult blood test (fobt), the fecal immunochemical test (fit), flexible sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy. Outcomes considered included years of life gained, crc cases and deaths prevented, and direct health system costs. Methods A natural history model of crc was implemented and calibrated to specified targets within the framework of the Cancer Risk Management Model (crmm) from the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer. The crmm-crc permits users to enter their own parameter values or to use program-specified base values. For each of 23 screening scenarios, we used the crmm-crc to run 10 million replicate simulations. Results Using base parameter values and some user-specified values in the crmm-crc, and comparing our screening scenarios with no screening, all screening scenarios were found to reduce the incidence of and mortality from crc. The fobt was the least effective test; it was not associated with lower net cost. Colonoscopy screening was the most effective test; it had net costs comparable to those for several other strategies considered, but required more than 3 times the colonoscopy resources needed by other approaches. After colonoscopy, strategies based on the fit were predicted to be the most effective. In sensitivity analyses performed for the fobt and fit screening strategies, fobt parameter values associated with high-sensitivity formulations were associated with a substantial increase in test effectiveness. The fit was more cost-effective at the 50 ng/mL threshold than at the 100 ng/mL threshold. Conclusions The crmm-crc provides a sophisticated and flexible environment in which to evaluate crc control options. All screening

  4. Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development

    SciTech Connect

    Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

    2002-09-01

    Accurate and verifiable emission reductions are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated emissions reductions. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG emission reduction can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs

  5. A cost-benefit analysis of produced water management opportunities in selected unconventional oil and gas plays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsters, P.; Macknick, J.; Bazilian, M.; Newmark, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas production in North America has grown enormously over the past decade. The combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has made production from shale and other unconventional resources economically attractive for oil and gas operators, but has also resulted in concerns over potential water use and pollution issues. Hydraulic fracturing operations must manage large volumes of water on both the front end as well as the back end of operations, as significant amounts of water are coproduced with hydrocarbons. This water--often called flowback or produced water--can contain chemicals from the hydraulic fracturing fluid, salts dissolved from the source rock, various minerals, volatile organic chemicals, and radioactive constituents, all of which pose potential management, safety, and public health issues. While the long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing on aquifers, drinking water supplies, and surface water resources are still being assessed, the immediate impacts of produced water on local infrastructure and water supplies are readily evident. Produced water management options are often limited to underground injection, disposal at centralized treatment facilities, or recycling for future hydraulic fracturing operations. The costs of treatment, transport, and recycling are heavily dependent on local regulations, existing infrastructure, and technologies utilized. Produced water treatment costs also change over time during energy production as the quality of the produced water often changes. To date there is no publicly available model that evaluates the cost tradeoffs associated with different produced water management techniques in different regions. This study addresses that gap by characterizing the volume, qualities, and temporal dynamics of produced water in several unconventional oil and gas plays; evaluating potential produced water management options, including reuse and recycling; and assessing how hydraulic

  6. Options for management of municipal solid waste in New York City: A preliminary comparison of health risks and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Pearl; Krishnan, Nikhil; Ulloa, Priscilla; Cohen, Steven; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    Landfill disposal and waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration remain the two principal options for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). One critical determinant of the acceptability of these options is the different health risks associated with each. In this analysis relying on published data and exposure modeling, we have performed health risk assessments for landfill disposal versus WTE treatment options for the management of New York City’s MSW. These are based on the realistic scenario of using a waste transfer station (WTS) in Brooklyn and then transporting the untreated MSW by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania or using a WTE facility in Brooklyn and then transporting the resultant ash by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania. The overall results indicate that the individual cancer risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, although the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment; the individual non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally unacceptable, although once again the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment. If one considers only the population in Brooklyn that would be directly affected by the siting of either a WTS or a WTE facility in their immediate neighborhood, individual cancer and non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, but risks for the former remain considerably higher than for the latter. These results should be considered preliminary due to several limitations of this study such as: consideration of risks only from inhalation exposures; assumption that only volume and not composition of the waste stream is altered by WTE treatment; reliance on data from the literature rather than actual measurements of the sites considered, assuming comparability of the sites. However, the results of studies such as this, in conjunction with ecological, socioeconomic and equity considerations

  7. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 75 - Optional NOX Emissions Estimation Protocol for Gas-Fired Peaking Units and Oil-Fired Peaking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Optional NOX Emissions Estimation Protocol for Gas-Fired Peaking Units and Oil-Fired Peaking Units E Appendix E to Part 75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS...

  8. EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION OF LANDFILL GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives information on emerging technologies that are considered to be commercially available (Tier 1), currently undergoing research and development (Tier 2), or considered as potentially applicable (Tier 3) for the management of landfill gas (LFG) emissions or for the ...

  9. Life cycle greenhouse gas impacts of grassland management practice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass from conservation and dedicated grasslands could be an important feedstock for biofuels. Estimating the carbon (C) intensity of biofuel production pathways is important in order to meet greenhouse gas (GHG) targets set by government policy. Management decisions made during feedstock producti...

  10. Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Control Technology Options within the Energy, Water and Food Nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ansari, Tareq; Korre, Anna; Nie, Zhenggang; Shah, Nilay

    2015-04-01

    The utilisation of Energy, Water and Food (EWF) resources can be described as a nexus of complex linkages embodied in industrial and natural processes. Food production is one such example of a system that mobilises EWF resources to deliver a product which is highly influenced by the efficiency of the industrial processes contributing to it and the conditions of the surrounding natural environment. Aggregating the utilisation of EWF resources into interconnected sub-systems is necessary for the accurate representation of the system's dynamics in terms of its material flow and resource consumption. The methodology used in this study is an extension of previous work developed regarding nexus analysis (Al-Ansari et al. 2014a, Al-Ansari et al. 2014b). Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to prepare detailed models of the sub-system components, determine the linkages between the different nexus constituents and evaluate impacts on the natural environment. The nexus system is comprised of water sub-systems represented by a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination process. Energy sub-systems for power generation include models for a combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) and solar Photovoltaics (PV) energy generation, as well as an amine based CO2 capture process enabling the utilisation of CO2 for the artificial fertilization of crops. The agricultural sub-systems include the production and application of fertilizers and the raising of livestock. A biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) for power generation using waste manure from the livestock sub-system is also included. The objective of this study is to consider a conventional food system in Qatar and enhance its environmental performance by using a nexus approach to examine different scenarios and operating modes. For the Qatar case study, three scenarios and four modes of operation were developed as part of the analysis. The baseline scenario uses fossil fuel to power the entire EWF nexus system using CCGT, the

  11. Environmental Monitoring and the Gas Industry: Program Manager Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory D. Gillispie

    1997-12-01

    This document has been developed for the nontechnical gas industry manager who has the responsibility for the development of waste or potentially contaminated soil and groundwater data or must make decisions based on such data for the management or remediation of these materials. It explores the pse of common analytical chemistry instrumentation and associated techniques for identification of environmentally hazardous materials. Sufficient detail is given to familiarize the nontechnical reader with the principles behind the operation of each technique. The scope and realm of the techniques and their constituent variations are portrayed through a discussion of crucial details and, where appropriate, the depiction of real-life data. It is the author's intention to provide an easily understood handbook for gas industry management. Techniques which determine the presence, composition, and quantification of gas industry wastes are discussed. Greater focus is given to traditional techniques which have been the mainstay of modem analytical benchwork. However, with the continual advancement of instrumental principles and design, several techniques have been included which are likely to receive greater attention in fiture considerations for waste-related detection. Definitions and concepts inherent to a thorough understanding of the principles common to analytical chemistry are discussed. It is also crucial that gas industry managers understand the effects of the various actions which take place before, during, and after the actual sampling step. When a series of sample collection, storage, and transport activities occur, new or inexperienced project managers may overlook or misunderstand the importance of the sequence. Each step has an impact on the final results of the measurement process; errors in judgment or decision making can be costly. Specific techniques and methodologies for the collection, storage, and transport of environmental media samples are not described or

  12. Using Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 To Find a Cost Effective Waste Management Option. - 12241

    SciTech Connect

    LaBarge, Matt; Frost, Matt

    2012-07-01

    The Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Project in Portsmouth Ohio was faced with an interesting dilemma. During hot functional testing in August 2010, an upset condition caused gaseous depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) to come in contact with the hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor stream. Although the resulting uranium contamination found in the condensed aqueous hydrofluoric acid was very low, it exceeded the Department of Energy (DOE) authorized release limit. After evaluating several commercial options for treatment and disposal using the guidelines found in DOE Order 435.1, Waste Control Specialists LLC was selected for the treatment of the waste, with EnergySolutions' Clive facility selected for disposal of the treated residues. The waste was safely transported from Piketon, Ohio to Andrews, Texas, where it was treated to meet the land Disposal Restrictions (LDR), and was disposed in EnergySolutions operational mixed waste cell. The entire effort was interesting for several reasons. The waste was generated during the last year of the first Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride contractor. The waste became additional scope for the new contractor, adding time delays and introducing new personnel into the project. The effort was also unique because it demonstrated the process mandated by DOE Order 435.1 to evaluate all options, including commercial options, could reveal solutions to waste management problems that are currently available and more cost effective, but not well know within the DOE complex. (authors)

  13. Many objective optimization and impact assessment of water management options in the Jaguaribe Basin of North East Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurford, A. P.; Huskova, I.; Matrosov, E.; Harou, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Jaguaribe river basin in the north east of Brazil lies in the country's driest state, Ceará. Rainfall is concentrated in six months of the year, evapotranspiration can reach 2000 mm per year and a high proportion of the population relies on irrigated agriculture for their subsistence or livelihood. The current water management strategy involves negotiating monthly release rates from each of the basin's three major reservoirs twice a year. The state water management company leads these negotiations with representatives of various water user groups; releases are decided based on the currently stored volume and limited modelling of release scenarios. Presently reservoirs are managed such that municipal demands are guaranteed for 30 months from the date of negotiation. We use multi-objective optimization to search for the pareto-optimal number of months of municipal demand to be guaranteed, and the shape of release rules (based on stored volume). System performance is assessed by comparing flow-duration curves and livelihood factors, such as riparian farm land availability and fishery quality , in addition to the satisfaction of demands in the region supplied by each reservoir. Historical monthly flows are used to simulate the system over 90 years. Results shows the trade-offs between different performance measures and the effects of management option combinations on different water users. A few climate change projections of reservoir inflows are used to assess how a selection of the resulting release rules might perform against the same measures under altered future hydrological conditions. The proposed approach helps planners evaluate the impacts of management options and allows finding balanced stakeholder-backed ways to reduce negative impacts on the environment and the region's vulnerable groups while maintaining overall system performance.

  14. Estimation and evaluation of management options to control and/or reduce the risk of not complying with commercial sterility.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Laure; Albert, Isabelle; Magras, Catherine; Johnson, Nicholas Brian; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2015-11-20

    In a previous study, a modular process risk model, from the raw material reception to the final product storage, was built to estimate the risk of a UHT-aseptic line of not complying with commercial sterility (Pujol et al., 2015). This present study was focused on demonstrating how the model (updated version with uncertainty and variability separated and 2(nd) order Monte Carlo procedure run) could be used to assess quantitatively the influence of management options. This assessment was done in three steps: pinpoint which process step had the highest influence on the risk, identify which management option(s) could be the most effective to control and/or reduce the risk, and finally evaluate quantitatively the influence of changing process setting(s) on the risk. For Bacillus cereus, it was identified that during post-process storage in an aseptic tank, there was potentially an air re-contamination due to filter efficiency loss (efficiency loss due to successive in-place sterilizations after cleaning operations), followed by B. cereus growth. Two options were then evaluated: i) reducing by one fifth of the number of filter sterilizations before renewing the filters, ii) designing new UHT-aseptic lines without an aseptic tank, i.e. without a storage period after the thermal process and before filling. Considering the uncertainty in the model, it was not possible to confirm whether these options had a significant influence on the risk associated with B. cereus. On the other hand, for Geobacillus stearothermophilus, combinations of heat-treatment time and temperature enabling the control or reduction in risk by a factor of ca. 100 were determined; for ease of operational implementation, they were presented graphically in the form of iso-risk curves. For instance, it was established that a heat treatment of 138°C for 31s (instead of 138°C for 25s) enabled a reduction in risk to 18×10(-8) (95% CI=[10; 34]×10(-8)), instead of 578×10(-8) (95% CI=[429; 754]×10

  15. Moomba Lower Daralingie Beds (LDB) gas storage project: Reservoir management using a novel numerical simulation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Jamal, F.G.

    1994-12-31

    Engineers managing underground gas storage projects are often faced with challenges involving gas migration, inventory variance, gas quality and inventory-pressures. This paper discusses a unique underground gas storage project where sales gas and ethane are stored in two different but communicating regions of the same reservoir. A commercially available reservoir simulator was used to model the fluid flow behavior in this reservoir, hence, providing a tool for better management and use of the existing gas storage facilities.

  16. Free-roaming dog populations: a cost-benefit model for different management options, applied to Abruzzo, Italy.

    PubMed

    Høgåsen, H R; Er, C; Di Nardo, A; Dalla Villa, P

    2013-11-01

    Since 1991, Italian free-roaming dogs have been under government protection and euthanasia is restricted by law. Management measures are regulated at the regional level and include: kennelling, adoptions, conversion of stray dogs into block dogs, and population control of owned dogs. "Block dogs" are free-roaming dogs that have been collected by the veterinary services, microchipped, sterilised, vaccinated, and released under the responsibility of the local municipalities. The present paper describes a cost-benefit model for different management options and applies it to two provinces in Abruzzo, central Italy. The model considers welfare, nuisance and direct costs to the municipality. Welfare is quantified based on the expert opinions of 60 local veterinarians, who were asked to assign a score for each dog category according to the five freedoms: freedom from pain, physical discomfort, disease, fear, and freedom to express normal behaviour. Nuisance was assessed only for comparisons between management options, using the number of free-roaming dogs per inhabitant as a proxy indicator. A community dog population model was constructed to predict the effect of management on the different subpopulations of dogs during a ten-year period. It is a user-friendly deterministic model in Excel, easily adaptable to different communities to assess the impact of their dog management policy on welfare, nuisance and direct monetary cost. We present results for Teramo and Pescara provinces. Today's management system is compared to alternative models, which evaluate the effect of specific interventions. These include either a 10% yearly increase in kennel capacity, an increase in adoptions from kennels, a doubling of the capture of stray dogs, or a stabilisation of the owned dog population. Results indicate that optimal management decisions are complex because welfare, nuisance and monetary costs may imply conflicting interventions. Nevertheless, they clearly indicate that

  17. Managing your gas processing plant: Fundamentalist, fashionable, farsighted or fantastic!

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, R.W.

    1999-07-01

    The challenges facing the gas processing industry have motivated managers to consider a variety of interesting new initiatives in managing a gas processing business. Using direct industry experience and a brief survey of participating companies, the author reviews the state of five popular programs that have become common cornerstones of many optimization and reengineering efforts in the gas processing business. Several lesser initiatives are also briefly discussed. The five major programs are: Maintenance Management, Field Information Handling, Work Process Optimization, Compensation Design, and Procurement Optimization. The success of these programs and initiatives depends greatly on the company culture in which they are implemented. Critical success factors and pitfalls are discussed for each program. Particular attention is paid to practical considerations that undermine idealistic theory. The conclusion is that the future belongs to the Farsighted, who will be able to mix equal parts of vision, intelligence, common sense, understanding of both human nature and the processing business, execution and determination into a formidable formula for success in the new world of gathering and processing.

  18. Life cycle assessment of three different management options for spent alkaline batteries.

    PubMed

    Xará, Susana; Almeida, Manuel Fonseca; Costa, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    The potential environmental impact of Landfilling, Incineration and Recycling of spent household alkaline batteries collected in continental Portugal was compared using LCA methodology and the Recipe Impact Assessment method. Major contributors and improvement opportunities for each system were identified and scenarios for 2012 and 2016 legislation targets were evaluated. For 13 out of the 18 impact categories, the Recycling system is the worst alternative, Incineration is the worst option for 4 and Landfill is the worst option only for one impact category. However if additionally in each system the recovery of materials and energy is taken into account there is a noticeable advantage of the Recycling system for all the impact categories. The environmental profiles for 2012 and 2016 scenarios (25% and 45% recycling rates, respectively) show the dominance of the Recycling system for most of the impact categories. Based on the results of this study, it is questioned whether there are environmental benefits of recycling abroad the household alkaline batteries collected in continental Portugal and, since the low environmental performance of the Recycling system is particularly due to the international transport of the batteries to the recycling plant, is foreseen that a recycling facility located in Portugal, could bring a positive contribution to the environmental impact of the legislation compliance. PMID:26119009

  19. Current management of fecal incontinence: Choosing amongst treatment options to optimize outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Van Koughnett, Julie Ann M; Wexner, Steven D

    2013-01-01

    The severity of fecal incontinence widely varies and can have dramatic devastating impacts on a person’s life. Fecal incontinence is common, though it is often under-reported by patients. In addition to standard treatment options, new treatments have been developed during the past decade to attempt to effectively treat fecal incontinence with minimal morbidity. Non-operative treatments include dietary modifications, medications, and biofeedback therapy. Currently used surgical treatments include repair (sphincteroplasty), stimulation (sacral nerve stimulation or posterior tibial nerve stimulation), replacement (artificial bowel sphincter or muscle transposition) and diversion (stoma formation). Newer augmentation treatments such as radiofrequency energy delivery and injectable materials, are minimally invasive tools that may be good options before proceeding to surgery in some patients with mild fecal incontinence. In general, more invasive surgical treatments are now reserved for moderate to severe fecal incontinence. Functional and quality of life related outcomes, as well as potential complications of the treatment must be considered and the treatment of fecal incontinence must be individualized to the patient. General indications, techniques, and outcomes profiles for the various treatments of fecal incontinence are discussed in detail. Choosing the most effective treatment for the individual patient is essential to achieve optimal outcomes in the treatment of fecal incontinence. PMID:24409050

  20. Flue Gas Desulfurization Information Resource Manager (FGDIRM) Software Reference Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    In response to the data management needs of utility FGD systems, EPRI has sponsored the development of a computer program, the FGD Information Resource Manager (FGDIRM), designed to help efficiently manage the data associated with an FGD system and to perform calculations essential for monitoring the performance of an FGD process. FGDIRM is an integrated software package consisting of five application programs -- the Laboratory Data Manager, the Process Data Manager, the Mass balance, the Data Presentations application, and the Configuration application -- each designed to address specific needs in FGD data management. FGDIRM may be run on IBM compatible personal computers with 512 kilobytes of main memory and a hard disk. Typical uses of FGDIRM would be to assist in the routine monitoring of an FGD system or to help with troubleshooting activities by ''recreating'' events based on historical data. By efficiently managing process chemistry data from flue gas desulfurization systems, the FGDIRM integrated soft ware package can contribute to improved system reliability, performance, and cost-effectiveness. Sample FGDIRM applications include monitoring, optimizing, and troubleshooting system performance.

  1. The contribution of waste management to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions with applications in the city of Bucharest.

    PubMed

    Sandulescu, Elena

    2004-12-01

    Waste management is a key process to protect the environment and conserve resources. The contribution of appropriate waste management measures to the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the city of Bucharest was studied. An analysis of the distribution of waste flows into various treatment options was conducted using the material flows and stocks analysis (MFSA). An optimum scenario (i.e. municipal solid waste stream managed as: recycling of recoverable materials, 8%; incineration of combustibles, 60%; landfilling of non-combustibles, 32%) was modelled to represent the future waste management in Bucharest with regard to its relevance towards the potential for GHG reduction. The results indicate that it can contribute by 5.5% to the reduction of the total amount of GHGs emitted from Bucharest. PMID:15666445

  2. Estimating gas kick arrival to better manage surface flow

    SciTech Connect

    Merryman, J.

    1997-06-01

    There are many quality, expertly designed programs for teaching rig crews prevention and control of well kicks. Much time and money has been spent training rig crews for procedures and methods to avoid kicks, and what to do if you have one, even though all accepted practices were followed. One false/bad result from this training is that individuals have come away from this training believing that once a gas kick is circulated through the choke, all problems are simple and manageable, i.e., the danger has passed. What you do with gas once it is downstream of the choke has not been given enough emphasis in some training programs, including the one the author is involved in. This article, prepared from experiences on actual rig locations in Wyoming and Argentina, and developed for well control training in Parker Drilling Co.`s Training Center, Odessa, Texas, describes a method for estimating the time, in pump strokes and/or minutes, for a gas kick to reach surface. Reducing pump strokes (circulating flowrate) and knowing available time to gas kick arrival allows the crew to prepare surface handling equipment. Common misconceptions about gas handling and potential resulting problems are noted. An example calculation describes the calculation procedure.

  3. Report on ISS O2 Production, Gas Supply and Partial Pressure Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaezler, Ryan N.; Cook, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is used on International Space Station (ISS) for metabolic support and denitrogenation procedures prior to Extra-Vehicular Activities. Nitrogen is used to maintain total pressure and account for losses associated with leakage and operational losses. Oxygen and nitrogen have been supplied by various visiting vehicles such as the Progress and Shuttle in addition to the on-orbit oxygen production capability. Starting in 2014, new high pressure oxygen/nitrogen tanks are available to launch on commercial cargo vehicles and will replace the high pressure gas source that Shuttle used to provide. To maintain a habitable atmosphere the oxygen and nitrogen partial pressures are controlled between upper and lower bounds. The full range of the allowable partial pressures along with the increased ISS cabin volume are utilized as a buffer allowing days to pass between oxygen production or direct addition of oxygen and nitrogen to the atmosphere from reserves. This paper summarizes the amount of gas supplied and produced from all of the sources and describes past experience of managing partial pressures along with the range of management options available to the ISS.

  4. Advanced reservoir management for independent oil and gas producers

    SciTech Connect

    Sgro, A.G.; Kendall, R.P.; Kindel, J.M.; Webster, R.B.; Whitney, E.M.

    1996-11-01

    There are more than fifty-two hundred oil and gas producers operating in the United States today. Many of these companies have instituted improved oil recovery programs in some form, but very few have had access to state-of-the-art modeling technologies routinely used by major producers to manage these projects. Since independent operators are playing an increasingly important role in the production of hydrocarbons in the United States, it is important to promote state-of-the-art management practices, including the planning and monitoring of improved oil recovery projects, within this community. This is one of the goals of the Strategic Technologies Council, a special interest group of independent oil and gas producers. Reservoir management technologies have the potential to increase oil recovery while simultaneously reducing production costs. These technologies were pioneered by major producers and are routinely used by them. Independent producers confront two problems adopting this approach: the high cost of acquiring these technologies and the high cost of using them even if they were available. Effective use of reservoir management tools requires, in general, the services of a professional (geoscientist or engineer) who is already familiar with the details of setting up, running, and interpreting computer models.

  5. Integrating terrestrial sequestration into a greenhouse gas management plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Joel R.; Sampson, Neil

    Terrestrial sequestration has the potential to contribute to national and global greenhouse gas management strategies. However, spatial and temporal variability in sequestration potential and in the implementation of sequestering technologies introduces serious questions about how to resolve uncertainties and raise the credibility of terrestrial sequestration. Carbon flux in terrestrial ecosystems without land use change generally is less than one ton CO2e/ha and driven primarily by precipitation. Land use and management changes are relatively common and are driven by economics and social considerations both in the private and public sectors. Implementing a credible greenhouse gas management program that integrates terrestrial sequestration along with other sources and sinks requires a systematic approach to identify and quantitatively monitor changes in the drivers of terrestrial sequestration. A credible terrestrial sequestration monitoring program will require close attention to integrating direct measurement of soils and vegetation, statistically valid scaling, remote sensing, and computer modeling. Predicting changes at a level of confidence useful to policy development will also require an understanding of how land owners and managers respond to private sector price signals and government conservation initiatives.

  6. Managing produced water from coal seam gas projects: implications for an emerging industry in Australia.

    PubMed

    Davies, Peter J; Gore, Damian B; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the environmental problems, impacts and risks associated with the generation and disposal of produced water by the emerging coal seam gas (CSG) industry and how it may be relevant to Australia and similar physical settings. With only limited independent research on the potential environmental impacts of produced water, is it necessary for industry and government policy makers and regulators to draw upon the experiences of related endeavours such as mining and groundwater extraction accepting that the conclusions may not always be directly transferrable. CSG is widely touted in Australia as having the potential to provide significant economic and energy security benefits, yet the environmental and health policies and the planning and regulatory setting are yet to mature and are continuing to evolve amidst ongoing social and environmental concerns and political indecision. In this review, produced water has been defined as water that is brought to the land surface during the process of recovering methane gas from coal seams and includes water sourced from CSG wells as well as flowback water associated with drilling, hydraulic fracturing and gas extraction. A brief overview of produced water generation, its characteristics and environmental issues is provided. A review of past lessons and identification of potential risks, including disposal options, is included to assist in planning and management of this industry. PMID:25783163

  7. Perioperative atrial fibrillation: A systematic review of evolving therapeutic options in pharmacologic and procedural management

    PubMed Central

    Schleifer, J. William; Ramakrishna, Harish

    2015-01-01

    Given the high incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the surgical population and the associated morbidity, physicians managing these complicated patients in the perioperative period need to be aware of the new and emerging trends in its therapy. The cornerstones of AF management have always been rate/rhythm control as well as anticoagulation. Restoration of sinus rhythm remains the fundamental philosophy as it maintains the atrial contribution to cardiac output and improves ventricular function. The recent years have seen a dramatic increase in the number of randomized AF trials that have made significant advances to our understanding of both pharmacologic and procedural management, from the introduction of the new generation of oral anticoagulants (NOAC's) to catheter approaches for AF ablation. This paper will summarize the newest data that will affect the perioperative management of these patients. PMID:26440243

  8. Decision-making for ecosystem-based management: evaluating options for a krill fishery with an ecosystem dynamics model.

    PubMed

    Watters, G M; Hill, S L; Hinke, J T; Matthews, J; Reid, K

    2013-06-01

    Decision-makers charged with implementing ecosystem-based management (EBM) rely on scientists to predict the consequences of decisions relating to multiple, potentially conflicting, objectives. Such predictions are inherently uncertain, and this can be a barrier to decision-making. The Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources requires managers of Southern Ocean fisheries to sustain the productivity of target stocks, the health and resilience of the ecosystem, and the performance of the fisheries themselves. The managers of the Antarctic krill fishery in the Scotia Sea and southern Drake Passage have requested advice on candidate management measures consisting of a regional catch limit and options for subdividing this among smaller areas. We developed a spatially resolved model that simulates krill-predator-fishery interactions and reproduces a plausible representation of past dynamics. We worked with experts and stakeholders to identify (1) key uncertainties affecting our ability to predict ecosystem state; (2) illustrative reference points that represent the management objectives; and (3) a clear and simple way of conveying our results to decision-makers. We developed four scenarios that bracket the key uncertainties and evaluated candidate management measures in each of these scenarios using multiple stochastic simulations. The model emphasizes uncertainty and simulates multiple ecosystem components relating to diverse objectives. We summarize the potentially complex results as estimates of the risk that each illustrative objective will not be achieved (i.e., of the state being outside the range specified by the reference point). This approach allows direct comparisons between objectives. It also demonstrates that a candid appraisal of uncertainty, in the form of risk estimates, can be an aid, rather than a barrier, to understanding and using ecosystem model predictions. Management measures that reduce coastal fishing, relative to

  9. Management Options for Patients with Chronic Back Pain Without an Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Salzberg, Lenny D.; Manusov, Eron G.

    2013-01-01

    The treatment and management of low back pain is complex when there is no specific etiology such as cancer, fracture, or herniated disc. An organized approach to management that follows evidence based guidelines will facilitate care in a problem that reflects a lifetime prevalence of over 70 percent. The purpose of this review is to present a guideline to care for a common disabling process with a very heterogeneous etiology. PMID:25114558

  10. An update on the management of peripheral T-cell lymphoma and emerging treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Adrienne A; Owens, Colette; Lee, Sangmin; Bhagat, Govind

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) comprise a rare and heterogeneous subset of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHLs) that arise from post-thymic T-cells or natural killer (NK)-cells at nodal or extranodal sites. Worldwide, PTCLs represent approximately 12% of all NHLs and the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) classification includes over 20 biologically and clinically distinct T/NK-cell neoplasms that differ significantly in presentation, pathology, and response to therapy. Because of the rarity and heterogeneity of these diseases, large clinical trials have not been conducted and optimal therapy is not well defined. Most subtypes are treated with similar combination chemotherapy regimens as used for aggressive B-cell NHL, but with poorer outcomes. New treatment combinations and novel agents are currently being explored for PTCLs and this review highlights a number of options that appear promising. PMID:22287871

  11. Western corn rootworm Diabrotica v. virgifera in Europe: status, and options for future management.

    PubMed

    Hummel, H E; Deuker, A

    2009-01-01

    Diabrotica virgifero virgifera (Col.: Chrysomelidae) (western corn rootworm, WCR) unfortunately is now a firmly established European maize pest without indigenous natural enemies. Twenty years after its first introduction into Europe by traffic and trade, eradication is wishful thinking and not longer a viable option. Instead, European legislation calls for toxicological emergency measures on a case by case basis where and when new infestations occur either by new invasions from the native Americas or by introductions from other European countries. It is unclear at which point in time such treatment systems will break down because of development of resistant strains or by other complications of this seemingly unstable situation. Rather than proceeding as usual, sustainable biological, biotechnical and cultural methods should be practiced. Prominent among them are trapping and survey with attractants in conjunction with traditional crop rotation and phytosanitation. PMID:20218535

  12. Novel gas diffusion layer with water management function for PEMFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinhua; Matsuura, Toyoaki; Hori, Michio

    The water management of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is a critical technology in developing a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). To maintain the MEA with a satisfactory water content and distribution, a novel gas diffusion layer (GDL) was designed by inserting a water management layer (WML) between the traditional GDL and the catalyst layer of the PEMFC. A simulator was developed for the optimization of the GDL, where the water distribution in the electrode and the profile of the water transport in the polymer membrane could be predicted. For this purpose, the water vapor permeability of the GDL, which was the main variable, was investigated under conditions similar to the PEMFC. Furthermore, the cell performance of the PEMFC with the GDL was tested. The testing results indicated that the water management in the MEA could be significantly improved by using the WML.

  13. Risk-Based Information to Support the Evaluation of Management Options for Cesium and Strontium Capsules at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonell, M.; Peterson, J.; Picel, M.; Douglas Hildebrand, R.

    2008-07-01

    Evaluations are under way to support U.S. Department of Energy decisions on how to manage cesium and strontium capsules currently in storage at the Hanford site. Health-based exposure limits for drinking water, oral toxicity data, and environmental fate information were combined in an initial evaluation to frame performance targets for managing chemicals and radionuclides that could leach from the capsules and migrate to groundwater over time. More than 50 relevant benchmarks were identified for 15 of the 17 contaminants in the study set. Of those multiple benchmarks, EPA limits for drinking water served as the main basis for the leachate performance targets. For the remaining two contaminants, stable cesium and zirconium, preliminary indicators were derived from a limited review of toxicity data. Thus, preliminary candidate concentrations were identified for the full study set to support the ongoing evaluation of capsule management options. In summary: In an earlier scoping study, three radionuclides and eight chemicals were identified as contaminants of interest for leachate from cesium and strontium capsules stored at the Hanford site. To frame management options for these capsules, it is assumed that contaminants will leach to groundwater and serve as a drinking water source in the long-term future. Before developing performance targets for the initial set of contaminants, a combined fate and toxicity evaluation was conducted to determine if any others should be added to account for decay or fate products and chemical toxicity. From this review, the list was expanded to produce a final study set of 17 contaminants. Established exposure limits and toxicity data were then reviewed and integrated to develop candidate health-based concentrations to frame performance targets for assessing options for long-term capsule management. This review of more than a dozen different benchmarks and toxicity sources translated to hundreds of individual data checks to support the

  14. 25 CFR 1200.5 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under the options in § 1200.4?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under the options in § 1200.4? 1200.5 Section 1200.5 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE... General Provisions § 1200.5 What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under...

  15. 25 CFR 1200.5 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under the options in § 1200.4?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under the options in § 1200.4? 1200.5 Section 1200.5 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE... General Provisions § 1200.5 What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under...

  16. 25 CFR 1200.5 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under the options in § 1200.4?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under the options in § 1200.4? 1200.5 Section 1200.5 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE... General Provisions § 1200.5 What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under...

  17. 25 CFR 1200.5 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under the options in § 1200.4?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under the options in § 1200.4? 1200.5 Section 1200.5 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE... General Provisions § 1200.5 What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under...

  18. 25 CFR 1200.5 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under the options in § 1200.4?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under the options in § 1200.4? 1200.5 Section 1200.5 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE... General Provisions § 1200.5 What are the advantages and disadvantages of managing trust funds under...

  19. RESTORATION PLUS: A COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TO DEVELOP AND EVALUATE ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION AND MANAGEMENT OPTIONS TO ACHIEVE ECOLOGICALLY AND ECONOMICALLY SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is evaluating ecosystem restoration and management techniques to ensure they create sustainable solutions for degraded watersheds. ORD NRMRL initiated the Restoration Plus (RePlus) program in 2002 to a) evaluate ecosystem restoration and management options, b) assess the non-...

  20. Assessment of coastal management options by means of multilayered ecosystem models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobre, Ana M.; Ferreira, João G.; Nunes, João P.; Yan, Xiaojun; Bricker, Suzanne; Corner, Richard; Groom, Steve; Gu, Haifeng; Hawkins, Anthony J. S.; Hutson, Rory; Lan, Dongzhao; Silva, João D. Lencart e.; Pascoe, Philip; Telfer, Trevor; Zhang, Xuelei; Zhu, Mingyuan

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a multilayered ecosystem modelling approach that combines the simulation of the biogeochemistry of a coastal ecosystem with the simulation of the main forcing functions, such as catchment loading and aquaculture activities. This approach was developed as a tool for sustainable management of coastal ecosystems. A key feature is to simulate management scenarios that account for changes in multiple uses and enable assessment of cumulative impacts of coastal activities. The model was applied to a coastal zone in China with large aquaculture production and multiple catchment uses, and where management efforts to improve water quality are under way. Development scenarios designed in conjunction with local managers and aquaculture producers include the reduction of fish cages and treatment of wastewater. Despite the reduction in nutrient loading simulated in three different scenarios, inorganic nutrient concentrations in the bay were predicted to exceed the thresholds for poor quality defined by Chinese seawater quality legislation. For all scenarios there is still a Moderate High to High nutrient loading from the catchment, so further reductions might be enacted, together with additional decreases in fish cage culture. The model predicts that overall, shellfish production decreases by 10%-28% using any of these development scenarios, principally because shellfish growth is being sustained by the substances to be reduced for improvement of water quality. The model outcomes indicate that this may be counteracted by zoning of shellfish aquaculture at the ecosystem level in order to optimize trade-offs between productivity and environmental effects. The present case study exemplifies the value of multilayered ecosystem modelling as a tool for Integrated Coastal Zone Management and for the adoption of ecosystem approaches for marine resource management. This modelling approach can be applied worldwide, and may be particularly useful for the application of

  1. Gas cylinder disposal pit remediation waste minimization and management

    SciTech Connect

    Alas, C.A.; Solow, A.; Criswell, C.W.; Spengler, D.; Brannon, R.; Schwender, J.M.; Eckman, C.K.; Rusthoven, T.

    1995-02-01

    A remediation of a gas cylinder disposal pit at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico has recently been completed. The cleanup prevented possible spontaneous releases of hazardous gases from corroded cylinders that may have affected nearby active test areas at Sandia`s Technical Area III. Special waste management, safety, and quality plans were developed and strictly implemented for this project. The project was conceived from a waste management perspective, and waste minimization and management were built into the planning and implementation phases. The site layout was planned to accommodate light and heavy equipment, storage of large quantities of suspect soil, and special areas to stage and treat gases and reactive chemicals removed from the pit, as well as radiation protection areas. Excavation was a tightly controlled activity using experienced gas cylinder and reactive chemical specialists. Hazardous operations were conducted at night under lights, to allow nearby daytime operations to function unhindered. The quality assurance plan provided specific control of, and documentation for, critical decisions, as well as the record of daily operations. Both hand and heavy equipment excavation techniques were utilized. Hand excavation techniques were utilized. Hand excavation techniques allows sealed glass containers to be exhumed unharmed. In the end, several dozen thermal batteries; 5 pounds (2.3 kg) of lithium metal; 6.6 pounds (3.0 kg) of rubidium metal; several kilograms of unknown chemicals; 140 cubic yards (107 cubic meters) of thorium-contaminated soil; 270 cubic yards (205 cubic meters) of chromium-contaminated soil; and 450 gas cylinders, including 97 intact cylinders containing inert, flammable, toxic, corrosive, or oxidizing gases were removed and effectively managed to minimize waste.

  2. Electric Utility Rate Design Study: cost-benefit analysis of load-management options

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, A.J.

    1980-12-09

    This report summarizes the methodology used by Power Technologies, Inc. (PTI) and the staff of the Northern States Power Company (NSP) to develop the cost and cost-benefits of a potential load-management scheme for NSP. In this methodology costs are defined as the present value of the reverse required to install and operate the load-management system. The cost-benefit is the present value of the net change in all future revenue requirements for the entire electric power system after the proposed load-management plan is implemented. The load-management scheme used to illustrate the methodology involved the direct control of air conditioning, water heaters, and the use of storage heating for a fraction of the NSP load over the 15-year period from 1980 to 1995. The economic-analysis procedure used is identical to that practiced by system-planning engineers in electric utilities. The alteration of customers' load patterns by means of direct (or indirect) load management will affect all portions of the electric power system, the operating costs associated with supplying the load energy, and the revenues required to support the investment in facilities to meet the expected load growth. This study examines the altered-system expansion plans and resulting changes in costs. Included as a supplement is a Comments on evaluation of the PTI report by the Rate Design Study Advisory Group IV.

  3. Life cycle assessment of solid waste management options for Eskisehir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Banar, Mufide; Cokaygil, Zerrin; Ozkan, Aysun

    2009-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to determine the optimum municipal solid waste (MSW) management strategy for Eskisehir city. Eskisehir is one of the developing cities of Turkey where a total of approximately 750tons/day of waste is generated. An effective MSW management system is needed in this city since the generated MSW is dumped in an unregulated dumping site that has no liner, no biogas capture, etc. Therefore, five different scenarios were developed as alternatives to the current waste management system. Collection and transportation of waste, a material recovery facility (MRF), recycling, composting, incineration and landfilling processes were considered in these scenarios. SimaPro7 libraries were used to obtain background data for the life cycle inventory. One ton of municipal solid waste of Eskisehir was selected as the functional unit. The alternative scenarios were compared through the CML 2000 method and these comparisons were carried out from the abiotic depletion, global warming, human toxicity, acidification, eutrophication and photochemical ozone depletion points of view. According to the comparisons and sensitivity analysis, composting scenario, S3, is the more environmentally preferable alternative. In this study waste management alternatives were investigated only on an environmental point of view. For that reason, it might be supported with other decision-making tools that consider the economic and social effects of solid waste management. PMID:18280731

  4. Diagnosis and management of food allergies: new and emerging options: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    O’Keefe, Andrew W; De Schryver, Sarah; Mill, Jennifer; Mill, Christopher; Dery, Alizee; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    It is reported that 6% of children and 3% of adults have food allergies, with studies suggesting increased prevalence worldwide over the last few decades. Despite this, our diagnostic capabilities and techniques for managing patients with food allergies remain limited. We have conducted a systematic review of literature published within the last 5 years on the diagnosis and management of food allergies. While the gold standard for diagnosis remains the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, this assessment is resource intensive and impractical in most clinical situations. In an effort to reduce the need for the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, several risk-stratifying tests are employed, namely skin prick testing, measurement of serum-specific immunoglobulin E levels, component testing, and open food challenges. Management of food allergies typically involves allergen avoidance and carrying an epinephrine autoinjector. Clinical research trials of oral immunotherapy for some foods, including peanut, milk, egg, and peach, are under way. While oral immunotherapy is promising, its readiness for clinical application is controversial. In this review, we assess the latest studies published on the above diagnostic and management modalities, as well as novel strategies in the diagnosis and management of food allergy. PMID:25368525

  5. An online survey of specialists' opinion on first line management options for unexplained subfertility.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Anupa; Gudi, Anil; Shah, Amit; Homburg, Roy

    2015-03-01

    The recent National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline on Fertility (2012) suggests that IVF should be offered to couples with unexplained subfertility after 2 years of expectant management. The evidence on which these recommendations are based is not robust and there is a lack of agreement among specialists regarding the management of unexplained subfertility. We conducted an online survey among fertility specialists to find out the general consensus regarding the management of these couples. An e-mail questionnaire was sent to 420 reproductive medicine clinicians and 136 (32.38%) replied. Only 16% said they would always recommend IVF as the first line management for these couples, irrespective of age and duration of infertility. Of those surveyed, 39% agreed to the new NICE proposal, 33% agreed partly and 25% did not agree at all. A total of 27% of the respondents said they would definitely change their practice according to the NICE proposal but 30% said they would not; 29% said they might change their policy while the rest were unsure. This survey confirms the ongoing clinical uncertainty among fertility specialists in managing couples with unexplained subfertility. PMID:25162601

  6. Life cycle assessment of solid waste management options for Eskisehir, Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Banar, Mufide Cokaygil, Zerrin; Ozkan, Aysun

    2009-01-15

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to determine the optimum municipal solid waste (MSW) management strategy for Eskisehir city. Eskisehir is one of the developing cities of Turkey where a total of approximately 750 tons/day of waste is generated. An effective MSW management system is needed in this city since the generated MSW is dumped in an unregulated dumping site that has no liner, no biogas capture, etc. Therefore, five different scenarios were developed as alternatives to the current waste management system. Collection and transportation of waste, a material recovery facility (MRF), recycling, composting, incineration and landfilling processes were considered in these scenarios. SimaPro7 libraries were used to obtain background data for the life cycle inventory. One ton of municipal solid waste of Eskisehir was selected as the functional unit. The alternative scenarios were compared through the CML 2000 method and these comparisons were carried out from the abiotic depletion, global warming, human toxicity, acidification, eutrophication and photochemical ozone depletion points of view. According to the comparisons and sensitivity analysis, composting scenario, S3, is the more environmentally preferable alternative. In this study waste management alternatives were investigated only on an environmental point of view. For that reason, it might be supported with other decision-making tools that consider the economic and social effects of solid waste management.

  7. Different Management Options for Transplant Ureteral Obstructions within an Inguinal Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Felix; Debartolo, Merrit Marion; Copertino, Leonard Michael; Szafran, April Adams; Estrada, Chelsea Caron; Lynch, Patrick Gerard; Darras, Frank Sam

    2016-01-01

    Ureteral obstruction secondary to an inguinal hernia with transplant ureteral component is an extremely rare entity with only several case reports found in literature. In all previously reported cases, management of the obstruction involved temporary drainage with ureteral stenting or nephrostomy tube placements followed by delayed definitive repair. We present two case reports, here one being the first one managed by immediate definitive repair via ureteral reimplant and herniorrhaphy and a second case by delayed definitive repair after percutaneous nephrostomy tube placement. Both patients continued to do well postoperatively with normalization of renal function on follow-up. PMID:27144049

  8. Nonaggressive obstetric management. An option for some fetal anomalies during the third trimester.

    PubMed

    Chervenak, F A; McCullough, L B

    1989-06-16

    Nonaggressive obstetric management was used in 13 cases of anomalous fetuses during the third trimester. Criteria that define these anomalies are (1) a very high probability of a correct diagnosis and (2) either (a) a very high probability of death as an outcome of the anomaly diagnosed or (b) a very high probability of severe and irreversible deficit of cognitive developmental capacity as a result of the anomaly diagnosed. On the basis of two approaches to obstetric ethics, we defend the legitimacy of nonaggressive management of third-trimester pregnancies complicated by fetal anomalies that meet these criteria. PMID:2724488

  9. Opioids, adjuvants, and interventional options for pain management of symptomatic metastases.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amrita; Berger, Ann

    2014-07-01

    Cancer pain is a complex issue that unfortunately affects a majority of cancer patients, the assessment and treatment of which are equally essential in alleviating many facets of this pain. The objective of this section is to address the many facets of cancer pain: its assessment, management, and its varied treatment modalities. We will discuss characteristics of pain, essential aspects of the patient interview, and management using opioids, adjuvants, and interventional and invasive strategies as well as side effects of these techniques. Many of these modalities are used for palliation but may and should be used in cancer patients who experience side effects from both their cancer and their chemotherapeutics. PMID:25841694

  10. Current Options for the Management of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Induced Cerebral Vasospasm: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Dabus, Guilherme; Nogueira, Raul G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Cerebral vasospasm is one of the leading causes of morbi-mortality following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The aim of this article is to discuss the current status of vasospasm therapy with emphasis on endovascular treatment. Methods A comprehensive review of the literature obtained by a PubMed search. The most relevant articles related to medical, endovascular and alternative therapies were selected for discussion. Results Current accepted medical options include the oral nimodipine and ‘triple-H’ therapy (hypertension, hypervolemia and hemodilution). Nimodipine remains the only modality proven to reduce the incidence of infarction. Although widely used, ‘triple-H’ therapy has not been demonstrated to significantly change overall outcome after cerebral vasospasm. Indeed, both induced hypervolemia and hemodilution may have deleterious effects, and more recent physiologic data favor normovolemia with induced hypertension or optimization of cardiac output. Endovascular options include percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA) and intra-arterial (IA) infusion of vasodilators. Multiple case reports and case series have been encountered in the literature using different drug regimens with diverse mechanisms of action. Compared with PTA, IA drug infusion has the advantages of distal penetration and a better safety profile. Its main disadvantages are the more frequent need for repeat treatments and its systemic hemodynamic repercussions. Alternative options using intraventricular/cisternal drug therapy and flow augmentation strategies have also shown possible benefits; however, their use is not yet as well established. Conclusion Blood pressure or cardiac output optimization should be the mainstay of hyperdynamic therapy. Endovascular treatment appears to have a positive impact on neurological outcome compared with the natural history of the disease. The role of intraventricular therapy and flow augmentation strategies in association

  11. Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: A review of manure management options

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review analyzes published data on manure management practices used to mitigate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from animal operations. This is the second in a series of reports commissioned by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to evaluate mitigation pra...

  12. Simulating free-roaming cat population management options in open demographic environments.

    PubMed

    Miller, Philip S; Boone, John D; Briggs, Joyce R; Lawler, Dennis F; Levy, Julie K; Nutter, Felicia B; Slater, Margaret; Zawistowski, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Large populations of free-roaming cats (FRCs) generate ongoing concerns for welfare of both individual animals and populations, for human public health, for viability of native wildlife populations, and for local ecological damage. Managing FRC populations is a complex task, without universal agreement on best practices. Previous analyses that use simulation modeling tools to evaluate alternative management methods have focused on relative efficacy of removal (or trap-return, TR), typically involving euthanasia, and sterilization (or trap-neuter-return, TNR) in demographically isolated populations. We used a stochastic demographic simulation approach to evaluate removal, permanent sterilization, and two postulated methods of temporary contraception for FRC population management. Our models include demographic connectivity to neighboring untreated cat populations through natural dispersal in a metapopulation context across urban and rural landscapes, and also feature abandonment of owned animals. Within population type, a given implementation rate of the TR strategy results in the most rapid rate of population decline and (when populations are isolated) the highest probability of population elimination, followed in order of decreasing efficacy by equivalent rates of implementation of TNR and temporary contraception. Even low levels of demographic connectivity significantly reduce the effectiveness of any management intervention, and continued abandonment is similarly problematic. This is the first demographic simulation analysis to consider the use of temporary contraception and account for the realities of FRC dispersal and owned cat abandonment. PMID:25426960

  13. Water Resources and Agricultural Water Use in the North China Plain: Current Status and Management Options

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serious water deficits with deteriorating environmental quality are threatening agricultural sustainability in the North China Plain (NCP). This paper addresses spatial and temporal availability of water resources in the NCP, and identifies the effects of soil management, irrigation and crop genetic...

  14. Simulating Free-Roaming Cat Population Management Options in Open Demographic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Philip S.; Boone, John D.; Briggs, Joyce R.; Lawler, Dennis F.; Levy, Julie K.; Nutter, Felicia B.; Slater, Margaret; Zawistowski, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Large populations of free-roaming cats (FRCs) generate ongoing concerns for welfare of both individual animals and populations, for human public health, for viability of native wildlife populations, and for local ecological damage. Managing FRC populations is a complex task, without universal agreement on best practices. Previous analyses that use simulation modeling tools to evaluate alternative management methods have focused on relative efficacy of removal (or trap-return, TR), typically involving euthanasia, and sterilization (or trap-neuter-return, TNR) in demographically isolated populations. We used a stochastic demographic simulation approach to evaluate removal, permanent sterilization, and two postulated methods of temporary contraception for FRC population management. Our models include demographic connectivity to neighboring untreated cat populations through natural dispersal in a metapopulation context across urban and rural landscapes, and also feature abandonment of owned animals. Within population type, a given implementation rate of the TR strategy results in the most rapid rate of population decline and (when populations are isolated) the highest probability of population elimination, followed in order of decreasing efficacy by equivalent rates of implementation of TNR and temporary contraception. Even low levels of demographic connectivity significantly reduce the effectiveness of any management intervention, and continued abandonment is similarly problematic. This is the first demographic simulation analysis to consider the use of temporary contraception and account for the realities of FRC dispersal and owned cat abandonment. PMID:25426960

  15. Call It Trash, Garbage or Refuse: Four Case Studies Illustrate Community Waste Management Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazzi, John W.

    1990-01-01

    Describes four successful community programs dealing with waste management issues, developed with assistance from Keep America Beautiful System: litter prevention (Beatrice, Nebraska); composting yard waste (Centralia, Illinois); recycling (Lake Jackson, Texas); and waste-to-energy incineration (Gastonia, North Carolina). Notes related education…

  16. Modelling population dynamics and response to management options in the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Huber, K; Zenner, L; Bicout, D J

    2011-02-28

    The poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae is a major pest and widespread ectoparasite of laying hens and other domestic and wild birds. Under optimal conditions, D. gallinae can complete its lifecycle in less than 10 days, leading to rapid proliferation of populations in poultry systems. This paper focuses on developing a theoretical model framework to describe the population dynamics of D. gallinae. This model is then used to test the efficacy and residual effect of different control options for managing D. gallinae. As well as allowing comparison between treatment options, the model also allows comparison of treatment efficacies to different D. gallinae life stages. Three different means for controlling D. gallinae populations were subjected to the model using computer simulations: mechanical cleaning (killing once at a given time all accessible population stages), sanitary clearance (starving the mite population for a given duration, e.g. between flocks) and acaricide treatment (killing a proportion of nymphs and adults during the persistence of the treatment). Simulations showed that mechanical cleaning and sanitary clearance alone could not eradicate the model D. gallinae population, although these methods did delay population establishment. In contrast, the complete eradication of the model D. gallinae population was achieved by several successive acaricide treatments in close succession, even when a relatively low treatment level was used. PMID:21093987

  17. Anticipated Consequences of Increasing Temperature and Ocean Acidification on Cold-Water Coral Reefs and Options for Managing Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinotte, J. M.; Thresher, R.; Matear, R.; Hobday, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The deep sea hosts some of the world's largest, oldest, and most sensitive ecosystems. Climate change and ocean acidification are likely to have severe implications for many deep-sea ecosystems and communities, but what, if anything, can be done to mitigate these threats is poorly understood. This presentation will focus on: the climate related threats cold-water coral reef ecosystems face in the coming decades, the current state of knowledge regarding reef-forming cold water coral species responses to increasing temperature and ocean acidification, and conclusions reached by an expert panel tasked with prioritizing management options for legislatively protected cold-water coral reefs off southeast Australia that are likely to be severely degraded within decades due to climate change. The panel explored seventeen possible options spanning biological, engineering and regulatory domains that differed widely in perceived costs, benefits, time to implementation, and risks. In the short term, the highest priority identified was the need to urgently locate and protect sites globally that are, or will become, refugia areas for the coral and its associated community as climate change progresses.

  18. Petroleum coke adsorption as a water management option for oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Zubot, Warren; MacKinnon, Michael D; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Smith, Daniel W; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2012-06-15

    Water is integral to both operational and environmental aspects of the oil sands industry. A water treatment option based on the use of petroleum coke (PC), a by-product of bitumen upgrading, was examined as an opportunity to reduce site oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) inventories and net raw water demand. Changes in OSPW quality when treated with PC included increments in pH levels and concentrations of vanadium, molybdenum, and sulphate. Constituents that decreased in concentration after PC adsorption included total acid-extractable organics (TAO), bicarbonate, calcium, barium, magnesium, and strontium. Changes in naphthenic acids (NAs) speciation were observed after PC adsorption. A battery of bioassays was used to measure the OSPW toxicity. The results indicated that untreated OSPW was toxic towards Vibrio fischeri and rainbow trout. However, OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not acutely toxic towards these test organisms. Removal of TAO was found to be an adsorption process, fitting the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. For TAO concentrations of 60 mg/L, adsorption capacities ranged between 0.1 and 0.46 mg/g. This study demonstrates that freshly produced PC from fluid cokers provides an effective treatment of OSPW in terms of key constituents' removal and toxicity reduction. PMID:22575375

  19. Archaelogy of Arid Environment Points to Management Options for Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    N. Chapman; A. Dansie; C. McCombie

    2006-08-29

    As with all planned repositories for spent fuel, the critical period over which Yucca Mountain needs to provide isolation is the first hundreds to thousands of years after the fuel is emplaced, when it is at its most hazardous. Both the original and the proposed new EPA standards highlight the central importance of this performance period by focusing on repository behavior during the first 10,000 years. Archaeology has a lot to tell us about the behavior of materials and structures over this time period. There have been numerous studies of archaeological artifacts in conditions relevant to the groundwater saturated environments that are a feature of most international geological disposal concepts, but relatively few in arid environments like that of the Nevada desert. However, there is much information to be gleaned, not only from classic archaeological areas in the Middle East and around the Mediterranean but also, perhaps surprisingly to some, from Nevada itself. Our recent study evaluated archaeological materials from underground openings and shallow burial in arid environments relevant to Yucca Mountain, drawing conclusions about how their state and their environment of preservation could help to assess design and operational options for the high-level waste repository.

  20. Current aproach to cancer pain management: Availability and implications of different treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Nersesyan, Hrachya; Slavin, Konstantin V

    2007-01-01

    Despite tremendous progress in medicine during last couple of decades, cancer still remains the most horrifying diagnosis for anybody due to its almost inevitable futility. According to American Cancer Society Statistics, it is estimated that only in the United States more than half a million people will die from cancer in 2006. For those who survive, probably the most fearsome symptom regardless of cancer type will be the pain. Although most pain specialists and oncologists worldwide are well aware of the importance to adequately treat the pain, it was yet established that more than half of cancer patients have insufficient pain control, and about quarter of them actually die in pain. Therefore, in this review article we attempted to provide the comprehensive information about different options available nowadays for treating cancer pain focusing on most widely used pharmacologic agents, surgical modalities for intractable pain control, their potential for adverse effects, and ways to increase the effectiveness of treatment maximally optimizing analgesic regimen and improving compliance. PMID:18488078

  1. Update on the management of chronic eczema: new approaches and emerging treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Walling, Hobart W; Swick, Brian L

    2010-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common disease with worldwide prevalence, affecting up to 20% of children and 3% of adults. Recent evidence regarding pathogenesis has implicated epidermal barrier defects deriving from filagrin mutations with resulting secondary inflammation. In this report, the authors comprehensively review the literature on atopic dermatitis therapy, including topical and systemic options. Most cases of AD will benefit from emollients to enhance the barrier function of skin. Topical corticosteroids are first-line therapy for most cases of AD. Topical calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus ointment, pimecrolimus cream) are considered second line therapy. Several novel barrier-enhancing prescription creams are also available. Moderate to severe cases inadequately controlled with topical therapy may require phototherapy or systemic therapy. The most commonly employed phototherapy modalites are narrow-band UVB, broadband UVB, and UVA1. Traditional systemic therapies include short-term corticosteroids, cyclosporine (considered to be the gold standard), methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and most recently leflunamide. Biologic therapies include recombinant monoclonal antibodies acting on the immunoglobulin E / interleukin-5 pathway (omalizumab, mepolizumab), acting as tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab), and acting as T-cell (alefacept) and B-cell (rituxumab) inhibitors, as well as interferon γ and intravenous immunoglobulin. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability are reviewed for each medication. PMID:21437065

  2. A socio-ecological investigation of options to manage groundwater degradation in the Western Desert, Egypt.

    PubMed

    King, Caroline; Salem, Boshra

    2012-07-01

    Under increasing water scarcity, collective groundwater management is a global concern. This article presents an interdisciplinary analysis of this challenge drawing on a survey including 50 large and small farms and gardens in a village in an agricultural land reclamation area on the edge of the Western Desert of Egypt. Findings revealed that smallholders rely on a practice of shallow groundwater use, through which drainage water from adjacent irrigation areas is effectively recycled within the surface aquifer. Expanding agroindustrial activities in the surrounding area are socio-economically important, but by mining non-renewable water in the surrounding area, they set in motion a degradation process with social and ecological consequences for all users in the multi-layered aquifer system. Based on the findings of our investigation, we identify opportunities for local authorities to more systematically connect available environmental information sources and common pool resource management precedents, to counterbalance the degradation threat. PMID:22569842

  3. Nonoperative options for management of residual stones after cholecystostomy in high-risk patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, David M.; Daye, S. S.; Lincer, R. M.

    1993-05-01

    Cholecystostomy is frequently performed to obtain control of sepsis in high risk patients with acute cholecystitis. Retained stones in the gallbladder may cause future clinical problems. We present two patients with cholecystostomy tubes managed non-operatively. A review of other reported methods for stone extraction or destruction is also presented. Knowledge of safe and effective techniques for removal of these stones, using minimally invasive techniques is useful to the general surgeon.

  4. The Role of Topiramate in the Management of Cocaine Addiction: A Possible Therapeutic Option

    PubMed Central

    Siniscalchi, Antonio; Bonci, Antonello Bonci; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio; Pirritano, Domenico; Squillace, Aida; Sarro, Giovambattista De; Gallelli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Topiramate (TPM) is an antiepileptic drug able to play a role in both neurological and psychiatric disorders. TPM facilitates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmission and inhibits glutamatergic transmission (i.e. AMPA/kainate receptors). Several studies reported that the modulation of GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission may reduce cocaine reinforcement. Therefore, TPM could be used in the management of cocaine dependence. PMID:26630959

  5. Financial valuation of incentive arrangements in managed care contracts: a real options approach.

    PubMed

    Maurer, R T

    2001-01-01

    Managed care provider contracts with risk-based compensation arrangements are similar to derivative securities in that the value of a contract depends on the value of a more fundamental asset: the health plan's investment in the provider's member panel. As such, the financial value of the incentive to avoid investing in the health of the member panel can be modeled using financial engineering techniques. PMID:11669292

  6. The Role of Topiramate in the Management of Cocaine Addiction: a Possible Therapeutic Option.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, Antonio; Bonci, Antonello; Biagio Mercuri, Nicola; Pirritano, Domenico; Squillace, Aida; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Topiramate (TPM) is an antiepileptic drug able to play a role in both neurological and psychiatric disorders. TPM facilitates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmission and inhibits glutamatergic transmission (i.e. AMPA/kainate receptors). Several studies reported that the modulation of GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission may reduce cocaine reinforcement. Therefore, TPM could be used in the management of cocaine dependence. PMID:26630959

  7. Post-traumatic cervical spondyloptosis: A rare entity with multiple management options.

    PubMed

    Padwal, A; Shukla, D; Bhat, D I; Somanna, S; Devi, B I

    2016-06-01

    Post-traumatic cervical spondyloptosis is a rare condition associated with high energy injuries, and to our knowledge only case reports are available. There are no universally accepted treatment paradigms for these cases and management is individualised according to the case and surgeon preference. We retrospectively analysed our management and clinical outcomes of this condition. From January 2007 to August 2014 we treated eight patients with cervical spondyloptosis at our institute. Only two patients had no neurological deficits; all the remaining patients had partial cord injury. Seven were treated surgically with preoperative traction followed by anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with fixation in three patients, and combined anterior and posterior fusion and fixation in four. Depending on the presence of anterior compression by a disc an anterior first or posterior first approach was advocated. All four combined anterior and posterior fusion and fixation patients needed to be turned more than once (540°). There was no neurological deterioration in any of the patients, as they either improved or remained stable neurologically. Post-traumatic cervical spondyloptosis is a challenging entity to manage. Surgery can be done safely with good clinical and radiological outcome and needs to be tailored to the individual patient. PMID:26922508

  8. A review of potential turbine technology options for improving the off-design performance of direct coal-fired gas turbines in base load service. Second topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.L.

    1988-03-01

    The January, 1988 draft topical report, entitled ``An Assessment of Off-Design Particle Control Performance on Direct Coal-Fired Gas Turbine Systems`` [Ref.1.1], identified the need to assess potential trade-offs in turbine aerodynamic and thermodynamic design which may offer improvements in the performance, operational and maintenance characteristics of open-cycle, direct coal-fired, combustion gas turbines. In this second of a series of three topical reports, an assessment of the technical options posed by the above trade-offs is presented. The assessment is based on the current status of gas turbine technology. Several industry and university experts were contacted to contribute to the study. Literature sources and theoretical considerations are used only to provide additional background and insight to the technology involved.

  9. A review of potential turbine technology options for improving the off-design performance of direct coal-fired gas turbines in base load service

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.L.

    1988-03-01

    The January, 1988 draft topical report, entitled An Assessment of Off-Design Particle Control Performance on Direct Coal-Fired Gas Turbine Systems'' (Ref.1.1), identified the need to assess potential trade-offs in turbine aerodynamic and thermodynamic design which may offer improvements in the performance, operational and maintenance characteristics of open-cycle, direct coal-fired, combustion gas turbines. In this second of a series of three topical reports, an assessment of the technical options posed by the above trade-offs is presented. The assessment is based on the current status of gas turbine technology. Several industry and university experts were contacted to contribute to the study. Literature sources and theoretical considerations are used only to provide additional background and insight to the technology involved.

  10. 40 CFR 60.648 - Optional procedure for measuring hydrogen sulfide in acid gas-Tutwiler Procedure. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hydrogen sulfide in acid gas-Tutwiler Procedure. 1 60.648 Section 60.648 Protection of Environment... procedure for measuring hydrogen sulfide in acid gas—Tutwiler Procedure. 1 1 Gas Engineers Handbook, Fuel.... In principle, this method consists of titrating hydrogen sulfide in a gas sample directly with...

  11. 40 CFR 60.648 - Optional procedure for measuring hydrogen sulfide in acid gas-Tutwiler Procedure. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hydrogen sulfide in acid gas-Tutwiler Procedure. 1 60.648 Section 60.648 Protection of Environment... procedure for measuring hydrogen sulfide in acid gas—Tutwiler Procedure. 1 1 Gas Engineers Handbook, Fuel.... In principle, this method consists of titrating hydrogen sulfide in a gas sample directly with...

  12. 40 CFR 60.648 - Optional procedure for measuring hydrogen sulfide in acid gas-Tutwiler Procedure. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hydrogen sulfide in acid gas-Tutwiler Procedure. 1 60.648 Section 60.648 Protection of Environment... procedure for measuring hydrogen sulfide in acid gas—Tutwiler Procedure. 1 1 Gas Engineers Handbook, Fuel.... In principle, this method consists of titrating hydrogen sulfide in a gas sample directly with...

  13. Value rules: senior management incentives in the post-option era.

    PubMed

    Ericson, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Big changes are in the news and on boardroom agendas. This is a good time for many companies to step back and think fundamentally about how senior management incentives are structured and how these programs should be redesigned for better business results. This article describes the main problems with current incentive structures. It then shows how "value rules" can help employers make better use of incentive plans and create a real stake in business units' long-term results, so that the overall structure of executive incentives consistently encourages value creation for shareholders. PMID:15015422

  14. Management of chronic diarrhea in HIV-infected patients: current treatment options, challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Elfstrand, Lidia; Florén, Claes-Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Diarrhea is a common clinical manifestation of HIV infection regardless of whether the patients have AIDS. HIV and malnutrition tend to occur in the same populations, the underprivileged and resource-poor. Malnutrition increases severity and mortality of infection. Occurrence of chronic diarrhea in HIV-infected patients, gut status and pathogenic agents, nutritional status and the crucial role of nutrition are reviewed. Bovine colostrum-based food can be useful for managing chronic diarrhea in HIV-infected patients, enhancing both nutritional and immunological status. PMID:22096401

  15. Stress velopharyngeal incompetence: Two case reports and options for diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Raol, Nikhila; Diercks, Gillian; Hersh, Cheryl; Hartnick, Christopher J

    2015-12-01

    Stress velopharyngeal incompetence (SVPI) commonly affects brass and wind musicians. We present a series of two patients who presented with nasal air emission following prolonged woodwind instrument practice. Neither patient demonstrated audible nasal air emission during speech, but endoscopy revealed localized air escape/bubbling from different sites for each patient with instrument playing only. Both underwent tailored surgical treatment with resolution of symptoms during performance. Diagnosis of SVPI requires examination during the action that induces VPI to allow for directed management. Treatment should be targeted based on nasopharyngoscopy findings. PMID:26531005

  16. Pulpal and periradicular response to caries: current management and regenerative options.

    PubMed

    Chogle, Sami M A; Goodis, Harold E; Kinaia, Bassam Michael

    2012-07-01

    The pulp-dentin complex is a strategic and dynamic barrier to various insults that plague the dentition. Researchers have yet to understand the complete potential of this shifting junction and its components. The most common cause of injury to the pulp-dentin complex is carious breakdown of enamel and dentin. In recent years, there has been a change in restorative management of caries. The emphasis is on strategies to preserve dentin and protect the pulp. This article provides a brief review of the effect of caries on the pulp, of subsequent events on the periradicular tissues, and of current understanding of treatment modalities. PMID:22835535

  17. New treatment options in the management of fibromyalgia: role of pregabalin

    PubMed Central

    Zareba, Grazyna

    2008-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a common, chronic pain disorder with unknown etiology, characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and tenderness, and accompanied by several other symptoms such as sleep disturbance, fatigue, and mood disorders. Pregabalin is the first drug approved for the treatment of FM. Pregabalin has analgesic, anticonvulsant, and anxiolytic activity and has earlier demonstrated efficacy in the management of neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, and as adjuvant therapy for adult patients with partial onset seizures. Pregabalin, a lipophilic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analog, is α2δ-1 ligand that binds to, and modulates, voltage-gated calcium channels. This modulation is characterized by a reduction of the excessive neurotransmitter release that is observed in certain neurological and psychotic disorders. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have demonstrated that pregabalin has been effective in pain management, improving sleep quality and fatigue, as well as in several domains of health related quality of life. Because of mild to moderate adverse effects it can be considered a well-tolerated therapy for FM. PMID:19337459

  18. Assessment of management options in marine fisheries by qualitative modelling techniques.

    PubMed

    Eisenack, K; Kropp, J

    2001-01-01

    An effective management of the rapidly dwindling marine fish resources is of great ecological, economic and social importance for the future. An over-development of commercial fisheries has brought about a multitude of negative environmental impacts, such as an accelerated exploitation of stocks or a decrease of marine biodiversity, and furthermore, a profound structural change in fish industry. However, the main reason for the non-prosperous rationing of marine resources is the lack of knowledge about certain processes as well as the non-availability of adequate steering instruments. This paper addresses the lack of conceptualization in the case of uncertain knowledge. It proposes a model approach which can be used for weak but improved decision support under the premise of vague knowledge. The usage of qualitative differential equations illustrates general patterns of overcapitalization of fishing fleets. The extension of traditional model approaches by integration of additional socio-economic phenomena in this context supplies deeper insights in the dynamics of a coupled economic and ecological system. The approach provides a set of characteristic system behaviours which can be fruitfully used for the development of future management tasks. PMID:11760187

  19. New and emerging therapeutic options for the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Schwartzberg, Lee S; Rugo, Hope S; Aapro, Matti S

    2015-03-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) remains one of the most challenging adverse events of chemotherapy, and one that has substantial negative effects on patients, clinicians, and the wider health care system. Use of CINV prophylaxis consistent with clinical practice guidelines is essential for attaining optimal CINV control. In recent years, there has been a dramatic improvement in the control of CINV with the introduction of effective antiemetic agents, including the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT3]) receptor antagonists (ondansetron, granisetron, and palonosetron) and the neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonists (aprepitant and fosaprepitant). An important benefit of the newer antiemetic agents is their improved ability to control the delayed CINV that can develop in the days after chemotherapy administration. In October 2014, a fixed-dose oral combination containing the novel NK1 receptor antagonist netupitant and palonosetron (NEPA) received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration. The combination of 2 effective antiemetic agents in a single, oral capsule may help simplify CINV management. Ongoing studies are evaluating new CINV approaches (eg, the novel NK1 receptor antagonist rolapitant), as well as the optimal use of existing therapies. Patient education regarding the timing, prevention, and treatment of CINV is another key component of CINV management. PMID:25856052

  20. Therapeutic management of fetal anemia: review of standard practice and alternative treatment options.

    PubMed

    Papantoniou, Nikos; Sifakis, Stavros; Antsaklis, Aris

    2013-01-01

    Fetal anemia, mainly due to red cell alloimmunization, is still a significant cause of fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. The focus of current clinical research has shifted from an invasive approach to non-invasive management and treatment of affected pregnancies, and the progress in this field is associated with a major improvement in perinatal outcome. During the last 50 years, intrauterine red cells transfusion (IUT), fi rst via the intraperitoneal route and later directly to fetal circulation, is the standard practice in most centers, with survival rates that exceed 90 % , particularly if anemia is diagnosed early and treated in a timely manner. In addition, plasmapheresis and intravenous administration of highdose immunoglobulin have been implicated in the treatment of pregnancies complicated with early-onset severe red cell alloimmunization, alone or in combination with IUTs before the 20(th) week of pregnancy, but there are still issues to be clarified further. This review article aims to provide an overview of the current standard therapeutic management and alternative treatment modalities in pregnancies complicated by fetal anemia. PMID:23093258

  1. Could hydroxyethyl starch be a therapeutic option in management of acute aluminum phosphide toxicity?

    PubMed

    Marashi, Sayed Mahdi; Arefi, Mohammad; Behnoush, Behnam; Nasrabad, Mahdi Ghazanfari; Nasrabadi, Zeynab Nasri

    2011-04-01

    Acute aluminum phosphide poisoning is a serious toxicity and results in high mortality rate despite the progress of critical care. After ingestion, phosphine gas is released and absorbed quickly, causing systemic poisoning and cell hypoxia. Excessive thirst, severe hypotension, arrhythmias, tachypnea, and severe metabolic acidosis are the common clinical manifestations. We think acute metabolic response which characteristically occurs in severe injury also happens in aluminum phosphide poisoning. Necropsy examinations indicate congestion in almost all vital organs because of leakage of fluids from intravascular to extravascular space. The most favorable type of fluid for intravascular volume resuscitation persists and is disputed. Colloids remain in the intravascular space rather than crystalloids, and provide more rapid hemodynamic stabilization. Furthermore, hydroxyethyl starch solution may have other benefits e.g. it can reduce the extra vascular leak of albumin and fluids from an endothelial injury site. As refractory hypotension and cardiovascular collapse, because leakage of fluids from intravascular to extravascular space are common cause of death in this toxicity, we propose that hydroxyethyl starch can dominate this refractory hypotension and consequently acute metabolic response. PMID:21288649

  2. Personalized Weight Management Interventions for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction: A Viable Option for African-American Women.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Nina C; Arena, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an independent contributor to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major driving force behind racial/ethnic and gender disparities in risk. Due to a multitude of interrelating factors (i.e., personal, social, cultural, economic and environmental), African-American (AA) women are disproportionately obese and twice as likely to succumb to CVD, yet they are significantly underrepresented in behavioral weight management interventions. In this selective review we highlight components of the limited interventions shown to enhance weight loss outcomes in this population and make a case for leveraging Web-based technology and artificial intelligence techniques to deliver personalized programs aimed at obesity treatment and CVD risk reduction. Although many of the approaches discussed are generally applicable across populations burdened by disparate rates of obesity and CVD, we specifically focus on AA women due to the disproportionate impact of these non-communicable diseases and the general paucity of interventions targeted to this high-risk group. PMID:26908050

  3. Mexico City Air quality: Progress of an international collaborative project to define air quality management options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streit, Gerald E.; Guzmán, Francisco

    The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative was a 3-yr international collaborative project to develop or adapt a set of air quality management decision analysis tools for Mexico City and make them available to Mexican policy makers. The project comprised three tasks: modeling and simulation, characterization and measurement, and strategic evaluation. A prognostic, mesoscale meteorological model was adapted to the region of Mexico City and linked to a 3-D airshed model. These were extensively tested against data from the air quality monitoring network and from three intensive field campaigns. The interaction between policy and science was promoted through the development of a formal multiattribute decision analysis model to evaluate alternative control strategies. The project benefited by having researchers from both nations working side by side as peers, by having both nations investing resources and having an interest in the success of the project, and by having an objective, not of advocacy, but of the application of science to problem solving.

  4. Recent California water transfers: Emerging options in water management. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.R.; Israel, M.

    1992-12-01

    Report examines the recent use of water transfers in California. Emphasis is on the use of water transfers during the current drought and how planners and operators of federal, state, and local systems can integrate water transfers into the planning and operations of their systems. Through the California experience, the study identifies motivations for incorporating water transfers into water supply systems, reviews a variety of water transfer types, and discusses the integration of water transfers with traditional supply argumentation and water conservation measures. Limitations, constraints, and difficulties for employing water transfers within existing systems are also discussed. The study focuses primarily on the technical, planning, and operational aspects of water transfers, rather than the legal, economic, and social implications. Water transfers, Water management, Water bank, Water supply, Water use, Water institutions, Infrastructure, California state water project, Water rights, Drought, Surface water, Groundwater.

  5. Endovascular Treatment Options in the Management of Lower Limb Deep Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nazir, Sarfraz Ahmed Ganeshan, Arul; Nazir, Sheraz; Uberoi, Raman

    2009-09-15

    Lower limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Systemic anticoagulation therapy is the mainstay of conventional treatment instituted by most physicians for the management of DVT. This has proven efficacy in the prevention of thrombus extension and reduction in the incidence of pulmonary embolism and rethrombosis. Unfortunately, especially in patients with severe and extensive iliofemoral DVT, standard treatment may not be entirely adequate. This is because a considerable proportion of these patients eventually develops postthrombotic syndrome. This is characterized by chronic extremity pain and trophic skin changes, edema, ulceration, and venous claudication. Recent interest in endovascular technologies has led to the development of an assortment of minimally invasive, catheter-based strategies to deal with venous thrombus. These comprise catheter-directed thrombolysis, percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy devices, adjuvant venous angioplasty and stenting, and inferior vena cava filters. This article reviews these technologies and discusses their current role as percutaneous treatment strategies for venous thrombotic conditions.

  6. C1 fractures: a review of diagnoses, management options, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mead, Loren B; Millhouse, Paul W; Krystal, Jonathan; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2016-09-01

    The atlas is subject to fracture under axial load, often due to traumatic injuries such as shallow dives and automobile accidents. These fractures account for 2-13 % of injuries to the cervical spine [Marcon RM et al. Clinics (Sao Paulo) 68(11):1455-61, 2013]. Fractures of the C1 vertebra are often difficult to diagnose, as there is often no neurological deficit or easily identifiable findings on radiographs. However, injuries to the atlas can be associated with vertebral artery injury and atlantoaxial or atlanto-occipital instability, making prompt and accurate diagnosis imperative. A detailed understanding of the anatomy, inherent stability, and common injury patterns is essential for any surgeon treating spinal trauma. This chapter explores the diagnosis and management of C1 fractures, as well as outcomes after treatment. PMID:27357228

  7. Sleep disturbances in Parkinson’s disease patients and management options

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Daniel O; Kutscher, Scott J

    2011-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are among the most common nonmotor complaints of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), and can have a great impact on quality of life. These disturbances manifest in a variety of ways; for instance, insomnia, sleep fragmentation, and excessive daytime sleepiness. Sleep-related movement disorders such as restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements may share a common pathophysiology, and occurrence of rapid eye movement behavior disorder may predate the onset of PD or other synucleinopathies by several years. Medications for PD can have a significant impact on sleep, representing a great challenge to the treating physician. Awareness of the complex relationship between PD and sleep disorders, as well as the varied way in which sleep disturbances appear, is imperative for successful long-term management. PMID:23616723

  8. Influence of variceal bleeding on natural history of ACLF and management options.

    PubMed

    Al-Mahtab, Mamun; Akbar, Sheikh Mohammad Fazle; Garg, Hitendra

    2016-05-01

    Patients with diagnosed and undiagnosed chronic liver diseases experience one or more acute assaults of a hepatic nature and develop a downhill course of liver diseases, a condition regarded as acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). It is a medical emergency, the prognosis of ACLF is extremely bad and considerable numbers of patients with ACLF die even after diagnosis and receiving conservative treatment. ACLF is characterized by jaundice, coagulopathy, ascites and encephalopathy. ACLF patients are very sick and associated with different hemodynamic profiles and have very high 3-month mortality. As these groups of patients have high baseline hepatic venous pressure gradients, the chances of variceal bleed are also high, and the impact is also greater in comparison to stable cirrhosis; however, evidence is lacking to substantiate such effects. The aim of this review is to discuss the natural course of variceal bleeding in ACLF patients and to develop insights into the management of variceal bleeding in ACLF. PMID:26589951

  9. Options for managing hypoxic blackwater in river systems: case studies and framework.

    PubMed

    Whitworth, Kerry L; Kerr, Janice L; Mosley, Luke M; Conallin, John; Hardwick, Lorraine; Baldwin, Darren S

    2013-10-01

    Hypoxic blackwater events occur when large amounts of organic material are leached into a water body (e.g., during floodplain inundation) and rapid metabolism of this carbon depletes oxygen from the water column, often with catastrophic effects on the aquatic environment. River regulation may have increased the frequency and severity of hypoxic blackwater events in lowland river systems, necessitating management intervention to mitigate the impacts of these events on aquatic biota. We examine the effectiveness of a range of mitigation interventions that have been used during large-scale hypoxic blackwater events in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia and that may be applicable in other environments at risk from hypoxic blackwater. Strategies for hypoxia mitigation include: delivery of dilution flows; enhancement of physical re-aeration rates by increasing surface turbulence; and diversion of blackwater into shallow off-channel storages. We show that the impact of dilution water delivery is determined by relative volumes and water quality and can be predicted using simple models. At the dilution water inflow point, localized oxygenated plumes may also act as refuges. Physical re-aeration strategies generally result in only a small increase in dissolved oxygen but may be beneficial for local refuge protection. Dilution and natural re-aeration processes in large, shallow lake systems can be sufficient to compensate for hypoxic inflows and water processed in off-channel lakes may be able to be returned to the river channel as dilution flows. We provide a set of predictive models (as electronic supplementary material) for estimation of the re-aeration potential of intervention activities and a framework to guide the adaptive management of future hypoxic blackwater events. PMID:23912322

  10. Management of ureteropelvic junction obstruction in horseshoe kidneys by an assortment of laparoscopic options

    PubMed Central

    Shadpour, Pejman; Akhyari, H. Habib; Maghsoudi, Robab; Etemadian, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We report our experience with laparoscopic management of ureteropelvic junction obstruction in horseshoe kidneys. Methods: Between February 2004 and March 2014, 15 patients with horseshoe kidneys and symptomatic ureteropelvic junction obstruction underwent laparoscopic management at our national referral centre. Depending on the anatomy and presence of obtrusive vessels or isthmus, we performed either dismembered, Scardino or Foley YV pyeloplasty, or Hellstrom vessel transposition. Patients were initially evaluated by ultrasonography, then diuretic scintiscan at 4 to 6 months, and followed by yearly clinical and sonographic exams. Results: This study included 11 male and 4 female patients between the ages of 4 to 51 year (average 17.7). The left kidney was involved in 12 patients (80%). Operation time was 129 minutes (range: 90–186), and patients were discharged within 2.8 days (range: 1–6). Although 8 (53.3%) patients had crossing vessels, of which 6 required transposing, the Hellstrom technique was solely used in 3 cases, of which notably 1 case failed to resolve and required laparoscopic Hynes within the next year. Eight cases underwent dismembered pyeloplasty, 2 Foley YV, 1 Scardino flap and 1 required isthmectomy and vessel suspension. At the mean follow-up of 60 (range: 18–120) months, the overall success rate was 93.3%. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this represents the largest report on laparoscopic pyeloplasty for horseshoe kidneys, providing the longest follow-up. Our findings confirm prior reports supporting laparoscopy and furthermore show that despite the prevalence of crossing vessels, transposition alone is seldom sufficient. PMID:26600883

  11. Options for Managing Hypoxic Blackwater in River Systems: Case Studies and Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitworth, Kerry L.; Kerr, Janice L.; Mosley, Luke M.; Conallin, John; Hardwick, Lorraine; Baldwin, Darren S.

    2013-10-01

    Hypoxic blackwater events occur when large amounts of organic material are leached into a water body (e.g., during floodplain inundation) and rapid metabolism of this carbon depletes oxygen from the water column, often with catastrophic effects on the aquatic environment. River regulation may have increased the frequency and severity of hypoxic blackwater events in lowland river systems, necessitating management intervention to mitigate the impacts of these events on aquatic biota. We examine the effectiveness of a range of mitigation interventions that have been used during large-scale hypoxic blackwater events in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia and that may be applicable in other environments at risk from hypoxic blackwater. Strategies for hypoxia mitigation include: delivery of dilution flows; enhancement of physical re-aeration rates by increasing surface turbulence; and diversion of blackwater into shallow off-channel storages. We show that the impact of dilution water delivery is determined by relative volumes and water quality and can be predicted using simple models. At the dilution water inflow point, localized oxygenated plumes may also act as refuges. Physical re-aeration strategies generally result in only a small increase in dissolved oxygen but may be beneficial for local refuge protection. Dilution and natural re-aeration processes in large, shallow lake systems can be sufficient to compensate for hypoxic inflows and water processed in off-channel lakes may be able to be returned to the river channel as dilution flows. We provide a set of predictive models (as electronic supplementary material) for estimation of the re-aeration potential of intervention activities and a framework to guide the adaptive management of future hypoxic blackwater events.

  12. Threshold values and management options for nutrients in a catchment of a temperate estuary with poor ecological status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsby, K.; Markager, S.; Kronvang, B.; Windolf, J.; Sonnenborg, T. O.; Thorling, L.

    2012-08-01

    Intensive farming has severe impacts on the chemical status of groundwater and streams and consequently on the ecological status of dependent ecosystems. Eutrophication is a widespread problem in lakes and marine waters. Common problems are hypoxia, algal blooms, fish kills, and loss of water clarity, underwater vegetation, biodiversity and recreational value. In this paper we evaluate the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations of groundwater and surface water in a coastal catchment, the loadings and sources of N and P, and their effect on the ecological status of an estuary. We calculate the necessary reductions in N and P loadings to the estuary for obtaining a good ecological status, which we define based on the number of days with N and P limitation, and the corresponding stream and groundwater threshold values assuming two different management options. The calculations are performed by the combined use of empirical models and a physically based 3-D integrated hydrological model of the whole catchment. The assessment of the ecological status indicates that the N and P loads to the investigated estuary should be reduced to levels corresponding to 52 and 56% of the current loads, respectively, to restore good ecological status. Model estimates show that threshold total N (TN) concentrations should be in the range of 2.9 to 3.1 mg l-1 in inlet freshwater (streams) to Horsens estuary and 6.0 to 9.3 mg l-1 in shallow aerobic groundwater (∼ 27-41 mg l-1 of nitrate), depending on the management measures implemented in the catchment. The situation for total P (TP) is more complex, but data indicate that groundwater threshold values are not needed. The stream threshold value for TP to Horsens estuary for the selected management options is 0.084 mg l-1. Regional climate models project increasing winter precipitation and runoff in the investigated region resulting in increasing runoff and nutrient loads to the Horsens estuary and many other coastal waters if

  13. An Estimation of Profitability of Investment Projects in The Oil and Gas Industry Using Real Options Theory / Ocena Opłacalności Projektów Inwestycyjnych W Przemyśle Naftowym Z Wykorzystaniem Teorii Opcji Realnych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosowski, Piotr; Stopa, Jerzy

    2012-11-01

    Paper discusses issues relating to the valuation of investment efficiency in the oil and gas industry using a real options theory. The example of investment pricing using real options was depicted and it was confronted with the analysis executed with the use of traditional methods. Indicators commonly used to evaluate profitability of investment projects, based on a discounted cash flow method, have a few significant drawbacks, the most meaningful of which is staticity which means that any changes resulting from a decision process during the time of investment cannot be taken into consideration. In accordance with a methodology that is currently used, investment projects are analysed in a way that all the key decisions are made at the beginning and are irreversible. This approach assumes, that all the cash flows are specified and does not let the fact that during the time of investment there may appear new information, which could change its original form. What is also not analysed is the possibility of readjustment, due to staff managment's decisions, to the current market conditions, by expanding, speeding up/slowing down, abandoning or changing an outline of the undertaking. In result, traditional methods of investment projects valuation may lead to taking wrong decisions, e.g. giving up an owned exploitation licence or untimely liquidation of boreholes, which seem to be unprofitable. Due to all the above-mentioned there appears the necessity of finding some other methods which would let one make real and adequate estimations about investments in a petroleum industry especially when it comes to unconventional resources extraction. One of the methods which has been recently getting more and more approval in a world petroleum economics, is a real options pricing method. A real option is a right (but not an obligation) to make a decision connected with an investment in a specified time or time interval. According to the method a static model of pricing using DCF is

  14. Managed Aquifer Recharge Using Treated Wastewater: An Option to Manage a Coastal Aquifer In Oman For Better Domestic Water Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Maktoumi, Ali; Zekri, Slim; ElRawy, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    Arid countries, such as the Sultanate of Oman, are facing challenges of water shortages threatening economic development and social stability. Most of those countries are vulnerable to the potential adverse impacts of climate change, the most significant of which are increased average temperatures, less and more erratic precipitation, sea level rise, and desertification. The combined effect of existing adverse conditions and likely impacts of future climate change will make water management even more difficult than what it is today. Tremendous efforts have been devoted to augment the water resources. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is practiced widely to store water during periods of surpluses and withdraw during deficits from an aquifer. In Muscat, there will be a surplus of >100,000 m3/day of TWW during winter months in the coming few years. The aquifer along the northern coast of Oman (Al-Khawd Aquifer) is conducive for MAR. Data show that TWW volumes will increase from 7.6 Mm3 in 2003 to 70.9 Mm3 in 2035 in Muscat city only. This study assesses, using MODFLOW 2005 numerical code, the impact of MAR using TWW on better management of the Al-Khawd unconfined coastal aquifer for better urban water supply. Specifically, aiming to maximize withdrawals from the domestic wells with minimize adverse effect of seawater intrusion. The model operates under a number of constrains that minimize the loss to the sea and the injected TWW must not migrates upstream (due to developed mound) and reach the wellfields used for domestic supply. The hypothetical injection wells are located downstream the domestic wellfield zone. The results of different managerial scenarios show that MAR produces a hydraulic barrier that decelerates the seawater intrusion which allows higher abstraction of pristine water from the upstream part of the aquifer. MAR along with redistribution/relocation of public wells allows abstraction of 2 times the current abstraction rate (around 6 Mm3/year to 12 Mm3

  15. Accounting for water management issues within hydrological simulation: Alternative modelling options and a network optimization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstratiadis, Andreas; Nalbantis, Ioannis; Rozos, Evangelos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2010-05-01

    In mixed natural and artificialized river basins, many complexities arise due to anthropogenic interventions in the hydrological cycle, including abstractions from surface water bodies, groundwater pumping or recharge and water returns through drainage systems. Typical engineering approaches adopt a multi-stage modelling procedure, with the aim to handle the complexity of process interactions and the lack of measured abstractions. In such context, the entire hydrosystem is separated into natural and artificial sub-systems or components; the natural ones are modelled individually, and their predictions (i.e. hydrological fluxes) are transferred to the artificial components as inputs to a water management scheme. To account for the interactions between the various components, an iterative procedure is essential, whereby the outputs of the artificial sub-systems (i.e. abstractions) become inputs to the natural ones. However, this strategy suffers from multiple shortcomings, since it presupposes that pure natural sub-systems can be located and that sufficient information is available for each sub-system modelled, including suitable, i.e. "unmodified", data for calibrating the hydrological component. In addition, implementing such strategy is ineffective when the entire scheme runs in stochastic simulation mode. To cope with the above drawbacks, we developed a generalized modelling framework, following a network optimization approach. This originates from the graph theory, which has been successfully implemented within some advanced computer packages for water resource systems analysis. The user formulates a unified system which is comprised of the hydrographical network and the typical components of a water management network (aqueducts, pumps, junctions, demand nodes etc.). Input data for the later include hydraulic properties, constraints, targets, priorities and operation costs. The real-world system is described through a conceptual graph, whose dummy properties

  16. Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in Coastal Pacific Northwest Rivers: Biological Controls and Management Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobota, D. J.; Foster, E.; Michie, R.; Waltz, D.

    2014-12-01

    In Oregon's Central Coast Range (OCR), dissolved O2 concentrations in at least 10% of stream length frequently dip below state standards set to ensure survival and reproduction of native salmonids. We examined O2 dynamics on 12 OCR rivers during times of the year when standards had been violated. Continuous dissolved O2 data were collected 15 minutes apart over a 24-hour period during spring (May - June) or fall (September - November) 2008 on each river. We modeled O2 dynamics for each river with parameters describing O2 exchange with the atmosphere, production of O2 from gross primary production (GPP), and consumption of O2 by ecosystem respiration (ER) fit to observed data. Average nighttime atmospheric O2 exchange and ER were estimated by regressing interval changes in dissolved O2 concentrations between measurements with corresponding O2 saturation deficits. GPP for each daytime sampling interval was calculated as the difference between O2 saturation deficit and the sum of temperature-corrected reaeration and ecosystem respiration. All regression models developed for estimating night-time reaeration and ER were highly significant (p<0.03; adjusted r2=0.17 - 0.77). GPP ranged from 0.62 to 14.95 mg O2 L-1 d-1, ER ranged from -1.21 mg O2 L-1 d-1, and net daily metabolism (NDM; net O2 flux controlled by biological processes) ranged from -11.64 to 3.75 mg O2 L-1 d-1 across all rivers and seasons. Increased aquatic productivity resulting from adjacent and upstream human activities likely altered dissolved O2 dynamics in these rivers. Through scenario analysis, we found that at one river (Alsea), GPP and ER would need to be reduced by 85 and 73%, respectively, to meet the state standard (95% saturation). Our modeling approach can be connected with management actions across a variety of spatial and temporal scales, ranging from local, riparian-scale manipulations of shading and organic matter input to watershed and regional nutrient and temperature management.

  17. Agroecosystem Management Effects on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Across a Coastal Plain Catena

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Landscape variability influences soil properties that influence soil respiration and subsequent trace gas emissions. Scarcity of data on greenhouse gas emissions as influenced by landscape variability and agroecosystem management in southeastern US necessitates study. The objective of this study was...

  18. Management of menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms: Current treatment options, challenges and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Pachman, Deirdre R; Jones, Jason M; Loprinzi, Charles L

    2010-01-01

    Hot flashes are one of the most common and distressing symptoms associated with menopause, occurring in more than 75% of postmenopausal women. They are especially problematic in breast cancer patients since some breast cancer therapies can induce hot flashes. For mild hot flashes, it is proposed that behavioral modifications are the first step in management. Hormonal therapies, including estrogens and progestogens, are the most well known effective agents in relieving hot flashes; however, the safety of these agents is controversial. There is an increasing amount of literature on nonhormonal agents for the treatment of hot flashes. The most promising data regard newer antidepressant agents such as venlafaxine, which reduces hot flashes by about 60%. Gabapentin is another nonhormonal agent that is effective in reducing hot flashes. While many complimentary therapies, including phytoestrogens, black cohosh, and dehydroepiandrosterone, have been explored for the treatment of hot flashes; none can be recommended at this time. Furthermore, there is a lack of strong evidence to support exercise, yoga, or relaxation for the treatment of hot flashes. Paced respirations and hypnosis appear to be promising enough to warrant further investigation. Another promising nonpharmacological therapy, currently under investigation, involves a stellate ganglion block. PMID:21072305

  19. Nuclear heating, radiation damage, and waste management options for the HYLIFE-II final focus magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Moir, R W; House, P A

    1999-08-09

    Heavy-ion fusion (HIF) designs for inertial fusion energy (XFE) power plants typically require final focusing magnets just outside the reaction chamber and blanket. Due to penetrations within the chamber and blanket, the magnets are exposed to a radiation environment. Although the magnet bores would be sized to avoid line-of-sight irradiation, the magnets still would be susceptible to nuclear heating and radiation damage from neutrons and y-rays. Additionally, the magnets must be included in waste management considerations due to neutron activation. Modified versions of the HYLIFE-II IFE power plant featuring two-sided illumination by arrays of 32 or 96 beams from each side are presented. A simple, point-of-departure quadrupole magnet design is assumed, and a three-dimensional neutronics model is created for the Flibe pocket, first wall, blanket, shield, and final two focusing magnets. This work details state-of-the-art neutronics calculations and shows that the final focus system needs to be included in the economic and environmental considerations for the driver-chamber interface of any HIF IFE power plant design.

  20. Treatment options and patient perspectives in the management of fibromyalgia: future trends

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a common, complex, and difficult to treat chronic widespread pain disorder, which usually requires a multidisciplinary approach using both pharmacological and non-pharmacological (education and exercise) interventions. It is a condition of heightened generalized sensitization to sensory input presenting as a complex of symptoms including pain, sleep dysfunction, and fatigue, where the pathophysiology could include dysfunction of the central nervous system pain modulatory systems, dysfunction of the neuroendocrine system, and dysautonomia. A cyclic model of the pathophysiological processes is compatible with the interrelationship of primary symptoms and the array of postulated triggers associated with FM. Many of the molecular targets of current and emerging drugs used to treat FM have been focused to the management of discrete symptoms rather than the condition. Recently, drugs (eg, pregabalin, duloxetine, milnacipran, sodium oxybate) have been identified that demonstrate a multidimensional efficacy in this condition. Although the complexity of FM suggests that monotherapy, non-pharmacological or pharmacological, will not adequately address the condition, the outcomes from recent clinical trials are providing important clues for treatment guidelines, improved diagnosis, and condition-focused therapies. PMID:19337451

  1. Transvaginal Sonographic Evaluation of the Cervix in Asymptomatic Singleton Pregnancy and Management Options in Short Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Arisoy, Resul; Yayla, Murat

    2012-01-01

    Preterm delivery (PTD), defined as birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation, is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Evaluation of the cervical morphology and biometry with transvaginal ultrasonography at 16–24 weeks of gestation is a useful tool to predict the risk of preterm birth in low- and high-risk singleton pregnancies. For instance, a sonographic cervical length (CL) > 30 mm and present cervical gland area have a 96-97% negative predictive value for preterm delivery at <37 weeks. Available evidence supports the use of progesterone to women with cervical length ≤25 mm, irrespective of other risk factors. In women with prior spontaneous PTD with asymptomatic cervical shortening (CL ≤ 25 mm), prophylactic cerclage procedure must be performed and weekly to every two weeks follow-up is essential. This article reviews the evidence in support of the clinical introduction of transvaginal sonography for both the prediction and management of spontaneous preterm labour. PMID:22523687

  2. Monitoring soil greenhouse gas emissions from managed grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Pinés, Eugenio; Lu, Haiyan; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kiese, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Grasslands in Central Europe are of enormous social, ecological and economical importance. They are intensively managed, but the influence of different common practices (i.e. fertilization, harvesting) on the total greenhouse gas budget of grasslands is not fully understood, yet. In addition, it is unknown how these ecosystems will react due to climate change. Increasing temperatures and changing precipitation will likely have an effect on productivity of grasslands and on bio-geo-chemical processes responsible for emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). In the frame of the TERENO Project (www.tereno.net), a long-term observatory has been implemented in the Ammer catchment, southern Germany. Acting as an in situ global change experiment, 36 big lysimeters (1 m2 section, 150 cm height) have been translocated along an altitudinal gradient, including three sites ranging from 600 to 860 meters above sea level. In addition, two treatments have been considered, corresponding to different management intensities. The overall aim of the pre-alpine TERENO observatory is improving our understanding of the consequences of climate change and management on productivity, greenhouse gas balance, soil nutritional status, nutrient leaching and hydrology of grasslands. Two of the sites are equipped with a fully automated measurement system in order to continuously and accurately monitor the soil-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange. Thus, a stainless steel chamber (1 m2 section, 80 cm height) is controlled by a robotized system. The chamber is hanging on a metal structure which can move both vertically and horizontally, so that the chamber is able to be set onto each of the lysimeters placed on the field. Furthermore, the headspace of the chamber is connected with a gas tube to a Quantum Cascade Laser, which continuously measures CO2, CH4, N2O and H2O mixing ratios. The chamber acts as a static chamber and sets for 15 minutes onto each lysimeter

  3. Ulipristal acetate: a novel option for the medical management of symptomatic uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Talaulikar, Vikram S; Manyonda, Isaac T

    2012-08-01

    Fibroids, the most common tumor in women of reproductive age, impact negatively on women's health and quality of life, and have significant cost implications for their management. The current mainstay treatments are surgical (myomectomy and hysterectomy) and more recently radiological (UAE and focused ultrasound surgery). Hysterectomy is curative but precludes future fertility, whereas the impact of the other treatments on reproduction is uncertain. With women in Western societies deferring childbearing to their 30s and 40s, when fibroids are most symptomatic, there is a pressing need for a uterus-sparing medical therapy that is cheap, effective, and enhances reproductive potential. Serendipity and meticulous translational research has shown that progesterone augments fibroid proliferation, raising the possibility that progesterone receptor modulators could inhibit fibroid growth; this research has culminated in the emergence of ulipristal acetate (UA), a first-in-class, oral selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) that has successfully completed phase III clinical trials. It has been licensed in Western Europe for short-term clinical use prior to surgery, and has shown efficacy with a significant reduction in uterine bleeding, fibroid volume, and improved quality of life, without the side effects associated with other medications such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. As with all new medicines, there are concerns surrounding UA, not least its effect on the endometrium and the long-term impact on general health and reproduction. Research to date has tended to be industry led, and therefore, there is a need for researcher/clinician-led studies to address the wider issues concerning SPRMs. UA may not turn out to be the "Holy Grail" of medical therapy in the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids, but it has rightly given cause for a huge optimism. Further laboratory and clinical research into PRMs and related compounds will no doubt lead

  4. Assessment and management of respiratory function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: current and emerging options.

    PubMed

    LoMauro, Antonella; D'Angelo, Maria Grazia; Aliverti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked myopathy resulting in progressive weakness and wasting of all the striated muscles including the respiratory muscles. The consequences are loss of ambulation before teen ages, cardiac involvement and breathing difficulties, the main cause of death. A cure for DMD is not currently available. In the last decades the survival of patients with DMD has improved because the natural history of the disease can be changed thanks to a more comprehensive therapeutic approach. This comprises interventions targeted to the manifestations and complications of the disease, particularly in the respiratory care. These include: 1) pharmacological intervention, namely corticosteroids and idebenone that significantly reduce the decline of spirometric parameters; 2) rehabilitative intervention, namely lung volume recruitment techniques that help prevent atelectasis and slows the rate of decline of pulmonary function; 3) scoliosis treatment, namely steroid therapy that is used to reduce muscle inflammation/degeneration and prolong ambulation in order to delay the onset of scoliosis, being an additional contribution to the restrictive lung pattern; 4) cough assisted devices that improve airway clearance thus reducing the risk of pulmonary infections; and 5) non-invasive mechanical ventilation that is essential to treat nocturnal hypoventilation, sleep disordered breathing, and ultimately respiratory failure. Without any intervention death occurs within the first 2 decades, however, thanks to this multidisciplinary therapeutic approach life expectancy of a newborn with DMD nowadays can be significantly prolonged up to his fourth decade. This review is aimed at providing state-of-the-art methods and techniques for the assessment and management of respiratory function in DMD patients. PMID:26451113

  5. Naltrexone extended-release injection: an option for the management of opioid abuse

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Robert; Raffa, Robert B; Pergolizzi, Joseph V

    2011-01-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved naltrexone, a synthetic competitive antagonist at opioid receptors, in oral form in 1984 for use in the management of opioid abuse and addiction. Because naltrexone and its major metabolite, 6-β-naltrexone, are both competitive antagonists at opioid receptors – and thereby inhibit opioid agonist-induced effects including those desired by abusers – it was hypothesized that once maintained on naltrex-one, opioid-induced desirable effects would be diminished to the point that relapse to illicit use would decline because it was no longer rewarding. However, good medication compliance is a requisite for such a strategy to be effective and a systematic review of oral naltrexone concluded that this method of treatment was not superior for any outcomes measured (ie, retention, abstinence, or side effects) to placebo, psychotherapy, benzodiazepines, or buprenorphine treatment. In addition, the retention rate on oral naltrexone was very low (less than 30%). Recently, the FDA approved an extended-release formulation (intramuscular depot injection) of naltrexone for prevention of relapse to opioid dependence following opioid detoxification and to be used along with counseling and social support. Since it needs to be administered only monthly, as opposed to the daily administration required for the oral formulation, naltrexone injection has the potential for increasing adherence and retention rates. Concerns include liver damage at high doses (oral formulation) and possible opioid overdose if an attempt is made to surmount receptor antagonism by taking higher doses of an opioid agonist or if opioid receptors become “sensitized” under long-term antagonism. The focus of the present review is the current information regarding the safety and efficacy of naltrexone extended-release therapy. PMID:24474859

  6. Assessment and management of respiratory function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: current and emerging options

    PubMed Central

    LoMauro, Antonella; D’Angelo, Maria Grazia; Aliverti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked myopathy resulting in progressive weakness and wasting of all the striated muscles including the respiratory muscles. The consequences are loss of ambulation before teen ages, cardiac involvement and breathing difficulties, the main cause of death. A cure for DMD is not currently available. In the last decades the survival of patients with DMD has improved because the natural history of the disease can be changed thanks to a more comprehensive therapeutic approach. This comprises interventions targeted to the manifestations and complications of the disease, particularly in the respiratory care. These include: 1) pharmacological intervention, namely corticosteroids and idebenone that significantly reduce the decline of spirometric parameters; 2) rehabilitative intervention, namely lung volume recruitment techniques that help prevent atelectasis and slows the rate of decline of pulmonary function; 3) scoliosis treatment, namely steroid therapy that is used to reduce muscle inflammation/degeneration and prolong ambulation in order to delay the onset of scoliosis, being an additional contribution to the restrictive lung pattern; 4) cough assisted devices that improve airway clearance thus reducing the risk of pulmonary infections; and 5) non-invasive mechanical ventilation that is essential to treat nocturnal hypoventilation, sleep disordered breathing, and ultimately respiratory failure. Without any intervention death occurs within the first 2 decades, however, thanks to this multidisciplinary therapeutic approach life expectancy of a newborn with DMD nowadays can be significantly prolonged up to his fourth decade. This review is aimed at providing state-of-the-art methods and techniques for the assessment and management of respiratory function in DMD patients. PMID:26451113

  7. Storage management influences greenhouse gas emissions from biosolids.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Ramaprasad; Livesley, Stephen J; Gregory, David; Arndt, Stefan K

    2015-03-15

    Biosolids produced by wastewater treatment plants are often stored in stockpiles and can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHG). Growing trees in shallow stockpiled biosolids may remove nutrients, keep the biosolids drier and offset GHG emissions through C sequestration. We directly measured methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) flux from a large biosolid stockpile and two shallow stockpiles, one planted with Salix reichardtii (willow) trees, from December 2009 to January 2011. All stockpiles emitted large annual amounts of GHG ranging from 38 kg CO2-e Mg(-1) dry biosolid for the large stockpile, to 65 kg CO2-e Mg(-1) for the unplanted shallow stockpile, probably due to the greater surface area to volume ratio. GHG emissions were dominated by N2O and CO2 whilst CH4 emissions were negligible (<2%) from the large stockpile and the shallow stockpiles were actually a CH4 sink. Annual willow tree growth was 12 Mg dry biomass ha(-1), but this only offset 8% of the GHG emissions from the shallow planted stockpile. Our data highlight that biosolid stockpiles are significant sources for GHG emissions but alternate management options such as shallow stockpiles or planting for biomass production will not lead to GHG emission reductions. PMID:25585149

  8. Climate change adaptation options for sustainable management of agriculture in the Eastern Lower Danube Plain, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovici, Elena-Ana; Sima, Mihaela; Balteanu, Dan; Dragota, Carmen-Sofia; Grigorescu, Ines; Kucsicsa, Gheorghe

    2013-04-01

    well as calculated some of relevant climatic indicators (Standardized Precipitation Index, Climatic Water Deficit and Thornthwaite Aridity Index for the main crops). These indicators frame the region in a temperate-continental climate with excessive influences, imposing specific management practices in agriculture: rehabilitation of irrigation systems, drought resistant seeds, planting forest belts, etc.).

  9. Effect of water management, tillage options and phosphorus status on arsenic uptake in rice.

    PubMed

    Talukder, A S M H M; Meisner, C A; Sarkar, M A R; Islam, M S

    2011-05-01

    High arsenic (As) concentrations in soil may lead to elevated concentrations of arsenic in agricultural products. Field experiments were conducted to examine the effects of water management (WM) and Phosphorus (P) rates on As uptake, rice growth, yield and yield attributes of winter (boro) and monsoon (aman) rice in an As contaminated soil-water at Gobindagonj, Gaibandha, Bangladesh in 2004 and 2005. Significantly, the highest average grain yields (6.88±0.07 t ha(-1) in boro 6.38±0.06 t ha(-1) in aman) were recorded in permanent raised bed (PRB; aerobic WM: Eh=+360 mV) plus 100% P amendment. There was a 12% yield increase over conventional till on flat (CTF; anaerobic WM: Eh=-56 mV) at the same P level. In boro, the As content in grain and As content in straw were about 3 and 6 times higher in CTF compared to PRB, respectively. The highest total As content (0.646±0.01 ppm in grain and 10.93±0.19 ppm in straw) was recorded under CTF, and the lowest total As content (0.247±0.01 and 1.554±0.09 ppm in grain and straw, respectively) was recorded under PRB (aerobic WM). The results suggest that grain and straw As are closely associated in boro rice. The furrow irrigation approach of the PRB treatments consistently reduced irrigation input by 29-31% for boro and 27-30% for aman rice relative to CTF treatments in 2004 and 2005, respectively, thus reducing the amount of As added to the soil from the As-contaminated irrigation water. Yearly, 30% less As was deposited to the soil compared to CTF system through irrigation water during boro season. High As concentrations in grain and straw in rice grown using CTF in the farmers' field, and the fact that using PRB reduced grain As concentrations to value less than half of the proposed food hygiene standard. PMID:21146217

  10. Integrated options for the management of black root rot of strawberry caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn.

    PubMed

    Asad-Uz-Zaman, Md; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Rejwan; Khan, Mohammad Ashik Iqbal; Alam Bhuiyan, Md Khurshed; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2015-02-01

    An investigation was made to manage strawberry black root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani) through the integration of Trichoderma harzianum (T. harzianum) isolate STA7, mustard oil cake and Provax 200. A series of preliminary experiments were conducted to select a virulent isolate of R. solani, an effective isolate of T. harzianum, a suitable organic amendment, and a suitable fungicide before setting the experiment for integration. The pathogenicity of the selected four isolates of R. solani was evaluated against strawberry and isolate SR1 was selected as the test pathogen due to its highest virulent (95.47% mortality) characteristics. Among the 20 isolates of T. harzianum, isolate STA7 showed maximum inhibition (71.97%) against the test pathogen (R. solani). Among the fungicides, Provax-200 was found to be more effective at lowest concentration (100 ppm) and highly compatible with Trichoderma isolates STA7. In the case of organic amendments, maximum inhibition (59.66%) of R. solani was obtained through mustard oil cake at the highest concentration (3%), which was significantly superior to other amendments. Minimum percentages of diseased roots were obtained with pathogen (R. solani)+Trichoderma+mustard oil cake+Provax-200 treatment, while the highest was observed with healthy seedlings with a pathogen-inoculated soil. In the case of leaf and fruit rot diseases, significantly lowest infected leaves as well as fruit rot were observed with a pathogen+Trichoderma+mustard oil cake+Provax-200 treatment in comparison with the control. A similar trend of high effectiveness was observed by the integration of Trichoderma, fungicide and organic amendments in controlling root rot and fruit diseases of strawberry. Single application of Trichoderma isolate STA7, Provax 200 or mustard oil cake did not show satisfactory performance in terms of disease-free plants, but when they were applied in combination, the number of healthy plants increased significantly. The

  11. Efficient management of municipal water: water scarcity in Taiz City, Yemen - issues and options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noaman, A.; Al-Sharjabe, A. W.

    2015-04-01

    The city of Taiz is the third largest city in Yemen, located about 250 km south of Sana'a and about 90 km inland from the Red Sea. Taiz is situated on the foothills and slopes of the Jabal Saber Mountain at elevations between 1100 and 1600 m a.s.l. Its population is rapidly increasing and is expected to grow from about 580 000 in 2012 to over 1 000 000 in 2020. Water supply is the most pressing problem in the city of Taiz today due to the significant shortages of supply (the average consumption is 23 L/d) caused by the depletion of existing water resources and the lack of a clear direction in dealing with the problem. This forces frequent service interruptions (30-40 days) and the service is rarely extended to new users (only 57% of the population are covered). Sanitation is another daunting problem. The (poorly maintained) sewerage network covers only 44% of the population. In several unsewered areas to the north, east and west of the city, raw sewage is disposed of directly into wadis, which causes a health hazard and threatens to contaminate groundwater resources. The proper computation of demand and supply is based on the various fields. It was performed under this study with a particular model: the Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP) developed by the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI). WEAP is supported by a geographical information system (GIS). The available and relevant data on poverty and social indicators, water use and sources, surface runoff, surface and groundwater availability, groundwater depletion and management, crop production areas, soil cover, maps, and meteorological information were gathered from a number of sources. There are only two ways to decrease the water deficit: by increasing water supply or decreasing the water demand. Any adaptation project aims at one of the two. Six projects are proposed, with three in each category (1, 2 and 3 to decrease demand, and 4, 5 and 6 to increase supply): - Project 1: Improvement of

  12. Foot abscess in sheep: Evaluation of risk factors and management options.

    PubMed

    Barwell, Robert; Eppleston, Jeff; Watt, Bruce; Dhand, Navneet K

    2015-12-01

    Foot abscess of sheep is a painful, suppurative and necrotic infection of the phalanges and interphalangeal joints. Sheep affected by foot abscess may be acutely lame and pregnant ewes may die with secondary pregnancy toxemia when they fail to maintain their required level of nutrition. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study to identify and quantify possible risk factors for foot abscess. A questionnaire was designed and used to conduct telephone interviews with 115 sheep farmers in the Central Tablelands of NSW in November 2012. They were asked to provide information on their farm, the animals, and management-related information for the lambing period of a selected cohort of ewes. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted using two outcome variables: (a) the presence of foot abscess, and (b) low (<1%), medium (between 1% and 5%) or high (>5%) levels of foot abscess. High levels of clover in the paddocks grazed by sheep was associated with increased odds of foot abscess in both the models (binary model odds ratio [OR]: 3.18; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22, 8.77 and ordinal model OR: 2.92; 95% CI: 1.35, 6.54). High risk was also associated with the farmer's observation that it had been a wet season (ordinal model OR: 7.89, 95% CI: 2.72, 24.43) and moving sheep during lambing (binary model OR: 14.15, 95% CI: 2.30, 296.61). Similarly, farms with shale/slate type soils had lower odds of the disease compared to farms with basalt-derived soils. Farmers who used foot-baths (binary model OR: 4.05, 95% CI: 1.15, 19.34) and antibiotics (ordinal model OR: 3.16, 95% CI: 1.38, 7.66) had higher odds of foot abscess, as might be expected as they adopted these measures to deal with an increased prevalence of foot abscess. The findings from this study can be used to provide extension advice to farmers and for designing further confirmatory studies. PMID:26588870

  13. Evaluation Report of the Presidential/Secretarial Objective -- School Management Options Available to Indian People. Research and Evaluation Report Series No. 29.08.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Indian Training and Research Center, Tempe, AZ.

    Presenting evaluations of the Bureau of Indian Affairs' (BIA) implementation of the School Management Option Project, a project designed to further American Indian control of schools and elevated to the status of Presidential/Secretarial Objective (P/SO) in 1974, this report includes separate evaluations by the National Indian Training and…

  14. THE IMPACT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ON GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technological advancements in United States (U.S.) municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal and a focus on the environmental advantages of integrated MSW management have greatly reduced the environmental impacts of MSW management, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study ...

  15. Threshold values and management options for phosphorus in a catchment of an estuary in Denmark with poor ecological status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronvang, Brian; Windolf, Jørgen; Hinsby, Klaus; Markager, Stiig

    2015-04-01

    Assessment of the ecological status of an estuary in Denmark(Horsens estuary) indicate that beside reducing total N loads also total phosphorus (TP) loads should be reduced to a level corresponding to 56% of current TP loads to obtain a good ecological status as required by the EU Water Framework Directive (Hinsby et al., 2012). The estimated maximum acceptable TP load to the estuary amounting to 13 tonnes per year corresponds to a reduction of the current TP loadings (2000-2005) with an average of 10.4 tonnes P per year. The maximum allowed stream threshold TP concentration entering the estuary is then calculated to amount to 0.084 mg P L-1. A source apportionment of TP loads during the period 2000-2005 showed that point source emissions of TP contributed with 31% and diffuse sources including background loadings, agricultural losses and scattered dwellings contributed with the remaining 69% of the TP loadings to the estuary. The reduction targets for TP can be obtained by implementing different mitigation measures directed against diffuse losses in the catchment and introducing improved treatment of sewage water at point sources discharging either to freshwater or directly to the estuary. We developed a management option for the catchment and estuary that could be applied together with a reduction of the total nitrogen loadings in order to obtain a good ecological status in the Horsens estuary (Hinsby et al., 2012). The management scenario included a reduction of point source emissions of TP amounting to 4.14 tonnes P yr-1, restoration of 300 ha of riparian wetlands (3.0 tonnes P yr-1) and implementation of mandatory 10 m buffer strips with planting of trees along 300 km of watercourses (3.0 tonnes P yr-1). We find it impossible to calculate a threshold concentration for TP in groundwater within the catchment as the pathways of dissolved (leaching and groundwater discharges) and particulate (erosional) P forms are more complex than it is the case for nitrogen

  16. Water management technologies used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-07-30

    Natural gas represents an important energy source for the United States. According to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), about 22% of the country's energy needs are provided by natural gas. Historically, natural gas was produced from conventional vertical wells drilled into porous hydrocarbon-containing formations. During the past decade, operators have increasingly looked to other unconventional sources of natural gas, such as coal bed methane, tight gas sands, and gas shales.

  17. Life cycle assessment of municipal solid waste management with regard to greenhouse gas emissions: case study of Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; van der Voet, Ester; Zhang, Yufeng; Huppes, Gjalt

    2009-02-15

    The environmental impacts of municipal solid waste (MSW) management have been highlighted in China, due to the continually increasing amount of MSW being generated and the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities. Of particular interest is greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation, aided by the Kyoto Mechanisms. China is an important case study for this global issue; however, an analysis of the entire life cycle of MSW management on GHG emissions is not available for China. This study evaluates the current and possible patterns of MSW management with regard to GHG emissions, using life cycle assessment (LCA), based on the Tianjin case. We assess the baseline scenario, reflecting the existing MSW management system, as well as a set of alternative scenarios, five exploring waste treatment technology innovations and one exploring integrated MSW management, to quantitatively predict potentials of GHG mitigation for Tianjin. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis is used to investigate the influence of landfill gas (LFG) collection efficiency, recycling rate and methodological choice, especially allocation, on the outcomes. The results show GHG emissions from Tianjin's MSW management system amount to 467.34 Mg CO2 eq. per year, based on the treatment of MSW collected in the central districts in 2006, and the key issue is LFG released. The integrated MSW management scenario, combining different improvement options, shows the highest GHG mitigation potential. Given the limited financial support and the current waste management practice in Tianjin, LFG utilization scenario would be the preferred choice. The sensitivity analysis of recycling rate shows an approximately linear relation of inverse proportion between recycling rate and total GHG emissions. Kitchen waste composting makes a considerable contribution to total GHG emissions reduction. Allocation choices result in differences in total quantitative outcomes, but preference orders and contributions analysis are found to be

  18. Management Options and Outcomes for Neonatal Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome in the Early Twenty-First Century.

    PubMed

    Kane, Jason M; Canar, Jeff; Kalinowski, Valerie; Johnson, Tricia J; Hoehn, K Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Without surgical treatment, neonatal hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) mortality in the first year of life exceeds 90 % and, in spite of improved surgical outcomes, many families still opt for non-surgical management. The purpose of this study was to investigate trends in neonatal HLHS management and to identify characteristics of patients who did not undergo surgical palliation. Neonates with HLHS were identified from a serial cross-sectional analysis using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Kids' Inpatient Database from 2000 to 2012. The primary analysis compared children undergoing surgical palliation to those discharged alive without surgery using a binary logistic regression model. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to determine factors associated with treatment choice. A total of 1750 patients underwent analysis. Overall hospital mortality decreased from 35.3 % in 2000 to 22.9 % in 2012. The percentage of patients undergoing comfort care discharge without surgery also decreased from 21.2 to 14.8 %. After controlling for demographics and comorbidities, older patients at presentation were less likely to undergo surgery (OR 0.93, 0.91-0.96), and patients in 2012 were more likely to undergo surgery compared to those in prior years (OR 1.5, 1.1-2.1). Discharge without surgical intervention is decreasing with a 30 % reduction between 2000 and 2012. Given the improvement in surgical outcomes, further dialogue about ethical justification of non-operative comfort or palliative care is warranted. In the meantime, clinicians should present families with surgical outcome data and recommend intervention, while supporting their option to refuse. PMID:26541152

  19. Rehabilitation Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ...

  20. Reservoir model for Hillsboro gas storage field management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udegbunam, Emmanuel O.; Kemppainen, Curt; Morgan, Jim

    1995-01-01

    A 3-dimensional reservoir model is used to understand the behavior of the Hillsboro Gas Storage Field and to investigate the field's performance under various future development. Twenty-two years of the gas storage reservoir history, comprising the initial gas bubble development and seasonal gas injection and production cycles, are examined with a full-field, gas water, reservoir simulation model. The results suggest that the gas-water front is already in the vicinity of the west observation well that increasing the field's total gas-in-place volume would cause gas to migrate beyond the east, north and west observation well. They also suggest that storage enlargement through gas injection into the lower layers may not prevent gas migration. Moreover, the results suggest that the addition of strategically-located new wells would boost the simulated gas deliverabilities.

  1. 77 FR 66865 - Record of Decision for the Oil and Gas Management Plan, Big South Fork National River and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... National Park Service Record of Decision for the Oil and Gas Management Plan, Big South Fork National River... (ROD) for the Oil and Gas Management Plan (Plan) for Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area... impacts from oil and gas development. The plan will guide oil and gas management in Big South...

  2. Screening regional management options for their impact on climate resilience: an approach and case study in the Venen-Vechtstreek wetlands in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Wardekker, J A; Wildschut, D; Stemberger, S; van der Sluijs, J P

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater systems provide various resources and services. These are often vulnerable to climate change and other pressures. Therefore, enhancing resilience to climate change is important for their long term viability. This paper explores how management options can be evaluated on their resilience implications. The approach included five steps: (1) characterizing the system, (2) characterizing the impacts of climate change and other disturbances, (3) inventorying management options, (4) assessing the impacts of these on climate resilience, and (5) follow-up analysis. For the resilience assessment, we used a set of 'resilience principles': homeostasis, omnivory, high flux, flatness, buffering, and redundancy. We applied the approach in a case study in a Dutch wetlands region. Many options in the region's management plan contribute to resilience, however, the plan underutilised several principles, particularly flatness, but also redundancy and omnivory for agriculture, and high flux for nature. Co-benefits was identified as an important additional criterion to obtain support for adaptation from local stakeholders, such as farmers. The approach provided a relatively quick and participatory way to screen options. It allowed us to consider multiple impacts and sectors, multiple dimensions of resilience, and stakeholder perspectives. The results can be used to identify gaps or pitfalls, and set priorities for follow-up analyses. PMID:27386233

  3. Pricing Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

  4. Ventilation and gas exchange management after cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Sutherasan, Yuda; Raimondo, Pasquale; Pelosi, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    For several decades, physicians had integrated several interventions aiming to improve the outcomes in post-cardiac arrest patients. However, the mortality rate after cardiac arrest is still as high as 50%. Post-cardiac arrest syndrome is associated with high morbidity and mortality due to not only poor neurological outcome and cardiovascular failure but also respiratory dysfunction. To minimize ventilator-associated lung injury, protective mechanical ventilation by using low tidal volume ventilation and driving pressure may decrease pulmonary complications and improve survival. Low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can be initiated and titrated with careful cardiac output and respiratory mechanics monitoring. Furthermore, optimizing gas exchange by avoiding hypoxia and hyperoxia as well as maintaining normocarbia may improve neurological and survival outcome. Early multidisciplinary cardiac rehabilitation intervention is recommended. Minimally invasive monitoring techniques, that is, echocardiography, transpulmonary thermodilution method measuring extravascular lung water, as well as transcranial Doppler ultrasound, might be useful to improve appropriate management of post-cardiac arrest patients. PMID:26670813

  5. Managed grasslands: A greenhouse gas sink or source?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, Paul; Kiely, Ger; Scanlon, Todd M.

    2004-10-01

    We describe a unique, one year investigation of CO2 and N2O fluxes over a fertilized grassland in Ireland using two eddy covariance systems. As the global warming potential (GWP) of N2O is 296 (100 year time horizon), relatively small N2O emissions have a potentially large impact on overall radiative forcing. Therefore nitrogen fertilizer application practices may possibly turn a site with a net CO2 uptake into a net radiative forcing source. We observed a net annual uptake of 9.45 T CO2 ha-1. N2O emissions equivalent to 5.42 T ha-1 CO2 GWP counteracted 57% of the effect of the CO2 uptake. Estimated methane emissions from ruminants (3.74 T ha-1 CO2 GWP) further counteract the CO2 uptake, making the overall GWP nearly neutral. This delicate balance of the greenhouse gas fluxes underscores the significance of fertilizer application strategies in determining whether a managed grassland is a net GWP source or sink.

  6. Identifying and Evaluating Options for Improving Sediment Management and Fish Passage at Hydropower Dams in the Lower Mekong River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, T. B.; Reed, P. M.; Loucks, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Mekong River basin in Southeast Asia is undergoing intensive and pervasive hydropower development to satisfy demand for increased energy and income to support its growing population of 60 million people. Just 20 years ago this river flowed freely. Today some 30 large dams exist in the basin, and over 100 more are being planned for construction. These dams will alter the river's natural water, sediment and nutrient flows, thereby impacting river morphology and ecosystems, and will fragment fish migration pathways. In doing so, they will degrade one of the world's most valuable and productive freshwater fish habitats. For those dams that have not yet been constructed, there still exist opportunities to modify their siting, design and operation (SDO) to potentially achieve a more balanced set of tradeoffs among hydropower production, sediment/nutrient passage and fish passage. We introduce examples of such alternative SDO opportunities for Sambor Dam in Cambodia, planned to be constructed on the main stem of the Mekong River. To evaluate the performance of such alternatives, we developed a Python-based simulation tool called PySedSim. PySedSim is a daily time step mass balance model that identifies the relative tradeoffs among hydropower production, and flow and sediment regime alteration, associated with reservoir sediment management techniques such as flushing, sluicing, bypassing, density current venting and dredging. To date, there has been a very limited acknowledgement or evaluation of the significant uncertainties that impact the evaluation of SDO alternatives. This research is formalizing a model diagnostic assessment of the key assumptions and parametric uncertainties that strongly influence PySedSim SDO evaluations. Using stochastic hydrology and sediment load data, our diagnostic assessment evaluates and compares several Sambor Dam alternatives using several performance measures related to energy production, sediment trapping and regime alteration, and

  7. Translating biomonitoring data into risk management and policy implementation options for a European Network on Human Biomonitoring

    PubMed Central

    Smolders, R; Koppen, G; Schoeters, G

    2008-01-01

    Background The "European Environment & Health Action Plan 2004–2010" originates from the concern of the European Commission on the well-being of individuals and the general population. Through this plan, the Commission has set the objectives to improve the information chain for a better understanding of the link between sources of pollution and health effects, to better identify existing knowledge gaps, and improve policy making and communication strategies. Human biomonitoring (HBM) has been included as one of the tools to achieve these objectives. As HBM directly measures the amount of a chemical substance in a person's body, taking into account often poorly understood processes such as bioaccumulation, excretion, metabolism and the integrative uptake variability through different exposure pathways, HBM data are much more relevant for risk assessment than extrapolations from chemical concentrations in soil, air, and water alone. However, HBM primarily is a stepping stone between environmental and health data, and the final aim should be an integrated and holistic systematic risk assessment paradigm where HBM serves as a pivotal point between environment and health, on the one hand leaning on environmental data to provide detailed information on the sources and pathways of pollutants that enter the human body, and on the other hand clarifying new and existing hypotheses on the relationship between environmental pollutants and the prevalence of diseases. With the large amount of data that is being gathered in the different national survey projects, and which is expected to become available in Europe in the near future through the expected European Pilot Project on HBM, a framework to optimize data interpretation from such survey projects may greatly enhance the usefulness of HBM data for risk managers and policy makers. Results This paper outlines an hierarchic approach, based on the stepwise formulation of 4 subsequent steps, that will eventually lead to the

  8. Preventative safety management supported by an emergency response system for sour gas production in North Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Grossmann, U.M.; Schoenbach, H.C.

    1996-12-31

    In general, the onshore production of oil and gas in North place in densely populated areas. Approximately 800 MMSCFD of gas are produced from sour gas reservoirs, with H{sub 2}S-concentrations of up to 20 Vol.-% being involved. Despite a high technical safety standard and different organizational measures in the production of sour gas, emergency cases cannot be absolutely ruled out. H{sub 2}S concentrations of more than 700 ppm will cause immediate death. In Germany the production of hydrocarbons is regulated by the Federal Mining Law. According to these regulations an extensive gas protection plan and gas alarm plan have to be set up for sour gas operations. This includes establishing an emergency response organization and a gas alarm management guide. Beyond the legal requirements Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GmbH (MEEG) has implemented an emergency response management system in compliance with Mobil Oil`s worldwide safety philosophy to minimize the risk for the population, the employees and the environment. The installation of two electronic data systems enables the crisis management team to respond faster, more safely and in a less complicated manner to accidental sour gas releases. The introduction of the Emergency Information and Response System (EMIS) makes possible the display and manipulation of maps in different scales and geographically oriented data. The expansion of the process master computer by installing an H{sub 2}S-Gas alarm system has achieved the online measurements of H{sub 2}S concentrations, wind direction and wind velocity at sour gas production facilities. The system, which is operated at the gas dispatcher center, gives the crisis response team the opportunity to predict the location of sour gas release and the area being impacted. Consequently rescue parties will be directed to the location in a safe manner and, if necessary, measures will be managed for evacuating the residents living in the danger zones around sour gas facilities.

  9. Comprehensive Lifecycle Planning and Management System For Addressing Water Issues Associated With Shale Gas Development In New York, Pennsylvania, And West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, J. Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a modeling system to allow operators and regulators to plan all aspects of water management activities associated with shale gas development in the target project area of New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia (target area ), including water supply, transport, storage, use, recycling, and disposal and which can be used for planning, managing, forecasting, permit tracking, and compliance monitoring. The proposed project is a breakthrough approach to represent the entire shale gas water lifecycle in one comprehensive system with the capability to analyze impacts and options for operational efficiency and regulatory tracking and compliance, and to plan for future water use and disposition. It will address all of the major water-related issues of concern associated with shale gas development in the target area, including water withdrawal, transport, storage, use, treatment, recycling, and disposal. It will analyze the costs, water use, and wastes associated with the available options, and incorporate constraints presented by permit requirements, agreements, local and state regulations, equipment and material availability, etc. By using the system to examine the water lifecycle from withdrawals through disposal, users will be able to perform scenario analysis to answer "what if" questions for various situations. The system will include regulatory requirements of the appropriate state and regional agencies and facilitate reporting and permit applications and tracking. These features will allow operators to plan for more cost effective resource production. Regulators will be able to analyze impacts of development over an entire area. Regulators can then make informed decisions about the protections and practices that should be required as development proceeds. This modeling system will have myriad benefits for industry, government, and the public. For industry, it will allow planning all water management operations for a

  10. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management: Phase 2. Final report, June 1, 1995--March 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.V.

    1996-12-31

    Gas storage operators are facing increased and more complex responsibilities for managing storage operations under Order 636 which requires unbundling of storage from other pipeline services. Low cost methods that improve the accuracy of inventory verification are needed to optimally manage this stored natural gas. Migration of injected gas out of the storage reservoir has not been well documented by industry. The first portion of this study addressed the scope of unaccounted for gas which may have been due to migration. The volume range was estimated from available databases and reported on an aggregate basis. Information on working gas, base gas, operating capacity, injection and withdrawal volumes, current and non-current revenues, gas losses, storage field demographics and reservoir types is contained among the FERC Form 2, EIA Form 191, AGA and FERC Jurisdictional databases. The key elements of this study show that gas migration can result if reservoir limits have not been properly identified, gas migration can occur in formation with extremely low permeability (0.001 md), horizontal wellbores can reduce gas migration losses and over-pressuring (unintentionally) storage reservoirs by reinjecting working gas over a shorter time period may increase gas migration effects.

  11. Electrochemical Cell with Improved Water or Gas Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William F. (Inventor); McElroy, James F. (Inventor); LaGrange, Jay W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having a water/gas porous separator prepared from a polymeric material and one or more conductive cell components that pass through, or are located in close proximity to, the water/gas porous separator, is provided. The inventive cell provides a high level of in-cell electrical conductivity.

  12. GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC RETENTION PARAMETERS DATABASE FOR REFRIGERANT MIXTURE COMPOSITION MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Composition management of mixed refrigerant systems is a challenging problem in the laboratory, manufacturing facilities, and large refrigeration machinery. Ths issue of composition management is especially critical for the maintenance of machinery that utilizes zeotropic mixture...

  13. Greenhouse gas flux from managed grasslands in the U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed grasslands are increasingly looked upon to serve as cost-effective sinks for mitigating climate change. Assurances of effective greenhouse gas mitigation strategies require detailed understanding of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide flux for rangelands and pasturelands. Summarizat...

  14. Military and diplomatic roles and options for managing and responding to the proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction. Final report: Program on Stability and the Offense/Defense Relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Hallenbeck, R.A.; Gill, J.M.; Murray, B.L.

    1993-05-26

    The March seminar, ``Military and Diplomatic Roles and Options`` for managing and responding to proliferation, featured three presentations: the military and diplomatic implications of preemptive force as a counterproliferation option; an in-depth assessment of the threat posed by biological weapons; and, a new proposed US counterproliferation policy.

  15. The Lifelong Options Program. A Handbook for Implementing and Managing a Vocational Education Program for Youth at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirley, Linda J.; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This handbook describes a high school dropout prevention program that integrates academic education, vocational education, and a support system in order to provide students with multiple options for their future careers and personal lives. The following information is provided: the program's philosophy; major components (vocational education,…

  16. 41 CFR 102-194.30 - What role does my agency play in the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) Standards (36 CFR part... representative and alternate, and notify GSA, in writing, of their names, titles, mailing addresses, telephone... and Optional forms in an electronic/automated version unless the form is specifically exempted...

  17. 41 CFR 102-194.30 - What role does my agency play in the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) Standards (36 CFR part... representative and alternate, and notify GSA, in writing, of their names, titles, mailing addresses, telephone... and Optional forms in an electronic/automated version unless the form is specifically exempted...

  18. New option for management of HIV-1 infection in treatment-naive patients: once-daily, fixed-dose combination of rilpivirine-emtricitabine-tenofovir

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nimish; Miller, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    Fixed-dose combination tablets have become an important therapy option for patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Fixed-dose combination rilpivirine-tenofovir-emtricitabine is a recently approved therapy option that has been extensively studied within the treatment-naïve population. When compared with efavirenz-based therapy, improved tolerability with rilpivirine-based therapy was balanced by higher rates of virologic failure to provide similar overall efficacy rates within the intention-to-treat analysis. As a result, providers will need to balance the potential for improved tolerability with fixed-dose combination rilpivirine-tenofovir-emtricitabine against a higher potential for virologic failure, particularly among patients with baseline viral loads above 100,000 copies/mL. Current treatment guidelines have recommended that fixed-dose combination rilpivirine-tenofovir-emtricitabine be an alternative therapy option for treatment-naïve patients and advise caution in those patients with high viral loads at baseline. Similar to other non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimens, there are a number of drug interaction concerns with fixed-dose combination rilpivirine-tenofovir-emtricitabine that will necessitate monitoring and, in some cases, appropriate management. Additionally, the emergence of drug resistance to fixed-dose combination rilpivirine-tenofovir-emtricitabine has been well documented in clinical studies and close attention will be necessary in order to protect current and future therapy options. Overall, fixed-dose combination rilpivirine-tenofovir-emtricitabine is poised to provide an important therapy option for patients when appropriately applied. PMID:22570576

  19. 77 FR 34123 - Pipeline Safety: Public Meeting on Integrity Management of Gas Distribution Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... published on December 4, 2009, (74 FR 63906). The rule required that operators of gas distribution pipelines... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Public Meeting on Integrity... jointly sponsoring a public meeting on Implementing Integrity Management of Gas Distribution...

  20. Manipulations of soil microbiota for C sequestration and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in managed systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil microbes dominate processes that regulate soil trace gas emissions and soil C and N dynamics. Intensive management in agroecosystems provides unique opportunities to assess the effectiveness of microbial manipulations to enhance soil C retention and reduce trace gas emissions. While reduced til...

  1. Gas-cooled reactor programs. Fuel-management positioning and accounting module: FUELMANG Version V1. 11, September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Medlin, T.W.; Hill, K.L.; Johnson, G.L.; Jones, J.E.; Vondy, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    This report documents the code module FUELMANG for fuel management of a reactor. This code may be used to position fuel during the calculation of a reactor history, maintain a mass balance history of the fuel movement, and calculate the unit fuel cycle component of the electrical generation cost. In addition to handling fixed feed fuel without recycle, provision has been made for fuel recycle with various options applied to the recycled fuel. A continuous fueling option is also available with the code. A major edit produced by the code is a detailed summary of the mass balance history of the reactor and a fuel cost analysis of that mass balance history. This code is incorporated in the system containing the VENTURE diffusion theory neutronics code for routine use. Fuel movement according to prescribed instructions is performed without the access of additional user input data during the calculation of a reactor operating history. Local application has been primarily for analysis of the performance of gas-cooled thermal reactor core concepts.

  2. NYMEX electricity futures and options

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, L.

    1996-12-31

    Electricity futures and options are discussed under the following topics: a futures contract, primary economic role of commodity exchanges, characteristics of an effective exchange, natural gas and electricity similarities, hedging, and coal futures contracts.

  3. Risk management technique for liquefied natural gas facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.

    1975-01-01

    Checklists have been compiled for planning, design, construction, startup and debugging, and operation of liquefied natural gas facilities. Lists include references to pertinent safety regulations. Methods described are applicable to handling of other hazardous materials.

  4. Managing oil and gas activities in coastal environments: refuge manual

    SciTech Connect

    Longley, W.L.; Jackson, R.; Snyder, B.

    1981-09-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the impacts of all aspects of oil and gas development upon coastal ecological systems and to assess the safeguards used in protecting refuge lands. Wildlife refuges along the coasts of Texas and Louisiana were selected for intensive study. These refuges were characterized by (1) a diversity of ecosystems, (2) oil exploration, extraction, and transport, and (3) oil and gas development periods of varying durations.

  5. Expensing options solves nothing.

    PubMed

    Sahlman, William A

    2002-12-01

    The use of stock options for executive compensation has become a lightning rod for public anger, and it's easy to see why. Many top executives grew hugely rich on the back of the gains they made on their options, profits they've been able to keep even as the value they were supposed to create disappeared. The supposed scam works like this: Current accounting regulations let companies ignore the cost of option grants on their income statements, so they can award valuable option packages without affecting reported earnings. Not charging the cost of the grants supposedly leads to overstated earnings, which purportedly translate into unrealistically high share prices, permitting top executives to realize big gains when they exercise their options. If an accounting anomaly is the problem, then the solution seems obvious: Write off executive share options against the current year's revenues. The trouble is, Sahlman writes, expensing option grants won't give us a more accurate view of earnings, won't add any information not already included in the financial statements, and won't even lead to equal treatment of different forms of executive pay. Far worse, expensing evades the real issue, which is whether compensation (options and other-wise) does what it's supposed to do--namely, help a company recruit, retain, and provide the right people with appropriate performance incentives. Any performance-based compensation system has the potential to encourage cheating. Only ethical management, sensible governance, adequate internal control systems, and comprehensive disclosure will save the investor from disaster. If, Sahlman warns, we pass laws that require the expensing of options, thinking that's fixed the fundamental flaws in corporate America's accounting, we will have missed a golden opportunity to focus on the much more extensive defects in the present system. PMID:12510541

  6. Blending as the best compliance option for the management of radioactivity in drinking water supplied from the deep sandstone aquifer in Southern Jordan.

    PubMed

    El-Naser, Hazim K; Smith, Barry; Kilani, Susan; Abdeldin, Ismail; Howarth, Barry; Saleh, Bassam

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes management options and interventions taken by the Government of Jordan to ensure that the quality of drinking water supplied to consumers via the Disi Water Conveyance Project (DWCP) meets Jordanian drinking water standards and WHO guidelines for drinking water quality in respect of their radiological composition. Results from an initial survey of radioactivity present in water abstracted from each of the 55 wells (which comprise the operational well field) indicated an average radiological dose of 0.8 milliSieverts per year (mSv/y) would be accrued by members of the population if consuming water directly from the well head. During full scale operation, the estimated accrued dose from the well field as a whole decreased to an average of 0.7 mSv/y which was still approximately 1.4 times the Jordanian reference radiological limit for drinking water (0.5 mSv/y). Following assessment of treatment options by relevant health and water authorities, blending prior to distribution into the consumer network was identified as the most practicable remedial option. Results from monthly sampling undertaken after inline blending support the adoption of this approach, and indicate a reduction in the committed effective dose to 0.4 mSv/y, which is compliant with Jordanian standards. PMID:27280616

  7. Managing greenhouse gas emission in the indian aluminum industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, H.

    2001-11-01

    Fluorocarbons are pollutants that destroy the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere and allow more ultraviolet radiation to reach the surface of the earth. Over-exposure to such radiation damages plants and greatly increases people’s risk of skin cancer. Aluminum refineries and smelters, which consume large amounts of energy, are committed to continuous improvement in greenhouse gas abatement. Although India is under no international pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the Indian aluminum industry could undertake such a commitment voluntarily. This analysis shows where immediate improvements are possible, and presents a tentative action plan for the industry.

  8. AGRICULTURAL MANAGEMENT EFFECTS ON NITROUS OXIDE GAS EMISSIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) gas is produced by micro-organisms during nitrification and/or denitrification of fertilizer nitrogen in soil. Atmospheric emissions of N2O can be important from an agronomic standpoint since any escape of N from the soil represents N that cannot be utilized by the crop. Once in ...

  9. Zero Discharge Water Management for Horizontal Shale Gas Well Development

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Jennifer Hause; Raymond Lovett; David Locke Harry Johnson; Doug Patchen

    2012-03-31

    Hydraulic fracturing technology (fracking), coupled with horizontal drilling, has facilitated exploitation of huge natural gas (gas) reserves in the Devonian-age Marcellus Shale Formation (Marcellus) of the Appalachian Basin. The most-efficient technique for stimulating Marcellus gas production involves hydraulic fracturing (injection of a water-based fluid and sand mixture) along a horizontal well bore to create a series of hydraulic fractures in the Marcellus. The hydraulic fractures free the shale-trapped gas, allowing it to flow to the well bore where it is conveyed to pipelines for transport and distribution. The hydraulic fracturing process has two significant effects on the local environment. First, water withdrawals from local sources compete with the water requirements of ecosystems, domestic and recreational users, and/or agricultural and industrial uses. Second, when the injection phase is over, 10 to 30% of the injected water returns to the surface. This water consists of flowback, which occurs between the completion of fracturing and gas production, and produced water, which occurs during gas production. Collectively referred to as returned frac water (RFW), it is highly saline with varying amounts of organic contamination. It can be disposed of, either by injection into an approved underground injection well, or treated to remove contaminants so that the water meets the requirements of either surface release or recycle use. Depending on the characteristics of the RFW and the availability of satisfactory disposal alternatives, disposal can impose serious costs to the operator. In any case, large quantities of water must be transported to and from well locations, contributing to wear and tear on local roadways that were not designed to handle the heavy loads and increased traffic. The search for a way to mitigate the situation and improve the overall efficiency of shale gas production suggested a treatment method that would allow RFW to be used as make

  10. Katimavik Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crelinsten, Michael; And Others

    Designed for students who are just about to complete Katimavik (a nine-month volunteer community service and experiential learning program for 17 to 21-year-old Canadian youth), the bilingual information guide presents facts and considerations about options in lifestyle, academic attainment, and career goals available as a result of Katimavik…

  11. Application of a Structured Decision Process for Informing Watershed Management Options in Guánica Bay, Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Guánica Bay watershed has been a priority for research, assessment and management since the 1970s, and since 2008, has been the focus of a U.S. Coral Reef Task Force (USCRTF) research initiative involving multiple agencies assembled to address the effect of land management de...

  12. TUBERCULOSIS AND BRUCELLOSIS IN WOOD BISON (BISON BISON ATHABASCAE) IN NORTHERN CANADA: A RENEWED NEED TO DEVELOP OPTIONS FOR FUTURE MANAGEMENT.

    PubMed

    Shury, Todd K; Nishi, John S; Elkin, Brett T; Wobeser, Gary A

    2015-07-01

    Effective, long-term strategies to manage the threat of bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis spillback from northern, diseased bison to the Canadian cattle herd and adjacent disease-free wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) herds have eluded policy makers in recent decades. A controversial plan to depopulate infected herds and repopulate them with disease-free wood bison was rejected in 1990 because of significant public concern. Since then, technical advances in vaccine technology, genetic salvage, selective culling, and diagnostic test development have occurred. Containment strategies to reduce further spread of these diseases are a necessary first step; recent progress has been made in this area, but challenges remain. This progress has produced more options for management of these herds in northern Canada, and it is time to consider wood bison conservation and long-term disease eradication as equally important goals that must satisfy concerns of conservation groups, agriculture sectors, aboriginal groups, and the general public. Management of wildlife disease reservoirs in other areas, including Yellowstone and Riding Mountain national parks, has demonstrated that effective disease management is possible. Although combinations of different strategies, including vaccination, genetic salvage techniques, and selective culling, that use sensitive and specific diagnostic tests may offer alternatives to depopulation/repopulation, they also have logistic constraints and cost implications that will need consideration in a multistakeholder, collaborative-management framework. We feel the time is right for this discussion, so a long-term solution to this problem can be applied. PMID:25973624

  13. Wastewater management and Marcellus Shale gas development: trends, drivers, and planning implications.

    PubMed

    Rahm, Brian G; Bates, Josephine T; Bertoia, Lara R; Galford, Amy E; Yoxtheimer, David A; Riha, Susan J

    2013-05-15

    Extraction of natural gas from tight shale formations has been made possible by recent technological advances, including hydraulic fracturing with horizontal drilling. Global shale gas development is seen as a potential energy and geopolitical "game-changer." However, widespread concern exists with respect to possible environmental consequences of this development, particularly impacts on water resources. In the United States, where the most shale gas extraction has occurred, the Marcellus Shale is now the largest natural gas producing play. To date, over 6,000,000 m(3) of wastewater has been generated in the process of extracting natural gas from this shale in the state of Pennsylvania (PA) alone. Here we examine wastewater management practices and trends for this shale play through analysis of industry-reported, publicly available data collected from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection Oil and Gas Reporting Website. We also analyze the tracking and transport of shale gas liquid waste streams originating in PA using a combination of web-based and GIS approaches. From 2008 to 2011 wastewater reuse increased, POTW use decreased, and data tracking became more complete, while the average distance traveled by wastewater decreased by over 30%. Likely factors influencing these trends include state regulations and policies, along with low natural gas prices. Regional differences in wastewater management are influenced by industrial treatment capacity, as well as proximity to injection disposal capacity. Using lessons from the Marcellus Shale, we suggest that nations, states, and regulatory agencies facing new unconventional shale development recognize that pace and scale of well drilling leads to commensurate wastewater management challenges. We also suggest they implement wastewater reporting and tracking systems, articulate a policy for adapting management to evolving data and development patterns, assess local and regional wastewater treatment

  14. Peoples Gas System turns to electronic data management

    SciTech Connect

    Sievers, R.T.

    1997-02-01

    Peoples Gas System, Inc. (PGS) is the largest natural gas distributor in Florida with 12 divisions that service most of the state`s major metropolitan areas. The company is a consolidation of various gas utilities with maps and records dating back to the early 1900s. As a result, these records are in various paper formats, map scales and condition. Distribution maps are drawn on large format medium: linen cloth, mylar or vellum. These maps are routinely copied and reduced to a size that is suitable for field use. Service records have been recorded on numerous types of paper that are stored in different file cabinets according to the card size. As these records are researched on a daily basis, the condition of the permanent records steadily deteriorate and are commonly misfiled. A major concern is the loss of records due to a natural disaster. Hurricanes, which are a constant threat in Florida, could physically affect many of PGS`s division offices. The distribution maps have been archived on microfilm on a continuing basis, but other irreplaceable records have not. Disaster recovery of the maps from the archives would be very time consuming and expensive.

  15. Fundamental Technology Development for Gas-Turbine Engine Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Simon, Donald L.; Hunter, Gary W.; Arnold, Steven M.; Reveley, Mary S.; Anderson, Lynn M.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated vehicle health management technologies promise to dramatically improve the safety of commercial aircraft by reducing system and component failures as causal and contributing factors in aircraft accidents. To realize this promise, fundamental technology development is needed to produce reliable health management components. These components include diagnostic and prognostic algorithms, physics-based and data-driven lifing and failure models, sensors, and a sensor infrastructure including wireless communications, power scavenging, and electronics. In addition, system assessment methods are needed to effectively prioritize development efforts. Development work is needed throughout the vehicle, but particular challenges are presented by the hot, rotating environment of the propulsion system. This presentation describes current work in the field of health management technologies for propulsion systems for commercial aviation.

  16. Answering to the domesticability of exotic options and strategies in managing Africa's urban landscapes for sustainability beyond 2015.

    PubMed

    Chirisa, Innocent Ew; Kawadza, Shingai T; Bandauko, Elmond

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at critically assessing the land management strategies that can be instrumental in bringing sound governance to urban landscapes in Africa with the view of mapping the potential, minimum conditions for success and constraints to doing so. This study is qualitative by approach and case study based by design, assesses practices in land management from a few cities (Nairobi, Abuja, Harare, Kigali, Johannesburg and Addis Ababa). Peculiarities and differences in the practices of land management in these cities is the basis for their purposeful selection. The evaluation of the land management practices in these cities is in terms of the current realities and the possibility for the acceptability of new, exotic but deemed sustainable urban land management styles. Noted strongly in this current discourse is that Africa is a region with varied of contexts requiring a critical assessment of issues before policy strategies are implemented in terms of land tenure, land administration corruption, political will and receptivity of the so-called foreign philosophies in urban land governance. The study recommends relevant training of the land and planning experts in Africa. In addition, there is general need to balance between 'place prosperity' with 'people prosperity' as they relate to land management noting that space and capital make the difference in sustainable human habitats' creation and management. PMID:24855594

  17. CARBON DYNAMICS OF MEXICAN TROPICAL EVERGREEN FORESTS: INFLUENCE OF FOREST MANAGEMENT OPTIONS AND REFINEMENT OF CARBON-FLUX ESTIMATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tropical evergreen forests (TEF) of southeast Mexico experienced a deforestation rate of approximately 206,000 ha/yr and an efflux of nearly 21 TgC/yr between 1980 and the present. and formerly occupied by these forests have potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. his pap...

  18. Simulation of groundwater flow and analysis of the effects of water-management options in the North Platte Natural Resources District, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Steven M.; Flynn, Amanda T.; Vrabel, Joseph; Ryter, Derek W.

    2015-01-01

    The calibrated groundwater-flow model was used with the Groundwater-Management Process for the 2005 version of the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional groundwater model, MODFLOW–2005, to provide a tool for the NPNRD to better understand how water-management decisions could affect stream base flows of the North Platte River at Bridgeport, Nebr., streamgage in a future period from 2008 to 2019 under varying climatic conditions. The simulation-optimization model was constructed to analyze the maximum increase in simulated stream base flow that could be obtained with the minimum amount of reductions in groundwater withdrawals for irrigation. A second analysis extended the first to analyze the simulated base-flow benefit of groundwater withdrawals along with application of intentional recharge, that is, water from canals being released into rangeland areas with sandy soils. With optimized groundwater withdrawals and intentional recharge, the maximum simulated stream base flow was 15–23 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) greater than with no management at all, or 10–15 ft3/s larger than with managed groundwater withdrawals only. These results indicate not only the amount that simulated stream base flow can be increased by these management options, but also the locations where the management options provide the most or least benefit to the simulated stream base flow. For the analyses in this report, simulated base flow was best optimized by reductions in groundwater withdrawals north of the North Platte River and in the western half of the area. Intentional recharge sites selected by the optimization had a complex distribution but were more likely to be closer to the North Platte River or its tributaries. Future users of the simulation-optimization model will be able to modify the input files as to type, location, and timing of constraints, decision variables of groundwater withdrawals by zone, and other variables to explore other feasible management

  19. The Management of Gas-Filled Eyes in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Lik Thai; Ah-kee, Elliott Y.; House, Beve P.; Walker, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Intraocular gas bubbles are commonly used in retinal surgery. There are specific management guidelines that need to be followed to ensure surgical success, and there are also unique ophthalmic and systemic complications that can occur in such patients. Objective. To educate emergency department personnel about important issues in the management of patients who have a gas-filled eye following retinal surgery. Case Report. A patient with a gas-filled eye developed several complications including pain, severe vision loss, high-grade atrioventricular (AV) block, and pneumocephalus. Conclusion. Awareness of potential problems that may arise in patients with gas-filled eyes who present to the emergency department may help minimize morbidity for such patients. PMID:25525528

  20. Study on partitioning and transmutation as a possible option for spent fuel management within a nuclear phase-out scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Fazion, C.; Rineiski, A.; Salvatores, M.; Schwenk-Ferrero, A.; Romanello, V.; Vezzoni, B.; Gabrielli, F.

    2013-07-01

    Most Partitioning and Transmutation (PT) studies implicitly presuppose the continuous use of nuclear energy. In this case the development of new facilities or the modification of the fuel cycle can be justified in the long-term as an important feature in order to improve sustainability by minimizing radioactive waste and reducing the burden at waste disposal. In the case of a country with nuclear energy phase-out policy, the PT option might have also an important role for what concerns the final disposal strategies of the spent fuel. In this work three selected scenarios are analyzed in order to assess the impact of PT implementation in a nuclear energy phase out option. The scenarios are: -) Scenario 1: Identification of Research/Development activities needs for a technological development of PT while postponing the decision of PT implementation; -) Scenario 2: Isolated application of PT in a phase-out context; and -) Scenario 3: Implementation of PT in a European context. In order to facilitate the discrimination among the 3 scenarios, a number of figures of indicators have been evaluated for each scenario. The selected indicators are: the mass of High Level Waste (HLW), Uranium inventory, thermal output of HLW, Radiotoxicity, Fuel cycle secondary waste associated to the PT operation, and Facility capacity/number requirements. The reduction, due to PT implementation, of high level wastes masses and their associated volumes can be significant. For what concerns the thermal output and radiotoxicity a significant impact can be also expected. However, when assessing these two indicators the contribution coming from already vitrified waste should also not be neglected. Moreover, an increase of secondary waste inventory is also expected. On the contrary, the increase of fission product inventories due to the operation of the transmutation system has a relatively limited impact on the fuel cycle.

  1. A Trans-disciplinary Hydrogeological Systems Analysis Approach for Identifying and Assessing Managed Aquifer Recharge Options: Example from the Darling River Floodplain, N.S.W., Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrie, K.; Brodie, R. S.; Tan, K. P.; Halas, L.; Magee, J.; Gow, L.; Christensen, N. B.

    2013-12-01

    Surface water availability and quality generally limits managed aquifer recharge (MAR) opportunities in inland Australia's highly salinized landscapes and groundwater systems. Economic factors also commonly limit MAR investigations to shallow freshwater groundwater systems near existing infrastructure. Aquifer opportunities lie mainly in zones of fresh groundwater in relatively thin fluvial sedimentary aquifer systems with highly variable hydraulic properties. As part of a broader strategy to identify water savings in the Murray-Darling Basin, the Broken Hill Managed Aquifer Recharge (BHMAR) project was tasked with identifying and assessing MAR and/or groundwater extraction options to reduce evaporative losses from existing surface water storages, secure Broken Hill's water supply, protect the local environment and heritage, and return water to the river system. A trans-disciplinary research approach was used to identify and assess MAR options across a broad area of the Darling River floodplain. This methodology enabled the team to recognise fundamental problems in discipline approaches, helped identify critical data gaps, led to significant innovation across discipline boundaries, was critical in the development of a new hydrogeological conceptual model, facilitated development of new models of landscape, geological and tectonic evolution of the study area, and enabled completion of pre-commissioning maximal and residual MAR risk assessments. An airborne electromagnetics (AEM) survey, acquired over a large (>7,500 sq km) area of the Darling Floodplain, enabled rapid identification of a multi-layer sequence of aquifers and aquitards, while a phased assessment methodology was developed to rapidly identify and assess over 30 potential MAR targets (largely in fresh groundwater zones within palaeochannels and at palaeochannel confluences). Hydraulic properties were confirmed by a 7.5 km drilling program (100 sonic and rotary mud holes), and complementary field

  2. Recovery of Ground-Water Levels From 1988 to 2003 and Analysis of Potential Water-Supply Management Options in Critical Area 1, East-Central New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spitz, Frederick J.; Watt, Martha K.; dePaul, Vincent T.

    2008-01-01

    Water levels in four confined aquifers in the New Jersey Coastal Plain within Water Supply Critical Area 1 have recovered as a result of reductions in ground-water withdrawals initiated by the State in the late 1980s. The aquifers are the Wenonah-Mount Laurel, the Upper and Middle Potomac-Raritan-Magothy, and Englishtown aquifer system. Because of increased water demand due to increased development in Monmouth, Ocean, and Middlesex Counties, five base and nine alternate management models were designed for the four aquifers to evaluate the effects resulting from potential reallocation of part of the Critical Area 1 reductions in withdrawals. The change in withdrawals and associated water-level changes in the aquifers for 1988-2003 are discussed. Generally, withdrawals decreased 25 to 30 Mgal/d (million gallons per day), and water levels increased 0 to 80 ft (feet). The Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) ground-water-flow model of the New Jersey Coastal Plain developed by the U.S. Geological Survey was used to simulate ground-water flow and optimize withdrawals using the Ground-Water Management Process (GWM) for MODFLOW. Results of the model were used to evaluate the effects of several possible water-supply management options in order to provide the information to water managers. The optimization method, which provides a means to set constraints that support mandated hydrologic conditions, then determine the maximum withdrawals that meet the constraints, is a more cost-effective approach than simulating a range of withdrawals to determine the effects on the aquifer system. The optimization method is particularly beneficial for a regional-scale study of this kind because of the large number of wells to be evaluated. Before the model was run, a buffer analysis was done to define an area with no additional withdrawals that minimizes changes in simulated streamflow in aquifer outcrop areas and simulated movement of ground water toward the wells from areas of

  3. Exercising options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    In a recent speech to graduates of the College of Computer, Mathematical, and Physical Sciences at the University of Maryland, Anne Petersen, deputy director of the National Science Foundation, encouraged a new generation of scientists to embrace opportunity and choice, and to use their scientific training as an employment credential, not a limit. In her May 23 commencement address, Petersen exhorted students to view their freshly minted diplomas as tickets to a broad and diverse job market, not just one-way trips to the laboratory.“Looking for the options and alternatives open to us—and creating options for ourselves where they are not apparent—can give us a sense of direction and volition that enriches our lives immensely…

  4. The Bhopal syndrome: persistent questions about acute toxicity and management of gas victims.

    PubMed

    Dhara, V Ramana; Gassert, Thomas H

    2002-01-01

    A review of the health effects of the 1984 gas leak from the Union Carbide plant in Bhopal, India, shows continuing morbidity of a multisystemic nature in the exposed population. Scientific debates about the causes of the accident, the spectrum of health effects, and toxicology are presented with a view to understanding the toxic substances released in the gas cloud and their roles in the causation of health effects. Clinical dilemmas, medical management, and public health issues are also discussed. PMID:12412857

  5. Policy options to improve leadership of middle managers in the Australian residential aged care setting: a narrative synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence of both chronic diseases and multi-morbidity increases with longer life spans. As Australia's population ages, the aged care sector is under increasing pressure to ensure that quality aged care is available. Key to responding to this pressure is leadership and management capability within the aged care workforce. A systematic literature review was conducted to inform the policy development necessary for the enhancement of clinical and managerial leadership skills of middle managers within residential aged care. Methods Using scientific journal databases, hand searching of specialist journals, Google, snowballing and suggestions from experts, 4,484 papers were found. After a seven-tiered culling process, we conducted a detailed review (narrative synthesis) of 153 papers relevant to leadership and management development in aged care, incorporating expert and key stakeholder consultations. Results • Positive staff experiences of a manager's leadership are critical to ensure job satisfaction and workforce retention, the provision of quality care and the well-being of care recipients, and potentially a reduction of associated costs. • The essential attributes of good leadership for aged care middle management are a hands-on accessibility and professional expertise in nurturing respect, recognition and team building, along with effective communication and flexibility. However, successful leadership and management outcomes depend on coherent and good organisational leadership (structural and psychological empowerment). • There is inadequate preparation for middle management leadership roles in the aged care sector and a lack of clear guidelines and key performance indicators to assess leadership and management skills. • Theory development in aged care leadership and management research is limited. A few effective generic clinical leadership programs targeting both clinical and managerial leaders exist. However, little is known regarding

  6. Analysing urban resilience through alternative stormwater management options: application of the conceptual Spatial Decision Support System model at the neighbourhood scale.

    PubMed

    Balsells, M; Barroca, B; Amdal, J R; Diab, Y; Becue, V; Serre, D

    2013-01-01

    Recent changes in cities and their environments, caused by rapid urbanisation and climate change, have increased both flood probability and the severity of flooding. Consequently, there is a need for all cities to adapt to climate and socio-economic changes by developing new strategies for flood risk management. Following a risk paradigm shift from traditional to more integrated approaches, and considering the uncertainties of future urban development, one of the main emerging tasks for city managers becomes the development of resilient cities. However, the meaning of the resilience concept and its operability is still not clear. The goal of this research is to study how urban engineering and design disciplines can improve resilience to floods in urban neighbourhoods. This paper presents the conceptual Spatial Decision Support System (DS3) model which we consider a relevant tool to analyse and then implement resilience into neighbourhood design. Using this model, we analyse and discuss alternative stormwater management options at the neighbourhood scale in two specific areas: Rotterdam and New Orleans. The results obtained demonstrate that the DS3 model confirmed in its framework analysis that stormwater management systems can positively contribute to the improved flood resilience of a neighbourhood. PMID:24334895

  7. Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Henderson

    2007-09-30

    The project is titled 'Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations'. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is the principal investigator and the IOGCC has partnered with ALL Consulting, Inc., headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in this project. State agencies that also have partnered in the project are the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, the Montana Board of Oil and Gas Conservation, the Kansas Oil and Gas Conservation Division, the Oklahoma Oil and Gas Conservation Division and the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. The objective is to characterize produced water quality and management practices for the handling, treating, and disposing of produced water from conventional oil and gas operations throughout the industry nationwide. Water produced from these operations varies greatly in quality and quantity and is often the single largest barrier to the economic viability of wells. The lack of data, coupled with renewed emphasis on domestic oil and gas development, has prompted many experts to speculate that the number of wells drilled over the next 20 years will approach 3 million, or near the number of current wells. This level of exploration and development undoubtedly will draw the attention of environmental communities, focusing their concerns on produced water management based on perceived potential impacts to fresh water resources. Therefore, it is imperative that produced water management practices be performed in a manner that best minimizes environmental impacts. This is being accomplished by compiling current best management practices for produced water from conventional oil and gas operations and to develop an analysis tool based on a geographic information system (GIS) to assist in the understanding of watershed-issued permits. That would allow management costs to be kept in line with

  8. Improved methodology to assess modification and completion of landfill gas management in the aftercare period.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jeremy W F; Crest, Marion; Barlaz, Morton A; Spokas, Kurt A; Kerman, Anna; Yuan, Lei

    2012-12-01

    Municipal solid waste landfills represent the dominant option for waste disposal in many parts of the world. While some countries have greatly reduced their reliance on landfills, there remain thousands of landfills that require aftercare. The development of cost-effective strategies for landfill aftercare is in society's interest to protect human health and the environment and to prevent the emergence of landfills with exhausted aftercare funding. The Evaluation of Post-Closure Care (EPCC) methodology is a performance-based approach in which landfill performance is assessed in four modules including leachate, gas, groundwater, and final cover. In the methodology, the objective is to evaluate landfill performance to determine when aftercare monitoring and maintenance can be reduced or possibly eliminated. This study presents an improved gas module for the methodology. While the original version of the module focused narrowly on regulatory requirements for control of methane migration, the improved gas module also considers best available control technology for landfill gas in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, air quality, and emissions of odoriferous compounds. The improved module emphasizes the reduction or elimination of fugitive methane by considering the methane oxidation capacity of the cover system. The module also allows for the installation of biologically active covers or other features designed to enhance methane oxidation. A methane emissions model, CALMIM, was used to assist with an assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of landfill covers. PMID:22884579

  9. Thermal management of the adsorption-based vessel for hydrogeneous gas storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, L. L.; Kanonchik, L. E.; Babenko, V. A.

    2012-09-01

    Thermal management is a design bottleneck in the creation of rational gas storage sorption systems. Inefficient heat transfer in a sorption bed is connected with a relatively low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.5 W/(mṡK)) and an appreciable sorption heat of activated gas storage materials. This work is devoted to the development of a thermally regulated onboard system of hydrogenous gas (methane and hydrogen) storage with the use of novel carbon sorbents. A hydrogenous gas storage system based on combined gas adsorption and compression at moderate pressures (3-6 MPa) and low temperatures (from the temperature of liquid nitrogen of about 77 K to a temperature of 273 K) is suggested.

  10. The impact of municipal solid waste management on greenhouse gas emissions in the United States.

    PubMed

    Weitz, Keith A; Thorneloe, Susan A; Nishtala, Subba R; Yarkosky, Sherry; Zannes, Maria

    2002-09-01

    Technological advancements, environmental regulations, and emphasis on resource conservation and recovery have greatly reduced the environmental impacts of municipal solid waste (MSW) management, including emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). This study was conducted using a life-cycle methodology to track changes in GHG emissions during the past 25 years from the management of MSW in the United States. For the baseline year of 1974, MSW management consisted of limited recycling, combustion without energy recovery, and landfilling without gas collection or control. This was compared with data for 1980, 1990, and 1997, accounting for changes in MSW quantity, composition, management practices, and technology. Over time, the United States has moved toward increased recycling, composting, combustion (with energy recovery) and landfilling with gas recovery, control, and utilization. These changes were accounted for with historical data on MSW composition, quantities, management practices, and technological changes. Included in the analysis were the benefits of materials recycling and energy recovery to the extent that these displace virgin raw materials and fossil fuel electricity production, respectively. Carbon sinks associated with MSW management also were addressed. The results indicate that the MSW management actions taken by U.S. communities have significantly reduced potential GHG emissions despite an almost 2-fold increase in waste generation. GHG emissions from MSW management were estimated to be 36 million metric tons carbon equivalents (MMTCE) in 1974 and 8 MMTCE in 1997. If MSW were being managed today as it was in 1974, GHG emissions would be approximately 60 MMTCE. PMID:12269661

  11. Space Station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 2, book 2, part 2, Task 2: Information management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Missions to be performed, station operations and functions to be carried out, and technologies anticipated during the time frame of the space station were examined in order to determine the scope of the overall information management system for the space station. This system comprises: (1) the data management system which includes onboard computer related hardware and software required to assume and exercise control of all activities performed on the station; (2) the communication system for both internal and external communications; and (3) the ground segment. Techniques used to examine the information system from a functional and performance point of view are described as well as the analyses performed to derive the architecture of both the onboard data management system and the system for internal and external communications. These architectures are then used to generate a conceptual design of the onboard elements in order to determine the physical parameters (size/weight/power) of the hardware and software. The ground segment elements are summarized.

  12. MCO combustible gas management leak test acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    SHERRELL, D.L.

    1999-05-11

    Existing leak test acceptance criteria for mechanically sealed and weld sealed multi-canister overpacks (MCO) were evaluated to ensure that MCOs can be handled and stored in stagnant air without compromising the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project's overall strategy to prevent accumulation of combustible gas mixtures within MCO's or within their surroundings. The document concludes that the integrated leak test acceptance criteria for mechanically sealed and weld sealed MCOs (1 x 10{sup -5} std cc/sec and 1 x 10{sup -7} std cc/sec, respectively) are adequate to meet all current and foreseeable needs of the project, including capability to demonstrate compliance with the NFPA 60 Paragraph 3-3 requirement to maintain hydrogen concentrations [within the air atmosphere CSB tubes] t or below 1 vol% (i.e., at or below 25% of the LFL).

  13. Options Study - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  14. Multicriteria decision analysis to assess options for managing contaminated sediments: Application to Southern Busan Harbor, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongbum; Kim, Suk Hyun; Hong, Gi Hoon; Suedel, Burton C; Clarke, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Many years of untreated effluent discharge from residential areas, a shipyard, a marina, and a large fish market resulted in substantial contamination of bottom sediment in Southern Busan Harbor, South Korea. Contaminants in these sediments include heavy metals and organic compounds. Newly introduced regulations for ocean disposal of dredged material in South Korea pose significant challenges, because the previous practice of offshore disposal of contaminated dredged material was no longer possible after August 2008. The South Korean government has mandated that such sediments be assessed in a way that identifies the most appropriate dredged material management alternative, addressing environmental, social, and cost objectives. An approach using multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) in combination with comparative risk assessment was used as a systematic and transparent framework for prioritizing several dredged sediment management alternatives. We illustrate how MCDA can recognize the multiple goals of contaminated sediment management. Values used in weighting decision criteria were derived from surveys of stakeholders who were sediment management professionals, business owners, or government decision makers. The results of the analysis showed that land reclamation was the preferred alternative among cement-lock, sediment washing, 3 contained aquatic disposal alternatives (one in combination with a hopper dredge), geotextile tubes, solidification, and land reclamation after solidification treatment. Land reclamation was the preferred alternative, which performed well across all MCDA objectives, because of the availability of a near-shore confined disposal facility within a reasonable distance from the dredging area. PMID:20821674

  15. Management Options During the 2011-2012 Drought on the Apalachicola River: A Systems Dynamic Model Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitman, S.; Pine, W. E.; Kiker, G.

    2016-08-01

    The Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin (ACF) is a large watershed in the southeastern United States. In 2012, the basin experienced the second year of a severe drought and the third multi-year drought in the last 15 years. During severe droughts, low reservoir and river levels can cause economic and ecological impacts to the reservoir, river, and estuarine ecosystems. During drought, augmenting Apalachicola River discharge through upstream reservoir releases and demand management are intuitive and often-suggested solutions to minimizing downstream effects. We assessed whether the existing reservoir system could be operated to minimize drought impacts on downstream water users and ecosystems through flow augmentation. Our analysis finds that in extreme drought such as observed during 2012, increases in water releases from reservoir storage are insufficient to even increase Apalachicola River discharge to levels observed in the 2007 drought. This suggests that there is simply not enough water available in managed storage to offset extreme drought events. Because drought frequency and intensity is predicted to increase under a variety of climate forecasts, our results demonstrate the need for a critical assessment of how water managers will meet increasing water demands in the ACF. Key uncertainties that should be addressed include (1) identifying the factors that led to extremely low Flint River discharge in 2012, and (2) determining how water "saved" via demand management is allocated to storage or passed to downstream ecosystem needs as part of the ongoing revisions to the ACF Water Control Manual by the US Army Corps of Engineers.

  16. The challenge of extraabdominal desmoid tumour management in patients with Gardner's syndrome: radiofrequency ablation, a promising option.

    PubMed

    Cobianchi, Lorenzo; Ravetta, Valentina; Viera, Francesca Torello; Filisetti, Claudia; Siri, Barbara; Segalini, Edoardo; Maestri, Marcello; Dominioni, Tommaso; Alessiani, Mario; Rossi, Sandro; Dionigi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Desmoid tumours are benign, myofibroblastic stromal neoplasms common in Gardner's syndrome, which is a subtype of familial adenomatous polyposis characterized by colonic polyps, osteomas, thyroid cancer, epidermoid cysts, fibromas and sebaceous cysts. The primary treatment is surgery, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy, but the local recurrence rate is high, and wide resection can result in debilitating loss of function. We report the case of a 39-year-old man with Gardner's syndrome who had already undergone a total prophylactic colectomy. He developed desmoid tumours localized in the mesenteric root, abdominal wall and dorsal region, which were treated from 2003 through 2013 with several surgical procedures and percutaneous radiofrequency ablation. In 2008 and 2013, RFA was applied under ultrasonographic guidance to two desmoid tumours localized in the dorsal thoracic wall. The outcomes were low-grade pain and one case of superficial skin necrosis, but so far there has been no recurrence of desmoid tumours in these locations. Surgical resection remains the first-line therapy for patients with desmoid tumours, but wide resection may lead to a poor quality of life. Radiofrequency ablation is less invasive and expensive and is a possible therapeutic option for desmoid tumours in patients with Gardner's syndrome. PMID:25429890

  17. Wetland Biomass Production: emergent aquatic management options and evaluations. A final subcontract report. [Includes a bibliography containing 686 references on Typha from biological abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, D.C.; Dubbe, D.R.; Garver, E.G.; Linton, P.J.

    1984-07-01

    The high yield potential and attractive chemical composition of Typha make it a particularly viable energy crop. The Minnesota research effort has demonstrated that total annual biomass yields equivalent to 30 dry tonnes/ha (13 tons/acre) are possible in planted stands. This compares with yields of total plant material between 9 and 16 dry tonnes/ha (4 to 7 tons/acre) in a typical Minnesota corn field. At least 50% of the Typha plant is comprised of a belowground rhizome system containing 40% starch and sugar. This high level of easily fermentable carbohydrate makes rhizomes an attractive feedstock for alcohol production. The aboveground portion of the plant is largely cellulose, and although it is not easily fermentable, it can be gasified or burned. This report is organized in a manner that focuses on the evaluation of the management options task. Results from stand management research performed at the University of Minnesota during 1982 and 1983 are integrated with findings from an extensive survey of relevant emergent aquatic plant research and utilization. These results and findings are then arranged in sections dealing with key steps and issues that need to be dealt with in the development of a managed emergent aquatic bio-energy system. A brief section evaluating the current status of rhizome harvesting is also included along with an indexed bibliography of the biology, ecology, and utilization of Typha which was completed with support from this SERI subcontract. 686 references, 11 figures, 17 tables.

  18. Impact of selected agricultural management options on the reduction of nitrogen loads in three representative meso scale catchments in Central Germany.

    PubMed

    Rode, Michael; Thiel, Enrico; Franko, Uwe; Wenk, Gerald; Hesser, Fred

    2009-05-15

    Nitrogen inputs into surface waters from diffuse sources are still unduly high and the assessment of mitigation measures is associated with large uncertainties. The objective of this paper is to investigate selected agricultural management scenarios on nitrogen loads and to assess the impact of differing catchment characteristics in central Germany. A new modelling approach, which simulates spatially distributed N-transport and transformation processes in soil and groundwater, was applied to three meso scale catchments with strongly deviating climate, soil and topography conditions. The approach uses the integrated modelling framework JAMS to link an agro-ecosystem, a rainfall-runoff and a groundwater nitrogen transport model. Different agricultural management measures with deviating levels of acceptance were analysed in the three study catchments. N-leaching rates in all three catchments varied with soil type, the lowest leaching rates being obtained for loess soil catchment (18.5 kg nitrate N ha(-1) yr(-1)) and the highest for the sandy soils catchment (41.2 kg nitrate N ha(-1) yr(-1)). The simulated baseflow nitrogen concentrations varied between the catchments from 1 to 6 mg N l(-1), reflecting the nitrogen reduction capacity of the subsurfaces. The management scenarios showed that the highest N leaching reduction could be achieved by good site-adapted agricultural management options. Nitrogen retention in the subsurface did not alter the ranking of the management scenarios calculated as losses from the soil zone. The reduction effect depended strongly on site specific conditions, especially climate, soil variety and the regional formation of the crop rotations. PMID:19261322

  19. Stress Management in Thin-Film Gas-Permeation Barriers.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Andreas; Meyer, Jens; van de Weijer, Peter; Gahlmann, Tobias; Heiderhoff, Ralf; Riedl, Thomas

    2016-02-17

    Gas diffusion barriers (GDB) are essential building blocks for the protection of sensitive materials or devices against ambient gases, like oxygen and moisture. In this work, we study the mechanics of GDBs processed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). We demonstrate that a wide range of ALD grown barrier layers carry intrinsic mechanical tensile stress in the range of 400-500 MPa. In the application of these GDBs on top of organic electronic devices, we derive a critical membrane force (σ · h)crit = 1200 GPaÅ (corresponding to a layer thickness of about 300 nm) for the onset of cracking and delamination. At the same time, we evidence that thicker GDBs would be more favorable for the efficient encapsulation of statistically occurring particle defects. Thus, to reduce the overall membrane force in this case to levels below (σ · h)crit, we introduce additional compressively strained layers, e.g., metals or SiNx. Thereby, highly robust GDBs are prepared on top of organic light emitting diodes, which do not crack/delaminate even under damp heat conditions 85 °C/85% rh. PMID:26790836

  20. 23 CFR 500.104 - State option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false State option. 500.104 Section 500.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.104 State option. Except as specified in § 500.105...

  1. 23 CFR 500.104 - State option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false State option. 500.104 Section 500.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.104 State option. Except as specified in § 500.105...

  2. 23 CFR 500.104 - State option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false State option. 500.104 Section 500.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.104 State option. Except as specified in § 500.105...

  3. 23 CFR 500.104 - State option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State option. 500.104 Section 500.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.104 State option. Except as specified in § 500.105...

  4. 23 CFR 500.104 - State option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false State option. 500.104 Section 500.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.104 State option. Except as specified in § 500.105...

  5. Management Options During the 2011-2012 Drought on the Apalachicola River: A Systems Dynamic Model Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Leitman, S; Pine, W E; Kiker, G

    2016-08-01

    The Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin (ACF) is a large watershed in the southeastern United States. In 2012, the basin experienced the second year of a severe drought and the third multi-year drought in the last 15 years. During severe droughts, low reservoir and river levels can cause economic and ecological impacts to the reservoir, river, and estuarine ecosystems. During drought, augmenting Apalachicola River discharge through upstream reservoir releases and demand management are intuitive and often-suggested solutions to minimizing downstream effects. We assessed whether the existing reservoir system could be operated to minimize drought impacts on downstream water users and ecosystems through flow augmentation. Our analysis finds that in extreme drought such as observed during 2012, increases in water releases from reservoir storage are insufficient to even increase Apalachicola River discharge to levels observed in the 2007 drought. This suggests that there is simply not enough water available in managed storage to offset extreme drought events. Because drought frequency and intensity is predicted to increase under a variety of climate forecasts, our results demonstrate the need for a critical assessment of how water managers will meet increasing water demands in the ACF. Key uncertainties that should be addressed include (1) identifying the factors that led to extremely low Flint River discharge in 2012, and (2) determining how water "saved" via demand management is allocated to storage or passed to downstream ecosystem needs as part of the ongoing revisions to the ACF Water Control Manual by the US Army Corps of Engineers. PMID:27272165

  6. Long-term assessment of waste management options--a new, integrated and goal-oriented approach.

    PubMed

    Döberl, G; Huber, R; Brunner, P H; Eder, M; Pierrard, R; Schönbäck, W; Frühwirth, W; Hutterer, H

    2002-08-01

    Selected waste management scenarios were evaluated with regard to the goals of the Austrian Waste Management Act, taking into account long-term environmental protection and resource conservation as well as costs. Municipal solid waste (MSW) and sewage sludge have been chosen as the system inputs. The scenarios were compared to the status-quo scenario by combining Material Flow Analysis (MFA) and economic evaluation methods. Both, welfare-oriented Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) and Modified Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (MCEA) were applied for this assessment. Unlike CBA, MCEA takes into consideration long-term impacts of landfilled material in non-monetary terms. The results of the CBA correspond to those of the MCEA. Both evaluation methods confirm: If long-term effects are taken into account with the same weight irrespective of when they occur, the Austrian goals of waste management are reached more efficiently by thermal waste treatment scenarios than by mechanical-biological treatment scenarios or by landfilling without pre-treatment. PMID:12363091

  7. Contemporary management of lymph node metastases from an unknown primary to the neck: II. a review of therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Strojan, Primož; Ferlito, Alfio; Langendijk, Johannes A; Corry, June; Woolgar, Julia A; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Silver, Carl E; Paleri, Vinidh; Fagan, Johannes J; Pellitteri, Phillip K; Haigentz, Missak; Suárez, Carlos; Robbins, K Thomas; Rodrigo, Juan P; Olsen, Kerry D; Hinni, Michael L; Werner, Jochen A; Mondin, Vanni; Kowalski, Luiz P; Devaney, Kenneth O; de Bree, Remco; Takes, Robert P; Wolf, Gregory T; Shaha, Ashok R; Genden, Eric M; Barnes, Leon

    2013-02-01

    Although uncommon, cancer of an unknown primary (CUP) metastatic to cervical lymph nodes poses a range of dilemmas relating to optimal treatment. The ideal resolution would be a properly designed prospective randomized trial, but it is unlikely that this will ever be conducted in this group of patients. Accordingly, knowledge gained from retrospective studies and experience from treating patients with known head and neck primary tumors form the basis of therapeutic strategies in CUP. This review provides a critical appraisal of various treatment approaches described in the literature. Emerging treatment options for CUP with metastases to cervical lymph nodes are discussed in view of recent innovations in the field of head and neck oncology and suitable therapeutic strategies for particular clinical scenarios are presented. For pN1 or cN1 disease without extracapsular extension (ECE), selective neck dissection or radiotherapy offer high rates of regional control. For more advanced neck disease, intensive combined treatment is required, either a combination of neck dissection and radiotherapy, or initial (chemo)radiotherapy followed by neck dissection if a complete response is not recorded on imaging. Each of these approaches seems to be equally effective. Use of extensive bilateral neck/mucosal irradiation must be weighed against toxicity, availability of close follow-up with elective neck imaging and guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) when appropriate, the human papillomavirus (HPV) status of the tumor, and particularly against the distribution pattern (oropharynx in the majority of cases) and the emergence rate of hidden primary lesions (<10% after comprehensive workup). The addition of systemic agents is expected to yield similar improvement in outcome as has been observed for known head and neck primary tumors. PMID:22034062

  8. Benign prostatic hyperplasia as a progressive disease: a guide to the risk factors and options for medical management

    PubMed Central

    Emberton, M; Cornel, E B; Bassi, P F; Fourcade, R O; Gómez, J M F; Castro, R

    2008-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a complex disease that is progressive in many men. BPH is commonly associated with bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms; progressive disease can also result in complications such as acute urinary retention (AUR) and BPH-related surgery. It is therefore important to identify men at increased risk of BPH progression to optimise therapy. Several factors are associated with progression, including age and prostate volume (PV). Serum prostate-specific antigen level is closely correlated with PV, making it useful for determining the risk of BPH progression. Medical therapy is the most frequently used treatment for BPH. 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors impact the underlying disease and decrease PV; this results in improved symptoms, urinary flow and quality of life, and a reduced risk of AUR and BPH-related surgery. Alpha-blockers achieve rapid symptom relief but do not reduce the overall risk of AUR or BPH-related surgery, presumably because they have no effect on PV. Combination therapy provides greater and more durable benefits than either monotherapy and is a recommended option in treatment guidelines. The Combination of Avodart® and Tamsulosin (CombAT) study is currently evaluating the combination of dutasteride with tamsulosin over 4 years in a population of men at increased risk of BPH progression. A preplanned 2-year analysis has shown sustained symptom improvement with combination therapy, significantly greater than with either monotherapy. CombAT is also the first study to show benefit in improving BPH symptoms for combination therapy over the alpha-blocker, tamsulosin, from 9 months of treatment. PMID:18479366

  9. Factors associated with acceptability of child adoption as a management option for infertility among women in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    Adewunmi, Adeniyi Abiodun; Etti, Elizabeth Arichi; Tayo, Adetokunbo Olufela; Rabiu, Kabiru Afolarin; Akindele, Raheem Akinwunmi; Ottun, Tawakwalit Abimbola; Akinlusi, Fatimat Motunrayo

    2012-01-01

    Background Adoption as a treatment option for infertility amongst those that cannot access and/or afford assisted reproduction is not well accepted in developing countries. This study sets out to determine the willingness of infertile women in developing countries to adopt a child and factors that influence women’s attitude to adoption. Methods We conducted a questionnaire survey of consecutive infertile patients who attended the gynecological clinic of a regional teaching hospital over a 2-month period. Information on demographics, fertility history, and attitude to adoption was obtained, and the data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Tests of statistical significance were used where appropriate at the 95% confidence level. Results The majority of respondents were aware of child adoption, and the most common source of information was friends (47.8%), followed by the media (39.7%); 42.6% of respondents were willing to adopt if their infertility became intractable. The main reasons given by those unwilling to adopt were culture (78.3%) and family constraints (13.45%). On univariate analysis of factors associated with a favorable or unfavorable attitude to adoption, awareness of adoption (P = 0.002), duration of infertility > 5 years (P = 0.015), no living child (P = 0.007), tertiary education (P < 0.001), pressure from parents (P = 0.041), household yearly income ≥ $650 (P < 0.001), and belief that treatment will bring about the desired results (P < 0.001) were significant, and all except awareness of adoption turned out to be significant on multiple logistic regression analysis. Conclusion There was a high level of awareness about child adoption among all respondents. However, the acceptability of adoption was significantly lower among poor women and those with limited education. Community advocacy and mobilization, especially through the media as well as via health care providers, will go a long way towards enlightening and enhancing the uptake of

  10. Pulmonary vascular and right ventricular dysfunction in adult critical care: current and emerging options for management: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary vascular dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension (PH), and resulting right ventricular (RV) failure occur in many critical illnesses and may be associated with a worse prognosis. PH and RV failure may be difficult to manage: principles include maintenance of appropriate RV preload, augmentation of RV function, and reduction of RV afterload by lowering pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). We therefore provide a detailed update on the management of PH and RV failure in adult critical care. Methods A systematic review was performed, based on a search of the literature from 1980 to 2010, by using prespecified search terms. Relevant studies were subjected to analysis based on the GRADE method. Results Clinical studies of intensive care management of pulmonary vascular dysfunction were identified, describing volume therapy, vasopressors, sympathetic inotropes, inodilators, levosimendan, pulmonary vasodilators, and mechanical devices. The following GRADE recommendations (evidence level) are made in patients with pulmonary vascular dysfunction: 1) A weak recommendation (very-low-quality evidence) is made that close monitoring of the RV is advised as volume loading may worsen RV performance; 2) A weak recommendation (low-quality evidence) is made that low-dose norepinephrine is an effective pressor in these patients; and that 3) low-dose vasopressin may be useful to manage patients with resistant vasodilatory shock. 4) A weak recommendation (low-moderate quality evidence) is made that low-dose dobutamine improves RV function in pulmonary vascular dysfunction. 5) A strong recommendation (moderate-quality evidence) is made that phosphodiesterase type III inhibitors reduce PVR and improve RV function, although hypotension is frequent. 6) A weak recommendation (low-quality evidence) is made that levosimendan may be useful for short-term improvements in RV performance. 7) A strong recommendation (moderate-quality evidence) is made that pulmonary vasodilators

  11. 75 FR 5244 - Pipeline Safety: Integrity Management Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... final rule published December 4, 2009 (74 FR 63906), is correctly revised from February 2, 2010, to... INFORMATION: In FR Doc. E9-28467 appearing on page 63906 in the Federal Register of Friday, December 4, 2009...: Integrity Management Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines; Correction AGENCY: Pipeline and...

  12. Derivatives and Risk Management in the Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Electricity Industries

    EIA Publications

    2002-01-01

    In February 2002 the Secretary of Energy directed the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to prepare a report on the nature and use of derivative contracts in the petroleum, natural gas, and electricity industries. Derivatives are contracts ('financial instruments') that are used to manage risk, especially price risk.

  13. Soil Management Effects on Gas Fluxes from an Organic Soil Agricultural System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennewein, S. P.; Bhadha, J. H.; Lang, T. A.; Singh, M.; Daroub, S. H.; McCray, M.

    2015-12-01

    The role of soil management on gas flux isn't well understood for Histosols of the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of southern Florida. The region is responsible for roughly half of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) production in the USA along with supplying winter vegetable crops to the eastern USA. Future productivity in the EAA is jeopardized by soil subsidence resulting from oxidation of organic matter. Establishing the role of tillage, water-table depth, nitrogen fertilizer, and soil depth on gas flux will help determine how effective various managements are on conserving soil. Ongoing lysimeter and field studies examined effects of management practices (water-table, tillage, and nitrogen fertilizer), and soil depth on, gas emission and microbial biomass. The trials were set in Belle Glade, FL, on Lauderhill muck (Lithic Haplosaprists). Results to be presented include soil microbial biomass and soil gas (CO2, CH4, and N2O) flux. This study provides insight into management effectiveness and agriculture sustainability on shallow muck soils of the EAA and will help farmers mitigate problems associated with soil subsidence and seasonally high water-tables.

  14. Production, management, and environment symposium: Environmental footprint of livestock production - Greenhouse gas emissions and climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is the introduction to the 2015 Production, Management, and Environment symposium titled “Environmental Footprint of Livestock Production – Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change” that was held at the Joint Annual Meeting of the ASAS and ADSA at the Rosen Shingle Creek Resort in...

  15. Human attitudes in environmental management: Fuzzy Cognitive Maps and policy option simulations analysis for a coal-mine ecosystem in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Song, Jie; Su, Chao; He, Mengying

    2013-01-30

    Ecosystem management is a complex process, and every stakeholder's cognition plays a crucial role in it. In order to manage the ecosystem better, it is significant for the coal-mining environmental managers to choose appropriate measures, in accord with the stakeholders' interests. Hence, the purpose of this study is to assess knowledge of and attitudes towards coal-mine ecosystems among stakeholders and then simulate policy options in a typical coal-mine region in China. The Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping (FCM) method was used to develop a participatory ecosystem management model in research area. Combining the initial state of variables and the adjacency matrix getting from FCM, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used to conduct simulations. The results found that among stakeholder groups' FCM model, 'air pollution' and 'water pollution' are the most frequently mentioned variables, while 'health effects' and 'expansion of related industries' are the core variables. However, different stakeholders expressed diverse perceptions on coal-mine ecosystem management. Mine workers paid more attention to occupational safety and their health impacts inducted by air and water pollution during coal-mine process. Local residents were concerned with local economic development and welfare facilities improvement; they also concerned their health impacts raised by coal-mine related problems such as air and water pollution, traffic and noises. Managers emphasized economic interests and environmental projects with immediate environmental effects other than long-term ecosystem improvement. Engineers mentioned more variables than other groups; they believed that air pollution, water pollution, soil erosion and biodiversity loss were important. Scenario analysis for policy simulation based on ANN suggested that the local governments and enterprises should place an emphasis on protecting farmland, increasing vegetation coverage, reducing solid contamination and improving energy efficiency to

  16. Management of chlorine gas-related injuries from the Graniteville, South Carolina, train derailment.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Emily; Svendsen, Erik; Grant, Stephen; Michels, Jill E; Richardson, William H

    2014-10-01

    A widely produced chemical, chlorine is used in various industries including automotive, electronics, disinfectants, metal production, and many others. Chlorine is usually produced and transported as a pressurized liquid; however, as a gas it is a significant pulmonary irritant. Thousands of people are exposed to chlorine gas every year, and while large-scale exposures are uncommon, they are not rare. Symptoms are usually related to the concentration and length of exposure, and although treatment is largely supportive, certain specific therapies have yet to be validated with randomized controlled trials. The majority of those exposed completely recover with supportive care; however, studies have shown the potential for persistent inflammation and chronic hyperreactivity. This case report describes an incident that occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina, when a train derailment exposed hundreds of people to chlorine gas. This report reviews the events of January 6, 2005, and the current treatment options for chlorine gas exposure.(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1-6). PMID:25225966

  17. Gas Dynamic Spray Technology Demonstration Project Management. Joint Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2011-01-01

    The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates in atmospheric environments is the use of an applied coating system. Current coating systems used across AFSPC and NASA contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). These coatings are sUbject to environmental regulations at the Federal and State levels that limit their usage. In addition, these coatings often cannot withstand the high temperatures and exhaust that may be experienced by Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and NASA structures. In response to these concerns, AFSPC and NASA have approved the use of thermal spray coatings (TSCs). Thermal spray coatings are extremely durable and environmentally friendly coating alternatives, but utilize large cumbersome equipment for application that make the coatings difficult and time consuming to repair. Other concerns include difficulties coating complex geometries and the cost of equipment, training, and materials. Gas Dynamic Spray (GOS) technology (also known as Cold Spray) was evaluated as a smaller, more maneuverable repair method as well as for areas where thermal spray techniques are not as effective. The technology can result in reduced maintenance and thus reduced hazardous materials/wastes associated with current processes. Thermal spray and GOS coatings also have no VOCs and are environmentally preferable coatings. The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate GDS technology as a repair method for TSCs. The aim was that successful completion of this project would result in approval of GDS technology as a repair method for TSCs at AFSPC and NASA installations to improve corrosion protection at critical systems, facilitate easier maintenance activity, extend maintenance cycles, eliminate flight hardware contamination, and reduce the amount of hazardous waste generated.

  18. Wastewater treatment plant cogeneration options

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfield, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reviews municipal sewage cogeneration and digester gas utilization options available to wastewater treatment plants, and will focus on utilizing the digester gas in combustion turbines and engine-generator systems. Defining the digestion and gas generation process is crucial to understanding the best gas utilization system. In municipal wastewater treatment plants biosolids (sludge) reduction is accomplished using aerobic or anaerobic digestion. The basic process of treating sewage solids with digestion is not new and has been practiced as far back as the nineteenth century. High energy usage consumed by aerobic blow systems supplying air to the process and the potential ``free`` energy generated by anaerobic digesters sometimes sways designers to select anaerobic over aerobic digestion. The following areas will be covered in this paper: gas utilization and cogeneration; definition of digestion process; sizing the cogeneration system and reviewing the systems components; emissions requirements and options; and capital, and O and M cost analysis.

  19. Novel operative treatment options.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, D N J; Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    There are an increasing number of more novel options available for operative intervention. This chapter outlines a series of operative treatment options which are available to the modern clinician to select from once a decision has been made to treat a carious lesion operatively. A series of novel methods of caries removal have been described; including chemomechanical caries removal, air abrasion, sono-abrasion, polymer rotary burs and lasers. There are also novel approaches to ensure complete caries removal and novel approaches for the management of deep caries. A novel question increasingly asked by clinicians is: does all the caries need to be removed? Operative management options here include: therapeutic fissure sealants, ultraconservative caries removal, stepwise excavation and the Hall technique. In conclusion, there is now a growing wealth of evidence that questions the traditional methods of caries removal and restoring the tooth. In parallel, there is a growing movement exploring the merits of therapeutically sealing caries into the tooth. This philosophy is alien to many of today's dentists and, until further randomized controlled trials are carried out in primary care, prudent caution must be exercised with this promising approach. Research is required into techniques which will allow monitoring of sealed caries to detect any rare, but insidious, failures. These novel techniques are an alternative way of managing the later stages of the caries process from a sounder biological basis and have marked potential benefits to patients from treatment, pain and outcome perspectives. PMID:19494685

  20. LIFE-CYCLE EVALUATION OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a life-cycle evaluation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal soild waste (MSW) management in the U.S. (NOTE: Using integrated waste management, recycling/composting, waste-to-energy, and better control of landfill gas, communities across the U.S. a...

  1. Assessment of Household Disposal of Pharmaceuticals in Lebanon: Management Options to Protect Water Quality and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Massoud, May A; Chami, Ghida; Al-Hindi, Mahmoud; Alameddine, Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Pharmaceuticals comprise an extensive group of compounds whose release into the environment has potential adverse impacts on human health and aquatic ecosystems. In many developing countries the extent of the problem and the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in water bodies are generally unknown. While thousands of tons of pharmaceutical substances are used annually, little information is known about their final fate after their intended use. This paper focuses on better understanding the management of human-use pharmaceutical wastes generated at the residential level within the Administrative Beirut Area. A survey encompassing 300 households was conducted. Results revealed that the majority of respondents were found to dispose of their unwanted medications, mainly through the domestic solid waste stream. Willingness to participate in a future collection program was found to be a function of age, medical expenditure, and the respondents' views towards awareness and the importance of establishing a collection system for pharmaceutical wastes. Respondents who stated a willingness to participate in a collection program and/or those who believed in the need for awareness programs on the dangers of improper medical waste disposal tended to favor more collection programs managed by the government as compared to a program run by pharmacies or to the act of re-gifting medication to people in need. Ultimately, collaboration and coordination between concerned stakeholders are essential for developing a successful national collection plan. PMID:26847599

  2. Assessment of Household Disposal of Pharmaceuticals in Lebanon: Management Options to Protect Water Quality and Public Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoud, May A.; Chami, Ghida; Al-Hindi, Mahmoud; Alameddine, Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Pharmaceuticals comprise an extensive group of compounds whose release into the environment has potential adverse impacts on human health and aquatic ecosystems. In many developing countries the extent of the problem and the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in water bodies are generally unknown. While thousands of tons of pharmaceutical substances are used annually, little information is known about their final fate after their intended use. This paper focuses on better understanding the management of human-use pharmaceutical wastes generated at the residential level within the Administrative Beirut Area. A survey encompassing 300 households was conducted. Results revealed that the majority of respondents were found to dispose of their unwanted medications, mainly through the domestic solid waste stream. Willingness to participate in a future collection program was found to be a function of age, medical expenditure, and the respondents' views towards awareness and the importance of establishing a collection system for pharmaceutical wastes. Respondents who stated a willingness to participate in a collection program and/or those who believed in the need for awareness programs on the dangers of improper medical waste disposal tended to favor more collection programs managed by the government as compared to a program run by pharmacies or to the act of re-gifting medication to people in need. Ultimately, collaboration and coordination between concerned stakeholders are essential for developing a successful national collection plan.

  3. Linking the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) and health information system (HIS) classifications: issues and options.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, A. K.; Hirnschall, G.; Lambrechts, T.; Bryce, J.

    1999-01-01

    Differences in the terms used to classify diseases in the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) guidelines and for health information system (HIS) disease surveillance could easily create confusion among health care workers. If the equivalent terms in the two classifications are not clear to health workers who are following the guidelines, they may have problems in performing the dual activities of case management and disease surveillance. These difficulties could adversely affect an individual's performance as well as the overall effectiveness of the IMCI strategy or HIS surveillance, or both. We interviewed key informants to determine the effect of these differences between the IMCI and HIS classifications on the countries that were implementing the IMCI guidelines. Four general approaches for addressing the problem were identified: translating the IMCI classifications into HIS classifications; changing the HIS list to include the IMCI classifications; using both the IMCI and HIS classification systems at the time of consultations; and doing nothing. No single approach can satisfy the needs of all countries. However, if the short-term or medium-term goal of IMCI planners is to find a solution that will reduce the problem for health workers and is also easy to implement, the approach most likely to succeed is translation of IMCI classifications into HIS classifications. Where feasible, a modification of the health information system to include the IMCI classifications may also be considered. PMID:10680246

  4. Acceptability and Feasibility of a Mobile Phone-Based Case Management Intervention to Retain Mothers and Infants from an Option B+ Program in Postpartum HIV Care.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Sheree R; Clouse, Kate; Yende, Nompumelelo; Van Rie, Annelies; Bassett, Jean; Ratshefola, Mamothe; Pettifor, Audrey

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the acceptability and feasibility of a cell phone based case manager intervention targeting HIV-infected pregnant women on highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Pregnant women ≥36 weeks gestation attending antenatal care and receiving HAART through the Option B+ program at a primary care clinic in South Africa were enrolled into a prospective pilot intervention to receive text messages and telephone calls from a case manager through 6 weeks postpartum. Acceptability and feasibility of the intervention were assessed along with infant HIV testing rates and 10-week and 12-month postpartum maternal retention in care. Retention outcomes were compared to women of similar eligibility receiving care prior to the intervention. Fifty women were enrolled into the pilot from May to July 2013. Most (70%) were HAART-naive at time of conception and started HAART during antenatal care. During the intervention, the case manager sent 482 text messages and completed 202 telephone calls, for a median of 10 text messages and 4 calls/woman. Ninety-six percent completed the postpartum interview and 47/48 (98%) endorsed the utility of the intervention. Engagement in 10-week postpartum maternal HIV care was >90% in the pre-intervention (n = 50) and intervention (n = 50) periods; by 12-months retention fell to 72% and was the same across periods. More infants received HIV-testing by 10-weeks in the intervention period as compared to pre-intervention (90.0 vs. 63.3%, p < 0.01). Maternal support through a cell phone based case manager approach was highly acceptable among South African HIV infected women on HAART and feasible, warranting further assessment of effectiveness. PMID:25656728

  5. Environmental and economic analysis of end of life management options for an HDPE product using a life cycle thinking approach.

    PubMed

    Simões, Carla L; Pinto, Lígia M Costa; Bernardo, C A

    2014-05-01

    Manufacturers have been increasingly considering the implication of materials used in commercial products and the management of such products at the end of their useful lives (as waste or as post-consumer secondary materials). The present work describes the application of the life cycle thinking approach to a plastic product, specifically an anti-glare lamellae (used for road safety applications) made with high-density polyethylene (HDPE). This study shows that optimal environmental and economic outcomes associated with this product can be realized by recovering the material at the end of its useful life (end of life, EoL) and by using the recycled HDPE as a raw material in the production of new similar products. The study confirmed the applicability of the life cycle thinking approach by industry in sustainable products development, supporting the development of robust environmental and economic guidelines. PMID:24692456

  6. The assessment of natural flood management measures as a climate change adaptation option through land use scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacob, Oana; Rowan, John; Brown, Iain; Ellis, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is one of the most pressing issues facing civil society. Greater variability and more frequent extremes of temperature and precipitation will result in increased flood risk and corresponding social, economic and environmental impacts. Complementing more traditional structurally-based engineering interventions an important additional adaptation strategy is through natural flood management (NFM) measures utilising natural soil, wetland and groundwater storage at the catchment scale to attenuate runoff generation and downstream flooding. Such schemes have multiple co-benefits including improved water quality, biodiversity and amenity and so contribute to greater resilience to uncertain climate futures. As a case-study of a more integrated approach to land use planning we here consider the policy target of the Scottish Government to expand woodland in Scotland by 100,000 ha by 2025 from the current 3 000 ha/year. In this paper we examine runoff response under different woodland expansion scenarios using climate projections obtained from the UK Climate Projections (UKCP09). Woodland creation has recognised potential as a NFM measure, but locating this new planting is constrained by physical and cultural constraints. Land use choices in the future will also strongly reflect emergent socio-economic contexts, here assessed through scenario analysis. The distributed hydrological model WaSiM-ETH was utilised for the analysis using the case-study of the Tarland catchment, a tributary of the River Dee. Terrain data were obtained on a 50 m grid and the model calibrated using meteorological and river gauge data from 2005 to 2007 following a manual and an automatic calibration process. This novel approach highlights that land use change should be carefully managed for planned benefits and to avoid unintended consequences, such as changing the timing of tributary flood responses. Whilst woodland expansion may only provide modest gains in flood reductions the co

  7. Material flows of mobile phones and accessories in Nigeria: Environmental implications and sound end-of-life management options

    SciTech Connect

    Osibanjo, Oladele Nnorom, Innocent Chidi

    2008-02-15

    Presently, Nigeria is one of the fastest growing Telecom markets in the world. The country's teledensity increased from a mere 0.4 in 1999 to 10 in 2005 following the liberalization of the Telecom sector in 2001. More than 25 million new digital mobile lines have been connected by June 2006. Large quantities of mobile phones and accessories including secondhand and remanufactured products are being imported to meet the pent-up demand. This improvement in mobile telecom services resulted in the preference of mobile telecom services to fixed lines. Consequently, the contribution of fixed lines decreased from about 95% in year 2000 to less than 10% in March 2005. This phenomenal progress in information technology has resulted in the generation of large quantities of electronic waste (e-waste) in the country. Abandoned fixed line telephone sets estimated at 120,000 units are either disposed or stockpiled. Increasing quantities of waste mobile phones estimated at 8 million units by 2007, and accessories will be generated. With no material recovery facility for e-waste and/or appropriate solid waste management infrastructure in place, these waste materials end up in open dumps and unlined landfills. These practices create the potential for the release of toxic metals and halocarbons from batteries, printed wiring boards, liquid crystal display and plastic housing units. This paper presents an overview of the developments in the Nigerian Telecom sector, the material in-flow of mobile phones, and the implications of the management practices for wastes from the Telecom sector in the country.

  8. A numerical modelling tool for assessing the impact of climate change and management options on water supply systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Emanuele; Guyennon, Nicolas; Mariani, Davide; Bruna Petrangeli, Anna; Portoghese, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    Conditions of scarcity for a water supply system occur when the available resource are not able to satisfy the connected demands. They can arise both from a decreasing of the inflow to the exploited resources and/or from a increasing of the demand. Such conditions can be assessed by a water balance model able to simulate both the hydrological processes describing the relationships between the meteorological forcing (precipitation) and the inflows to the exploited reservoir, and the intra- and inter-annual time distribution of the connected demand and the reservoir management policies. We present a numerical modelling tool, developed for the management of the Maggiore Lake, that computes at daily scale the water budget of such reservoir taking into account 1) the monthly precipitation over the watershed basin and the related inflow; 2) the seasonal demand for irrigation and 3) the operative hydrometric levels constraints to the lake water withdrawal. The model represents precipitation over the basin through the space mean of the standardized precipitation indices computed at different aggregation scales using observed time series. The relationship between the precipitation regime and the inflow to the reservoir is obtained through a simple multilinear regression model, considering the SPI computed at 1, 3 and 6 months as independent variables: this allows to take hydrological processes into account featuring different characteristic times and to simulate both the historic inflow regime and the possible conditions forecast by climate scenarios. The regression model is validated on the precipitation and lake inflow observations in the period 1996-2013 using a leave-one-out cross validation. The seasonal irrigation demand is assigned based on the extensions of crops fed by the lake water and regardless of the climate conditions; the actual supply is limited by the operative hydrometric range of allowable water levels, which stop water distribution when the lake level

  9. State-of-the-art and emerging treatment options in the management of head and neck cancer: news from 2013.

    PubMed

    Denaro, Nerina; Russi, Elvio Grazioso; Adamo, Vincenzo; Merlano, Marco Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Its treatment is complex and evolving. In general, early-stage disease may be managed with single-modality treatment while an advanced stage (about 60% of clinical presentation) needs a multidisciplinary approach. In this setting concurrent chemoradiation has been associated with improvement in locoregional control and organ preservation, but at the cost of significant acute and chronic toxicity. Molecular target therapies specially directed to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) might improve the outcomes and reduce toxicities. In recurrent-metastatic (R/M) HNSCC, cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody against EGFR, plus platinum-based chemotherapy (CT) allow an overall survival (OS) of about 10 months. However, the prognosis for R/M-HNSCC remains dismal and additional efforts are needed. At the 2013 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Meeting, data on induction CT, anti-EGFR inhibitors, innovative molecular targets and predictor factors were reported. Further results on target therapies were presented at the European Cancer Congress (ECC) 2013, where a large study also showed that hyperfractionated radiotherapy (RT) improve OS rates compared with standard RT. The aim of this review is to discuss current standards and emerging therapies by considering recent new updates. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24820548

  10. A new method for assessing plant lodging and the impact of management options on lodging in canola crop production

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Ma, Bao–Luo

    2016-01-01

    Lodging, defined as the permanent displacement of aboveground parts, is a common problem to cause yield loss, deterioration in seed quality and difficult to harvest in canola (Brassica napus L.) crop production. This study aimed to develop a method for assessing crop lodging, to examine how agronomic practices affected the relationships between root lodging and electrical capacitance traits. Canola plants were more susceptible to root lodging than stem lodging. The electrical measurements were more closely related with anchorage strength (Sp) than stem bending strength (Ss). Among the three electrical measurements, the root capacitance (C) displayed the most consistent and significant relationships with Sp in all three field experiments (R2 = 0.88–0.56; P ≤ 0.01). This study indicates that the risk of lodging can be reduced by using appropriate management practices and variety selection. Enhancing root Sp was advocated as a priority over enhancing stem Ss in cultivar improvement. Electrical measurements, especially of root C, can be considered as a non–invasive technique that could partially replace the intrusive methods used for the in situ assessment of lodging resistance among various agronomic practices or can be applied in breeding programs for selecting genotypes with high yield potentials and strong Sp values. PMID:27552909

  11. A new method for assessing plant lodging and the impact of management options on lodging in canola crop production.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Ma, Bao-Luo

    2016-01-01

    Lodging, defined as the permanent displacement of aboveground parts, is a common problem to cause yield loss, deterioration in seed quality and difficult to harvest in canola (Brassica napus L.) crop production. This study aimed to develop a method for assessing crop lodging, to examine how agronomic practices affected the relationships between root lodging and electrical capacitance traits. Canola plants were more susceptible to root lodging than stem lodging. The electrical measurements were more closely related with anchorage strength (Sp) than stem bending strength (Ss). Among the three electrical measurements, the root capacitance (C) displayed the most consistent and significant relationships with Sp in all three field experiments (R(2) = 0.88-0.56; P ≤ 0.01). This study indicates that the risk of lodging can be reduced by using appropriate management practices and variety selection. Enhancing root Sp was advocated as a priority over enhancing stem Ss in cultivar improvement. Electrical measurements, especially of root C, can be considered as a non-invasive technique that could partially replace the intrusive methods used for the in situ assessment of lodging resistance among various agronomic practices or can be applied in breeding programs for selecting genotypes with high yield potentials and strong Sp values. PMID:27552909

  12. Mechanism-based management for mucositis: option for treating side effects without compromising the efficacy of cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Youngjoo

    2016-01-01

    Mucositis is a major side effect induced by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Although mucositis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients, management is largely limited to controlling symptoms, and few therapeutic agents are available for treatment. Since mucositis could be inhibited by the modulation of radiotherapy- or chemotherapy-induced pathways independently of cancer treatment, there is an opportunity for the development of more targeted therapies and interventions. This article examined potential therapeutic agents that have been investigated for the prevention and/or inhibition of mucositis induced by conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. They can be classified according to their mechanisms of action: scavenging reactive oxygen species, inhibition of specific cytokine production or inflammation, and inhibition of apoptosis. These early events may be good target pathways for preventing the pathogenesis of mucositis. Considering that both cancer therapy and therapeutic agents for mucositis act on both normal and cancer cells, agents that inhibit mucositis should act through mechanisms that selectively protect normal cells without compromising cancer treatment. Therefore, mechanism-based guidance for the treatment of mucositis is critical to prevent risky treatments for cancer patients and to relieve detrimental side effects effectively from cancer therapy. PMID:27103826

  13. A review of international trends in mercury management and available options for permanent or long-term mercury storage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun Jeong; Lee, Tai Gyu

    2012-11-30

    Although mercury (Hg) is a poisonous substance that has harmful effects on the environment and in humans, it is widely used in industrial facilities and in goods for daily use. Given the recent recognition of the risk posed by Hg exposure, the international society is trying to reduce the use of and demand for Hg by implementing more stringent regulations. Relevant policies and laws recommend alternatives to Hg or prohibit the use of Hg in certain applications. In addition, it is recommended that the amount of Hg used in Hg-containing products be reduced or that manufacturers discontinue such products. Disposal methods for elemental Hg include landfill, incineration, stabilization/solidification, and permanent storage. In this review, the major sources of Hg and expected amount of surplus Hg are described after summarizing international policies and plans for Hg management. In addition, a study on the establishment of proper storage facilities was performed by comparing existing Hg storage technologies with newly designed technologies for facilities where surplus Hg may be stored permanently. PMID:23040312

  14. Public health service options for affordable and accessible noncommunicable disease and related chronic disease prevention and management

    PubMed Central

    Brownie, Sharon; Hills, Andrew P; Rossiter, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Globally, nations are confronted with the challenge of providing affordable health services to populations with increasing levels of noncommunicable and chronic disease. Paradoxically, many nations can both celebrate increases in life expectancy and bemoan parallel increases in chronic disease prevalence. Simply put, despite living longer, not all of that time is spent in good health. Combined with factors such as rising levels of obesity and related noncommunicable disease, the demand for health services is requiring nations to consider new models of affordable health care. Given the level of disease burden, all staff, not just doctors, need to be part of the solution and encouraged to innovate and deliver better and more affordable health care, particularly preventative primary health care services. This paper draws attention to a range of exemplars to encourage and stimulate readers to think beyond traditional models of primary health service delivery. Examples include nurse-led, allied health-led, and student-led clinics; student-assisted services; and community empowerment models. These are reported for the interest of policy makers and health service managers involved in preventative and primary health service redesign initiatives. PMID:25473294

  15. Mechanism-based management for mucositis: option for treating side effects without compromising the efficacy of cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Youngjoo

    2016-01-01

    Mucositis is a major side effect induced by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Although mucositis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients, management is largely limited to controlling symptoms, and few therapeutic agents are available for treatment. Since mucositis could be inhibited by the modulation of radiotherapy- or chemotherapy-induced pathways independently of cancer treatment, there is an opportunity for the development of more targeted therapies and interventions. This article examined potential therapeutic agents that have been investigated for the prevention and/or inhibition of mucositis induced by conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. They can be classified according to their mechanisms of action: scavenging reactive oxygen species, inhibition of specific cytokine production or inflammation, and inhibition of apoptosis. These early events may be good target pathways for preventing the pathogenesis of mucositis. Considering that both cancer therapy and therapeutic agents for mucositis act on both normal and cancer cells, agents that inhibit mucositis should act through mechanisms that selectively protect normal cells without compromising cancer treatment. Therefore, mechanism-based guidance for the treatment of mucositis is critical to prevent risky treatments for cancer patients and to relieve detrimental side effects effectively from cancer therapy. PMID:27103826

  16. Traumeel – an emerging option to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the management of acute musculoskeletal injuries

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are on the rise. First-line management of such injuries usually employs the RICE (rest, ice, compression, and elevation) approach to limit excessive inflammation. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are also commonly used to limit inflammation and to control pain. Traumeel®, a preparation with bioregulatory effects is also used to treat the symptoms associated with acute musculoskeletal injuries, including pain and swelling. Traumeel is a fixed combination of biological and mineral extracts, which aims to apply stimuli to multiple targets to restore normal functioning of regulatory mechanisms. This paper presents the accumulating evidence of Traumeel’s action on the inflammatory process, and of its efficacy and tolerability in randomized trials, as well as observational and surveillance studies for the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries. Traumeel has shown comparable effectiveness to NSAIDs in terms of reducing symptoms of inflammation, accelerating recovery, and improving mobility, with a favorable safety profile. While continued research and development is ongoing to broaden the clinical evidence of Traumeel in acute musculoskeletal injury and to further establish its benefits, current information suggests that Traumeel may be considered as an anti-inflammatory agent that is at least as effective and appears to be better tolerated than NSAIDs. PMID:21556350

  17. Microdiscectomy or tubular discectomy: Is any of them a better option for management of lumbar disc prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Pallav S; Chhabra, Harvinder S; Mohapatra, Bibhudendu; Nanda, Ankur; Sangodimath, Gururaj; Kaul, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Various types of minimally invasive techniques have been developed for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation. The original laminectomy was refined into microdiscectomy (MD). MD is the gold standard in management of lumbar disc herniation and is used as a yardstick for comparison with newer procedures such as tubular discectomy. So far, no studies have been reported in Indian population comparing tubular discectomy and microdiscectomy. The aim of this study was to compare immediate postoperative and 1-year outcome of patients undergoing tubular discectomy with those undergoing MD and to evaluate the learning curve as well as complication rates of tubular discectomy. Materials and Methods: Forty-six patients of MD and 102 (48 early and 54 late) patients of tubular discectomy (TD) were operated at Indian Spinal Injuries Centre, which is a tertiary level center between July 2009 and January 2012. They were studied for the following data: Baseline characteristics, visual analog scale (VAS) for leg pain and back pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores, length of hospital stay, time taken to return to work, duration of surgery, intra- and post-operative complications, and reoperation rates. Results: The VAS score for leg pain, back pain, and ODI scores showed improvement in both groups during the 1st year after surgery. Time taken to return to work and mean hospital stay was shorter in case of TD as compared to MD group. The mean duration of surgery was 34 min shorter for conventional MD. The incidence of dural tear was 6.5% in MD group and 10.4% in early TD and decreased to 7.4% in late TD group. Conclusion: This study revealed that rate of recovery is significantly faster for TD as compared to conventional MD. In contrast, we encountered fewer complications in MD approach as compared to TD which although were not statistically significant and which also decreased as we gained experience.

  18. Blood gas and patient safety: considerations based on experience developed in accordance with the Risk Management perspective.

    PubMed

    Rambaldi, Marco; Baranzoni, Mariateresa; Coppolecchia, Pasquale; Moschello, Jennifer N; Novaco, Francesca

    2007-01-01

    It is the responsibility of health organizations to guarantee a high level of healthcare by using adequate methodologies and instruments, creating secure conditions for treatment, and preventing adverse events due to human or system errors. It is necessary to introduce Risk Management programs, and in particular to promote Clinical Risk Management, one of the constituent elements of Clinical Governance, to assure the delivery of high-quality performance and services. In the point-of-care testing (POCT) context, using an analysis of our experiences, we discuss the entire analytical process, including acquisition and usage, while focusing on blood gas analyzers. Our experience confirms that within a Clinical Governance framework, it is necessary to apply, even when choosing instruments, a systematic vision that is not limited to analytical validation, but also includes an in-depth analysis of the impact in a specific context. Assessment of the correlated risks, independent of the analytical methodology used, is indispensable in a clinical environment to identify the most suitable approach for such risks. A study of the latent factors can be proactively performed to identify (and stimulate) what the pre-organizational environment (producer companies) can offer in terms of product orientation to effectively reduce correlated risk during use. Among the different options for possible treatment of risk, one involves the transfer of the assumption of risk to third parties (e.g., maintenance and quality controls). Transferring the responsibility for control operations to the operator of the instrument, which follows the quality controls with total autonomy, is equivalent to transferring the correlated risk for the clinician (in the POCT case) to the producer, who becomes the guarantor. In practice this is equivalent to a specific assurance stipulation with zero cost. PMID:17579531

  19. Enterprise Risk Management in the Oil and Gas Industry: An Analysis of Selected Fortune 500 Oil and Gas Companies' Reaction in 2009 and 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Violet C.; Ethridge, Jack R.

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, four of the top ten Fortune 500 companies were classified within the oil and gas industry. Organizations of this size typically have an advanced Enterprise Risk Management system in place to mitigate risk and to achieve their corporations' objectives. The companies and the article utilize the Enterprise Risk Management Integrated…

  20. Clinical outcomes in surgical and non-surgical management of hepatic portal venous gas

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Soo-Kyung; Park, Jong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) is a rare condition, with poor prognosis and a mortality rate of up to 75%. Indications for surgical and non-surgical management of HPVG including associated complications and mortality remain to be clarified. Methods From January 2008 to December 2014, 18 patients with HPVG diagnosed through abdominal computed tomography (CT) imaging were retrospectively identified. Clinical symptoms, laboratory data, underlying diseases, treatment, and mortality rate were analyzed. Patients were classified into 2 groups: surgical management recommended (SR, n=10) and conservative management (CM, n=8). The SR group was further subdivided into patients who underwent surgical management (SM-SR, n=5) and those who were managed conservatively (NS-SR, n=5). Results Conditions underlying HPVG included mesenteric ischemia (38.9%), intestinal obstruction (22.2%), enteritis (22.2%), duodenal ulcer perforation (5.6%), necrotizing pancreatitis (5.6%), and diverticulitis (5.6%). In terms of mortality, 2 patients (40%) died in the SM-SR group, 1 (12.5%) in the CM group, and 100% in the NS-SR group. Higher scores from Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II predicted the mortality rates of the NS-SR and CM groups. Conclusions Identification of HPVG requires careful consideration for surgical management. If surgical management is indicated, prompt laparotomy should be performed. However, even in the non-surgical management condition, aggressive laparotomy can improve survival rates for patients with high APACHE II scores. PMID:26693238

  1. Commitment to and preparedness for sustainable supply chain management in the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Wan Ahmad, Wan Nurul K; Rezaei, Jafar; Tavasszy, Lóránt A; de Brito, Marisa P

    2016-09-15

    Our current dependency on the oil and gas (O&G) industry for economic development and social activities necessitates research into the sustainability of the industry's supply chains. At present, studies on sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) practices in the industry do not include firm-internal factors that affect the sustainability strategies employed by different functional areas of its supply chains. Our study aims to address this gap by identifying the relevant internal factors and exploring their relationship with SSCM strategies. Specifically, we discuss the commitment to and preparedness for sustainable practices of companies that operate in upstream and downstream O&G supply chain. We study the impact of these factors on their sustainability strategies of four key supply chain functions: supplier management, production management, product stewardship and logistics management. The analyses of data collected through a survey among 81 companies show that management preparedness may enhance sustainable supply chain strategies in the O&G industry more than commitment does. Among the preparedness measures, management of supply chain operational risks is found to be vital to the sustainability of all supply chain functions except for production management practices. The findings also highlight the central importance of supplier and logistics management to the achievement of sustainable O&G supply chains. Companies must also develop an organizational culture that encourages, for example, team collaboration and proactive behaviour to finding innovative sustainability solutions in order to translate commitment to sustainable practices into actions that can produce actual difference to their SSCM practices. PMID:27233046

  2. Osteoporosis: Therapeutic Options.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Stefka; Vasileva, Liliya; Ivanova, Stanislava; Peikova, Lily; Obreshkova, Danka

    2016-01-01

    The definition of osteoporosis was originally formulated at a conference of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1993 as 'a systemic skeletal disease characterized by decreased bone mass and altered micro-architecture of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and risk of fractures'. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and loss of the structural and bio-mechanical properties that are required to maintain bone homeostasis. This review aims to address the currently available options in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Management of osteoporosis includes non-pharmacological treatment - diet rich of calcium and vitamin D, healthy lifestyle, proper exercise plan, and pharmacological therapy. Combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options have to be considered for prevention of osteoporosis and minimization of the risk of fractures. Given the heterogeneity of osteoporosis syndrome and lack of significant number of comparative studies, the choice of a pharmacological agents should be individualized. PMID:27180344

  3. Making real options really work.

    PubMed

    van Putten, Alexander B; MacMillan, Ian C

    2004-12-01

    As a way to value growth opportunities, real options have had a difficult time catching on with managers. Many CFOs believe the method ensures the overvaluation of risky projects. This concern is legitimate, but abandoning real options as a valuation model isn't the solution. Companies that rely solely on discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis underestimate the value of their projects and may fail to invest enough in uncertain but highly promising opportunities. CFOs need not--and should not--choose one approach over the other. Far from being a replacement for DCF analysis, real options are an essential complement, and a project's total value should encompass both. DCF captures a base estimate of value; real options take into account the potential for big gains. This is not to say that there aren't problems with real options. As currently applied, they focus almost exclusively on the risks associated with revenues, ignoring the risks associated with a project's costs. It's also true that option valuations almost always ignore assets that an initial investment in a subsequently abandoned project will often leave the company. In this article, the authors present a simple formula for combining DCF and option valuations that addresses these two problems. Using an integrated approach, managers will, in the long run, select better projects than their more timid competitors while keeping risk under control. Thus, they will outperform their rivals in both the product and the capital markets. PMID:15605572

  4. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Roald Wigeland; Temitope Taiwo; Michael Todosow; William Halsey; Jess Gehin

    2010-06-01

    A systematic evaluation has been conducted of the potential for advanced nuclear fuel cycle strategies and options to address the issues ascribed to the use of nuclear power. Issues included nuclear waste management, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics and affordability, and sustainability. The two basic strategies, once-through and recycle, and the range of possibilities within each strategy, are considered for all aspects of the fuel cycle including options for nuclear material irradiation, separations if needed, and disposal. Options range from incremental changes to today’s implementation to revolutionary concepts that would require the development of advanced nuclear technologies.

  5. Modeling the impact of development and management options on future water resource use in the Nyangores sub-catchment of the Mara Basin in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omonge, Paul; Herrnegger, Mathew; Fürst, Josef; Olang, Luke

    2016-04-01

    Despite the increasing water insecurity consequent of competing uses, the Nyangores sub-catchment of Kenya is yet to develop an inclusive water use and allocation plan for its water resource systems. As a step towards achieving this, this contribution employed the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) system to evaluate selected policy based water development and management options for future planning purposes. Major water resources of the region were mapped and quantified to establish the current demand versus supply status. To define a reference scenario for subsequent model projections, additional data on urban and rural water consumption, water demand for crop types, daily water use for existing factories and industries were also collated through a rigorous fieldwork procedure. The model was calibrated using the parameter estimation tool (PEST) and validated against observed streamflow data, and subsequently used to simulate feasible management options. Due to lack of up-to-date data for the current year, the year 2000 was selected as the base year for the scenario simulations up to the year 2030, which has been set by the country for realizing most flagship development projects. From the results obtained, the current annual water demand within the sub-catchment is estimated to be around 27.2 million m3 of which 24% is being met through improved and protected water sources including springs, wells and boreholes, while 76% is met through informal and unprotected sources which are insufficient to cater for future increases in demand. Under the reference scenario, the WEAP model predicted an annual total inadequate supply of 8.1 million m3 mostly in the dry season by the year 2030. The current annual unmet water demand is 1.3 million m3 and is noteworthy in the dry seasons of December through February at the irrigation demand site. The monthly unmet domestic demand under High Population Growth (HPG) was projected to be 1.06 million m3 by the year 2030. However

  6. A new Masters program in Greenhouse Gas Management and Accounting at Colorado State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conant, R. T.; Ogle, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Management guru Peter Drucker said that "what gets measured gets managed." But the unstated implication is that what doesn't get measured doesn't get managed. Accurate quantification of greenhouse gas mitigation efforts is central to the clean technology sector. Very soon professionals of all kinds (business people, accountants, lawyers) will need to understand carbon accounting and crediting. Over the next few decades food production is expected to double and energy production must triple in order to meet growing global demands; sustainable management of land use and agricultural systems will be critical. The food and energy supply challenges are inextricably linked to the challenge of limiting anthropogenic impacts on climate by reducing the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere. To avoid serious disruption of the climate system and stabilize GHG concentrations, society must move aggressively to avoid emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O and to actively draw down CO2 already in the atmosphere. A new cadre of technically adept professionals is needed to meet these challenges. We describe a new professional Masters degree in greenhouse gas management and accounting at Colorado State University. This effort leverages existing, internationally-recognized expertise from across campus and partners from agencies and industry, enabling students from diverse backgrounds to develop the skills needed to fill this emerging demand.

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions in a faba bean crop: incluence of management practices and cultivars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Navarro, Virginia; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Fernández, Juan

    2016-04-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of two cultivars of faba bean (Muchamiel and Palenca) with two different management practices (conventional and organic) on the direct emissions of N2O and CH4 during the crop cycle and their interaction with soil properties. The study was randomly designed in blocks with four replications, in plots of 10 m2. Faba bean crop spanned from 24 November 2014 to 2 March 2015. Gas samples were taken in different times (0, 30 and 60 minutes) once a week using the static gas chamber technique for crop cycle. The results showed that accumulated N2O was higher for both cultivars under conventional management practice with comparison to organic management, with an average increase of 18.27 mg m-2 in Muchamiel cultivar and 8.95 mg m-2 in Palenca cultivar. Accumulated CH4 was higher in Palenca cultivar under conventional management practice, with an average increase of 455.28 mg m-2 over this cultivar under organic management practice. We observed significant negative correlations between N2O emission and β-glucosaminidase activity, and between CH4 and sodium content in soil. In addition, CH4 emission showed a positive correlation with the enzyme activities arylesterase and cellulase. Acknowledgements: This research was financed by the FP7 European Project Eurolegume (FP7-KBBE- 613781).

  8. Simulation of gas and water management strategies in PEM fuel cells for UAV power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Nasir; Smith, Sonya

    2008-11-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) a involve a number of complex fluid phenomena that are not well understood. The focus of this research is to design a fuel cell that addresses the issues of gas and water management for the power requirements for an Unmanned Arial Vehicle (UAV). Often in conventional stack design, PEM fuel cells are connected electrically in series to create the desired voltage and feed from a common fuel or oxidant stream. This method of fueling, often leads to an uneven distribution of fluid within the stack, causing issues such as cell flooding, dehydration of membrane and inevitably poor fuel cell performance. Generally, fuel cell designers and developers incorporate higher stoichiometric gas flow rates and use flow field designs with high pressure drops in order to counter this phenomenon, ensuring even gas distribution. This method, although effective for water removal, leads to added cost and higher levels of wasted fuel. Using a simulation based approach we demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of an individual fuel and oxidant flow distribution, integrated with an individual sequential exhaust technique for a 6-8 cell stack which outputs 300-500 Watts of power. Using varied exhaust configurations the most optimal active gas management strategy will be outlined and recommended to give the best stack performance.

  9. Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Combustible Gas Management Leak Test Acceptance Criteria (OCRWM)

    SciTech Connect

    SHERRELL, D.L.

    2000-10-10

    The purpose of this document is to support the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project's combustible gas management strategy while avoiding the need to impose any requirements for oxygen free atmospheres within storage tubes that contain multi-canister overpacks (MCO). In order to avoid inerting requirements it is necessary to establish and confirm leak test acceptance criteria for mechanically sealed and weld sealed MCOs that are adequte to ensure that, in the unlikely event the leak test results for any MCO were to approach either of those criteria, it could still be handled and stored in stagnant air without compromising the SNF Project's overall strategy to prevent accumulation of combustible gas mixtures within MCOs or within their surroundings. To support that strategy, this document: (1) establishes combustible gas management functions and minimum functional requirements for the MCO's mechanical seals and closure weld(s); (2) establishes a maximum practical value for the minimum required initial MCO inert backfill gas pressure; and (3) based on items 1 and 2, establishes and confirms leak test acceptance criteria for the MCO's mechanical seal and final closure weld(s).

  10. The role of sustainable agriculture and renewable-resource management in reducing greenhouse-gas emissions and increasing sinks in China and India.

    PubMed

    Pretty, J N; Ball, A S; Xiaoyun, Li; Ravindranath, N H

    2002-08-15

    This paper contains an analysis of the technical options in agriculture for reducing greenhouse-gas emissions and increasing sinks, arising from three distinct mechanisms: (i) increasing carbon sinks in soil organic matter and above-ground biomass; (ii) avoiding carbon emissions from farms by reducing direct and indirect energy use; and (iii) increasing renewable-energy production from biomass that either substitutes for consumption of fossil fuels or replaces inefficient burning of fuelwood or crop residues, and so avoids carbon emissions, together with use of biogas digesters and improved cookstoves. We then review best-practice sustainable agriculture and renewable-resource-management projects and initiatives in China and India, and analyse the annual net sinks being created by these projects, and the potential market value of the carbon sequestered. We conclude with a summary of the policy and institutional conditions and reforms required for adoption of best sustainability practice in the agricultural sector to achieve the desired reductions in emissions and increases in sinks. A review of 40 sustainable agriculture and renewable-resource-management projects in China and India under the three mechanisms estimated a carbon mitigation potential of 64.8 MtC yr(-1) from 5.5 Mha. The potential income for carbon mitigation is $324 million at $5 per tonne of carbon. The potential exists to increase this by orders of magnitude, and so contribute significantly to greenhouse-gas abatement. Most agricultural mitigation options also provide several ancillary benefits. However, there are many technical, financial, policy, legal and institutional barriers to overcome. PMID:12460495

  11. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Optional SO2 Emissions Data Protocol for Gas-Fired and Oil-Fired Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... an SO2 continuous emission monitoring system. Complete all testing requirements no later than the... protocol no later than 45 days after the completion of all certification tests. 2. Procedure 2.1Fuel... Turbine Meters; American Gas Association Report No. 3, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas and Other...

  12. Customized Tapered Stent-Grafts in the Endovascular Management of Internal Iliac Artery Aneurysms: A Useful Adjunct to Conventional Endovascular Options

    SciTech Connect

    Haslam, J. Elizabeth Hardman, John; Horrocks, Michael; Fay, Dominic

    2009-01-15

    The endovascular exclusion of an isolated iliac artery aneurysm is recognized as a safe and favorable alternative to open surgical repair, with low associated morbidity and mortality. It has particular advantages in the treatment of internal iliac artery aneurysm (IIAA) given the technical difficulties associated with open surgical repair deep within the pelvis. We describe the use of customized tapered stent-grafts in the exclusion of wide-necked IIAA in five male patients considered high-risk for conventional surgical repair, in whom the common and external iliac artery morphology precluded the use of standard endovascular devices. In each case, IIAA outflow was selectively embolized and the aneurysm neck excluded by placement of a customized tapered stent-graft across the internal iliac artery origin. This technique was extremely effective, with 100% technical success, no serious associated morbidity, and zero mortality. In all five patients sac size was stable or reduced on computed tomography follow-up of up to 3 years (mean, 24.4 months), with a primary patency rate of 100%. We therefore advocate the use of customized tapered stent-grafts as a further endovascular option in the management of IIAA unsuitable for conventional endovascular repair.

  13. Emerging pests and diseases of South-east Asian cassava: a comprehensive evaluation of geographic priorities, management options and research needs.

    PubMed

    Graziosi, Ignazio; Minato, Nami; Alvarez, Elizabeth; Ngo, Dung Tien; Hoat, Trinh Xuan; Aye, Tin Maung; Pardo, Juan Manuel; Wongtiem, Prapit; Wyckhuys, Kris Ag

    2016-06-01

    Cassava is a major staple, bio-energy and industrial crop in many parts of the developing world. In Southeast Asia, cassava is grown on >4 million ha by nearly 8 million (small-scale) farming households, under (climatic, biophysical) conditions that often prove unsuitable for many other crops. While SE Asian cassava has been virtually free of phytosanitary constraints for most of its history, a complex of invasive arthropod pests and plant diseases has recently come to affect local crops. We describe results from a region-wide monitoring effort in the 2014 dry season, covering 429 fields across five countries. We present geographic distribution and field-level incidence of the most prominent pest and disease invaders, introduce readily-available management options and research needs. Monitoring work reveals that several exotic mealybug and (red) mite species have effectively colonised SE Asia's main cassava-growing areas, occurring in respectively 70% and 54% of fields, at average field-level incidence of 27 ± 2% and 16 ± 2%. Cassava witches broom (CWB), a systemic phytoplasma disease, was reported from 64% of plots, at incidence levels of 32 ± 2%. Although all main pests and diseases are non-natives, we hypothesise that accelerating intensification of cropping systems, increased climate change and variability, and deficient crop husbandry are aggravating both organism activity and crop susceptibility. Future efforts need to consolidate local capacity to tackle current (and future) pest invaders, boost detection capacity, devise locally-appropriate integrated pest management (IPM) tactics, and transfer key concepts and technologies to SE Asia's cassava growers. Urgent action is needed to mobilise regional as well as international scientific support, to effectively tackle this phytosanitary emergency and thus safeguard the sustainability and profitability of one of Asia's key agricultural commodities. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID

  14. Permitting program with best management practices for shale gas wells to safeguard public health.

    PubMed

    Centner, Terence J; Petetin, Ludivine

    2015-11-01

    The development of shale gas resources in the United States has been controversial as governments have been tardy in devising sufficient safeguards to protect both people and the environment. Alleged health and environmental damages suggest that other countries around the world that decide to develop their shale gas resources can learn from these problems and take further actions to prevent situations resulting in the release of harmful pollutants. Looking at U.S. federal regulations governing large animal operations under the permitting provisions of the Clean Water Act, the idea of a permitting program is proposed to respond to the risks of pollution by shale gas development activities. Governments can require permits before allowing the drilling of a new gas well. Each permit would include fluids and air emissions reduction plans containing best management practices to minimize risks and releases of pollutants. The public availability of permits and permit applications, as occurs for water pollution under various U.S. permitting programs, would assist governments in protecting public health. The permitting proposals provide governments a means for providing further assurances that shale gas development projects will not adversely affect people and the environment. PMID:26320010

  15. [Interventional neuroradiology: current options].

    PubMed

    Szikora, István; Marosfői, Miklós; Berentei, Zsolt; Gubucz, István

    2015-04-26

    Modern interventional neuroradiology has a leading role in the treatment of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, and it provides more and more important treatment options for degenerative diseases of the vertebral column and the management of correlated pain. During the last decades interventional neuroradiology has played a primary role in the treatment of intracranial berry aneurysms due to the continuous technical improvements. Ongoing studies proved superiority of mechanical stent-thrombectomy in acute proximal occlusion of cerebral arteries. Less invasive neurointerventional methods, such as vertebroplasty, are widely used in osteoporotic and neoplastic pathologic fractures of the vertebral bodies. These treatments should be performed in a specialized center by well trained physicians. PMID:26047151

  16. Fire management, managed relocation, and land conservation options for long-lived obligate seeding plants under global changes in climate, urbanization, and fire regime.

    PubMed

    Bonebrake, Timothy C; Syphard, Alexandra D; Franklin, Janet; Anderson, Kurt E; Akçakaya, H Resit; Mizerek, Toni; Winchell, Clark; Regan, Helen M

    2014-08-01

    Most species face multiple anthropogenic disruptions. Few studies have quantified the cumulative influence of multiple threats on species of conservation concern, and far fewer have quantified the potential relative value of multiple conservation interventions in light of these threats. We linked spatial distribution and population viability models to explore conservation interventions under projected climate change, urbanization, and changes in fire regime on a long-lived obligate seeding plant species sensitive to high fire frequencies, a dominant plant functional type in many fire-prone ecosystems, including the biodiversity hotspots of Mediterranean-type ecosystems. First, we investigated the relative risk of population decline for plant populations in landscapes with and without land protection under an existing habitat conservation plan. Second, we modeled the effectiveness of relocating both seedlings and seeds from a large patch with predicted declines in habitat area to 2 unoccupied recipient patches with increasing habitat area under 2 projected climate change scenarios. Finally, we modeled 8 fire return intervals (FRIs) approximating the outcomes of different management strategies that effectively control fire frequency. Invariably, long-lived obligate seeding populations remained viable only when FRIs were maintained at or above a minimum level. Land conservation and seedling relocation efforts lessened the impact of climate change and land-use change on obligate seeding populations to differing degrees depending on the climate change scenario, but neither of these efforts was as generally effective as frequent translocation of seeds. While none of the modeled strategies fully compensated for the effects of land-use and climate change, an integrative approach managing multiple threats may diminish population declines for species in complex landscapes. Conservation plans designed to mitigate the impacts of a single threat are likely to fail if additional

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Due to Improvement of Biodegradable Waste Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendere, R.; Teibe, I.; Arina, D.; Lapsa, J.

    2014-12-01

    To reduce emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) from landfills, the European Union (EU) Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC requires that there be a progressive decrease in the municipal biodegradable waste disposal. The main problem of waste management (WM) in Latvia is its heavy dependence on the waste disposal at landfills. The poorly developed system for the sorted municipal waste collection and the promotion of landfilling as a major treatment option led to the disposal of 84% of the total collected municipal waste in 2012, with a high biodegradable fraction. In Latvia, the volume of emissions due to activities of the WM branch was 5.23% (632.6 CO2 eq.) of the total GHG emissions produced in the National economy in 2010 (12 097 Gg CO2 eq., except the land use, land-use change and forestry). Having revised the current situation in the management of biodegradable waste in Latvia, the authors propose improvements in this area. In the work, analysis of environmental impact was carried out using Waste Management Planning System (WAMPS) software in the WM modelling scenarios. The software computes the emissions, energy and turnover of waste streams for the processes within the WM system such as waste collection and transportation, composting, anaerobic digestion, and the final disposal (landfilling or incineration). The results of WAMPS modelling are presented in four categories associated with the environmental impact: acidification, global warming, eutrophication and photo-oxidant formation, each characterised by a particular emission. These categories cover an integrated WM system, starting with the point when products turn to waste which is then thrown into the bin for waste at its generation source, and ending with the point where the waste transforms either into useful material (recycled material, biogas or compost) or contributes to emissions into environment after the final disposal at a landfill or an incineration plant Rakstā veikts pašvaldības bioloģiski no

  18. Chronic urticaria: new management options.

    PubMed

    Greenberger, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Chronic urticaria is defined as episodic or daily hives lasting for at least 6 weeks and impairs quality of life. Two main subtypes include chronic idiopathic (spontaneous) urticaria and inducible (physical) urticaria, but some patients have urticarial vasculitis. "Autoimmune chronic urticaria" implies the presence of histamine releasing or mast cell activating autoantibodies to IgE or FcϵRI, the high affinity receptor on mast cells and basophils. In patients not readily controlled with labeled dosages of second generation H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines), there is evidence for reduction of urticaria using up to 4 fold increases in labeled dosages. The biologic modifier, omalizumab, helps to reduce lesions of chronic urticaria within 1-2 weeks. PMID:25383135

  19. Simulating N2O emissions from irrigated cotton wheat rotations in Australia using DAYCENT: Mitigation options by optimized fertilizer and irrigation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Clemens; DelGrosso, Stephen; Parton, William; Rowlings, David; Grace, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Irrigation and fertilization do not only stimulate plant growth, but also accelerate microbial C- and N-turnover in the soil and thus can lead to enhanced emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) from soils. In Australia there are more than 2 million hectares of agricultural land under irrigation and research has now focused on a combination of nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation management to maintain crop yields, maximize nitrogen use efficiency and reduce N2O emissions. Process-based models are now being used to estimate N2O emissions and assess mitigation options of N2O fluxes by improving management at field, regional and national scales. To insure that model predictions are reliable it is important to rigorously test the model so that uncertainty bounds for N2O emissions can be reduced and the impacts of different management practices on emissions can be better quantified. We used high temporal frequency dataset of N2O emissions to validate the performance of the agroecosystem model DayCent to simulate daily N2O emissions from sub-tropical vertisols under different irrigation intensities. Furthermore, we evaluated potential N2O mitigation strategies in irrigated cotton-wheat rotations in Australia by simulating different fertilizer and irrigation management scenarios over a climatically variable 25 year time span. DayCent accurately predicted soil moisture dynamics and the timing and magnitude of high fluxes associated with fertilizer additions and irrigation events. At the daily scale we found a good correlation of predicted vs. measured N2O fluxes (r2 = 0.52), confirming that DayCent can be used to test agricultural practices for mitigating N2O emission from irrigated cropping systems. The simulations of different fertilization and irrigation practices in cotton-wheat rotations over a 25 year time frame clearly showed that there is scope for reducing N2O emissions by modified fertilizer and irrigation management. For wheat and for cotton the model predicted that a

  20. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussed are acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed ...

  1. A model of greenhouse gas emissions from the management of turf on two golf courses.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Mark D; James, Iain T

    2011-11-01

    An estimated 32,000 golf courses worldwide (approximately 25,600 km2), provide ecosystem goods and services and support an industry contributing over $124 billion globally. Golf courses can impact positively on local biodiversity however their role in the global carbon cycle is not clearly understood. To explore this relationship, the balance between plant–soil system sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions from turf management on golf courses was modelled. Input data were derived from published studies of emissions from agriculture and turfgrass management. Two UK case studies of golf course type were used, a Links course (coastal, medium intensity management, within coastal dune grasses) and a Parkland course (inland, high intensity management, within woodland).Playing surfaces of both golf courses were marginal net sources of greenhouse gas emissions due to maintenance (Links −2.2 ± 0.4 Mg CO2e ha(−1) y(−1); Parkland − 2.0 ± 0.4 Mg CO2e ha(−1) y(−1)). A significant proportion of emissions were from the use of nitrogen fertiliser, especially on tees and greens such that 3% of the golf course area contributed 16% of total greenhouse gas emissions. The area of trees on a golf course was important in determining whole-course emission balance. On the Parkland course, emissions from maintenance were offset by sequestration from turfgrass, and trees which comprised 48% of total area, resulting in a net balance of −5.4 ± 0.9 Mg CO2e ha(−1) y(−1). On the Links course, the proportion of trees was much lower (2%) and sequestration from links grassland resulted in a net balance of −1.6 ± 0.3 Mg CO2e ha(−1) y(−1). Recommendations for golf course management and design include the reduction of nitrogen fertiliser, improved operational efficiency when mowing, the inclusion of appropriate tree-planting and the scaling of component areas to maximise golf course sequestration capacity. The findings are transferrable to the management and design of

  2. A model of greenhouse gas emissions from the management of turf on two golf courses.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Mark D; James, Iain T

    2011-03-15

    An estimated 32,000 golf courses worldwide (approximately 25,600 km(2)), provide ecosystem goods and services and support an industry contributing over $ 124 billion globally. Golf courses can impact positively on local biodiversity however their role in the global carbon cycle is not clearly understood. To explore this relationship, the balance between plant-soil system sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions from turf management on golf courses was modelled. Input data were derived from published studies of emissions from agriculture and turfgrass management. Two UK case studies of golf course type were used, a Links course (coastal, medium intensity management, within coastal dune grasses) and a Parkland course (inland, high intensity management, within woodland). Playing surfaces of both golf courses were marginal net sources of greenhouse gas emissions due to maintenance (Links 0.4 ± 0.1Mg CO(2)e ha(-1)y(-1); Parkland 0.7 ± 0.2Mg CO(2)e ha(-1)y(-1)). A significant proportion of emissions were from the use of nitrogen fertiliser, especially on tees and greens such that 3% of the golf course area contributed 16% of total greenhouse gas emissions. The area of trees on a golf course was important in determining whole-course emission balance. On the Parkland course, emissions from maintenance were offset by sequestration from trees which comprised 48% of total area, resulting in a net balance of -4.3 ± 0.9 Mg CO(2e) ha(-1)y(-1). On the Links course, the proportion of trees was much lower (2%) and sequestration from links grassland resulted in a net balance of 0.0 ± 0.2Mg CO(2e) ha(-1)y(-1). Recommendations for golf course management and design include the reduction of nitrogen fertiliser, improved operational efficiency when mowing, the inclusion of appropriate tree-planting and the scaling of component areas to maximise golf course sequestration capacity. The findings are transferrable to the management and design of urban parks and gardens, which range

  3. Comparison of net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity affected by management practices in two dryland cropping sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the effect of management practices on net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) that account for all sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in dryland cropping systems. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of a combinat...

  4. Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS) for Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Imhoff; Ramin Yazdani; Don Augenstein; Harold Bentley; Pei Chiu

    2010-04-30

    Methane is an important contributor to global warming with a total climate forcing estimated to be close to 20% that of carbon dioxide (CO2) over the past two decades. The largest anthropogenic source of methane in the US is 'conventional' landfills, which account for over 30% of anthropogenic emissions. While controlling greenhouse gas emissions must necessarily focus on large CO2 sources, attention to reducing CH4 emissions from landfills can result in significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at low cost. For example, the use of 'controlled' or bioreactor landfilling has been estimated to reduce annual US greenhouse emissions by about 15-30 million tons of CO2 carbon (equivalent) at costs between $3-13/ton carbon. In this project we developed or advanced new management approaches, landfill designs, and landfill operating procedures for bioreactor landfills. These advances are needed to address lingering concerns about bioreactor landfills (e.g., efficient collection of increased CH4 generation) in the waste management industry, concerns that hamper bioreactor implementation and the consequent reductions in CH4 emissions. Collectively, the advances described in this report should result in better control of bioreactor landfills and reductions in CH4 emissions. Several advances are important components of an Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS).

  5. Examination of the relationship between project management critical success factors and project success of oil and gas drilling projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagba, Tonye J.

    Oil and gas drilling projects are the primary means by which oil companies recover large volumes of commercially available hydrocarbons from deep reservoirs. These types of projects are complex in nature, involving management of multiple stakeholder interfaces, multidisciplinary personnel, complex contractor relationships, and turbulent environmental and market conditions, necessitating the application of proven project management best practices and critical success factors (CSFs) to achieve success. Although there is some practitioner oriented literature on project management CSFs for drilling projects, none of these is based on empirical evidence, from research. In addition, the literature has reported alarming rates of oil and gas drilling project failure, which is attributable not to technical factors, but to failure of project management. The aim of this quantitative correlational study therefore, was to discover an empirically verified list of project management CSFs, which consistent application leads to successful implementation of oil and gas drilling projects. The study collected survey data online, from a random sample of 127 oil and gas drilling personnel who were members of LinkedIn's online community "Drilling Supervisors, Managers, and Engineers". The results of the study indicated that 10 project management factors are individually related to project success of oil and gas drilling projects. These 10 CSFs are namely; Project mission, Top management support, Project schedule/plan, Client consultation, Personnel, Technical tasks, Client acceptance, Monitoring and feedback, Communication, and Troubleshooting. In addition, the study found that the relationships between the 10 CSFs and drilling project success is unaffected by participant and project demographics---role of project personnel, and project location. The significance of these findings are both practical, and theoretical. Practically, application of an empirically verified CSFs list to oil

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from solid waste in Beijing: The rising trend and the mitigation effects by management improvements.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Wen

    2016-04-01

    Disposal of solid waste poses great challenges to city managements. Changes in solid waste composition and disposal methods, along with urbanisation, can certainly affect greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste. In this study, we analysed the changes in the generation, composition and management of municipal solid waste in Beijing. The changes of greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste management were thereafter calculated. The impacts of municipal solid waste management improvements on greenhouse gas emissions and the mitigation effects of treatment techniques of greenhouse gas were also analysed. Municipal solid waste generation in Beijing has increased, and food waste has constituted the most substantial component of municipal solid waste over the past decade. Since the first half of 1950s, greenhouse gas emission has increased from 6 CO2-eq Gg y(-1)to approximately 200 CO2-eq Gg y(-1)in the early 1990s and 2145 CO2-eq Gg y(-1)in 2013. Landfill gas flaring, landfill gas utilisation and energy recovery in incineration are three techniques of the after-emission treatments in municipal solid waste management. The scenario analysis showed that three techniques might reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 22.7%, 4.5% and 9.8%, respectively. In the future, if waste disposal can achieve a ratio of 4:3:3 by landfill, composting and incineration with the proposed after-emission treatments, as stipulated by the Beijing Municipal Waste Management Act, greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste will decrease by 41%. PMID:26873911

  7. Evolving shale gas management: water resource risks, impacts, and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Rahm, Brian G; Riha, Susan J

    2014-05-01

    Unconventional shale gas development promises to significantly alter energy portfolios and economies around the world. It also poses a variety of environmental risks, particularly with respect to the management of water resources. We review current scientific understanding of risks associated with the following: water withdrawals for hydraulic fracturing; wastewater treatment, discharge and disposal; methane and fluid migration in the subsurface; and spills and erosion at the surface. Some of these risks are relatively unique to shale gas development, while others are variations of risks that we already face from a variety of industries and activities. All of these risks depend largely on the pace and scale of development that occurs within a particular region. We focus on the United States, where the shale gas boom has been on-going for several years, paying particular attention to the Marcellus Shale, where a majority of peer-reviewed study has taken place. Governments, regulatory agencies, industry, and other stakeholders are challenged with responding to these risks, and we discuss policies and practices that have been adopted or considered by these various groups. Adaptive Management, a structured framework for addressing complex environmental issues, is discussed as a way to reduce polarization of important discussions on risk, and to more formally engage science in policy-making, along with other economic, social and value considerations. Data suggests that some risks can be substantially reduced through policy and best practice, but also that significant uncertainty persists regarding other risks. We suggest that monitoring and data collection related to water resource risks be established as part of planning for shale gas development before activity begins, and that resources are allocated to provide for appropriate oversight at various levels of governance. PMID:24664241

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from dairy manure management: a review of field-based studies.

    PubMed

    Owen, Justine J; Silver, Whendee L

    2015-02-01

    Livestock manure management accounts for almost 10% of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture globally, and contributes an equal proportion to the US methane emission inventory. Current emissions inventories use emissions factors determined from small-scale laboratory experiments that have not been compared to field-scale measurements. We compiled published data on field-scale measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from working and research dairies and compared these to rates predicted by the IPCC Tier 2 modeling approach. Anaerobic lagoons were the largest source of methane (368 ± 193 kg CH4 hd(-1) yr(-1)), more than three times that from enteric fermentation (~120 kg CH4 hd(-1) yr(-1)). Corrals and solid manure piles were large sources of nitrous oxide (1.5 ± 0.8 and 1.1 ± 0.7 kg N2O hd(-1) yr(-1), respectively). Nitrous oxide emissions from anaerobic lagoons (0.9 ± 0.5 kg N2O hd(-1) yr(-1)) and barns (10 ± 6 kg N2O hd(-1) yr(-1)) were unexpectedly large. Modeled methane emissions underestimated field measurement means for most manure management practices. Modeled nitrous oxide emissions underestimated field measurement means for anaerobic lagoons and manure piles, but overestimated emissions from slurry storage. Revised emissions factors nearly doubled slurry CH4 emissions for Europe and increased N2O emissions from solid piles and lagoons in the United States by an order of magnitude. Our results suggest that current greenhouse gas emission factors generally underestimate emissions from dairy manure and highlight liquid manure systems as promising target areas for greenhouse gas mitigation. PMID:25044806

  9. Science and Technology Development to Integrate Energy Production and Greenhouse Gas Management

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergast, D.

    2004-10-03

    This paper reviews the carbon cycle from the point of view of past and present human influence. Potential future human input to the cycle through science and technology to manage atmospheric greenhouse gas are considered. The review suggests that humans will need to ingeniously exploit even more energy to integrate its use with control of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Continuing development and application of energy is essential if the development of human society is to be sustained through the coming centuries. The continuing development of nuclear energy seems an essential energy supply component.

  10. Designing economic and legal mechanism of land management in oil and gas companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Pogharnitskaya, O. V.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2015-02-01

    The article deals with the problem of economic and legal relationship in the sphere of land management provided by Russian government. The gas pipeline construction serves as an example to analyze the problems connected with leasing of both federal and privately owned lands. Comparative analysis of costs made by Gazprom to lease the lands at the stage of construction has been conducted. It has been concluded that the government should regulate relationships within the land sector to harmonize the interests of the Federation and private landowners.

  11. Potential application of microsensor technology in radioactive waste management with emphasis on headspace gas detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Chad Edward; Thomas, Michael Loren; Wright, Jerome L.; Pohl, Phillip Isabio; Hughes, Robert Clark; Wang, Yifeng; McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Gao, Huizhen

    2004-09-01

    Waste characterization is probably the most costly part of radioactive waste management. An important part of this characterization is the measurements of headspace gas in waste containers in order to demonstrate the compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or transportation requirements. The traditional chemical analysis methods, which include all steps of gas sampling, sample shipment and laboratory analysis, are expensive and time-consuming as well as increasing worker's exposure to hazardous environments. Therefore, an alternative technique that can provide quick, in-situ, and real-time detections of headspace gas compositions is highly desirable. This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Potential Application of Microsensor Technology in Radioactive Waste Management with Emphasis on Headspace Gas Detection'. The objective of this project is to bridge the technical gap between the current status of microsensor development and the intended applications of these sensors in nuclear waste management. The major results are summarized below: {sm_bullet} A literature review was conducted on the regulatory requirements for headspace gas sampling/analysis in waste characterization and monitoring. The most relevant gaseous species and the related physiochemical environments were identified. It was found that preconcentrators might be needed in order for chemiresistor sensors to meet desired detection {sm_bullet} A long-term stability test was conducted for a polymer-based chemresistor sensor array. Significant drifts were observed over the time duration of one month. Such drifts should be taken into account for long-term in-situ monitoring. {sm_bullet} Several techniques were explored to improve the performance of sensor polymers. It has been demonstrated that freeze deposition of black carbon (CB)-polymer composite can effectively eliminate the so-called 'coffee ring

  12. Evaluation of management options for disposal of salt and trace element laden agricultural drainage water from the Fallon Indian Reservation, Fallon, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Tokunaga, Tetsu; Benson, S.

    1991-03-01

    This is the final report describing work performed on the Fallon Indian Reservation by the Earth Sciences Division at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during FY90. These investigations were initiated at the request of the United States Bureau of Reclamation in response to recent concerns regarding disposal of agriculture drainage water from the Reservation. The Reservation is transected by numerous irrigation and drainage canals, including the TJ Drain. Recent investigations by the US Fish and Wildlife Service have demonstrated that water in the TJ Drain is toxic to several aquatic indicator organisms, including bluegills, fathead minnows and daphnids. This information, coupled with recent die-offs of fish and birds, has lead to concern about continued discharge of TJ Drain water into local surface waters. In late 1990, plans for closing the TJ Drain and providing for alternative drainage were initiated. We aim to provide information for assessing options fro disposal of agricultural drainage water from the Reservation. In particular, our studies focuses on irrigation and drainage of lands currently serviced by the TJ Drain. Options for continued irrigation and drainage of the Reservation fall broadly into two categories: options that provide an alternative to drain water disposal into the SWMA; and options that include continuing the current practice of drain water disposal into the SWMA. Other options include elements of both of these alternatives. Additional discussion of specific options will follow a brief summary of the technical work supporting our assessment of drainage related issues at the Reservation. 67 refs., 57 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Special topics--Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: III. A review of animal management mitigation options.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N; Ott, T; Tricarico, J; Rotz, A; Waghorn, G; Adesogan, A; Dijkstra, J; Montes, F; Oh, J; Kebreab, E; Oosting, S J; Gerber, P J; Henderson, B; Makkar, H P S; Firkins, J L

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this review was to analyze published data on animal management practices that mitigate enteric methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from animal operations. Increasing animal productivity can be a very effective strategy for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of livestock product. Improving the genetic potential of animals through planned cross-breeding or selection within breeds and achieving this genetic potential through proper nutrition and improvements in reproductive efficiency, animal health, and reproductive lifespan are effective approaches for improving animal productivity and reducing GHG emission intensity. In subsistence production systems, reduction of herd size would increase feed availability and productivity of individual animals and the total herd, thus lowering CH4 emission intensity. In these systems, improving the nutritive value of low-quality feeds for ruminant diets can have a considerable benefit on herd productivity while keeping the herd CH4 output constant or even decreasing it. Residual feed intake may be a tool for screening animals that are low CH4 emitters, but there is currently insufficient evidence that low residual feed intake animals have a lower CH4 yield per unit of feed intake or animal product. Reducing age at slaughter of finished cattle and the number of days that animals are on feed in the feedlot can significantly reduce GHG emissions in beef and other meat animal production systems. Improved animal health and reduced mortality and morbidity are expected to increase herd productivity and reduce GHG emission intensity in all livestock production systems. Pursuing a suite of intensive and extensive reproductive management technologies provides a significant opportunity to reduce GHG emissions. Recommended approaches will differ by region and species but should target increasing conception rates in dairy, beef, and buffalo, increasing fecundity in swine and small ruminants, and reducing

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Dairy Manure Management: A Review of Field-based Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, J. J.; Silver, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    Dairy manure is a large potential source of agriculturally-derived greenhouse gases, but few studies have compared source locations or management strategies, nor evaluated how well emissions factors capture actual emission rates. We compiled published data on field-scale measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from working and research dairies and compared these to rates predicted by the IPCC Tier 2 approach. Greenhouse gas emissions varied by several orders of magnitude from all sources due to the heterogeneity of surface conditions and manure composition, the length of sampling, and the measurement technique. Anaerobic lagoons were the largest source of methane (1097 × 591 g hd-1 d-1), over twice that from enteric fermentation (~350 g hd-1 d-1). Corrals and manure piles were the largest sources of nitrous oxide. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from hardstandings and barn floors were negligible. Predicted methane emissions underestimated measured fluxes for slurry tanks, barns, and whole dairies. Predicted nitrous oxide emissions underestimated anaerobic lagoon fluxes but overestimated emissions from slurry tanks and barn floors. Refining these calculations requires: 1) within-site comparisons of measurement techniques, 2) multiple year data sets, 3) within-site comparisons across measurement scales, and 4) better metadata to constrain greenhouse gas emission models.

  15. Recent advances in the management of chronic stable angina II. Anti-ischemic therapy, options for refractory angina, risk factor reduction, and revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Kones, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The objectives in treating angina are relief of pain and prevention of disease progression through risk reduction. Mechanisms, indications, clinical forms, doses, and side effects of the traditional antianginal agents – nitrates, β-blockers, and calcium channel blockers – are reviewed. A number of patients have contraindications or remain unrelieved from anginal discomfort with these drugs. Among newer alternatives, ranolazine, recently approved in the United States, indirectly prevents the intracellular calcium overload involved in cardiac ischemia and is a welcome addition to available treatments. None, however, are disease-modifying agents. Two options for refractory angina, enhanced external counterpulsation and spinal cord stimulation (SCS), are presented in detail. They are both well-studied and are effective means of treating at least some patients with this perplexing form of angina. Traditional modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) – smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and obesity – account for most of the population-attributable risk. Individual therapy of high-risk patients differs from population-wide efforts to prevent risk factors from appearing or reducing their severity, in order to lower the national burden of disease. Current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines to lower risk in patients with chronic angina are reviewed. The Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation (COURAGE) trial showed that in patients with stable angina, optimal medical therapy alone and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with medical therapy were equal in preventing myocardial infarction and death. The integration of COURAGE results into current practice is discussed. For patients who are unstable, with very high risk, with left main coronary artery lesions, in whom medical therapy fails, and in those with acute coronary syndromes, PCI is indicated. Asymptomatic

  16. Herbicide options for effective weed management in dry direct-seeded rice under scented rice-wheat rotation of western Indo-Gangetic Plains

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vijay; Jat, Mangi L.; Ganie, Zahoor A.; Chauhan, Bhagirath S.; Gupta, Raj K.

    2016-01-01

    Farmers' participatory field trials were conducted at Madhuban, and Taraori, the two participatory experimental sites/locations of the Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia (CSISA), a collaborative project of IRRI and CIMMYT in Karnal district of Haryana, India, during Kharif (wet season) 2010 and 2011. This research aimed to evaluate preemergence (PRE) and postemergence (POST) herbicides for providing feasible and economically viable weed management options to farmers for predominant scented rice varieties. Treatments with pendimethalin PRE fb bispyribac-sodium + azimsulfuron POST had lower weed biomass at 45 days after sowing (DAS). At Madhuban, highest grain yield of scented basmati rice (3.43 t ha−1) was recorded with the sequential application of pendimethalin PRE fb bispyribac-sodium + azimsulfuron POST. However, at Taraori, yields were similar with pendimethalin or oxadiargyl PRE fb bispyribac-sodium and/or azimsulfuron POST. Applying oxadiargyl by mixing with sand onto flooded field was less effective than spray applications in non-flooded field. The benefit-cost ratio of rice crop was higher with herbicide treatments at both sites as compared with the non-treated weed-free check except single PRE and POST applications and sequential application of oxadiargyl PRE fb oxadiargyl PRE. In a separate experiment conducted at Nagla and Taraori sites, scented rice cultivars' ('CSR 30′ and 'Pusa 1121′) tolerance to three rates of azimsulfuron (15, 25, and 35 g ai ha−1) was evaluated over two years (2010 and 2011). CSR 30 (superfine, scented) was more sensitive to higher rates (35 g ai ha−1) of azimsulfuron as compared to Pusa 1121 (fine, scented). Crop injuries were 8 and 28% in case of CSR 30; 5 and 15% in Pusa 1121 when applied with azimsulfuron 25 and 35 g ai ha−1, respectively. Azimsulfuron applied at 35 g ai ha−1 reduced yield in both cultivars but in CSR 30 yield reduction was twofold (11.5%) as that of Pusa 1121 (5.2%). PMID

  17. Foreseen hydrological changes drive efforts to formulate water balance improvement measures as part of the management options of adaptation at Lake Balaton, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Gabor; Kutics, Karoly

    2013-04-01

    completed with a similar methodology applied in partner lakes of the EULAKES project. Based on the assessment through a participatory process involving a broad group of stakeholders the possible management options were gathered and tested as the alternatives to improve the water balance of the lake.

  18. Using participatory epidemiology to investigate management options and relative importance of tick-borne diseases amongst transhumant zebu cattle in Karamoja Region, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Byaruhanga, C; Oosthuizen, M C; Collins, N E; Knobel, D

    2015-12-01

    A participatory epidemiological (PE) study was conducted with livestock keepers in Moroto and Kotido districts, Karamoja Region, Uganda, between October and December 2013 to determine the management options and relative importance of tick-borne diseases (TBDs) amongst transhumant zebu cattle. Data collection involved 24 focus group discussions (each comprising 8-12 people) in 24 settlement areas (manyattas), key informant interviews (30), direct observation, a review of surveillance data, clinical examination, and laboratory confirmation of cases of TBDs. Methods used in group discussions included semi-structured interviews, simple ranking, pairwise ranking, matrix scoring, proportional piling and participatory mapping. The results of pairwise comparison showed the Ngakarimojong-named diseases, lokit (East Coast fever, ECF), lopid (anaplasmosis), loukoi (contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, CBPP), lokou (heartwater) and lokulam (babesiosis), were considered the most important cattle diseases in Moroto in that order, while ECF, anaplasmosis, trypanosomosis (ediit), CBPP and nonspecific diarrhoea (loleo) were most important in Kotido. Strong agreement between informant groups (Kendall's coefficient of concordance W=0.568 and 0.682; p<0.001) in pairwise ranking indicated that the diseases were a common problem in selected districts. East Coast fever had the highest median score for incidence (18% [range: 2, 33]) in Moroto, followed by anaplasmosis (17.5% [8,32]) and CBPP (9% [1,21]). Most animals that suffered from ECF, anaplasmosis, heartwater and babesiosis died, as the respective median scores for case fatality rates (CFR) were 89.5% (42, 100), 82.8% (63, 100), 66.7% (20, 100) and 85.7% (0, 100). In Kotido, diseases with high incidence scores were ECF (21% [6,32]), anaplasmosis (17% [10,33]) and trypanosomosis (8% [2,18]). The CFRs for ECF and anaplasmosis were 81.7% (44, 100) and 70.7% (48, 100), respectively. Matrix scoring revealed that disease indicators showed

  19. Achalasia: current treatment options.

    PubMed

    Familiari, Pietro; Greco, Santi; Volkanovska, Ance; Gigante, Giovanni; Cali, Anna; Boškoski, Ivo; Costamagna, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Achalasia is a rare esophageal motility disorder, characterized by impaired swallow-induced, lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation and defective esophageal peristalsis. Unfortunately, there are no etiological therapies for achalasia. Patients present with dysphagia, chest pain and regurgitation of undigested food, often leading to weight loss. The currently available treatments have the common aim of relieving symptoms by decreasing the pressure of the LES. This can be achieved with some medications, by inhibiting the cholinergic innervation (botulinum toxin), by stretching (endoscopic dilation) or cutting (surgery) the LES. Recently, other therapeutic options, including per-oral endoscopic myotomy have been developed and are gaining international consensus. The authors report on the benefits and weaknesses of the different therapies and provide an updated approach to the management of achalasia. PMID:26186641

  20. Does manure management affect the latent greenhouse gas emitting potential of livestock manures?

    PubMed

    Pratt, Chris; Redding, Matthew; Hill, Jaye; Jensen, Paul D

    2015-12-01

    With livestock manures being increasingly sought as alternatives to costly synthetic fertilisers, it is imperative that we understand and manage their associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here we provide the first dedicated assessment into how the GHG emitting potential of various manures responds to the different stages of the manure management continuum (e.g., from feed pen surface vs stockpiled). The research is important from the perspective of manure application to agricultural soils. Manures studied included: manure from beef feedpen surfaces and stockpiles; poultry broiler litter (8-week batch); fresh and composted egg layer litter; and fresh and composted piggery litter. Gases assessed were methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), the two principal agricultural GHGs. We employed proven protocols to determine the manures' ultimate CH4 producing potential. We also devised a novel incubation experiment to elucidate their N2O emitting potential; a measure for which no established methods exist. We found lower CH4 potentials in manures from later stages in their management sequence compared with earlier stages, but only by a factor of 0.65×. Moreover, for the beef manures this decrease was not significant (P<0.05). Nitrous oxide emission potential was significantly positively (P<0.05) correlated with C/N ratios yet showed no obvious relationship with manure management stage. Indeed, N2O emissions from the composted egg manure were considerably (13×) and significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of the fresh egg manure. Our study demonstrates that manures from all stages of the manure management continuum potentially entail significant GHG risk when applied to arable landscapes. Efforts to harness manure resources need to account for this. PMID:26320816