Science.gov

Sample records for gas pipeline influence

  1. Influence of the key parameters of suspended structures on the inherent frequency of oil and gas pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, S. Y.; Liu, Q. Y.; Wang, G. R.; Jiang, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    Inherent frequency is an important parameter that reflects the dynamic stability of fluid-conveying pipelines. In engineering applications, the inherent frequency of pipelines is usually increased to improve their dynamic stability. The flow velocity and pressure of oil and gas pipelines cannot be altered freely. Among all of the parameters that affect the inherent frequency of suspended pipelines, the flexural stiffness of the stiffening girder, the tensile force of the cable system, and the pipe-axial precompression force are the most important. Revealing the influence laws of these three parameters could provide theoretical support for engineering designs. In this paper, a suspended crossing pipeline project was simplified as a Hetenyi's elastic foundation model. The flexural stiffness of the stiffening girder and the tensile force of the cable system were simplified as the foundation parameters G and K, respectively. The influence regularities of G, K, and the pipe-axial precompression force T on the pipeline inherent frequency were analyzed. According to the numerical simulation results, the ranks of these three parameters in descending order of importance were G, T, and K. During construction, G should be increased as much as possible. If the inherent frequency needs to be improved while pipelines have already been built up, it should be firstly considered to increase T, to values higher than zero if possible. On this basis, the further improvement of K could achieve a better result.

  2. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies

  3. Mechanics of buried chilled gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Selvadurai, A.P.S.; Hu, J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper examines the factors influencing the modelling of soil-pipeline interaction for a pipeline which is used to transport chilled gas. The soil-pipeline interaction is induced by the generation of discontinuous frost heave at a boundary between soils with differing frost susceptibility. The three-dimensional modelling takes into consideration the time-dependent evolution of frost heave due to moisture migration, the creep and elastic behavior of the frozen soil and flexural behavior of the embedded pipeline. The results of the computational model are compared with experimental results obtained from the frost heave induced soil-pipeline interaction test performed at the full scale test facilities in Caen, France.

  4. Recession curbs gas pipeline construction costs

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.M.

    1983-01-24

    This paper shows how after 5 yrs. of inflation, gas pipeline construction costs have finally felt the effects of a severe building recession. First quarter (1982) construction activity, compressor equipment and drive units, and high-pressure gas-station piping are discussed. Graphs of OGJ-Morgan composite gas pipeline cost, and gas pipeline cost component indexes are presented.

  5. California Natural Gas Pipelines: A Brief Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Neuscamman, Stephanie; Price, Don; Pezzola, Genny; Glascoe, Lee

    2013-01-22

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the general configuration and operation of the natural gas pipelines in California and to discuss potential LLNL contributions that would support the Partnership for the 21st Century collaboration. First, pipeline infrastructure will be reviewed. Then, recent pipeline events will be examined. Selected current pipeline industry research will be summarized. Finally, industry acronyms are listed for reference.

  6. Drag reduction method for gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Lowther, F.E.

    1990-09-25

    This patent describes a method of reducing drag for a gas flowing in a pipeline between a first point and a second point. It comprises: inputting gas at a constant pressure into the pipeline at the first point to establish gas flow in the pipeline between the first and second points; injecting a drag reducer into the gas flow at the first point; monitoring the flowrate of the gas at the second point; and adjusting the injection rate of the drag reducer at the first point until a maximum flowrate of the gas is reached at the second point.

  7. Mubarek gas pipeline tribute to team effort

    SciTech Connect

    Reggio, R.; Haun, R.

    1993-09-01

    This paper reviews the engineering and design work along with the installation procedures for a Persian Gulf natural gas pipeline. OPMI Ltd., a joint venture of Offshore Pipelines, Inc., Houston, and Maritime Industrial Services Co., Ltd., United Arab Emirates (UAE), successfully completed this 57.4 mile, 16-inch gas export pipeline for Consolidated Transmissions Inc. The pipeline begins at a platform in the Mubarek field offshore Sharjah, UAE, and runs to a beach termination at the Dugas treatment plant, Jebel Ali, Dubai. The paper describes the site preparation required for installation of the pipeline along with the specific design of the pipeline itself to deal with corrosion, welding processes, condensate dropout, and temperature gradients.

  8. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  9. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  10. Natural Gas Pipeline and System Expansions

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    This special report examines recent expansions to the North American natural gas pipeline network and the nature and type of proposed pipeline projects announced or approved for construction during the next several years in the United States. It includes those projects in Canada and Mexico that tie in with U.S. markets or projects.

  11. 78 FR 70623 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... published on April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http://docketsinfo.dot.gov . Docket: For... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous...

  12. Chemical cleaning of oil and gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, M.B.; Trahan, D.O.

    1997-05-01

    In the pipeline industry, increased awareness of flow inhibiting sediments and deposits, are producing new developments in the field of chemical cleaning. The Pipeline Service Industry recognized the need for an improved method of cleaning oil, gas, and product pipelines; bringing about the development of several environmentally preferable chemical cleaning agents, possessing unique physical properties and service capabilities. These products are specially developed to be nonhazardous and environmentally friendly, both to pipeline workers and to the surrounding environment. The products are formulated using new cleaning chemistry technology to improve the cleaning of oil and gas pipelines. The products are highly concentrated liquid blends of biodegradable surfactant and synthetic solvents, capable of wetting and removing the most tenacious line deposits encountered in oil and gas pipelines. During the early years of oil industry, pipelines were cleaned by using crudely constructed pigging devices. These pigs were most often made on site from available materials, usually consisting nothing more than straw wrapped with barbed wire, rags, or pieces of leather bundled together. Since those early days, the technique of making pigs has come a long way. Companies involved in the design and construction of pigs have perfected their methods of construction, improving the performance of their products. Today, it is estimated that there are over 350 different types of pipeline pig designated for use in cleaning oil and gas pipelines. It has been found that the proper application of cleaning products used in conjunction with pipeline pigs, results in the removal of substantial volumes of sediment, not previously possible with the application of pipeline pigs alone.

  13. New Journal index will measure gas pipeline inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.M.

    1982-09-20

    This article marks the start of a new pipeline cost index, for gas pipelines. Its objective is to complement the Journal's oil pipeline cost index, started with the Nov. 19, 1979 issue. This new gas pipeline cost index will be published quarterly, as will the OGJ MORGAN Oil Pipeline Cost Index.

  14. Drag reduction method for gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.H.

    1991-06-04

    This paper describes a method for reducing dray on a gas flowing in a gas pipeline. It comprises: injecting a drag reducer into the gas pipeline wherein the drag reducer is selected from a class of chemical compounds which are comprised of molecules having a polar group forming one end thereof which bonds with the inner wall of the pipeline and a non-polar group forming the other end which smoothes the gas-solid interface between the wall and the flowing gas thereby reducing gas turbulence therebetween wherein the drag reducer is a fatty acid amine and wherein the polar group is comprised of an amine and the non-polar group is comprised of a long-chain hydrocarbon.

  15. Pipeline issues shape southern FSU oil, gas development

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-22

    To future production from southern republics of the former Soviet Union (FSU), construction and revitalization of pipelines are as important as the supply of capital. Export capacity will limit production and slow development activity in the region until new pipelines are in place. Plenty of pipeline proposals have come forward. The problem is politics, which for every proposal so far complicates routing or financing or both. Russia has made clear its intention to use pipeline route decisions to retain influence in the region. As a source of external pressure, it is not alone. Iran and Turkey also have made strong bids for the southern FSU`s oil and gas transport business. Diplomacy thus will say as much as commerce does about how transportation issues are settled and how quickly the southern republics move toward their potentials to produce oil and gas. The paper discusses possible routes and the problems with them, the most likely proposal, and future oil flows.

  16. Corrosion cracking of gas-carrying pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, K.; Shaukat, A.; Hassan, F.

    1989-02-01

    Samples of soil and other materials adhering to the outer and inner surfaces of pipeline coatings, and pieces of rupture pipe were studied to investigate causes of gas-carrying pipeline failures in Pakistan. Chemical analysis of the ruptured pipe shows the pipeline steel had no material flaw. X-ray diffraction studies of the soil reveal that it contains clay and nonclay minerals normally found. The material adhering to the coating facing the pipeline surface contains carbonates and bicarbonates of sodium, namely, nahcolite and trona. This study shows that nahcolite and trona, as products of cathodic protection that were then synthesized in the vicinity of the pipeline surface, could have attacked the pipe surface over the years and caused corrosion.

  17. Fracture control technology for natural gas pipelines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eiber, R.J.; Bubenik, T.A.; Maxey, W.A.

    1993-12-01

    The fracture defect tolerance and fracture arrest characteristics of natural gas pipelines are key elements in assuring a pipeline`s integrity. Research results on fracture control in pipelines as developed by the Pipeline Research Committee (PRC) of the American Gas Association are presented in this report. In addition and perhaps more importantly, the fracture control measures have been assembled into a fracture control plan complete with examples for existing and new pipelines. The fracture control plan contains requirements to assure that a pipeline can tolerate large defects before leaks or ruptures occur. It also contains requirements to control the length of a fracture as a secondary level of control. Fracture control procedures are presented for new lines and existing lines. These procedures provide guidance on line-pipe specifications, operational modifications, and the use of crack arrestors. The objective of this report is to produce one document that covers all of the fracture control methods developed for pipelines by the PRC. The fracture control approaches do not cover all factors that influence defects and defect tolerances of pipelines. Rather, the approaches address flaw tolerances as a function of operating conditions and material properties, such as steel toughness. The report is divided into three sections. This first section defines basic terminology, describes how fracture control fits into an operator`s overall assurance plan for pipeline integrity, and discusses general philosophies of fracture control. The remaining two sections describe fracture initiation control and fracture propagation control. Background information needed to understand the fracture concepts is presented in each of the sections. Example problems are presented in the appendices along with computer programs to facilitate the application of the fracture control plans.

  18. Stress analysis of parallel oil and gas steel pipelines in inclined tunnels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaonan; Lu, Hongfang; Wu, Shijuan

    2015-01-01

    Geological conditions along long distance pipelines are complex. In consideration of differences in elevation and terrain obstacles, long distance pipelines are commonly laid through tunnels. Oil and gas pipelines are often laid side by side to reduce construction costs and minimize geological impact. The layout and construction of parallel oil and gas pipelines are more complex than those of single pipelines. In order to reduce safety hazards, it is necessary to carry out stress analysis of the oil and gas pipelines that run through tunnels. In this study, a stress analysis model of pipelines running through a tunnel was developed. On the basis of the finite element method, CAESAR II software was used to analyze the stress and displacement of a section of parallel oil and gas pipelines that run through tunnels and stress and displacement distribution laws were drawn from the analyses. A study of the factors influencing stress recommended that: (1) The buttress interval of the parallel oil and gas pipelines in a tunnel should be 12 m; (2) The angle of inclined pipelines should be no greater than 25°; (3) The stress of oil pipelines enhances more obviously than that of gas pipelines under earthquake action; (4) The average stress can be reduced by adopting "ladder" laying; and (5) Guide bend can be set at the tunnel entrance and exit in order to reduce the stress. PMID:26543793

  19. 78 FR 41496 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Gas and Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ..., 2000, (65 FR 19477) or view the Privacy Notice at http://www.regulations.gov before submitting any such... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Gas and Liquid... Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee (LPAC) also known as the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline...

  20. Microwave Radar Detection of Gas Pipeline Leaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalsami, N.; Kanareykin, D. B.; Asanov, V.; Bakhtiari, S.; Raptis, A. C.

    2003-03-01

    We are developing a microwave radar sensing and imaging system to detect and locate gas leaks in natural gas pipelines. The underlying detection principle is radar backscattering from the index-of-refraction inhomogeneities introduced by the dispersion of methane in air. An essential first step in the development effort is modeling to estimate the radar cross section. This paper describes the modeling results and the experimental efforts underway to validate the model. For the case of leaks from small holes in a pressurized gas pipeline, we modeled the gas dynamics of the leak jet to determine the plume geometry and the variation of methane concentration in air as a function of distance from the leak source. From the static and dynamic changes in the index of refraction in the turbulent plume, the radar backscatter cross sections were calculated. The results show that the radar cross sections of the leak plumes should be detectable by special-purpose radars.

  1. Expansion of the U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Network

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    Additions in 2008 and Projects through 2011. This report examines new natural gas pipeline capacity added to the U.S. natural gas pipeline system during 2008. In addition, it discusses and analyzes proposed natural gas pipeline projects that may be developed between 2009 and 2011, and the market factors supporting these initiatives.

  2. 75 FR 9197 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application February 19, 2010. Take notice that on February 9, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street... application may be directed to Thomas G. Joyce, Manager, Certificates, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company,...

  3. 76 FR 18747 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on March 9, 2011, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), filed an application in Docket No. CP11-133... transportation services provided to shippers on the interstate pipeline systems owned by National Fuel Gas...

  4. 75 FR 27332 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application May 6, 2010. Take notice that on April 30, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston... this application should be directed to Susan T. Halbach, Senior Counsel, Tennessee Gas Pipeline...

  5. 77 FR 34123 - Pipeline Safety: Public Meeting on Integrity Management of Gas Distribution Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... published on December 4, 2009, (74 FR 63906). The rule required that operators of gas distribution pipelines... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Public Meeting on Integrity... jointly sponsoring a public meeting on Implementing Integrity Management of Gas Distribution...

  6. Gas supplies of interstate/natural gas pipeline companies 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-18

    This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas during calendar year 1989, for use by the FERC for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to other Government agencies, the natural gas industry, as well as policy makers, analysts, and consumers interested in current levels of interstate supplies of natural gas and trends over recent years. 5 figs., 18 tabs.

  7. Landfill gas boosted to pipeline quality

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    The world's largest landfill recovery facility, located on Staten Island, went on stream in 1982 and is expected to produce 1.3 billion CF/yr of pipeline gas. Containing 45% carbon dioxide, the gas is compressed and cooled in stages to meet the requirements of the Selexol purification plant. Two 1120-kW (1500-hp) Copper Bessemer GMVS-8C integral gas engine-compressors, fueled by the landfill gas, provide the compression needed from the wells to the final solvent-contact stage.

  8. Natural gas pipeline leaks across Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Robert B; Down, Adrian; Phillips, Nathan G; Ackley, Robert C; Cook, Charles W; Plata, Desiree L; Zhao, Kaiguang

    2014-01-01

    Pipeline safety in the United States has increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17 fatalities and $133 M in property damage annually. Natural gas leaks are also the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. To reduce pipeline leakage and increase consumer safety, we deployed a Picarro G2301 Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a car, mapping 5893 natural gas leaks (2.5 to 88.6 ppm CH4) across 1500 road miles of Washington, DC. The δ(13)C-isotopic signatures of the methane (-38.2‰ ± 3.9‰ s.d.) and ethane (-36.5 ± 1.1 s.d.) and the CH4:C2H6 ratios (25.5 ± 8.9 s.d.) closely matched the pipeline gas (-39.0‰ and -36.2‰ for methane and ethane; 19.0 for CH4/C2H6). Emissions from four street leaks ranged from 9200 to 38,200 L CH4 day(-1) each, comparable to natural gas used by 1.7 to 7.0 homes, respectively. At 19 tested locations, 12 potentially explosive (Grade 1) methane concentrations of 50,000 to 500,000 ppm were detected in manholes. Financial incentives and targeted programs among companies, public utility commissions, and scientists to reduce leaks and replace old cast-iron pipes will improve consumer safety and air quality, save money, and lower greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:24432903

  9. Natural Gas Pipeline Network: Changing and Growing

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    This chapter focuses upon the capabilities of the national natural gas pipeline network, examining how it has expanded during this decade and how it may expand further over the coming years. It also looks at some of the costs of this expansion, including the environmental costs which may be extensive. Changes in the network as a result of recent regional market shifts are also discussed.

  10. Upgraded SCADA for Yugoslav main gas pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Atlagic, B.S.; Kovacevic, V.V.; Maruna, V.S.; Mihic, V.M.; Adjanski, B.D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the configuration of a SCADA based telemetry system for the main Yugoslav gas pipeline network. A central supervising SCADA station is realized by using reliable industrial PC stations interconnected via a LAN. The key features of this SCADA are open architecture, hot stand-by, an effective MMI subsystem and an information link to the Enterprise Information System. In order to achieve better supervision and control over the gas-transport process, basic SCADA functions are supplemented with a decision support system based on trend analysis and a steady-state simulation model.

  11. 76 FR 70953 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... August 25, 2011, (76 FR 53086) PHMSA published in the Federal Register an Advance Notice of Proposed... by email at mike.israni@dot.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On August 25, 2011, (76 FR 53086), PHMSA... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 192 RIN 2137-AE72 Pipeline...

  12. 75 FR 18190 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application April 2, 2010. Take notice that on March 30, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston... Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, requesting authorization to abandon...

  13. 75 FR 38801 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application June 24, 2010. Take notice that on June 11, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston... Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, requesting authorization to abandon...

  14. 75 FR 53281 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application August 24, 2010. On August 12, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) an application under section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act and section 157 of...

  15. 76 FR 19338 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on March 18, 2011, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed an application in Docket No. CP11-142-000 pursuant to section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act...

  16. 76 FR 22093 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application On March 31, 2011, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) an application under section 7(c) of the Natural Gas...

  17. 75 FR 74705 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application November 24, 2010. Take notice that on November 12, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana... the Natural Gas Act for a certificate of public convenience and necessity to construct, and...

  18. 75 FR 74027 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application November 23, 2010. Take notice that on November 17, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana...) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) for authorization to construct a new 2,000 horsepower compressor...

  19. 75 FR 80483 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application December 15, 2010. Take notice that on December 13, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana... Natural Gas Act (NGA) and the Commission's regulations, an application for authority to convey...

  20. 75 FR 82378 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application December 22, 2010. Take notice that on December 15, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana... the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and the Commission Regulations, for authorization to abandon by sale...

  1. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Pridgen, V.

    1984-11-01

    This report provides information on the total reserves, production, and deliverability capabilities of the 86 interstate pipeline companies required to file the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Form 15, Interstate Pipeline's Annual Report of Gas Supply. Total dedicated domestic gas reserves, owned by or under contract to the interstate pipeline companies, decreased in 1983 by 4.2 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), or 4.3%, from 98.7 Tcf at the beginning of the year to 94.5 Tcf at the end of the year. A 5-year tabulation shows that dedicated domestic gas reserves increased slightly from 94.0 Tcf at the beginning of 1979 to 94.5 Tcf at the end of 1983, an increase of 0.5 Tcf, or 0.5%. Total gas purchased and produced from the dedicated domestic gas reserves in 1983 was 9.5 Tcf, down 13.1% from the 10.9 Tcf reported in the preceding year. The 1983 ratio of total dedicated domestic reserves to production was 10.0, significantly above the 9.0 ratio reported for 1982. Net revisions to dedicated domestic gas reserves during 1983 are calculated at -0.5 Tcf, as compared to 1.4 Tcf in 1982. Total interstate reserve additions during 1983 are reported to be 5.8 Tcf, compared to additions of 9.9 Tcf in 1982. Total natural gas imported by interstate pipeline companies from two foreign sources, Canada and Mexico, was 0.8 Tcf, 7.4% of the total gas produced and purchased in 1983. Imports of LNG from Algeria totaled only 0.09 Tcf. Total deliveries are projected to decline from 12.9 Tcf in 1984 to 7.1 Tcf by 1988. This decline is driven by the projected decline in domestic reserve deliverability. Deliveries from foreign and other sources are expected to remain relatively constant over the 5-year period. 8 figures, 18 tables.

  2. 78 FR 28837 - Acadian Gas Pipeline System; Notice of Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Acadian Gas Pipeline System; Notice of Petition Take notice that on May 6, 2013, Acadian Gas Pipeline System (Acadian) filed to revise the Statement of Operating...

  3. 78 FR 13659 - Sierrita Gas Pipeline LLC; Notice OF Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... February 7, 2013, Sierrita Gas Pipeline LLC (Sierrita), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944..., Sierrita Gas Pipeline LLC, P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944, by telephone at (719) 667-7517... 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944, by telephone at (719) 520-4227, by facsimile at (719)...

  4. 78 FR 13658 - Sierrita Gas Pipeline LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... February 8, 2013, Sierrita Gas Pipeline LLC (Sierrita), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944..., Sierrita Gas Pipeline LLC, P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944, by telephone at (719) 667-7517... 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944, by telephone at (719) 520-4227, by facsimile at (719)...

  5. Comprehensive investigation into historical pipeline construction costs and engineering economic analysis of Alaska in-state gas pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Zhenhua

    overrun rates for compressor station material, labor, miscellaneous, land, and total costs are 3%, 60%, 2%, -14%, and 11%, respectively, and cost overruns for cost components are influenced by location and year of completion to different degrees. Monte Carlo models are developed and simulated to evaluate the feasibility of an Alaska in-state gas pipeline by assigning triangular distribution of the values of economic parameters. Simulated results show that the construction of an Alaska in-state natural gas pipeline is feasible at three scenarios: 500 million cubic feet per day (mmcfd), 750 mmcfd, and 1000 mmcfd.

  6. Field tests of probes for detecting internal corrosion of natural gas transmission pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Cayard, Michael S.; Kane, Russell D.; Meidinger, Brian

    2005-01-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of electrochemical corrosion rate (ECR) probes for detecting corrosion in environments similar to those found in natural gas transmission pipelines. Results and interpretation will be reported from four different field tests. Flange and flush-mount probes were used in four different environments at a gas-gathering site and one environment but two different orientations at a natural gas plant. These sites were selected to represent normal and upset conditions in a gas transmission pipeline. The environments consisted of 2 different levels of humidified natural gas/organic/water mixtures removed from natural gas, and the environments at the 6 and 12 o'clock positions of a natural gas pipeline carrying 2-phase gas/liquid flow. Data are also presented comparing the ECR probe data to that for coupons used to determine corrosion rate and to detect the presence of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC).

  7. 76 FR 53086 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... example, the records indicated that pipe in the area was 30-inch diameter seamless pipe, whereas pipe... diameter, wall thickness, grade, and seam type; pipe coating; girth weld coating; maximum operating.... On October 18, 2010 (75 FR 63774) PHMSA published an ANPRM titled ``Pipeline Safety: Safety of...

  8. 78 FR 34703 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Distribution Annual Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Distribution Annual Report AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration...

  9. 75 FR 5244 - Pipeline Safety: Integrity Management Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... final rule published December 4, 2009 (74 FR 63906), is correctly revised from February 2, 2010, to... INFORMATION: In FR Doc. E9-28467 appearing on page 63906 in the Federal Register of Friday, December 4, 2009...: Integrity Management Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines; Correction AGENCY: Pipeline and...

  10. 76 FR 18750 - Humble Gas Pipeline Company; Cobra Pipeline Ltd.; Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Humble Gas Pipeline Company; Cobra Pipeline Ltd.; Notice of Baseline Filings Take notice that on March 28, 2011, the applicants listed above submitted a revised baseline filing...

  11. Virtual Pipeline System Testbed to Optimize the U.S. Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline System

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Prakash Krishniswami; Virg Wallentine; Mohammed Abbaspour; Revathi Ranganathan; Ravi Addanki; Jeet Sengupta; Liubo Chen

    2005-06-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a Virtual Pipeline System Testbed (VPST) for natural gas transmission. This study uses a fully implicit finite difference method to analyze transient, nonisothermal compressible gas flow through a gas pipeline system. The inertia term of the momentum equation is included in the analysis. The testbed simulate compressor stations, the pipe that connects these compressor stations, the supply sources, and the end-user demand markets. The compressor station is described by identifying the make, model, and number of engines, gas turbines, and compressors. System operators and engineers can analyze the impact of system changes on the dynamic deliverability of gas and on the environment.

  12. 25 CFR 169.25 - Oil and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Oil and gas pipelines. 169.25 Section 169.25 Indians....25 Oil and gas pipelines. (a) The Act of March 11, 1904 (33 Stat. 65), as amended by the Act of March 2, 1917 (39 Stat. 973; 25 U.S.C. 321), authorizes right-of-way grants for oil and gas...

  13. 25 CFR 169.25 - Oil and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oil and gas pipelines. 169.25 Section 169.25 Indians....25 Oil and gas pipelines. (a) The Act of March 11, 1904 (33 Stat. 65), as amended by the Act of March 2, 1917 (39 Stat. 973; 25 U.S.C. 321), authorizes right-of-way grants for oil and gas...

  14. 25 CFR 169.25 - Oil and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oil and gas pipelines. 169.25 Section 169.25 Indians....25 Oil and gas pipelines. (a) The Act of March 11, 1904 (33 Stat. 65), as amended by the Act of March 2, 1917 (39 Stat. 973; 25 U.S.C. 321), authorizes right-of-way grants for oil and gas...

  15. 25 CFR 169.25 - Oil and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oil and gas pipelines. 169.25 Section 169.25 Indians....25 Oil and gas pipelines. (a) The Act of March 11, 1904 (33 Stat. 65), as amended by the Act of March 2, 1917 (39 Stat. 973; 25 U.S.C. 321), authorizes right-of-way grants for oil and gas...

  16. 25 CFR 169.25 - Oil and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oil and gas pipelines. 169.25 Section 169.25 Indians....25 Oil and gas pipelines. (a) The Act of March 11, 1904 (33 Stat. 65), as amended by the Act of March 2, 1917 (39 Stat. 973; 25 U.S.C. 321), authorizes right-of-way grants for oil and gas...

  17. Cost leveling continues; planned activity drops sharply in US gas pipeline cnstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.M.

    1986-02-01

    Natural gas pipeline construction costs, as measured by the OGJ-Morgan Pipeline cost index for US gas-pipeline construction, barely crept up in the second quarter 1985. Construction activity for lines and compressor stations was down.

  18. Virtual Instrumentation Corrosion Controller for Natural Gas Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, J.; Agnihotri, G.; Deshpande, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Corrosion is an electrochemical process. Corrosion in natural gas (methane) pipelines leads to leakages. Corrosion occurs when anode and cathode are connected through electrolyte. Rate of corrosion in metallic pipeline can be controlled by impressing current to it and thereby making it to act as cathode of corrosion cell. Technologically advanced and energy efficient corrosion controller is required to protect natural gas pipelines. Proposed virtual instrumentation (VI) based corrosion controller precisely controls the external corrosion in underground metallic pipelines, enhances its life and ensures safety. Designing and development of proportional-integral-differential (PID) corrosion controller using VI (LabVIEW) is carried out. When the designed controller is deployed at field, it maintains the pipe to soil potential (PSP) within safe operating limit and not entering into over/under protection zone. Horizontal deployment of this technique can be done to protect all metallic structure, oil pipelines, which need corrosion protection.

  19. 78 FR 53745 - Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP; Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP; Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP; Notice of Application On August 13, 2013, Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP (Gulf South) and Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C....

  20. A numerical study of liquid film distribution in wet natural gas pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, X. Q.; Zhao, Y. L.; Xu, W. W.; Guan, X. R.; Wang, J. J.; Jin, Y. H.

    2016-05-01

    The software of FLUENT was used to simulate the gas-liquid turbulent flow in wet natural gas pipeline of the Puguang gas field. The RNG k- ɛ model was used to simulate the turbulent flow, the Mixture model was used to simulate gas-liquid mixed phase, and the Eulerian wall film model was used to simulate the formation and development of liquid film. The gas phase flow field characteristics, the distribution of the axial and circumferential film thickness, and the droplet distribution in the pipeline were studied when the gas Reynolds number is 7.72 × 106(10.8m/s). The results can be concluded as followed: Liquid film distributes unevenly along the circumferential direction and mostly distributes under the pipeline wall because of gravity. The impact of the dean vortex and centrifugal force in the straight section can also influence the liquid film distribution. The wall shear stress distributions in horizontal straight pipeline is concerned with liquid membrane volatility, and consistent with the film volatility period, the wall shear stress reached the maximum value in a certain position of wave front. The influence of the wall shear stress on the film fluctuation in inclined pipeline is weakened by gravity and other factors.

  1. Deliverability on the interstate natural gas pipeline system

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    Deliverability on the Interstate Natural Gas Pipeline System examines the capability of the national pipeline grid to transport natural gas to various US markets. The report quantifies the capacity levels and utilization rates of major interstate pipeline companies in 1996 and the changes since 1990, as well as changes in markets and end-use consumption patterns. It also discusses the effects of proposed capacity expansions on capacity levels. The report consists of five chapters, several appendices, and a glossary. Chapter 1 discusses some of the operational and regulatory features of the US interstate pipeline system and how they affect overall system design, system utilization, and capacity expansions. Chapter 2 looks at how the exploration, development, and production of natural gas within North America is linked to the national pipeline grid. Chapter 3 examines the capability of the interstate natural gas pipeline network to link production areas to market areas, on the basis of capacity and usage levels along 10 corridors. The chapter also examines capacity expansions that have occurred since 1990 along each corridor and the potential impact of proposed new capacity. Chapter 4 discusses the last step in the transportation chain, that is, deliverability to the ultimate end user. Flow patterns into and out of each market region are discussed, as well as the movement of natural gas between States in each region. Chapter 5 examines how shippers reserve interstate pipeline capacity in the current transportation marketplace and how pipeline companies are handling the secondary market for short-term unused capacity. Four appendices provide supporting data and additional detail on the methodology used to estimate capacity. 32 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE STRATEGY OF THE OIL AND GAS PIPELINES OF RUSSIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motomura, Masumi

    The Russian oil and gas industry earns more than half of the Russian tax revenue and foreign currency, and has been playing the role of the backbone of the state economy through the eras of the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. With the elongation of distance to the European market from the oil producing regions, starting from Baku in the era of Imperial Russia to the Second Baku (Volga-Ural) and the third Baku (West Siberia) in turn, the role of the oil pipeline system as the transportation infrastructure became more and more important and the deployment of pipelines has become one of the indispensable pillars of oil strategy. Now, the oil pipeline network is to reach the Pacific Ocean, which will enable Northeast Asia to be added as a destination for Russian oil, with a result of expanding influence for Russia in these regions. On the other hand, gas exports from the Soviet Union to Eastern Europe started in 1967 by constructing a trunk pipeline from Ukraine, which was extended to West Germany in 1973, overcoming the confrontation between the East and the West and becoming a regional stabilizer. The United States considered this pipeline as an energy weapon and criticized this deal by saying that when Soviet gas flows to Western Europe, its political influence must flow like the gas itself. However, the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, while gas transportation continued without any disruption. This is evidence that the gas pipeline from the Soviet Union was purely for a business purpose and was not politicized. Recently, Russia is aiming to export gas to northeastern Asia, which is expected to be a new stabilizer in this region, although different types of diffi culties (especially about the method of determination of the gas price) still need to be resolved.

  3. Pipeline under the arctic ice: the Polar Gas Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kaustinen, O.M.

    1982-06-01

    The Polar Gas Project was established in 1972 to determine the best means of moving frontier natural gas from Canada's high arctic to southern markets. Pipeline was found to be most feasible. Several pipeline routings from two major supply areas--the MacKenzie Delta/Beaufort Sea region, and the Sverdrup Basin of the Arctic Islands--have been considered. Field programs to determine the type and ice content of soils along the route have been undertaken. The most challenging engineering aspect will be two marine crossings in arctic waters at either end of Victoria Island, at Dolphin and Union Strait, and at McClure's strait. The ''Ice Hole Bottom Pull'' technique has been recommended, and is illustrated in detail. The planned pipeline demonstration would significantly enhance the current state-of-the-art for deepwater pipelining worldwide.

  4. NORTH SEA PIPELINES: A SURVEY OF TECHNOLOGY, REGULATION AND USE CONFLICTS IN OIL AND GAS PIPELINE OPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project was undertaken to provide information on North Sea offshore pipelines and the processes used in route selection decision-making. It is designed to be used by persons involved in offshore oil and gas pipeline planning, including pipeline corridors and landfalls. A bri...

  5. Regulatory reform for natural gas pipelines: The effect on pipeline and distribution company share prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurman, Elisabeth Antonie

    1997-08-01

    The natural gas shortages in the 1970s focused considerable attention on the federal government's role in altering energy consumption. For the natural gas industry these shortages eventually led to the passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) in 1978 as part of the National Energy Plan. A series of events in the decade of the 1980s has brought about the restructuring of interstate natural gas pipelines which have been transformed by regulators and the courts from monopolies into competitive entities. This transformation also changed their relationship with their downstream customers, the LDCs, who no longer had to deal with pipelines as the only merchants of gas. Regulatory reform made it possible for LDCs to buy directly from producers using the pipelines only for delivery of their purchases. This study tests for the existence of monopoly rents by analyzing the daily returns of natural gas pipeline and utility industry stock price data from 1982 to 1990, a period of regulatory reform for the natural gas industry. The study's main objective is to investigate the degree of empirical support for claims that regulatory reforms increase profits in the affected industry, as the normative theory of regulation expects, or decrease profits, as advocates of the positive theory of regulation believe. I also test Norton's theory of risk which predicts that systematic risk will increase for firms undergoing deregulation. Based on a sample of twelve natural gas pipelines, and 25 utilities an event study concept was employed to measure the impact of regulatory event announcements on daily natural gas pipeline or utility industry stock price data using a market model regression equation. The results of this study provide some evidence that regulatory reforms did not increase the profits of pipeline firms, confirming the expectations of those who claim that excess profits result from regulation and will disappear, once that protection is removed and the firms are operating in

  6. Research on airborne infrared leakage detection of natural gas pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Dongjie; Xu, Bin; Xu, Xu; Wang, Hongchao; Yu, Dongliang; Tian, Shengjie

    2011-12-01

    An airborne laser remote sensing technology is proposed to detect natural gas pipeline leakage in helicopter which carrying a detector, and the detector can detect a high spatial resolution of trace of methane on the ground. The principle of the airborne laser remote sensing system is based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). The system consists of an optical unit containing the laser, camera, helicopter mount, electronic unit with DGPS antenna, a notebook computer and a pilot monitor. And the system is mounted on a helicopter. The principle and the architecture of the airborne laser remote sensing system are presented. Field test experiments are carried out on West-East Natural Gas Pipeline of China, and the results show that airborne detection method is suitable for detecting gas leak of pipeline on plain, desert, hills but unfit for the area with large altitude diversification.

  7. Influence of pipeline modeling in stability analysis for severe slugging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, G. R.; Baliño, J. L.; Burr, K. P.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a numerical linear stability analysis is performed to a mathematical model for the two-phase flow in a pipeline-riser system. Most of stability criteria and most of the models are based on a simplified pipeline, where it is assumed that the void fraction fluctuation can be neglected. It is evident that a pipeline with a constant void fraction would not be able to capture the flow pattern transition or void fraction propagation waves. Three different models for the pipeline are considered: a lumped parameter model with constant void fraction; a lumped parameter model with time dependent void fraction; a distributed parameter model, with void fraction dependent on time and position. The results showed that a simplified model would lose some stable region for operational conditions, but the complete models would not. As result, a more general modeling is necessary to capture all the influence of the stratified flow over stability and over the pipeline dynamics.

  8. Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M. W.; Antonia, O.; Penev, M.

    2013-03-01

    The United States has 11 distinct natural gas pipeline corridors: five originate in the Southwest, four deliver natural gas from Canada, and two extend from the Rocky Mountain region. This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and natural gas mixture to defray the cost of building dedicated hydrogen pipelines.

  9. Video Mosaicking for Inspection of Gas Pipelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magruder, Darby; Chien, Chiun-Hong

    2005-01-01

    A vision system that includes a specially designed video camera and an image-data-processing computer is under development as a prototype of robotic systems for visual inspection of the interior surfaces of pipes and especially of gas pipelines. The system is capable of providing both forward views and mosaicked radial views that can be displayed in real time or after inspection. To avoid the complexities associated with moving parts and to provide simultaneous forward and radial views, the video camera is equipped with a wide-angle (>165 ) fish-eye lens aimed along the axis of a pipe to be inspected. Nine white-light-emitting diodes (LEDs) placed just outside the field of view of the lens (see Figure 1) provide ample diffuse illumination for a high-contrast image of the interior pipe wall. The video camera contains a 2/3-in. (1.7-cm) charge-coupled-device (CCD) photodetector array and functions according to the National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) standard. The video output of the camera is sent to an off-the-shelf video capture board (frame grabber) by use of a peripheral component interconnect (PCI) interface in the computer, which is of the 400-MHz, Pentium II (or equivalent) class. Prior video-mosaicking techniques are applicable to narrow-field-of-view (low-distortion) images of evenly illuminated, relatively flat surfaces viewed along approximately perpendicular lines by cameras that do not rotate and that move approximately parallel to the viewed surfaces. One such technique for real-time creation of mosaic images of the ocean floor involves the use of visual correspondences based on area correlation, during both the acquisition of separate images of adjacent areas and the consolidation (equivalently, integration) of the separate images into a mosaic image, in order to insure that there are no gaps in the mosaic image. The data-processing technique used for mosaicking in the present system also involves area correlation, but with several notable

  10. Interaction between soils and gas pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpachevskii, L. O.; Goroshevskii, A. V.; Zubkova, T. A.

    2011-03-01

    The interaction between pipelines and soils manifests itself in the soil disturbance in the course of the pipe installation, in the transformation of the water and temperature regimes in the trenches, and in the appearance of corrosion and cracks on the pipe walls. The more contrasting the soil water regime in the pipe-adjacent sections of the trench, the greater the amount of the pipe damage. The damage of the pipe insulation activates the pipe corrosion. The emission of gases (H2S, CH4, CO2, CO, and H2) and the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria are the main causes of the pipes' destruction. The humus content and the redox potential decrease, and the soil density and concentrations of ferrous compounds increase in the soils of the trench zone. Accidents along pipelines occur most often in the area of serozems and chestnut soils, and this is related to the salinization in the lower soil horizons and to the contrasting soil water regime near the pipe. The number of accidents along the pipelines installed into soddy-podzolic soils is lower.

  11. Optimal Energy Consumption Analysis of Natural Gas Pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    There are many compressor stations along long-distance natural gas pipelines. Natural gas can be transported using different boot programs and import pressures, combined with temperature control parameters. Moreover, different transport methods have correspondingly different energy consumptions. At present, the operating parameters of many pipelines are determined empirically by dispatchers, resulting in high energy consumption. This practice does not abide by energy reduction policies. Therefore, based on a full understanding of the actual needs of pipeline companies, we introduce production unit consumption indicators to establish an objective function for achieving the goal of lowering energy consumption. By using a dynamic programming method for solving the model and preparing calculation software, we can ensure that the solution process is quick and efficient. Using established optimization methods, we analyzed the energy savings for the XQ gas pipeline. By optimizing the boot program, the import station pressure, and the temperature parameters, we achieved the optimal energy consumption. By comparison with the measured energy consumption, the pipeline now has the potential to reduce energy consumption by 11 to 16 percent. PMID:24955410

  12. Could non-destructive methodologies enhance the microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in pipeline systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Abbas, F.; Kakpovbia, A.; Mishra, B.; Olson, D.; Spear, J.

    2013-01-01

    Stringent corrosion management programs are being deployed by oil and gas industry to ensure the integrity of pipeline systems. Parts of this program are the corrosion protection systems and inspection detection methods included non-destructive techniques. Those measures induce remnant magnetic field (RMF) in the pipeline steel. Potentially the RMF could affect the corrosion process in the pipeline including microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Microorganisms in pipelines have surface charges and produce a wide variety of metabolic products. Consequently, when they are exposed to RMF generated at the linepipe steel surface by the aforementioned sources there will be potential effects. This sequentially will increase the likelihood of biofilm formation and hence enhance/promote MIC. This study investigates the potential effects of RFM on the MIC by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB).

  13. Development Of A Centrifugal Hydrogen Pipeline Gas Compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Di Bella, Francis A.

    2015-04-16

    Concepts NREC (CN) has completed a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project to analyze, design, and fabricate a pipeline capacity hydrogen compressor. The pipeline compressor is a critical component in the DOE strategy to provide sufficient quantities of hydrogen to support the expected shift in transportation fuels from liquid and natural gas to hydrogen. The hydrogen would be generated by renewable energy (solar, wind, and perhaps even tidal or ocean), and would be electrolyzed from water. The hydrogen would then be transported to the population centers in the U.S., where fuel-cell vehicles are expected to become popular and necessary to relieve dependency on fossil fuels. The specifications for the required pipeline hydrogen compressor indicates a need for a small package that is efficient, less costly, and more reliable than what is available in the form of a multi-cylinder, reciprocating (positive displacement) compressor for compressing hydrogen in the gas industry.

  14. Essays on the economics of natural gas pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Matthew E.

    The natural gas pipeline transportation industry is comprised of a primary market and a secondary market. In the primary market, pipelines sell 'firm' transport capacity contracts to gas traders, local distribution companies, and other parties. The (per unit) secondary market value of transport is rarely comparable to the regulated primary market two-part tariff. When and where available capacity in the secondary market is scarce, its value can far exceed the primary market tariffs paid by firm contract holders, generating scarcity rents. The following essays demonstrate that this phenomenon has predictable effects on natural gas spot prices, firm capacity reservations, the pipeline's capacity construction and expansion decisions, and the economic welfare of producers and consumers at the market hubs connected by the pipeline. Chapter 1 provides a theoretical framework for understanding how pipeline congestion affects natural gas spot prices within the context of the current regulatory environment, and empirically quantifies this effect over a specific regional pipeline network. As available pipeline capacity over a given route connecting two hubs becomes scarce, the spot prices for gas at the hubs are driven apart---a phenomenon indicative of some market friction that inhibits the ability of spot price arbitrage to fully integrate the two prices, undermining economic efficiency. The theoretical component of Chapter 1 illuminates a potential source of this friction: the deregulated structure of the secondary market for gas transportation services. To support and quantify the predictions of the theoretical model, the empirical component demonstrates that the effect of congestion on the secondary market value of transport---the key factor in driving apart spot prices---can be quite strong. Coefficient estimates indicate that dramatic increases in transport costs are likely to result from marginal increases in congestion. This result has important implications because

  15. Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

    2012-01-01

    This article develops a formal model for comparing the cost structure of the two main transport options for natural gas: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG. PMID:24683269

  16. Pipeliners and gas processors target even cleaner operations

    SciTech Connect

    True, R.W.

    1991-12-16

    With the recent passage of amendments to the federal Clean Air Act and the reauthorization next year of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, pipelines and gas processors are looking at more ways to tighten operations and avoid polluting surface water or air. This paper reports that some companies are not waiting for the final rules but are taking actions which anticipate tougher standards.

  17. The evaluation and restoration of a deteriorated buried gas pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Dovico, R.; Montero, E.

    1996-12-31

    Historically, the Argentine gas transmission and distribution industry was owned and operated by the State. In 1992, by government decree, this entire industry was transferred to private owners and operators, and divided into two Gas Transmission Companies (TGN and TGS) and eight Gas Distribution Companies. The pipelines and related facilities had been left in an operating condition, however major capital investments were required to assure that the integrity, reliability and operability of the facilities were intact. These capital expenditures were mandatory in many areas as part of the privatization. Maintenance and rehabilitation tasks were developed for the entire transmission system, with the intent to reduce the number of unscheduled outages, optimize system maintenance costs, increase operation safety, and upgrade the pipeline to ensure compliance with the international code. Transportadora de Gas del Norte (TGN), operated by Nova Gas International of Calgary, Canada, consists of two major pipeline transmission systems. The North Line, which transports gas from Northern Argentina and Bolivia to markets south to Buenos Aires is a 24 inch, 3,000 Km system constructed in 1960. It was constructed using a field applied asphalt coating system. The Center West Line, which transports gas from central Argentina (Neuquen) to markets in the western part of the country and also the Buenos Aires area, is a 30 inch, 1,400 Km system constructed in 1981. It was constructed using a field applied polyethylene tape coating system.

  18. 75 FR 32460 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization May 28, 2010. Take notice that on May 14, 2010, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC... Products and Services, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC, 3250 Lacey Road, 7th Floor,...

  19. 76 FR 48853 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on July 19, 2011, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural), 3250... Products and Services, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC, 3250 Lacey Road, 7th Floor,...

  20. 76 FR 4516 - Revisions to Forms, Statements, and Reporting Requirements for Natural Gas Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Reporting Requirements for Natural Gas Pipelines, Order No. 710, 73 FR 19389 (Apr. 10, 2008), FERC Stats... Reporting Requirements for Natural Gas Pipelines, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 75 FR 35700 (June 23, 2010... for Natural Gas Pipeline, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 72 FR 54860 (Sept. 27, 2007), FERC...

  1. Natural Gas Compressor Stations on the Interstate Pipeline Network: Developments Since 1996

    EIA Publications

    2007-01-01

    This special report looks at the use of natural gas pipeline compressor stations on the interstate natural gas pipeline network that serves the lower 48 states. It examines the compression facilities added over the past 10 years and how the expansions have supported pipeline capacity growth intended to meet the increasing demand for natural gas.

  2. Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks. A Review of Key Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M. W.; Antonia, O.; Penev, M.

    2013-03-01

    This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and natural gas mixture to defray the cost of building dedicated hydrogen pipelines. Blending hydrogen into the existing natural gas pipeline network has also been proposed as a means of increasing the output of renewable energy systems such as large wind farms.

  3. 77 FR 23472 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on April 4, 2012, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street... application may be directed to Thomas G. Joyce, Manager, Certificates, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company,...

  4. 78 FR 6313 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 14, 2013, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street... Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, by telephone at (713)...

  5. 77 FR 43277 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on July 6, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston..., Manager, Certificates, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas...

  6. 77 FR 64972 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 10, 2012, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street... Counsel, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C., 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, phone:...

  7. 77 FR 8247 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. Notice of Application Take notice that on February 2, 2012, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street..., Manager, Certificates, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C., 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas...

  8. 77 FR 65508 - Annual Charge Filing Procedures for Natural Gas Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 154 Annual Charge Filing Procedures for Natural Gas Pipelines... filing requirements for natural gas pipelines that choose to recover Commission-assessed annual charges through an annual charge adjustment (ACA) clause. Currently, natural gas pipelines utilizing an ACA...

  9. 78 FR 18968 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on March 8, 2013, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural), 3250 Lacey Road, 7th... directed to Bruce H. Newsome, Vice President, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC, 3250 Lacey...

  10. 77 FR 22387 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Transmission and Gathering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or visit http... Pipeline Systems Incident Report, and Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Systems Accident Report AGENCY: Pipeline... several minor revisions to the hazardous liquid pipeline systems accident report and the gas...

  11. Engineering considerations for corrosion monitoring of gas gathering pipeline systems

    SciTech Connect

    Braga, T.G.; Asperger, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Proper corrosion monitoring of gas gathering pipelines requires a system review to determine the appropriate monitor locations and types of monitoring techniques. This paper develops and discusses a classification of conditions such as flow regime and gas composition. Also discussed are junction categories which, for corrosion monitoring, need to be considered from two points of view. The first is related to fluid flow in the line and the second is related corrosion inhibitor movement along the pipeline. The appropriate application of the various monitoring techniques such as coupons, hydrogen detectors, electrical resistance probe and linear polarization probes are discussed in relation to flow regime and gas composition. Problems caused by semi-conduction from iron sulfide are considered. Advantages and disadvantages of fluid gathering methods such as pots and flow-through drips are discussed in relation to their reliability as on-line monitoring locations.

  12. 76 FR 55379 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Authorization Take notice that on August 19, 2011, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana..., Certificates, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, by telephone at (713... Pipeline Company, 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, by telephone at (713) 420-3294, or by...

  13. 76 FR 79673 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application On December 9, 2011, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002... Pipeline Company, L.L.C., 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, phone: (713) 420-4544, fax:...

  14. Gas Research Institute's research and development program on in-line inspection of natural gas pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, Harvey H.; Bubenik, Tom A.; Nestleroth, J. Bruce

    1995-05-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has been supporting a comprehensive research and development program on in-line inspection techniques for natural gas transmission pipelines. This program contains assessments of state-of-the-art nondestructive evaluation methods, improvements in current approaches, and developments of advanced inspection technologies. The elements of the GRI Nondestructive Evaluation Program range from laboratory evaluations of the capabilities of inspection technologies to large-scale measurements in simulated pipeline settings. Each level of research stresses a quantification of both the limits of detection and the accuracy of characterization of pipeline imperfections that are found by in- line inspection tools. The overall goal of GRI's Nondestructive Evaluation Program is to develop and improve technologies that will help gas pipeline companies maintain the physical integrity of their transmission systems, prevent pipeline shutdowns, and reduce maintenance costs. This paper summarizes the results of the GRI program to date in relationship to their direct application to in-line inspection of gas transmission pipelines. The program consists of three main elements: facilities development, research on current inspection technologies, and research on future inspection technologies. The facilities development is centered around the Pipeline Simulation Facility; the research on current inspection technologies is aimed at improving magnetic flux leakage analyses; and the research on future inspection technologies is centered on stress-corrosion crack detection and characterization.

  15. Scoping Study on the Safety Impact of Valve Spacing in Natural Gas Pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Sulfredge, Charles David

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation's Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) is responsible for ensuring the safe, reliable, and environmentally sound operation of the nation's natural gas and hazardous liquid pipelines. Regulations adopted by PHMSA for gas pipelines are provided in 49 CFR 192, and spacing requirements for valves in gas transmission pipelines are presented in 49 CFR 192.179. The present report describes the findings of a scoping study conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist PHMSA in assessing the safety impact of system valve spacing. Calculations of the pressures, temperatures, and flow velocities during a set of representative pipe depressurization transients were carried out using a one-dimensional numerical model with either ideal gas or real gas properties for the fluid. With both ideal gas and real gas properties, the high-consequence area radius for any resulting fire as defined by Stevens in GRI-00/0189 was evaluated as one measure of the pipeline safety. In the real gas case, a model for convective heat transfer from the pipe wall is included to assess the potential for shut-off valve failures due to excessively low temperatures resulting from depressurization cooling of the pipe. A discussion is also provided of some additional factors by which system valve spacing could affect overall pipeline safety. The following conclusions can be drawn from this work: (1) Using an adaptation of the Stephens hazard radius criteria, valve spacing has a negligible influence on natural gas pipeline safety for the pipeline diameter, pressure range, and valve spacings considered in this study. (2) Over the first 30 s of the transient, pipeline pressure has a far greater effect on the hazard radius calculated with the Stephens criteria than any variations in the transient flow decay profile and the average discharge rate. (3) Other factors besides the Stephens criteria, such as the longer burn time for an

  16. An analysis of the motion of pigs through gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Weingarten, J.S.; Chapman, A.J.; Walker, W.F.

    1984-12-01

    A one-dimensional, quasi-steady, model describing the motion of a pig moving in a gas pipeline is developed for the cases of a solid pig, which obstructs the cross section of the pipe, and one with a concentric hole through it. The resultant governing equations constitute a set of seven nonlinear differential equations. A numerical solution scheme, implemented by a computer program, is described. Results and discussion are presented for a set of typical cases.

  17. 75 FR 51031 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application August 12, 2010. Take notice that on July 30, 2010, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural Gas...), and sections 157.7 and 157.18 of the Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA)...

  18. 76 FR 45253 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization July 20, 2011. Take notice that on July 11, 2011, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee Gas... up to the higher MAOP. Specifically, Tennessee Gas proposes to increase the MAOP of Line 2B-100...

  19. Gas-Liquid Flow in Pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas J. Hanratty

    2005-02-25

    A research program was carried out at the University of Illinois in which develops a scientific approach to gas-liquid flows that explains their macroscopic behavior in terms of small scale interactions. For simplicity, fully-developed flows in horizontal and near-horizontal pipes. The difficulty in dealing with these flows is that the phases can assume a variety of configurations. The specific goal was to develop a scientific understanding of transitions from one flow regime to another and a quantitative understanding of how the phases distribute for a give regime. These basic understandings are used to predict macroscopic quantities of interest, such as frictional pressure drop, liquid hold-up, entrainment in annular flow and frequency of slugging in slug flows. A number of scientific issues are addressed. Examples are the rate of atomization of a liquid film, the rate of deposition of drops, the behavior of particles in a turbulent field, the generation and growth of interfacial waves. The use of drag-reducing polymers that change macroscopic behavior by changing small scale interactions was explored.

  20. 77 FR 70543 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or view the Privacy Notice at http://www.regulations.gov... published in the Federal Register on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Information on Services for Individuals... Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and...

  1. 78 FR 10261 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Distribution Annual Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477) or visit http... TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Distribution Annual Report AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...

  2. Use of intelligent pigs to detect stress corrosion cracking in gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Culbertson, D.L.

    1996-08-01

    To ensure the integrity and serviceability of gas pipelines, operators periodically utilize intelligent pigging. This inspection technique has proven to be a cost effective approach for determining the condition of operating pipelines. Recent advancements in intelligent pigging technology are now aiding the pipeline industry in the detection of stress corrosion cracking.

  3. 77 FR 38622 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on June 4, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700...) regulations under the Natural Gas Act as amended and Southern Star's blanket certificate issued in Docket...

  4. 76 FR 67160 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application On October 19, 2011, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) filed with the Federal Energy... vertically at Southern Star's existing Alden Gas Storage Field located in Rice County, Kansas. Subsequent...

  5. 77 FR 28867 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application Take notice that on April 27, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56... buffer zone by 160 acres at Southern Star's existing McLouth Gas Storage Field in Jefferson...

  6. 76 FR 31599 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application On May 13, 2011, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory... buffer zone at Southern Star's existing Alden Gas Storage Field located in Rice County, Kansas....

  7. 77 FR 8724 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 157 Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits... (OEP) computes and publishes the project cost and annual limits for natural gas pipelines blanket..., Natural gas, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Jeff C. Wright, Director, Office of Energy...

  8. 76 FR 62395 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on September 20, 2011, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural), 3250 Lacey Road... sections 7(b) and 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), an application to abandon and construct...

  9. 78 FR 67350 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 18, 2013 Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural), at 3250 Lacey Road... Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, for a certificate of...

  10. 78 FR 8389 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 157 Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits AGENCY... publishes the project cost and annual limits for natural gas pipelines blanket construction certificates for... CFR Part 157 Administrative practice and procedure, Natural Gas, Reporting and...

  11. 75 FR 36376 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application June 17, 2010. Take notice that on June 8, 2010, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural..., pursuant to sections 7(b) and 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), an application to abandon two...

  12. Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline about to take off; seen as litmus test for Southern Cone gas grid

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-07

    After more than 4 decades of studies, plans, and shelved projects, the proposed Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline is finally about to get off the ground. The 3,700 km gas pipeline will require an investment of at least $2 billion and is viewed by many as a litmus test for the developing gas market and energy integration of South America`s Southern Cone countries. Overall, industry officials see eventual emergence of two large integrated gas grids serving South America: one for the northern countries and another for the Southern Cone. This will enable the six countries with gas surplus to their needs to export the surplus to neighboring, gas-short countries. The northern gas-long countries are Venezuela, Colombia, and Trinidad and Tobago; those in the Southern Cone are Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru. The paper discusses financial details, project details, pipeline construction, the Petrobras strategy, Argentine pipeline projects, and other pipeline proposals.

  13. 75 FR 72877 - Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background On July 2, 2009, (74 FR 31675) PHMSA published a Notice of Proposed... distribution and hazardous liquid pipelines (August 17, 2009; 74 FR 41496). The use of these new forms were..., many of which also operate small amounts of transmission pipeline as part of their pipeline...

  14. 75 FR 10242 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Availability of the Environmental... proposed by Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (TGP) in the above referenced docket. TGP requests authorization... your computer's hard drive. You will attach that file as your submission. New eFiling users must...

  15. 78 FR 66915 - Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization; Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization; Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. Take notice that on October 21, 2013 Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star... in Johnson and Pettis Counties, Missouri, under authorization issued to Southern Star in Docket...

  16. 78 FR 13663 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 11, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star... is on file with the Commission and open for public inspection. Specifically, Southern Star...

  17. 77 FR 41975 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 27, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56... Oklahoma and Logan Counties, Oklahoma (Line V). Southern Star states that due to the age of Line V and...

  18. 75 FR 40802 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application July 8, 2010. Take notice that on July 2, 2010, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700... certificate issued on May 20, 2010 in docket number CP10-2-000. Specifically, Southern Star proposes...

  19. 78 FR 53746 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on August 13, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star..., Chautauqua and Montgomery Counties, Kansas. Southern Star's prior notice request is more fully set forth...

  20. 77 FR 14517 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 21, 2012 Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star... City, Missouri. Specifically, Southern Star proposes to replace 3 miles of 12-inch diameter XT...

  1. 75 FR 8053 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization February 16, 2010. Take notice that on January 29, 2010, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 State Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky 42301, filed in Docket No. CP10-48-000, a...

  2. 78 FR 68835 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on October 31, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star...). Southern Star seeks authorization to increase the Maximum Operating Pressure (MOP) of its Waynoka...

  3. 78 FR 25264 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on April 16, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700...) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Specifically, Southern Star proposes to abandon...

  4. 75 FR 16337 - Standards for Business Practices for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... No. 587, 61 FR 39053 (Jul. 26, 1996), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,038 (1996). 3. A cold snap in January... Practices for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 74 FR 36633 (Jul. 24, 2009... for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 74 FR 62261 (Nov. 27, 2009),...

  5. 77 FR 43711 - Standards for Business Practices of Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... Gas Pipelines, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 77 FR 10415 (Feb. 22, 2012), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 32... of information regarding waste heat; and ] (6) minor technical maintenance revisions designed to more... Natural Gas Pipelines, 77 FR 28331 (May 14, 2012). II. Discussion A. Incorporation by Reference of...

  6. 77 FR 28331 - Standards for Business Practices for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Business Practices for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines, notice of proposed rulemaking, 77 FR 10415 (Feb... Natural Gas Pipelines AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ACTION: Request for additional... Proposed Rulemaking (77 FR 10415) (NOPR) proposing to amend its regulations to incorporate by reference...

  7. 76 FR 44324 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on July 14, 2011, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana... located in San Jacinto and Liberty Counties, Texas, under Tennessee's blanket certificate issued in...

  8. 76 FR 60016 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on September 9, 2011, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana... Tennessee's authorization in Docket No. CP82-413-000, to abandon in place and by removal an inactive...

  9. 75 FR 5317 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization January 26, 2010. Take notice that on January 25, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee... TTY, (202) 502-8659. Specifically, Tennessee proposes to abandon in place Line 509A-3600...

  10. Geohazard assessment lifecycle for a natural gas pipeline project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekkakis, D.; Boone, M. D.; Strassburger, E.; Li, Z.; Duffy, W. P.

    2015-09-01

    This paper is a walkthrough of the geohazard risk assessment performed for the Front End Engineering Design (FEED) of a planned large-diameter natural gas pipeline, extending from Eastern Europe to Western Asia for a total length of approximately 1,850 km. The geohazards discussed herein include liquefaction-induced pipe buoyancy, cyclic softening, lateral spreading, slope instability, groundwater rise-induced pipe buoyancy, and karst. The geohazard risk assessment lifecycle was comprised of 4 stages: initially a desktop study was carried out to describe the geologic setting along the alignment and to conduct a preliminary assessment of the geohazards. The development of a comprehensive Digital Terrain Model topography and aerial photography data were fundamental in this process. Subsequently, field geohazard mapping was conducted with the deployment of 8 teams of geoprofessionals, to investigate the proposed major reroutes and delve into areas of poor or questionable data. During the third stage, a geotechnical subsurface site investigation was then executed based on the results of the above study and mapping efforts in order to obtain sufficient data tailored for risk quantification. Lastly, all gathered and processed information was overlain into a Geographical Information database towards a final determination of the critical reaches of the pipeline alignment. Input from Subject Matter Experts (SME) in the fields of landslides, karst and fluvial geomorphology was incorporated during the second and fourth stages of the assessment. Their experience in that particular geographical region was key to making appropriate decisions based on engineering judgment. As the design evolved through the above stages, the pipeline corridor was narrowed from a 2-km wide corridor, to a 500-m corridor and finally to a fixed alignment. Where the geohazard risk was high, rerouting of the pipeline was generally selected as a mitigation measure. In some cases of high uncertainty in

  11. State of art of seismic design and seismic hazard analysis for oil and gas pipeline system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Aiwen; Chen, Kun; Wu, Jian

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to adopt the uniform confidence method in both water pipeline design and oil-gas pipeline design. Based on the importance of pipeline and consequence of its failure, oil and gas pipeline can be classified into three pipe classes, with exceeding probabilities over 50 years of 2%, 5% and 10%, respectively. Performance-based design requires more information about ground motion, which should be obtained by evaluating seismic safety for pipeline engineering site. Different from a city’s water pipeline network, the long-distance oil and gas pipeline system is a spatially linearly distributed system. For the uniform confidence of seismic safety, a long-distance oil and pipeline formed with pump stations and different-class pipe segments should be considered as a whole system when analyzing seismic risk. Considering the uncertainty of earthquake magnitude, the design-basis fault displacements corresponding to the different pipeline classes are proposed to improve deterministic seismic hazard analysis (DSHA). A new empirical relationship between the maximum fault displacement and the surface-wave magnitude is obtained with the supplemented earthquake data in East Asia. The estimation of fault displacement for a refined oil pipeline in Wenchuan M S8.0 earthquake is introduced as an example in this paper.

  12. Tests of cryogenic pigs for use in liquefied gas pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipple, D. L.; Oneal, W. C.

    1982-09-01

    Pipeline pigs are a key element in the design of a proposed spill test facility whose purpose is to evaluate the hazards of large spills of liquefied gaseous fuels (LGFs). A long pipe runs from the LGF storage tanks to the spill point; to produce a rapid spill, the pipe is filled with LGF and a pig will be pneumatically driven through the pipe to force out the LGF quickly and cleanly. Several pig designs were tested in a 6 inch diameter, 420 foot long pipe to evaluate their performance at liquid-nitrogen temperature and compare it with their performance at ambient temperature. For each test, the pig was placed in one end of the pipe and either water or liquid nitrogen was put into the pipe in front of the pig. Then pressurized drive gas, either nitrogen or helium, was admitted to the pipe behind the pig to push the pig and the fluid ahead of it out the exit nozzle. For some tests, the drive gas supply was shut off when the pig was part way through the pipe as a method of velocity control; in these cases, the pressurized gas trapped behind the pig continued to expand until it pushed the pig the remaining distance out of the pipe.

  13. 77 FR 16471 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... contained in a PHMSA Advisory Bulletin published on January 13, 2012 (77 FR 2126). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... the Federal Register (75 FR 72878) titled: ``Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied... requirements, PHMSA issued a 60-day Federal Register notice on December 13, 2010 (75 FR 77694), and a...

  14. Underground storage of natural gas by interstate pipeline companies for 1979 and Winter 1979--1980

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    This report covers the underground storage of natural gas for the calendar year 1979 by pipeline companies subject to the jurisdiction of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). Data are based on: FPC Form 2 (Form 2) annual reports of 31 interstate pipeline companies; certificates filed with FERC; and FPC Form 8 (Form 8) semi-monthly reports (November 1, 1979 through March 31, 1980) of 32 pipeline companies and 5 independent producers. 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Recession becomes major force to tighten grip on quarterly gas pipeline building costs

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.M.

    1983-04-25

    This article points out that the major force affecting gas pipeline building costs, during the second quarter of 1982, was the recession. The total composite cost index for building gas pipelines increased by only 1.01%. Material prices for steel line pipe, valves, fittings, and line pipe coating showed little or no gain during the period. Installation labor costs continued to climb. Discusses construction activity, compressor equipment and drive units, and high pressure gas station piping.

  16. Tests of cryogenic pigs for use in liquefied gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Hipple, D.L.; O'Neal, W.C.

    1982-09-09

    Pipeline pigs are a key element in the design of a proposed spill test facility whose purpose is to evaluate the hazards of large spills of liquefied gaseous fuels (LGFs). A long pipe will run from the LGF storage tanks to the spill point; to produce a rapid spill, the pipe will be filled with LGF and a pig will be pneumatically driven through the pipe to force out the LGF quickly and cleanly. Several pig designs were tested in a 6-inch-diameter, 420-foot-long pipe to evaluate their performance at liquid-nitrogen temperature and compare it with their performance at ambient temperature. For each test, the pig was placed in one end of the pipe and either water or liquid nitrogen was put into the pipe in front of the pig. Then pressurized drive gas, either nitrogen or helium, was admitted to the pipe behind the pig to push the pig and the fluid ahead of it out the exit nozzle. For some tests, the drive gas supply was shut off when the pig was part way through the pipe as a method of velocity control; in these cases, the pressurized gas trapped behind the pig continued to expand until it pushed the pig the remaining distance out of the pipe. The tests provided information on how the effectiveness and velocity of the pig and the flow rate of the expelled fluid changed with pressure and shutoff time of the drive gas and with temperature. The pig designs that left the least liquid during the water tests were a polyurethane foam pig and a cylindrical metal pig with flexible metal wipers. In the liquid nitrogen tests, the metal pig with wipers performed best. It removed all the liquid nitrogen and survived most of the tests well.

  17. Karst hazard assessment in the design of the main gas pipeline (South Yakutia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strokova, L. A.; Dutova, E. M.; Ermolaeva, A. V.; Alimova, I. N.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2015-11-01

    The paper represents the description of the zonal and regional geological factors of geoengineering conditions which characterize the territory in South Yakutia crossed by the designed main gas pipeline. Cryogenic processes and karst are considered to be the most dangerous hazards for gas pipeline maintenance. Karst hazard assessment of the gas pipeline section made in the course of the research has involved a complex of geological methods: geoengineering, geophysical, hydrogeological, and mapping. Sections prone to karst development have been identified. The authors have suggested the measures to protect potentially hazardous sections and to ensure timely informing on sinkhole collapses.

  18. 76 FR 78636 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Supplemental Notice of Intent To Prepare an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... would install a small compressor unit of less than 50 horsepower and construct about 0.75 mile of 4-inch-diameter pipeline parallel to an existing Southern Star 16-inch-diameter pipeline to recover storage gas..., contractor/pipe storage yards, compressor stations, and access roads). Our EA for this project will...

  19. 78 FR 62012 - Transcontinental Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-11

    ... system in New York City. For the Northeast Connector Project, Transco proposes to modify existing compressor station facilities along its existing pipeline system in Pennsylvania and New Jersey to provide... requests authorization to expand its natural gas pipeline system in New York to provide firm...

  20. Programmable calculator uses equation to figure steady-state gas-pipeline flow

    SciTech Connect

    Holmberg, E.

    1982-04-26

    Because it is accurate and consistent over a wide range of variables, the Colebrook-White (C-W) formula serves as the basis for many methods of calculating turbulent flow in gas pipelines. Oilconsult reveals a simple way to adapt the C-W formula to calculate steady-state pipeline flow using the TI-59 programmable calculator.

  1. Look at Western Natural Gas Infrastructure During the Recent El Paso Pipeline Disruption, A

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    This special report looks at the capabilities of the national natural gas pipeline network in 2000 and provides an assessment of the current levels of available capacity to transport supplies from production areas to markets throughout the United States during the upcoming heating season. It also examines how completion of currently planned expansion projects and proposed new pipelines would affect the network.

  2. Status of Natural Gas Pipeline System Capacity Entering the 2000-2001 Heating Season

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    This special report looks at the capabilities of the national natural gas pipeline network in 2000 and provides an assessment of the current levels of available capacity to transport supplies from production areas to markets throughout the United States during the upcoming heating season. It also examines how completion of currently planned expansion projects and proposed new pipelines would affect the network.

  3. A probe for in situ, remote, detection of defects in buried plastic natural gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, M.P.; Spenik, J.L.; Condon, C.M.; Monazam, E.R.; Fincham, W.L.

    2007-12-18

    Several techniques are available to determine the integrity of in situ metal pipeline but very little is available in the literature to determine the integrity of plastic pipelines. Since the decade of the 1970s much of the newly installed gas distribution and transmission lines in the United States are fabricated from polyethylene or other plastic. A probe has been developed to determine the in situ integrity of plastic natural gas pipelines that can be installed on a traversing mechanism (pig) to detect abnormalities in the walls of the plastic natural gas pipeline from the interior. This probe has its own internal power source and can be deployed into existing natural gas supply lines. Utilizing the capacitance parameter, the probe inspects the pipe for flaws and records the data internally which can be retrieved later for analysis.

  4. 75 FR 32460 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Bruce H. Newsome, Vice President, Regulatory Products and Services, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of...-3070, or by e-mail bruce_newsome@kindermorgan.com . This filing is available for review at...

  5. 78 FR 30918 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... application may be directed to Bruce H. Newsome, Vice President, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC, 3250 Lacey Road, Suite 700, Downers Grove, Illinois 60515, (630) 725-3070, or email at bruce...

  6. 75 FR 24942 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... directed to Bruce H. Newsome, Vice President, Regulatory Products and Services, Natural Gas Pipeline... at (630) 725-3070, or by e-mail bruce_newsome@kindermorgan.com . This filing is available for...

  7. 76 FR 51970 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... directed to Bruce H. Newsome, Vice President, Regulatory Products and Services, Natural Gas Pipeline... (630) 725-3070, or by e-mail at bruce_newsome@kindermorgan.com . Any person may, within 60 days...

  8. 77 FR 58126 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... Bruce H. Newsome, Vice President, Regulatory Products and Services, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of...-3070, or by email bruce_newsome@kindermorgan.com . Any person may, within 60 days after the issuance...

  9. Corrosion intelligence: An application to oil and gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Calvarano, M.; Condanni, D.; Bazzoni, B.

    1997-08-01

    The transfer of sound corrosion knowledge from human experts to dedicated software tools has been individuated as a strategic activity, and, accordingly, a number of applications have been developed in recent years. This approach to corrosion, which represents a new phase, coming after those of corrosion science and corrosion engineering, has been labelled corrosion intelligence, and it matches several needs of an oil company, as: standardization of design procedures; capitalization of available knowledge in programs easy to update; decentralization of the expertise. The paper illustrates an expert system dealing with all aspects related to oil and gas pipeline corrosion, including: internal and external corrosion; material selection and corrosion control requirements; internal corrosion monitoring; coatings; cathodic protection; corrosion in transient phases; intelligent pig inspection; costs comparison. In particular, the modules for internal and external corrosion assessment are described. The general architecture of the application, based on independent expert modules, is discussed in detail and examples of results, with relevant interfaces, are shown. The expert system is also evaluated with respect to another software application for the assessment of corrosion risks.

  10. Mechanical and metallurgical effects on low-pH stress corrosion cracking of natural gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Harle, B.A.; Beavers, J.A.; Jaske, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of natural gas pipelines in low-pH environments is a serious problem for the gas transmission industry. This paper describes results of an ongoing research program investigating crack growth of API X-65 and X-52 line pipe steels in a low-pH cracking environment using a J-integral technique. The overall objective of the work is to estimate crack growth rates on operating pipelines. In previous work, it was demonstrated that the technique could be utilized to reproduce the cracking observed in the field and that the J integral is a good parameter for characterizing crack growth behavior. Recent work has focused on the evaluation of the influence of loading parameters, such as displacement rate, and metallurgy, on crack growth. Testing has also been performed in which loading sequences involved: (a) a constant displacement rate, until cracking was detected, followed by maintaining a constant displacement; and, (b) slowly loading a specimen to fifty percent of its tensile strength in an inert, non-aqueous environment followed by loading in the low-pH environment.

  11. Composite wrap approved for U.S. gas-pipeline repairs

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R.

    1995-10-09

    The US agency that oversees pipeline safety has taken the unusual step of waiving certain natural-gas pipeline maintenance regulations and permitted a group of gas-pipeline operators to perform repairs with a patented composite wrap formerly used only on liquids lines. The waivers ar subject to conditions and to future performance evaluations. The wrap is made of polyester resin reinforced by glass filament. On installation, it is tightly wound and adhesively bonded to damaged pipe. The paper describes the 2 waivers, the development of this new technology, savings, and training required by the Dept. of Transportation.

  12. Effect of stress corrosion cracking on integrity and remaining life of natural gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Jaske, C.E.; Beavers, J.A.; Harle, B.A.

    1996-08-01

    External stress-corrosion cracking of pipelines is a serious problem for the gas transmission industry. Longitudinal cracks initiate on the outside surface of the pipe and link up to form flaws that, in some cases, can lead to pipe rupture. This paper presents a model that quantifies the effect of stress-corrosion cracking on pipe failure stress. The model is an extension of those that have been developed for oil and gas pipelines and considers both flow-stress and fracture-toughness dependent failure modes. A methodology also is presented to calculate the remaining life of a pipeline containing flaws of known size.

  13. Geotechnical assessment of a landslide along a natural gas pipeline for possible remediations (Karacabey-Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topal, Tamer; Akin, Muge

    2009-04-01

    A new natural gas pipeline with a 0.90-m diameter is under construction to provide a gas connection between Turkey and Greece as well as to create a gas ring for southern Europe. The new pipeline route lies next to an existing small diameter gas pipeline broken by a landslide that occurred in February 2006 near Karacabey (Bursa). Although the existing pipeline has been temporarily repaired, either the pipeline route should be relocated or the landslide should be stabilized. The geological survey conducted in the study area reveals that relocation is not feasible due to the existence of other landslides in close vicinity to the site. In order to investigate the causes of the landslide and to suggest possible remedial measures, geotechnical investigations including surface geological mapping, trial pitting, drilling with field tests, inclinometer measurements, laboratory testing, and limit equilibrium analyses were conducted. The investigation revealed that the unconsolidated clayey soil slid on claystone along a non-circular failure surface. Based on the gathered data, possible remedial measures including partial removal of landslide material and construction of toe buttresses, slope flattening, lowering the pipeline, and surface drainage systems were evaluated. These are suggested to prevent the reactivation of the landslide, and thus to establish a safe route for both the existing and the new pipelines.

  14. 78 FR 70163 - Communication of Operational Information between Natural Gas Pipelines and Electric Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... Corporation (NERC), Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), Process Gas Consumers (PGC), Public Utilities... Operational Information Between Natural Gas Pipelines and Electric Transmission Operators, 78 FR 44900 (July... in 2011). \\4\\ See, e.g., North American Electric Reliability Corporation, 2013 Special...

  15. 78 FR 19409 - Annual Charge Filing Procedures for Natural Gas Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 154 Annual Charge Filing Procedures for Natural Gas... revise the filing requirements for natural gas pipelines that choose to recover Commission-assessed annual charges through an annual charge adjustment (ACA) clause. Currently, natural gas...

  16. Evaluation of the use of electrochemical noise corrosion sensors for natural gas transmission pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Cayard, Michael S.; Eden, Dawn C.; Kane, Russell D.

    2004-01-01

    Corrosion sensors and electrochemistry-based corrosion measurement technology were used to study internal corrosion of environments similar to those in natural gas transmission pipelines. Field tests were conducted at a gas gathering site. Test locations were selected in environments consisting of dry/moist natural gas and the hydrocarbon/water mixture removed from natural gas. Sensors were made using A106 pipeline steel in the form of flange probes. Linear polarization resistance, electrochemical noise, and harmonic distortion analysis were used to measure corrosion rates, Stern-Geary constants, and pitting factors. Results show that the measurements were sensitive enough to detect small rates of corrosion in the selected environments.

  17. 43 CFR 2881.12 - When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pipeline? 2881.12 Section 2881.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... THE MINERAL LEASING ACT General Information § 2881.12 When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline... in order to construct, operate, maintain, or terminate your pipeline, or to protect the...

  18. 43 CFR 2881.12 - When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... pipeline? 2881.12 Section 2881.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... THE MINERAL LEASING ACT General Information § 2881.12 When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline... in order to construct, operate, maintain, or terminate your pipeline, or to protect the...

  19. 43 CFR 2881.12 - When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pipeline? 2881.12 Section 2881.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... THE MINERAL LEASING ACT General Information § 2881.12 When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline... in order to construct, operate, maintain, or terminate your pipeline, or to protect the...

  20. 43 CFR 2881.12 - When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pipeline? 2881.12 Section 2881.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... THE MINERAL LEASING ACT General Information § 2881.12 When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline... in order to construct, operate, maintain, or terminate your pipeline, or to protect the...

  1. Proposal for Environmental Observation System for Large Scale Gas Pipeline Networks Using Unmanned Airship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiho, Makoto; Horioka, Kazuhiko; Inoue, Gen; Onda, Masahiko; Leighty, William C.; Yokoo, Kuniyoshi; Ono, Shoichi; Ohashi, Kazuhiko; Hirata, Masaru

    2004-03-01

    Construction of a large scale natural gas pipeline network system in the Northeast Asian area has been proposed by several researchers, including Prof. Masaru Hirata, which will extend over tens of thousands of kilometers. To monitor the gas leakage, and to cope with any other hazardous problems, continuous surveillance of the network will be required. For this purpose, an environmental observation system for the large scale pipeline network is proposed. In this system unmanned airships are used as platforms for various environmental diagnostics. The unmanned airship is routed along the pipeline with the aid of GPS. Propulsion power of the air ship is transmitted from the ground bases by microwave; the microwave power stations are located every 100-200km along the pipeline. This paper describes the unmanned airships, environmental diagnostic systems, microwave generation tubes, and microwave powering system.

  2. Domestic natural gas reserves and production dedicated to interstate pipeline companies, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Pridgen, V.S.

    1984-07-11

    The data presented in this preliminary report are based upon computer-edited detailed reserves and production data reported by the interstate pipeline companies. These data are subject to review and approval by FERC. The final data, to be published in the last quarter of calendar year 1984, are not expected to vary significantly. Eighty-six interstate pipeline companies, subject to FERC jurisdiction during 1983, were required to report natural gas supply information on FERC Form 15. Of those, 19 obtained their entire supply of natural gas from other interstate pipelines and/or foreign suppliers. The data of the remaining 67 interstate pipeline companies were edited, validated, and composited to develop the 1983 dedicated reserve and production data shown in this report.

  3. 43 CFR 2881.11 - When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline? 2881.11 Section 2881.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... oil and gas pipeline? You must have a BLM grant under 30 U.S.C. 185 for an oil or gas pipeline...

  4. 43 CFR 2881.11 - When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline? 2881.11 Section 2881.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... oil and gas pipeline? You must have a BLM grant under 30 U.S.C. 185 for an oil or gas pipeline...

  5. 43 CFR 2881.11 - When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline? 2881.11 Section 2881.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... oil and gas pipeline? You must have a BLM grant under 30 U.S.C. 185 for an oil or gas pipeline...

  6. 43 CFR 2881.11 - When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline? 2881.11 Section 2881.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... oil and gas pipeline? You must have a BLM grant under 30 U.S.C. 185 for an oil or gas pipeline...

  7. Electrochemical noise sensors for detection of localized and general corrosion of natural gas transmission pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Russell, James H.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret

    2002-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory funded a Natural Gas Infrastructure Reliability program directed at increasing and enhancing research and development activities in topics such as remote leak detection, pipe inspection, and repair technologies and materials. The Albany Research Center (ARC), U.S. Department of Energy was funded to study the use of electrochemical noise sensors for detection of localized and general corrosion of natural gas transmission pipelines. As part of this, ARC entered into a collaborative effort with the corrosion sensor industry to demonstrate the capabilities of commercially available remote corrosion sensors for use with the Nation's Gas Transmission Pipeline Infrastructure needs. The goal of the research was to develop an emerging corrosion sensor technology into a monitor for the type and degree of corrosion occurring at key locations in gas transmission pipelines.

  8. Software and instrumentation to monitor the performance of natural gas pipeline turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, P.; Patanjo, D.; Lam, W.P.

    1987-01-01

    Software for monitoring and evaluating the performance of gas turbines is being developed under the auspices of Gas Research Institute (GRI). This paper describes the PEGASUS software and monitoring system. PEGASUS is an acronym for Performance Evaluation of GAS Users Systems. Field test results, on multi-shaft turbines used in the gas pipeline industry, have demonstrated the potential of the software. The software and instrumentation, can help identify maintenance and upgrade actions to improve performance.

  9. Oil and gas pipeline construction cost analysis and developing regression models for cost estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaduri, Ravi Kiran

    In this study, cost data for 180 pipelines and 136 compressor stations have been analyzed. On the basis of the distribution analysis, regression models have been developed. Material, Labor, ROW and miscellaneous costs make up the total cost of a pipeline construction. The pipelines are analyzed based on different pipeline lengths, diameter, location, pipeline volume and year of completion. In a pipeline construction, labor costs dominate the total costs with a share of about 40%. Multiple non-linear regression models are developed to estimate the component costs of pipelines for various cross-sectional areas, lengths and locations. The Compressor stations are analyzed based on the capacity, year of completion and location. Unlike the pipeline costs, material costs dominate the total costs in the construction of compressor station, with an average share of about 50.6%. Land costs have very little influence on the total costs. Similar regression models are developed to estimate the component costs of compressor station for various capacities and locations.

  10. An analysis of land use planning and equity issues surrounding hazardous liquid and natural gas transmission pipelines in North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osland, Anna Christine

    Hazardous liquid and natural gas transmission pipelines have received limited attention by planning scholars even though local development decisions can have broad consequences if a rupture occurs. In this dissertation, I evaluated the implications of land-use planning for reducing risk to transmission pipeline hazards in North Carolina via three investigations. First, using a survey of planning directors in jurisdictions with transmission pipeline hazards, I investigated the land use planning tools used to mitigate pipeline hazards and the factors associated with tool adoption. Planning scholars have documented the difficulty of inducing planning in hazardous areas, yet there remain gaps in knowledge about the factors associated with tool adoption. Despite the risks associated with pipeline ruptures, I found most localities use few mitigation tools, and the adoption of regulatory and informational tools appear to be influenced by divergent factors. Whereas risk perception, commitment, capacity, and community context were associated with total tool and information tool use, only risk perception and capacity factors were associated with regulatory tool use. Second, using interviews of emergency managers and planning directors, I examined the role of agency collaboration for building mitigation capacity. Scholars have highlighted the potential of technical collaboration, yet less research has investigated how inter-agency collaboration shapes mitigation capacity. I identify three categories of technical collaboration, discuss how collaborative spillovers can occur from one planning area to another, and challenge the notion that all technical collaborations result in equal mitigation outcomes. Third, I evaluated characteristics of the population near pipelines to address equity concerns. Surprisingly, I did not find broad support for differences in exposure of vulnerable populations. Nonetheless, my analyses uncovered statistically significant clusters of vulnerable

  11. 75 FR 44893 - Pipeline Posting Requirements Under Section 23 of the Natural Gas Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    .... 720, 73 FR 73,494 (Dec. 2, 2008), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,283 (2008) (Order No. 720). \\2\\ Pipeline Posting Requirements under Section 23 of the Natural Gas Act, Order No. 720-A, 75 FR 5178 (Jan. 21, 2010... Requirements under Section 23 of the Natural Gas Act, 73 FR 1116 (Jan. 7, 2008), FERC Stats. & Regs....

  12. 77 FR 10415 - Standards for Business Practices for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ...The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) is proposing to amend its regulations at 18 CFR 284.12 to incorporate by reference the latest version (Version 2.0) of business practice standards adopted by the Wholesale Gas Quadrant of the North American Energy Standards Board (NAESB) applicable to natural gas pipelines.\\1\\ The Commission also proposes to provide guidance on the......

  13. 75 FR 5177 - Pipeline Posting Requirements under Section 23 of the Natural Gas Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... clarification of Order No. 720. \\1\\ Pipeline Posting Requirements under section 23 of the Natural Gas Act, 73 FR... Natural Gas Act, 73 FR 1116 (Jan. 7, 2008), FERC Stats. & Regs., Proposed Regulations 2004-2007 ] 32,626.... 670, 71 FR 4244 (Jan. 26, 2006), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,202 (2006). \\44\\ TPA Request for...

  14. Predictive and preventive maintenance of oil and gas production pipelines in the area North Monagas-Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, M.A.L.

    1996-12-31

    Predictive maintenance of oil and gas production pipelines has allowed the prediction of operational failures. Specially due to the thermodynamic behavior of the produced fluids, contaminants present in the oil and gas such as sand, water, H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2}, asphaltene deposition, high temperatures and pressures, physicochemical characteristics of the soil, etc. lead to risks of the installations. In order to minimize risks of failures, the author has established a control and monitoring preventive program of the variables that influence these conditions, such as: nondestructive testing, wall thickness measurements and two dimensional B Scan measurements to detect impurities, laminations and inclusions in the pipeline material, corrosion evaluation of pipelines, characterization of the soil corrosive potential of flow stations and compressing plants. Additionally, he has implemented predictive control through the application of external corrosion prevention techniques such as cathodic protection and coatings. For internal corrosion, the use of corrosion inhibitors, asphaltene dispersants and material selection are used. Increasing the protection through preventive and predictive maintenance can reduce the operational risks involved for the oil and gas production.

  15. Feasibility study of replacement procedures and earthquake performance related to gas transmission pipelines. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, T.D.; Palmer, M.C.

    1994-05-25

    A general procedure for evaluating the relative risks from earthquake hazards to steel pipelines is developed. The procedure accounts for the influence of traveling ground waves, surface faulting, landslides, and soil liquefaction. The procedure utilizes information, acquired primarily through reconnaissance studies, on regional geology, groundwater conditions, aerial photos, and site-specific soil borings obtained principally through public agencies. Two transmission pipelines in Southern California, Lines 121 and 123, were selected for a feasibility study.

  16. A Simulation Method of Voltages and Currents on a Gas Pipeline and its Fault Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ametani, Akihiro; Kanba, Junsuke; Hosokawa, Yuji

    The present paper develops a numerical simulation method of steady-state and transient voltages and currents on a gas pipeline by applying a generalized circuit analysis program EMTP which is realized as a worldwide standard software. A buried gas pipeline is represented as an underground cable consisting of a tubular core and its outer insulator. The series impedance and the shunt admittance are easily evaluated by the EMTP supporting routine Cable Parameters. The paper has carried out simulations of steady-state and transient voltages and currents along the buried gas pipeline by EMTP. Based on the simulation results, it has become clear that the distributions of the voltages and the currents along the pipeline differ notably in the front and in the rear of a fault position. Thus, a detecting method is developed by observing a difference of a voltage amplitude between sound and fault states. The proposed techniques are investigated on real gas pipelines based on EMTP simulations, and it has been confirmed that the technique can be used in practice.

  17. Mechanical Characteristics of Submerged Arc Weldment in API Gas Pipeline Steel of Grade X65

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemi, S. H.; Mohammadyani, D.

    2011-01-17

    The mechanical properties of submerged arc weldment (SAW) in gas transportation pipeline steel of grade API X65 (65 ksi yield strength) were investigated. This steel is produced by thermo mechanical control rolled (TMC), and is largely used in Iran gas piping systems and networks. The results from laboratory study on three different regions; i.e. base metal (BM), fusion zone (FZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) were used to compare weldment mechanical characteristics with those specified by API 5L (revision 2004) standard code. Different laboratory experiments were conducted on test specimens taken from 48 inch outside diameter and 14.3 mm wall thickness gas pipeline. The test results showed a gradient of microstructure and Vickers hardness data from the centerline of FZ towards the unaffected MB. Similarly, lower Charpy absorbed energy (compared to BM) was observed in the FZ impact specimens. Despite this, the API specifications were fulfilled in three tested zones, ensuring pipeline structural integrity under working conditions.

  18. Mechanical Characteristics of Submerged Arc Weldment in API Gas Pipeline Steel of Grade X65

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, S. H.; Mohammadyani, D.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical properties of submerged arc weldment (SAW) in gas transportation pipeline steel of grade API X65 (65 ksi yield strength) were investigated. This steel is produced by thermo mechanical control rolled (TMC), and is largely used in Iran gas piping systems and networks. The results from laboratory study on three different regions; i.e. base metal (BM), fusion zone (FZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) were used to compare weldment mechanical characteristics with those specified by API 5L (revision 2004) standard code. Different laboratory experiments were conducted on test specimens taken from 48 inch outside diameter and 14.3 mm wall thickness gas pipeline. The test results showed a gradient of microstructure and Vickers hardness data from the centerline of FZ towards the unaffected MB. Similarly, lower Charpy absorbed energy (compared to BM) was observed in the FZ impact specimens. Despite this, the API specifications were fulfilled in three tested zones, ensuring pipeline structural integrity under working conditions.

  19. Detection of gas leaks along pipelines by spectrally tuned infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Werner; Hierl, Thomas; Scheuerpflug, H.; Schirl, U.; Schulz, Max J.

    1998-12-01

    We present a novel method developed for the localization of leaks along natural gas pipelines. Methane distributions in the atmosphere around the leaky pipeline are detected and visualized by spectrally tuned IR imaging. In contrast to conventional techniques which utilize laser radiation sources or scanning, we irradiate the overall region under investigation by 1 kW halogen lamps. The scene background is subtracted by a real-time computer evaluation of the image. The methane gas emitted from the leak creates a flickering cloud in the image which is easily recognized. Methane concentrations as low as 0.03 percent by volume are visible. The method was successfully tested under realistic conditions on a buried pipeline by a natural gas provider.

  20. Industry sector analysis Canada: Natural gas pipeline development. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, T.

    1992-08-01

    The analysis focuses on the Canadian natural gas pipeline industry and covers all inputs to natural gas pipeline construction and expansion projects: pipe, compressors, engineering services, tools, miscellaneous industrial supplies, and equipment rental. The Industry Sector Analysis (ISA) contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Canadian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation (Canadian production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, competitive factors), and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). The ISA also contains Key Contact information.

  1. Competition in the natural gas pipeline industry: An economic policy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gallick, E.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) currently regulates the price at which natural gas can be sold by regulated interstate natural gas pipelines. Whether pipelines should be deregulated depends, to an important extent, on the competitive nature of the market. The key question is whether pipelines can successfully raise price (i.e., the transport fee) and reduce output if the market is deregulated. In most natural gas pipeline markets, there are a small number of current suppliers. Opponents of deregulation argue that the unrestrained market power of pipelines in many local markets will introduce inefficiencies in the sale of natural gas. Implicit in their arguments is a narrow view of competition: the number of current suppliers. The competitive effect of potential entry is largely ignored. These commentators would argue that without potential entry, it may be true that the net social cost of deregulation exceeds the costs of maintaining present regulation. A study was conducted to determine the extent to which potential entry might constrain the exercise of market power by natural gas pipelines if price and entry regulation is removed. Potential entrants are defined in the context of antitrust markets. That is, these markets are consistent with the Department of Justice (DOJ) Merger Guidelines. The study attempts to quantify the effects of potential entry on the market power of current suppliers. The selection of potential entrants therefore considers a number of factors (such as the size of the nearby supplier and the distance to the market) that are expected to affect the likelihood of collision in a deregulated market. The policy implications of the study are reviewed.

  2. 78 FR 37218 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 30, 2013, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas...

  3. 77 FR 43586 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an... Project involving abandonment of facilities by Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) in... comment on their areas of concern. Southern Star provided landowners with a fact sheet prepared by...

  4. 76 FR 39864 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Dominion Gas Transmission, Inc.; Notice of Availability of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ...-diameter loop \\1\\ pipeline in Tioga and Bradford Counties, Pennsylvania including a new pig \\2\\ receiver at...\\ A ``pig'' is a tool that is inserted into and moves through the pipeline, and is used for...

  5. Liquid and gas flowmeters based on the waveguide properties of pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Kolmakov, I.A.

    1995-08-01

    A fundamentally new type of flowmeter based on the waveguide properties of pipelines is discussed and the influence of the flow of the fluid on the critical frequencies is considered. Waveguides have a set of critical frequencies. Waves with frequencies below the critical values do not propagate, i.e., the waveguides are {open_quotes}blocked{close_quotes} to such waves. This circumstance, along with the possibility of kinematic {open_quotes}unblocking{close_quotes} of pipeline-waveguides, forms the basis for a new flowmeter. This article discusses the essence and operating principle of a new flowmeter, based on the waveguide properties of the measuring segment of the pipeline, where the fluid moving in it is probed with acoustic signals. Waves of a different kind can be used, however, because the {open_quotes}unblocking{close_quotes} of the pipeline-waveguide is kinematic.

  6. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSNG OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Myers

    2005-04-15

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The scope of the work involved designing and developing an airborne, optical remote sensor capable of sensing methane and, if possible, ethane for the detection of natural gas pipeline leaks. Flight testing using a custom dual wavelength, high power fiber amplifier was initiated in February 2005. Ophir successfully demonstrated the airborne system, showing that it was capable of discerning small amounts of methane from a simulated pipeline leak. Leak rates as low as 150 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h) were detected by the airborne sensor.

  7. A perspective on pipeline pricing under the Natural Gas Act

    SciTech Connect

    Threadgill, E.E.

    1995-12-31

    Pricing different services to a single class of customers, and pricing different services to the same or different classes of customers, are complex matters which, in many instances, are case specific. Cost responsibilities, market demands, and national policies should be taken into account in pricing pipeline services. But one fact is eminently clear, and that is that radically different {open_quotes}FERC incremental{close_quotes} rates for the same service to the same class of customers, depending upon the date upon which the customers signed contracts for an expansion of service, are unduly discriminatory and illegal under the NGA.

  8. 18 CFR 12.43 - Power and communication lines and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Power and communication lines and gas pipelines. 12.43 Section 12.43 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER...

  9. 18 CFR 12.43 - Power and communication lines and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Power and communication lines and gas pipelines. 12.43 Section 12.43 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER...

  10. 18 CFR 12.43 - Power and communication lines and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Power and communication lines and gas pipelines. 12.43 Section 12.43 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER...

  11. 18 CFR 12.43 - Power and communication lines and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Power and communication lines and gas pipelines. 12.43 Section 12.43 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER...

  12. 18 CFR 12.43 - Power and communication lines and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Power and communication lines and gas pipelines. 12.43 Section 12.43 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER...

  13. Subsea template, pipeline anchor Troll-Oseberg gas-injection scheme in Norwegian North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Weibye, B.S.

    1988-01-18

    The author discusses the subsea, gas production template and the 30-mile pipeline that are key elements in supplying as from the Troll field for injection into Oseberg field in the Norwegian North Sea by 1991. The author discusses the design basis and philosophies as well as the production system, template installation and control pods.

  14. 76 FR 52253 - Revisions to Forms, Statements, and Reporting Requirements for Natural Gas Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... burden estimate to more accurately account for initial start-up costs, grant rehearing on the issue of... Reporting Requirements for Natural Gas Pipelines, Order No. 710-B, 76 FR 4516 (Jan. 26, 2011), 134 FERC ] 61... initial start-up costs, grant rehearing on the issue of whether to include page 521d and we grant...

  15. 76 FR 18754 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Dominion Transmission, Inc.; Notice of Onsite Environmental Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Dominion Transmission, Inc.; Notice of Onsite Environmental Review On April 12 and 13, 2011, the Office of Energy Projects (OEP) staff will be in Wyoming County, New York, and Tioga...

  16. Health, safety and environmental risk of a gas pipeline in an oil exploring area of Gachsaran.

    PubMed

    Kalatpoor, Omid; Goshtasp, Kambiz; Khavaji, Solieman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was assessing health, safety and environmental risk of a gas transfer pipeline in an oily area of Gachsaran. In this method, we used the Kent's pipeline risk assessment method except that to facilitate using the method more practically some changes were exerted into Kent's method. A pipeline with 16 kilometers length was selected considering surrounding nature of the pipeline. It was divided into two sections. Analogous to Kent's method, in this method, parameters included: interested party's injuries, corrosion, design factor, incorrect operation index and consequence scoring. The difference here was that for consequence scoring we used ALOHA 5.6 software instead of Kent's pattern. Results showed that health, safety and environmental risks of section 2 (the next 13 kilometers of outgoing pipeline from gas station after the first 3 kilometers) were greater. It seems the main cause of gaining a bigger risk number was related to more activities of interested parties around section 2. Because all figures gathered from indexes are almost close to gather except third parties activity. PMID:21173529

  17. 78 FR 53190 - Pipeline Safety: Notice to Operators of Hazardous Liquid and Natural Gas Pipelines of a Recall on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Notice to Operators of Hazardous... and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice; Issuance of...

  18. Oil and Gas Wells and Pipelines on U.S. Wildlife Refuges: Challenges for Managers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The increased demand for oil and gas places a burden on lands set aside for natural resource conservation. Oil and gas development alters the environment locally and on a much broader spatial scale depending on the intensity and extent of mineral resource extraction. The current increase in oil and gas exploration and production in the United States prompted an update of the number of pipelines and wells associated with oil and gas production on National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) lands. We obtained geospatial data on the location of oil and gas wells and pipelines within and close to the boundaries of NWRS lands (units) acquired as fee simple (i.e. absolute title to the surface land) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. We found that 5,002 wells are located in 107 NWRS units and 595 pipelines transect 149 of the 599 NWRS units. Almost half of the wells (2,196) were inactive, one-third (1,665) were active, and the remainder of the wells were either plugged and abandoned or the status was unknown. Pipelines crossed a total of 2,155 kilometers (1,339 miles) of NWRS fee simple lands. The high level of oil and gas activity warrants follow up assessments for wells lacking information on production type or well status with emphasis on verifying the well status and identifying abandoned and unplugged wells. NWRS fee simple lands should also be assessed for impacts from brine, oil and other hydrocarbon spills, as well as habitat alteration associated with oil and gas, including the identification of abandoned oil and gas facilities requiring equipment removal and site restoration. PMID:25915417

  19. Oil and gas wells and pipelines on U.S. wildlife refuges: challenges for managers.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Pedro; Mosley, Sherri Baker

    2015-01-01

    The increased demand for oil and gas places a burden on lands set aside for natural resource conservation. Oil and gas development alters the environment locally and on a much broader spatial scale depending on the intensity and extent of mineral resource extraction. The current increase in oil and gas exploration and production in the United States prompted an update of the number of pipelines and wells associated with oil and gas production on National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) lands. We obtained geospatial data on the location of oil and gas wells and pipelines within and close to the boundaries of NWRS lands (units) acquired as fee simple (i.e. absolute title to the surface land) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. We found that 5,002 wells are located in 107 NWRS units and 595 pipelines transect 149 of the 599 NWRS units. Almost half of the wells (2,196) were inactive, one-third (1,665) were active, and the remainder of the wells were either plugged and abandoned or the status was unknown. Pipelines crossed a total of 2,155 kilometers (1,339 miles) of NWRS fee simple lands. The high level of oil and gas activity warrants follow up assessments for wells lacking information on production type or well status with emphasis on verifying the well status and identifying abandoned and unplugged wells. NWRS fee simple lands should also be assessed for impacts from brine, oil and other hydrocarbon spills, as well as habitat alteration associated with oil and gas, including the identification of abandoned oil and gas facilities requiring equipment removal and site restoration. PMID:25915417

  20. A Model for Oil-Gas Pipelines Cost Prediction Based on a Data Mining Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Fragiskos A.; Spanidis, Phillip-Mark P.

    2009-08-01

    This paper addresses the problems associated with the cost estimation of oil/gas pipelines during the elaboration of feasibility assessments. Techno-economic parameters, i.e., cost, length and diameter, are critical for such studies at the preliminary design stage. A methodology for the development of a cost prediction model based on Data Mining (DM) process is proposed. The design and implementation of a Knowledge Base (KB), maintaining data collected from various disciplines of the pipeline industry, are presented. The formulation of a cost prediction equation is demonstrated by applying multiple regression analysis using data sets extracted from the KB. Following the methodology proposed, a learning context is inductively developed as background pipeline data are acquired, grouped and stored in the KB, and through a linear regression model provide statistically substantial results, useful for project managers or decision makers.

  1. Trans-Caspian gas pipeline feasibility study. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    This study, conducted by Enron Engineering and Construction Company, was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The study provides detailed information concerning natural gas demand in Turkey and Southern Europe. The purpose of the study is to estimate the rate at which new gas can be absorbed in the Turkish market and be re-exported to the markets in Europe, as well as to forecast Turkish natural gas demand for the period up to 2020. The study also evaluates gas demand and pricing for the market in the 2002--2005 time frame. This is Volume 1 of a 3-volume report, and is divided into the following sections: (1) Task A: Gas Sales; (2) Task B: Initial Economic Screening; (3) Task D: Project Cost Analysis.

  2. Technique of estimation of actual strength of a gas pipeline section at its deformation in landslide action zone

    SciTech Connect

    Tcherni, V.P.

    1996-12-31

    The technique is given which permits determination of stress and strain state (SSS) and estimation of actual strength of a section of a buried main gas pipeline (GP) in the case of its deformation in a landslide action zone. The technique is based on the use of three-dimensional coordinates of axial points of the deformed GP section. These coordinates are received by a full-scale survey. The deformed axis of the surveyed GP section is described by the polynomial. The unknown coefficients of the polynomial can be determined from the boundary conditions at points of connection with contiguous undeformed sections as well as by use of minimization methods in mathematical processing of full-scale survey results. The resulting form of GP section`s axis allows one to determine curvatures and, accordingly, bending moments along all the length of the considered section. The influence of soil resistance to longitudinal displacements of a pipeline is used to determine longitudinal forces. Resulting values of bending moments and axial forces as well as the known value of internal pressure are used to analyze all necessary components of an actual SSS of pipeline section and to estimate its strength by elastic analysis.

  3. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  4. Algorithms for near real-time detection of gas leaks from buried pipelines using hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, G. D.; Silver, E. A.; Pickles, W.; Male, E.

    2009-12-01

    Gas leaks from buried pipelines can directly impact the health of overlying vegetation. The leak can produce patches of highly stressed or dead vegetation. Plant health can be assessed remotely by measuring the depth of the chlorophyll absorption, which is located between 550 nm and 700 nm in reflectance imagery. Chlorophyll absorption is readily recognizable in multispectral and hyperspectral imagery as a strong absorption band centered on red light (typically 680 nm wavelength). We have examined several methods of measuring chlorophyll absorption with the goal of automating vegetation stress detection above underground pipelines in order to facilitate same-day detection of potential pipeline leak locations. One method, in which we measure vegetation stress as the ratio of the measured reflectance at peak absorption to the spectral continuum, was particularly successful. We compare the results of this measurement with a manual analysis of 0.18 m resolution imagery of several controlled CO2 leaks, finding the automatic analysis to be robust. High spatial resolution is shown to greatly increase the quality of the results, however, we show that this method works in even 3 m resolution imagery of an underground pipeline methane leak. This algorithm runs very quickly for large images. We are developing the image analysis algorithm to operate in real-time while flying buried pipeline right of way with hyperspectral sensors.

  5. An integrated GPS-FID system for airborne gas detection of pipeline right-of-ways

    SciTech Connect

    Gehue, H.L.; Sommer, P.

    1996-12-31

    Pipeline integrity, safety and environmental concerns are of prime importance in the Canadian natural gas industry. Terramatic Technology Inc. (TTI) has developed an integrated GPS/FID gas detection system known as TTI-AirTrac{trademark} for use in airborne gas detection (AGD) along pipeline right-of-ways. The Flame Ionization Detector (FID), which has traditionally been used to monitor air quality for gas plants and refineries, has been integrated with the Global Positioning System (GPS) via a 486 DX2-50 computer and specialized open architecture data acquisition software. The purpose of this technology marriage is to be able to continuously monitor air quality during airborne pipeline inspection. Event tagging from visual surveillance is used to determine an explanation of any delta line deviations (DLD). These deviations are an indication of hydrocarbon gases present in the plume that the aircraft has passed through. The role of the GPS system is to provide mapping information and coordinate data for ground inspections. The ground based inspection using a handheld multi gas detector will confirm whether or not a leak exists.

  6. Trans-Caspian gas pipeline feasibility study. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    This study, conducted by Enron Engineering and Construction Company, was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The study provides detailed information concerning natural gas demand in Turkey and Southern Europe. The purpose of the study is to estimate the rate at which new gas can be absorbed in the Turkish market and be re-exported to the markets in Europe, as well as to forecast Turkish natural gas demand for the period up to 2020. The study also evaluates gas demand and pricing for the market in the 2002--2005 time frame. This is Volume 2 of a 3-volume report, and it is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework; (3) Assessment of Alternatives; (4) Baseline Conditions in the Project Area; (5) Potential (Unmitigated) Environment, Health and Safety Impacts; (6) Proposed Environmental Prevention and Mitigation; (7) Projected Net Environmental Impacts; (8) Bibliography.

  7. Trans-Caspian gas pipeline feasibility study. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    This study, conducted by Enron Engineering and Construction Company, was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The study provides detailed information concerning natural gas demand in Turkey and Southern Europe. The purpose of the study is to estimate the rate at which new gas can be absorbed in the Turkish market and be re-exported to the markets in Europe, as well as to forecast Turkish natural gas demand for the period up to 2020. The study also evaluates gas demand and pricing for the market in the 2002--2005 time frame. This is Volume 3 of a 3-volume report, and it is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Task C: Technical Feasibility and Preliminary Design; (3) Task F: Project Implementation Strategy.

  8. 77 FR 59393 - Jordan Cove Energy Project LP; Pacific Connector Gas Pipeline LP; Notice of Additional Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Cove Energy Project LP; Pacific Connector Gas Pipeline LP; Notice of Additional Public Scoping Meetings for the Jordan Cove Liquefaction and Pacific Connector Pipeline Projects...), will hold three additional public scoping meetings to take comments on Jordan Cove Energy Project...

  9. 76 FR 76707 - Brian Hamilton; El Paso Natural Gas and El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brian Hamilton; El Paso Natural Gas and El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice of... Improvement Act of 2002, and the Pipeline Hazardous Material Safety Administration, Brian...

  10. 18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reports by natural gas..., NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.9 Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities. (a)(1) Every natural gas company must report to...

  11. 18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports by natural gas..., NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.9 Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities. (a)(1) Every natural gas company must report to...

  12. 18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reports by natural gas..., NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.9 Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities. (a)(1) Every natural gas company must report to...

  13. Leak detection in gas pipeline by acoustic and signal processing - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan, N. F.; Ghazali, M. F.; Amin, M. M.; Hamat, A. M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The pipeline system is the most important part in media transport in order to deliver fluid to another station. The weak maintenance and poor safety will contribute to financial losses in term of fluid waste and environmental impacts. There are many classifications of techniques to make it easier to show their specific method and application. This paper's discussion about gas leak detection in pipeline system using acoustic method will be presented in this paper. The wave propagation in the pipeline is a key parameter in acoustic method when the leak occurs and the pressure balance of the pipe will generated by the friction between wall in the pipe. The signal processing is used to decompose the raw signal and show in time- frequency. Findings based on the acoustic method can be used for comparative study in the future. Acoustic signal and HHT is the best method to detect leak in gas pipelines. More experiments and simulation need to be carried out to get the fast result of leaking and estimation of their location.

  14. Designing a reliable leak bio-detection system for natural gas pipelines.

    PubMed

    Batzias, F A; Siontorou, C G; Spanidis, P-M P

    2011-02-15

    Monitoring of natural gas (NG) pipelines is an important task for economical/safety operation, loss prevention and environmental protection. Timely and reliable leak detection of gas pipeline, therefore, plays a key role in the overall integrity management for the pipeline system. Owing to the various limitations of the currently available techniques and the surveillance area that needs to be covered, the research on new detector systems is still thriving. Biosensors are worldwide considered as a niche technology in the environmental market, since they afford the desired detector capabilities at low cost, provided they have been properly designed/developed and rationally placed/networked/maintained by the aid of operational research techniques. This paper addresses NG leakage surveillance through a robust cooperative/synergistic scheme between biosensors and conventional detector systems; the network is validated in situ and optimized in order to provide reliable information at the required granularity level. The proposed scheme is substantiated through a knowledge based approach and relies on Fuzzy Multicriteria Analysis (FMCA), for selecting the best biosensor design that suits both, the target analyte and the operational micro-environment. This approach is illustrated in the design of leak surveying over a pipeline network in Greece. PMID:21177031

  15. Efficient corrosion control of gas condensate pipelines by pH-stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Dugstad, A.; Dronen, P.E.

    1999-11-01

    The corrosion rate of gas condensate pipelines can be substantially reduced by increasing the pH artificially. The technique is called pH stabilization and has been used with success in gas condensate pipelines. The reduction is based on the precipitation of protective corrosion products on the steel surface. When corrosion product films are formed, it is the transport of reactants and corrosion products through the film which governs the corrosion rate. Film properties like porosity, thickness and composition therefore become important. All these properties are strongly related to the precipitation process which depends very much on supersaturation and temperature. A large number of flow loop and glass cell experiments have been carried out in order to study these aspects. In addition to the CO{sub 2} partial pressure, the hydrate preventer, the flow velocity, and the pH, a number of variables related to the steel surface conditions and the operation of a real pipeline were studied in the experiments. The last group of variables included the presence of mill scale and rust on the steel surface prior to exposure, periods without flow (shut down), draining of the pipeline and scratches in the protective film. The paper discusses how these parameters affected the performance of carbon steel in water-glycol(50%) systems with 0.6 MPa CO{sub 2} partial pressure and with sodium bicarbonate added as pH stabilizer.

  16. Application of four dimensional matrix for thermal analysis of Slovak transit gas pipeline by program FENIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Széplaky, Dávid; Varga, Augustín

    2016-06-01

    The contribution describes the principle of the FENIX program operation, which was designed to determine the temperature field of the transit pipeline for the transportation of natural gas. The program itself consists of several modules which are reciprocally linked. The basis of the program is the elementary balance method by means of which the unsteady heat transfer is assigned in several layers in different directions. The first step was to assess both the pressure and temperature of the natural gas mode, the second step is to determine the heat transfer through the walls of the pipes, and the last one is to determine the distribution of the temperature field in the surroundings of the pipeline.

  17. Natural Gas Pipeline Replacement Programs Reduce Methane Leaks and Improve Consumer Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    From production through distribution, oil and natural gas infrastructure provide the largest source of anthropogenic methane in the U.S. and the second largest globally. To examine the prevalence of natural gas leaks downstream in distribution systems, we mapped methane leaks across 595, 750, and 247 road miles of three U.S. cities—Durham, NC, Cincinnati, OH, and Manhattan, NY, respectively—at different stages of pipeline replacement of cast iron and other older materials. We compare results with those for two cities we mapped previously, Boston and Washington, D.C. Overall, cities with pipeline replacement programs have considerably fewer leaks per mile than cities without such programs. Similar programs around the world should provide additional environmental, economic, and consumer safety benefits.

  18. 78 FR 65637 - Sierrita Gas Pipeline LLC; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ...-inch-diameter natural gas pipeline in Pima County, Arizona; two meter stations; two pig launchers and two pig receivers; \\1\\ and \\1\\ A pig is an internal tool that can be used to clean and dry a...

  19. 76 FR 57726 - Take Notice That the Commission Has Received the Following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Take Notice That the Commission Has Received the Following Natural Gas Pipeline Rate and Refund Report Filings: Filings Instituting Proceedings Docket Numbers:...

  20. Combined CFD/Population Balance Model for Gas Hydrate Particle Size Prediction in Turbulent Pipeline Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakin, Boris V.; Hoffmann, Alex C.; Kosinski, Pawel; Istomin, Vladimir A.; Chuvilin, Evgeny M.

    2010-09-01

    A combined computational fluid dynamics/population balance model (CFD-PBM) is developed for gas hydrate particle size prediction in turbulent pipeline flow. The model is based on a one-moment population balance technique, which is coupled with flow field parameters computed using commercial CFD software. The model is calibrated with a five-moment, off-line population balance model and validated with experimental data produced in a low-pressure multiphase flow loop.

  1. Development of capsules and pigs for inspection of small-diameter gas distribution pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Hosohara, Y.; Seki, A.; Yasui, K.

    1988-01-01

    To inspect external corrosion of small-diameter gas distribution pipelines precisely, the three major gas companies of Japan have jointly developed inspection capsules (very small pigs) and pigs for the first time in the world. The laboratory test has been completed and the field test is now in progress. The inspection techniques developed are the following two methods: 1. Inspection methods for 2- and 3-inch screw-jointed mains: The inspection capsule is inserted through a launcher into a straight pipeline of 30m length on each side (60m total span) in live condition. The remote-field eddy current method and the impressed-current magnetic leakage flux method were adopted. 2. Inspection methods for weld-joint 4-, 8- and 12-inche mains: The pipeline is cut off (down to less than 300m length), and gas is purged by air. The inspection pigs pass through miter bends, short elbows of 1.5 DR and sleeve joints. The magnetic leakage flux method was adopted, while different methods of travel were adopted by the three contractors.

  2. Application of groundwater aggressiveness assessment method for estimation of the karst process at main gas pipeline construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermolaeva, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    Main pipelines maintenance is connected with hazard engineering and geological working conditions. The article deals with the use of groundwater aggressiveness assessment method to estimate the karst processes development during the construction of main gas pipelines. The possibility of using this method is analyzed on the example of the initial section of the designed gas pipeline “Power of Siberia” (section “Chayanda-Lensk"). The calculation of the nonequilibrium index Ca was made in accordance with the geotechnical survey data. The dependencies between the geomorphological features of the terrain and the natural waters aggressiveness were determined.

  3. Rejection of seamless pipe noise in magnetic flux leakage data obtained from gas pipeline inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzal, Muhammad; Udpa, Satish; Udpa, Lalita; Lord, William

    2000-05-01

    Natural gas is traditionally transmitted from production facilities to customer locations through a vast pipeline network. A major segment of this network employs seamless pipes. This is especially true for smaller diameter transmission and distribution lines. Manufacturing process associated with the production of seamless pipes contribute to a helical variation in the pipe along the axis. The deformation introduces an artifact in the data obtained from MFL inspection of these pipelines. This seamless pipe noise is usually correlated with signals generated by defects and other elements (joints, tees, etc.) in pipelines, and can therefore, mask their indications in MFL data. This warrants the need for methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in MFL data from seamless pipes. This paper presents a technique for detecting signals in MFL data from seamless pipes. The approach processes the data in various steps. First, a wavelet based denoising technique is applied to reduce the noise due to instrumentation and other sources. An adaptive filtering approach is then applied to reject seamless noise in the data. Since the inspection of pipelines typically generates vast amounts of data, it is imperative that the algorithm be computationally efficient. The processing method has to be robust in that it should be data independent. The approach described in this paper meet these criteria. Results from application of the approach to data from field tests are presented.

  4. Criteria for performance assessment and calibration of in-line inspections of oil and gas pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleyo, F.; Alfonso, L.; Espina-Hernández, J. H.; Hallen, J. M.

    2007-07-01

    Oil and gas pipeline operators routinely use magnetic flux leakage (MFL) and ultrasonic (UT) in-line inspection (ILI) to detect, locate and size metal losses caused by corrosion. As a preliminary step in fitness-for-service evaluations, the quality of the ILI is assessed through statistical comparison of the ILI data with data gathered in the field at dig sites. This work presents generalized criteria for the performance assessment and calibration of MFL and UT ILI tools from field measurements. The proposed criteria are capable of accounting for the measurement errors of both the ILI tool and the field instrument. The performance assessment of the ILI run is based on the determination of the minimum number of unsuccessful field verifications required to reject the ILI at a given significance level. The calibration of the ILI data uses new, simplified, error-in-variables methods to estimate the true size of the corrosion metal losses reported by the ILI tool. The proposed methodology also allows for determination of the errors associated with the estimation of the true defect depths. This information is of utmost importance in conducting reliability and risk assessments of pipelines based on either the probability distribution properties of the pipeline defect population, or the probability of failure of each individual defect in the pipeline. The proposed criteria are tested using Monte Carlo simulations and a real-life case study is presented to illustrate their application.

  5. Bashkirian train-gas pipeline disaster: the American military response.

    PubMed

    Becker, W K; Waymack, J P; McManus, A T; Shaikhutdinov, M; Pruitt, B A

    1990-10-01

    The United States Army Institute of Surgical Research was asked to provide burn care assistance in June 1989 following the explosion of leaking methane/propane gas in the Central Soviet Union, which destroyed two passenger trains and injured 800 passengers. A 17-member burn team flew from San Antonio, Texas, to Ufa, USSR and assisted in the management of 150 burn patients in a general medical-surgical hospital. Early problems included heavily colonized burn wounds, with a microbial flora that demonstrated broad antibiotic resistance. As wound complications were controlled, 28 operative procedures were performed to excise and graft the burn wounds. The recommendations for burn disaster management, based on our experience in Ufa, should be of assistance to other groups that may be asked to provide similar assistance in the future. PMID:2275760

  6. Wired for sound fittings. [Electrofusion of natural gas pipeline joints

    SciTech Connect

    Stoddard, B.

    1994-05-01

    Piping must be manually pieced together in various places to fit the needs of the system. Consequently, field crews rely on several joining methods to create the network of plastic that carries natural gas to homes and businesses. One such method--electrofusion--was developed in Europe more than a decade ago, but it still gets mixed reviews in the US. The most common opinion is that electrofusion is good for making repairs and creating tie-ins where space is a factor, but not quite cost-effective for new construction. Electrofusion competes with three other joining techniques: butt fusion, socket fusion and mechanical coupling. The first two techniques use a heating iron, probably an obvious choice to plastic pipe's inventors since the pipe is manufactured by extruding molten plastic into its final shape. Electrofusion is most closely related to the socket method, since it also uses a separate fitting that's fused to the pipe. In electrofusion, however, the two ends to be jointed are slid--cold--into a special cylindrical sleeve. What makes this fitting special is that inside its wall is a coil of wire ending in exposed terminals at either end. The electrofusion operator connects the terminals to wires extending from a control box powered by a field generator. Following prompts from the control box, the operator presses an on'' button, sending the proper current to the fitting wires for a specific amount of time. The heat from the wires melts the inside of the surrounding fitting wall and the outside of the inserted pipe ends, causing them to fuse. Because the process is automated, the operator doesn't have to make decisions on how long to keep the heat going or how hot the temperature should be; all that data is programmed into the control box. It monitors ambient temperature, the resistance of the wire and other conditions,'' says Bruce Atkinson, senior training specialist for Washington Gas, and makes its own adjustments to provide the ideal seal.''

  7. (210)Pb content in natural gas pipeline residues ("black-powder") and its correlation with the chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Godoy, José Marcus; Carvalho, Franciane; Cordilha, Aloisio; Matta, Luiz Ernesto; Godoy, Maria Luiza

    2005-01-01

    The present work was carried out to assess the (210)Pb content in "black-powder" found in pigging operations on gas pipelines in Brazil, in particular, on the Campos Basin gas pipeline. Additionally, the chemical composition of such deposits was determined and an eventual correlation with (210)Pb concentration evaluated. Typical "black-powder" generated in the natural gas pipeline from Campos Basin oilfield contains mainly iron oxide ( approximately 81%) and residual organic matter ( approximately 9%). The (210)Pb content ranges from 4.9 to 0.04k Bqkg(-1) and seems to be inversely correlated with the distance to the platforms. On the other hand, (226)Ra concentration is higher on the pipeline branch between the platform and the onshore installations. (228)Ra was only observed in few samples, in particular, in the samples with the highest (226)Ra content. PMID:15885858

  8. Pulmonary functions of welders in gas transmission pipelines in Iran.

    PubMed

    Golbabaei, Farideh; Khadem, Monireh; Ghahri, Asghar; Babai, Mohammad; Hosseini, Mostafa; Seyedsomea, Mirghani; Dinari, Behnam

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of welding on pulmonary functions in welders. Spirometry tests were performed before and after work shift in 91 welders and 25 clerks (control group). We examined forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio and forced expiratory flow 25%-75% (FEF 25-75). Significant differences were found for FVC and FEV1/FVC between welders and the control group in pre- and post-shift measurements (p < .001). In welders, smoking and nonsmoking habit had no significant effects on any pulmonary indices before or after shift. Work experience and fume concentrations also had no significant effects on the majority of spirometric indices (p > .05). Most welders had at least 1 of the respiratory symptoms. Significant differences were found between pre- and post-shift indices (as percentage of predicted values calculated with spirometer) and between the welders engaged in some welding tasks and the control group before work shift. This study documented work-related changes in pulmonary functions in the welders and marked drops in these functions without symptoms in some welders. PMID:24321643

  9. Development of heat transfer method for non-intrusive pressure measurement in natural gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.T.; Holderbaum, G.S.; Philips, D.B.; Stulen, F.B.; Eberle, A.C.

    1994-12-31

    A method for non-intrusive measurement of internal pressures in flowing and non-flowing natural gas distribution pipelines has been developed. The method is based on temperature changes observed at various locations on the outside wall of the pipe in response to a circumferential band of heat applied to it. Because of the complex flow patterns in the pipe, the pressure-related phenomena induce second-order effects on the heat transfer to the gas or liquid in the pipeline. Experimental results from both laboratory and field measurements have been compared with predictions from TEMPEST, a computation fluid dynamics (CFD) model, to aid in understanding the flow characteristics. In this method, a 2.5-in. band or ring heater device placed around the outer circumference of the pipe is used to apply that to the outer wall of the pipe. The effect of heat input ranging from 250 to 1,000 watts has been evaluated for pipe diameters ranging from 4 in. to 12 in. The expected range of Reynolds numbers spans the laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow regimes, thus adding significant complexity to the problem. Results have shown that a heater power of about 1,000 watts for flowing gas and 250 watts for non-flowing gas enables an acceptable estimate of pressures for most cases. The method can be used to effectively determine whether a pipe is filled with gas or liquid. It can also indicate whether the gas is flowing or static. For flowing gas, upstream-to-downstream and top-to-bottom temperature differences at the surface of the pipe are jointly used to determine gas flow rate and pressure. For no-flow conditions, the upstream-to-downstream temperature difference is zero, and pressures ranging from 0 to 150 psig can be differentiated solely by the temperatures along the outside wall of the pipe.

  10. Optimal design of a gas transmission network: A case study of the Turkish natural gas pipeline network system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunes, Ersin Fatih

    Turkey is located between Europe, which has increasing demand for natural gas and the geographies of Middle East, Asia and Russia, which have rich and strong natural gas supply. Because of the geographical location, Turkey has strategic importance according to energy sources. To supply this demand, a pipeline network configuration with the optimal and efficient lengths, pressures, diameters and number of compressor stations is extremely needed. Because, Turkey has a currently working and constructed network topology, obtaining an optimal configuration of the pipelines, including an optimal number of compressor stations with optimal locations, is the focus of this study. Identifying a network design with lowest costs is important because of the high maintenance and set-up costs. The quantity of compressor stations, the pipeline segments' lengths, the diameter sizes and pressures at compressor stations, are considered to be decision variables in this study. Two existing optimization models were selected and applied to the case study of Turkey. Because of the fixed cost of investment, both models are formulated as mixed integer nonlinear programs, which require branch and bound combined with the nonlinear programming solution methods. The differences between these two models are related to some factors that can affect the network system of natural gas such as wall thickness, material balance compressor isentropic head and amount of gas to be delivered. The results obtained by these two techniques are compared with each other and with the current system. Major differences between results are costs, pressures and flow rates. These solution techniques are able to find a solution with minimum cost for each model both of which are less than the current cost of the system while satisfying all the constraints on diameter, length, flow rate and pressure. These results give the big picture of an ideal configuration for the future state network for the country of Turkey.

  11. Burst strength behaviour of an aging subsea gas pipeline elbow in different external and internal corrosion-damaged positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Geon Ho; Pouraria, Hassan; Seo, Jung Kwan; Paik, Jeom Kee

    2015-09-01

    Evaluation of the performance of aging structures is essential in the oil and gas industry, where the inaccurate prediction of structural performance can have significantly hazardous consequences. The effects of structure failure due to the significant reduction in wall thickness, which determines the burst strength, make it very complicated for pipeline operators to maintain pipeline serviceability. In other words, the serviceability of gas pipelines and elbows needs to be predicted and assessed to ensure that the burst or collapse strength capacities of the structures remain less than the maximum allowable operation pressure. In this study, several positions of the corrosion in a subsea elbow made of API X42 steel were evaluated using both design formulas and numerical analysis. The most hazardous corrosion position of the aging elbow was then determined to assess its serviceability. The results of this study are applicable to the operational and elbow serviceability needs of subsea pipelines and can help predict more accurate replacement or repair times.

  12. Burst strength behaviour of an aging subsea gas pipeline elbow in different external and internal corrosion-damaged positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Geon Ho; Pouraria, Hassan; Seo, Jung Kwan; Paik, Jeom Kee

    2015-05-01

    Evaluation of the performance of aging structures is essential in the oil and gas industry, where the inaccurate prediction of structural performance can have significantly hazardous consequences. The effects of structure failure due to the significant reduction in wall thickness, which determines the burst strength, make it very complicated for pipeline operators to maintain pipeline serviceability. In other words, the serviceability of gas pipelines and elbows needs to be predicted and assessed to ensure that the burst or collapse strength capacities of the structures remain less than the maximum allowable operation pressure. In this study, several positions of the corrosion in a subsea elbow made of API X42 steel were evaluated using both design formulas and numerical analysis. The most hazardous corrosion position of the aging elbow was then determined to assess its serviceability. The results of this study are applicable to the operational and elbow serviceability needs of subsea pipelines and can help predict more accurate replacement or repair times.

  13. Impact of the Keystone XL pipeline on global oil markets and greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Peter; Lazarus, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Climate policy and analysis often focus on energy production and consumption, but seldom consider how energy transportation infrastructure shapes energy systems. US President Obama has recently brought these issues to the fore, stating that he would only approve the Keystone XL pipeline, connecting Canadian oil sands with US refineries and ports, if it `does not significantly exacerbate the problem of carbon pollution'. Here, we apply a simple model to understand the implications of the pipeline for greenhouse gas emissions as a function of any resulting increase in oil sands production. We find that for every barrel of increased production, global oil consumption would increase 0.6 barrels owing to the incremental decrease in global oil prices. As a result, and depending on the extent to which the pipeline leads to greater oil sands production, the net annual impact of Keystone XL could range from virtually none to 110 million tons CO2 equivalent annually. This spread is four times wider than found by the US State Department (1-27 million tons CO2e), who did not account for global oil market effects. The approach used here, common in lifecycle analysis, could also be applied to other pending fossil fuel extraction and supply infrastructure.

  14. Hierarchical Leak Detection and Localization Method in Natural Gas Pipeline Monitoring Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jiangwen; Yu, Yang; Wu, Yinfeng; Feng, Renjian; Yu, Ning

    2012-01-01

    In light of the problems of low recognition efficiency, high false rates and poor localization accuracy in traditional pipeline security detection technology, this paper proposes a type of hierarchical leak detection and localization method for use in natural gas pipeline monitoring sensor networks. In the signal preprocessing phase, original monitoring signals are dealt with by wavelet transform technology to extract the single mode signals as well as characteristic parameters. In the initial recognition phase, a multi-classifier model based on SVM is constructed and characteristic parameters are sent as input vectors to the multi-classifier for initial recognition. In the final decision phase, an improved evidence combination rule is designed to integrate initial recognition results for final decisions. Furthermore, a weighted average localization algorithm based on time difference of arrival is introduced for determining the leak point’s position. Experimental results illustrate that this hierarchical pipeline leak detection and localization method could effectively improve the accuracy of the leak point localization and reduce the undetected rate as well as false alarm rate. PMID:22368464

  15. Hierarchical leak detection and localization method in natural gas pipeline monitoring sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jiangwen; Yu, Yang; Wu, Yinfeng; Feng, Renjian; Yu, Ning

    2012-01-01

    In light of the problems of low recognition efficiency, high false rates and poor localization accuracy in traditional pipeline security detection technology, this paper proposes a type of hierarchical leak detection and localization method for use in natural gas pipeline monitoring sensor networks. In the signal preprocessing phase, original monitoring signals are dealt with by wavelet transform technology to extract the single mode signals as well as characteristic parameters. In the initial recognition phase, a multi-classifier model based on SVM is constructed and characteristic parameters are sent as input vectors to the multi-classifier for initial recognition. In the final decision phase, an improved evidence combination rule is designed to integrate initial recognition results for final decisions. Furthermore, a weighted average localization algorithm based on time difference of arrival is introduced for determining the leak point's position. Experimental results illustrate that this hierarchical pipeline leak detection and localization method could effectively improve the accuracy of the leak point localization and reduce the undetected rate as well as false alarm rate. PMID:22368464

  16. 78 FR 18329 - Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP; Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP; Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of..., Suite 2800, Houston, Texas 77046, and Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C. (Petal), 9 Greenway Plaza, Suite...

  17. Laboratory Evaluation of an Electrochemical Noise System for Detection of Localized and General Corrosion of Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Bullard, S.J.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Russell, J.H.; Holcomb, G.R.; Cramer, S.D.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Eden, D.

    2003-03-16

    Gas transmission pipelines are susceptible to both internal (gas side) and external (soil side) corrosion attack. Internal corrosion is caused by the presence of salt laden moisture, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and perhaps O{sub 2} in the natural gas. Internal corrosion usually manifests itself as general corrosion. However, the presence of chlorides in entrained water also can lead to pitting corrosion damage. The electrochemical noise technique can differentiate general from localized corrosion and provide estimates of corrosion rates without external perturbation of the corroding system. It is increasingly being applied to field and industrial installations for in situ corrosion monitoring. It has been used here to determine its suitability for monitoring internal and external corrosion damage on gas transmission pipelines. Corrosion measurements were made in three types of environments: (1) aqueous solutions typical of those found within gas pipelines in equilibrium with th e corrosive components of natural gas; (2) biologically-active soils typical of wetlands; and (3) a simulated, unpressurized, internal gas/liquid gas pipeline environment. Multiple sensor designs were evaluated in the simulated pipe environment. Gravimetric measurements were conducted in parallel with the electrochemical noise measurements to validate the results.

  18. Design and demonstration of an analysis Information system for magnetic flux leakage inspection of natural gas pipeline. Final letter report

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, G.J.; Saffell, B.A.

    1996-10-01

    A staff exchange was conducted for the mutual benefit of the Department of Energy, the Gas Research Institute (GRI), Vetco Pipeline Services Inc. (VPSI), and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This staff exchange provided direct exposure by a Laboratory staff member knowledgeable in inspection, integrity assessment, and robotic capabilities of the Laboratory to the needs of the natural gas pipeline industry. The project included an assignment to the GRI Pipeline Simulation Facility (PSF) during the period preceding the commissioning of the flow loop. GRI is interested in exploiting advanced technology at the National Laboratories. To provide a sense of the market impact, it is estimated that $3 billion was spent in 1993 for the repair, renovation, and replacement of distribution piping. GRI has goals of saving the distribution industry $500 million in Operations and Maintenance costs and having an additional $250M savings impact on transmission pipelines. The objectives of the project included: (1) For PNNL staff to present technology to GRI and PSF staff on non- destructive evaluation, robotics, ground penetrating radar, and risk based inspection guidelines for application to the operation and maintenance of natural gas pipelines. (2) For GRI and PSF staff to discuss with PNNL staff opportunities for improving the industrial competitiveness of operation and maintenance services. (3) To explore the basis for partnership with GRI and PSF staff on technology transfer topics. In this project, staff exchanges were conducted to GRI`s Pipeline Simulation Facility and to VPSI. PNNL . staff had access to the $10M GRI Pipeline Simulation Facility (PSF) at West Jefferson, Ohio. The facility has a 4,700-ft. long pipe loop, an NDE laboratory, and a data analysis laboratory. PNNL staff had access to the VPSI`s facility in Houston, TX. VPSI has developed some of the most sophisticated inspection tools currently used in the pipeline inspection industry.

  19. GIS least-cost analysis approach for siting gas pipeline ROWs

    SciTech Connect

    Sydelko, P.J.; Wilkey, P.L.

    1994-09-01

    Geographic-information-system applications for the siting and monitoring of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) were developed for areas near Rio Vista, California. The data layers developed for this project represent geographic features, such as landcover, elevation, aspect, slope, soils, hydrography, transportation corridors, endangered species habitats, wetlands, and public line surveys. A geographic information system was used to develop and store spatial data from several sources; to manipulate spatial data to evaluate environmental and engineering issues associated with the siting, permitting, construction, maintenance, and monitoring of gas-pipeline ROWS; and to graphically display analysis results. Examples of these applications include (1) determination of environmentally sensitive areas, such as endangered species habitat, wetlands, and areas of highly erosive soils; (2) evaluation of engineering constraints, including shallow depth to bedrock, major hydrographic features, and shallow water table; (3) classification of satellite imagery for landuse/landcover that will affect ROWS; and (4) identification of alternative ROW corridors that avoid environmentally sensitive areas or areas with severe engineering constraints.

  20. Use of geographic information systems for applications on gas pipeline rights-of-way

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.J. )

    1991-12-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) applications for the siting and monitoring of gas pipeline rights-of-way for this project (ROWs) were developed for areas near Rio Vista, California. The data layers developed for this project represent geographic features, such as landcover, elevation, aspect, slope, soils, hydrography, transportation, endangered species, wetlands, and public line surveys. A GIS was used to develop and store spatial data from several sources; to manipulate spatial data to evaluate environmental and engineering issues associated with the siting, permitting, construction, maintenance, and monitoring of gas pipeline ROWS; and to graphically display analysis results. Examples of these applications include (1) determination of environmentally sensitive areas, such as endangered species habitat, wetlands, and areas of highly erosive soils; (2) evaluation of engineering constraints, including shallow depth to bedrock, major hydrographic features, and shallow water table; (3) classification of satellite imagery for landuse/landcover that will affect ROWs; and (4) identification of alternative ROW corridors that avoid environmentally sensitive areas or areas with severe engineering constraints.

  1. Use of geographic information systems for applications on gas pipeline rights-of-way

    SciTech Connect

    Sydelko, P.J.

    1993-10-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) applications for the siting and monitoring of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) were developed for areas near Rio Vista, California. The data layers developed for this project represent geographic features, such as landcover, elevation, aspect, slope, soils, hydrography, transportation, endangered species, wetlands, and public line surveys. A GIS was used to develop and store spatial data from several sources; to manipulate spatial data to evaluate environmental and engineering issues associated with the siting, permitting, construction, maintenance, and monitoring of gas pipeline ROWS; and to graphically display analysis results. Examples of these applications include (1) determination of environmentally sensitive areas, such as endangered species habitat, wetlands, and areas of highly erosive soils; (2) evaluation of engineering constraints, including shallow depth to bedrock, major hydrographic features, and shallow water table; (3) classification of satellite imagery for land use/landcover that will affect ROWS; and (4) identification of alternative ROW corridors that avoid environmentally sensitive areas or areas with severe engineering constraints.

  2. Use of geographic information systems for applications on gas pipeline rights-of-way

    SciTech Connect

    Sydelko, P.J.; Wilkey, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) applications for the siting and monitoring of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) were developed for areas near Rio Vista, California. The data layers developed for this project represent geographic features, such as landcover, elevation, aspect, slope, soils, hydrography, transportation, endangered species, wetlands, and public line surveys. A GIS was used to develop and store spatial data from several sources; to manipulate spatial data to evaluate environmental and engineering issues associated with the siting, permitting, construction, maintenance, and monitoring of gas pipeline ROWS; and to graphically display analysis results. Examples of these applications include (1) determination of environmentally sensitive areas, such as endangered species habitat, wetlands, and areas of highly erosive soils; (2) evaluation of engineering constraints, including shallow depth to bedrock, major hydrographic features, and shallow water table; (3) classification of satellite imagery for landuse/landcover that will affect ROWS; and (4) identification of alternative ROW corridors that avoid environmentally sensitive areas or areas with severe engineering constraints.

  3. Use of geographic information systems for applications on gas pipeline rights-of-way

    SciTech Connect

    Sydelko, P.J.; Wilkey, P.L.

    1992-12-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) applications for the siting and monitoring of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) were developed for areas near Rio Vista, California. The data layers developed for this project represent geographic features, such as landcover, elevation, aspect, slope, soils, hydrography, transportation, endangered species, wetlands, and public line surveys. A GIS was used to develop and store spatial data from several sources; to manipulate spatial data to evaluate environmental and engineering issues associated with the siting, permitting, construction, maintenance, and monitoring of gas pipeline ROWS; and to graphically display analysis results. Examples of these applications include (1) determination of environmentally sensitive areas, such as endangered species habitat, wetlands, and areas of highly erosive soils; (2) evaluation of engineering constraints, including shallow depth to bedrock, major hydrographic features, and shallow water table; (3) classification of satellite imagery for landuse/landcover that will affect ROWS; and (4) identification of alternative ROW corridors that avoid environmentally sensitive areas or areas with severe engineering constraints.

  4. Low-pH stress corrosion cracking of natural gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Harle, B.A.; Beavers, J.A.; Jaske, C.E.

    1994-12-31

    Stress corrosion cracking of natural gas pipelines in low-pH environments is a serious problem for the gas transmission industry. To date, researchers have experienced significant difficulties in reproducing cracking in the laboratory. This paper describes results of an ongoing program investigating crack growth of an API X-65 line pipe steel in a low-pH cracking environment using a J-integral technique. The primary objectives of this research are to reproduce the cracking observed in the field and identify an appropriate crack driving force parameter. Significant crack growth has been observed in the testing and the J-integral appears to be a good parameter for characterizing crack growth behavior.

  5. Underground storage of natural gas by interstate pipeline companies for 1978 and winter 1978-1979. Energy data report

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, T.A.

    1980-01-22

    Underground storage of natural gas by pipeline companies subject to the jurisdiction of the Federal Regulatory Commission (FERC) are given for the most recent calendar year and of the most recent winter heating season. Annual data are based on FERC Form 2, annual reports of 32 companies, and winter data are from FERC Form 8, semi-monthly reports of 32 pipeline companies and 5 independent producers. Covered for the two most recent years are the underground gas storage, deliverability, and peak day use for pipeline companies; the estimated cost of storing gas underground; comparisons of fixed cost with operating and maintenance expenses for storing gas, and of the capacity used and the cost of storing gas; and gas injections and withdrawals. Data for the most recent winter heating season (November through March) include gas storage balance; the natural gas in underground storage (injections and withdrawals), in reservoirs, and in storage owned by reporting companies; comparisons of total gas withdrawn from storage, and of net withdrawals from storage. Data are shown by company and by geographic region (Eastern, Midwestern, Southern, and Western). Gas data are reported in thousand cubic feet, with some percentage comparisons. The preface and the narratives at the beginning of each of the four sub-sections explain methodologies and definitions, and highlight statistics. 10 figures, 12 tables.

  6. The monitoring system of the pipeline safety of the coal mine gas drainage based on the optic fiber sensing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-fang; Wei, Yubin; Zhang, Tingting; Zhao, Yanjie; Lv, Lei; Liu, Tong-yu

    2013-09-01

    Based on the technology of the spectrum absorption and the FBG, the monitoring system realize on line detection of the concentration of methane and oxygen, the temperature and the pressure of the gas in pipeline, and in order to improve the accuracy of the gas detection, we induce the compensation to the gas concentration using the data of the temperature and the pressure. In order to have a effective utilization of the methane in the coal mine gas drainage system, we have to have a accurate measurements of the concentration, the temperature and the pressure of the gas in pipeline. At the same time the dynamic monitoring of the concentration of Oxygen is a sign of the leakage of the pump. This paper gave some data detected in the field of the coal mine gas drainage system.

  7. Sensor-based analyzer for continuous emission monitoring in gas pipeline applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, P.F.; Sheridan, D.R.; Cooper, M.D.; Banchieri, A.J.

    1998-04-01

    Continuous emissions monitoring of gas turbine engines in pipeline service have typically been monitored using either laboratory derived instruments (CEMS), or predicted using data from low cost sensors on the engines and algorithms generated by mapping engine performance (PEMS). A new cost-effective system developed under a program sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (Chicago) combines the advantages of both systems to monitor engine emissions in gas transmission service. This hybrid system is a sensor-based analyzer that uses a sensor array, including a newly developed NO{sub x} sensor, to directly monitor NO{sub x}, CO, and O{sub 2} emissions at the stack. The gases are measured hot and wet. The new systems were installed and tested on a gas-fired Rolls Royce Spey turbine engine and on Ingersoll-Rand KVG-410 and Cooper GMVH-10 reciprocating engines in gas transmission service. These systems passed the Relative Accuracy Test (Part B) required under US EPA regulations (40 CFR 60).

  8. Determination of acoustic speed for improving leak detection and location in gas pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuaiyong; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping; Yang, Jin; Yang, Lili

    2014-02-01

    The commonly used cross-correlation technique for leak location requires that the acoustic speed is known and invariable. In practice, the gas leakage-induced acoustic waves propagate along multiple paths including in-pipe gas and pipe wall, and the acoustic waves in different transmission paths exhibit different acoustic speeds and different dispersive behaviors, which bring a great challenge for leak detection and location in the gas pipelines. In this study, based on the vibration theory of cylindrical elastic thin shell, the wavenumber formulae in different transmission paths are derived to predict the acoustic speeds and the acoustical coupling between the in-pipe gas and the pipe wall is analyzed to determine the dominant transmission path. In addition, the velocity dispersions in the dominant transmission path are suppressed by selection of a characteristic frequency band of the gas leakage-induced acoustic waves. The theoretical predictions are verified in the experiment and the results show that the theoretical acoustic speed is slightly larger than the measured acoustic speed. Thus, the theoretical acoustic speed formula is modified considering the effect of the structural loss factor and consequently the location error using the modified acoustic speed is reduced by two times compared to that using the theoretical acoustic speed.

  9. Determination of acoustic speed for improving leak detection and location in gas pipelines.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuaiyong; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping; Yang, Jin; Yang, Lili

    2014-02-01

    The commonly used cross-correlation technique for leak location requires that the acoustic speed is known and invariable. In practice, the gas leakage-induced acoustic waves propagate along multiple paths including in-pipe gas and pipe wall, and the acoustic waves in different transmission paths exhibit different acoustic speeds and different dispersive behaviors, which bring a great challenge for leak detection and location in the gas pipelines. In this study, based on the vibration theory of cylindrical elastic thin shell, the wavenumber formulae in different transmission paths are derived to predict the acoustic speeds and the acoustical coupling between the in-pipe gas and the pipe wall is analyzed to determine the dominant transmission path. In addition, the velocity dispersions in the dominant transmission path are suppressed by selection of a characteristic frequency band of the gas leakage-induced acoustic waves. The theoretical predictions are verified in the experiment and the results show that the theoretical acoustic speed is slightly larger than the measured acoustic speed. Thus, the theoretical acoustic speed formula is modified considering the effect of the structural loss factor and consequently the location error using the modified acoustic speed is reduced by two times compared to that using the theoretical acoustic speed. PMID:24593385

  10. Simulation of transients in natural gas pipelines using hybrid TVD schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Junyang; Adewumi, Michael A.

    2000-02-01

    The mathematical model describing transients in natural gas pipelines constitutes a non-homogeneous system of non-linear hyperbolic conservation laws. The time splitting approach is adopted to solve this non-homogeneous hyperbolic model. At each time step, the non-homogeneous hyperbolic model is split into a homogeneous hyperbolic model and an ODE operator. An explicit 5-point, second-order-accurate total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme is formulated to solve the homogeneous system of non-linear hyperbolic conservation laws. Special attention is given to the treatment of boundary conditions at the inlet and the outlet of the pipeline. Hybrid methods involving the Godunov scheme (TVD/Godunov scheme) or the Roe scheme (TVD/Roe scheme) or the Lax-Wendroff scheme (TVD/LW scheme) are used to achieve appropriate boundary handling strategy. A severe condition involving instantaneous closure of a downstream valve is used to test the efficacy of the new schemes. The results produced by the TVD/Roe and TVD/Godunov schemes are excellent and comparable with each other, while the TVD/LW scheme performs reasonably well. The TVD/Roe scheme is applied to simulate the transport of a fast transient in a short pipe and the propagation of a slow transient in a long transmission pipeline. For the first example, the scheme produces excellent results, which capture and maintain the integrity of the wave fronts even after a long time. For the second example, comparisons of computational results are made using different discretizing parameters. Copyright

  11. [Research on lateral shearing interferometer for field monitoring of natural gas pipeline leak].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Feng; Gao, Yu-Bin

    2012-09-01

    Aimed at the mechanical scanning spectroscopy equipment with poor anti-interference and anti-jamming ability, which affects the accuracy of its natural gas pipeline leak detection in the wild, a new type of lateral shearing interferometer system was designed. The system uses a beam splitter to get optical path difference by a mechanical scanning part, and it cancel the introduction of external vibration interference through the linkage between the two beam splitterw. The interference intensity of interference fringes produced was calculated, and analysis of a rotating beam splitter corresponds to the angle of the optical path difference function, solving for the maximum angle of the forward rotation and reverse rotation, which is the maximum optical path range. Experiments using the gas tank deflated simulated natural gas pipeline leak process, in the interference conditions, and the test data of the type WQF530 spectrometer and the new type of lateral shearing interferometer system were comparedt. The experimental results show that the relative error of both systems is about 1% in indoor conditions without interference. However, in interference environment, the error of WQF530 type spectrometer becomes larger, more than 10%, but the error of the new type of lateral shearing interferometer system is still below 5%. The detection accuracy of the type WQF530 spectrometer decreased significantly due to the environment. Therefore, the seismic design of the system can effectively offset power deviation and half-width increases of center wavelength caused by external interference, and compared to conventional mechanical scanning interferometer devices the new system is more suitable for field detection. PMID:23240445

  12. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Myers

    2003-05-13

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. This six-month technical report summarizes the progress for each of the proposed tasks, discusses project concerns, and outlines near-term goals. Ophir has completed a data survey of two major natural gas pipeline companies on the design requirements for an airborne, optical remote sensor. The results of this survey are disclosed in this report. A substantial amount of time was spent on modeling the expected optical signal at the receiver at different absorption wavelengths, and determining the impact of noise sources such as solar background, signal shot noise, and electronic noise on methane and ethane gas detection. Based upon the signal to noise modeling and industry input, Ophir finalized the design requirements for the airborne sensor, and released the critical sensor light source design requirements to qualified vendors. Responses from the vendors indicated that the light source was not commercially available, and will require a research and development effort to produce. Three vendors have responded positively with proposed design solutions. Ophir has decided to conduct short path optical laboratory experiments to verify the existence of methane and absorption at the specified wavelength, prior to proceeding with the light source selection. Techniques to eliminate common mode noise were also evaluated during the laboratory tests. Finally, Ophir has included a summary of the potential concerns for project success and has established future goals.

  13. Rainfall-ground movement modelling for natural gas pipelines through landslide terrain

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neil, G.D.; Simmonds, G.R.; Grivas, D.A.; Schultz, B.C.

    1996-12-31

    Perhaps the greatest challenge to geotechnical engineers is to maintain the integrity of pipelines at river crossings where landslide terrain dominates the approach slopes. The current design process at NOVA Gas Transmission Ltd. (NGTL) has developed to the point where this impact can be reasonably estimated using in-house models of pipeline-soil interaction. To date, there has been no method to estimate ground movements within unexplored slopes at the outset of the design process. To address this problem, rainfall and slope instrumentation data have been processed to derive rainfall-ground movement relationships. Early results indicate that the ground movements exhibit two components: a steady, small rate of movement independent of the rainfall, and, increased rates over short periods of time following heavy amounts of rainfall. Evidence exists of a definite threshold value of rainfall which has to be exceeded before any incremental movement is induced. Additional evidence indicates a one-month lag between rainfall and ground movement. While these models are in the preliminary stage, results indicate a potential to estimate ground movements for both initial design and planned maintenance actions.

  14. Real-time monitoring of natural gas pipelines: A feasibility study. Topical report, July 1993-August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Liou, C.P.; Tian, J.

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of this report are: (1) to demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring the integrity of natural gas pipeline integrity in real time by mass balance, and by transient flow simulations, (2) to identify the areas of further research so that the methodologies explored can be fully developed.

  15. 77 FR 53885 - Jordan Cove Energy Project LP, Pacific Connector Gas Pipeline LP; Notice of Extension of Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Cove Energy Project LP, Pacific Connector Gas Pipeline LP; Notice of Extension of Comment Period and Additional Public Scoping Meetings for the Jordan Cove Liquefaction and... comment period for Jordan Cove Energy Project LP's (Jordan Cove) proposed liquefaction project in...

  16. Overview of Two Hydrogen Energy Storage Studies: Wind Hydrogen in California and Blending in Natural Gas Pipelines (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M. W.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation provides an overview of two NREL energy storage studies: Wind Hydrogen in California: Case Study and Blending Hydrogen Into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues. The presentation summarizes key issues, major model input assumptions, and results.

  17. 76 FR 77994 - Brian Hamilton v. El Paso Natural Gas, El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice Announcing Docket Number...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brian Hamilton v. El Paso Natural Gas, El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice Announcing Docket Number Change On December 2, 2011, the Commission issued a notice in docket number...

  18. 77 FR 48508 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Kinetica Energy Express, LLC; Notice of Applications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... of Applications and Offer of Settlement Take notice that on July 26, 2012, Tennessee Gas Pipeline... State of Louisiana (Production Area Facilities). On the same day, Tennessee filed a related Offer of... application for abandonment and the Offer of Settlement for issuance of its findings in a single...

  19. 76 FR 23808 - Humble Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Humble Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case...,150 (May 20, 2010). Any person desiring to participate in this rate proceeding must file a motion to... the proceeding. Any person wishing to become a party must file a notice of intervention or motion...

  20. New test for oil soluble/water dispersible gas pipeline inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Stegmann, D.W.; Asperger, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    The wheel test provides good mixing of the condensate and water phases, the coupons are exposed to both phases. Therefore, the wheel test cannot distinguish between inhibitors that need continuous mixing of the these phases to maintain a water dispersion of the inhibitor and inhibitors that will self disperse into the water. This concept becomes important for pipelines in stratified flow where the water can settle out. In these cases with low turbulence, the inhibitor must self disperse into the water to be effective. The paper describes a test method to measure the effectiveness of an inhibitor and its ability to self disperse. The effectiveness of several inhibitors as predicted by the new test method is discussed relative to data from the wheel test and breaker tests. Field performance of these inhibitors in a gas gathering line, with liquids in stratified flow, are cities and compared with the results of the various laboratory tests.

  1. Real-time electronic monitoring of a pitted and leaking gas gathering pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Asperger, R.G.; Hewitt, P.G.

    1986-08-01

    Hydrogen patch, flush electrical resistance, and flush linear polarization proves wre used with flush coupons to monitor corrosion rates in a pitted and leaking sour gas gathering line. Four inhibitors were evaluated in stopping the leaks. Inhibitor residuals and the amount and ratio of water and condensate in the lines were measured at five locations along the line. The best inhibitor reduced reduced the pit-leak frequency by over a factor of 10. Inhibitor usage rate was optimized using the hydrogen patch current as a measure of the instantaneous corrosion rate. Improper pigging was identified as a cause of corrosion transients. This problem is discussed in relation to the pigging of pipelines in stratified flow where moving fluids are the carriers for continuously injected corrosion inhibitors.

  2. Natural gas pipeline leak detector based on NIR diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaoming; Fan, Hong; Huang, Teng; Wang, Xia; Bao, Jian; Li, Xiaoyun; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Weijun

    2006-09-01

    The paper reports on the development of an integrated natural gas pipeline leak detector based on diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The detector transmits a 1.653 μm DFB diode laser with 10 mW and detects a fraction of the backscatter reflected from the topographic targets. To eliminate the effect of topographic scatter targets, a ratio detection technique was used. Wavelength modulation and harmonic detection were used to improve the detection sensitivity. The experimental detection limit is 50 ppm m, remote detection for a distance up to 20 m away topographic scatter target is demonstrated. Using a known simulative leak pipe, minimum detectable pipe leak flux is less than 10 ml/min.

  3. Natural gas pipeline leak detector based on NIR diode laser absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoming; Fan, Hong; Huang, Teng; Wang, Xia; Bao, Jian; Li, Xiaoyun; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Weijun

    2006-09-01

    The paper reports on the development of an integrated natural gas pipeline leak detector based on diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The detector transmits a 1.653 microm DFB diode laser with 10 mW and detects a fraction of the backscatter reflected from the topographic targets. To eliminate the effect of topographic scatter targets, a ratio detection technique was used. Wavelength modulation and harmonic detection were used to improve the detection sensitivity. The experimental detection limit is 50 ppmm, remote detection for a distance up to 20 m away topographic scatter target is demonstrated. Using a known simulative leak pipe, minimum detectable pipe leak flux is less than 10 ml/min. PMID:16563854

  4. Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Phase I. Process evaluation report, conceptual commercial plant

    SciTech Connect

    Eby, R.J.

    1980-05-01

    This Process Evaluation Report (PER) contains the results and recommendations of comprehensive analyses and studies which were made to optimize the ICGG Commercial Plant Baseline Process Concept for producing synthetic pipeline gas (SPG) from coal. Design studies to optimize the thermal efficiency and economic attractiveness of the COGAS Process Areas of the plant were conducted along with design studies and trade-off studies of available process subsystems to complement the COGAS Process Areas. The results, recommendations and description of the work accomplished in developing the PER are contained in six separately bound sections. Section 4 describes those trade-off studies which were made to select processes which would best complement the COGAS Process Areas and provide the most efficient and economical Commercial Plant Concept.

  5. [Research on vehicle-based remote sensing of natural gas pipeline leakage].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Tan, Tu; Cao, Zhen-song; Wang, Gui-shi; Zhang, Wei-jun; Gao, Xiao-ming

    2010-08-01

    In the present paper the authors designed a vehicle-based remote sensing system using simulated platform and presented a new method of concentration calibration of natural gas pipeline leakage remote sensing. By investigating the performance of different distance, different material, different angle of topographic back scatter and different scan speed, a good coincidence was achieved between experimental results and theoretical results. The system can realize the remote detection of low-level methane concentration at a velocity of 53.3 km x h(-1), and the detecting distance is about 70 m with the minimum detectable sensitivity being 28.9 ppm x m. The research result shows the feasibility in the application. PMID:20939337

  6. Pipeline gas demonstration plant, Phase I. Quarterly technical progress report for September 1980-November 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Eby, R.J.

    1980-12-01

    Work was performed in the following tasks in Phase I of the Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant Program: Site Evaluation and Selection; Demonstration Plant Environmental Analysis; Feedstock Plans, Licenses, Permits and Easements; Demonstration Plant Definitive Design; Construction Planning; Economic Reassessment; Technical Support; Long Lead Procurement List; and Project Management. The Preliminary Construction Schedule was delivered to the Government on October 3, 1980, constituting an early delivery of the construction schedule called for in the scope of work for Task VI. The major work activity continues to be the effort in Task VI, Demonstration Plant Definitive Design, with two 30% Design Review meetings being held with the Government. Work in Task VII, Construction Planning, was initiated. Work has progressed satisfactorily in the other tasks in support of the Demonstration Plant Program. A Cost Change Proposal was submitted because of an increase in the scope of work and an extension of the schedule for Phase I to 47 months.

  7. 76 FR 52652 - National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Availability of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Compressor Station in Niagara County, New York: New Solar Centaur natural gas-fired turbines for compressor... flow; New station cooling equipment and discharge flow check meters and check valves along the...

  8. A Case Study in Forensic Seismology: The 1998 Natural Gas Pipeline Explosion Near Carlsbad, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koper, K. D.; Wallace, T. C.; Aster, R. C.

    2002-12-01

    On August 19, 2000 two seismometer networks in southeastern New Mexico recorded signals from a natural gas pipeline explosion. The explosion killed 12 members of an extended family that had been camping on the banks of a nearby river. Analysis of the particle motion, arrival times, and durations of the seismic signals indicate that three impulsive events occurred with origin times of 11:26:18.8 +/- 1.9, 11:26:43.6 +/- 2.1, and 11:27:01.7 +/- 2.0 (GMT). Each event generated an Rg wave with group velocity of 1.7-2.0 km/s and an air-coupled Rayleigh wave with a group velocity of about 345 m/s. The air-coupled Rayleigh waves had especially large amplitudes because of a geometric waveguide created by an atmospheric temperature inversion at the time of the accident. The first event was due to the explosive blowout of the buried, high-pressure pipeline while the second event was due to the ignition of the vented natural gas. The nature of the third event is unclear, however it was likely created by a secondary ignition. There were also two extended seismic events that were coeval with the first two impulsive events. The first resulted from the pre-ignition venting of the gas and lasted for about 24~s, while the second resulted from the post-ignition roaring of the flames and lasted for about one hour. Many of the source constraints provided by the seismic data were not available from any other investigative technique and so were valuable to a diverse range of parties including the New Mexico State Police, law firms involved in litigation related to the accident, the National Transportation and Safety Board, and the general public. Especially important was the seismically derived time between the blowout and ignition. The 24.0~s lag indicates that the initial rending of the pipe did not cause the ignition and that a more likely source was the nearby campsite, and it also significantly affected the amount of punitive damages the families of the victims were due since the

  9. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Myers

    2003-11-12

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. This second six-month technical report summarizes the progress made towards defining, designing, and developing the hardware and software segments of the airborne, optical remote methane and ethane sensor. The most challenging task to date has been to identify a vendor capable of designing and developing a light source with the appropriate output wavelength and power. This report will document the work that has been done to identify design requirements, and potential vendors for the light source. Significant progress has also been made in characterizing the amount of light return available from a remote target at various distances from the light source. A great deal of time has been spent conducting laboratory and long-optical path target reflectance measurements. This is important since it helps to establish the overall optical output requirements for the sensor. It also reduces the relative uncertainty and risk associated with developing a custom light source. The data gathered from the optical path testing has been translated to the airborne transceiver design in such areas as: fiber coupling, optical detector selection, gas filters, and software analysis. Ophir will next, summarize the design progress of the transceiver hardware and software development. Finally, Ophir will discuss remaining project issues that may impact the success of the project.

  10. The influence of dredging on the biota of the Barents Sea during development of the Stockman condensed gas deposit

    SciTech Connect

    Matishov, G.G.; Shparkovskii, I.A.; Nazimov, V.V.

    1995-11-01

    This article focuses on the nature of the possible dispersion of sediment during the construction of major natural gas pipelines on the shelf of the Barents Sea and its influence on the survival rate of marine organisms. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Energy intensity, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, and economic assessment of liquid biofuel pipelines.

    PubMed

    Strogen, Bret; Horvath, Arpad; Zilberman, David

    2013-12-01

    Petroleum fuels are predominantly transported domestically by pipelines, whereas biofuels are almost exclusively transported by rail, barge, and truck. As biofuel production increases, new pipelines may become economically attractive. Location-specific variables impacting pipeline viability include construction costs, availability and costs of alternative transportation modes, electricity prices and emissions (if priced), throughput, and subsurface temperature. When transporting alcohol or diesel-like fuels, pipelines have a lower direct energy intensity than rail, barge, and trucks if fluid velocity is under 1 m/s for 4-inch diameter pipelines and 2 m/s for 8-inch or larger pipelines. Across multiple hypothetical state-specific scenarios, profit-maximizing design velocities range from 1.2 to 1.9 m/s. In costs and GHG emissions, optimized pipelines outperform trucks in each state and rail and barge in most states, if projected throughput exceeds four billion liters/year. If emissions are priced, optimum design diameters typically increase to reduce pumping energy demands, increasing the cost-effectiveness of pipeline projects. PMID:24119498

  12. Pipeline gas demonstration plant, Phase I. Quarterly technical progress report, December 1980-February 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Eby, R.J.

    1981-03-01

    Work was performed in the following areas of the Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant Program: site evaluation and selection; demonstration plant environmental analysis; feedstock plans, licenses, permits and easements; demonstration plant definitive design; construction planning; economic reassessment; technical support; long lead procurement list; and project management. Major work activity continued to be the effort on Demonstration Plant Definitive Design. A Construction Readiness Audit was held on January 14 to 16, 1981 by a Government/Procon team to review the project and assess the readiness of the project to proceed into the construction phase. Documents for the 60% Design Review were prepared for ICGG review and submitted to the Contracting Officer's authorized representative prior to transmittal to the Corps of Engineers for review. The Corps of Engineers conducted a design audit. The primary objective of the audit was to prepare an independent estimate of the work remaining to complete Phase I of the project. Work continued on the production of a single bid package for the Demonstration Plant, suitable for release to a single constructor, and organized so it can be easily broken down into subpackages by construction specialty. A formal audit of the ICGG R/QA Plan and implementation thereof was performed February 11-12, 1981 by the Corps of Engineers. The Contract Deliverable Final Feedstock-Product-Waste Disposal Plan was delivered to the Government on February 25, 1981.

  13. Detecting Methane From Leaking Pipelines and as Greenhouse Gas in the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riris, Haris; Numata, Kenji; Li, Steven; Wu, Stewart; Ramanathan, Anand; Dawsey, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Laser remote sensing measurements of trace gases from orbit can provide unprecedented information about important planetary science and answer critical questions about planetary atmospheres. Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenically produced greenhouse gas. Though its atmospheric abundance is much less than that of CO2 (1.78 ppm vs. 380 ppm), it has much larger greenhouse heating potential. CH4 also contributes to pollution in the lower atmosphere through chemical reactions, leading to ozone production. Atmospheric CH4 concentrations have been increasing as a result of increased fossil fuel production, rice farming, livestock, and landfills. Natural sources of CH4 include wetlands, wild fires, and termites, and perhaps other unknown sources. Important sinks for CH4 include non-saturated soils and oxidation by hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere. Remotely measuring CH4 and other biogenic molecules (such as ethane and formaldehyde) on Mars also has important implications on the existence of life on Mars. Measuring CH4 at very low (ppb) concentrations from orbit will dramatically improve the sensitivity and spatial resolution in the search for CH4 vents and sub-surface life on other planets. A capability has been developed using lasers and spectroscopic detection techniques for the remote measurements of trace gases in open paths. Detection of CH4, CO2, H2O, and CO in absorption cells and in open paths, both in the mid- IR and near-IR region, has been demonstrated using an Optical Parametric Amplifier laser transmitter developed at GSFC. With this transmitter, it would be possible to develop a remote sensing methane instrument. CH4 detection also has very important commercial applications. Pipeline leak detection from an aircraft or a helicopter can significantly reduce cost, response time, and pinpoint the location. The main advantage is the ability to rapidly detect CH4 leaks remotely. This is extremely important for the petrochemical industry

  14. Active incremental Support Vector Machine for oil and gas pipeline defects prediction system using long range ultrasonic transducers.

    PubMed

    Akram, Nik Ahmad; Isa, Dino; Rajkumar, Rajprasad; Lee, Lam Hong

    2014-08-01

    This work proposes a long range ultrasonic transducers technique in conjunction with an active incremental Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification approach that is used for real-time pipeline defects prediction and condition monitoring. Oil and gas pipeline defects are detected using various techniques. One of the most prevalent techniques is the use of "smart pigs" to travel along the pipeline and detect defects using various types of sensors such as magnetic sensors and eddy-current sensors. A critical short coming of "smart pigs" is the inability to monitor continuously and predict the onset of defects. The emergence of permanently installed long range ultrasonics transducers systems enable continuous monitoring to be achieved. The needs for and the challenges of the proposed technique are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed technique achieves comparable classification accuracy as when batch training is used, while the computational time is decreased, using 56 feature data points acquired from a lab-scale pipeline defect generating experimental rig. PMID:24792683

  15. Simulation of a manual electric-arc welding in a working gas pipeline. 1. Formulation of the problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baikov, V. I.; Gishkelyuk, I. A.; Rus', A. M.; Sidorovich, T. V.; Tonkonogov, B. A.

    2010-11-01

    Problems of mathematical simulation of the temperature stresses arising in the wall of a pipe of a cross-country gas pipeline in the process of electric-arc welding of defects in it have been considered. Mathematical models of formation of temperatures, deformations, and stresses in a gas pipe subjected to phase transformations have been developed. These models were numerically realized in the form of algorithms representing a part of an application-program package. Results of verification of the computational complex and calculation results obtained with it are presented.

  16. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Remote laser detection of natural gas leakages from pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petukhov, V. O.; Gorobets, V. A.; Andreev, Yu M.; Lanskii, G. V.

    2010-02-01

    A differential absorption lidar based on a tunable TEA CO2 laser emitting at 42 lines of the 'hot' 0111 — 1110 band in the range from 10.9 to 11.4 μm is developed for detecting natural gas leakages from oil pipelines by measuring the ethane content in the atmosphere. The ethane detection sensitivity is 0.9 ppm km. The presence of methane does not distort the measurement results. The developed lidar can detect the natural gas leakage from kilometre heights at the flying velocities up to 200 km h-1 and a probe pulse repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  17. Worldwide rehabilitation work is undergoing major changes. [Rehabilitation of oil and gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.A. )

    1994-02-01

    This paper reviews methods for the rehabilitation of in-service pipeline systems and the types of protective coatings which appear to work best. The paper also compares the cost benefits of retrofitting the pipeline versus abandonment, replacement, or operation at reduced pressure and flows. A review of the normal procedure for retrofitting a pipeline is discussed and includes administrative procedures, coating removal procedures, surface preparation, and new coating application. A discussion of inherent problems found with both out-of-ditch and in-situ types of rehabilitation. Equipment for surface preparation is also presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each along with the effectiveness on different types of metal surfaces.

  18. Ability to protect oil/gas pipelines and subsea installations from icebergs in the Hibernia area

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, F.V.

    1981-01-01

    Mobil Oil Canada has examined 2 pipeline routes from Hibernia to the Newfoundland coast. The Northern Route is from Hibernia to the Bay of Bulls, a distance of ca 200 miles. The Southern Route is from Hibernia to Trepassey Bay, a distance of ca 225 miles. Both these routes go through the Avalon channel which has water depths of 200 m, or over 600 ft, with very steep slopes on both sides of the channel. To protect pipelines from icebergs and iceberg scour, there is really only one obvious solution and that is to bury the pipeline several feet below the deepest known iceberg scour depth.

  19. Relocation of a Problematic Segment of a Natural Gas Pipeline Using GIS-Based Landslide Susceptibility Mapping, Hendek (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cevik, Engin; Topal, Tamer

    A segment of natural gas pipeline constructed in 1997 to supply natural gas to a steel factory was broken due to a landslide with fire near Hendek, Turkey. Re-routing of the pipeline is planned but it requires preparation of landslide susceptibility map of the corresponding segment. In this study, statistical methods namely statistical index (Wi) and weighting factor (WF) have been used with geographic information systems (GIS) by analyzing several intrinsic factors controlling the landslides to prepare landslide susceptibility map of the problematic segment of the pipeline. For this purpose, thematic layers including landslide inventory, lithology, slope, aspect, elevation, land use/land cover, distance to stream, and drainage density were used. In the study area, landslides mainly occur in the unconsolidated to semi-consolidated clayey unit and regolith. Lithology, land use/land cover, elevation, slope, and distance to stream are found to be the important parameters for the study area whereas aspect is not. Nevertheless, the drainage density has a very low contribution. Based on the findings obtained in this study, an alternative route to be studied for detailed engineering geological investigations is proposed.

  20. 76 FR 73618 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ...; Installation of associated appurtenant aboveground facilities including mainline valves and pig \\2\\ launchers and receivers; and \\2\\ A pig is an internal tool that can be used to clean and dry a pipeline...

  1. 78 FR 23554 - Sierrita Gas Pipeline LLC; Supplemental Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... interconnect with the Sasabe-Guaymas Pipeline at the U.S.-Mexico border near the town of Sasabe, Arizona. \\1... construction and operation of the Project under these general headings: Geology and soils; Water...

  2. Effect of oxygen on the internal corrosion of natural gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Durr, C.L.; Beavers, J.A.

    1996-08-01

    Internal corrosion is a problem in wet natural gas gathering lines. Literature on the subject suggests that dissolved oxygen (O{sub 2}) is one of the more corrosive contaminants in natural gas. Immersion tests, funded by a major gas transmission company, were performed on C1018 (UNS G10180) specimens to assess the influence of O{sub 2} concentration on the internal corrosion of the wet gathering system in their storage field. Twenty-eight day tests were performed in a flow-through (gas phase only) autoclave at 70 F (21 C) and 1,200 psi (8,274 kPa) with simulated natural gas mixtures containing 10, 100, 500 and 1,000 ppm (by volume) O{sub 2}. Specimens were exposed to the vapor, vapor/liquid (V/L) interface, and liquid phases of pure water and saltwater in these tests. The highest corrosion rate, based on groove depth, was measured for the V/L specimens in pure water with 1,000 ppm O{sub 2}. Corrosion rates, based on weight loss, generally maximized at an O{sub 2} concentration of 100 ppm.

  3. Nonpulmonary influences on gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Roisin, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    There are several determinants governing arterial and mixed venous blood PO2 and PCO2. Ventilation-perfusion imbalance, increased intrapulmonary shunt, and diffusion limitation to oxygen encompass the pulmonary factors. Alternatively, inspired oxygen concentration, overall ventilation, cardiac output, and oxygen consumption (uptake) are contemplated as the four most influential nonpulmonary determinants. All three pulmonary factors plus oxygen uptake cannot be directly modulated, but all the other remaining nonpulmonary determinants are. Inspired oxygen concentration, the amount and pattern of total ventilation, and cardiac output may be, at least in part, relatively well clinically controlled. Arterial PO2 (PaO2) may fall if inspired PO2, overall ventilation, and/or cardiac output decrease, and/or oxygen consumption increases, even though the pulmonary factors remain unchanged. Conversely, if inspired oxygen fraction, ventilation, and/or cardiac output increase, and/or oxygen consumption decreases, PaO2 may improve regardless of the changes operated at the level of the pulmonary determinants. Several pathophysiologic features deserve to be underlined. First, the importance of understanding the role played by mixed venous PO2 as a vital nonpulmonary determinant governing PaO2. Second, the response to 100% oxygen breathing repeatedly exhibits a consistent amount of agreement in the main findings. Third, there is always an interactive interplay between pulmonary and nonpulmonary determinants of PaO2 and arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) in any respiratory disease state following the use of pharmacologic or nonpharmacologic approaches. All in all both PaO2 and PaCO2 become the end-point outcomes of the complex interaction of pulmonary and nonpulmonary factors modulating pulmonary gas exchange. This needs to be unraveled to improve the understanding and management of most acute and chronic respiratory disease states. PMID:25428851

  4. 1997 annual pipeline directory and equipment guide

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This annual guide is divided into the following sections: Equivalent valve tables; Complete 1997 line pipe tables; Engineering and construction services; Crude oil pipeline companies; Slurry companies; Natural gas companies; Gas distribution pipeline companies; Municipal gas systems; Canadian pipeline companies; International pipeline companies; and Company index. The tables list component materials, manufacturers, and service companies.

  5. Regeneration of vegetation on wetland crossings for gas pipeline rights-of-way one year after construction

    SciTech Connect

    Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Zellmer, S.D.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Rastorfer, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    Four wetland crossings of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWs), located in Florida, Michigan, New Jersey, and New York, were surveyed for generation of vegetation roughly one year after pipeline construction was completed. Conventional trench-and-fill construction techniques were employed for all four sites. Estimated areal coverage of each species by vegetative strata within transect plots was recorded for plots on the ROW and in immediately adjacent wetlands undisturbed by construction activities. Relative success of regeneration was measured by percent exposed soil, species diversity, presence of native and introduced species, and hydric characteristics of the vegetation. Variable site factors included separation and replacement of topsoil, final grading of the soil, application of seed and fertilizer, and human disturbance unrelated to construction. Successful regeneration exhibited greater dependency on the first three factors listed.

  6. Influence of entrapped air pockets on hydraulic transients in water pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ling; Liu, Prof. Deyou; Karney, Professor Byran W.; Zhang, Qin Fen

    2011-01-01

    The pressure variations associated with a filling undulating pipeline containing an entrapped air pocket are investigated both experimentally and numerically. The influence of entrapped air on abnormal transient pressures is often ambiguous since the compressibility of the air pocket permits the liquid flow to accelerate but also partly cushions the system, with the balance of these tendencies being associated with the initial void fraction of the air pocket. Earlier experimental research involved systems with an initial void fraction greater than 5.8%; this paper focuses on initial void fractions ranging from 0% to 10%, in order to more completely characterize the transient response. Experimental results show that the maximum pressure increases and then decreases as the initial void fraction decreases. A simplified model is developed by neglecting the liquid inertia and energy loss of a short water column near the air-water interface. Comparisons of the calculated and observed results show the model is able to accurately predict peak pressures as a function of void fraction and filling conditions. Rigid water column models, however, perform poorly with small void fractions.

  7. Financing is next step in Brazil-Bolivia natural gas project. [Economic costs and benefits of a new natural gas pipeline project

    SciTech Connect

    Cajueiro Costa, A.S. )

    1993-11-01

    This paper reviews a new four billion dollar arrangement which would start a major gas network between Brazil and Bolivia. The proposed 2,200 mile long, 28 and 14 inch pipeline network would connect Bolivian reserves with the undeserved markets of southern Brazil. The paper briefly reviews the economic involvement and impacts on both countries and the current market for natural gas in Brazil. Because most of Brazil's energy is currently from hydroelectric power or petroleum, the new distribution network will have dramatic effects on industries which need this high-grade fuel source for operation. Financing of this project will be by Petrobras and 49 percent through stock options.

  8. Electrochemical Noise Sensors for Detection of Localized and General Corrosion of Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines. Final Report for the Period July 2001-October 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Jr., Bernard S.; Russell, James H.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret

    2002-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory funded a Natural Gas Infrastructure Reliability program directed at increasing and enhancing research and development activities in topics such as remote leak detection, pipe inspection, and repair technologies and materials. The Albany Research Center (ARC), U.S. Department of Energy was funded to study the use of electrochemical noise sensors for detection of localized and general corrosion of natural gas transmission pipelines. As part of this, ARC entered into a collaborative effort with the corrosion sensor industry to demonstrate the capabilities of commercially available remote corrosion sensors for use with the Nation's Gas Transmission Pipeline Infrastructure needs. The goal of the research was to develop an emerging corrosion sensor technology into a monitor for the type and degree of corrosion occurring at key locations in gas transmission pipelines.

  9. Application of two-phase flow modeling as a basis for scheduling corrosion maintenance activities in wet sour gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, D.; Bich, N.N.

    1997-08-01

    Pipeline failures attributed to internal corrosion in the oil and gas producing industry have not been decreasing despite the many corrosion mitigation, monitoring and inspection programs implemented. This paper describes how preliminary investigations for evaluating the susceptibility of internal corrosion for wet sour gas pipelines have been based on integrating the latest knowledge in fluid flow and sour gas corrosion mechanisms. It is anticipated future efforts to correlate the onset of slug flow regime with historical corrosion and inspection data may lead to development of an improved criteria for predicting the onset of corrosive water traps and for triggering appropriate maintenance activities. This paper provides details of two corrosion failure Case Studies where application of flow modeling has improved the understanding of the operating hazards that contributed to the formation of a corrosive environment leading to high-rate initiation and growth of localized pitting corrosion. Preliminary analysis indicates slug flow pattern, and long water residence time of water within stagnant traps increases the likelihood of pitting corrosion.

  10. Reestablishment of wetland vegetation on gas pipeline rights-of-way in six different wetland ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.E. Shem, L.; Wilkey, P.L.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Hackney, C.; Gowdy, M.

    1992-05-01

    Vegetational surveys were carried out to compare reestablished vegetation on pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) with that in adjacent natural ecosystems undisturbed by pipeline installation. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the ROW approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. In four ecosystems, the vegetation on the ROW was limited to a herbaceous layer by ROW maintenance; thus, the ROWs often involved a complex of species quite different from that found in the adjacent ecosystems.

  11. Novel electromagnetic method for the in-line inspection of gas pipelines: Proof-of-concept experiments. Final report, December 1994-December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Weischedel, H.R.

    1996-02-01

    The investigation described in this report demonstrated feasibility of a nondestructive electromagnetic in-line inspection technique that is suitable for the detection and evaluation of stress-corrosion cracks in gas transmission pipelines. Proof-of-concept experiments show that the proposed method can detect narrow axial slits through the pipe wall on the outside of gas pipes.

  12. 78 FR 69121 - Information Collection Activities: Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ...; 134E1700D2 EEEE500000 ET1SF0000.DAQ000] Information Collection Activities: Open and Nondiscriminatory Access.... These regulations concern open and nondiscriminatory access to pipelines, and are the subject of this...) concerns a renewal to the paperwork requirements in the regulations under 30 Part 291, Open...

  13. 76 FR 48834 - Michigan Consolidated Gas Company and Dawn Gateway Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Commission's Web site at http://www.ferc.gov using the ``eLibrary'' link. Enter the docket number, excluding... Bering, Director, Marketing & Optimization, DTE Pipeline/Dawn Gateway LLC, One Energy Plaza, Detroit, MI... its environmental assessment (EA) and place it into the Commission's public record (eLibrary) for...

  14. 77 FR 58616 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Transmission and Gathering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    .... SUMMARY: On April 13, 2012, (77 FR 22387) in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the... PHMSA published a notice in the Federal Register on April 13, 2012, (77 FR 22387) titled ``Pipeline... proposed revisions were referenced in a Federal Register notice published on April 13, 2012, (77 FR...

  15. Corrosion Resistance of Fe-Al/Al2O3 Duplex Coating on Pipeline Steel X80 in Simulated Oil and Gas Well Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Min; Wang, Yu; Wang, Ping-Gu; Shi, Qin-Yi; Zhang, Meng-Xian

    2015-04-01

    Corrosion resistant Fe-Al/Al2O3 duplex coating for pipeline steel X80 was prepared by a combined treatment of low-temperature aluminizing and micro-arc oxidation (MAO). Phase composition and microstructure of mono-layer Fe-Al coating and Fe-Al/Al2O3 duplex coating were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Corrosion resistance of the coated pipeline steel X80 in a simulated oil and gas well condition was also investigated. Mono-layer Fe-Al coating consists of Fe2Al5 and FeAl, which is a suitable transitional layer for the preparation of ceramic coating by MAO on the surface of pipeline steel X80. Under the same corrosion condition at 373 K for 168 h with 1 MPa CO2 and 0.1 MPa H2S, corrosion weight loss rate of pipeline steel X80 with Fe-Al/Al2O3 duplex coating decreased to 23% of original pipeline steel X80, which improved by 10% than that of pipeline steel X80 with mono-layer Fe-Al coating. It cannot find obvious cracks and pits on the corrosion surface of pipeline steel X80 with Fe-Al/Al2O3 duplex coating.

  16. Use of geographic information systems for applications on gas pipeline rights-of-way. Final report, December 1989--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.J.

    1991-12-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) applications for the siting and monitoring of gas pipeline rights-of-way for this project (ROWs) were developed for areas near Rio Vista, California. The data layers developed for this project represent geographic features, such as landcover, elevation, aspect, slope, soils, hydrography, transportation, endangered species, wetlands, and public line surveys. A GIS was used to develop and store spatial data from several sources; to manipulate spatial data to evaluate environmental and engineering issues associated with the siting, permitting, construction, maintenance, and monitoring of gas pipeline ROWS; and to graphically display analysis results. Examples of these applications include (1) determination of environmentally sensitive areas, such as endangered species habitat, wetlands, and areas of highly erosive soils; (2) evaluation of engineering constraints, including shallow depth to bedrock, major hydrographic features, and shallow water table; (3) classification of satellite imagery for landuse/landcover that will affect ROWs; and (4) identification of alternative ROW corridors that avoid environmentally sensitive areas or areas with severe engineering constraints.

  17. Compressor noise control begins with design--Part 2. [Noise pollution control for natural gas pipeline compressor stations

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, L. )

    1993-09-01

    Reduction of noise pollution at gas compressor stations associated with natural gas pipelines and distribution systems, has long been a complex problem. Specified noise levels of individual components tell nothing of the overall system when it is installed and placed in a site-specific setting. Further, testing for compliance performance guarantees is virtually impossible to conduct at a distant location because one cannot distinguish among various contributing noise sources. This paper develops a plan for calculating an estimate of sound generation from a compressor station and the methods for controlling and measuring sounds of individual components. It also classifies the types of noise and gives various methods of dealing with each noise type.

  18. Calculating the Optimum Angle of Filament-Wound Pipes in Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines Using Approximation Methods.

    PubMed

    Reza Khoshravan Azar, Mohammad; Emami Satellou, Ali Akbar; Shishesaz, Mohammad; Salavati, Bahram

    2013-04-01

    Given the increasing use of composite materials in various industries, oil and gas industry also requires that more attention should be paid to these materials. Furthermore, due to variation in choice of materials, the materials needed for the mechanical strength, resistance in critical situations such as fire, costs and other priorities of the analysis carried out on them and the most optimal for achieving certain goals, are introduced. In this study, we will try to introduce appropriate choice for use in the natural gas transmission composite pipelines. Following a 4-layered filament-wound (FW) composite pipe will consider an offer our analyses under internal pressure. The analyses' results will be calculated for different combinations of angles 15 deg, 30 deg, 45 deg, 55 deg, 60 deg, 75 deg, and 80 deg. Finally, we will compare the calculated values and the optimal angle will be gained by using the Approximation methods. It is explained that this layering is as the symmetrical. PMID:24891748

  19. Pipeline accident statistics: Base to pipeline rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Chis, T.

    1996-12-31

    The climate in which pipeline companies operate continues to change. Industry failures, related to public safety and environmental concerns, are now front page news. New and proposed regulations such as drug and alcohol testing of employees, instruments internal inspection and standardize oil spill response plans, are modifying the way pipeline companies operate. Paralleling these influences, the market place is also changing. Declining domestic production refinery closures and new specification for refined products are altering the pipe line distribution system. All of these changes are presenting new opportunities and many challenges. In 1995, when Conpet S.A. Ploiesti Formalized Pipeline Integrity Program, the reasons for the program were: What is the location to pipeline rehabilitation? What is failure probability? This paper reviews some aspects of the pipeline accident statistic to the Constanta Division of Conpet S.A. Ploiesti.

  20. Push Force Analysis of Anchor Block of the Oil and Gas Pipeline in a Single-Slope Tunnel Based on the Energy Balance Method.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yifei; Zhang, Lisong; Yan, Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a single-slope tunnel pipeline was analysed considering the effects of vertical earth pressure, horizontal soil pressure, inner pressure, thermal expansion force and pipeline-soil friction. The concept of stagnation point for the pipeline was proposed. Considering the deformation compatibility condition of the pipeline elbow, the push force of anchor blocks of a single-slope tunnel pipeline was derived based on an energy method. Then, the theoretical formula for this force is thus generated. Using the analytical equation, the push force of the anchor block of an X80 large-diameter pipeline from the West-East Gas Transmission Project was determined. Meanwhile, to verify the results of the analytical method, and the finite element method, four categories of finite element codes were introduced to calculate the push force, including CAESARII, ANSYS, AutoPIPE and ALGOR. The results show that the analytical results agree well with the numerical results, and the maximum relative error is only 4.1%. Therefore, the results obtained with the analytical method can satisfy engineering requirements. PMID:26963097

  1. Low temperature impact toughness of the main gas pipeline steel after long-term degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruschak, Pavlo O.; Danyliuk, Iryna M.; Bishchak, Roman T.; Vuherer, Tomaž

    2014-12-01

    The correlation of microstructure, temperature and Charpy V-notch impact properties of a steel 17G1S pipeline steel was investigated in this study. Within the concept of physical mesomechanics, the dynamic failure of specimens is represented as a successive process of the loss of shear stability, which takes place at different structural/scale levels of the material. Characteristic stages are analyzed for various modes of failure, moreover, typical levels of loading and oscillation periods, etc. are determined. Relations between low temperature derived through this test, microstructures and Charpy (V-notch) toughness test results are also discussed in this paper.

  2. Technological Change and Its Labor Impact in Five Energy Industries. Coal Mining/Oil and Gas Extraction/Petroleum Refining/Petroleum Pipeline Transportation/Electric and Gas Utilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This bulletin appraises major technological changes emerging in five American industries (coal mining, oil and gas extraction, petroleum refining, petroleum pipeline transportation, and electric and gas utilities) and discusses the impact of these changes on productivity and occupations over the next five to ten years. Its separate reports on each…

  3. Velocity measurement of two-phase liquid-gas flow in a horizontal pipeline using gamma densitometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanus, R.; Zych, M.; Petryka, L.

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents application of gamma-ray absorption method to liquid-gas flow investigation in a pipeline. In the described measurement two sealed 241Am radioactive sources and probes with NaI(Tl) scintillation crystals have been used. For the analysis of digital signals provided by detectors, a traditional cross-correlation function (CCF), and modified correlation methods based on the quotient of CCF and average magnitude difference function (AMDF), as well as the quotient of CCF, and average square difference function (ASDF) have been proposed. Exemplary results of the mean velocity determination of the gaseous phase transported by a liquid in the water-air mixture flow were demonstrated and the evaluation of its uncertainty have been presented.

  4. Petronas Gas Bhd experiences in accreditation of ISO 9002 quality assurance standard for its pipeline operations division in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, M.A.H.

    1996-12-31

    Some companies seek ISO 9000 registration for competitive reasons or because customers require it. Petronas Gas Bhd, pipeline division company TOD or Transmission Operations Division, seek ISO 9000 registrations purely for the benefits since the management believes that a well designed and well implemented quality system has a process which tends to be lean, sensitive to customers needs, highly reactive and efficient. This paper informs how TOD sets out to put ISO 9002 international quality system to work in its operations. A Quality Steering Council was formed in Feb. 1994 and the HSE and Quality Management Manager was appointed as management representative. The current working system was first assessed. Next, an implementation plan was prepared. Training was provided and the quality manual prepared followed by all the necessary work procedures and instructions. Finally there was trial implementation and actual live implementation. In January 1995 TOD ISO 9002 registration was approved.

  5. Caroline pipeline failure: Findings on corrosion mechanisms in wet sour gas systems containing significant CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Bich, N.N.; Goerz, K.

    1996-08-01

    A leak occurred in the 5-32S flowline between Junction 1 and the South Compressor Station in the Canada Limited Caroline Complex gathering system near Sundre, Alberta, due to internal wet H{sub 2}S (hydrogen sulfide) and CO{sub 2} (carbon dioxide) pitting corrosion at the bottom of the pipeline. The significant contributing factors to the extremely high pitting corrosion rate, approximately 30 mm/y (1,200 mpy), are considered to be unexpectedly high amounts of chloride ions in the produced well fluids, settling of the produced water under low flow conditions, high condensate/water ratio, inadequate inhibition and pigging, and insufficient monitoring programs. Corrosion mechanisms in sour gas gathering systems with significant CO{sub 2} concentration were reviewed. Preliminary findings pointed to CO{sub 2} partial pressure, not H{sub 2}S, as a main corrosion rate determining factor. The steps taken to prevent similar future incidents were also reviewed.

  6. Assessment of Welders Exposure to Carcinogen Metals from Manual Metal Arc Welding in Gas Transmission Pipelines, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Golbabaei, F; Seyedsomea, M; Ghahri, A; Shirkhanloo, H; Khadem, M; Hassani, H; Sadeghi, N; Dinari, B

    2012-01-01

    Background: Welding can produce dangerous fumes containing various metals especially carcinogenic ones. Occupational exposure to welding fumes is associated with lung cancer. Therefore, welders in Gas Transmission Pipelines are known as a high-risk group. This study was designed to determinate the amounts of metals Cr, Ni, and Cd in breathing zone and urine of welders and to assess the possibility of introducing urinary metals as a biomarker due to occupational exposure. Methods: In this cross sectional study, 94 individuals from Gas Transmission Pipelines welders, Iran, Borujen in 2011 were selected and classified into 3 groups including Welders, Back Welders and Assistances. The sampling procedures were performed according to NIOSH 7300 for total chromium, nickel, and cadmium and NIOSH 7600 for Cr+6. For all participants urine samples were collected during the entire work shift and metals in urine were determined according to NIOSH 8310. Results: Back Welders and Assistances groups had maximum and minimum exposure to total fume and its elements, respectively. In addition, results showed that there are significant differences (P<0.05) between Welders and Back Welders with Assistances group in exposure with total fume and elements except Ni. Urinary concentrations of three metals including Cr, Cd and Ni among all welders were about 4.5, 12 and 14-fold greater than those detected in controls, respectively. Weak correlations were found between airborne and urinary metals concentrations (R2: Cr=0.45, Cd=0.298, Ni=0.362). Conclusion: Urinary metals concentrations could not be considerate as a biomarker for welders’ exposure assessment. PMID:23113226

  7. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2003-05-01

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repairs and for fiber-reinforced composite repair. To date, all of the experimental work pertaining to the evaluation of potential repair methods has focused on fiber-reinforced composite repairs. Hydrostatic testing was also conducted on four pipeline sections with simulated corrosion damage: two with composite liners and two without.

  8. Airborne detection of natural gas leaks from transmission pipelines by using a laser system operating in visual, near-IR, and mid-IR wavelength bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershov, Oleg V.; Klimov, Alexey G.; Vavilov, Vladimir P.

    2006-04-01

    An airborne gas detection IR system which includes a laser, infrared imager and video-recorder is described. The sensitivity of the system to leaks from ground pipelines by the laser channel is about 100 ppm*m at 100 m (by methane). The IR thermographic channel plays an auxiliary role and the video channel allows better coordinate positioning of detected gas leaks in conjunction with a built-in GPS device.

  9. Metabolic Capability of a Predominant Halanaerobium sp. in Hydraulically Fractured Gas Wells and Its Implication in Pipeline Corrosion.

    PubMed

    Liang, Renxing; Davidova, Irene A; Marks, Christopher R; Stamps, Blake W; Harriman, Brian H; Stevenson, Bradley S; Duncan, Kathleen E; Suflita, Joseph M

    2016-01-01

    Microbial activity associated with produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to gas souring and corrosion of carbon-steel equipment. We examined the microbial ecology of produced water and the prospective role of the prevalent microorganisms in corrosion in a gas production field in the Barnett Shale. The microbial community was mainly composed of halophilic, sulfidogenic bacteria within the order Halanaerobiales, which reflected the geochemical conditions of highly saline water containing sulfur species (S2O3 (2-), SO4 (2-), and HS(-)). A predominant, halophilic bacterium (strain DL-01) was subsequently isolated and identified as belonging to the genus Halanaerobium. The isolate could degrade guar gum, a polysaccharide polymer used in fracture fluids, to produce acetate and sulfide in a 10% NaCl medium at 37°C when thiosulfate was available. To mitigate potential deleterious effects of sulfide and acetate, a quaternary ammonium compound was found to be an efficient biocide in inhibiting the growth and metabolic activity of strain DL-01 relative to glutaraldehyde and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate. Collectively, our findings suggest that predominant halophiles associated with unconventional shale gas extraction could proliferate and produce sulfide and acetate from the metabolism of polysaccharides used in hydraulic fracturing fluids. These metabolic products might be returned to the surface and transported in pipelines to cause pitting corrosion in downstream infrastructure. PMID:27446028

  10. Metabolic Capability of a Predominant Halanaerobium sp. in Hydraulically Fractured Gas Wells and Its Implication in Pipeline Corrosion

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Renxing; Davidova, Irene A.; Marks, Christopher R.; Stamps, Blake W.; Harriman, Brian H.; Stevenson, Bradley S.; Duncan, Kathleen E.; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial activity associated with produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to gas souring and corrosion of carbon-steel equipment. We examined the microbial ecology of produced water and the prospective role of the prevalent microorganisms in corrosion in a gas production field in the Barnett Shale. The microbial community was mainly composed of halophilic, sulfidogenic bacteria within the order Halanaerobiales, which reflected the geochemical conditions of highly saline water containing sulfur species (S2O32-, SO42-, and HS-). A predominant, halophilic bacterium (strain DL-01) was subsequently isolated and identified as belonging to the genus Halanaerobium. The isolate could degrade guar gum, a polysaccharide polymer used in fracture fluids, to produce acetate and sulfide in a 10% NaCl medium at 37°C when thiosulfate was available. To mitigate potential deleterious effects of sulfide and acetate, a quaternary ammonium compound was found to be an efficient biocide in inhibiting the growth and metabolic activity of strain DL-01 relative to glutaraldehyde and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate. Collectively, our findings suggest that predominant halophiles associated with unconventional shale gas extraction could proliferate and produce sulfide and acetate from the metabolism of polysaccharides used in hydraulic fracturing fluids. These metabolic products might be returned to the surface and transported in pipelines to cause pitting corrosion in downstream infrastructure. PMID:27446028

  11. Permeable Gas Flow Influences Magma Fragmentation Speed.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, D.; Scheu, B.; Spieler, O.; Dingwell, D.

    2008-12-01

    Highly viscous magmas undergo fragmentation in order to produce the pyroclastic deposits that we observe, but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. The overpressure required to initiate fragmentation depends on a number of physical parameters, such as the magma's vesicularity, permeability, tensile strength and textural properties. It is clear that these same parameters control also the speed at which a fragmentation front travels through magma when fragmentation occurs. Recent mathematical models of fragmentation processes consider most of these factors, but permeable gas flow has not yet been included in these models. However, it has been shown that permeable gas flow through a porous rock during a sudden decompression event increases the fragmentation threshold. Fragmentation experiments on natural samples from Bezymianny (Russia), Colima (Mexico), Krakatau (Indonesia) and Augustine (USA) volcanoes confirm these results and suggest in addition that high permeable flow rates may increase the speed of fragmentation. Permeability from the investigated samples ranges from as low as 5 x 10-14 to higher than 9 x 10- 12 m2 and open porosity ranges from 16 % to 48 %. Experiments were performed for each sample series at applied pressures up to 35 MPa. Our results indicate that the rate of increase of fragmentation speed is higher when the permeability is above 10-12 m2. We confirm that it is necessary to include the influence of permeable flow on fragmentation dynamics.

  12. Infrared thermographic pipeline leak detection systems for pipeline rehabilitation programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Gary J.

    1995-05-01

    Computerized infrared thermographic pipeline inspection is now a refined and accurate process having been thoroughly proven to be accurate, cost effective, and efficient technology for pipeline rehabilitation programs, during a 10 year development and testing process. The process has been used to test pipelines in chemical plants, water supply systems, steam lines, natural gas pipelines and sewer systems. Its non-contact, non-destructive ability to inspect large areas, from above ground, with 100% coverage and to locate subsurface leaks as well as the additional capability to locate voids and erosion surrounding pipelines, make its testing capabilities unique and highly desirable. This paper details the development of computerized infrared thermographic pipeline testing along with nine case histories illustrating its implementation problems and successes during various rehabilitation programs involving pipelines carrying water, gas, petroleum, and sewage.

  13. Infrared thermographic pipeline leak detection systems for pipeline rehabilitation programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Gary J.

    1998-03-01

    Computerized infrared thermographic pipeline inspection is now a refined and accurate process having been thoroughly proven to be an accurate, cost effective, and efficient technology for pipeline rehabilitation programs, during a 10 year development and testing process. The process has been used to test pipelines in chemical plants, water supply systems, steam lines, natural gas pipelines and sewer systems. Its non- contact, non-destructive ability to inspect large areas, from above ground, with 100% coverage and to locate subsurface leaks as well as the additional capability to locate voids and erosion areas surrounding pipelines, make its testing capabilities unique and highly desirable. This paper details the development of computerized infrared thermographic pipeline testing along with case histories illustrating its implementation problems and successes during various rehabilitation programs involving pipelines carrying water, gas, petroleum, and sewage.

  14. VALIDATION OF A METHOD TO MEASURE POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN NATURAL GAS PIPELINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    NIOSH-approved, commercially-available Florisil tubes were found to quantitatively collect PCB from natural gas streams when the sampling rate is less than 600 cc/min and less than 230 liters of gas is collected. It was also found that severe skewing of the Aroclor pattern can re...

  15. 75 FR 35700 - Revisions to Forms, Statements, and Reporting Requirements for Natural Gas Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... National Environmental Policy Act, 52 FR 47897 (Dec. 17, 1987), Order No. 486, FERC Stats. & Regs... (1996), and NorAm Gas Transmission Company, 77 FERC ] 61,011 (1996). 15. We also are revisiting the... purposes of the RFA, a natural gas company qualifies as a ``small entity'' if it has annual revenues...

  16. Push Force Analysis of Anchor Block of the Oil and Gas Pipeline in a Single-Slope Tunnel Based on the Energy Balance Method

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yifei; Zhang, Lisong; Yan, Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a single-slope tunnel pipeline was analysed considering the effects of vertical earth pressure, horizontal soil pressure, inner pressure, thermal expansion force and pipeline—soil friction. The concept of stagnation point for the pipeline was proposed. Considering the deformation compatibility condition of the pipeline elbow, the push force of anchor blocks of a single-slope tunnel pipeline was derived based on an energy method. Then, the theoretical formula for this force is thus generated. Using the analytical equation, the push force of the anchor block of an X80 large-diameter pipeline from the West—East Gas Transmission Project was determined. Meanwhile, to verify the results of the analytical method, and the finite element method, four categories of finite element codes were introduced to calculate the push force, including CAESARII, ANSYS, AutoPIPE and ALGOR. The results show that the analytical results agree well with the numerical results, and the maximum relative error is only 4.1%. Therefore, the results obtained with the analytical method can satisfy engineering requirements. PMID:26963097

  17. 77 FR 37669 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... application may be directed to Bruce H. Newsome, Vice President, Regulatory Products and Services, Natural Gas... telephone at (630) 725-3070, or by email bruce_newsome@kindermorgan.com . This filing is available...

  18. 75 FR 27774 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... application may be directed to Bruce H. Newsome, Vice President, Regulatory Products and Services, Natural Gas... telephone at (630) 725-3070, or by e-mail at bruce_newsome@kindermorgan.com . Any person or the...

  19. 75 FR 56085 - Michigan Consolidated Gas Company; Enterprise Texas Pipeline LLC; Enogex LLC; Public Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Baseline Filings September 8, 2010. Take notice that on August 27...://www.ferc.gov , using the ``eLibrary'' link and is available for review in the Commission's...

  20. 75 FR 67807 - Pipeline Safety: Emergency Preparedness Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Communications AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice... Hazardous Liquid and Gas Pipeline Systems. Subject: Emergency Preparedness Communications. Advisory: To... preparedness communications between pipeline operators and emergency responders. To ensure a prompt,...

  1. 75 FR 27341 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ....216 of the Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA) for authorization to abandon in... staff may, pursuant to section 157.205 of the Commission's regulations under the NGA (18 CFR 157.205... request shall be treated as an application for authorization pursuant to section 7 of the NGA....

  2. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 9: UNDERGROUND PIPELINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  3. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline routes shall...

  4. 18 CFR 284.142 - Sales by intrastate pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... pipelines. 284.142 Section 284.142 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales by Intrastate Pipelines § 284.142 Sales by intrastate pipelines. Any intrastate pipeline may, without prior Commission approval, sell natural gas to any interstate pipeline...

  5. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline routes shall...

  6. 18 CFR 284.142 - Sales by intrastate pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pipelines. 284.142 Section 284.142 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales by Intrastate Pipelines § 284.142 Sales by intrastate pipelines. Any intrastate pipeline may, without prior Commission approval, sell natural gas to any interstate pipeline...

  7. 18 CFR 284.142 - Sales by intrastate pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pipelines. 284.142 Section 284.142 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales by Intrastate Pipelines § 284.142 Sales by intrastate pipelines. Any intrastate pipeline may, without prior Commission approval, sell natural gas to any interstate pipeline...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline routes shall...

  9. 18 CFR 284.142 - Sales by intrastate pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pipelines. 284.142 Section 284.142 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales by Intrastate Pipelines § 284.142 Sales by intrastate pipelines. Any intrastate pipeline may, without prior Commission approval, sell natural gas to any interstate pipeline...

  10. Analysis of CO2 Separation from Flue Gas, Pipeline Transportation, and Sequestration in Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-09-01

    This report was written to satisfy a milestone of the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration task of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration project. The report begins to assess the costs associated with separating the CO2 from flue gas and then injecting it into an unminable coal seam. The technical challenges and costs associated with CO2 separation from flue gas and transportation of the separated CO2 from the point source to an appropriate sequestration target was analyzed. The report includes the selection of a specific coal-fired power plant for the application of CO2 separation technology. An appropriate CO2 separation technology was identified from existing commercial technologies. The report also includes a process design for the chosen technology tailored to the selected power plant that used to obtain accurate costs of separating the CO2 from the flue gas. In addition, an analysis of the costs for compression and transportation of the CO2 from the point-source to an appropriate coal bed sequestration site was included in the report.

  11. Trans ecuadorian pipeline; Mountainous pipeline restoration a logistical masterpiece

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L. )

    1988-06-01

    The Trans Ecuadorian Pipeline pumped approximately 300,000 b/d of crude from fields in eastern Ecuador to an export terminal and refinery at Esmeraldas on the Pacific coast. The devastation resulting from an earthquake cut off the main portion of export income as well as domestic fuel supplies and propane gas. Approximately 25 km of the pipeline was destroyed. This article details how the pipeline was reconstructed, including both the construction of a temporary line and of permanent facilities.

  12. Mitigating the consequences of extreme events on strategic facilities: evaluation of volcanic and seismic risk affecting the Caspian oil and gas pipelines in the Republic of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Pasquarè, F A; Tormey, D; Vezzoli, L; Okrostsvaridze, A; Tutberidze, B

    2011-07-01

    In this work we identify and quantify new seismic and volcanic risks threatening the strategic Caspian oil and gas pipelines through the Republic of Georgia, in the vicinity of the recent Abuli Samsari Volcanic Ridge, and evaluate risk reduction measures, mitigation measures, and monitoring. As regards seismic risk, we identified a major, NW-SE trending strike-slip fault; based on the analysis of fault planes along this major transcurrent structure, an about N-S trend of the maximum, horizontal compressive stress (σ1) was determined, which is in good agreement with data instrumentally derived after the 1986, M 5.6 Paravani earthquake and its aftershock. Particularly notable is the strong alignment of volcanic vents along an about N-S trend that suggests a magma rising controlled by the about N-S-directed σ1. The original pipeline design included mitigation measures for seismic risk and other geohazards, including burial of the pipeline for its entire length, increased wall thickness, block valve spacing near recognized hazards, and monitoring of known landslide hazards. However, the design did not consider volcanic risk or the specific seismic hazards revealed by this study. The result of our analysis is that the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) oil pipeline, as well as the Baku-Tbilisi-Erzerum South Caucasian natural gas pipeline (SCP) were designed in such a way that they significantly reduce the risk posed by the newly-identified geohazards in the vicinity of the Abuli-Samsari Ridge. No new measures are recommended for the pipeline itself as a result of this study. However, since the consequences of long-term shut-down would be very damaging to the economies of Western Europe, we conclude that the regionally significant BTC and SCP warrant greater protections, described in the final section of or work. The overall objective of our effort is to present the results in a matrix framework that allows the technical information to be used further in the decision

  13. Influence of crystallographic texture in X70 pipeline steels on toughness anisotropy and delamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Jabr, Haytham M.

    The effects of microstructure and crystallographic texture in four commercially-produced API X70 pipeline steels and their relation to planar anisotropy of toughness and delamination were evaluated. The experimental steels were processed through either a hot strip mill, a Steckel mill, or a compact strip mill. Different processing routes were selected to obtain plates with potential variations in the microstructure and anisotropic characteristics. Tensile and Charpy impact testing were used to evaluate the mechanical properties in three orientations: longitudinal (L), transverse (T) and diagonal (D) with respect to the rolling direction to evaluate mechanical property anisotropy. The yield and tensile strengths were higher in the T orientation and toughness was lower in the D orientation for all plates. Delamination was observed in some of the ductile fracture surfaces of the impact samples. To further study the splitting behavior and effects on impact toughness, a modified impact test (MCVN) specimen with side grooves was designed to intensify induced stresses parallel to the notch root and thus facilitate evaluation of delamination. Scanning electron microscopy combined with electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) were used to evaluate the grain size, microstructural constituents, and crystallographic texture to determine the factors leading to delamination and the anisotropy in toughness. The ferrite grain size is mainly responsible for the differences in DBTTs between the L and T orientations. The higher DBTT in the D orientation observed in pipeline steels is attributed to crystallographic texture. The higher DBTT in the D direction is due to the higher volume fraction of grains having their {100} planes parallel or close to the primary fracture plane for the D orientation. An equation based on a new "brittleness parameter," based on an assessment of grain orientations based on EBSD data, was developed to predict the changes in DBTTs with respect to sample

  14. Weight-of-evidence environmental risk assessment of dumped chemical weapons after WWII along the Nord-Stream gas pipeline in the Bornholm Deep.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Thomsen, Marianne; Larsen, Jørn Bo

    2012-05-15

    In connection with installation of two natural gas pipelines through the Baltic Sea between Russia and Germany, there has been concern regarding potential re-suspension of historically dumped chemical warfare agents (CWA) in a nearby dump site and the potential environmental risks associated. 192 sediment and 11 porewater samples were analyzed for CWA residues, both parent and metabolites in 2008 and 2010 along the pipeline corridor next to the dump site. Macrozoobenthos and background variables were also collected and compared to the observed CWA levels and predicted potential risks. Detection frequencies and levels of intact CWA found were low, whereas CWA metabolites were more frequently found. Re-suspension of CWA residue-containing sediment from installation of the pipelines contributes marginally to the overall background CWA residue exposure and risk along the pipeline route. The multivariate weight-of-evidence analysis showed that physical and background parameters of the sediment were of higher importance for the biota than observed CWA levels. PMID:22440539

  15. 49 CFR 192.629 - Purging of pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purging of pipelines. 192.629 Section 192.629... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.629 Purging of pipelines. (a) When a pipeline is being purged of air by use of gas, the gas must be released into one end of the line in...

  16. Civil RICO - the pattern of racketeering requirement: Louisiana Power and Light v. United Gas Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The court decisions in a suit involving Louisiana Power and Light grants relief from a pattern following the Sedima case, in which the Supreme Court noted that the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Act has led in directions not intended by legislators. Post-Sedima decisions have confronted confusion over the definition of the terms pattern, criminal schemes, and criminal episodes. Congress and the courts need to develop meaningful definitions, although the author suggests that the courts should not become so involved with semantics that they lose their perspective to the point of indirectly labeling community leaders as mobsters.

  17. Patching the Leaky STEM Pipeline: Identifying Institutional Factors That Influence a STEM Qualified Female Undergraduate s Choice of Institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurlock, Ashley J.

    Despite increased female participation in the workforce and females earning more undergraduate degrees than men over the past decade, women are still awarded fewer undergraduate degrees than men and hold less than 25% of jobs in the areas of science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM (Beede, et al., 2011). Research shows that females may be leaking from the STEM pipeline because they are not choosing to attend institutions that fulfill their interdisciplinary and non-academic interests or have learning environments that are supportive of their needs. The purpose of this quantitative, cross-sectional survey study, conducted at one non-research intensive university, was to identify institutional factors most pertinent to the decision to attend a non-research intensive university by a "STEM qualified" female undergraduate student. 23 of 45 factors were reported as positively influencing their decision regardless of major. The top six factors for both groups were: average class size, campus environment, a visit to campus, university population size, and major/department offered. The seven factors ranked statistically significantly different between STEM and non-STEM majors were undergraduate research opportunities, faculty reputation, graduate/professional school admission, academic support/tutoring, graduate program available, intramural sports, and off-campus housing. Only two of 17 factors negatively influenced STEM majors who were accepted to a research intensive university: the research intensive university's size and average class sizes were undesirable compared to their current institution. STEM qualified females weighed the importance of non-academic factors as high, or higher, than critical academic factors. STEM qualified females are also choosing to attend the non-research intensive university for a variety of reasons and not simply because another institution did not offer certain academic factors. Future studies should expanded to include other non

  18. Gas-liquid two-phase severe slugging in a pipeline-riser system with S-shaped flexible riser: Experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nailiang; Guo, Liejin; Li, Wensheng

    2013-07-01

    The objective of the present work is to investigate the air-water two-phase flow patterns in pipeline-riser system with an S-shaped flexible riser. The test loop with 50 mm ID consists of a horizontal pipeline with 114 m in length, a downward inclined section with 16 m in length, and an S-shaped flexible riser with 24 m in height when downward section inclined at -2° with respective to the horizontal. The inclination angle of the downward section varied from -2° to -5°. The liquid superficial velocity ranged from 0.03 to 1.5 m/s, and the gas superficial velocity from 0.4 to 6.0 m/s. Identification and characterization of flow regimes were attained by pressure at riser-base and liquid holdup at riser top. Severe slugging I, severe slugging II, transition flow and stable flows are observed to exist. Flow pattern maps for each declination are presented and the transition criteria are proposed. It's found that as higher liquid and gas velocity is required for the transition of the flow in the pipeline from stratified to intermittent with increasing the declination angle, severe slugging was observed to occur over a wilder range of flow conditions. The effect of riser geometry and separator pressure on the occurrence of the flow patterns was also examined. It shows that the S-bend tends to suppress the initiation of severe slugging.

  19. Production of hot rolled steel strip for sour gas service pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Issartel, C.; Fromm, M.C.; Audebert, S.; Sauermann, M.

    1999-11-01

    Linepipe steels intended for use in sour gas environments must combine high strength, superior toughness and excellent resistance to hydrogen induced cracking. Steel-making techniques for HIC resistant steel grades (from X52 to X65) have been developed, through selective chemistry, clean steel-making practices, nonmetallic inclusion control and hot strip mill process control. The typical chemical analysis is low carbon (< 0.06 %wt), low manganese (< 1 %wt) and low phosphorus content (< O.015 %wt). The level of sulfur is restricted to 0.002 %wt with the careful addition of calcium in order to avoid the formation of elongated MnS. Special conditions adopted in the steelshop and during continuous casting allow the production of very clean steels with limited and controlled centerline segregation. These conditions gave very satisfactory HIC results. Thermomechanical hot rolling leads to a very fine ferrite-perlite microstructure with good notch toughness and consistent mechanical properties throughout the coil length. Examples of results from HIC resistant X56 and X60 industrial production are shown.

  20. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) VERIFICATION GUIDELINE SERIES: ANR Pipeline Company PARAMETRIC EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEM (PEMS) VERSION 1.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Parametric Emissions Monitoring System (PEMS) manufactured by ANR Pipeline Company, a subsidiary of Coastal Corporation, now El Paso Corporation. The PEMS predicts carbon doixide (CO2...

  1. 78 FR 53749 - Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP, Petal Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Availability of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... following facilities: Approximately 70.1 miles of 30-inch-diameter and 24-inch- diameter pipeline in Jasper... Jasper County, Mississippi (Jasper Compressor Station); One new 2,415-hp compressor station located...

  2. 77 FR 31347 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... markets in Ohio and Tennessee. \\1\\ A pipeline loop is a segment of pipe constructed parallel to an... internal inspections, or other purposes. Facility modifications at the following four existing...

  3. 18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., earthquake or other natural disaster or terrorist activity that results in a loss of or reduction in pipeline... reason other than hurricane, earthquake or other natural disaster or terrorist activity, the natural...

  4. Methanol incorporation in clathrate hydrates and the implications for oil and gas pipeline flow assurance and icy planetary bodies

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kyuchul; Udachin, Konstantin A.; Moudrakovski, Igor L.; Leek, Donald M.; Alavi, Saman; Ratcliffe, Christopher I.; Ripmeester, John A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the best-known uses of methanol is as antifreeze. Methanol is used in large quantities in industrial applications to prevent methane clathrate hydrate blockages from forming in oil and gas pipelines. Methanol is also assigned a major role as antifreeze in giving icy planetary bodies (e.g., Titan) a liquid subsurface ocean and/or an atmosphere containing significant quantities of methane. In this work, we reveal a previously unverified role for methanol as a guest in clathrate hydrate cages. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and NMR experiments showed that at temperatures near 273 K, methanol is incorporated in the hydrate lattice along with other guest molecules. The amount of included methanol depends on the preparative method used. For instance, single-crystal XRD shows that at low temperatures, the methanol molecules are hydrogen-bonded in 4.4% of the small cages of tetrahydrofuran cubic structure II hydrate. At higher temperatures, NMR spectroscopy reveals a number of methanol species incorporated in hydrocarbon hydrate lattices. At temperatures characteristic of icy planetary bodies, vapor deposits of methanol, water, and methane or xenon show that the presence of methanol accelerates hydrate formation on annealing and that there is unusually complex phase behavior as revealed by powder XRD and NMR spectroscopy. The presence of cubic structure I hydrate was confirmed and a unique hydrate phase was postulated to account for the data. Molecular dynamics calculations confirmed the possibility of methanol incorporation into the hydrate lattice and show that methanol can favorably replace a number of methane guests. PMID:23661058

  5. Methanol incorporation in clathrate hydrates and the implications for oil and gas pipeline flow assurance and icy planetary bodies.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyuchul; Udachin, Konstantin A; Moudrakovski, Igor L; Leek, Donald M; Alavi, Saman; Ratcliffe, Christopher I; Ripmeester, John A

    2013-05-21

    One of the best-known uses of methanol is as antifreeze. Methanol is used in large quantities in industrial applications to prevent methane clathrate hydrate blockages from forming in oil and gas pipelines. Methanol is also assigned a major role as antifreeze in giving icy planetary bodies (e.g., Titan) a liquid subsurface ocean and/or an atmosphere containing significant quantities of methane. In this work, we reveal a previously unverified role for methanol as a guest in clathrate hydrate cages. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and NMR experiments showed that at temperatures near 273 K, methanol is incorporated in the hydrate lattice along with other guest molecules. The amount of included methanol depends on the preparative method used. For instance, single-crystal XRD shows that at low temperatures, the methanol molecules are hydrogen-bonded in 4.4% of the small cages of tetrahydrofuran cubic structure II hydrate. At higher temperatures, NMR spectroscopy reveals a number of methanol species incorporated in hydrocarbon hydrate lattices. At temperatures characteristic of icy planetary bodies, vapor deposits of methanol, water, and methane or xenon show that the presence of methanol accelerates hydrate formation on annealing and that there is unusually complex phase behavior as revealed by powder XRD and NMR spectroscopy. The presence of cubic structure I hydrate was confirmed and a unique hydrate phase was postulated to account for the data. Molecular dynamics calculations confirmed the possibility of methanol incorporation into the hydrate lattice and show that methanol can favorably replace a number of methane guests. PMID:23661058

  6. Mobile Measurement of Methane and Ethane for the Detection and Attribution of Natural Gas Pipeline Leaks Using Off-Axis Integrated Output Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leen, J. B.; Spillane, S.; Gardner, A.; Hansen, P. C.; Gupta, M.; Baer, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Natural gas leaks pose a risk to public safety both because of potential explosions as well as from the greenhouse gas potential of fugitive methane. The rapid and cost effective detection of leaks in natural gas distribution is critical to providing a system that is safe for the public and the environment. Detection of methane from a mobile platform (vehicles, aircraft, etc.) is an accepted method of identifying leaks. A robust approach to differentiating pipeline gas (thermogenic) from other biogenic sources is the detection of ethane along with methane. Ethane is present in nearly all thermogenic gas but not in biogenic sources and its presence can be used to positively identify a gas sample. We present a mobile system for the simultaneous measurement of methane and ethane that is capable of detecting pipeline leaks and differentiating pipeline gas from other biogenic sources such as landfills, swamps, sewers, and enteric fermentation. The mobile system consists of a high precision GPS, sonic anemometer, and methane/ethane analyzer based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS). In order to minimize the system cost and facilitate the wide use of mobile leak detection, the analyzer operates in the near-infrared portion of the spectrum where lasers and optics are significantly less costly than in the mid-infrared. The analyzer is capable of detecting methane with a precision of <2 ppb (1σ in 1 sec) and detecting ethane with a precision of <30 ppb (1σ in 1 sec). Additionally, measurement rates of 5 Hz allow for detection of leaks at speeds up to 50 mph. The sonic anemometer, GPS and analyzer inlet are mounted to a generic roof rack for attachment to available fleet vehicles. The system can detect leaks having a downwind concentration of as little as 10 ppb of methane above ambient, while leaks 500 ppb above ambient can be identified as thermogenic with greater than 99% certainty (for gas with 6% ethane). Finally, analysis of wind data provides

  7. [Greenhouse gas emission from reservoir and its influence factors].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-jie; Zhao, Tong-qian; Zheng, Hua; Duan, Xiao-nan; Chen, Fa-lin; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Wang, Xiao-ke

    2008-08-01

    Reservoirs are significant sources of emissions of the greenhouse gases. Discussing greenhouse gas emission from the reservoirs and its influence factors are propitious to evaluate emission of the greenhouse gas accurately, reduce gas emission under hydraulic engineering and hydropower development. This paper expatiates the mechanism of the greenhouse gas production, sums three approaches of the greenhouse gas emission, which are emissions from nature emission of the reservoirs, turbines and spillways and downstream of the dam, respectively. Effects of greenhouse gas emission were discussed from character of the reservoirs, climate, pH of the water, vegetation growing in the reservoirs and so on. Finally, it has analyzed the heterogeneity of the greenhouse gas emission as well as the root of the uncertainty and carried on the forecast with emphasis to the next research. PMID:18839604

  8. Metal Oxide Gas Sensors: Sensitivity and Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengxiang; Yin, Longwei; Zhang, Luyuan; Xiang, Dong; Gao, Rui

    2010-01-01

    Conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors have been widely used and investigated in the detection of gases. Investigations have indicated that the gas sensing process is strongly related to surface reactions, so one of the important parameters of gas sensors, the sensitivity of the metal oxide based materials, will change with the factors influencing the surface reactions, such as chemical components, surface-modification and microstructures of sensing layers, temperature and humidity. In this brief review, attention will be focused on changes of sensitivity of conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors due to the five factors mentioned above. PMID:22294916

  9. Influences Determining European Coal Seam Gas Deliverability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, G.

    2009-04-01

    Technically the coal basins of Europe have generated significant Gas In Place figures that has historically generated investor's interest in the development of this potential coal seam gas (CSG) resource. In the early 1980's, a wave of international, principally American, companies arrived, established themselves, drilled and then left with a poor record of success and disappointed investors. Recently a second wave of investment started after 2002, with the smaller companies leading the charge but have the lesson been learned from the past failures? To select a CSG investment project the common European approach has been to: 1. Find an old mining region; 2. Look to see if it had a coal mine methane gas problem; 3. Look for the non-mined coal seams; and 4. Peg the land. This method is perhaps the reason why the history of CSG exploration in Europe is such a disappointment as generally the coal mining regions of Europe do not have commercial CSG reservoir attributes. As a result, investors and governments have lost confidence that CSG will be a commercial success in Europe. New European specific principles for the determination of commercial CSG prospects have had to be delineated that allow for the selection of coal basins that have a strong technical case for deliverability. This will result in the return of investor confidence.

  10. Structural and mechanical defects of materials of offshore and onshore main gas pipelines after long-term operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruschak, Pavlo; Panin, Sergey; Danyliuk, Iryna; Poberezhnyi, Lyubomyr; Pyrig, Taras; Bishchak, Roman; Vlasov, Ilya

    2015-10-01

    The study has established the main regularities of a fatigue failure of offshore gas steel pipes installed using S-lay and J-lay methods.We have numerically analyzed the influence of preliminary deformation on the fatigue life of 09Mn2Si steel at different amplitudes of cyclic loading. The results have revealed the regularities of formation and development of a fatigue crack in 17Mn1Si steel after 40 years of underground operation. The quantitative analysis describes the regularities of occurrence and growth of fatigue cracks in the presence of a stress concentration.

  11. Greenhouse gas impacts of natural gas: Influence of deployment choice, methane leak rate, and methane GWP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohan, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Growing supplies of natural gas have heightened interest in the net impacts of natural gas on climate. Although its production and consumption result in greenhouse gas emissions, natural gas most often substitutes for other fossil fuels whose emission rates may be higher. Because natural gas can be used throughout the sectors of the energy economy, its net impacts on greenhouse gas emissions will depend not only on the leak rates of production and distribution, but also on the use for which natural gas is substituted. Here, we present our estimates of the net greenhouse gas emissions impacts of substituting natural gas for other fossil fuels for five purposes: light-duty vehicles, transit buses, residential heating, electricity generation, and export for electricity generation overseas. Emissions are evaluated on a fuel cycle basis, from production and transport of each fuel through end use combustion, based on recent conditions in the United States. We show that displacement of existing coal-fired electricity and heating oil furnaces yield the largest reductions in emissions. The impact of compressed natural gas replacing petroleum-based vehicles is highly uncertain, with the sign of impact depending on multiple assumptions. Export of liquefied natural gas for electricity yields a moderate amount of emissions reductions. We further show how uncertainties in upstream emission rates for natural gas and in the global warming potential of methane influence the net greenhouse gas impacts. Our presentation will make the case that how natural gas is deployed is crucial to determining how it will impact climate.

  12. 76 FR 54532 - Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... from El Paso Pipeline, seeking relief from compliance with certain requirements in the Federal pipeline...: PHMSA has received a request for special permit from El Paso pipeline seeking relief from compliance...-26618 El Paso Pipeline Group 49 CFR 192.611........ The special permit request for Tennessee Gas from...

  13. Dual-tree complex wavelet transform and SVD based acoustic noise reduction and its application in leak detection for natural gas pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xuchao; Liang, Wei; Zhang, Laibin; Jin, Hao; Qiu, Jingwei

    2016-05-01

    During the last decades, leak detection for natural gas pipeline has become one of the paramount concerns of pipeline operators and researchers across the globe. However, acoustic wave method has been proved to be an effective way to identify and localize leakage for gas pipeline. Considering the fact that noises inevitably exist in the acoustic signals collected, noise reduction should be enforced on the signals for subsequent data mining and analysis. Thus, an integrated acoustic noise reduction method based on DTCWT and SVD is proposed in this study. The method is put forward based on the idea that noise reduction strategy should match the characteristics of the noisy signal. According to previous studies, it is known that the energy of acoustic signals collected under leaking condition is mainly concentrated in low-frequency portion (0-100 Hz). And ultralow-frequency component (0-5 Hz), which is taken as the characteristic frequency band in this study, can propagate a relatively longer distance and be captured by sensors. Therefore, in order to filter the noises and to reserve the characteristic frequency band, DTCWT is taken as the core to conduct multilevel decomposition and refining for acoustic signals and SVD is employed to eliminate noises in non-characteristic bands. Both simulation and field experiments show that DTCWT-SVD is an excellent method for acoustic noise reduction. At the end of this study, application in leakage localization shows that it becomes much easier and a little more accurate to estimate the location of leak hole after noise reduction by DTCWT-SVD.

  14. Optimal hub location in pipeline networks

    SciTech Connect

    Dott, D.R.; Wirasinghe, S.C.; Chakma, A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses optimization strategies and techniques for the location of natural gas marketing hubs in the North American gas pipeline network. A hub is a facility at which inbound and outbound network links meet and freight is redirected towards their destinations. Common examples of hubs used in the gas pipeline industry include gas plants, interconnects and market centers. Characteristics of the gas pipeline industry which are relevant to the optimization of transportation costs using hubs are presented. Allocation techniques for solving location-allocation problems are discussed. An outline of the research in process by the authors in the field of optimal gas hub location concludes the paper.

  15. Fluid-structure interaction analysis and lifetime estimation of a natural gas pipeline centrifugal compressor under near-choke and near-surge conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Yaping; Liu, Hui; Yao, Ziyun; Xing, Peng; Zhang, Chuhua

    2015-11-01

    Up to present, there have been no studies concerning the application of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis to the lifetime estimation of multi-stage centrifugal compressors under dangerous unsteady aerodynamic excitations. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of a three-stage natural gas pipeline centrifugal compressor are performed under near-choke and near-surge conditions, and the unsteady aerodynamic pressure acting on impeller blades are obtained. Then computational structural dynamics (CSD) analysis is conducted through a one-way coupling FSI model to predict alternating stresses in impeller blades. Finally, the compressor lifetime is estimated using the nominal stress approach. The FSI results show that the impellers of latter stages suffer larger fluctuation stresses but smaller mean stresses than those at preceding stages under near-choke and near-surge conditions. The most dangerous position in the compressor is found to be located near the leading edge of the last-stage impeller blade. Compressor lifetime estimation shows that the investigated compressor can run up to 102.7 h under the near-choke condition and 200.2 h under the near-surge condition. This study is expected to provide a scientific guidance for the operation safety of natural gas pipeline centrifugal compressors.

  16. Removal of Asbestos-Containing Coatings (ACC) from gas transmission pipelines. Final report, January 1991-October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, L.E.; Blackburn, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    Corrosion control coatings on transmission pipelines may contain asbestos as a secondary component of the coating. Current environmental and health regulations require a wet removal process for asbestos materials that provides close control of airborne emissions and asbestos fibers in effluent water. Modification of current line-traveling, water jet equipment was successfully completed in developing an economic removal process for asbestos-containing coatings (ACC). Materials handling components were added in yard experiments that permitted water jet removal, slurry filtration, and residue containerization meeting emission control levels, while providing pipe cleanliness suitable for recoating. Field evaluations under in-the-ditch and over-the-ditch conditions on 16-, 26- and 30-inch pipelines verified the achievement of design coating removal rates and asbestos emission control that meets current regulations.

  17. 18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... jurisdictional natural gas facilities other than liquefied natural gas facilities caused by a hurricane... reason other than hurricane, earthquake or other natural disaster or terrorist activity, the natural...

  18. The influence of early oil and gas charging on diagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HU, J.; Guo, Q.; Zheng, M.; Wu, X.; Zheng, M.

    2015-12-01

    With the increase of depth, the growing influence of compaction and diagenetic cementation should make reservoir physical properties worse and worse, but we found that the reservoir property deviated from the normal compaction curve through researching the development of high porosity and its control factors in deep sandstone reservoirs all over the world. Some data from different basins at home and abroad showed the bigger solubility of carbonate type (such as calcite) and aluminum silicate type (such as feldspar) and good development of secondary pore in oil-bearing sandstone than that in the no oil-bearing sandstone. And, calcite cementation, dolomite cementation, quartz cementation in the oil reservoir are more than that of the no oil-bearing reservoir. The effect of oil and gas charging on the diagenetic evolution is complicated. The degree of mineral cementation is also relevant to the saturation of oil and gas, influence of low oil saturation on diagenetic environment was not distinct. By studying different basin, different geology, we found that the oil and gas filling impacts on deep sandstone properties by influencing the diagenetic compaction, cementation and dissolution of deep reservoir: (1) the overpressure of oil and gas charging can buffer compaction of overlying strata; (2) the early oil and gas filling inhibit or slow down the cementation process, especially to illite and quartz, (3) the organic acid dissolution in oil and gas can improve the physical properties of deep reservoir. These three aspects are essentially improved reservoir for deep hydrocarbon accumulation, having very realistic significance for the deep oil and gas exploration.

  19. Natural Gas in the Rocky Mountains: Developing Infrastructure

    EIA Publications

    2007-01-01

    This Supplement to the Energy Information Administration's Short-Term Energy Outlook analyzes current natural gas production, pipeline and storage infrastructure in the Rocky Mountains, as well as prospective pipeline projects in these states. The influence of these factors on regional prices and price volatility is examined.

  20. Riser, pipelines installed in Griffin field

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-23

    A mooring riser and flow lines along with a 67-km, 8-in., gas-export pipelines have been installed offshore Australia for BHP Petroleum's Griffin field development. The 66-km gas line will carry Griffin field gas to an onshore gas-processing plant. Completing the projects ahead of schedule was Clough Stena Joint Venture (Asia), Perth. BHP awarded the contracts in early 1993; the project was completed in January this year. The paper describes the contractor, pipeline installation, and handling equipment.

  1. Buffer-gas influence on multiphoton absorption and dissociation in different gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, J. D.; Rabasović, M. D.; Markushev, D. D.; Jovanović-Kurepa, J.

    2008-03-01

    Buffer-gas influence on the multiphoton absorption and dissociation in different mixtures was investigated using the simple method based on the empirical and theoretical vibrational energy distribution, generalized coupled two-level model and photoacoustic cell especially designed for low pressures studies. Energy transfer efficiency was analyzed by means of pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy technique. Collisional effects of buffer-gas (Ar) pressure are introduced to enhance the absorption and relaxation characteristics of irradiated absorbing molecules (SF 6). Functional behavior of mean number of absorbed photons per molecule < n> total and a dependence on buffer-gas pressure ( pbuff) which enables us to confirm or predict some physical and chemical processes are presented. Limitation of proposed model was analyzed depending on both gas pressure and laser fluence. Results are compared with other previously obtained by the same experimental technique but for different absorber and different molecular buffer-gas.

  2. Slurry pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Wasp, E.J.

    1983-11-01

    Slurry pipelines are now transporting metal ores and coal/water suspensions. Their greatest potential is for transporting coal from Western states to power stations in other parts of the country. The physics of slurry transport encompases the principles of fluid dynamics and hydrostatics that were studied by Archimedes, but commercial slurry systems date only since World War II. An overview of their development covers policy debates and technological problems associated with existing and proposed pipeline projects. The author examines the tradeoffs of low sulfur content versus longer distances for transport, and describes the process of preparing coal slurries. 7 figures.

  3. In-line inspection device to detect and size stress corrosion cracks utilizing low frequency eddy currents in combination with magnetic saturation of the pipe wall in natural gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Hayford, D.T.; Davis, R.J.

    1992-12-21

    In two earlier research programs conducted for the NDT Supervisory Committee, Battelle developed low-frequency eddy current equipment for detecting and characterizing stress corrosion cracks from the outside of gas transmission pipelines without requiring the removal of the protective coating. In this program, Battelle examined the possibility of using this or similar equipment to detect stress corrosion cracks from the interior of the pipeline by magnetically saturating the pipeline to reduce the permeability of the pipeline material and thereby increase the penetration of eddy current fields into the pipeline. The study was divided into two parts, an analytical study to determine how well eddy currents could be used to detect cracks if the permeability of the pipeline material is reduced by using magnetic saturation and an experimental study to verify the results of the analytical study and to determine how much the permeability could be reduced using a large magnetizing field. The analytical study indicated that significant improvements could be made in the defect sensitivity of eddy current probes to external cracks even if the pipeline is not completely saturated; reducing the permeability to a value as high as 10 would be sufficient. However, the experimental study showed just how difficult it is to reduce the permeability of the pipeline to such a low value. The power required to reduce the permeability to 33 was about 5 kilowatts, which we believe is excessive for an internal inspection device; however, this power requirement may be reduced by a better design. With a transverse permeability of 33, we believe that defects which are 70 percent or more of the pipe wall in depth would be detectable with an eddy current device.

  4. Use of influence diagrams in gas transfer system option prioritization

    SciTech Connect

    Heger, A.S.; Garcia, M.D.

    1995-08-01

    A formal decision-analysis methodology was applied to aid the Department of Energy (DOE) in deciding which of several gas transfer system (GTS) options should be selected. The decision objectives for this case study, i.e., risk and cost, were directly derived from the DOE guidelines. Influence diagrams were used to define the structure of the decision problem and clearly delineate the flow if information. A set of performance matrices wee used in conjunction with the influence diagrams to assess and evaluate the degree to which the objectives of the case study were met. These performance measures were extracted from technical models, design and operating data, and professional judgments. The results were aggregated to provide an overall evaluation of the different design options of the gas transfer system. Consequently, the results of this analysis were used as an aid to DOE to select a viable GTS option.

  5. Pipeline-gas Demonstration Plant: Phase I. Quarterly technical process report, 1 January 1981 - 31 March 1981. [Proprietary process for coal gasification plants

    SciTech Connect

    DiFulgentiz, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    Contract No EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coal into clean pipeline quality gas. During the reporting period of January 1, 1981, through March 31, 1981, the major work effort of the project was focused on Task VI, Demonstration Plant Engineering and Design, and on Task VII, Construction Planning. Work continued on plans for obtaining coal, catalysts, chemicals, and flux, and on plans for sale of the products and by-products. Work on Task VIII, Economic Reassessment, was started during the reporting period. The design phase of the project, Phase I, is scheduled for completion on June 30, 1981. Conoco Inc. expects to meet all major milestone dates and complete Phase I on schedule.

  6. Influence of the shielding gas internal bore welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastra, Isabelle; Boudot, Cecile

    1991-10-01

    As the authors welded with a small focus distance in a small area, the shielding gas performed the following new functions: heat removal, optics shielding, and liquid metal shielding. Therefore, the gas usually used in laser welding (He, N2, Ar, or a mixture) was compared, with and without a small percentage of oxygen. The benefit influence of a small percentage of oxygen has been demonstrated for the three aimed points, but also an important and beneficial effect on the weldshape has been show; i.e., with the same welding speed value and the same welding energy value the weld penetration can be increased from 0.5 mm up to 2 mm (only by optimization of the gas composition with a small amount of oxygen).

  7. Pipeline Expansions

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    This appendix examines the nature and type of proposed pipeline projects announced or approved for construction during the next several years in the United States. It also includes those projects in Canada and Mexico that tie-in with the U.S. markets or projects.

  8. Figuring on energy: scalped by pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, P.

    1985-07-01

    The price gap between cheap and expensive energy supplies has led to debates over who will benefit from the difference between average cost and replacement cost. The Natural Gas Supply Association (NGSA) goal is to get consumption higher through selectively lower burner-tip prices, but regulators have protected pipeline profits despite falling pipeline sales. NGSA claims the pipelines are not entitled to the profit margin, but must earn it by defending the market share of gas and keeping their pipeline flow high. Wellhead prices have dropped, but there has been no similar response in pipeline profit margins to the surplus in the capacity to transport gas. The author calculates how this situation could change and lead to higher prices or shortages unless a more moderate solution than NGSA proposes is found. He recommends directing the cheaper gas to industrial plants to ease unemployment.

  9. Potential effects of large linear pipeline construction on soil and vegetation in ecologically fragile regions.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jun; Wang, Ya-Feng; Shi, Peng; Yang, Lei; Chen, Li-Ding

    2014-11-01

    Long-distance pipeline construction results in marked human disturbance of the regional ecosystem and brings into question the safety of pipeline construction with respect to the environment. Thus, the direct environmental impact and proper handling of such large projects have received much attention. The potential environmental effects, however, have not been fully addressed, particularly for large linear pipeline projects, and the threshold of such effects is unclear. In this study, two typical eco-fragile areas in western China, where large linear construction projects have been conducted, were chosen as the case study areas. Soil quality indices (SQI) and vegetation indices (VI), representing the most important potential effects, were used to analyze the scope of the effect of large pipeline construction on the surrounding environment. These two indices in different buffer zones along the pipeline were compared against the background values. The analysis resulted in three main findings. First, pipeline construction continues to influence the nearby eco-environment even after a 4-year recovery period. During this period, the effect on vegetation due to pipeline construction reaches 300 m beyond the working area, and is much larger in distance than the effect on soil, which is mainly confined to within 30 m either side of the pipeline, indicating that vegetation is more sensitive than soil to this type of human disturbance. However, the effect may not reach beyond 500 m from the pipeline. Second, the scope of the effect in terms of distance on vegetation may also be determined by the frequency of disturbance and the intensity of the pipeline construction. The greater the number of pipelines in an area, the higher the construction intensity and the more frequent the disturbance. Frequent disturbance may expand the effect on vegetation on both sides of the pipeline, but not on soil quality. Third, the construction may eliminate the stable, resident plant

  10. Comparison of impacts on macroinvertebrates and fish from gas pipeline installation by wet-ditching and plowing

    SciTech Connect

    Vinikour, W.S.; Schubert, J.P.; Gartman, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    Biotic effects from wet-ditching were investigated at the Little Miami River, Ohio. Invertebrate densities decreased at, and a short distance below, the crossing site; partial benthic recolonization occurred within three weeks of construction, while complete recolonization occurred within seven months. Fish recolonized the affected area within one month, but densities were reduced; within eight months after construction, the fish community was similar to that observed before construction. Biotic effects from the plow method were examined at Canada Creek, Michigan. No significant impacts on benthic macroinvertebrates were detected. During ramp excavation, increased macroinvertebrate drift densities were noted, as well as increased occurrence of terrestrial invertebrates in the drift; upon completion of ramp excavation, drift composition approximated that before construction. No effects on fish species were indicated. Overall, no biotic impacts were detected within three days after pipeline installation. 23 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Analyzing the influence of combustion gas on a gas turbine by radiation thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shan; Wang, Lixin; Feng, Chi; Kipngetich, Ketui Daniel

    2015-11-01

    High temperature is the main focus in ongoing development of gas turbines. With increasing turbine inlet temperature, turbine blades undergo complex thermal and structural loading subjecting them to large thermal gradients and, consequently, severe thermal stresses and strain. In order to improve the reliability, safety, and service life of blades, accurate measurement of turbine blade temperature is necessary. A gas turbine can generate high-temperature and high-pressure gas that interferes greatly with radiation from turbine blades. In addition, if the gas along the optical path is not completely transparent, blade temperature measurement is subject to significant measurement error in the gas absorption spectrum. In this study, we analyze gas turbine combustion gases using the κ-distribution method combined with the HITEMP and HITRAN databases to calculate the transmission and emissivity of mixed gases. We propose spectral window methods to analyze the radiation characteristics of high-temperature gas under different spectral ranges, which can be used to select the wavelengths used in multispectral temperature measurement on turbine blades and estimate measurement error in the part of the spectrum with smaller influence (transmission > 0.98).

  12. The influence of shielding gas in hybrid LASER MIG welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Giovanni; Campana, Giampaolo; Fortunato, Alessandro; Ascari, Alessandro

    2007-07-01

    Hybrid LASER-GMAW welding technique has been recently studied and developed in order to meet the needs of modern welding industries. The two sources involved in this process play, in fact, a complementary role: fast welding speed, deep bead penetration and high energy concentration can be achieved through the LASER beam, while gap bridgeability and cost-effectiveness are typical of the GMAW process. Particularly interesting, in this context, is the CO 2 LASER-MIG welding which differs from the Nd:YAG LASER-MIG technique for the high powers that can be exploited and for the good power/cost ratio of the process. This paper is a part of a wide study on the hybrid CO 2 LASER-MIG welding and investigates the influence of the shielding gas both on the stability of the process and on the dimensional characteristics of the weld bead. Two different parameters have been taken into consideration in order to develop this analysis: the shielding gas composition and the shielding gas flow. The experiment, performed on AISI 304 stainless steel plates, has been planned exploiting design of experiment techniques. The results have been analyzed through a statistical approach in order to determine the real influence of each parameter on the overall process.

  13. PIPELINES AS COMMUNICATION NETWORK LINKS

    SciTech Connect

    Kelvin T. Erickson; Ann Miller; E. Keith Stanek; C.H. Wu; Shari Dunn-Norman

    2005-03-14

    This report presents the results of an investigation into two methods of using the natural gas pipeline as a communication medium. The work addressed the need to develop secure system monitoring and control techniques between the field and control centers and to robotic devices in the pipeline. In the first method, the pipeline was treated as a microwave waveguide. In the second method, the pipe was treated as a leaky feeder or a multi-ground neutral and the signal was directly injected onto the metal pipe. These methods were tested on existing pipeline loops at UMR and Batelle. The results reported in this report indicate the feasibility of both methods. In addition, a few suitable communication link protocols for this network were analyzed.

  14. Intrinsically safe camera developed for live lines. [Remote viewing of natural gas pipelines to identify water problems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Water infiltration in gas mains used to cause long, cold nights for Joe Moore, gas planning supervisor at Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., Syracuse, NY. Moore doesn't have that particular problem any more thanks to the development of the GasCam[reg sign], a video inspection system that he first envisioned more than 8 years ago. The GasCam allows crews to insert a TV camera into gas mains as small as 4 in. through a standard 1 1/4-in. tap hole and inspect 200 to 225 ft in both directions. Although firm numbers are not yet available, beta-site users indicate they have been able to cut in half their costs for locating blockage-causing leaks. George Ragula, distribution technology manager at Public Service Electric and Gas Co. in New Jersey, has been closely involved with development of the GasCam. PSE G tested prototype, furnished feedback and bought the first unit sold outside of Niagara Mohawk. He said a very conservative estimate showed a savings of at least 50% over traditional water leak-location techniques. Nisha Ashar, operations service engineer with UGI Utilities, Reading, PA, which purchased a GasCam in December 1993, said preliminary figures indicate savings are significant over other methods.

  15. 77 FR 5472 - Pipeline Safety: Expanding the Use of Excess Flow Valves in Gas Distribution Systems to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... FR 72666). The ANPRM sought public comment on several issues related to expanding the use of EFVs in...: Expanding the Use of Excess Flow Valves in Gas Distribution Systems to Applications Other Than Single-Family... Safety: Expanding the Use of Excess Flow Valves (EFVs) in Gas Distribution Systems to Applications...

  16. Parallel pipelining

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, D.D.; Bai, R.; Liao, T.Y.; Huang, A.; Hu, H.H.

    1995-09-01

    In this paper the authors introduce the idea of parallel pipelining for water lubricated transportation of oil (or other viscous material). A parallel system can have major advantages over a single pipe with respect to the cost of maintenance and continuous operation of the system, to the pressure gradients required to restart a stopped system and to the reduction and even elimination of the fouling of pipe walls in continuous operation. The authors show that the action of capillarity in small pipes is more favorable for restart than in large pipes. In a parallel pipeline system, they estimate the number of small pipes needed to deliver the same oil flux as in one larger pipe as N = (R/r){sup {alpha}}, where r and R are the radii of the small and large pipes, respectively, and {alpha} = 4 or 19/7 when the lubricating water flow is laminar or turbulent.

  17. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  18. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L.; Isaacson, H.R.

    1992-12-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  19. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. ); Isaacson, H.R. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  20. The RESOLVE Survey Atomic Gas Census and Environmental Influences on Galaxy Gas Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, David; Kannappan, Sheila; Eckert, Kathleen D.; Jonathan, Florez; Hall, Kirsten; Watson, Linda C.; Hoversten, Erik A.; Burchett, Joseph; Guynn, David; Baker, Ashley; Moffett, Amanda J.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Norris, Mark A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Leroy, Adam K.; Pisano, Daniel J.; Wei, Lisa H.; Gonzalez, Roberto; RESOLVE Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the >93% complete 21cm inventory for the RESOLVE survey, a volume-limited census of ~1500 galaxies spanning diverse environments and probing baryonic masses down to ~109 M⊙. A key strength of the 21cm observational program is its fractional mass limited design, which yields an unbiased inventory of atomic gas mass, with either clean detections or strong upper limits <5-10% of stellar mass. We combine this gas census with metrics that parameterize environment from group scales (group dark matter halo mass) up to large-scale structure (mass density of the cosmic web and classification into filaments, walls, and voids) to investigate the influence of small and large-scale environment on galaxy gas content. We show that satellites in groups down to 1012 M⊙ have lower gas fractions compared to centrals at similar stellar mass, suggesting that group processes that deplete gas content are active well below the large group/cluster scale. In addition, at fixed halo mass both centrals and satellites in large-scale walls have systematically lower gas fractions than galaxies in filaments or voids, and this trend cannot be fully explained by differing stellar mass distributions within these large-scale environments. Lastly, we show that the abundance of gas-poor (gas-to-stellar mass ratio < 0.1) low halo-mass (<1011.4 M⊙) centrals increases with large-scale structure density, and that these centrals tend to reside closer to the outskirts of >1012 M⊙ groups than do more gas-rich but otherwise analogous low halo-mass centrals, suggesting that the gas-poor centrals have lost their gas in flyby interactions with the nearby groups. We discuss how the observed trends may be shaped by a number of physical processes such as gas stripping, starvation, and halo assembly bias. This project has been supported by NSF funding for the RESOLVE survey (AST-0955368), the GBT Student Observing Support program, and a UNC Royster Society of Fellows Dissertation Completion

  1. Oman-India pipeline route survey

    SciTech Connect

    Mullee, J.E.

    1995-12-01

    Paper describes the geological setting in the Arabian Sea for a proposed 28-inch gas pipeline from Oman to India reaching 3,500-m water depths. Covers planning, execution, quality control and results of geophysical, geotechnical and oceanographic surveys. Outlines theory and application of pipeline stress analysis on board survey vessel for feasibility assessment, and specifies equipment used.

  2. 78 FR 62010 - Empire Pipeline, Inc.; National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Intent To Prepare an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-11

    ... properties.\\4\\ We will define the project-specific Area of Potential Effects (APE) in consultation with the SHPO(s) as the project develops. On natural gas facility projects, the APE at a minimum encompasses...

  3. 77 FR 27048 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... properties.\\4\\ We will define the project-specific Area of Potential Effects (APE) in consultation with the SHPO as the project develops. On natural gas facility projects, the APE at a minimum encompasses...

  4. 18 CFR 2.57 - Temporary certificates-pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-pipeline companies. 2.57 Section 2.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.57 Temporary certificates—pipeline companies... certificates, comparatively minor enlargements or extensions of an existing pipeline system. It will not be...

  5. 18 CFR 2.57 - Temporary certificates-pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-pipeline companies. 2.57 Section 2.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.57 Temporary certificates—pipeline companies... certificates, comparatively minor enlargements or extensions of an existing pipeline system. It will not be...

  6. 18 CFR 2.57 - Temporary certificates-pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-pipeline companies. 2.57 Section 2.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.57 Temporary certificates—pipeline companies... certificates, comparatively minor enlargements or extensions of an existing pipeline system. It will not be...

  7. 77 FR 34458 - Pipeline Safety: Requests for Special Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ...Pursuant to the Federal pipeline safety laws, PHMSA is publishing this notice of special permit requests we have received from Norgasco, Inc., and BreitBurn Energy Company LP, two natural gas pipeline operators, seeking relief from compliance with certain requirements in the Federal pipeline safety regulations. This notice seeks public comments on the requests, including comments on any safety......

  8. 18 CFR 2.57 - Temporary certificates-pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-pipeline companies. 2.57 Section 2.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.57 Temporary certificates—pipeline companies... certificates, comparatively minor enlargements or extensions of an existing pipeline system. It will not be...

  9. 18 CFR 284.267 - Intrastate pipeline emergency transportation rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intrastate pipeline... Transactions § 284.267 Intrastate pipeline emergency transportation rates. General rule. Rates and charges for transportation of emergency gas by intrastate pipelines authorized under this subpart must be determined...

  10. 18 CFR 2.57 - Temporary certificates-pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-pipeline companies. 2.57 Section 2.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.57 Temporary certificates—pipeline companies... the proposed construction is of major proportions. Pipeline companies are accordingly urged to...

  11. Smart pigs assess reliability of corroded pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.G.; Dawson, S.J.; Brown, M.

    1995-03-01

    Pipeline operating companies are relying more and more on high-resolution, magnetic pigs to inspect onshore and offshore pipelines for corrosion. Data derived from these corrosion surveys can be used to develop a safe future operating strategy. British Gas has successfully developed and applied a realistic deterministic analysis for corroded pipelines. It involves identification and calculation of failure pressure and time to failure of corroded pipe spools with the highest risk of failure. High-resolution, intelligent pigs (smart pigs) can accurately detect, size, and locate corrosion in pipelines. Once corrosion is detected, the operator needs to known if the corrosion will affect the integrity of the pipeline and when it could fail from further corrosion growth. This information can be used to develop a pipeline de-rating schedule, implement a repair or replacement program, determine if re-inspection is necessary, and evaluate effectiveness of a corrosion inhibitor program. Such methods are described.

  12. 76 FR 41788 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... convert one active oil/gas production well within the planned expansion acreage, called the Rama Wellman... to the production well. Southern Star's proposal would not change the current operational parameters... production well to an observation well and to remove tank battery facilities. Following construction, about...

  13. The Dangers of Pipeline Thinking: How the School-to-Prison Pipeline Metaphor Squeezes out Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrew, Ken

    2016-01-01

    In this essay Ken McGrew critically examines the "school-to-prison pipeline" metaphor and associated literature. The origins and influence of the metaphor are compared with the origins and influence of the competing "prison industrial complex" concept. Specific weaknesses in the "pipeline literature" are examined.…

  14. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 17. Plant section 2500 - Plant and Instrument Air

    SciTech Connect

    1981-05-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 17 which reports the design of Plant Section 2500 - Plant and Instrument Air. The plant and instrument air system is designed to provide dry, compressed air for a multitude of uses in plant operations and maintenance. A single centrifugal air compressor provides the total plant and instrument air requirements. An air drying system reduces the dew point of the plant and instrument air. Plant Section 2500 is designed to provide air at 100/sup 0/F and 100 psig. Both plant and instrument air are dried to a -40/sup 0/F dew point. Normal plant and instrument air requirements total 1430 standard cubic feet per minute.

  15. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 18. Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    1981-05-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 18 which reports the design of Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment. The objective of the Waste Water Treatment system is to collect and treat all plant liquid effluent streams. The system is designed to permit recycle and reuse of the treated waste water. Plant Section 2700 is composed of primary, secondary, and tertiary waste water treatment methods plus an evaporation system which eliminates liquid discharge from the plant. The Waste Water Treatment Section is designed to produce 130 pounds per hour of sludge that is buried in a landfill on the plant site. The evaporated water is condensed and provides a portion of the make-up water to Plant Section 2400 - Cooling Water.

  16. Underwater gas pipeline leakage source localization by distributed fiber-optic sensing based on particle swarm optimization tuning of the support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue; Wang, Qiang; Shi, Lilian; Yang, Qihua

    2016-01-10

    Accurate underwater gas pipeline leak localization requires particular attention due to the sensitivity of environmental conditions. Experiments were performed to analyze the localization performance of a distributed optical fiber sensing system based on the hybrid Sagnac and Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The traditional null frequency location method does not easily allow accurate location of the leakage points. To improve the positioning accuracy, the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) tuning of the support vector machine (SVM) was used to predict the leakage points based on gathered leakage data. The PSO is able to optimize the SVM parameters. For the 10 km range chosen, the results show the PSO-SVM average absolute error of the leakage points predicted is 66 m. The prediction accuracy of leakage points is 98.25% by PSO tuning of the SVM processing. For 20 leakage test data points, the average absolute error of leakage point location is 124.8 m. The leakage position predicted by the PSO algorithm after optimization of the parameters is more accurate. PMID:26835758

  17. Limitations and drawbacks of using Preliminary Environmental Reports (PERs) as an input to Environmental Licensing in Sao Paulo State: A case study on natural gas pipeline routing

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchhoff, Denis . E-mail: dkirchho@fes.uwaterloo.ca; Montano, Marcelo . E-mail: minduim@sc.usp.br; Ranieri, Victor Eduardo Lima . E-mail: vranieri@sc.usp.br; Dutra de Oliveira, Isabel Silva . E-mail: beldutra@sc.usp.br; Doberstein, Brent . E-mail: bdoberst@fes.uwaterloo.ca; Pereira de Souza, Marcelo . E-mail: mps@sc.usp.br

    2007-05-15

    This article discusses the limitations and implications to environmental management issues posed by the Environmental Licensing approach adopted in Sao Paulo State. In Brazil, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an essential precondition to the Environmental Licensing of activities and, in fact, it has been the most important and required tool for the licensing of projects. However, in 1994 the State of Sao Paulo implemented a simplified instrument called a 'Preliminary Environmental Report' in order to make the environmental licensing process faster. Since then, the Preliminary Environmental Report (PER) has had the role of indicating whether an EIA needs to be elaborated upon or not. The positives and negatives regarding technical, institutional and legal aspects related to the use of Preliminary Environmental Reports (rather than EIA) are discussed using the case study of a high-pressure natural gas pipeline between the cities of Sao Carlos and Porto Ferreira in the State of Sao Paulo. The main conclusion is that the Environmental Licensing process in Sao Paulo should not use PERs as the sole input to decision making about proposed activities, since the PER approach does not guarantee that the proposed activity is environmentally suitable, does not address locational issues or comparison of alternatives, and risk assessment issues are not considered in the earliest stages of assessment.

  18. Mitigation strategies for microbiologically influenced corrosion in gas industry facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, D.H.; Zintel, T.P. ); Cookingham, B.A. ); Howard, D.; Morris, R.G. ); Day, R.A.; Frank, J.R. ); Pogemiller, G.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) and its mitigation in gas industry facilities. The results show that MIC commonly occurs on both external and internal surfaces of pipes, in down hole tubulars and in process equipment such as separators. Mitigation strategies were tested in side-stream devices at several sites. The results demonstrate that many biocides and corrosion inhibitors are relatively ineffective in controlling the surface microbial populations, at least under the conditions of the tests. Detailed studies with glutaraldehyde demonstrated that reestablishment of surface MIC communities after removal of this biocide was very rapid. Continuous treatment with glutaraldehyde led to the development of surface microbial communities resistant to the effects of the biocide.

  19. 78 FR 38803 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revisions to Incident and Annual Reports for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Incident Report--Natural and Other Gas Transmission and Gathering Pipeline Systems; PHMSA F 7100.2-1 Annual Report for Calendar Year 20-- Natural and Other Gas Transmission and Gathering Pipeline Systems; PHMSA F... Incident Report-- Natural and Other Gas Transmission and Gathering Pipeline Systems Form (GTG...

  20. Geothermal pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Geothermal Pipeline is a progress and development update from the Geothermal Progress Monitor and includes brief descriptions of various geothermal projects around the world. The following topics are covered: The retirement of Geo-Heat Center Director Paul Lienau, announcement of two upcoming geothermal meetings, and a proposed geothermal power plant project in the Medicine Lake/Glass Mountain area of California. Also included is an article about the Bonneville Power Administration`s settlements with two California companies who had agreed to build geothermal power plants on the federal agency`s behalf, geothermal space heating projects and use of geothermal energy for raising red crayfish in Oregon, and some updates on geothermal projects in Minnesota, Pennsylvania, and China.

  1. Pipeline issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisley, Joe T.

    1990-01-01

    The declining pool of graduates, the lack of rigorous preparation in science and mathematics, and the declining interest in science and engineering careers at the precollege level promises a shortage of technically educated personnel at the college level for industry, government, and the universities in the next several decades. The educational process, which starts out with a large number of students at the elementary level, but with an ever smaller number preparing for science and engineering at each more advanced educational level, is in a state of crisis. These pipeline issues, so called because the educational process is likened to a series of ever smaller constrictions in a pipe, were examined in a workshop at the Space Grant Conference and a summary of the presentations and the results of the discussion, and the conclusions of the workshop participants are reported.

  2. Large, live line rehab project requires detailed planning: Part 1. [Refurbishing in-service oil and gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Leeds, J.M. ); Catley, M.G. )

    1994-02-01

    Detailed planning and organization has resulted in a smoothly executed six-year coating refurbishment program on 373 mi of live, high-pressure pipe in South Australia. Production of oil and gas in north-east South Australia. Production of oil and gas in north-east South Australia began in 1969 using pipe lines coated in single wrap polyethylene (PE) tape that, over time, has undergone severe degradation due to poor construction practices, severe soil stresses and, in some cases, high temperatures in transported fluids. In the late 70s, a massive expansion of natural gas production was planned. Given known problems with PE tapes, an alternative coating, flake-filled isophthalic polyester, was selected for high-temperature lines. When this subsequently failed, the polyester was replaced by fusion bonded epoxy (FBE). To date, only minor problems have been experienced with FBE. In the early 80s, about 373 mi were coated with suspect materials, either tape or polyester. In addition to corrosion leaks, there had been five failures due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Two of the most severe were in a 20-in. OD trunkline. Problems were somewhat exacerbated by the pipe lines being buried in some of the most corrosive soils in existence. To ameliorate the situation, a massive coating refurbishment program, the largest in the southern hemisphere, was undertaken. Because few of the lines initially were looped, it was decided to repair lines, where possible, live and operating at their normal 1,250 psi. Only concession was shut-down of lines with a history of SCC. In initiating a comprehensive refurbishment program, a strategy was developed to identify key points and objectives.

  3. Performance diagnostics software for gas turbines in pipeline and cogeneration applications. Final report, July 1985-September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, P.

    1989-12-01

    The development experience for the PEGASYS and COGENT software is presented. The PEGASYS software is applicable to two-shaft gas turbines in simple, regenerative and combined cycle systems. The COGENT software is applicable to cogeneration systems. The test results show that the software is able to define the deviations between measured and expected power and thermal efficiency. Further, the software is able to identify the components causing the performance losses. The results show that axial compressor fouling is a major cause of performance losses and that the performance can be recovered by washing. A description of an on-line version of PEGASYS is described.

  4. Method and a horizontal pipeline pig launching mechanism for sequentially launching pipeline pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.W.

    1992-08-18

    This patent describes a method for timed automatic sequential launching of serially oriented pipeline pigs from a pig launching system having a tubular pig storage and launching magazine into a gas transmission pipeline. It comprises providing a source of hydraulic fluid medium; locating a free piston within the tubular pig storage and launching magazine for motive contact with the last of the serially oriented pipeline pigs; employing gas pressure from the gas transmission pipeline for pressurizing the hydraulic fluid medium from the source; introducing the pressurized hydraulic fluid medium into the hydraulic chamber; controllably releasing the restraining of the first of the serially oriented pipeline pigs from the tubular pig storage and launching magazine.

  5. Habitat diversity in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico: Selected video clips from the Gulfstream Natural Gas Pipeline digital archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, Ellen A.; D'Anjou, Robert; Pope, Domonique K.; Robbins, Lisa L.

    2011-01-01

    This project combines underwater video with maps and descriptions to illustrate diverse seafloor habitats from Tampa Bay, Florida, to Mobile Bay, Alabama. A swath of seafloor was surveyed with underwater video to 100 meters (m) water depth in 1999 and 2000 as part of the Gulfstream Natural Gas System Survey. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in St. Petersburg, Florida, in cooperation with Eckerd College and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), produced an archive of analog-to-digital underwater movies. Representative clips of seafloor habitats were selected from hundreds of hours of underwater footage. The locations of video clips were mapped to show the distribution of habitat and habitat transitions. The numerous benthic habitats in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico play a vital role in the region's economy, providing essential resources for tourism, natural gas, recreational water sports (fishing, boating, scuba diving), materials, fresh food, energy, a source of sand for beach renourishment, and more. These submerged natural resources are important to the economy but are often invisible to the general public. This product provides a glimpse of the seafloor with sample underwater video, maps, and habitat descriptions. It was developed to depict the range and location of seafloor habitats in the region but is limited by depth and by the survey track. It should not be viewed as comprehensive, but rather as a point of departure for inquiries and appreciation of marine resources and seafloor habitats. Further information is provided in the Resources section.

  6. 30 CFR 250.1003 - Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DOI pipelines. (a)(1) Pipelines greater than 85/8 inches in diameter and installed in water depths of... exists. (b)(1) Pipelines shall be pressure tested with water at a stabilized pressure of at least 1.25... pipeline shall be pressure tested with water or processed natural gas at a minimum stabilized pressure...

  7. 30 CFR 250.1003 - Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DOI pipelines. (a)(1) Pipelines greater than 85/8 inches in diameter and installed in water depths of... exists. (b)(1) Pipelines shall be pressure tested with water at a stabilized pressure of at least 1.25... pipeline shall be pressure tested with water or processed natural gas at a minimum stabilized pressure...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1003 - Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DOI pipelines. (a)(1) Pipelines greater than 85/8 inches in diameter and installed in water depths of... exists. (b)(1) Pipelines shall be pressure tested with water at a stabilized pressure of at least 1.25... pipeline shall be pressure tested with water or processed natural gas at a minimum stabilized pressure...

  9. 30 CFR 250.1019 - Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1019 Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants. A...

  10. 30 CFR 250.1016 - Granting pipeline rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Granting pipeline rights-of-way. 250.1016... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1016 Granting pipeline rights-of-way. (a) In considering an application for a...

  11. 30 CFR 250.1016 - Granting pipeline rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Granting pipeline rights-of-way. 250.1016... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1016 Granting pipeline rights-of-way. (a) In considering an application for a...

  12. 49 CFR 192.13 - What general requirements apply to pipelines regulated under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What general requirements apply to pipelines... (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY...

  13. 30 CFR 250.1014 - When pipeline right-of-way grants expire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When pipeline right-of-way grants expire. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1014 When pipeline right-of-way grants expire. Any right-of-way granted...

  14. 49 CFR 192.13 - What general requirements apply to pipelines regulated under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What general requirements apply to pipelines... (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY...

  15. 30 CFR 250.1019 - Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1019 Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants. A...

  16. 30 CFR 250.1019 - Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1019 Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants. A...

  17. 30 CFR 250.1015 - Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1015 Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants. (a) You...

  18. 30 CFR 250.1016 - Granting pipeline rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Granting pipeline rights-of-way. 250.1016... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1016 Granting pipeline rights-of-way. (a) In considering an application for a...

  19. 49 CFR 192.13 - What general requirements apply to pipelines regulated under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What general requirements apply to pipelines... (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY...

  20. 30 CFR 250.1018 - Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants. 250... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1018 Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants. (a) Assignment may be made of a...

  1. 30 CFR 250.1010 - General requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for pipeline right-of-way... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1010 General requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders. An applicant,...

  2. 49 CFR 192.13 - What general requirements apply to pipelines regulated under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What general requirements apply to pipelines... (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY...

  3. 30 CFR 250.1017 - Requirements for construction under pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for construction under pipeline... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1017 Requirements for construction under pipeline right-of-way...

  4. 30 CFR 250.1013 - Grounds for forfeiture of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounds for forfeiture of pipeline right-of-way... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1013 Grounds for forfeiture of pipeline right-of-way grants. Failure to comply...

  5. 30 CFR 250.1016 - Granting pipeline rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Granting pipeline rights-of-way. 250.1016... AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1016 Granting pipeline rights-of-way. (a) In considering an application for a right-of-way,...

  6. 30 CFR 250.1019 - Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1019 Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants. A right-of-way grant or a...

  7. 30 CFR 250.1015 - Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1015 Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants. (a) You must submit an original...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1009 - Requirements to obtain pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements to obtain pipeline right-of-way... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1009 Requirements to obtain pipeline right-of-way grants. (a) In addition...

  9. 30 CFR 250.1014 - When pipeline right-of-way grants expire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When pipeline right-of-way grants expire. 250... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1014 When pipeline right-of-way grants expire. Any right-of-way granted under the...

  10. 77 FR 5472 - Pipeline Safety: Miscellaneous Changes to Pipeline Safety Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... amendments to the pipeline safety regulations (76 FR 73570). On January 12, 2012, the Interstate Natural Gas... Committee on Pipe and Tube Imports Ad Hoc Large Diameter Line Pipe Producers Group Transportation... to the regulations covering pipeline safety regulations. The Committee on Pipe and Tube Imports...

  11. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  12. Characterization of corrosive bacterial consortia isolated from petroleum-product-transporting pipelines.

    PubMed

    Rajasekar, Aruliah; Anandkumar, Balakrishnan; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Ting, Yen-Peng; Rahman, Pattanathu K S M

    2010-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion is a problem commonly encountered in facilities in the oil and gas industries. The present study describes bacterial enumeration and identification in diesel and naphtha pipelines located in the northwest and southwest region in India, using traditional cultivation technique and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences of the isolates was carried out, and the samples obtained from the diesel and naphtha-transporting pipelines showed the occurrence of 11 bacterial species namely Serratia marcescens ACE2, Bacillus subtilis AR12, Bacillus cereus ACE4, Pseudomonas aeruginosa AI1, Klebsiella oxytoca ACP, Pseudomonas stutzeri AP2, Bacillus litoralis AN1, Bacillus sp., Bacillus pumilus AR2, Bacillus carboniphilus AR3, and Bacillus megaterium AR4. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were not detected in samples from both pipelines. The dominant bacterial species identified in the petroleum pipeline samples were B. cereus and S. marcescens in the diesel and naphtha pipelines, respectively. Therefore, several types of bacteria may be involved in biocorrosion arising from natural biofilms that develop in industrial facilities. In addition, localized (pitting) corrosion of the pipeline steel in the presence of the consortia was observed by scanning electron microscopy analysis. The potential role of each species in biofilm formation and steel corrosion is discussed. PMID:19844704

  13. Customer service drives pipelines` reorganization

    SciTech Connect

    Share, J.

    1997-06-01

    The concept behind formation of Enron Transportation and Storage tells plenty about this new gas industry. When executives at the Enron Gas Pipeline Group considered plans last year to streamline operations by merging the support functions of Transwestern Pipeline and their other wholly owned pipeline company, Northern Natural Gas, seamless customer service was foremost on their agenda. Instead of worrying about whether employees would favor one pipeline over the other, perhaps to the detriment of customers, they simply created a new organization that everyone would swear the same allegiance to. The 17,000-mile, 4.1 Bcf/d Northern system serves the upper Midwest market and two major expansion projects were completed there last year. Transwestern is a 2,700-mile system with an eastward capacity of 1 Bcf/d and westward of 1.5 Bcf/, that traditionally served California markets. It also ties into Texas intrastate markets and, thanks to expansion of the San Juan lateral, to southern Rocky Mountain supplies. Although Enron Corp. continues to position itself as a full-service energy company, the Gas Pipeline Group continues to fuel much of corporate`s net income, which was $584 million last year. With ET and S comprising a significant portion of GPG`s income, it was vital that the merger of Northern`s 950 employees with Transwestern`s 250 indeed be a seamless one. It was not easy either psychologically or geographically with main offices in Omaha, NE and Houston as well as operations centers in Minneapolis, MN; Amarillo, TX; W. Des Moines, IA; and Albuquerque, NM. But the results have been gratifying, according to William R. Cordes, President of ET and S and Nancy L. Gardner, Executive Vice President of Strategic Initiatives.

  14. Records set, drilling calculation refined in Dutch pipeline crossings

    SciTech Connect

    Spiekhout, J.; Gorter, J.; Hartlief )

    1993-01-04

    This paper reports on horizontal drilling for pipeline installation which made significant progress in The Netherlands in 1991 with establishment of two diameter records and development of a simplified design calculation method. The records were established in two natural gas pipeline projects by N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie, Groningen. In companion, waterway-crossing projects, installation of two 48-in. gas lines by directional drilling set a record for diameter-to-length ratio. Also, directional drilling for a 36-in. pipeline crossing established a record for entry and exit angles for such large-diameter pipe. Precise location was particularly important in this second project because a pipeline bundle (12-in. insulated oil pipeline, 10-in. chloride pipeline, 12-in. nitrogen pipeline) was installed to run parallel over part of the distance.

  15. Clostridium kogasensis sp. nov., a novel member of the genus Clostridium, isolated from soil under a corroded gas pipeline.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yeseul; Kang, Seok-Seong; Paek, Jayoung; Jin, Tae Eun; Song, Hong Seok; Kim, Hongik; Park, Hee-Moon; Chang, Young-Hyo

    2016-06-01

    Two bacterial strains, YHK0403(T) and YHK0508, isolated from soil under a corroded gas pipe line, were revealed as Gram-negative, obligately anaerobic, spore-forming and mesophilic bacteria. The cells were rod-shaped and motile by means of peritrichous flagella. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolates were members of the genus Clostridium and were the most closely related to Clostridium scatologenes KCTC 5588(T) (95.8% sequence similarity), followed by Clostridium magnum KCTC 15177(T) (95.8%), Clostridium drakei KCTC 5440(T) (95.7%) and Clostridium tyrobutyricum KCTC 5387(T) (94.9%). The G + C contents of the isolates were 29.6 mol%. Peptidoglycan in the cell wall was of the A1γ type with meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major polar lipid was diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), and other minor lipids were revealed as phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), two unknown glycolipids (GL1 and GL2), an unknown aminoglycolipid (NGL), two unknown aminophospholipids (PN1 and PN2) and four unknown phospholipids (PL1 to PL4). Predominant fatty acids were C16:0 and C16:1cis9 DMA. The major end products from glucose fermentation were identified as butyrate (12.2 mmol) and acetate (9.8 mmol). Collectively, the results from a wide range of phenotypic tests, chemotaxonomic tests, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the two isolates represent novel species of the genus Clostridium, for which the name Clostridium kogasensis sp. nov. (type strain, YHK0403(T) = KCTC 15258(T) = JCM 18719(T)) is proposed. PMID:26899448

  16. 18 CFR 284.142 - Sales by intrastate pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales by intrastate... AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales by Intrastate Pipelines § 284.142 Sales by intrastate pipelines....

  17. Designing Australia's North West Shelf offshore pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, E.V.; Craze, D.J.; Ruinen, W.

    1984-05-07

    Design studies for the offshore pipeline system for the North West Shelf project in Australia commenced in the early 1970s. The trunkline from the North Rankin A platform to shore has recently been completed as the first part of the offshore pipeline system for the North West Shelf project. This pipeline originates from the platform in a water depth of 125 m (410 ft), enters the mouth of Mermaid Sound, and terminates just south of Withnell Bay on the Burrup Peninsula, on the North West coastline of Western Australia. The pipeline is 1,016 mm (40 in.) in diameter and 134.2 km (83.4 miles) long. It will operate in two-phase flow, bringing both gas and condensate to an onshore plant near its landfall. A slugcatcher has been constructed within the plant to receive liquidhydrocarbon slugs from the pipeline. The trunkline to shore will initially serve only the one offshore platform and operate at about 25% of its capacity to supply the Western Australian domestic gas market. The domestic gas plant on the Burrup Peninsula is being constructed by Woodside to produce pipeline-quality gas for delivery to the State Energy Commission and condensate for shipment by coastal tankers.

  18. Components in the Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian; Wynne, Adam S.; Liu, Yan; Yin, Jian

    2011-02-24

    Scientists commonly describe their data processing systems metaphorically as software pipelines. These pipelines input one or more data sources and apply a sequence of processing steps to transform the data and create useful results. While conceptually simple, pipelines often adopt complex topologies and must meet stringent quality of service requirements that place stress on the software infrastructure used to construct the pipeline. In this paper we describe the MeDICi Integration Framework, which is a component-based framework for constructing complex software pipelines. The framework supports composing pipelines from distributed heterogeneous software components and provides mechanisms for controlling qualities of service to meet demanding performance, reliability and communication requirements.

  19. Influence of Welding With Two-Jet Gas Shielding On the Shaping of a Welding Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinakhov, D. A.; Chinakhova, E. D.; Grichin, S. V.; Gotovschik, Y. M.

    2016-04-01

    The author considers gas-dynamic influence upon microhardness and weld configuration of single-pass welds from steel 30HGSA when welding with consumable electrode under double-jet shielding. The relations to the chosen controlled welding parameters (Q, L, I) are developed and the controlling influence of the gas-dynamic affect of dynamic shield gas jet over formation of welds from alloy-treated steel 30HGSA is determined.

  20. Seismic effects and buckling behavior of pipelines in the central and eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.E.; Nyman, D.J.; Hammond, C.R.

    1992-04-01

    The status of knowledge on the seismic effects and buckling behavior of pipelines in the central and eastern United States is reviewed. Types of ground response to earthquake motions that result in pipeline failure and pipeline response to such motions are discussed. The primary focus is on oil and gas transmission lines constructed of welded steel pipe. Results of vulnerability studies, the need for better determination of the potential for existing pipeline failures, and design procedures for new pipelines are presented.

  1. Frost heave induced mechanics of buried pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Selvadurai, A.P.S.; Shinde, S.B.

    1993-12-01

    This paper examines the problem of the flexural interaction between a long-distance buried pipeline embedded in a soil medium that experiences differential frost heave. The modeling takes into consideration the interaction at a transition zone between a frozen region and a frost-susceptible region that experiences a time-dependent growth of a frost bulb around the buried pipeline. The heave that accompanies the development of a frost bulb induces the soil-pipeline interaction process. The analysis focuses on the development of a computational scheme that addresses the three-dimensional nature of the soil-pipeline interaction problem, the creep susceptibility of the frozen region, and a prescribed time- and stress-dependent heave in an evolving frost bulb zone. The numerical results presented in the paper illustrate the influence of the heave process and the creep behavior of the frozen soil on the displacements and stresses in the buried pipeline.

  2. Providing Situational Awareness for Pipeline Control Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butts, Jonathan; Kleinhans, Hugo; Chandia, Rodrigo; Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

    A SCADA system for a single 3,000-mile-long strand of oil or gas pipeline may employ several thousand field devices to measure process parameters and operate equipment. Because of the vital tasks performed by these sensors and actuators, pipeline operators need accurate and timely information about their status and integrity. This paper describes a realtime scanner that provides situational awareness about SCADA devices and control operations. The scanner, with the assistance of lightweight, distributed sensors, analyzes SCADA network traffic, verifies the operational status and integrity of field devices, and identifies anomalous activity. Experimental results obtained using real pipeline control traffic demonstrate the utility of the scanner in industrial settings.

  3. Empire State eyes pipeline construction date

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-10

    This paper reports that construction of the Empire State Pipeline in New York state will get under way possibly as early as this winter. The action will follow approval by Canada's National Energy Board earlier this summer of an essential pipeline connection out of southern Ontario. The 155 mile, 24 in. line has been on hold for a year following denial by NEB of TransCanada PipeLines Ltd.'s proposed link to Empire in southwestern Ontario. Cost of the Blackhorse extension is estimated at $39 million (Canadian). NEB cited firm gas purchase commitments of 203 MMcfd underpinning the expansion.

  4. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to

  5. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions.

    PubMed

    Sahli, Hussein; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs) have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less). This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters' accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs). The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before. PMID:27110780

  6. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Sahli, Hussein; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs) have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less). This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters’ accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs). The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before. PMID:27110780

  7. Stability of subsea pipelines during large storms

    PubMed Central

    Draper, Scott; An, Hongwei; Cheng, Liang; White, David J.; Griffiths, Terry

    2015-01-01

    On-bottom stability design of subsea pipelines transporting hydrocarbons is important to ensure safety and reliability but is challenging to achieve in the onerous metocean (meteorological and oceanographic) conditions typical of large storms (such as tropical cyclones, hurricanes or typhoons). This challenge is increased by the fact that industry design guidelines presently give no guidance on how to incorporate the potential benefits of seabed mobility, which can lead to lowering and self-burial of the pipeline on a sandy seabed. In this paper, we demonstrate recent advances in experimental modelling of pipeline scour and present results investigating how pipeline stability can change in a large storm. An emphasis is placed on the initial development of the storm, where scour is inevitable on an erodible bed as the storm velocities build up to peak conditions. During this initial development, we compare the rate at which peak near-bed velocities increase in a large storm (typically less than 10−3 m s−2) to the rate at which a pipeline scours and subsequently lowers (which is dependent not only on the storm velocities, but also on the mechanism of lowering and the pipeline properties). We show that the relative magnitude of these rates influences pipeline embedment during a storm and the stability of the pipeline. PMID:25512592

  8. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  9. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  10. Influence of gas pressure on the plasma reaction on polyethersulphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröning, P.; Collaud-Coen, M.; Küttel, O. M.; Schlapbach, L.

    1996-09-01

    Different gases (Ar, H 2, N 2 and O 2) were used for plasma treatments of polyethersulphone (PES) performed in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma. The effect of the gas pressure on the chemical modification of the PES surface during plasma treatment was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The experimental set-up of the plasma chamber connected via an ultra high vacuum transfer to a surface analysis system allows to measure well-defined surface modifications. The experiments have shown that the plasma-polymer interaction in the topmost surface region of the polymer increase with decreasing gas pressure. At low gas pressures ( p < 10 -3 mbar) the plasma attacks first the polar bonds of the sulphonic group, this results in the reduction to sulphide of all sulphonic groups (SO 2 → S) in the study state. This effect decreases progressively for higher gas pressures ( p > 10 -3 mbar) and is no more observable at p = 10 -1 mbar. In addition to the amount of sulfide formation also the time scale of sulfide formation varies with the gas pressure. The time constant for the sulfide formation change from tenth of seconds to about one minute for 10 -4 to 10 -2 mbar gas pressure, respectively. The thickness of the surface layer in which sulphide is formed depends on the pressure and is at least equal to the XPS probing depth of about 100 Å for p < 10 -3 mbar. The incorporation of new chemical functionalities by reactive gas plasma treatments is similar for all gas pressures. Differences were observed in the amount of adsorbed species at the top most surface layer. The higher the gas pressure is, the higher the content of adsorbed species. The results are discussed in function of the flux φi, and the kinetic energy Ekin of the ions interacting with the polymer surface.

  11. Reclamation of the Wahsatch gathering system pipeline in southwestern Wyoming and northeastern Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, D.; Dern, G.; Johnson, G.; Erickson, W.

    1996-12-31

    The Union Pacific Resources Company (UPRC) constructed a 40.4 mile pipeline in 1993 in Summit and Rich Countries, Utah and Uinta County, Wyoming. The pipeline collects and delivers natural gas from six existing wells to the Whitney Canyon Processing Plant north of Evanston, Wyoming. We describe reclamation of the pipeline, the cooperation received from landowners along the right-of-way, and mitigation measures implemented by UPRC to minimize impacts to wildlife. The reclamation procedure combines a 2 step topsoil separation, mulching with natural vegetation, native seed mixes, and measures designed to reduce the visual impacts of the pipeline. Topsoil is separated into the top 4 inches of soil material, when present. The resulting top dressing is rich in native seed and rhizomes allowing a reduced seeding rate. The borders of the right-of-way are mowed in a curvilinear pattern to reduce the straight line effects of landowner cooperation on revegetation. Specifically, following 2 years of monitoring, significant differences in plant cover (0.01pipeline. Observations suggest that revegetation may be heavily influenced by grazing management by individual landowners. Observations also suggest that growth of sagebrush plants from seed germination is exceeding growth from sagebrush plants planted as tublings.

  12. Comparing Existing Pipeline Networks with the Potential Scale of Future U.S. CO2 Pipeline Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2008-02-29

    There is growing interest regarding the potential size of a future U.S. dedicated CO2 pipeline infrastructure if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies are commercially deployed on a large scale. In trying to understand the potential scale of a future national CO2 pipeline network, comparisons are often made to the existing pipeline networks used to deliver natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons to markets within the U.S. This paper assesses the potential scale of the CO2 pipeline system needed under two hypothetical climate policies and compares this to the extant U.S. pipeline infrastructures used to deliver CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and to move natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons from areas of production and importation to markets. The data presented here suggest that the need to increase the size of the existing dedicated CO2 pipeline system should not be seen as a significant obstacle for the commercial deployment of CCS technologies.

  13. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEPOSITION OF A COMPOUND THAT PARTITIONS BETWEEN GAS AND PARTICULATE PHASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    How will atmospheric deposition behave for a compound when it reversibly sorbs between gas and atmospheric particulate phases? Two factors influence the answer. What physical mechanisms occur in the sorption process? What are the concentration and composition of atmospheric par...

  14. Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, Kieran

    2013-07-01

    This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes; - Hot tapping - a method

  15. Pipeline rehabilitation -- conclusion: Two projects highlight water, air processes for reconditioning pipeline surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.A.; Werner, D.P. )

    1994-02-14

    In jobs for United Texas Transmission Co. and Natural Gas Pipeline Co. of America, a proprietary system of high-pressure water jet blasting for cleaning and air abrasive or mechanical-wheel blasting for surface preparation increased productivity and decreased time required for long-line pipelines rehabilitation projects. This second of two articles presents field results of the process' use for cleaning, conditioning, and coating pipelines by line-travel equipment. The first article detailed the procedure and notes tests of the process for asbestos-containing coatings.

  16. Anti-Soviet ideology, trade goals at odds on Russian pipeline deal

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, C.

    1981-08-22

    US foreign policy opposes a Soviet-European natural gas pipeline that will increase European dependence on Soviet energy at the same time the US is approving the sale of Caterpillar pipelayers to the Soviet Union. The contradiction illustrates the complexities of using export controls to achieve foreign policy goals. Europeans do not share US concerns that the Soviet Union will compete for Persian Gulf oil if it sells its domestic gas or that Soviet energy supplies and economic ties will make Europe more vulnerable. Influencing the policy debate are hardliners who want to freeze East-West economic relations and moderates who argue that the US will only strain its relationships with Europe by opposing the Yamal pipeline. (DCK)

  17. Multinode reconfigurable pipeline computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nosenchuck, Daniel M. (Inventor); Littman, Michael G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A multinode parallel-processing computer is made up of a plurality of innerconnected, large capacity nodes each including a reconfigurable pipeline of functional units such as Integer Arithmetic Logic Processors, Floating Point Arithmetic Processors, Special Purpose Processors, etc. The reconfigurable pipeline of each node is connected to a multiplane memory by a Memory-ALU switch NETwork (MASNET). The reconfigurable pipeline includes three (3) basic substructures formed from functional units which have been found to be sufficient to perform the bulk of all calculations. The MASNET controls the flow of signals from the memory planes to the reconfigurable pipeline and vice versa. the nodes are connectable together by an internode data router (hyperspace router) so as to form a hypercube configuration. The capability of the nodes to conditionally configure the pipeline at each tick of the clock, without requiring a pipeline flush, permits many powerful algorithms to be implemented directly.

  18. Observational Studies of Parameters Influencing Air-sea Gas Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimpf, U.; Frew, N. M.; Bock, E. J.; Hara, T.; Garbe, C. S.; Jaehne, B.

    A physically-based modeling of the air-sea gas transfer that can be used to predict the gas transfer rates with sufficient accuracy as a function of micrometeorological parameters is still lacking. State of the art are still simple gas transfer rate/wind speed relationships. Previous measurements from Coastal Ocean Experiment in the Atlantic revealed positive correlations between mean square slope, near surface turbulent dis- sipation, and wind stress. It also demonstrated a strong negative correlation between mean square slope and the fluorescence of surface-enriched colored dissolved organic matter. Using heat as a proxy tracer for gases the exchange process at the air/water interface and the micro turbulence at the water surface can be investigated. The anal- ysis of infrared image sequences allow the determination of the net heat flux at the ocean surface, the temperature gradient across the air/sea interface and thus the heat transfer velocity and gas transfer velocity respectively. Laboratory studies were carried out in the new Heidelberg wind-wave facility AELOTRON. Direct measurements of the Schmidt number exponent were done in conjunction with classical mass balance methods to estimate the transfer velocity. The laboratory results allowed to validate the basic assumptions of the so called controlled flux technique by applying differ- ent tracers for the gas exchange in a large Schmidt number regime. Thus a modeling of the Schmidt number exponent is able to fill the gap between laboratory and field measurements field. Both, the results from the laboratory and the field measurements should be able to give a further understanding of the mechanisms controlling the trans- port processes across the aqueous boundary layer and to relate the forcing functions to parameters measured by remote sensing.

  19. RECLAMATION OF PIPELINE RIGHT-OF-WAYS ON RANGELANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the mid 1990s a large diameter natural gas pipeline was constructed across western Nevada. Reclamation of such right-of-ways is challenging because of both the severity and the linear nature of the disturbance. During construction, pipelines are highly visible at a landscape level to the general...

  20. 75 FR 4136 - Pipeline Safety: Request To Modify Special Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... issued on November 17, 2009 (73 FR 59342), that gave notice of a request from the Kern River Gas... was published in the Federal Register on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Request To Modify Special...

  1. 78 FR 5866 - Pipeline Safety: Annual Reports and Validation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... final rule published in the Federal Register on November 26, 2010, (75 FR 72878) established new...-04, published in the Federal Register on March 21, 2012, (77 FR 16471). Two types of gas distribution... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Annual Reports and...

  2. 78 FR 46560 - Pipeline Safety: Class Location Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ...PHMSA is seeking public comment on whether applying the integrity management program (IMP) requirements, or elements of IMP, to areas beyond current high consequence areas (HCAs) would mitigate the need for class location requirements for gas transmission pipelines. Section 5 of the Pipeline Safety, Regulatory Certainty, and Job Creation Act of 2011 requires the Secretary of Transportation to......

  3. Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Gillette, J .L.; Kolpa, R. L

    2008-02-01

    The use of hydrogen in the energy sector of the United States is projected to increase significantly in the future. Current uses are predominantly in the petroleum refining sector, with hydrogen also being used in the manufacture of chemicals and other specialized products. Growth in hydrogen consumption is likely to appear in the refining sector, where greater quantities of hydrogen will be required as the quality of the raw crude decreases, and in the mining and processing of tar sands and other energy resources that are not currently used at a significant level. Furthermore, the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel has been proposed both by automobile manufacturers and the federal government. Assuming that the use of hydrogen will significantly increase in the future, there would be a corresponding need to transport this material. A variety of production technologies are available for making hydrogen, and there are equally varied raw materials. Potential raw materials include natural gas, coal, nuclear fuel, and renewables such as solar, wind, or wave energy. As these raw materials are not uniformly distributed throughout the United States, it would be necessary to transport either the raw materials or the hydrogen long distances to the appropriate markets. While hydrogen may be transported in a number of possible forms, pipelines currently appear to be the most economical means of moving it in large quantities over great distances. One means of controlling hydrogen pipeline costs is to use common rights-of-way (ROWs) whenever feasible. For that reason, information on hydrogen pipelines is the focus of this document. Many of the features of hydrogen pipelines are similar to those of natural gas pipelines. Furthermore, as hydrogen pipeline networks expand, many of the same construction and operating features of natural gas networks would be replicated. As a result, the description of hydrogen pipelines will be very similar to that of natural gas pipelines

  4. 75 FR 13342 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Construction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Safety Representatives (NAPSR) on new distribution pipeline construction. The workshop will allow stakeholders in the pipeline safety community to learn about and discuss construction issues and...

  5. Flue-gas-influenced heavy metal bioaccumulation by the indigenous microalgae Desmodesmus communis LUCC 002.

    PubMed

    Palanisami, Swaminathan; Lee, Keesoo; Balakrishnan, Baskar; Nam, Paul Ki-souk

    2015-01-01

    Desmodesmus communis LUCC 002 was cultivated using flue gas originating from a coal-fired power plant as a carbon dioxide (CO2) source. The flue gas contains various heavy metals. For investigating the fate of flue-gas-introduced metals on the cultivation system, bioaccumulation was measured in the microalgal biomass and milieu. The accumulated biomass was found to contain eight heavy metals: arsenic, chromium, barium, lead, selenium, silver, cadmium, and mercury. High heavy metal accumulations were also found in the control group of algae grown without the addition of flue gas at the same location. Further testing revealed that some of the heavy metals originated from well water used in the cultivation. The flue-gas-influenced bioaccumulation pattern of different heavy metals was observed. The responses of individual heavy metals and the influence of well water microbial flora on the algal growth were investigated, this study showed that hormesis was developed by the D. communis LUCC 002. PMID:25184415

  6. 77 FR 75699 - Pipeline Safety: Reporting of Exceedances of Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Allowable Operating Pressure AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT... owners and operators of gas transmission pipelines that if the pipeline pressure exceeds maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) plus the build-up allowed for operation of pressure-limiting or...

  7. 30 CFR 250.1015 - Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants. 250.1015 Section 250.1015 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way §...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1015 - Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants. 250.1015 Section 250.1015 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way §...

  9. 77 FR 17119 - Pipeline Safety: Cast Iron Pipe (Supplementary Advisory Bulletin)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... improvements to aging gas pipeline systems. This bulletin is an update of two prior Alert Notices (ALN-91-02... distribution pipeline systems. This advisory bulletin reiterates two prior Alert Notices which remain relevant... alerts owners and operators of the pipeline safety requirements for the investigation of failures....

  10. 75 FR 22678 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of Electronic Filing for Recently Revised Incident/Accident...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Jamerson.Pender@dot.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On February 3, 2010 (75 FR 5460), PHMSA... Gathering Systems, and Hazardous Liquid Systems AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... and operators of gas pipeline facilities and hazardous liquid pipeline facilities that the...

  11. 40 CFR 761.250 - Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipeline... Disposal of Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.250 Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment. This...

  12. 40 CFR 761.250 - Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipeline... Disposal of Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.250 Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment. This...

  13. 40 CFR 761.250 - Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipeline... Disposal of Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.250 Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment. This...

  14. 40 CFR 761.250 - Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipeline... Disposal of Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.250 Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment. This...

  15. 40 CFR 761.250 - Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample site selection for pipeline... Disposal of Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.250 Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment. This...

  16. U.S. pipeline industry enters new era

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsen, M.R.

    1999-11-01

    The largest construction project in North America this year and next--the Alliance Pipeline--marks some advances for the US pipeline industry. With the Alliance Pipeline system (Alliance), mechanized welding and ultrasonic testing are making their debuts in the US as primary mainline construction techniques. Particularly in Canada and Europe, mechanized welding technology has been used for both onshore and offshore pipeline construction for at least 15 years. However, it has never before been used to build a cross-country pipeline in the US, although it has been tested on short segments. This time, however, an accelerated construction schedule, among other reasons, necessitated the use of mechanized gas metal arc welding (GMAW). The $3-billion pipeline will delivery natural gas from northwestern British Columbia and northeastern Alberta in Canada to a hub near Chicago, Ill., where it will connect to the North American pipeline grid. Once the pipeline is completed and buried, crews will return the topsoil. Corn and other crops will reclaim the land. While the casual passerby probably won't know the Alliance pipeline is there, it may have a far-reaching effect on the way mainline pipelines are built in the US. For even though mechanized welding and ultrasonic testing are being used for the first time in the United States on this project, some US workers had already gained experience with the technology on projects elsewhere. And work on this pipeline has certainly developed a much larger pool of experienced workers for industry to draw from. The Alliance project could well signal the start of a new era in US pipeline construction.

  17. 76 FR 77995 - Southcross Alabama Pipeline LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... December 7, 2011, Southcross Alabama Pipeline LLC (SAP) submitted a revised Statement of Operating Conditions for services provided under Section 311 of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (``NGPA'')....

  18. 30 CFR 57.4604 - Preparation of pipelines or containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Before welding, cutting, or applying heat with an open flame to pipelines or containers that have... compatible; or (2) Determined to be free of flammable gases by a flammable gas detection device prior to...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4604 - Preparation of pipelines or containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Before welding, cutting, or applying heat with an open flame to pipelines or containers that have... compatible; or (2) Determined to be free of flammable gases by a flammable gas detection device prior to...

  20. 30 CFR 56.4604 - Preparation of pipelines or containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Before welding, cutting, or applying heat with an open flame to pipelines or containers that have... compatible; or (2) Determined to be free of flammable gases by a flammable gas detection device prior to...

  1. 30 CFR 56.4604 - Preparation of pipelines or containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Before welding, cutting, or applying heat with an open flame to pipelines or containers that have... compatible; or (2) Determined to be free of flammable gases by a flammable gas detection device prior to...

  2. 30 CFR 56.4604 - Preparation of pipelines or containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Before welding, cutting, or applying heat with an open flame to pipelines or containers that have... compatible; or (2) Determined to be free of flammable gases by a flammable gas detection device prior to...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4604 - Preparation of pipelines or containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Before welding, cutting, or applying heat with an open flame to pipelines or containers that have... compatible; or (2) Determined to be free of flammable gases by a flammable gas detection device prior to...

  4. 30 CFR 57.4604 - Preparation of pipelines or containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Before welding, cutting, or applying heat with an open flame to pipelines or containers that have... compatible; or (2) Determined to be free of flammable gases by a flammable gas detection device prior to...

  5. 30 CFR 56.4604 - Preparation of pipelines or containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Before welding, cutting, or applying heat with an open flame to pipelines or containers that have... compatible; or (2) Determined to be free of flammable gases by a flammable gas detection device prior to...

  6. 75 FR 76078 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ..., and carbon dioxide pipelines and operators of liquefied natural gas facilities must select and test a... percent for calendar year 2011. On January 19, 2010, PHMSA published an Advisory Bulletin (75 FR...

  7. Influence of NO-containing gas flow on various parameters of energy metabolism in erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Martusevich, A K; Solov'yova, A G; Peretyagin, S P; Karelin, V I; Selemir, V D

    2014-11-01

    We studied the influence of NO-containing gas phase on some parameters of energy metabolism in human erythrocytes. Whole blood samples were aerated with gas flows from the Plazon instrument (NO concentrations 800 and 80 ppm) and from the experimental generator (75 ppm). Activity of lactate dehydrogenase in direct and reverse reactions, lactate level, and a number of derived coefficients were estimated. Treatment of blood with 800 ppm NO inhibited erythrocyte energy metabolism, and its 10-fold dilution attenuated the effect. The use of ROS-free gas flow containing 75 ppm of NO promoted optimization of the process under investigation. PMID:25403392

  8. Influence of gas microsensor mounting technique on its temperature time constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maziarz, Wojciech; Pisarkiewicz, Tadeusz

    2006-10-01

    Metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors with modulated working temperature should reveal small thermal time constant in comparison to the time constants of chemical reactions between gas atmosphere and sensitive layer. In such case analyzed sensor response is dominated with specific phenomena originated from these reactions. A way the sensors are mounted has big influence on the sensor thermal time constants. In experiments authors used gas sensors with ceramic and micromachined silicon substrates glued to the case or suspended on thin wires. Although mechanical stability and durability of glued sensors are better, the lower power consumption and lower time constants are possible with sensors mounted using thin wires.

  9. Gas turbine fuels and their influence on combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Odgers, J.; Kretschmer, D.

    1986-01-01

    This book discusses the general fuel situation and the occurrence and origin of fuels as both raw materials or synthesized products, and considers possible future research requirements necessary to ensure sufficient knowledge to the designer. After establishing the properties of fuels, the remainder of the book is devoted to assessing their effects upon gas turbine combustors. The fuels are considered in three groups - solids, liquids, and gases. For solid fuels, notes are included on direct firing, the use of slurries, indirect firing, and fluidized bed combustion. Liquid fuels include considerations of fuels derived from oil shales, tar sands, coal derivatives, and alcohols. Gaseous fuels run the gamut of very wide fuel compositions, ranging from high calorific fuels (above 20 MJ/m/sup 3/) to very low calorific fuels (less than 5 MJ/m/sup 3/). For all of these fuels, data are cited to enable changes in combustion behaviour to be assessed with respect to flame temperatures, flame stability and extinction, combustion efficiency and the occurrence of pollutants within the exhaust, heat transfer within the combustor and possible effects upon chamber life. Where the effects are serious, possible changes to the equipment are indicated.

  10. Pollution from pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    During the 1980s, over 3,900 spills from land-based pipelines released nearly 20 million gallons of oil into U.S. waters-almost twice as much as was released by the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Although the Department of Transportation is responsible for preventing water pollution from petroleum pipelines, GAO found that it has not established a program to prevent such pollution. DOT has instead delegated this responsibility to the Coast Guard, which has a program to stop water pollution from ships, but not from pipelines. This paper reports that, in the absence of any federal program to prevent water pollution from pipelines, both the Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency have taken steps to plan for and respond to oil spills, including those from pipelines, as required by the Clean Water Act. The Coast Guard cannot, however, adequately plan for or ensure a timely response to pipeline spills because it generally is unaware of specific locations and operators of pipelines.

  11. Influence of frame inelasticity on poroviscoelastic reflections from a gas-water contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Rui; Chesnokov, Evgeny; Brown, Raymon

    2016-01-01

    As a natural extension of Biot theory, poroviscoelasticity is more comprehensive. The only difference between them is frame inelasticity, which influences wave dispersion, attenuation, reflection, and transmission. Hence we compute the influence, which uses the data of typical sand with gas and water saturation in the Gulf of Mexico with four values of frame inelasticity. The graphically illustrated results show that frame inelasticity has a small influence on the dispersion of P1- and S-waves and almost no influence on the dispersion of P2-wave. The frame inelasticity's influence on the P1- and S-wave attenuation is substantial with only a relatively small impact on the P2-wave attenuation. In some frequency and incident-angle ranges, frame inelasticity's influence on the reflection and transmission coefficients is considerable.

  12. Pipeline joint protector

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes a weight coated pipeline joint protective apparatus for protecting pipeline joints against impact or high stress concentrations. It consists of a high density plastic sheet wrapped around a pipeline joint with the opposite edges of such sheet overlaying the weight of coat material on the abutting pipes forming the joint. The first end of the sheet overlaps the wrapped sheet with means for securing such first end to the sheet surface near or adjacent to the opposite end of such sheet.

  13. Deepwater pipeline recovery

    SciTech Connect

    McStravick, D.M.; Baugh, B.F.

    1997-07-01

    The paper gives a presentation of the tooling concepts used for the recovery of steel and flexible flowlines in the Gulf of Mexico Shell Tahoe I area in the summer of 1996 in 1,370 ft. of sea water. This offshore operation required a Global Grabber to engage and retrieve 4 1/2-in. steel pipelines, an ROV Pipeline Spear to internally engage the end of the 4 1/2-in. steel pipelines, and a FlexGrip Assembly to wrap and grab 5.566-in. OD flexible pipe. The design of the tooling emphasized the use of API 17D ROV interfaces.

  14. Influence of fuel chemical properties on gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    In an attempt to rigorously study the fuel chemical property influence, UTRC (United Technologies Research Center) (under contract to NASA Lewis Research Center) has conducted an experimental program using 25 test fuels. The burner was a 12.7 cm dia cylindrical device consisting of six sheet metal louvers. A single pressure atomizing injector and air swirler were centrally mounted with the conical dome. Fuel physical properties were de-emphasized by using fuel injectors which produced highly atomized, and hence rapidly vaporizing sprays. A substantial fuel spray characterization effort was conducted to allow selection of nozzles which assured that such sprays were achieved for all fuels. The fuels were specified to cover the following wide ranges of chemical properties: hydrogen, 9.1 to 15 (wt) pct; total aromatics, 0 to 100 (vol) pct; and naphthalene, 0 to 30 (vol) pct. They included standard fuel (e.g., Jet A, JP4), specialty products (e.g., decalin, xylene tower bottoms) and special fuel blends. Included in this latter group were six, 4-component blends prepared to achieve parametric variations in fuel hydrogen, total aromatics and naphthalene contents.

  15. Pipeline repair technique cuts downtime

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, G.; Jouanneau, J.F.; Quin, R.; Wiet, P.

    1985-02-11

    This article deals with a project that explored the cold-tapping technique for repairing or modifying sea gas lines. The technique allows work to be carried out on a section of pipeline without the need, as before, for the flooding of the line, and subsequent dewatering and drying of the line. Lost production time is greatly reduced. Cold-tapping is performed on a pipe depressurized at the same level as the sea-bed hydrostatic pressure. The system is designed to withstand an accidental depressurization of the pipe to the atmosphere pressure with a safety factor of one third. The technique is simple, allows for accurate positioning of the plugs, and offers a maximum reliability due to an efficient monitoring and a wide range of backup procedures. Keeping the line entirely free of extra pieces of equipment after the operation is also a major advantage. The entire operation described took 34 hours during which all the required tasks were performed flawlessly. Analysis of the data collected during the test program showed that cold-tapping required a maximum of four extra barge days. It was demonstrated that the method can save up to eight weeks of gas-pipeline shutdown time.

  16. Natural gas marketing II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of gas marketing, from the basic regulatory structure to the latest developments in negotiating agreements and locating markets. Topics include: Federal regulation of the gas industry; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; FERC actions encouraging competitive markets; Marketing conditions from the pipelines' perspective; State non-utility regulation of natural gas production, transportation, and marketing; Natural gas wellhead agreements and tariffs; Natural gas processing agreements; Effective management of producer's natural gas contracts; Producer-pipeline litigation; Natural gas purchasing from the perspective of industrial gas users; Gas marketing by co-owners: problems of disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners; Alternatives and new directions in marketing.

  17. From fighter aircraft to pipeline: The development of the first ''third generation'' aero-derived gas turbine in the 16,000-8,000 HP class

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, G.N.; Mathers, W.G.

    1987-01-01

    Two totally unrelated sources of hot gas energy the FCCU oil refining process and the aircraft engine - both utilize the same range of basic aerodynamic and machinery design technologies for mechanical drive power recovery. this paper shows how these technologies came together and discusses the development of the Ingersoll-Rand GT-60 gas turbine, the first to use a general Electric LM1600 hot gas generator (from the F404 fighter engine program); it also illustrates how it was possible for the first ''third generation'' aero-derived gas turbine in the 16,000 - 18,000 hp class to be developed in a much shorter than normal lead time.

  18. Subsea pipeline isolation systems: Reliability and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Masheder, R.R.

    1996-08-01

    Since the Piper Alpha disaster, more than 80 subsea isolation systems (SSIS) have been installed in subsea gas and oil pipelines in the U.K. continental shelf at an estimated cost in the region of {Brit_pounds}500 million. The reliability and costs of these installations have now been assessed between Dec. 1992 and Oct. 1993. This assessment was based upon comprehensive reliability and cost databases which were established so that the studies could be based upon factual information in order to obtain a current status as required by the sponsoring group. The study consultants report findings have now been consolidated into a report by the UKOOA Pipeline Valve Work Group. Probabilities of failure for different types of valves and systems have been assessed and expenditures broken down and compared. The results of the studies and the conclusions drawn by UKOOA Pipeline Valve Group and the HSE Offshore Safety Division are presented in this paper.

  19. Rnnotator Assembly Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jeff

    2010-06-03

    Jeff Martin of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses a de novo transcriptome assembly pipeline from short RNA-Seq reads on June 3, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  20. Influence of Ambient Gas on Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Uranium Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dacheng; Ma, Xinwen; Wang, Shulong; Zhu, Xiaolong

    2015-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is regarded as a suitable method for the remote analysis of materials in any phase, even in an environment with high radiation levels. In the present work we used the third harmonic pulse of a Nd:YAG laser for ablation of uranium metal and measured the plasma emission with a fiber-optic spectrometer. The LIBS spectra of uranium metal and their features in different ambient gases (i.e., argon, neon, oxygen, and nitrogen) at atmospheric pressure were studied. Strong continuum spectrum and several hundreds of emission lines from UI and UII were observed. It is found that the continuum spectrum observed in uranium not only comes from bremsstrahlung emission but is also due to the complex spectrum of uranium. The influence of ambient gas and the gas flow rate for ablation of uranium metal was investigated. The experimental results indicate that the intensity of the uranium lines was enhanced in argon and nitrogen. However, the intensity of uranium lines was decreased in oxygen due to the generation of UO and other oxides. The results also showed that the highest intensity of uranium lines were obtained in argon gas with a gas flow rate above 2.5 L/min. The enhanced mechanism in ambient gas and the influence of the gas flow rate were analyzed in this work.