Science.gov

Sample records for gas resources administration

  1. Administration of Computer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Gene F.

    Computing at Stanford University has, until recently, been performed at one of five facilities. The Stanford hospital operates an IBM 370/135 mainly for administrative use. The university business office has an IBM 370/145 for its administrative needs and support of the medical clinic. Under the supervision of the Stanford Computation Center are…

  2. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  3. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional

  4. Primer on gas integrated resource planning

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, C.; Comnes, G.A.; Busch, J.; Wiel, S.

    1993-12-01

    This report discusses the following topics: gas resource planning: need for IRP; gas integrated resource planning: methods and models; supply and capacity planning for gas utilities; methods for estimating gas avoided costs; economic analysis of gas utility DSM programs: benefit-cost tests; gas DSM technologies and programs; end-use fuel substitution; and financial aspects of gas demand-side management programs.

  5. Diverse gas plays lurk in gas resource pyramid

    SciTech Connect

    Kuuskraa, V.A.; Schmoker, J.W.; Dyman, T.S.

    1998-06-08

    This final article on the outlook for US future natural gas supplies expands on the concept of the natural gas resource pyramid. A series of poorly understood but potentially significant emerging gas plays is introduced. These plays reside at various levels within the resource pyramid. These emerging resources include sub-volcanic gas, shale gas, deep coalbed methane, and unrecognized tight gas sands. In the main, these are plays that have yet to be included in natural gas resource forecasts.

  6. Coalbed gas - an undeveloped resource

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.D.; Law, B.E.; Clayton, J.L. )

    1993-01-01

    Coalbeds are both source and reservoir rocks for major quantities of natural gas. Large amounts of natural gas are generated in coalbeds throughout their burial history by both biogenic and thermogenic processes. Coalbed gases are variable in their molecular and isotopic composition. In addition to methane, they can contain significant amounts of heavier hydrocarbons and CO[sub 2]. The primary controls of hydrocarbon gas composition are coal rank and composition, and depth/temperature. Coalbed gas is stored (sorbed) upon and within the molecular structure of the coal. As a result, coal has the ability to hold much more gas than the same rock volume of a conventional reservoir in gas occurs as a free or dissolved phase. The amount of gas stored is a function of rank, pressure, and temperature. Matrix permeability is essentially nonexistent in coal and flow pathways for gas are provided by the fracture (cleat) system. Regardless of rank, nearly all coals contain at least some water (inherent moisture, meteoric, and (or) from adjacent aquifers). Economic quantities of natural gas can be produced from coalbed reservoirs; desorption results from dewatering and subsequent depressurization of the coalbeds. The main environmental concerns about coalbed gas extraction are related to (1) methane emissions from coal mining and (2) disposal of produced water. However, significant amounts of methane can be captured prior to and during mining, and the water produced can be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner, such as in injection wells. Estimated resources of coalbed gas are enormous and widely distributed around the world. However, this resource is essentially undeveloped, except in the United States where some production and technological advances have taken place. 60 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Chair Talk: Resources to Maximize Administrative Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, H.; Chan, M. A.; Bierly, E. W.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    Earth science department chairs are generally scientists who have little/no formal administrative training. The common rotation of faculty members in three-six year cycles distributes the heavy leadership responsibilities but involves little preparation beforehand to deal with budgets, fundraising, personnel issues, confrontations, and crises. The amount of information exchange and support upon exit and handoff to the next chair is variable. Resources for chairs include workshops, meetings (ranging from annual meetings of geoscience chairs to monthly meetings of small groups of chairs from various disciplines on a campus), discussions, and online resources. These resources, some of which we designed in the past several years, provide information and support for chairs, help them share best practices, and reduce time spent “reinventing the wheel”. Most of these resources involve groups of chairs in our discipline who meet together. The AGU Board of Heads and Chairs of Earth and Space Science Departments offers annual one-day workshops at the Fall AGU meeting. The specific topics vary from year to year; they have included goals and roles of heads and chairs, fundraising and Advisory Boards, student recruitment, interdisciplinarity, dual-career couples, and undergraduate research. The workshop provides ample opportunities for open discussion. Annual one-two day meetings of groups of geoscience department chairs (e.g., research universities in a particular region) provide an opportunity for chairs to share specific data about their departments (e.g., salaries, graduate student stipends, information about facilities) and discuss strategies. At the College of William and Mary, a small group of chairs meets monthly throughout the year; each session includes time for open discussion as well as a more structured discussion on a particular topic (e.g., merit review, development and fundraising, mentoring early career faculty and the tenure process, leadership styles, dealing with difficult situations, working with alumni). Through the Association for Women Geoscientists, we have offered annual one-hour lunch discussions at AGU and GSA meetings on issues facing women chairs and deans. Focusing on a different topic each year, these discussions include sharing good solutions, problem solving on various case scenarios, and so forth. In addition, the Building Strong Geoscience Departments program has offered workshops on different aspects of building strong geoscience departments, distributed reports, and made a variety of materials that would be useful to geoscience chairs available on their website. These programs and resources should continue and build to provide more continuity within departments and to increase a broader experience base of faculty. One of the greatest resources for chairs is to have personal connections with other chairs (via these programs), who can be called upon for advice, ideas, or general support. The sense of collective community could act in a powerful way to inspire and encourage more innovations and creative solutions to promote stronger departments.

  8. Unconventional gas outlook: resources, economics, and technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Drazga, B.

    2006-08-15

    The report explains the current and potential of the unconventional gas market including country profiles, major project case studies, and new technology research. It identifies the major players in the market and reports their current and forecasted projects, as well as current volume and anticipated output for specific projects. Contents are: Overview of unconventional gas; Global natural gas market; Drivers of unconventional gas sources; Forecast; Types of unconventional gas; Major producing regions Overall market trends; Production technology research; Economics of unconventional gas production; Barriers and challenges; Key regions: Australia, Canada, China, Russia, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States; Major Projects; Industry Initiatives; Major players. Uneconomic or marginally economic resources such as tight (low permeability) sandstones, shale gas, and coalbed methane are considered unconventional. However, due to continued research and favorable gas prices, many previously uneconomic or marginally economic gas resources are now economically viable, and may not be considered unconventional by some companies. Unconventional gas resources are geologically distinct in that conventional gas resources are buoyancy-driven deposits, occurring as discrete accumulations in structural or stratigraphic traps, whereas unconventional gas resources are generally not buoyancy-driven deposits. The unconventional natural gas category (CAM, gas shales, tight sands, and landfill) is expected to continue at double-digit growth levels in the near term. Until 2008, demand for unconventional natural gas is likely to increase at an AAR corresponding to 10.7% from 2003, aided by prioritized research and development efforts. 1 app.

  9. Transformational Leadership: Overview of a Human Resources Administrative Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Thomas J.

    Increasingly, educational leaders have adopted human-resource approaches in school administration. The approach has facilitated the development of transformational leadership. This paper explores in detail the nature of leadership associated with a human-resources approach toward educational administration. The paper describes the theoretical…

  10. Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of large gas hydrate accumulations in terrestrial permafrost regions of the Arctic and beneath the sea along the outer continental margins of the world's oceans has heightened interest in gas hydrates as a possible energy resource. However, significant to potentially insurmountable technical issues must be resolved before gas hydrates can be considered a viable option for affordable supplies of natural gas. The combined information from Arctic gas hydrate studies shows that, in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors, known as bottom-simulating reflectors, that have been mapped at depths below the sea floor ranging from about 100 to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Disagreements over fundamental issues such as the volume of gas stored within delineated gas hydrate accumulations and the concentration of gas hydrates within hydrate-bearing strata have demonstrated that we know little about gas hydrates. Recently, however, several countries, including Japan, India, and the United States, have launched ambitious national projects to further examine the resource potential of gas hydrates. These projects may help answer key questions dealing with the properties of gas hydrate reservoirs, the design of production systems, and, most important, the costs and economics of gas hydrate production.

  11. World Shale Gas Resources: An Initial Assessment of 14 Regions Outside the United States

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration sponsored Advanced Resources International, Inc., to assess 48 gas shale basins in 32 countries, containing almost 70 shale gas formations. This effort has culminated in the report: World Shale Gas Resources: An Initial Assessment of 14 Regions Outside the United States.

  12. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    SciTech Connect

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations using laboratory pyrolysis methods have provided much information on the origins of deep gas. Technologic problems are one of the greatest challenges to deep drilling. Problems associated with overcoming hostile drilling environments (e.g. high temperatures and pressures, and acid gases such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) for successful well completion, present the greatest obstacles to drilling, evaluating, and developing deep gas fields. Even though the overall success ratio for deep wells is about 50 percent, a lack of geological and geophysical information such as reservoir quality, trap development, and gas composition continues to be a major barrier to deep gas exploration. Results of recent finding-cost studies by depth interval for the onshore U.S. indicate that, on average, deep wells cost nearly 10 times more to drill than shallow wells, but well costs and gas recoveries vary widely among different gas plays in different basins. Based on an analysis of natural gas assessments, many topical areas hold significant promise for future exploration and development. One such area involves re-evaluating and assessing hypothetical unconventional basin-center gas plays. Poorly-understood basin-center gas plays could contain significant deep undiscovered technically-recoverable gas resources.

  13. Geologic studies of deep natural gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyman, T. S., (Edited By); Kuuskraa, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995, the USGS estimated a mean resource of 114 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered technically recoverable natural gas in plays deeper than 15,000 feet/4,572 meters in onshore regions of the United States. This volume summarizes major conclusions of ongoing work. Chapters A and B address the areal extent of drilling and distribution of deep basins in the U.S. Chapter C summarizes distribution of deep sedimentary basins and potential for deep gas in the former Soviet Union. Chapters D and E are geochemical papers addressing source-rock issues and deep gas generation. Chapter F develops a probabilistic method for subdividing gas resources into depth slices, and chapter G analyzes the relative uncertainty of estimates of deep gas in plays in the Gulf Coast Region. Chapter H evaluates the mechanism of hydrogenation of deep, high-rank spent kerogen by water, with subsequent generation of methane-rich HC gas.

  14. A real loser. [Natural gas resource planning

    SciTech Connect

    Kretschmer, R.K.; Mraz, L.J.

    1994-03-01

    The National Energy Policy Act requires states to consider the adoption of gas integrated resource planning (IRP). In Illinois, gas IRP has not only been considered, but implemented as well. Some respected regulators and utility planners have tried to promote gas IRP as a wonderful tool by explaining all of its theoretical benefits. But the reality is that gas IRP is not cost-effective. In fact, it's a clear loser. Consider the legislative history of gas IRP in Illinois. On September 19, 1985, then-Governor James R. Thompson signed into law legislation that mandated IRP for gas and electric utilities (effective January 1, 1986). Throughout the debate on the merits of mandating IRP, legislators focused almost exclusively on the electric industry. Believe it or not, natural gas was referenced only twice throughout the legislative debate. Nevertheless, the legislation required local distribution companies (LDCs) to develop so-called least-cost plans.

  15. An overview of Venezuelan gas resources

    SciTech Connect

    Padua, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    This work begins with a historical account starting in 1918 and covers the production and utilization of the country's natural gas, as related to the operations of the Venezuelan oil and petrochemical industries and to the domestic market as a whole. This historical survey concludes with a detailed analysis of the activities conducted in 1985. Next, the estimated reserves of natural gas, both on and offshore is reviewed. This information is then analyzed as to the classification of these reserves, in terms of their probability of existence, their geographic location, and whether they are associated with oil. A forecast of production and demand for the country as a whole, from 1986 to 2005, is presented. This forecast incorporates the most probable scenario for the future of natural gas as an energy resource and raw material, based on the best current criteria. Conclusions are presented indicating that in the long term Venezuelan gas resources will be enough to cover internal and external demand.

  16. 77 FR 76052 - Health Resources and Services Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Agency Information Collection Activities... States Code, as amended by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13), the Health...

  17. Administrative/Office Technology. A Guide to Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This guide, which was written for general marketing instructors in Ohio, lists nearly 450 resources for use in conjunction with the Administrative/Office Technology Occupational Competency Analysis Profile. The texts, workbooks, modules, software, videos, and learning activities packets listed are categorized by the following topics:

  18. 77 FR 62243 - Health Resources and Services Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on the National Health Service Corps Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal...

  19. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Administrative and political boundaries and offshore sand resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics Geopdf of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, military areas, marine protected areas, cultural resources, locations of submerged cables, and shipping routes. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in the administrative and political boundaries of Florida's coastal and offshore region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map may be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will find that they have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers.

  20. Resource potential of municipal waste biogenic gas

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, P.J. )

    1991-08-01

    Modern municipal waste containment facilities (landfills) in North America generate over 500 billion ft{sup 3} of methane per year, but less than 0.1% of this renewable resource is exploited. The use of this resource is hindered due to high start up costs, poor economic return, technical problems, legal difficulties, and limited sales markets. however, landfills always occur near population centers, have readily accessible reserved of methane and carbon dioxide, and have production periods of over 20 years; consequently, biogenic landfill gas can serve as a resource base. Landfills generate methane and carbon dioxide in subequal volumes. The gas must be vacuum-extracted from the subaerial landfill deposits before it can be exploited. Strategies for exploration of landfill gas include (1) generation of electricity, (2) use as a low-Btu fuel, (3) use as a high-Btu fuel, and (4) use as a feedstock for chemical manufacturing. Electric generation and the creation of fuel follow a paradigm of dehydration and compression of the landfill gas prior to use. The propagation of high-Btu fuel also entails expensive petrochemical manipulation and possible enrichment of the gas with the butane or propane. Landfill gas as a feedback for chemical manufacturing can be used to generate simple aliphatic hydrocarbons, primarily alcohols. The production of methanol has been suggested as an economically viable fuel, due to high heat energy available per unit volume of the liquid phase. Ethanol can be produced from landfill gas through various catalysts and can be a chemical feedstock for many chemical compounds.

  1. National human resource development policies: issues for health education administrators.

    PubMed

    Simonds, S K

    1984-01-01

    The pathway to achievement of the goal "Health for All by The Year 2000" is lined with good intentions, but one that in the remaining fifteen years of this century may not lead very far. Although development of human resources and support of local autonomy are promoted as the keys to success, in truth much greater attention must be devoted to infrastructures, administration, policies, and data base planning for education and health services. For health education administrators the decisions may be at odds with current economic and social change theory and perhaps at odds with their own values. PMID:20841140

  2. Managing the rippling stream: decisionmaking in natural resource administration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doerksen, Harvey R.; Lamb, Berton L.

    1979-01-01

    This article addresses the conflict which exists within the water resources decisionmaking arena over the allocation of water for instream uses. The discussion reviews the literature on public administration regarding decisionmaking, and is based on research performed by the authors which synthesizes a model of decisionmaking. This model can be used as both a description of agency behavior, and as the basis for developing a prescription for strategy formulation.

  3. 78 FR 14303 - Statement of Delegation of Authority; Health Resources and Services Administration and Centers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention I hereby delegate to the Administrator, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), and the Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),...

  4. 40 CFR 1.33 - Office of Administration and Resources Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Assistant Administrator's resource systems responsibilities are administered by this Office. (d) Office of... for an information resource management program (IRM) consistent with the provisions of Public Law...

  5. The Frustrated Nerds Project--Resources for Systems Administrators in Higher Education: A Resource Webliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henninger, Jessamyn; Aber, Susan Ward

    2010-01-01

    Systems Architects and Information Technology administrators working in higher education help faculty, staff, and student computer users. Yet, who helps them? What resources do these professionals value? A case study was conducted using purposeful sampling and data collection through electronic interview to gather the preferred information-seeking…

  6. Conventional natural gas resource potential, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.

    2004-01-01

    An estimate of total natural gas resource potential of northern Alaska can be obtained by summing known gas reserves in oil and gas fields (35 TCF), mean estimates of undiscovered nonassociated (61 TCF) and associated (12 TCF) gas resources in NPRA, and mean estimates of undiscovered nonassociated (4 TCF) and associated (5 TCF) gas resources in the 1002 area of ANWR; this yields a total of 117 TCF. When estimates of undiscovered gas resources for non-Federal lands are released in 2005, that total will increase by a non-trivial amount. Thus, the conventional natural gas resource potential of onshore and State offshore areas totals well over 100 TCF. The inclusion of the MMS mean estimate (96 TCF) for undiscovered gas resources in the Beaufort and Chukchi planning areas of the Federal offshore extends that total above 200 TCF.

  7. Review of Emerging Resources: U.S. Shale Gas and Shale Oil Plays

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the potential U.S. domestic shale gas and shale oil resources, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) commissioned INTEK, Inc. to develop an assessment of onshore lower 48 states technically recoverable shale gas and shale oil resources. This paper briefly describes the scope, methodology, and key results of the report and discusses the key assumptions that underlie the results.

  8. Hospital administrative characteristics and volunteer resource management practices.

    PubMed

    Intindola, Melissa; Rogers, Sean; Flinchbaugh, Carol; Della Pietra, Doug

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the links between various characteristics of hospital administration and the utilization of classes of volunteer resource management (VRM) practices. Design/methodology/approach - This paper uses original data collected via surveys of volunteer directors in 122 hospitals in five Northeastern and Southern US states. Findings - Structural equation modeling results suggest that number of paid volunteer management staff, scope of responsibility of the primary volunteer administrator, and hospital size are positively associated with increased usage of certain VRM practices. Research limitations/implications - First, the authors begin the exploration of VRM antecedents, and encourage others to continue this line of inquiry; and second, the authors assess dimensionality of practices, allowing future researchers to consider whether specific dimensions have a differential impact on key individual and organizational outcomes. Practical implications - Based on the findings of a relationship between administrative characteristics and the on-the-ground execution of VRM practice, a baseline audit comparing current practices to those VRM practices presented here might be useful in determining what next steps may be taken to focus investments in VRM that can ultimately drive practice utilization. Originality/value - The exploration of the dimensionality of volunteer management adds a novel perspective to both the academic study, and practice, of volunteer management. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first empirical categorization of VRM practices. PMID:27119392

  9. Unconventional gas resources. [Eastern Gas Shales, Western Gas Sands, Coalbed Methane, Methane from Geopressured Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Komar, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    This document describes the program goals, research activities, and the role of the Federal Government in a strategic plan to reduce the uncertainties surrounding the reserve potential of the unconventional gas resources, namely, the Eastern Gas Shales, the Western Gas Sands, Coalbed Methane, and methane from Geopressured Aquifers. The intent is to provide a concise overview of the program and to identify the technical activities that must be completed in the successful achievement of the objectives.

  10. Audit of Bonneville Power Administration`s management of Information Resources

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-02

    Bonneville Power Administration`s (Bonneville) information resources include computer-related equipment, spare parts, and computer software. The objective of this audit was to determine whether Bonneville acquired and accounted for computer-related equipment properly. We found positive aspects in Bonneville`s management of computer-related equipment. However, improvements could be made in implementing credit card and property procedures. Specifically, we found that improvements were needed to (1) control credit card purchases, (2) ensure that equipment was tagged and included in property records, (3) maintain accountability over spare parts, and (4) identify unused equipment. As a result, about $90,000 of equipment was bought by personnel whose authority to purchase was not properly documented, and about $182,000 of purchases lacked supporting invoices. In addition, one maintenance support group had over $109,000 of spare parts shortages. Furthermore, Bonneville could have saved about $803,000 had unused equipment been redistributed within Bonneville or to other Federal and state agencies. Management concurred with the recommendations to improve internal controls.

  11. Expert system technology for natural gas resource development

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, R.G.

    1997-12-31

    Materials data are used in all aspects of the development of natural gas resources. Unconventional gas resources require special attention in their development and may benefit from heuristic assessments of the materials data, geological site conditions, and the knowledge base accumulated from previous unconventional site developments. Opportunities for using expert systems in the development of unconventional natural gas resources are discussed. A brief introduction to expert systems is provided in a context that emphasizes the practical nature of their service. The discussion then focuses on the development of unconventional gas reserves. Whenever possible, the likelihood of success in constructing useful expert systems for gas resource development is indicated by comparisons to existing expert systems that perform comparable functions in other industries. Significant opportunities are found for applications to site assessment, the interpretation of well log data, and the monitoring and optimization of gas processing in small-scale recovery operations.

  12. Realization of administration unit for 3He with gas recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güldner, M.; Becker, S.; Friesenecker, A.; Gast, K. K.; Heil, W.; Karpuk, S.; Otten, E. W.; Rivoire, J.; Salhi, Z.; Scholz, A.; Schreiber, L. M.; Terekhov, M.; Weiss, P.; Wolf, U.; Zentel, J.

    2011-06-01

    Hyperpolarized (HP) noble gases (3He,129Xe) are used for MR-imaging of the lung. In the majority of case the HP gas is filled in Tedlarbags and directly inhaled by the patients. Starting from an earlier pilot device, an administration unit was built respectively to the Medical Devices Law to administer patients HP noble gas boli in defined quantities and at a predefined time during inspiration with high reproducibility and reliability without reducing MR-quality. The patient's airflows are monitored and recorded. It is possible to use gas admixtures, measure the polarization on-line and collect the exhaled gas for later recycling. The first images with healthy volunteers were taken with this setup in a clinical study. Current results will be presented.

  13. Is Administration Leaner in Charter Schools? Resource Allocation in Charter and Traditional Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arsen, David; Ni, Yongmei

    2012-01-01

    There is widespread concern that administration consumes too much of the educational dollar in traditional public schools, diverting needed resources from classroom instruction and hampering efforts to improve student outcomes. By contrast, charter schools are predicted to have leaner administration and allocate resources more intensively to…

  14. Human Resources Administration in Education: A Management Approach. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebore, Ronald W.

    This book reflects the changing aspects of school human-resources management. Current concerns include the impact of new laws related to disabilities, civil rights, family and medical leave, and the testing of school bus drivers for alcohol and controlled substances. Also examined are human resources' responsibilities to military reservists and…

  15. Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, V.A.; Sharma, G.D.; Patil, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    The research undertaken in this project pertains to study of various techniques for production of natural gas from Alaskan gas hydrates such as, depressurization, injection of hot water, steam, brine, methanol and ethylene glycol solutions through experimental investigation of decomposition characteristics of hydrate cores. An experimental study has been conducted to measure the effective gas permeability changes as hydrates form in the sandpack and the results have been used to determine the reduction in the effective gas permeability of the sandpack as a function of hydrate saturation. A user friendly, interactive, menu-driven, numerical difference simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of natural gas hydrates in porous media with variable thermal properties. A numerical, finite element simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of hydrates during hot water injection process.

  16. Study finds Devonian gas resources of western Canada attractive target

    SciTech Connect

    Reinson, G.E.; Lee, P.J. )

    1993-09-13

    This report summarizes results of a recently completed study on the conventional natural gas resources estimated to be contained in Devonian strata of the Western Canada sedimentary basin. This study is the first in a series dealing with conventional gas resources of the basin south of 62[degree] N. Lat. Estimates of regional resource potential have been prepared periodically by the Geological Survey of Canada, using systematic geological basin analysis and statistical resource evaluation methods. The major play groups in the western Canada gas project are Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Deformed Belt, Lower Cretaceous Mannville group, Middle Cretaceous Colorado group, and Upper Cretaceous-Tertiary. The Devonian assessment was undertaken first because of the existing comprehensive geological data base and because there is an upside potential for finding significant reserves in relatively large economic pools. The paper describes the assessment procedures andanalyzes mature plays and conceptual plays of gas.

  17. Economic gas resources remain in western Canada Triassic plays

    SciTech Connect

    Dallaire, S.M.; Waghmare, R.R.; Roux, L.; Conn, R.F. )

    1994-12-12

    This article reviews the estimates of economic potential of the undiscovered natural gas resources estimated to exist in the Triassic System of the interior plains region of the Western Canada sedimentary basin. This work was recently released as Part 2 of Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) Bulletin 483. It is the second in a series of multidisciplinary studies reviewing the petroleum geology, discovered and undiscovered gas resources, and economic potential of natural gas in the Western Canada basin. Economic potential measures the portion of the undiscovered resource which can be expected to provide economic investment opportunities over the long term. By taking costs and other economic constraints into account, a more realistic estimate of the resources of commercial interest to industry is provided. Estimates of economic potential are also relevant in supply/demand forecasting, in the resource management mandates of governments and regulatory bodies, and in the strategic planning of transportation systems.

  18. Unconventional gas resources in the U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Jon; Vossoughi, Shapour

    2012-05-01

    Unconventional gas accounts for more than 40% of U.S. domestic gas production and more than 10% of world output. The amount of resources available is still uncertain and estimates vary to a large degree. In this paper, unconventional gas resources within the United States will be examined. This paper will take a brief look at all types of unconventional gas resources (there have been 6 identified) but will concentrate on shale gas and coal-bed methane, as they are the resources receiving the most attention. This paper will also delve into the technology in unconventional gas production and exploration, including recent innovations in the industry. Finally, environmental concerns unique to unconventional gas production will be addressed. Natural gas refers to naturally occurring hydrocarbons found trapped underground. It occurs as mixtures of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights (methane, butane, etc.) and was formed millions of years ago from fossilized organic matter. Natural gas can be used as a cleaner burning alternative to other fossil fuels for power generation. It produces half the amount of carbon dioxide as coal and roughly 25 percent less carbon dioxide than gasoline. Consequently, it is becoming more popular in today's environmentally conscious world. Worldwide demand is expected to increase at twice the rate of oil until at least 2030. Interest in natural gas is at an all-time high in the United States. Only recently have we learned about the vast unconventional resources that exist within our borders. The implications for reduced dependence on foreign sources of gas are promising for the future of this country. There may be sufficient resources within the United States to allow this energy source to thrive for many years to come. Natural gas can be divided into two categories: 1) Conventional gas which is found in reservoirs where the gas has been trapped by a layer of rock. Usually conventional gas refers to that which exists on top of crude oil reservoirs. Conventional gas is relatively easy to extract because once a well is drilled, the gas will naturally flow to the surface. 2) Unconventional gas which is referred to gas trapped in formations where it cannot easily flow such as in shale formations; or, gas that is tightly attached to the surface of the surrounding rock such as in coal-bed seams. Unconventional gas is more difficult to extract because it often requires fracturing the rock formation to allow the gas to accumulate in sufficient quantities and flow out of the well. There are six types of unconventional gas resources: shale gas, coal-bed methane, deep gas, tight gas, geopressurized zones, and methane hydrates. Each of these unconventional gas resources within the United States will be examined with a focus on their development and the unique challenges facing them.

  19. How perceptions have changed of world oil, gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmoker, J.W.; Dyman, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    In this article, some of the trends in the estimates of the oil and gas resources are examined, with a view toward better understanding world oil and gas resources in the context of the next few decades. Quantitative assessments facilitate recognition of the big picture, which is necessary for purposes of planning and investment, and also form the foundation for periodic adjustments to the big picture made necessary by changes in technology and scientific understanding.

  20. Wellhead to wire utilization of remote gas resources

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.A.; Hines, T.L.

    1998-12-31

    Utilization of remote gas resources in developing countries continues to offer challenges and opportunities to producers and contractors. The Aguaytia Gas and Power Project is an example where perseverance and creativity resulted in successful utilization of natural gas resources in the Ucayali Region of Central Peru, a country which previously had no natural gas infrastructure. The resource for the project was first discovered by Mobil in 1961, and remained undeveloped for over thirty years due to lack of infrastructure and markets. Maple Gas won a competitively bid contract to develop the Aguaytia gas reserves in March of 1993. The challenges facing Maple Gas were to develop downstream markets for the gas, execute contracts with Perupetro S.A. and other Peruvian government entities, raise financing for the project, and solicit and execute engineering procurement and construction (EPC) contracts for the execution of the project. The key to development of the downstream markets was the decision to generate electric power and transmit the power over the Andes to the main electrical grid along the coast of Peru. Supplemental revenue could be generated by gas sales to a small regional power plant and extraction of LPG and natural gasoline for consumption in the Peruvian market. Three separate lump sum contracts were awarded to Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) companies for the gas project, power project and transmission project. Each project presented its unique challenges, but the commonalities were the accelerated schedule, high rainfall in a prolonged wet season and severe logistics due to lack of infrastructure in the remote region. This presentation focuses on how the gas plant contractor, ABB Randall, working in harmony with the developer, Maple Gas, tackled the challenges to monetize a remote gas resource.

  1. 78 FR 46352 - Health Resources and Services Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... Facebook, Twitter, Google+, Apps, and/or other innovative resources) used to educate the target audience to... but not limited to HHS and HRSA Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube pages. Intellectual Property...

  2. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of Thailand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 1.6 billion barrels of undiscovered conventional oil and 17 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered conventional natural gas in three geologic provinces of Thailand using a geology-based methodology. Most of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resource is estimated to be in the area known as offshore Thai Basin province.

  3. W. Canada's Devonian resource significant even at low gas prices

    SciTech Connect

    Waghmare, R.R.; Dallaire, S.M.; Conn, R.F. )

    1993-11-29

    This article summarizes Part 2 of Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 452, entitled Devonian Gas Resources of the Western Canada sedimentary basin (WCSB). It provides supply curves and summary estimates of economic potential of the undiscovered natural gas resources estimated to exist in the Devonian system of the WCSB. The methodology constructed to estimate the economic potential is also described, along with major assumptions with regard to engineering inputs and economic parameters. The report concludes that, in the long-term, significant economically recoverable resources remain to be discovered in the Devonian system.

  4. UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS RESOURCES: AN OVERVIEW COVERING THE RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers natural gas from the following unconventional sources: western tight sands, Devonian shale, coal deposits, geopressured aquifers, and landfills. This report covers the resource base, potential production levels, and associated environmental aspects. Over the pa...

  5. Industry disputes administration report on oil and gas leasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-05-01

    Despite the Obama administration's efforts to make millions of acres of public lands available for oil and gas development, most of the acreage onshore and offshore of the contiguous United States remains idle, according to “Oil and gas lease utilization, onshore and offshore,” a 15 May report issued by the Department of the Interior (DOI). The report, which is being disputed by industry representatives, notes that 72% of the nearly 36 million leased offshore acres currently are inactive and that 50.6% of onshore leased acres (about 20.8 million acres) also are idle. “As part of the Obama administration's all-of- the-above energy strategy, we continue to make millions of acres of public lands available for safe and responsible domestic energy production on public lands and in federal waters,” said DOI secretary Ken Salazar. “These lands and waters belong to the American people, and they expect those energy supplies to be developed in a timely and responsible manner and with a fair return to taxpayers. We will continue to encourage companies to diligently bring production online quickly and safely on public lands already under lease.”

  6. Human Resources Administration: A School-Based Perspective. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced and updated, this Fourth Edition of Richard E. Smith's highly successful text examines the growing role of the principal in planning, hiring, staff development, supervision, and other human resource functions. The Fourth Edition includes new sections on ethics, induction, and the role of the mentor teacher. This edition also introduces…

  7. Human Resources Administration: A School-Based Perspective. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced and updated, this Fourth Edition of Richard E. Smith's highly successful text examines the growing role of the principal in planning, hiring, staff development, supervision, and other human resource functions. The Fourth Edition includes new sections on ethics, induction, and the role of the mentor teacher. This edition also introduces

  8. Human Resources Administration: A School-Based Perspective. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard E.

    Many human-resource functions previously belonging to the central office are now the responsibility of school principals. Twelve chapters provide practical information about performing these functions. The first chapter provides an overview for the book. It briefly discusses the major topics and provides an overall framework for the more detailed…

  9. 76 FR 26291 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative “Cost Recovery” Settlement; the Doe Run Resources Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative ``Cost Recovery'' Settlement; the Doe Run Resources Corporation.... Francois Mining Area, St. Francois County, Missouri with the following settling party: The Doe...

  10. Water Resources and Natural Gas Production from the Marcellus Shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soeder, Daniel J.; Kappel, William M.

    2009-01-01

    The Marcellus Shale is a sedimentary rock formation deposited over 350 million years ago in a shallow inland sea located in the eastern United States where the present-day Appalachian Mountains now stand (de Witt and others, 1993). This shale contains significant quantities of natural gas. New developments in drilling technology, along with higher wellhead prices, have made the Marcellus Shale an important natural gas resource. The Marcellus Shale extends from southern New York across Pennsylvania, and into western Maryland, West Virginia, and eastern Ohio (fig. 1). The production of commercial quantities of gas from this shale requires large volumes of water to drill and hydraulically fracture the rock. This water must be recovered from the well and disposed of before the gas can flow. Concerns about the availability of water supplies needed for gas production, and questions about wastewater disposal have been raised by water-resource agencies and citizens throughout the Marcellus Shale gas development region. This Fact Sheet explains the basics of Marcellus Shale gas production, with the intent of helping the reader better understand the framework of the water-resource questions and concerns.

  11. Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

  12. Business and Finance: A Resource Book for Camps. Camp Administration Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Armand, Ed.; Ball, Beverly, Ed.

    this resource book contains 35 articles designed to present general information concerning camp business and financial management to directors or administrators. Typically a specialist is employed to supervise camp business and finance, but the administrator needs to have a broad understanding of five specific business topics: (1) liability and…

  13. 40 CFR 1.33 - Office of Administration and Resources Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... out human resources management projects of special interest to Agency management. The Office... Management. 1.33 Section 1.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.33 Office of Administration and Resources Management....

  14. The Benefits of a Resource Mentor Program on Prospective and Practicing School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dappen, Leon

    This paper reviews the literature on the benefits of internship experiences for prospective and practicing school administrators and describes the Resource Mentor Program, implemented at the University of Nebraska-Omaha, reporting on an evaluation of that program. The program involves students choosing their own school-based resource mentors and…

  15. Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Russell E. Fray

    2007-06-30

    RPSEA is currently in its first year of performance under contract DE-AC26-07NT42677, Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Program Administration. Progress continues to be made in establishing the program administration policies, procedures, and strategic foundation for future research awards. Significant progress was made in development of the draft program solicitations. In addition, RPSEA personnel continued an aggressive program of outreach to engage the industry and ensure wide industry participation in the research award solicitation process.

  16. Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Russell E. Fray

    2007-05-31

    RPSEA is currently in its first year of performance under contract DE-AC26-07NT42677, Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Program Administration. Significant progress has been made in establishing the program administration policies, procedures, and strategic foundation for future research awards. RPSEA has concluded an industry-wide collaborative effort to identify focus areas for research awards under this program. This effort is summarized in the RPSEA Draft Annual Plan, which is currently under review by committees established by the Secretary of Energy.

  17. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, Jamal Jafari, Yaghoob

    2012-12-15

    Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000-2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

  18. Oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Provides an assessment of the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The report was prepared in cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is part of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP).

  19. Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, L.; Hedman, B.; Knowles, D.; Freedman, S. I.; Woods, R.; Schweizer, T.

    2003-11-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is directing substantial programs in the development and encouragement of new energy technologies. Among them are renewable energy and distributed energy resource technologies. As part of its ongoing effort to document the status and potential of these technologies, DOE EERE directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to lead an effort to develop and publish Distributed Energy Technology Characterizations (TCs) that would provide both the department and energy community with a consistent and objective set of cost and performance data in prospective electric-power generation applications in the United States. Toward that goal, DOE/EERE - joined by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) - published the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations in December 1997.As a follow-up, DOE EERE - joined by the Gas Research Institute - is now publishing this document, Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations.

  20. Education for a Sustainable Future: A Resource for Curriculum Developers, Teachers, and Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg. School Programs Div.

    This document, on social, environmental, and economic sustainability, is a resource for teachers, administrators, and curriculum developers. The increasing human population on the earth directs attention to sustainability, which was not a problem until the industrial revolution. This book uses an interdisciplinary approach and provides assistance…

  1. Nursing crew resource management: a follow-up report from the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Sculli, Gary L; Fore, Amanda M; West, Pricilla; Neily, Julia; Mills, Peter D; Paull, Douglas E

    2013-03-01

    In response to low scores on a patient safety culture survey, the Veterans Health Administration National Center for Patient Safety implemented a comprehensive nursing-focused crew resource management program for frontline nursing staff. This article highlights significant cultural and clinical outcomes from the program. PMID:23425908

  2. 77 FR 72868 - The Centers for Disease Control (CDC)/Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention... (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and...., Designated Federal Officer, CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention...

  3. The Handbook: Secondary Career and Technical Education Resource Handbook for CTE Administrators. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    This document is intended as a user-friendly resource for administrators of career and technical education (CTE) programs in Arizona. The first section presents course descriptions, including a complete list of current competencies for each of Arizona's CTE programs, which are organized on four levels as follows: (1) technological foundations…

  4. Oil and Gas Resources of the Arctic Alaska Petroleum Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2006-01-01

    The Arctic Alaska Petroleum Province, encompassing all the lands and adjacent Continental Shelf areas north of the Brooks Range-Herald arch, is one of the most petroleum-productive areas in the United States, having produced about 15 billion bbl of oil. Seven unitized oil fields currently contribute to production, and three additional oil fields have been unitized but are not yet producing. Most known petroleum accumulations involve structural or combination structural-stratigraphic traps related to closure along the Barrow arch, a regional basement high, which has focused regional hydrocarbon migration since Early Cretaceous time. Several oil accumulations in stratigraphic traps have been developed in recent years. In addition to three small gas fields producing for local consumption, more than 20 additional oil and gas discoveries remain undeveloped. This geologically complex region includes prospective strata within passive-margin, rift, and foreland-basin sequences. Oil and gas were generated from multiple source rocks throughout the region. Although some reservoired oils appear to be derived from a single source rock, evidence for significant mixing of hydrocarbons from multiple source rocks indicates a composite petroleum system. Both extensional and contractional tectonic structures provide ample exploration targets, and recent emphasis on stratigraphic traps has demonstrated a significant resource potential in shelf and turbidite sequences of Jurassic through Tertiary age. Recent estimates of the total mean volume of undiscovered resources in the Arctic Alaska Petroleum Province by the U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Minerals Management Service are more than 50 billion bbl of oil and natural-gas liquids and 227 trillion ft3 of gas, distributed approximately equally between Federal offshore and combined onshore and State offshore areas.

  5. Algeria`s gas resources: A global evaluation and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Takherist, D.; Attar, A.; Drid, M.

    1995-08-01

    With more than 3 Tcm of proven recoverable reserves, Algeria is considered to play a major role in the gas market. If the export capacity is now about 20 Bcm , Sonatrach expects to reach, after the renovation of some industrial units, a level of nearly 27 Bcm, starting in 1996. Here we discuss the geological and geographical distribution of the proven gas reserves. Many consistent fields, except the Hassi R`Mel giant field, are not yet been developed the existing infrastructure network and near-futur projects will allow Sonatrach to produce more than 60 Bcm per year, from now until the year 2000. This objective entails a serious effort in exploration and development activities. If we try to estimate ultimate resources by geochemical modeling, considering only the two min source rocks and the volumes of gas generated-expelled after the min period of trap formation, we find about 160 Tcf of dry gas and 16 Tcf of condensate that can be explored. Our experience with the existing discovered fields, our knowledge of well-defined traps, reservoirs and seals, and the success ratio in the 30 past years, basin by basin, shows that about 36 Tcf can be considered as yet to be discovered. These two numbers indicate that Algeria`s gas potential is underexplored at present. The use of new technologies such as high-resolution and 3D seismic in exploration, and stimulation operations and horizontal well drilling in development-production, is an urgent need. Updating the legislative framework, which will extend laws applicable to liquid hydrocarbon to include gas, will constitute an attractive opportunity for more partnership, permitting the introduction of new ideas and technologies.

  6. Undiscovered Arctic gas hydrates: permafrost relationship and resource evaluation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkashov, G. A.; Matveeva, T.

    2011-12-01

    Though ice-core studies show that multidecadal-scale methane variability is only weakly correlated with reconstructed temperature variations (Mitchell et al., 2010) methane emission to the atmosphere still consider as the most significant contributions to the global warming processes. Pockmarks, seeps, mud volcanoes and other features associated with methane fluxes from the seabed have been widely reported, particularly during the last three decades. On continental margins, seepage of hydrocarbon gases from shallow sedimentary layers is a common phenomenon, resulting either from in situ formation of gases (mainly methane) by bacterial decomposition of organic matter within rapidly accumulated upper sediments or from upward migration of gases formed at greater depths. Furthermore, processes associated with seabed fluid flow have been shown to affect benthic ecology and to supply methane to the hydrosphere and the atmosphere (Judd, 2003; Hovland and Judd, 2007). The most recent investigations testified that revaluation of the role of gas seeps and related gas hydrate formation processes in the Arctic environment is necessary for the understanding of global methane balance and global climate changes (Westbrook et al., 2009; Shahova and Semiletov, 2010). With respect to gas hydrate formation, due to the presence of relict permafrost the Arctic submarine environment holds a specific place that is distinct from the rest of the Ocean. Submarine gas hydrates in the Arctic may be confined to (1) relict permafrost occurrences on the shelf; (2) concentrated methane infiltration toward the seafloor (shallow-seated gas hydrates); (3) dissipated methane infiltration from great depths (deep-seated gas hydrates). Permafrost-related or cryogenic gas hydrates form due to exogenous cooling of sediment (intra- and sub-permafrost gas hydrates). It is also suggested that some parts of hydrates may be preserved owing to a self-preservation effect above the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ), which is shifted downwards due to permafrost degradation (Istomin et al., 2006; Dallimore and Collett, 1995). It is also believed that thermal conditions favourable to the formation of gas hydrates within permafrost have existed since the end of the Pliocene (about 1.88 Ma) (Collet and Dallimore, 2000). We estimate the total area of the distribution of GHSZ in the Arctic Ocean (including shelf areas, continental slope, and deep-sea troughs) to be as much as four million km2. Assuming the average gas amount per unit area in a separate gas hydrate accumulation to be 5x106 m3/km2 (Soloviev et al., 1999), it can be estimated that Arctic hydrates contain about 20 billion m3 of methane. The total area of GHSZ distribution within the Arctic seas off Russia is estimated to be about 1 million km2, with potential resources of gas in the hydrate state of about 2.36 billion m3. It should be noted, however, that field data are sparse and investigations are still producing surprising results, indicating that our understanding of gas hydrate formation and distribution within and out of sub-sea permafrost is incomplete. Estimates of the current and future release of methane from still undiscovered hydrates require particularly knowledge of the recent geological history of Polar Regions.

  7. Is Administration Leaner in Charter Schools? Resource Allocation in Charter and Traditional Public Schools. Working Paper #24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arsen, David; Ni, Yongmei

    2012-01-01

    There is widespread concern that administration consumes too much of the educational dollar in traditional public schools, diverting needed resources from classroom instruction and hampering efforts to improve student outcomes. By contrast, charter schools are predicted to have leaner administration and allocate resources more intensively to…

  8. World oil and gas resources-future production realities

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Welcome to uncertainty was the phrase Jack Schanz used to introduce both layman and professionals to the maze of petroleum energy data that must be comprehended to achieve understanding of this critical commodity. Schanz was referring to the variables as he and his colleagues with Resources for the Future saw them in those years soon after the energy-awakening oil embargo of 1973. In some respects, the authors have made progress in removing uncertainty from energy data, but in general, we simply must accept that there are many points of view and many ways for the blindman to describe the elephant. There can be definitive listing of all uncertainties, but for this paper the authors try to underscore those traits of petroleum occurrence and supply that the author's believe bear most heavily on the understanding of production and resource availability. Because oil and gas exist in nature under such variable conditions and because the products themselves are variable in their properties, the authors must first recognize classification divisions of the resource substances, so that the reader might always have a clear perception of just what we are talking about and how it relates to other components of the commodity in question.

  9. Valuation of selected environmental impacts associated with Bonneville Power Administration Resource Program alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Englin, J E; Gygi, K F

    1992-03-01

    This report documents work undertaken by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and its contractors to assist the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in assessing the potential environmental consequences of new power resources. A major purpose of this effort is to describe and evaluate the techniques available for economic valuation of environmental costs. Another is to provide estimates of the environmental costs associated with specific power resources called for under Bonneville's Resource Programs. Bonneville's efforts to extend valuation techniques to as many impacts as can be reliably assessed represents a substantial advance in the application of state-of-the-art economic techniques to environmental assessments. This economic analysis evaluates effects on human health, wildlife, crops, and visibility impacts associated with air pollution. This report also discusses river recreation (primarily fishing) which may be affected by fluctuations in water levels. 70 refs.

  10. Geology and assessment of unconventional oil and gas resources of northeastern Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Mexico Assessment Team

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of State, quantitatively assessed the potential for unconventional oil and gas resources within the onshore portions of the Tampico-Misantla Basin, Burgos Basin, and Sabinas Basin provinces of northeastern Mexico. Unconventional resources of the Veracruz Basin were not quantitatively assessed because of a current lack of required geological information. Unconventional resources include shale gas, shale oil, tight gas, tight oil, and coalbed gas. Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources were assessed in Mexico in 2012.

  11. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and...

  12. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and...

  13. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the East Greenland Rift Basins Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    Northeast Greenland is the prototype for the U.S. Geological Survey's Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal. Using a geology-based methodology, the USGS estimates the mean undiscovered, conventional petroleum resources in the province to be approximately 31,400 MBOE (million barrels of oil equivalent) of oil, gas, and natural gas liquids.

  14. Assessment of Gas Hydrate Resources on the North Slope, Alaska, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Agena, Warren F.; Lee, Myung W.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Houseknect, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed the first assessment of the undiscovered technically recoverable gas-hydrate resources on the North Slope of Alaska. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimates that there are about 85 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas resources within gas hydrates in northern Alaska.

  15. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and...

  16. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and...

  17. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and...

  18. Potential for deep natural gas resources in eastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.D.; Schenk, C.J.; Schmoker, J.W.; Fox, J.E.; Clayton, J.L.; Dyman, T.S.; Higley, D.K.; Keighin, C.W.; Law, B.E.; Pollastro, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    The main purpose of the research is to evaluate the geological possibility that significant economically recoverable resources of natural gas exist in sedimentary basins of the United States at depths greater than 150,000 ft. While relatively unexplored, these gas resources may be large. The main objectives of the research are to determine the geologic factors that control deep gas accumulations in addition to the distribution and resource potential of these accumulations.

  19. Potential for deep natural gas resources in eastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.D.; Schenk, C.J.; Schmoker, J.W.; Fox, J.E.; Clayton, J.L.; Dyman, T.S.; Higley, D.K.; Keighin, C.W.; Law, B.E.; Pollastro, R.M.

    1992-06-01

    The main purpose of the research is to evaluate the geological possibility that significant economically recoverable resources of natural gas exist in sedimentary basins of the United States at depths greater than 150,000 ft. While relatively unexplored, these gas resources may be large. The main objectives of the research are to determine the geologic factors that control deep gas accumulations in addition to the distribution and resource potential of these accumulations.

  20. Oil and Gas Resources of the Fergana Basin (Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan, and Kyrgysztan)

    EIA Publications

    1994-01-01

    Provides the most comprehensive assessment publicly available for oil and gas resources in the Fergana Basin. Includes projections of potential oil supply and U.S. Geological Survey estimates of undiscovered recoverable oil and gas.

  1. Oil and gas resources of the Fergana basin (Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan, and Kyrgyzstan). Advance summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-07

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA), in cooperation with the US Geological Survey (USGS), has assessed 13 major petroleum producing regions outside of the United States. This series of assessments has been performed under EIA`s Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). The basic approach used in these assessments was to combine historical drilling, discovery, and production data with EIA reserve estimates and USGS undiscovered resource estimates. Field-level data for discovered oil were used for these previous assessments. In FESAP, supply projections through depletion were typically formulated for the country or major producing region. Until now, EIA has not prepared an assessment of oil and gas provinces in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Before breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Fergana basin was selected for a trial assessment of its discovered and undiscovered oil and gas. The object was to see if enough data could be collected and estimated to perform reasonable field-level estimates of oil and gas in this basin. If so, then assessments of other basins in the FSU could be considered. The objective was met and assessments of other basins can be considered. Collected data for this assessment cover discoveries through 1987. Compared to most other oil and gas provinces in the FSU, the Fergana basin is relatively small in geographic size, and in number and size of most of its oil and gas fields. However, with recent emphasis given to the central graben as a result of the relatively large Mingbulak field, the basin`s oil and gas potential has significantly increased. At least 7 additional fields to the 53 fields analyzed are known and are assumed to have been discovered after 1987.

  2. Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources: Annual report, October 1986--September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.; Kamath, V.A.; Godbole, S.P.; Patil, S.L.; Paranjpe, S.G.; Mutalik, P.N.; Nadem, N.

    1987-10-01

    Solid ice-like mixtures of natural gas and water in the form of natural gas hydrated have been found immobilized in the rocks beneath the permafrost in Arctic basins and in muds under the deep water along the American continental margins, in the North Sea and several other locations around the world. It is estimated that the arctic areas of the United States may contain as much as 500 trillion SCF of natural gas in the form of gas hydrates (Lewin and Associates, 1983). While the US Arctic gas hydrate resources may have enormous potential and represent long term future source of natural gas, the recovery of this resource from reservoir frozen with gas hydrates has not been commercialized yet. Continuing study and research is essential to develop technologies which will enable a detailed characterization and assessment of this alternative natural gas resource, so that development of cost effective extraction technology.

  3. Flue Gas Desulfurization Information Resource Manager (FGDIRM) Software Reference Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    In response to the data management needs of utility FGD systems, EPRI has sponsored the development of a computer program, the FGD Information Resource Manager (FGDIRM), designed to help efficiently manage the data associated with an FGD system and to perform calculations essential for monitoring the performance of an FGD process. FGDIRM is an integrated software package consisting of five application programs -- the Laboratory Data Manager, the Process Data Manager, the Mass balance, the Data Presentations application, and the Configuration application -- each designed to address specific needs in FGD data management. FGDIRM may be run on IBM compatible personal computers with 512 kilobytes of main memory and a hard disk. Typical uses of FGDIRM would be to assist in the routine monitoring of an FGD system or to help with troubleshooting activities by ''recreating'' events based on historical data. By efficiently managing process chemistry data from flue gas desulfurization systems, the FGDIRM integrated soft ware package can contribute to improved system reliability, performance, and cost-effectiveness. Sample FGDIRM applications include monitoring, optimizing, and troubleshooting system performance.

  4. 77 FR 23105 - Supporting Safe and Responsible Development of Unconventional Domestic Natural Gas Resources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ..., employees, or agents, or any other person. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, April 13, 2012. [FR Doc... of Unconventional Domestic Natural Gas Resources #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0... Development of Unconventional Domestic Natural Gas Resources By the authority vested in me as President by...

  5. Trust in Times of Challenge: Exploring the Relationships of Faculty and Administrators at Small, Private Under Resourced Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppes, Cherron R.

    2009-01-01

    In an era of declining resources, higher education institutions are marshalling efforts to respond and remain sustainable. For small private college and universities with non-selective admissions criteria and limited resources, this is a particularly challenging period. The relationships between faculty and administrators play a key role in how…

  6. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Sud Province, north-central Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, M.E.; Klett, T.R.; Schenk, C.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Cook, T.A.; Pollastro, R.M.; Tennyson, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The Sud Province located in north-central Africa recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 7.31 billion barrels of oil, 13.42 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 353 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  7. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West African Costal Province, West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    The West African Coastal Province along the west African coastline recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's USGS World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 3.2 billion barrels of oil, 23.63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 721 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  8. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the South Africa Coastal Province, Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The South Africa Coastal Province along the South Africa coast recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.13 billion barrels of oil, 35.96 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1,115 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  9. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Chad Basin Province, North-Central Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The Chad Basin Province located in north-central Africa recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.32 billion barrels of oil, 14.65 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 391 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  10. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of Four West Africa Geologic Provinces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    Four geologic provinces located along the northwest and west-central coast of Africa recently were assessed for undiscovered oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 71.7 billion barrels of oil, 187.2 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 10.9 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  11. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of four East Africa Geologic Provinces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2012-01-01

    Four geologic provinces along the east coast of Africa recently were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 27.6 billion barrels of oil, 441.1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 13.77 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  12. Anadarko's Proposed Acquisition of Kerr-McGee and Western Gas Resources

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    Presentation of company-level, non-proprietary data and relevant aggregate data for worldwide oil and natural gas reserves and production of Anadarko, Kerr-McGee, and Western Gas Resources to inform discussions of Anadarko Petroleum Corp.'s proposed acquisition of both Kerr-McGee Corp. and Western Gas Resources Inc. for a total of $23.3 billion, which was announced June 23, 2006.

  13. Assessment of Undiscovered Natural Gas Resources of the Sacramento Basin Province of California, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheirer, Allegra Hosford; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Magoon, Leslie B.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a new assessment of undiscovered natural gas resources of the Sacramento Basin Province of California. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS mean estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources are 534 billion cubic feet of natural gas and 323 thousand barrels of natural gas liquids in the Sacramento Basin Province. Additional undiscovered oil accumulations larger than 0.5 million barrels are considered unlikely.

  14. The world gas trade, A resource for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Conant, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The proximity of vast reserves of natural gas to the great energy-consuming markets of the world, the relative environmental harmlessness of gas, and its competitive price make the use of gas increasingly attractive to an energy-strapped world. Within the next two decades we will see the use of gas and gas-related technologies expand in industrialized nations as well as among the developing countries. An international group of authorities on the political economy of natural gas analyze the key factors influencing present gas supplies and uses and look to the future, when new logistic systems and technological advances will affect both producers and consumers. The basic political, economic, and security considerations of energy will undergo a concomitant change in response to the increased availability and affordability of gas. In most markets, government monopolies direct the gas trade; in North America there will be a renewed role for private enterprise. Japan may also find its position greatly altered; although there are at present no pipeline connections to suppliers, and Japan is currently dependent on far-away sources of liquified natural gas, the contributors predict that future gas links to East Asia are highly likely. The World Gas Trade explores the growing gas trade, anticipating that within the next several decades the foundation will have been laid for gas-fueled economies to displace oil-based economies in the world system.

  15. Development of an Improved Methodology to Assess Potential Unconventional Gas Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, Jesus; McVay, Duane A. Lee, W. John

    2010-12-15

    Considering the important role played today by unconventional gas resources in North America and their enormous potential for the future around the world, it is vital to both policy makers and industry that the volumes of these resources and the impact of technology on these resources be assessed. To provide for optimal decision making regarding energy policy, research funding, and resource development, it is necessary to reliably quantify the uncertainty in these resource assessments. Since the 1970s, studies to assess potential unconventional gas resources have been conducted by various private and governmental agencies, the most rigorous of which was by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The USGS employed a cell-based, probabilistic methodology which used analytical equations to calculate distributions of the resources assessed. USGS assessments have generally produced distributions for potential unconventional gas resources that, in our judgment, are unrealistically narrow for what are essentially undiscovered, untested resources. In this article, we present an improved methodology to assess potential unconventional gas resources. Our methodology is a stochastic approach that includes Monte Carlo simulation and correlation between input variables. Application of the improved methodology to the Uinta-Piceance province of Utah and Colorado with USGS data validates the means and standard deviations of resource distributions produced by the USGS methodology, but reveals that these distributions are not right skewed, as expected for a natural resource. Our investigation indicates that the unrealistic shape and width of the gas resource distributions are caused by the use of narrow triangular input parameter distributions. The stochastic methodology proposed here is more versatile and robust than the USGS analytic methodology. Adoption of the methodology, along with a careful examination and revision of input distributions, should allow a more realistic assessment of the uncertainty surrounding potential unconventional gas resources.

  16. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Illinois Basin, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swezey, Christopher S.

    2007-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated the following quantities of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Illinois Basin, USA: (1) a mean of 214 million barrels of oil; (2) a mean of 4.65 trillion cubic feet of natural gas; and (3) a mean of 24 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  17. 76 FR 3142 - Release of Exposure Draft Technical Bulletins; Accounting for Oil and Gas Resources and Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Federal Natural Resources Other Than Oil and Gas AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board... Bulletin 2011-1, Accounting for Federal Natural Resources Other Than Oil and Gas, and an Exposure...

  18. Map of assessed tight-gas resources in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biewick, Laura R. H., (compiler); USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources Team

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a digital map of tight-gas resource assessments in the United States as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS quantitatively estimated potential volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable natural gas resources within tight-gas assessment units (AUs). This is the second digital map product in a series of USGS unconventional oil and gas resource maps. The map plate included in this report can be printed in hard-copy form or downloaded in a Geographic Information System (GIS) data package, including an ArcGIS ArcMap document (.mxd), geodatabase (.gdb), and published map file (.pmf). In addition, the publication access table contains hyperlinks to current USGS tight-gas assessment publications and web pages.

  19. Map of assessed coalbed-gas resources in the United States, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources Team; Biewick, Laura R. H., (compiler)

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a digital map of coalbed-gas resource assessments in the United States as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS quantitatively estimated potential volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable natural gas resources within coalbed-gas assessment units (AUs). This is the third digital map product in a series of USGS unconventional oil and gas resource maps. The map plate included in this report can be printed in hardcopy form or downloaded in a Geographic Information System (GIS) data package, including an ArcGIS ArcMap document (.mxd), geodatabase (.gdb), and published map file (.pmf). In addition, the publication access table contains hyperlinks to current USGS coalbed-gas assessment publications and web pages.

  20. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: geologic assessment of undiscovered gas hydrate resources on the North Slope, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    USGS AK Gas Hydrate Assessment Team: Collett, Timothy S.; Agena, Warren F.; Lee, Myung Woong; Lewis, Kristen A.; Zyrianova, Margarita; Bird, Kenneth J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey have completed the first assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable gas hydrate resources beneath the North Slope of Alaska. This assessment indicates the existence of technically recoverable gas hydrate resources—that is, resources that can be discovered, developed, and produced using current technology. The approach used in this assessment followed standard geology-based USGS methodologies developed to assess conventional oil and gas resources. In order to use the USGS conventional assessment approach on gas hydrate resources, three-dimensional industry-acquired seismic data were analyzed. The analyses indicated that the gas hydrates on the North Slope occupy limited, discrete volumes of rock bounded by faults and downdip water contacts. This assessment approach also assumes that the resource can be produced by existing conventional technology, on the basis of limited field testing and numerical production models of gas hydrate-bearing reservoirs. The area assessed in northern Alaska extends from the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska on the west through the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge on the east and from the Brooks Range northward to the State-Federal offshore boundary (located 3 miles north of the coastline). This area consists mostly of Federal, State, and Native lands covering 55,894 square miles. Using the standard geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated that the total undiscovered technically recoverable natural-gas resources in gas hydrates in northern Alaska range between 25.2 and 157.8 trillion cubic feet, representing 95 percent and 5 percent probabilities of greater than these amounts, respectively, with a mean estimate of 85.4 trillion cubic feet.

  1. Resources Work: Careers in Mining, Oil, and Gas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, Elka

    2013-01-01

    This article describes occupations in the mining, oil, and gas extraction industry. The first section covers the industry's employment and outlook. The second section highlights some common occupations. The third section discusses pros and cons of the work. The fourth section describes how to start a career in mining or oil and gas. And the fifth…

  2. Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, V.A.; Sharma, G.D.; Patil, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    The research undertaken in this project pertains to study of various techniques for production of natural gas from Alaskan gas hydrates such as, depressurization, injection of hot water, steam, brine, methanol and ethylene glycol solutions through experimental investigation of decomposition characteristics of hydrate cores. An experimental study has been conducted to measure the effective gas permeability changes as hydrates form in the sandpack and the results have been used to determine the reduction in the effective gas permeability of the sandpack as a function of hydrate saturation. A user friendly, interactive, menu-driven, numerical difference simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of natural gas hydrates in porous media with variable thermal properties. A numerical, finite element simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of hydrates during hot water injection process.

  3. Assessment of undiscovered, conventional oil and gas resources of Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Weaver, Jean N.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 19 billion barrels of oil and 83 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas resources in 10 geologic provinces of Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize.

  4. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Cooper and Eromanga Basins, Australia, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean conventional resources of 68 million barrels of oil and 964 billion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper and Eromanga Basins of Australia.

  5. Assessment of unconventional tight-gas resources of the Magallanes Basin Province, Chile, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed a technically recoverable mean resource of 8.3 trillion cubic feet of unconventional tight gas in the Zona Glauconitica of the Magallanes Basin Province, Chile.

  6. Assessment of Paleozoic shale gas resources in the Sichuan Basin of China, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 23.9 trillion cubic feet of technically recoverable shale gas resources in Paleozoic formations in the Sichuan Basin of China.

  7. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 8 billion barrels of crude oil, 670 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 21 billion barrels of natural gas liquids for the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of a program to estimate petroleum resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  8. World conventional crude oil and natural gas; identified reserves, undiscovered resources and futures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Turner, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes, at the petroleum basin level, the United States Geological Survey?s World Energy Program 1993 assessment of world conventional oil and gas resources. The maps provided show boundaries of petroleum basins that are referenced by the assessment, as well as, future oil and gas potential. The 'Futures' or future potential of a basin is calculated as the the sum of the Identified Reserves and the modal value assigned to the conventional Undiscovered Resources.

  9. 40 CFR 1.33 - Office of Administration and Resources Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... data processing systems, procurement through contracts and grants, and human resources management. This... Evaluation. (f) The Office of Human Resources Management. The Office of Human Resources Management (OHRM... office for coordination of human resources management with the Agency's Strategic Planning and......

  10. 40 CFR 1.33 - Office of Administration and Resources Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... office for coordination of human resources management with the Agency's Strategic Planning and Management... data processing systems, procurement through contracts and grants, and human resources management. This... Evaluation. (f) The Office of Human Resources Management. The Office of Human Resources Management...

  11. 40 CFR 1.33 - Office of Administration and Resources Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... office for coordination of human resources management with the Agency's Strategic Planning and Management... data processing systems, procurement through contracts and grants, and human resources management. This... Evaluation. (f) The Office of Human Resources Management. The Office of Human Resources Management...

  12. 75 FR 11147 - Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... to UltraDeepwater@hq.doe.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Executive Summary This document is the 2010 Annual Plan for the Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research... elements identified in EPAct: ultra-deepwater architecture and technology, unconventional natural gas...

  13. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Taoudeni Basin Province, Mali and Mauritania, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 160 million barrels of conventional oil, 1,880 billion cubic feet of conventional gas, 602 million barrels of shale oil, and 6,395 billion cubic feet of shale gas in the Taoudeni Basin Province in Mali and Mauritania.

  14. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of six geologic provinces of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered conventional petroleum resources in six geologic provinces of China at 14.9 billion barrels of oil, 87.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  15. Assessment of undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources of the Baltic Depression Province, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 282 million barrels of conventional oil, 576 billion cubic feet of conventional gas, 1.3 billion barrels of continuous oil, and 4.6 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Baltic Depression Province.

  16. Assessment of undiscovered continuous gas resources of the Ordos Basin Province, China, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean resources of 28 trillion cubic feet of tight gas and 5.6 trillion cubic feet of coalbed gas in upper Paleozoic rocks in the Ordos Basin Province, China.

  17. Assessment of undiscovered gas resources of the Thrace Basin, Turkey, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 787 billion cubic feet of conventional gas and 1,630 billion cubic feet of unconventional gas in the Thrace Basin, Turkey.

  18. Assessment of potential oil and gas resources in source rocks of the Alaska North Slope, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.; Rouse, William A.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Whidden, Katherine J.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated potential, technically recoverable oil and gas resources for source rocks of the Alaska North Slope. Estimates (95-percent to 5-percent probability) range from zero to 2 billion barrels of oil and from zero to nearly 80 trillion cubic feet of gas.

  19. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Sakhalin Basin Province, Russia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources for the North Sakhalin Basin Province of Russia. The mean volumes were estimated at 5.3 billion barrels of crude oil, 43.8 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 0.8 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  20. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Paris Basin, France, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phoung A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 222 million barrels of unconventional oil; 2,092 billion cubic feet of unconventional gas; 18 million barrels of conventional oil; and 47 billion cubic feet of conventional gas resources in the Paris Basin of France.

  1. 75 FR 78997 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Health Resources and Services Administration (CDC/HRSA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    .../Health Resources and Services Administration (CDC/HRSA) Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and...-463) of October 6, 1972, that the CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment... Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment, Department of Health and Human Services,...

  2. Administrative Decision-Making in a Time of Resource Decline: The Case of California's Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimann, Jason Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a qualitative study on the decision-making of administrators within California's Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment (BTSA) teacher induction program. The study focuses on examining how declining resources act as a pressure, how well-established research on cutback management predict the behaviors of the BTSA…

  3. Administrative Decision-Making in a Time of Resource Decline: The Case of California's Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimann, Jason Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a qualitative study on the decision-making of administrators within California's Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment (BTSA) teacher induction program. The study focuses on examining how declining resources act as a pressure, how well-established research on cutback management predict the behaviors of the BTSA

  4. Economics and the 1995 National Assessment of United States Oil and Gas Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the economic component of the 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey for onshore and State offshore areas of the United States. Province and regional incremental cost functions for conventional undiscovered oil and gas fields, and selected unconventional oil and gas accumulations, allowing the ranking of areas by the incremental costs finding, developing, and producing these resources. Regional projections of additions to reserves from previously discovered fields to 2015 are also presented.

  5. Risks to Water Resources from Shale Gas Development and Hydraulic Fracturing in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B.; Warner, Nathaniel; Darrah, Thomas H.; Kondash, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    The rise of shale gas development through horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing has expanded oil and gas exploration in the USA. The rapid rate of shale gas exploration has triggered an intense public debate regarding the potential environmental and human health effects. A review of the updated literature has identified four potential risks for impacts on water resources: (1) stray gas contamination of shallow aquifers near shale gas sites; (2) contamination of surface water and shallow groundwater from spills, leaks, and disposal of inadequately treated wastewater or hydraulic fracturing fluids; (3) accumulation of toxic and radioactive residues in soil or stream sediments near disposal or spill sites; and (4) over-extraction of water resources for drilling and hydraulic fracturing that could induce water shortages and conflicts with other water users, particularly in water-scarce areas. As part of a long-term research on the potential water contamination associated with shale gas development, new geochemical and isotopic techniques have been developed for delineating the origin of gases and contaminants in water resource. In particular, multiple geochemical and isotopic (carbon isotopes in hydrocarbons, noble gas, strontium, boron, radium isotopes) tracers have been utilized to distinguish between naturally occurring dissolved gas and salts in water and contamination directly induced from shale gas drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations.

  6. Development of a linked perinatal data resource from state administrative and community-based program data.

    PubMed

    Hall, Eric S; Goyal, Neera K; Ammerman, Robert T; Miller, Megan M; Jones, David E; Short, Jodie A; Van Ginkel, Judith B

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate a generalizable approach for developing maternal-child health data resources using state administrative records and community-based program data. We used a probabilistic and deterministic linking strategy to join vital records, hospital discharge records, and home visiting data for a population-based cohort of at-risk, first time mothers enrolled in a regional home visiting program in Southwestern Ohio and Northern Kentucky from 2007 to 2010. Because data sources shared no universal identifier, common identifying elements were selected and evaluated for discriminating power. Vital records then served as a hub to which other records were linked. Variables were recoded into clinically significant categories and a cross-set of composite analytic variables was constructed. Finally, individual-level data were linked to corresponding area-level measures by census tract using the American Communities Survey. The final data set represented 2,330 maternal-infant pairs with both home visiting and vital records data. Of these, 56 pairs (2.4 %) did not link to either maternal or infant hospital discharge records. In a 10 % validation subset (n = 233), 100 % of the reviewed matches between home visiting data and vital records were true matches. Combining multiple data sources provided more comprehensive details of perinatal health service utilization and demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics than available from a single data source. Our approach offers a template for leveraging disparate sources of data to support a platform of research that evaluates the timeliness and reach of home visiting as well as its association with key maternal-child health outcomes. PMID:23420307

  7. Detection of exhaled hydrogen sulphide gas in healthy human volunteers during intravenous administration of sodium sulphide

    PubMed Central

    Toombs, Christopher F; Insko, Michael A; Wintner, Edward A; Deckwerth, Thomas L; Usansky, Helen; Jamil, Khurram; Goldstein, Brahm; Cooreman, Michael; Szabo, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous signaling molecule and potential therapeutic agent. Emerging studies indicate its therapeutic potential in a variety of cardiovascular diseases and in critical illness. Augmentation of endogenous sulphide concentrations by intravenous administration of sodium sulphide can be used for the delivery of H2S to the tissues. In the current study, we have measured H2S concentrations in the exhaled breath of healthy human volunteers subjected to increasing doses sodium sulphide in a human phase I safety and tolerability study. METHODS We have measured reactive sulphide in the blood via ex vivo derivatization of sulphide with monobromobimane to form sulphide-dibimane and blood concentrations of thiosulfate (major oxidative metabolite of sulphide) via ion chromatography. We have measured exhaled H2S concentrations using a custom-made device based on a sulphide gas detector (Interscan). RESULTS Administration of IK-1001, a parenteral formulation of Na2S (0.005–0.20 mg kg−1, i.v., infused over 1 min) induced an elevation of blood sulphide and thiosulfate concentrations over baseline, which was observed within the first 1–5 min following administration of IK-1001 at 0.10 mg kg−1 dose and higher. In all subjects, basal exhaled H2S was observed to be higher than the ambient concentration of H2S gas in room air, indicative of on-going endogenous H2S production in human subjects. Upon intravenous administration of Na2S, a rapid elevation of exhaled H2S concentrations was observed. The amount of exhaled H2S rapidly decreased after discontinuation of the infusion of Na2S. CONCLUSION Exhaled H2S represents a detectable route of elimination after parenteral administration of Na2S. PMID:20565454

  8. Resource planning for gas utilities: Using a model to analyze pivotal issues

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, J.F.; Comnes, G.A.

    1995-11-01

    With the advent of wellhead price decontrols that began in the late 1970s and the development of open access pipelines in the 1980s and 90s, gas local distribution companies (LDCs) now have increased responsibility for their gas supplies and face an increasingly complex array of supply and capacity choices. Heretofore this responsibility had been share with the interstate pipelines that provide bundled firm gas supplies. Moreover, gas supply an deliverability (capacity) options have multiplied as the pipeline network becomes increasing interconnected and as new storage projects are developed. There is now a fully-functioning financial market for commodity price hedging instruments and, on interstate Pipelines, secondary market (called capacity release) now exists. As a result of these changes in the natural gas industry, interest in resource planning and computer modeling tools for LDCs is increasing. Although in some ways the planning time horizon has become shorter for the gas LDC, the responsibility conferred to the LDC and complexity of the planning problem has increased. We examine current gas resource planning issues in the wake of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC) Order 636. Our goal is twofold: (1) to illustrate the types of resource planning methods and models used in the industry and (2) to illustrate some of the key tradeoffs among types of resources, reliability, and system costs. To assist us, we utilize a commercially-available dispatch and resource planning model and examine four types of resource planning problems: the evaluation of new storage resources, the evaluation of buyback contracts, the computation of avoided costs, and the optimal tradeoff between reliability and system costs. To make the illustration of methods meaningful yet tractable, we developed a prototype LDC and used it for the majority of our analysis.

  9. 1995 National Assessment of United States Oil and Gas Resources: Results, Methodology, and Supporting Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Dolton, Gordon L.; Takahashi, Kenneth I.; Varnes, Katharine L.

    1996-01-01

    This revised CD-ROM summarizes the results, released in 1995, of the 3-year study of the oil and gas resources of the onshore and state waters of the United States. Minor errors in the original DDS-30 (listed in DDS-35 and DDS-36) are corrected in this revised version and in the data files now released in DDS-35 and DDS-36. Estimates are made of technically recoverable oil, including measured (proved) reserves, future additions to reserves in existing fields, and undiscovered resources. Estimates are also made of the technically recoverable conventional resources of natural gas in measured reserves, in anticipated growth of reserves in existing fields, and in undiscovered resources. Additionally, an assessment is made of recoverable resources in continuous-type (largely unconventional) accumulations in sandstones, shales, chalks, and coal beds.

  10. 1995 National assessment of United States oil and gas resources; results, methodology, and supporting data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Dolton, G.L.; Takahashi, K.I.; Varnes, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a 3-year study of the oil and gas resources of the onshore and state waters of the United States by the U.S. Geological Survey. A parallel study of the Federal offshore is being conducted by the Minerals Management Service. Estimates are made of technically recoverable oil, including measured (proved) reserves, future additions to reserves in existing fields, and undiscovered resources. Estimates are also made of the technically recoverable conventional resources of natural gas in measured reserves, in anticipated growth of reserves in existing fields, and in undiscovered resources. Additionally, an assessment is made of recoverable resources in continuous-type (largely unconventional) accumulations in sandstones, shales, chalks, and coal beds.

  11. Chapter 9: Oil and gas resource potential north of the Arctic Circle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, D.L.; Bird, K.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Grantz, A.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Klett, T.R.; Moore, T.E.; Pitman, J.K.; Schenk, C.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Sorensen, K.; Tennyson, M.E.; Valin, Z.C.; Wandrey, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The US Geological Survey recently assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional petroleumin the Arctic. Using a new map compilation of sedimentary elements, the area north of the Arctic Circle was subdivided into 70 assessment units, 48 of which were quantitatively assessed. The Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA) was a geologically based, probabilistic study that relied mainly on burial history analysis and analogue modelling to estimate sizes and numbers of undiscovered oil and gas accumulations. The results of the CARA suggest the Arctic is gas-prone with an estimated 770-2990 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered conventional natural gas, most of which is in Russian territory. On an energy-equivalent basis, the quantity of natural gas ismore than three times the quantity of oil and the largest undiscovered gas eld is expected to be about 10 times the size of the largest undiscovered oil eld. In addition to gas, the gas accumulationsmay contain an estimated 39 billion barrels of liquids. The South Kara Sea is themost prospective gas assessment unit, but giant gas elds containingmore than 6 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas are possible at a 50%chance in 10 assessment units. Sixty per cent of the estimated undiscovered oil resource is in just six assessment units, of which the Alaska Platform, with 31%of the resource, is the most prospective. Overall, the Arctic is estimated to contain between 44 and 157 billion barrels of recoverable oil. Billion barrel oil elds are possible at a 50%chance in seven assessment units.Undiscovered oil resources could be signicant to the Arctic nations, but are probably not sufcient to shift the world oil balance away from the Middle East. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  12. Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal: Estimates of Undiscovered Oil and Gas North of the Arctic Circle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, Kenneth J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, Thomas E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Wandrey, Craig R.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has completed an assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in all areas north of the Arctic Circle. Using a geology-based probabilistic methodology, the USGS estimated the occurrence of undiscovered oil and gas in 33 geologic provinces thought to be prospective for petroleum. The sum of the mean estimates for each province indicates that 90 billion barrels of oil, 1,669 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 44 billion barrels of natural gas liquids may remain to be found in the Arctic, of which approximately 84 percent is expected to occur in offshore areas.

  13. Survey of stranded gas and delivered costs to Europe of selected gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Two important trends affecting the expected growth of global gas markets are (1) the shift by many industrialized countries from coal-fired electricity generation to the use of natural gas to generate electricity and (2) the industrialization of the heavily populated Asian countries of India and China. This paper surveys discovered gas in stranded conventional gas accumulations and presents estimates of the cost of developing and producing stranded gas in selected countries. Stranded gas is natural gas in discovered or identified fields that is not currently commercially producible for either physical or economic reasons. Published reserves of gas at the global level do not distinguish between volumes of gas in producing fields and volumes in nonproducing fields. Data on stranded gas reported here-that is the volumes, geographical distribution, and size distributions of stranded gas fields at the country and regional level-are based on the examination of individual-field data and represent a significant improvement in information available to industry and government decision makers. Globally, stranded gas is pervasive, but large volumes in large accumulations are concentrated in only a few areas. The cost component of the paper focuses on stranded conventional gas accumulations in Africa and South America that have the potential to augment supplies to Europe. The methods described for the computation of extraction and transport costs are innovative in that they use information on the sizes and geographical distribution of the identified stranded gas fields. The costs are based on industry data specific to the country and geologic basin where the stranded gas is located. Gas supplies to Europe can be increased significantly at competitive costs by the development of stranded gas. Net extraction costs of producing the identified gas depend critically on the natural-gas-liquids (NGLs) content, the prevailing prices of liquids, the size of the gas accumulation, and the deposit's location. The diversity of the distribution of stranded gas is one obstacle to the exercise of market power by the Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF). Copyright ?? 2011 Society of Petroleum Engineers.

  14. 43 CFR 3137.28 - What oil and gas resources of committed tracts does the unit agreement include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING: NATIONAL PETROLEUM RESERVE, ALASKA Unitization Agreements-National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Application § 3137.28 What oil and gas resources of committed tracts does the unit... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What oil and gas resources of...

  15. 43 CFR 3137.28 - What oil and gas resources of committed tracts does the unit agreement include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING: NATIONAL PETROLEUM RESERVE, ALASKA Unitization Agreements-National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Application § 3137.28 What oil and gas resources of committed tracts does the unit... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What oil and gas resources of...

  16. 43 CFR 3137.28 - What oil and gas resources of committed tracts does the unit agreement include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING: NATIONAL PETROLEUM RESERVE, ALASKA Unitization Agreements-National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Application § 3137.28 What oil and gas resources of committed tracts does the unit... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What oil and gas resources of...

  17. Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C S; Burk, K W; Driver, C J; Liljegren, J C; Neitzel, D A; Schwartz, M N; Dana, M T; Laws, G L; Mahoney, L A; Rhoads, K

    1992-04-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives.

  18. Assessment of Coalbed Gas Resources in Cretaceous and Tertiary Rocks on the North Slope, Alaska, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Steve; Barker, Charles E.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    The North Slope of Alaska is a vast area of land north of the Brooks Range, extending from the Chukchi Sea eastward to the Canadian border. This Arctic region is known to contain extensive coal deposits; hypothetical coal resource estimates indicate that nearly 4 trillion short tons of coal are in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks. Because of the large volume of coal, other studies have indicated that this region might also have potential for significant coalbed gas resources. The present study represents the first detailed assessment of undiscovered coalbed gas resources beneath the North Slope by the USGS. The assessment is based on the total petroleum system (TPS) concept. Geologic elements within a TPS relate to hydrocarbon source rocks (maturity, hydrocarbon generation, migration), the characteristics of reservoir rocks, and trap and seal formation. In the case of coalbed gas, the coal beds serve as both source rock and reservoir. The Brookian Coalbed Gas Composite TPS includes coal-bearing rocks in Cretaceous and Tertiary strata underlying the North Slope and adjacent Alaska State waters. Assessment units (AUs) within the TPS (from oldest to youngest) include the Nanushuk Formation Coalbed Gas AU, the Prince Creek and Tuluvak Formations Coalbed Gas AU, and the Sagavanirktok Formation Coalbed Gas AU.

  19. No Child Left Behind and Administrative Costs: A Resource Dependence Study of Local School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    This study considers the impact of federal funding on the administrative expenditures of local school districts since the passage of the No-Child-Left-Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. Under NCLB, federal education funds were made contingent upon a variety of accountability and reporting standards, creating new administrative costs and challenges for…

  20. Human Resource Management in Small Rural Districts: The Administrator's Role in Recruitment, Hiring and Staff Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsell, Rhodena

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the rural area administrator's role in the areas of teacher recruitment, hiring and staff development. State and Regional Policies reveal that these areas are chief among the concerns of rural school leaders (Johnson, 2005). The rural school administrator's role often requires him/her to become involved in…

  1. A Multicultural Inservice Resource Handbook: A List for Administrators and Teachers in Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    This booklet provides Arizona educators with classroom resources in multicultural education and sources of training for educators. Resources include: (1) media materials and speakers on various humanities topics including contributions of different cultures to Arizona; (2) curriculum units and instructional materials on Arizona's American Indians…

  2. Post-Implementation Success Factors for Enterprise Resource Planning Student Administration Systems in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Linda; Bozeman, William

    2010-01-01

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems can represent one of the largest investments of human and financial resources by a higher education institution. They also bring a significant process reengineering aspect to the institution and the associated implementation project through the integration of compiled industry best practices into the

  3. Post-Implementation Success Factors for Enterprise Resource Planning Student Administration Systems in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Linda; Bozeman, William

    2010-01-01

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems can represent one of the largest investments of human and financial resources by a higher education institution. They also bring a significant process reengineering aspect to the institution and the associated implementation project through the integration of compiled industry best practices into the…

  4. Economics and the 1995 National Assessment of U.S. oil and gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the economic component of the U.S. Geological Survey's 1995 National Assessment of oil and gas resources for the US onshore areas and State waters. This area accounts for 80 percent of US hydrocarbon production and 85 percent of US proved reserves. The Minerals Management Service has released a parallel study for Federal offshore areas (1996). Estimates are as of January 1994. The economic evaluation uses mean values of the technically recoverable resources assessed by geologists.

  5. Gas hydrates as potential resource of energy and pathfinders for conventional type hydrocarbon deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Krason, J. )

    1991-03-01

    Solid compounds of water and gaseous hydrocarbons are known as gas hydrates, clathrates, or cryohydrates. They occur naturally in offshore and terrestrial environments, in the areas where temperature is at least seasonally low (i.e. close to or below freezing), bathymetric, geostatic, ice, or permafrost pressure is sufficiently high, and the source of hydrocarbons is available. These factors (regional and local geological conditions of 21 locations grouped into 13 study regions worldwide offshore and one in permafrost environments with proven, reported, and inferred presence of gas hydrates) have been recently researched by Geoexplorers International, Inc. Conservative estimations from Geoexplorers International suggest that the world's total gas hydrates may contain 7,000 to 50,000 tcf of natural gas. Although at this time exploitation of gas trapped in the hydrate zone and below is not economically viable, because estimated reserves are enormous, they should be seriously considered as potential energy resource. Smaller, but less dispersed massive gas hydrate deposits associated with fault zones may be the first offshore gas resource to become economic. This research, particularly of the Messoyakh gas field, has proved that the presence of gas hydrates provides very useful information in exploration for conventional oil and gas deposits. Gas hydrates indicate ongoing hydrocarbon generation in the sediments. Hydrates are valuable to assess the present heat flow and thermal history of a region. Since gas hydrates exist only under a very limited range of pressure and temperature, deviation in patterns of their occurrence can be related to changes in pore water chemistry, hydrocarbon composition, or pressure and temperature gradient anomalies.

  6. Models, Simulators, and Data-driven Resources for Oil and Natural Gas Research

    DOE Data Explorer

    NETL provides a number of analytical tools to assist in conducting oil and natural gas research. Software, developed under various DOE/NETL projects, includes numerical simulators, analytical models, databases, and documentation.[copied from http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/Software_main.html] Links lead users to methane hydrates models, preedictive models, simulators, databases, and other software tools or resources.

  7. Utilisation of gas resources in qatar: A decade of planned development and integration

    SciTech Connect

    Ferdin, J.P.

    1985-03-01

    Qatar's demand for energy has increased tremendously during the last decade due to expanded economic activity since the early 1970's and subsequent diversification through development of downstream industries. Most of the energy requirement is met by natural gas. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a gas oriented producing country and the operating philosophy for maintaining maximum efficiency and preserving the Nation's natural resources.

  8. Origins, characteristics, controls, and economic viabilities of deep- basin gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    Dry-gas deposits (methane ???95% of the hydrocarbon (HC) gases) are thought to originate from in-reservoir thermal cracking of oil and C2+ HC gases to methane. However, because methanes from Anadarko Basin dry-gas deposits do not carry the isotopic signature characteristics of C15+ HC destruction, an origin of these methanes from this process is considered improbable. Instead, the isotopic signature of these methanes suggests that they were cogenerated with C15+ HC's. Only a limited resource of deep-basin gas deposits may be expected by the accepted model for the origin of dry-gas deposits because of a limited number of deep-basin oil deposits originally available to be thermally converted to dry gas. However, by the models of this paper (inefficient source-rock oil and gas expulsion, closed fluid systems in petroleum-basin depocenters, and most dry-gas methane cogenerated with C15+ HC's), very large, previously unrecognized, unconventional, deep-basin gas resources are expected. -from Author

  9. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Gas Resources of the Eastern Oregon and Washington Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Eastern Oregon and Washington Province Assessment Team, (compiler)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geology-based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States, focusing on the distribution, quantity, and availability of oil and natural gas resources. The USGS has completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Eastern Oregon and Washington Province of Oregon and Washington (USGS Province 5005). The province is a priority Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) province for the National Assessment because of its potential for oil and gas resources. The assessment of this province is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). In the Eastern Oregon and Washington Province, the USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and two assessment units within the total petroleum system, and quantitatively estimated the undiscovered gas resources within each assessment unit.

  10. The Impact of Water Regulation on the Availability of Shale Gas Resources for Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor, D. G.

    2011-12-01

    Visions for a large increase in North American production of natural gas from shale are based heavily on the sharp rise in the estimated available resource. Those estimates are prepared by looking at the underlying geology as well as the cost and availability of technologies for extracting gas. We add to that equation the potential current and future regulation of water injection (subsurface) and runoff (surface). Using the political science theory of "veto points" we show that US water legislation is organized in ways that allow for large numbers of political forces to block (or make costly) access to gas resources. By our estimate, 26% of the shale gas resource will be unavailable-a fraction that could rise if there are strong contagion effects as jurisdictions that have traditionally had industry-friendly regulatory systems apply much stricter rules. This work has potentially large implications for visions of the new natural gas revolution and the price of North American (and potentially world) natural gas.

  11. Oil, Gas and Conflict: A Mathematical Model for the Resource Curse

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yiyong; Newth, David

    2013-01-01

    Oil and natural gas are highly valuable natural resources, but many countries with large untapped reserves suffer from poor economic and social-welfare performance. This conundrum is known as the resource curse. The resource curse is a result of poor governance and wealth distribution structures that allow the elite to monopolize resources for self-gain. When rival social groups compete for natural resources, civil unrest soon follows. While conceptually easy to follow, there have been few formal attempts to study this phenomenon. Thus, we develop a mathematical model that captures the basic elements and dynamics of this dilemma. We show that when resources are monopolized by the elite, increased exportation leads to decreased domestic production. This is due to under-provision of the resource-embedded energy and industrial infrastructure. Decreased domestic production then lowers the marginal return on productive activities, and insurgency emerges. The resultant conflict further displaces human, built, and natural capital. It forces the economy into a vicious downward spiral. Our numerical results highlight the importance of governance reform and productivity growth in reducing oil-and-gas-related conflicts, and thus identify potential points of intervention to break the downward spiral. PMID:23826115

  12. Future Oil and Gas Resources of the World: A Coming Supply Crisis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlbrandt, T. S.

    2002-05-01

    Is the world running out of oil? Where will future oil and gas supplies come from? To help answer these questions, the U.S. Geological Survey completed in 2000 a new assessment of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources and potential additions to reserves from field growth. One hundred and twenty-eight provinces were assessed in a 100 man-year effort from 1995-2000. The assessed provinces included 76 priority provinces containing 95 percent of the world's discovered oil and gas and an additional 52 "boutique" provinces, many of which may be highly prospective. Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were identified and described for each of these provinces along with associated Assessment Units (AU) that are the basic units for assessing undiscovered petroleum. The assessment process coupled geologic analysis with a probabilistic methodology to estimate remaining potential. Within the 128 assessed provinces, were 159 TPS and 274 AU. For these provinces, the endowment of recoverable oil, which includes cumulative production, remaining reserves, reserve growth, and undiscovered resources is estimated at about 3 trillion barrels of oil (TBO). The natural gas endowment is estimated at 2.6 trillion barrels of oil equivalent (TBOE). Oil reserves are currently 1.1 TBO; world consumption is about .028 TBO per year. Natural gas reserves are about .8 TBOE; world consumption is about .014 TBOE. Thus, without any additional discoveries of oil, gas or natural gas liquids, we have about 2 TBOE of proved petroleum reserves. Of the oil and gas endowment of about 5.6 TBOE, we estimate that the world has consumed about 1 TBOE, or 18 percent leaving about 82 percent of endowment to be utilized or found. Half of the world's undiscovered potential is offshore. Arctic basins with about 25 percent of undiscovered petroleum resources make up the next great frontier. An additional 279 provinces contain some oil and gas and, if considered, would increase the oil and gas endowment estimates. While petroleum resources in the world appear to be significant, certain countries such as the U.S. may run into import deficits particularly oil imports from Mexico and natural gas from Canada. The new assessment has been used as the reference supply case in energy supply models by the International Energy Agency and the Energy Information Agency of the Department of Energy. Climate energy modeling groups such as Stanford, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and others have also used the estimates in global climate models. Many of these models using the USGS estimates, converge on potential oil shortfalls in 2036-2040. A transition to increased use of natural gas is expected, but gas in turn may experience similar supply concerns in the 2050-2060 time frame. A coal bridge-to-the-future model as well a realistic view of non-renewable resources in the future will be discussed. Non-conventional oil and gas are quite common in the petroleum provinces of the world and represent a significant resource yet to be fully studied and developed. Seventeen non-conventional AU, including coal-bed methane, basin-center gas, continuous oil, and gas hydrate occurrences, have been preliminarily identified for future assessment. Initial efforts to assess heavy oil deposits and other non-conventional oil and gas deposits are also underway. Digital products from the World Energy Project may be downloaded at (http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/energy/WorldEnergy/WEnergy.html).

  13. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, David

    2014-05-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and potentially in Europe, extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus in Australia. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics, with hydraulic fracturing generally (but not always) required to extract coal seam gas also. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction and hydraulic fracturing on surface and groundwater resources may be potentially of more concern for coal seam gas than for shale gas. To determine the potential for coal seam gas extraction (and coal mining more generally) to impact on water resources and water-related assets in Australia, the Commonwealth Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (the IESC) to provide advice to Commonwealth and State Government regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. The IESC has in turn implemented a program of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the program can be found at http://www.environment.gov.au/coal-seam-gas-mining/bioregional-assessments.html. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas extraction on surface and groundwater resources and water-related assets in Australia. The methodology of undertaking bioregional assessments will be described, and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia will be detailed. Preliminary results of the program of research to date will be assessed in light of the requirements of the IESC to provide independent advice to the Australian Commonwealth and State Governments. Finally, parallels (and differences) between the expansion of the industry in Australia with that in the United States and Europe will be drawn.

  14. Oil and gas company policy regarding the concept of sustainable development (water resources)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyugina, E. G.; Pogharnitskaya, O. V.; Grinkevich, L. S.; Belozerova, D. S.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2016-03-01

    The paper considers oil and gas companies implementing the strategy of sustainable development. Being vital to the national economy, oil and gas companies have a significant impact on the environment. Having analyzed the statistical data, the authors state that the leading Russian oil and gas companies contribute to the industry dynamics and conduct eco-friendly production practices. The environmental component is reported to be integrated in production, HR, information and other company policies, which results in “greening” both economic cooperation and place of production. The authors report the inverse relation between production dynamics and significance of the impact on water resources.

  15. Medical resource utilization for administration of trastuzumab in a New Zealand oncology outpatient setting: a time and motion study

    PubMed Central

    North, Richard T; Harvey, Vernon J; Cox, Levonne C; Ryan, Stuart N

    2015-01-01

    Background In New Zealand, trastuzumab is standard therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-positive early and metastatic breast cancer. Given the requirement for ongoing adjuvant or maintenance treatment and intravenous (IV) delivery, such a regimen consumes considerable health care resources. The development of a subcutaneous (SC) trastuzumab formulation with a short administration time offers the potential to reduce hospital expenditure. The aim of this study was to determine medical resource utilization associated with administration of trastuzumab SC injection via handheld syringe vs trastuzumab IV infusion in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer in New Zealand. Methods This noninterventional, descriptive study was conducted at the outpatient oncology centers at Auckland City and Tauranga Hospitals. Trained observers recorded times associated with health care professional (HCP) tasks and consumables use associated with preparation and administration of trastuzumab IV or SC in women with early or metastatic breast cancer. The cost for each formulation was calculated as the mean cost of HCP time (based on Pharmaceutical Management Agency hourly rates) plus the mean cost of consumables used. Results Use of trastuzumab SC vs IV reduced mean chair time by 36.95 minutes and total nurse time by 6.12 minutes; there was a 20.45-minute reduction in pharmacist time when the SC formulation was used. After adding consumable costs, the overall estimated saving with trastuzumab SC vs IV was $76.94 (New Zealand dollars) per patient per cycle. Conclusions Compared with trastuzumab IV infusion, administration of trastuzumab via SC injection reduced time spent in the clinic and decreased HCP resources and consumables needed to administer treatment. These reductions could contribute to a decrease in health care costs and an improvement in the efficiency of HER2-positive breast cancer treatment delivery. PMID:26251623

  16. Resources use and greenhouse gas emissions in urban economy: Ecological input-output modeling for Beijing 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, S. Y.; Chen, H.; Li, S. C.

    2010-10-01

    The embodiment of natural resources and greenhouse gas emissions for the urban economy of Beijing economy 2002 by a physical balance modeling is carried out based on an extension of the economic input-output table into an ecological one integrating the economy with its various environmental driving forces. Included resources and greenhouse gas emissions belong to six categories as energy resources in terms of primary energy and secondary energy; water resource; emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O; exergy in terms of energy sources, biological resources and minerals; and solar emergy and cosmic emergy in terms of climate resources, soil, energy sources, and minerals.

  17. Shallow, low-permeability reservoirs of northern Great Plains - assessment of their natural gas resources.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, D.D.; Shurr, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    Major resources of natural gas are entrapped in low-permeability, low-pressure reservoirs at depths less than 1200m in the N.Great Plains. This shallow gas is the product of the immature stage of hydrocarbon generation and is referred to as biogenic gas. Prospective low-permeability, gas-bearing reservoirs range in age from late Early to Late Cretaceous. The following facies were identified and mapped: nonmarine rocks, coastal sandstones, shelf sandstones, siltstones, shales, and chalks. The most promising low-permeability reservoirs are developed in the shelf sandstone, siltstone, and chalk facies. Reservoirs within these facies are particularly attractive because they are enveloped by thick sequences of shale which serve as both a source and a seal for the gas.-from Author

  18. 76 FR 56412 - Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585 or phone: (202) 586-5600 or e-mail to UltraDeepwater@hq.doe.gov... Annual Plan, the fifth such plan to be produced since the launch of the Ultra-Deepwater and... processes to mitigate these risks. Domestic deepwater and ultra-deepwater oil and gas resources,...

  19. 77 FR 51021 - Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources, Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development...., Washington, DC 20585 or phone: (202) 586-5600 or email to UltraDeepwater@hq.doe.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Executive Summary This 2012 Annual Plan is the sixth research plan for the Ultra- Deepwater...

  20. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of North Africa, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Whidden, Katherine J.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 19 billion barrels of technically recoverable undiscovered conventional oil and 370 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered conventional natural gas resources in 8 geologic provinces of North Africa.

  1. Assessment of potential shale gas and shale oil resources of the Norte Basin, Uruguay, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Klett, Timothy R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Weaver, Jean N.; Brownfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Using a performance-based geological assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 13.4 trillion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable shale gas and 0.5 billion barrels of technically recoverable shale oil resources in the Norte Basin of Uruguay.

  2. ENERGY FROM THE WEST: ENERGY RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS REPORT. VOLUME V: OIL AND NATURAL GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the technologies likely to be used for development of oil and natural gas resources in eight western states (Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming). It provides information on input materials and labor requirem...

  3. Impact of Shale Gas Development on Water Resources: A Case Study in Northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandecasteele, Ine; Marí Rivero, Inés; Sala, Serenella; Baranzelli, Claudia; Barranco, Ricardo; Batelaan, Okke; Lavalle, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    Shale gas is currently being explored in Europe as an alternative energy source to conventional oil and gas. There is, however, increasing concern about the potential environmental impacts of shale gas extraction by hydraulic fracturing (fracking). In this study, we focussed on the potential impacts on regional water resources within the Baltic Basin in Poland, both in terms of quantity and quality. The future development of the shale play was modeled for the time period 2015-2030 using the LUISA modeling framework. We formulated two scenarios which took into account the large range in technology and resource requirements, as well as two additional scenarios based on the current legislation and the potential restrictions which could be put in place. According to these scenarios, between 0.03 and 0.86 % of the total water withdrawals for all sectors could be attributed to shale gas exploitation within the study area. A screening-level assessment of the potential impact of the chemicals commonly used in fracking was carried out and showed that due to their wide range of physicochemical properties, these chemicals may pose additional pressure on freshwater ecosystems. The legislation put in place also influenced the resulting environmental impacts of shale gas extraction. Especially important are the protection of vulnerable ground and surface water resources and the promotion of more water-efficient technologies.

  4. Impact of shale gas development on water resources: a case study in northern poland.

    PubMed

    Vandecasteele, Ine; Marí Rivero, Inés; Sala, Serenella; Baranzelli, Claudia; Barranco, Ricardo; Batelaan, Okke; Lavalle, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    Shale gas is currently being explored in Europe as an alternative energy source to conventional oil and gas. There is, however, increasing concern about the potential environmental impacts of shale gas extraction by hydraulic fracturing (fracking). In this study, we focussed on the potential impacts on regional water resources within the Baltic Basin in Poland, both in terms of quantity and quality. The future development of the shale play was modeled for the time period 2015-2030 using the LUISA modeling framework. We formulated two scenarios which took into account the large range in technology and resource requirements, as well as two additional scenarios based on the current legislation and the potential restrictions which could be put in place. According to these scenarios, between 0.03 and 0.86% of the total water withdrawals for all sectors could be attributed to shale gas exploitation within the study area. A screening-level assessment of the potential impact of the chemicals commonly used in fracking was carried out and showed that due to their wide range of physicochemical properties, these chemicals may pose additional pressure on freshwater ecosystems. The legislation put in place also influenced the resulting environmental impacts of shale gas extraction. Especially important are the protection of vulnerable ground and surface water resources and the promotion of more water-efficient technologies. PMID:25877457

  5. Oil and gas resources of the Fergana Basin (Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan, and Kyrgyzstan)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This analysis is part of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA`s) Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). This one for the Fergana Basin is an EIA first for republics of the former Soviet Union (FSU). This was a trial study of data availability and methodology, resulting in a reservoir-level assessment of ultimate recovery for both oil and gas. Ultimate recovery, as used here, is the sum of cumulative production and remaining Proved plus Probable reserves as of the end of 1987. Reasonable results were obtained when aggregating reservoir-level values to the basin level, and in determining general but important distributions of across-basin reservoir and fluid parameters. Currently, this report represents the most comprehensive assessment publicly available for oil and gas in the Fergana Basin. This full report provides additional descriptions, discussions and analysis illustrations that are beneficial to those considering oil and gas investments in the Fergana Basin. 57 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Incremental natural gas resources through infield reserve growth/secondary natural gas recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.J.; Levey, R.A.; Hardage, B.A.

    1993-12-31

    The primary objective of the Infield Reserve Growth/Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR) project is to develop, test, and verify technologies and methodologies with near- to midterm potential for maximizing the recovery of natural gasfrom conventional reservoirs in known fields. Additional technical and technology transfer objectives of the SGR project include: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities in reservoirs of conventional permeability cause reservoir compartmentalization and, hence, incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document examples of reserve growth occurrence and potential from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas gulf coast basin as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications to find secondary gas. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields. To transfer project results to a wide array of natural gas producers, not just as field case studies, but as conceptual models of how heterogeneities determine natural gas flow units and how to recognize the geologic and engineering clues that operators can use in a cost-effective manner to identify incremental, or secondary, gas.

  7. Planning & Information Resources Management: The Case for Combining University Academic & Administrative Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Univ., Fairbanks.

    The report outlines how the University of Alaska (Fairbanks) could move toward institutionalizing a chief information officer and merge campus academic and administrative information systems. The chief information officer would have such responsibilities as strategic planning participation, information systems planning, development of…

  8. Strategic Planning/MBO with a Human Resources Emphasis in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliore, R. Henry

    1991-01-01

    A model for strategic planning using a new definition of management by objectives (MBO) is outlined and illustrated in the context of college or university administration, including department-level planning. Routine objectives, personal objectives, team objectives, budget performance, problem-solving objectives, innovation objectives, and…

  9. Occupational Safety and Health Program Guidelines for Colleges and Universities. An Administrative Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbey, Frank W.; Hatch, Loren L.

    Designed as an aid for establishing and strengthening occupational safety and health programs on college and university campuses, this administrator guide is divided into four chapters. The first chapter defines and gives background information on the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA). In addition, it presents a discussion of what the OSHA…

  10. Risk Management for Study Abroad Programs: Issues and Resources to Inform Program Development, Administration, and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides a practical background to the health and safety risks and challenges for U.S. colleges and universities and other program providers. Potential risks, field-based guidelines, good practices, and resources to support the management of risks by study abroad offices will be covered.

  11. Information Resources on Microcomputers in Libraries: Library Administration. A Selected ERIC Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Information Resources, Syracuse, NY.

    Eleven articles and reports published between 1980 and 1984 and cited in "Resources in Education" and "Current Index to Journals in Education" are listed in this bibliography on microcomputers in libraries. Emphasis is on microcomputers in public and school libraries and topics included are factors that should be considered before purchasing a…

  12. Demographic Factors in Adult and Continuing Education. A Resource Guide for Teachers, Administrators, and Policymakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelinek, James J.

    This resource book contains demographic data for the eight states of the Mountain Plains Adult Education Association. All information is current (1990-92) and comes from the national census and hundreds of research studies. Chapter I provides a demographic perspective of the nation, describes a holistic view of demographics, and discusses…

  13. Role of a central administrator in managing water resources: The case of the Israeli water commissioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feitelson, Eran; Fischhendler, Itay; Kay, Paul

    2007-11-01

    Water managers are usually implicitly assumed to be public servants whose sole purpose is to manage water in the best possible way for the public good. Yet water managers, as all bureaucrats, have interests, ideas, beliefs, and constituencies. This paper investigates whether and how differences between water managers affect the management of water resources and especially their action in face of scientific uncertainty. Israel has an exceptionally centralized national water system. The water commissioner entrusted with operating and regulating this system has wide-ranging power to allocate water among users and to determine the rate of abstraction from the various water resources. The water allocations and abstraction policies of different water commissioners in Israel are analyzed. It is shown that the tenure of a water commissioner is a significant explanatory variable of water resource management, controlling for variations in precipitation and state of the water resources. A more detailed analysis of their abstraction decisions shows that different water commissioners followed distinctly different policies under similar conditions. It is suggested that a stricter checks and balances system may attenuate these intertenure variations in policies.

  14. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2004-10-28

    The objectives of the study are: to perform resource assessment of the in-place deep (>15,000 ft) natural gas resource of the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling and to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the in-place deep gas resource that is potentially recoverable and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential to recover commercial quantities of the deep gas resource. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and petroleum system identification. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 is on data compilation and for the remainder of the year the emphasis is on petroleum system identification.

  15. Annotated bibliography of methodology for assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, R.R.; Dolton, G.L.; Ulmishek, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    An annotated bibliography of methodology of assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources is presented as a useful reference for those engaged in resource assessment. The articles that are included deal only with quantitative assessment of undiscovered or inferred resources. the articles in this bibliography are classified largely according to the major assessment method that was applied in each situation. Major assessment methods include areal and volumetric yield methods, field size distributions, historical extrapolation, deposit modeling, organic geochemical mass balance methods, and direct expert assessment. Other categories include mathematical tools, reserve growth/confirmation, quantitative characterization of undiscovered resources, and general topics. For the purpose of future updates, we solicit contributions of articles that may have been missed in the preparation of this bibliography. ?? 1995 Oxford University Press.

  16. RESOURCE CHARACTERIZATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF NATURAL GAS-HYDRATE AND ASSOCIATED FREE-GAS ACCUMULATIONS IN THE PRUDHOE BAY - KUPARUK RIVER AREA ON THE NORTH SLOPE OF ALASKA

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hunter; Shirish Patil; Robert Casavant; Tim Collett

    2003-06-02

    Interim results are presented from the project designed to characterize, quantify, and determine the commercial feasibility of Alaska North Slope (ANS) gas-hydrate and associated free-gas resources in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU), Kuparuk River Unit (KRU), and Milne Point Unit (MPU) areas. This collaborative research will provide practical input to reservoir and economic models, determine the technical feasibility of gas hydrate production, and influence future exploration and field extension of this potential ANS resource. The large magnitude of unconventional in-place gas (40-100 TCF) and conventional ANS gas commercialization evaluation creates industry-DOE alignment to assess this potential resource. This region uniquely combines known gas hydrate presence and existing production infrastructure. Many technical, economical, environmental, and safety issues require resolution before enabling gas hydrate commercial production. Gas hydrate energy resource potential has been studied for nearly three decades. However, this knowledge has not been applied to practical ANS gas hydrate resource development. ANS gas hydrate and associated free gas reservoirs are being studied to determine reservoir extent, stratigraphy, structure, continuity, quality, variability, and geophysical and petrophysical property distribution. Phase 1 will characterize reservoirs, lead to recoverable reserve and commercial potential estimates, and define procedures for gas hydrate drilling, data acquisition, completion, and production. Phases 2 and 3 will integrate well, core, log, and long-term production test data from additional wells, if justified by results from prior phases. The project could lead to future ANS gas hydrate pilot development. This project will help solve technical and economic issues to enable government and industry to make informed decisions regarding future commercialization of unconventional gas-hydrate resources.

  17. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Anadarko Basin Province of Oklahoma, Kansas, Texas, and Colorado, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, D.K.; Gaswirth, S.B.; Abbott, M.M.; Charpentier, R.R.; Cook, T.A.; Ellis, G.S.; Gianoutsos, N.J.; Hatch, J.R.; Klett, T.R.; Nelson, Philip H.; Pawlewicz, M.J.; Pearson, O.N.; Pollastro, R.M.; Schenk, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geoscience-based assessment methodology, estimated mean technically-recoverable undiscovered continuous and conventional resources that total 495 million barrels of oil, 27.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 410 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Anadarko Basin Province; this assessment includes the Las Animas arch area of southeastern Colorado. The province is at a mature stage of exploration and development for conventional resources. Mean undiscovered continuous resources are estimated at 79 percent of oil, 90 percent of natural gas, and 81 percent of natural gas liquids in the province.

  18. Utilizing the unconventional gas resources of the Pottsville formation coals in Tuscaloosa County, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    The City of Tuscaloosa, with the technical assistance of The University of Alabama School of Mines and Energy Development, has completed a feasibility study of coalbed methane development on city-owned property. Funding for the study was provided by a grant from the US Department of Energy. A wireline corehole was drilled to a depth of 2882 feet with core continuously recovered from the top of the Pottsville Formation. Thirty samples representing about 34 feet of coal were subjected to desorption analysis using the US Bureau of Mines direct method. Coal thickness and gas content data were used to calculate gas resources. The total coalbed gas resource beneath the 442-acre site is estimated to be 5.536 billion cubic feet. Recoverable gas resources, based on 75% recovery of the three most promising zones, are estimated to be 2.386 billion cubic feet. Using estimates of yield, capital and operating costs, and conventional energy costs, economic analyses indicate that several options are available to the City of Tuscaloosa with reasonable rates of return. 15 figures, 13 tables.

  19. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, Russia, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, C.J.; Bird, K.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Gautier, D.L.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Klett, T.R.; Moore, T.; Pawlewicz, M.J.; Pittman, J.; Tennyson, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province in Russia as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal program. Geologically, the Timan-Pechora Basin Province is a triangular-shaped cratonic block bounded by the northeast-southwest trending Ural Mountains and the northwest-southeast trending Timan Ridge. The northern boundary is shared with the South Barents Sea Province (fig.1). The Timan-Pechora Basin Province has a long history of oil and gas exploration and production. The first field was discovered in 1930 and, after 75 years of exploration, more than 230 fields have been discovered and more than 5,400 wells have been drilled. This has resulted in the discovery of more than 16 billion barrels of oil and 40 trillion cubic feet of gas.

  20. Natural gas hydrates of Circum-Pacific margin-a future energy resource

    SciTech Connect

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Cooper, A.K.

    1986-07-01

    Natural gas hydrates are probably present within the uppermost 1100 m (3600 ft) of oceanic sediment in the following regions of outer continental margins rimming the Pacific Ocean basin: (1) the continental slope east of the North Island of New Zealand; (2) the landward slope of the Nankai Trough off Japan; (3) the continental slope of the northwestern and eastern Aleutian Trench; (4) the continental slope off northern California; (5) the landward slope of the Middle America Trench off Central America; (6) the landward slope of the Peru-Chile Trench; and (7) the basinal sediment of the Ross Sea and the continental margin off Wilkes Land, Antarctica. These gas hydrates likely contain and cap significant quantities of methane. Geophysical evidence for gas hydrates is found mainly in the widespread occurrence on marine seismic records of an anomalous reflection event that apparently marks the base of the gas-hydrate zone. Geochemical evidence consists of analyses of gases and interstitial fluids obtained from drilling in offshore sedimentary deposits, particularly at nine DSDP sites cored adjacent to the Middle America Trench where gas hydrates were recovered. Natural gas hydrates will probably be identified in many other Circum-Pacific regions as exploration for offshore petroleum moves into deeper waters over continental and island-arc slopes. Initially, these gas hydrates will probably not be considered as potential energy resources, but special drilling procedures may be needed to penetrate them safely. However, if appropriate reservoirs are found in association with the gas hydrates, then an important energy resource may be discovered.

  1. Scaling Laws for the Distribution of Gold, Geothermal, and Gas Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blenkinsop, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Mass dimensions of natural resources have important implications for ore-forming processes and resource estimation and exploration. The mass dimension is established from a power law scaling relationship between numbers of resources and distance from an origin. The relation between the total quantity of resource and distance, measured by the mass-radius scaling exponent, may be even more useful. Lode gold deposits, geothermal wells and volcanoes, and conventional and unconventional gas wells are examined in this study. Mass dimensions and scaling exponents generally increase from the lode gold through geothermal wells to gas data sets, reflecting decreasing degrees of clustering. Mass dimensions are similar to or slightly less than the mass-radius scaling exponents, and could be used as estimates of the minimum scaling exponent in the common case that data are not available for the latter. All the resources in this study are formed by fluid fluxes in the crust, and, therefore, percolation theory is an appropriate unifying framework to understand their significance. The mass dimensions indicate that none of the percolation networks that formed the deposits reached the percolation threshold.

  2. Resources

    MedlinePLUS

    ... national support groups can be found on the web, through local libraries, your health care provider, and the yellow pages under "social service organizations." AIDS - resources Alcoholism - resources Allergy - resources ...

  3. Methodology and Results for the Assessment of Oil and Gas resources, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuenemeyer, John H.

    2003-01-01

    Oil and gas resources in each of the 24 plays within the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) were estimated using a play analysis. Assessors specified geologic attributes, risks, and number of prospects for each play. Some specifications established distributions, while others were given as single values. From this information, sizes of oil and gas accumulations were simulated using a Monte Carlo algorithm. The number of such accumulations considered in a given simulation run was obtained from the distribution of the number of prospects. Each prospect in each successful simulation run was risked. This process yielded size-frequency distributions and summary statistics for the various petroleum categories. Estimates of remaining resources from individual plays were then aggregated, and measures of uncertainty computed. Technically recoverable, undiscovered oil beneath the Federal part of NPRA likely ranges between 5.9 and 13.2 billion barrels, with a mean (expected) value of 9.3 billion barrels. Technically recoverable, undiscovered nonassociated natural gas for the same area likely ranges between 39.1 and 83.2 trillion cubic feet, with a mean (expected) value of 59.7 trillion cubic feet. Mean values of the corresponding associated dissolved gas and natural gas liquid are 10.3 trillion cubic feet and 1.4 billion barrels respectively.

  4. U.S. Geological Survey Assessment 2000: Estimates of undiscovered oil and gas resources for the world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Whitney, G.

    2000-01-01

    Worldwide supply of oil and natural gas is ultimately linked to the geologic abundance and distribution of those fossil fuels. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has completed a new assessment of the technically recoverable undiscovered oil and gas resources of the world. Nearly 1000 provinces were defined and known petroleum resources exist in 406 of these. A total of 76 priority provinces, containing over 95 percent of the world's known oil and gas, and 52 'boutique', or prospective, provinces were assessed. Based upon our initial analyses, several observations are clear. First, our estimates of total undiscovered technically recoverable petroleum (oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids) resources do not differ greatly (+9.5 percent) from the world totals determined in the 1994 USGS world assessment. However, our estimates of undiscovered oil are up considerably (+24.3 percent), and the regional distribution differs significantly from previous estimates. Secondly, estimates of global undiscovered natural gas resources are smaller than previously estimated (-10.4 percent), largely due to reduced estimates for the former Soviet Union, and natural gas liquids resources are significantly larger than previous estimates because co-product ratio calculations were included in this assessment. In addition, mean estimates of field growth of known oil and gas fields will likely approximate quantities of undiscovered resources and are a critical component of any analysis of world oil and gas supply.

  5. Cretaceous system stratigraphy and shallow gas resources on the Fort Peck reservation, northeastern Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Monson, L.M.; Lund, D.F. )

    1991-06-01

    Five shallow gas-bearing Cretaceous intervals have been identified on the Fort Peck Reservation of northeastern Montana. They include the Lower Judith River Sandstone and shaly sandstone intervals in the Gammon, Niobrara, Greenhorn, and Mowry Formations, Stratigraphic correlations have been carried from southwestern Saskatchewan through the Bowdoin gas field to the reservation. Sparse yet widely distributed gas shows confirm this relatively untested resource. Each of these gas-bearing intervals belongs to a recognized stratigraphic cycle characterized by thick shales overlain by progradational shaly sandstones and siltstones. The bottom cycle (Skull Creek to Mowry) contains considerable nonmarine deposits, especially within the Muddy Sandstone interval, which is thickly developed in the eastern part of the reservation as a large valley-fill network. Some individual sandstone units are not continuous across the reservation. These, and those that correlate, appear to be related to paleotectonic features defined by northwest-trending lineament zones, and by lineament zone intersections. Northeast-trending paleotectonic elements exert secondary influence on stratigraphic isopachs. Circular tectonic elements, which carry through to basement, also have anomalous stratigraphic expression. Conventional drilling has not been conducive to properly testing the Cretaceous gas potential on the reservation, but empirical well-log analysis suggests that gas can be identified by various crossover techniques. The Judith River Formation did produce gas for field use at East Poplar.

  6. Assessment of unconvential (tight) gas resources in Upper Cook Inlet Basin, South-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Nelson, Philip H.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Anderson, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    A geologic model was developed for the assessment of potential Mesozoic tight-gas resources in the deep, central part of upper Cook Inlet Basin, south-central Alaska. The basic premise of the geologic model is that organic-bearing marine shales of the Middle Jurassic Tuxedni Group achieved adequate thermal maturity for oil and gas generation in the central part of the basin largely due to several kilometers of Paleogene and Neogene burial. In this model, hydrocarbons generated in Tuxedni source rocks resulted in overpressure, causing fracturing and local migration of oil and possibly gas into low-permeability sandstone and siltstone reservoirs in the Jurassic Tuxedni Group and Chinitna and Naknek Formations. Oil that was generated either remained in the source rock and subsequently was cracked to gas which then migrated into low-permeability reservoirs, or oil initially migrated into adjacent low-permeability reservoirs, where it subsequently cracked to gas as adequate thermal maturation was reached in the central part of the basin. Geologic uncertainty exists on the (1) presence of adequate marine source rocks, (2) degree and timing of thermal maturation, generation, and expulsion, (3) migration of hydrocarbons into low-permeability reservoirs, and (4) preservation of this petroleum system. Given these uncertainties and using known U.S. tight gas reservoirs as geologic and production analogs, a mean volume of 0.64 trillion cubic feet of gas was assessed in the basin-center tight-gas system that is postulated to exist in Mesozoic rocks of the upper Cook Inlet Basin. This assessment of Mesozoic basin-center tight gas does not include potential gas accumulations in Cenozoic low-permeability reservoirs.

  7. Assessment of Appalachian Basin Oil and Gas Resources: Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milici, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    The Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System, lies within the central and northern parts of the Appalachian coal field. It consists of five assessment units (AU): the Pocahontas Basin in southwestern Virginia, southern West Virginia, and eastern Kentucky, the Central Appalachian Shelf in Tennessee, eastern Kentucky and southern West Virginia, East Dunkard (Folded) in western Pennsylvania and northern West Virginia, West Dunkard (Unfolded) in Ohio and adjacent parts of Pennsylvania and West Virginia, and the Appalachian Anthracite and Semi-Anthracite AU in Pennsylvania and Virginia. Of these, only the Pocahontas Basin and West Dunkard (Folded) AU were assessed quantitatively by the U.S. Geological survey in 2002 as containing about 3.6 and 4.8 Tcf of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas, respectively (Milici and others, 2003). In general, the coal beds of this Total Petroleum System, which are both the source rock and reservoir, were deposited together with their associated sedimentary strata in Mississippian and Pennsylvanian (Carboniferous) time. The generation of biogenic (microbial) gas probably began almost immediately as the peat deposits were first formed. Microbial gas generation is probably occurring at present to some degree throughout the basin, where the coal beds are relatively shallow and wet. With sufficient depth of burial, compaction, and coalification during the late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic, the coal beds were heated sufficiently to generate thermogenic gas in the eastern part of the Appalachian basin. Trap formation began initially with the deposition of the paleopeat deposits during the Mississippian, and continued into the Late Pennsylvanian and Permian as the Appalachian Plateau strata were deformed during the Alleghanian orogeny. Seals are the connate waters that occupy fractures and larger pore spaces within the coal beds as well as the fine-grained siliciclastic sedimentary strata that are intercalated with the coal. The critical moment for the petroleum system occurred during this orogeny, when deformation created geologic structures in the eastern part of the basin that enhanced fracture porosity within the coal beds. In places, burial by thrust sheets (thrust loading) within the Appalachian fold-and-thrust belt may have resulted in additional generation of thermogenic CBM in the anthracite district of Pennsylvania and in the semianthracite deposits of Virginia and West Virginia.

  8. Analytical resource assessment method for continuous (unconventional) oil and gas accumulations - The "ACCESS" Method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, Robert A.; revised by Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) periodically assesses petroleum resources of areas within the United States and the world. The purpose of this report is to explain the development of an analytic probabilistic method and spreadsheet software system called Analytic Cell-Based Continuous Energy Spreadsheet System (ACCESS). The ACCESS method is based upon mathematical equations derived from probability theory. The ACCESS spreadsheet can be used to calculate estimates of the undeveloped oil, gas, and NGL (natural gas liquids) resources in a continuous-type assessment unit. An assessment unit is a mappable volume of rock in a total petroleum system. In this report, the geologic assessment model is defined first, the analytic probabilistic method is described second, and the spreadsheet ACCESS is described third. In this revised version of Open-File Report 00-044 , the text has been updated to reflect modifications that were made to the ACCESS program. Two versions of the program are added as appendixes.

  9. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) and Coal Mining on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mining of coal bed methane deposits (termed ';coal seam gas' in Australia) is a rapidly growing source of natural gas in Australia. Indeed, expansion of the industry is occurring so quickly that in some cases, legislation is struggling to keep up with this expansion. Perhaps because of this, community concern about the impacts of coal seam gas development is very strong. Responding to these concerns, the Australian Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) to provide advice to the Commonwealth and state regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. In order to provide the underlying science to the IESC, a program of ';bioregional assessments' has been implemented. One aim of these bioregional assessments is to improve our understanding of the connectivity between the impacts of coal seam gas extraction and groundwater aquifers, as well as their connection to surface water. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas and coal mining on water resources in Australia. The methodology of undertaking bioregional assessments will be described, and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia will be detailed. Preliminary results of the program of research to date will be assessed in light of the requirements of the IESC to provide independent advice to the Commonwealth and State governments. Finally, parallels between the expansion of the industry in Australia with that in the United States will be drawn.

  10. Informatics Resources to Support Health Care Quality Improvement in the Veterans Health Administration

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, Denise M.; Perrin, Ruth A.; Rappaport, Steven; Stevens, Joanne M.; Demakis, John G.

    2004-01-01

    Information systems are increasingly important for measuring and improving health care quality. A number of integrated health care delivery systems use advanced information systems and integrated decision support to carry out quality assurance activities, but none as large as the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The VHA's Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) is a large-scale, multidisciplinary quality improvement initiative designed to ensure excellence in all areas where VHA provides health care services, including inpatient, outpatient, and long-term care settings. In this paper, we describe the role of information systems in the VHA QUERI process, highlight the major information systems critical to this quality improvement process, and discuss issues associated with the use of these systems. PMID:15187063

  11. ERISTAR: Earth Resources Information Storage, Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval administrative report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, R. I.; Obrien, J. F., Jr.; Lueg, R. E.; Cox, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    The 1972 Systems Engineering program at Marshall Space Flight Center where 15 participants representing 15 U.S. universities, 1 NASA/MSFC employee, and another specially assigned faculty member, participated in an 11-week program is discussed. The Fellows became acquainted with the philosophy of systems engineering, and as a training exercise, used this approach to produce a conceptional design for an Earth Resources Information Storage, Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval System. The program was conducted in three phases; approximately 3 weeks were devoted to seminars, tours, and other presentations to subject the participants to technical and other aspects of the information management problem. The second phase, 5 weeks in length, consisted of evaluating alternative solutions to problems, effecting initial trade-offs and performing preliminary design studies and analyses. The last 3 weeks were occupied with final trade-off sessions, final design analyses and preparation of a final report and oral presentation.

  12. Worldwide estimates of deep natural gas resources based on the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyman, T.S.; Crovelli, R.A.; Bartberger, C.E.; Takahashi, K.I.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently assessed undiscovered conventional gas and oil resources in eight regions of the world outside the U.S. The resources assessed were those estimated to have the potential to be added to reserves within the next thirty years. This study is a worldwide analysis of the estimated volumes and distribution of deep (>4.5 km or about 15,000 ft), undiscovered conventional natural gas resources based on this assessment. Two hundred forty-six assessment units in 128 priority geologic provinces, 96 countries, and two jointly held areas were assessed using a probabilistic Total Petroleum System approach. Priority geologic provinces were selected from a ranking of 937 provinces worldwide. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment Team did not assess undiscovered petroleum resources in the U.S. For this report, mean estimated volumes of deep conventional undiscovered gas resources in the U.S. are taken from estimates of 101 deep plays (out of a total of 550 conventional plays in the U.S.) from the U.S. Geological Survey's 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources. A probabilistic method was designed to subdivide gas resources into depth slices using a median-based triangular probability distribution as a model for drilling depth to estimate the percentages of estimated gas resources below various depths. For both the World Petroleum Assessment 2000 and the 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources, minimum, median, and maximum depths were assigned to each assessment unit and play; these depths were used in our analysis. Two-hundred seventy-four deep assessment units and plays in 124 petroleum provinces were identified for the U.S. and the world. These assessment units and plays contain a mean undiscovered conventional gas resource of 844 trillion cubic ft (Tcf) occuring at depths below 4.5 km. The deep undiscovered conventional gas resource (844 Tcf) is about 17% of the total world gas resource (4,928 Tcf) based on the provinces assessed and includes a mean estimate of 259 Tcf of U.S. gas from the U.S. 1995 National Assessment. Of the eight regions, the Former Soviet Union (Region 1) contains the largest estimated volume of undiscovered deep gas with a mean resource of 343 Tcf. ?? 2002 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  13. Shale Gas Boom or Bust? Estimating US and Global Economically Recoverable Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecha, R. J.; Hilaire, J.; Bauer, N.

    2014-12-01

    One of the most disruptive energy system technological developments of the past few decades is the rapid expansion of shale gas production in the United States. Because the changes have been so rapid there are great uncertainties as to the impacts of shale production for medium- and long-term energy and climate change mitigation policies. A necessary starting point for incorporating shale resources into modeling efforts is to understand the size of the resource, how much is technically recoverable (TRR), and finally, how much is economically recoverable (ERR) at a given cost. To assess production costs of shale gas, we combine top-down data with detailed bottom-up information. Studies solely based on top-down approaches do not adequately account for the heterogeneity of shale gas deposits and are unlikely to appropriately estimate extraction costs. We design an expedient bottom-up method based on publicly available US data to compute the levelized costs of shale gas extraction. Our results indicate the existence of economically attractive areas but also reveal a dramatic cost increase as lower-quality reservoirs are exploited. Extrapolating results for the US to the global level, our best estimate suggests that, at a cost of 6 US$/GJ, only 39% of the technically recoverable resources reported in top-down studies should be considered economically recoverable. This estimate increases to about 77% when considering optimistic TRR and estimated ultimate recovery parameters but could be lower than 12% for more pessimistic parameters. The current lack of information on the heterogeneity of shale gas deposits as well as on the development of future production technologies leads to significant uncertainties regarding recovery rates and production costs. Much of this uncertainty may be inherent, but for energy system planning purposes, with or without climate change mitigation policies, it is crucial to recognize the full ranges of recoverable quantities and costs.

  14. Natural gas cost for evaluating energy resource opportunities at Fort Stewart

    SciTech Connect

    Stucky, D.J.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Ft. Stewart, a United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) installation located near Hinesville, Georgia, is currently undergoing an evaluation of its energy usage, which is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. In order to examine the energy resource opportunities (EROs) at Ft. Stewart, marginal fuel costs must be calculated. The marginal, or avoided, cost of gas service is used in conjunction with the estimated energy savings of an ERO to calculate the dollar value of those savings. In the case of natural gas, the costing becomes more complicated due to the installation of a propane-air mixing station. The propane-air station is being built under a shared energy savings (SES) contract. The building of a propane-air station allows Ft. Stewart to purchase natural gas from their local utility at an interruptible rate, which is lower than the rate for contracting natural gas on a firm basis. The propane-air station will also provide Ft. Stewart with fuel in the event that the natural gas supply is curtailed. While the propane-air station does not affect the actual cost of natural gas, it does affect the cost of services provided by gas. Because the propane-air station and the SES contract affect the cost of gas service, they must be included in the analysis. Our analysis indicates a marginal cost of gas service of 30.0 cents per therm, assuming a total propane usage by the mixing station of 42,278 gallons (38,600 therms) annually. Because the amount of propane that may be required in the event of a curtailment is small relative to the total service requirement, variations in the actual amount should not significantly affect the cost per therm.

  15. The U.S. Shale Oil and Gas Resource - a Multi-Scale Analysis of Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'sullivan, F.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decade, the large-scale production of natural gas, and more recently oil, from U.S. shale formations has had a transformative impact on the energy industry. The emergence of shale oil and gas as recoverable resources has altered perceptions regarding both the future abundance and cost of hydrocarbons, and has shifted the balance of global energy geopolitics. However, despite the excitement, shale is a resource in its nascency, and many challenges surrounding its exploitation remain. One of the most significant of these is the dramatic variation in resource productivity across multiple length scales, which is a feature of all of today's shale plays. This paper will describe the results of work that has looked to characterize the spatial and temporal variations in the productivity of the contemporary shale resource. Analysis will be presented that shows there is a strong stochastic element to observed shale well productivity in all the major plays. It will be shown that the nature of this stochasticity is consistent regardless of specific play being considered. A characterization of this stochasticity will be proposed. As a parallel to the discussion of productivity, the paper will also address the issue of "learning" in shale development. It will be shown that "creaming" trends are observable and that although "absolute" well productivity levels have increased, "specific" productivity levels (i.e. considering well and stimulation size) have actually falling markedly in many plays. The paper will also show that among individual operators' well ensembles, normalized well-to-well performance distributions are almost identical, and have remained consistent year-to-year. This result suggests little if any systematic learning regarding the effective management of well-to-well performance variability has taken place. The paper will conclude with an articulation of how the productivity characteristics of the shale resource are impacting on the resources' economic profile, and the implications of this in terms of the commercial risks associated with shale production activities.

  16. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Brown, Philip J., II; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Shah, Anjana; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the West Greenland?East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal effort. The West Greenland?East Canada Province is essentially the offshore area between west Greenland and east Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Nares Strait west of and including Kane Basin. The tectonic evolution of the West Greenland?East Canada Province led to the formation of several major structural domains that are the geologic basis for the five assessment units (AU) defined in this study. The five AUs encompass the entire province. Each AU was assessed in its entirety for undiscovered, technically recoverable (assuming absence of sea ice) oil and gas resources, but the assessment results reported here are only for those portions of each AU that are north of the Arctic Circle, as that latitude defines the area of the Circum-Arctic oil and gas assessment.

  17. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, David

    2015-04-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and Europe, in Australia extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus to date. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics including the potential requirement for hydraulic fracturing. However as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas the potential impacts of extraction and hydraulic fracturing on surface and groundwater resources may be of even greater concern for coal seam gas than for shale gas. In Australia an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) has been established to provide scientific advice to federal and state government regulators on the impact that coal seam gas and large coal mining developments may have on water resources. This advice is provided to enable decisions to be informed by the best available science about the potential water-related impacts associated with these developments. To support this advice the Australian Government Department of the Environment has implemented a three-year programme of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment is defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are currently being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the program and results to date can be found at http://www.bioregionalassessments.gov.au. In this presentation the methodology for undertaking bioregional assessments will be described and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia will be detailed. Results of the programme to date will be provided (being nearly two years into the three-year study) with a focus on the preliminary results of numerical groundwater modelling. Once completed this modelling will be used to evaluate the impacts of the depressurisation of coal seams on aquifers and associated ecological, economic and socio-cultural water-dependent assets.

  18. Assessment of unconventional oil and gas resources in the Jurassic Sargelu Formation of Iraq, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-01-01

    The USGS assessment methodology consists of a well-performance approach that recognizes the geologic variability within assessed reservoirs. For non-U.S. assessments, the USGS assesses shale-gas or shale-oil reservoirs that (1) contain greater than 2 weight percent total organic carbon (TOC), (2) are within the proper thermal maturity window for oil or gas generation, (3) have greater than 15-m thickness of organic-rich shale, and (4) contain Type I or II organic matter. These specific USGS criteria when applied to any given shale-oil or shale-gas reservoir might significantly reduce the potential resource assessment area compared to maps made with greater than 1 weight percent TOC.

  19. The Evaluation System Design of GIS-Based Oil and Gas Resources Carbon Emission Database Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wenju; Bi, Jiantao; Wang, Xingxing; Zhu, Zuojia; Pang, Wenqi

    2014-03-01

    Due to the importance of research on carbon budgets in natural processes, it is critical to be able to effectively manage and process all types of data in order to get measure carbon emissions. For this purpose, data produced in oil and gas exploration and natural processes are the focus of this research. Various tools are used including Oracle11g for data storage, Arc Engine combined with Microsoft Visual C# among others including C++ and the Database Storage Management Platform with GIS software functions. The IPCC algorithms are the most important reference, combine this with actual events, a new calculation model about oil and gas resources carbon emission was constructed. This model will analyze and predict the amount of carbon emissions in the oil and gas production in the future. Putting the new calculation model into the Database Storage Management Platform, an Intelligent Prediction Database Platform contained the new calculation model was established.

  20. RESOURCE ASSESSMENT OF THE IN-PLACE AND POTENTIALLY RECOVERABLE DEEP NATURAL GAS RESOURCE OF THE ONSHORE INTERIOR SALT BASINS, NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-04-16

    The University of Alabama and Louisiana State University have undertaken a cooperative 3-year, advanced subsurface methodology resource assessment project, involving petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling, to facilitate exploration for a potential major source of natural gas that is deeply buried (below 15,000 feet) in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas. The project is designed to assist in the formulation of advanced exploration strategies for funding and maximizing the recovery from deep natural gas domestic resources at reduced costs and risks and with minimum impact. The results of the project should serve to enhance exploration efforts by domestic companies in their search for new petroleum resources, especially those deeply buried (below 15,000 feet) natural gas resources, and should support the domestic industry's endeavor to provide an increase in reliable and affordable supplies of fossil fuels. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and petroleum system identification. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 is on data compilation and for the remainder of the year the emphasis is on petroleum system identification. The objectives of the study are: to perform resource assessment of the in-place deep (>15,000 ft) natural gas resource of the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling and to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the in-place deep gas resource that is potentially recoverable and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential to recover commercial quantities of the deep gas resource. The project objectives will be achieved through a 3-year effort. First, emphasis is on petroleum system identification and characterization in the North Louisiana Salt Basin, the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, the Manila Sub-basin and the Conecuh Sub-basin of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida panhandle. This task includes identification of the petroleum systems in these basins and the characterization of the overburden, source, reservoir and seal rocks of the petroleum systems and of the associated petroleum traps. Second, emphasis is on petroleum system modeling. This task includes the assessment of the timing of deep (>15,000 ft) gas generation, expulsion, migration, entrapment and alteration (thermal cracking of oil to gas). Third, emphasis is on resource assessment. This task includes the volumetric calculation of the total in-place hydrocarbon resource generated, the determination of the volume of the generated hydrocarbon resource that is classified as deep (>15,000 ft) gas, the estimation of the volume of deep gas that was expelled, migrated and entrapped, and the calculation of the potential volume of gas in deeply buried (>15,000 ft) reservoirs resulting from the process of thermal cracking of liquid hydrocarbons and their transformation to gas in the reservoir. Fourth, emphasis is on identifying those areas in the onshore interior salt basins with high potential to recover commercial quantities of the deep gas resource.

  1. Evolving shale gas management: water resource risks, impacts, and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Rahm, Brian G; Riha, Susan J

    2014-05-01

    Unconventional shale gas development promises to significantly alter energy portfolios and economies around the world. It also poses a variety of environmental risks, particularly with respect to the management of water resources. We review current scientific understanding of risks associated with the following: water withdrawals for hydraulic fracturing; wastewater treatment, discharge and disposal; methane and fluid migration in the subsurface; and spills and erosion at the surface. Some of these risks are relatively unique to shale gas development, while others are variations of risks that we already face from a variety of industries and activities. All of these risks depend largely on the pace and scale of development that occurs within a particular region. We focus on the United States, where the shale gas boom has been on-going for several years, paying particular attention to the Marcellus Shale, where a majority of peer-reviewed study has taken place. Governments, regulatory agencies, industry, and other stakeholders are challenged with responding to these risks, and we discuss policies and practices that have been adopted or considered by these various groups. Adaptive Management, a structured framework for addressing complex environmental issues, is discussed as a way to reduce polarization of important discussions on risk, and to more formally engage science in policy-making, along with other economic, social and value considerations. Data suggests that some risks can be substantially reduced through policy and best practice, but also that significant uncertainty persists regarding other risks. We suggest that monitoring and data collection related to water resource risks be established as part of planning for shale gas development before activity begins, and that resources are allocated to provide for appropriate oversight at various levels of governance. PMID:24664241

  2. Educational Management Tools for the Practicing School Administrator. A Handbook for School Administrators Who Wish to Plan, Organize, Allocate Resources, and Control Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    The purpose of this handbook is to describe selected management tools useful to elementary and secondary school administrators. It attempts to provide the administrator with knowledge that will stimulate the use of these tools in an educational environment. It is intended to enable the administrator to direct educational programs to a productive…

  3. Applying probabilistic well-performance parameters to assessments of shale-gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy

    2010-01-01

    In assessing continuous oil and gas resources, such as shale gas, it is important to describe not only the ultimately producible volumes, but also the expected well performance. This description is critical to any cost analysis or production scheduling. A probabilistic approach facilitates (1) the inclusion of variability in well performance within a continuous accumulation, and (2) the use of data from developed accumulations as analogs for the assessment of undeveloped accumulations. In assessing continuous oil and gas resources of the United States, the U.S. Geological Survey analyzed production data from many shale-gas accumulations. Analyses of four of these accumulations (the Barnett, Woodford, Fayetteville, and Haynesville shales) are presented here as examples of the variability of well performance. For example, the distribution of initial monthly production rates for Barnett vertical wells shows a noticeable change with time, first increasing because of improved completion practices, then decreasing from a combination of decreased reservoir pressure (in infill wells) and drilling in less productive areas. Within a partially developed accumulation, historical production data from that accumulation can be used to estimate production characteristics of undrilled areas. An understanding of the probabilistic relations between variables, such as between initial production and decline rates, can improve estimates of ultimate production. Time trends or spatial trends in production data can be clarified by plots and maps. The data can also be divided into subsets depending on well-drilling or well-completion techniques, such as vertical in relation to horizontal wells. For hypothetical or lightly developed accumulations, one can either make comparisons to a specific well-developed accumulation or to the entire range of available developed accumulations. Comparison of the distributions of initial monthly production rates of the four shale-gas accumulations that were studied shows substantial overlap. However, because of differences in decline rates among them, the resulting estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) distributions are considerably different.

  4. Assessment of potential unconventional lacustrine shale-oil and shale-gas resources, Phitsanulok Basin, Thailand, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed potential technically recoverable mean resources of 53 million barrels of shale oil and 320 billion cubic feet of shale gas in the Phitsanulok Basin, onshore Thailand.

  5. Assessment of potential shale-oil and shale-gas resources in Silurian shales of Jordan, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Nelson, Philip H.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Wandrey, Craig J.

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 11 million barrels of potential shale-oil and 320 billion cubic feet of shale-gas resources in Silurian shales of Jordan.

  6. Environmental impacts of food trade via resource use and greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, Carole; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2016-03-01

    Agriculture will need to significantly intensify in the next decades to continue providing essential nutritive food to a growing global population. However, it can have harmful environmental impacts, due to the use of natural and synthetic resources and the emission of greenhouse gases, which alter the water, carbon and nitrogen cycles, and threaten the fertility, health and biodiversity of landscapes. Because of the spatial heterogeneity of resource productivity, farming practices, climate, and land and water availability, the environmental impact of producing food is highly dependent on its origin. For this reason, food trade can either increase or reduce the overall environmental impacts of agriculture, depending on whether or not the impact is greater in the exporting region. Here, we review current scientific understanding of the environmental impacts of food trade, focusing on water and land use, pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. In the case of water, these impacts are mainly beneficial. However, in the cases of pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, this conclusion is not as clear. Overall, there is an urgent need for a more comprehensive, integrated approach to estimate the global impacts of food trade on the environment. Second, research is needed to improve the evaluation of some key aspects of the relative value of each resource depending on the local and regional biophysical and socio-economic context. Finally, to enhance the impact of such evaluations and their applicability in decision-making, scenario analyses and accounting of key issues like deforestation and groundwater exhaustion will be required.

  7. Brine contamination to aquatic resources from oil and gas development in the Williston Basin, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleason, Robert A.; Contributions by Chesley-Preston, Tara L.; Coleman, James L., Jr.; Haines, Seth S.; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy L.; Peterman, Zell E.; van der Burg, Max Post; Preston, Todd M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Tangen, Brian A.; Thamke, Joanna N.

    2014-01-01

    The Williston Basin, which includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States and the provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada, has been a leading domestic oil and gas producing region for more than one-half a century. Currently, there are renewed efforts to develop oil and gas resources from deep geologic formations, spurred by advances in recovery technologies and economic incentives associated with the price of oil. Domestic oil and gas production has many economic benefits and provides a means for the United States to fulfill a part of domestic energy demands; however, environmental hazards can be associated with this type of energy production in the Williston Basin, particularly to aquatic resources (surface water and shallow groundwater) by extremely saline water, or brine, which is produced with oil and gas. The primary source of concern is the migration of brine from buried reserve pits that were used to store produced water during recovery operations; however, there also are considerable risks of brine release from pipeline failures, poor infrastructure construction, and flow-back water from hydraulic fracturing associated with modern oilfield operations. During 2008, a multidisciplinary (biology, geology, water) team of U.S. Geological Survey researchers was assembled to investigate potential energy production effects in the Williston Basin. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey participated in field tours and met with representatives from county, State, tribal, and Federal agencies to identify information needs and focus research objectives. Common questions from agency personnel, especially those from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, were “are the brine plumes (plumes of brine-contaminated groundwater) from abandoned oil wells affecting wetlands on Waterfowl Production Areas and National Wildlife Refuges?” and “are newer wells related to Bakken and Three Forks development different than the older, abandoned wells (in terms of potential for affecting aquatic resources)?” Of special concern were the wetland habitats of the ecologically important Prairie Pothole Region, which overlays a part of the Williston Basin and is recognized for the production of a majority of North America’s migratory waterfowl. On the basis of the concerns raised by on-the-ground land managers, as well as findings from previous research, a comprehensive study was developed with the following goals: summarize existing information pertaining to oil and gas production and aquatic resources in the Williston Basin; assess brine plume migration from new and previously studied sites in the Prairie Pothole Region; perform a regional, spatial evaluation of oil and gas production activities and aquatic resources; assess the potential for brine contamination to wetlands and streams; and hold a decision analysis workshop with key stakeholders to discuss issues pertaining to oil and gas production and environmental effects and to identify information gaps and research needs. This report represents an initial, multidisciplinary evaluation of measured and potential environmental effects associated with oil and gas production in the Williston Basin and Prairie Pothole Region. Throughout this report there are reviews of current knowledge, and discussions relating to data gaps and research needs. On the basis of the information presented, future research needs include: regional geophysical and water-quality assessments to establish baselines for current conditions and estimate the extent of previous brine contamination, investigations into the direct effects of brine to biotic communities, and evaluations to identify the most effective techniques to mitigate brine contamination.

  8. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Azov-Kuban Basin Province, Ukraine and Russia, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 218 million barrels of crude oil, 4.1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 94 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Azov-Kuban Basin Province as part of a program to estimate petroleum resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  9. Evaluating the performance of hydraulically-fractured shale gas resources in the Appalachian Basin (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisman, J. A.; Mboh, C.; Rings, J.; Vrugt, J. A.; Vereecken, H.

    2011-12-01

    Evaluating the performance of engineered-natural systems, such as hydraulically-fractured shales associated with natural gas recovery, depends on an understanding of fracture growth within and outside of the target shale formation, as well as the potential for gas and fluids to migrate to other subsurface resources or underground sources of drinking water. The NETL-Regional University Alliance (NETL-RUA) has a broad research portfolio connected with development of hydraulically-fractured shale resources in the Appalachian Basin. Through a combined field, experimental, modeling, and existing data evaluation effort, the following questions are being addressed: 1) Which subsurface features control the extent to which fractures migrate out of the target fracture zone? 2) Can we improve methods for analyzing natural geochemical tracers? What combination of natural and synthetic tracers can best be used to evaluate subsurface fluid and gas migration? 3) How is wellbore integrity affected by existing shallow gas? Can we predict how shallow groundwater hydrology changes due to drilling? 4) Where are existing wellbores and natural fractures located? What field methods can be used to identify the location of existing wells? To date the NETL-RUA team has focused on four key areas: fracture growth, natural isotopic tracers, impacts of well drilling on shallow hydrology, and statistics on wellbores (locations and conditions). We have found that fracture growth is sensitive to overburden geomechanical features, and that the maximum fracture height outside of the Marcellus Shale aligns with prior assessments (e.g., Fisher et al., 2012). The team has also developed methodologies for the rapid preparation of produced-water samples by MC-ICP-MS and ICP-MS; we are using these methodologies to investigate the potential of key geochemical indicators and species of interest (Sr, Ra) as indicators of fluid and gas migration in the Appalachian Basin. Experimental work on subsurface geochemical reactions in the presence of hydraulic fracturing fluid is underway to evaluate potential impacts on produced water chemistry and fracture stability within the shale formation. Additional laboratory experiments, coupled with modeling efforts, are evaluating the effects of well drilling on shallow groundwater hydrology, and the potential for shallow gas to affect cement hydration. At the field scale, the density and distribution of existing wellbores are being assessed through detection with remote magnetometer surveys, and compilation and analysis of existing wellbore databases. Results from these varied research efforts will be used in future predictive assessments of the behavior of engineered shale gas systems.

  10. Evaluating the performance of hydraulically-fractured shale gas resources in the Appalachian Basin (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakala, A.; Wall, A. J.; Guthrie, G.

    2013-12-01

    Evaluating the performance of engineered-natural systems, such as hydraulically-fractured shales associated with natural gas recovery, depends on an understanding of fracture growth within and outside of the target shale formation, as well as the potential for gas and fluids to migrate to other subsurface resources or underground sources of drinking water. The NETL-Regional University Alliance (NETL-RUA) has a broad research portfolio connected with development of hydraulically-fractured shale resources in the Appalachian Basin. Through a combined field, experimental, modeling, and existing data evaluation effort, the following questions are being addressed: 1) Which subsurface features control the extent to which fractures migrate out of the target fracture zone? 2) Can we improve methods for analyzing natural geochemical tracers? What combination of natural and synthetic tracers can best be used to evaluate subsurface fluid and gas migration? 3) How is wellbore integrity affected by existing shallow gas? Can we predict how shallow groundwater hydrology changes due to drilling? 4) Where are existing wellbores and natural fractures located? What field methods can be used to identify the location of existing wells? To date the NETL-RUA team has focused on four key areas: fracture growth, natural isotopic tracers, impacts of well drilling on shallow hydrology, and statistics on wellbores (locations and conditions). We have found that fracture growth is sensitive to overburden geomechanical features, and that the maximum fracture height outside of the Marcellus Shale aligns with prior assessments (e.g., Fisher et al., 2012). The team has also developed methodologies for the rapid preparation of produced-water samples by MC-ICP-MS and ICP-MS; we are using these methodologies to investigate the potential of key geochemical indicators and species of interest (Sr, Ra) as indicators of fluid and gas migration in the Appalachian Basin. Experimental work on subsurface geochemical reactions in the presence of hydraulic fracturing fluid is underway to evaluate potential impacts on produced water chemistry and fracture stability within the shale formation. Additional laboratory experiments, coupled with modeling efforts, are evaluating the effects of well drilling on shallow groundwater hydrology, and the potential for shallow gas to affect cement hydration. At the field scale, the density and distribution of existing wellbores are being assessed through detection with remote magnetometer surveys, and compilation and analysis of existing wellbore databases. Results from these varied research efforts will be used in future predictive assessments of the behavior of engineered shale gas systems.

  11. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. This province is the largest petroleum basin in the world and has an areal extent of about 2.2 million square kilometers. It is a large rift-sag feature bounded to the west by the Ural fold belt, to the north by the Novaya Zemlya fold belt and North Siberian Sill, to the south by the Turgay Depression and Altay-Sayan fold belt, and to the east by the Yenisey Ridge, Turukhan-Igarka uplift, Yenisey-Khatanga Basin, and Taimyr High. The West Siberian Basin Province has a total discovered oil and gas volume of more than 360 billion barrels of oil equivalent (Ulmishek, 2000). Exploration has led to the discovery of tens of giant oil and gas fields, including the Urengoy gas field with more than 3500 trillion cubic feet of gas reserves and Samotlar oil field with reserves of nearly 28 billion barrels of oil (Ulmishek, 2003). This report summarizes the results of a reassessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of that part of the province north of the Arctic Circle; a previous assessment that included the entire province was completed in 2000 (Ulmishek, 2000). The total petroleum system (TPS) and assessment units (AU) defined by the USGS for the assessments in 2000 were adopted for this assessment. However, only those parts of the Aus lying wholly or partially north of the Arctic Circle were assessed for this study.

  12. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Cherokee Platform Province area of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake II, Ronald M.; Hatch, Joseph R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Potter, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 463 million barrels of oil, 11.2 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 35 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Cherokee Platform Province area of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri.

  13. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Volga-Ural Region Province, Russia and Kazakhstan, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 1.4 billion barrels of crude oil, 2.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 85 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Volga-Ural Region Province, using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  14. 43 CFR 3137.28 - What oil and gas resources of committed tracts does the unit agreement include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What oil and gas resources of committed tracts does the unit agreement include? 3137.28 Section 3137.28 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING:...

  15. Integrated resource planning for local gas distribution companies: A critical review of regulatory policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harunuzzaman, M.; Islam, M.

    1994-08-01

    According to the report, public utility commissions (PUCs) are increasingly adopting, or considering the adoption of integrated resource planning (IRP) for local gas distribution companies (LDCs). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) requires PUCs to consider IRP for gas LDCs. This study has two major objectives: (1) to help PUCs develop appropriate regulatory approaches with regard to IRP for gas LDCs; and (2) to help PUCs respond to the EPAct directive. The study finds that it is appropriate for PUCs to pursue energy efficiency within the traditional regulatory framework of minimizing private costs of energy production and delivery; and PUCs should play a limited role in addressing environmental externalities. The study also finds that in promoting energy efficiency, PUCs should pursue policies that are incentive-based, procompetitive, and sensitive to rate impacts. The study evaluates a number of traditional and nontraditional ratemaking mechanisms on the basis of cost minimization, energy efficiency, competitiveness, and other criteria. The mechanisms evaluated include direct recovery of DSM expenses, lost revenue adjustments for DSM options, revenue decoupling mechanisms, sharing of DSM cost savings, performance-based rate of return for DSM, provision of DSM as a separate service, deregulation of DSM service, price caps, and deregulation of the noncore gas market. The study concludes with general recommendations for regulatory approaches and ratemaking mechanisms that PUCs may wish to consider in advancing IRP objectives.

  16. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-04-26

    The principal research effort for the first half of Year 3 of the project has been resource assessment. Emphasis has been on estimating the total volume of hydrocarbons generated and the potential amount of this resource that is classified as deep (>15,000 ft) gas in the North Louisiana Salt Basin, the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, the Manila Subbasin and the Conecuh Subbasin. The amount of this resource that has been expelled, migrated and entrapped is also the focus of the first half of Year 3 of this study.

  17. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cook Inlet region, south-central Alaska, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Richard G.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Lewis, Kristen A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Nelson, Philip H.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Potter, Christopher J.; Rouse, William A.; Saltus, Richard W.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Shah, Anjana K.; Valin, Zenon C.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a new assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Cook Inlet region of south-central Alaska. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimates that mean undiscovered volumes of nearly 600 million barrels of oil, about 19 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 46 million barrels of natural gas liquids remain to be found in this area.

  18. CCR Administrative Resource Center

    Cancer.gov

    Click the excel spreadsheet above and save it to any folder that you are able to re-locate the file.  Make your changes and then save it with the same file name: "LAESpreadsheet.xlsx" Click "Browse" and locate the updated file and then click "Open" Click

  19. Renewable energy development in China: Resource assessment, technology status, and greenhouse gas mitigation potential

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y.; Renne, O.D.; Junfeng, Li

    1996-12-31

    China, which has pursued aggressive policies to encourage economic development, could experience the world`s fastest growth in energy consumption over the next two decades. China has become the third largest energy user in the world since 1990 when primary energy consumption reached 960 million tons of coal equivalent (tce). Energy use is increasing at an annual rate of 6-7% despite severe infrastructure and capital constraints on energy sector development. Energy consumption in China is heavily dominated by coal, and fossil fuels provide up to 95% of all commercial energy use. Coal currently accounts for 77% of total primary energy use; oil, 16%; hydropower, 5%; and natural gas, 2%. Coal is expected to continue providing close to three-quarters of all energy consumed, and the amount of coal used is expected to triple by year 2020. Currently, renewable energy resources (except for hydropower) account for only a fraction of total energy consumption. However, the estimated growth in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as serious local and regional environmental pollution problems caused by combustion of fossil fuels, provides strong arguments for the development of renewable energy resources. Renewable energy potential in China is significantly greater than that indicated by the current level of use. With a clear policy goal and consistent efforts from the Government of China, renewables can play a far larger role in its future energy supply.

  20. Engineering and Economics of the USGS Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal (CARA) Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.; White, Loring P.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2008-01-01

    This Open-File report contains illustrative materials, in the form of PowerPoint slides, used for an oral presentation given at the Fourth U.S. Geological Survey Workshop on Reserve Growth of petroleum resources held on March 10-11, 2008. The presentation focused on engineering and economic aspects of the Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal (CARA) project, with a special emphasis on the costs related to the development of hypothetical oil and gas fields of different sizes and reservoir characteristics in the North Danmarkshavn Basin off the northeast coast of Greenland. The individual PowerPoint slides highlight the topics being addressed in an abbreviated format; they are discussed below, and are amplified with additional text as appropriate. Also included in this report are the summary results of a typical ?run? to generate the necessary capital and operating costs for the development of an offshore oil field off the northeast coast of Greenland; the data are displayed in MS Excel format generated using Questor software (IHS Energy, Inc.). U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acknowledges that this report includes data supplied by IHS Energy, Inc.; Copyright (2008) all rights reserved. IHS Energy has granted USGS the permission to publish this report.

  1. Ecological risks of shale oil and gas development to wildlife, aquatic resources and their habitats.

    PubMed

    Brittingham, Margaret C; Maloney, Kelly O; Farag, Aïda M; Harper, David D; Bowen, Zachary H

    2014-10-01

    Technological advances in hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have led to the exploration and exploitation of shale oil and gas both nationally and internationally. Extensive development of shale resources has occurred within the United States over the past decade, yet full build out is not expected to occur for years. Moreover, countries across the globe have large shale resources and are beginning to explore extraction of these resources. Extraction of shale resources is a multistep process that includes site identification, well pad and infrastructure development, well drilling, high-volume hydraulic fracturing and production; each with its own propensity to affect associated ecosystems. Some potential effects, for example from well pad, road and pipeline development, will likely be similar to other anthropogenic activities like conventional gas drilling, land clearing, exurban and agricultural development and surface mining (e.g., habitat fragmentation and sedimentation). Therefore, we can use the large body of literature available on the ecological effects of these activities to estimate potential effects from shale development on nearby ecosystems. However, other effects, such as accidental release of wastewaters, are novel to the shale gas extraction process making it harder to predict potential outcomes. Here, we review current knowledge of the effects of high-volume hydraulic fracturing coupled with horizontal drilling on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the contiguous United States, an area that includes 20 shale plays many of which have experienced extensive development over the past decade. We conclude that species and habitats most at risk are ones where there is an extensive overlap between a species range or habitat type and one of the shale plays (leading to high vulnerability) coupled with intrinsic characteristics such as limited range, small population size, specialized habitat requirements, and high sensitivity to disturbance. Examples include core forest habitat and forest specialists, sagebrush habitat and specialists, vernal pond inhabitants and stream biota. We suggest five general areas of research and monitoring that could aid in development of effective guidelines and policies to minimize negative impacts and protect vulnerable species and ecosystems: (1) spatial analyses, (2) species-based modeling, (3) vulnerability assessments, (4) ecoregional assessments, and (5) threshold and toxicity evaluations. PMID:25188826

  2. Ecological risks of shale oil and gas development to wildlife, aquatic resources and their habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brittingham, Margaret C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances in hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have led to the exploration and exploitation of shale oil and gas both nationally and internationally. Extensive development of shale resources has occurred within the United States over the past decade, yet full build out is not expected to occur for years. Moreover, countries across the globe have large shale resources and are beginning to explore extraction of these resources. Extraction of shale resources is a multistep process that includes site identification, well pad and infrastructure development, well drilling, high-volume hydraulic fracturing and production; each with its own propensity to affect associated ecosystems. Some potential effects, for example from well pad, road and pipeline development, will likely be similar to other anthropogenic activities like conventional gas drilling, land clearing, exurban and agricultural development and surface mining (e.g., habitat fragmentation and sedimentation). Therefore, we can use the large body of literature available on the ecological effects of these activities to estimate potential effects from shale development on nearby ecosystems. However, other effects, such as accidental release of wastewaters, are novel to the shale gas extraction process making it harder to predict potential outcomes. Here, we review current knowledge of the effects of high-volume hydraulic fracturing coupled with horizontal drilling on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the contiguous United States, an area that includes 20 shale plays many of which have experienced extensive development over the past decade. We conclude that species and habitats most at risk are ones where there is an extensive overlap between a species range or habitat type and one of the shale plays (leading to high vulnerability) coupled with intrinsic characteristics such as limited range, small population size, specialized habitat requirements, and high sensitivity to disturbance. Examples include core forest habitat and forest specialists, sagebrush habitat and specialists, vernal pond inhabitants and stream biota. We suggest five general areas of research and monitoring that could aid in development of effective guidelines and policies to minimize negative impacts and protect vulnerable species and ecosystems: (1) spatial analyses, (2) species-based modeling, (3) vulnerability assessments, (4) ecoregional assessments, and (5) threshold and toxicity evaluations.

  3. Coalbed methane, Cook Inlet, south-central Alaska: A potential giant gas resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montgomery, S.L.; Barker, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    Cook Inlet Basin of south-central Alaska is a forearc basin containing voluminous Tertiary coal deposits with sufficient methane content to suggest a major coalbed gas resource. Coals ranging in thickness from 2 to 50 ft (0.6 to 15 m) and in gas content from 50 to 250 scf/ton (1.6 to 7.8 cm2/g) occur in Miocene-Oligocene fluvial deposits of the Kenai Group. These coals have been identified as the probable source of more than 8 tcf gas that has been produced from conventional sandstone reservoirs in the basin. Cook Inlet coals can be divided into two main groups: (1) those of bituminous rank in the Tyonek Formation that contain mainly thermogenic methane and are confined to the northeastern part of the basin (Matanuska Valley) and to deep levels elsewhere; and (2) subbituminous coals at shallow depths (<5000 ft [1524 m]) in the Tyonek and overlying Beluga formations, which contain mainly biogenic methane and cover most of the central and southern basin. Based on core and corrected cuttings-desorption analyses, gas contents average 230 scf/ton (7.2 cm2/g) for bituminous coals and 80 scf/ton (2.5 cm2/g) for subbituminous coals. Isotherms constructed for samples of both coal ranks suggest that bituminous coals are saturated with respect to methane, whereas subbituminous coals at shallow depths along the eroded west-central basin margin are locally unsaturated. A preliminary estimate of 140 tcf gas in place is derived for the basin.

  4. Regional Mapping and Resource Assessment of Shallow Gas Hydrates of Japan Sea - METI Launched 3 Years Project in 2013.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, R.

    2014-12-01

    Agency of Natural Resources and Energy of METI launched a 3 years shallow gas hydrate exploration project in 2013 to make a precise resource assessment of shallow gas hydrates in the eastern margin of Japan Sea and around Hokkaido. Shallow gas hydrates of Japan Sea occur in fine-grained muddy sediments of shallow subsurface of mounds and gas chimneys in the form of massive nodular to platy accumulation. Gas hydrate bearing mounds are often associated with active methane seeps, bacterial mats and carbonate concretions and pavements. Gases of gas hydrates are derived either from deep thermogenic, shallow microbial or from the mixed gases, contrasting with totally microbial deep-seated stratigraphically controlled hydrates. Shallow gas hydrates in Japan Sea have not been considered as energy resource due to its limited distribution in narrow Joetsu basin. However recently academic research surveys have demonstrated regional distribution of gas chimney and hydrate mound in a number of sedimentary basins along the eastern margin of Japan Sea. Regional mapping of gas chimney and hydrate mound by means of MBES and SBP surveys have confirmed that more than 200 gas chimneys exist in 100 km x 100 km area. ROV dives have identified dense accumulation of hydrates on the wall of half collapsed hydrate mound down to 30 mbsf. Sequential LWD and shallow coring campaign in the Summer of 2014, R/V Hakurei, which is equipped with Fugro Seacore R140 drilling rig, drilled through hydrate mounds and gas chimneys down to the BGHS (base of gas hydrate stability) level and successfully recovered massive gas hydrates bearing sediments from several horizons.

  5. An ecological perspective of the energy basis of sustainable Bolivian natural resources: Forests and natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izursa, Jose-Luis

    Bolivia, traditionally known for being a country rich in natural resources, has suffered from a constant exploitation of its natural resources benefiting only small groups in and outside the country. The devastation of natural resources that occurred for many years was of concern to the latest government, rural communities and indigenous groups. As a result, Bolivia has a more sustainability-oriented forest law that has a strong orientation towards the utilization of natural resources at a national level and encompasses a fast-growing forestry industry than in previous years. In this dissertation, the wealth of Bolivia's national system was evaluated using solar emergy. Emergy (spelled with "m") is the sum of all energy of one form needed to develop a flow of energy of another form, over a period of time. The basic idea is that solar energy is our ultimate energy source and by expressing the value of products in solar emergy units, it becomes possible to compare different kinds of energy, allowing to express the value for the natural resources in Emergy Dollars. It was found out that Bolivia relies heavily in its natural resources and that its emergy exchange ratio with its international trading partners changed from 12.2 to 1 in 2001 to 6.2 to 1 in 2005. This means that Bolivia went from export 12.2 emdollars of goods for each 1 it received in 2001 to export 6.2 emdollars of products for each 1 it received in 2005. The study also showed that under forest certification practices less emergy is removed from forests (1.49E+19 sej/yr) compared to the amount of emergy removed (2.36E+19 sej/yr) under traditional uncertified practices, reflecting that forest ecology does better under certification. The "Ecologically-based Development for the Bolivian Industrial Forestry System" (DEBBIF) simulation model constructed during this study, compared four different scenarios: the Reference Scenario, the Increased Export Scenario, the Increased Domestic Use Scenario and the National Industrialization Scenario. Using two different levels of increment for each scenario, the outcomes of six variables were analyzed: soil, wood, natural gas, assets, money and debt. It was found that if the country doubles its use of natural resources to generate finished products, this will build more assets for Bolivia, and represent more income for the country and a better rate of emergy per person.

  6. Water intensity assessment of shale gas resources in the Wattenberg field in northeastern Colorado.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Stephen; Carlson, Ken; Knox, Ken; Douglas, Caleb; Rein, Luke

    2014-05-20

    Efficient use of water, particularly in the western U.S., is an increasingly important aspect of many activities including agriculture, urban, and industry. As the population increases and agriculture and energy needs continue to rise, the pressure on water and other natural resources is expected to intensify. Recent advances in technology have stimulated growth in oil and gas development, as well as increasing the industry's need for water resources. This study provides an analysis of how efficiently water resources are used for unconventional shale development in Northeastern Colorado. The study is focused on the Wattenberg Field in the Denver-Julesberg Basin. The 2000 square mile field located in a semiarid climate with competing agriculture, municipal, and industrial water demands was one of the first fields where widespread use of hydraulic fracturing was implemented. The consumptive water intensity is measured using a ratio of the net water consumption and the net energy recovery and is used to measure how efficiently water is used for energy extraction. The water and energy use as well as energy recovery data were collected from 200 Noble Energy Inc. wells to estimate the consumptive water intensity. The consumptive water intensity of unconventional shale in the Wattenberg is compared with the consumptive water intensity for extraction of other fuels for other energy sources including coal, natural gas, oil, nuclear, and renewables. 1.4 to 7.5 million gallons is required to drill and hydraulically fracture horizontal wells before energy is extracted in the Wattenberg Field. However, when the large short-term total freshwater-water use is normalized to the amount of energy produced over the lifespan of a well, the consumptive water intensity is estimated to be between 1.8 and 2.7 gal/MMBtu and is similar to surface coal mining. PMID:24749865

  7. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, Canada, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, Debra

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed a geoscience-based assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of provinces within the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin primarily comprises the (1) Alberta Basin Province of Alberta, eastern British Columbia, and the southwestern Northwest Territories; (2) the Williston Basin Province of Saskatchewan, southeastern Alberta, and southern Manitoba; and (3) the Rocky Mountain Deformed Belt Province of western Alberta and eastern British Columbia. This report is part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Resources Project assessment of priority geologic provinces of the world. The assessment was based on geoscience elements that define a total petroleum system (TPS) and associated assessment unit(s). These elements include petroleum source rocks (geochemical properties and petroleum generation, migration, and accumulation), reservoir description (reservoir presence, type, and quality), and petroleum traps (trap and seal types, and timing of trap and seal formation relative to petroleum migration). Using this framework, the Elk Point-Woodbend Composite TPS, Exshaw-Fernie-Mannville Composite TPS, and Middle through Upper Cretaceous Composite TPS were defined, and four conventional assessment units within the total petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered resources in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin.

  8. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province lies in the offshore area between western Greenland and eastern Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Nares Strait west of and including part of Kane Basin. A series of major tectonic events led to the formation of several distinct structural domains that are the geologic basis for defining five assessment units (AU) in the province, all of which are within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS). Potential petroleum source rocks within the TPS include strata of Ordovician, Early and Late Cretaceous, and Paleogene ages. The five AUs defined for this study-the Eurekan Structures AU, Northwest Greenland Rifted Margin AU, Northeast Canada Rifted Margin AU, Baffin Bay Basin AU, and the Greater Ungava Fault Zone AU-encompass the entire province and were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources.

  9. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System, Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit, New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System coincident Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit was recently assessed for undiscovered technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) World Energy Resources Project, World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 487 million barrels of oil, 9.8 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 408 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  10. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-09-30

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to perform resource assessment of the thermogenic gas resources in deeply buried (>15,000 ft) natural gas reservoirs of the onshore interior salt basins of the north central and northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling; and (2) to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the deep thermogenic gas resource that is available for potential recovery and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential for this thermogenic gas resource. Petroleum source rock analysis and petroleum system characterization and modeling, including thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling, have shown that the Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation served as the regional petroleum source rock in the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Thus, the estimates of the total hydrocarbons, oil, and gas generated and expelled are based on the assumption that the Smackover Formation is the main petroleum source rock in these basins and subbasins. The estimate of the total hydrocarbons generated for the North Louisiana Salt Basin in this study using a petroleum system approach compares favorably with the total volume of hydrocarbons generated published by Zimmermann (1999). In this study, the estimate is 2,870 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the method of Schmoker (1994), and the estimate is 2,640 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the Platte River software application. The estimate of Zimmermann (1999) is 2,000 to 2,500 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated. The estimate of gas generated for this basin is 6,400 TCF using the Platte River software application, and 12,800 TCF using the method of Schmoker (1994). Barnaby (2006) estimated that the total gas volume generated for this basin ranges from 4,000 to 8,000 TCF. Seventy-five percent of the gas is estimated to be from late cracking of oil in the source rock. Lewan (2002) concluded that much of the thermogenic gas produced in this basin is the result of cracking of oil to gas in deeply buried reservoirs. The efficiency of expulsion, migration and trapping has been estimated to range from 0.5 to 10 percent for certain basins (Schmoker, 1994: Zimmerman, 1999). The estimate of the total hydrocarbons generated for the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin is 910 billion barrels using the method of Schmoker (1994), and the estimate of the total hydrocarbons generated is 1,540 billion barrels using the Platte River software application. The estimate of gas generated for this basin is 3,130 TCF using the Platte River software application, and 4,050 TCF using the method of Schmoker (1994). Seventy-five percent of the gas is estimated to be from late cracking of oil in the source rock. Claypool and Mancini (1989) report that the conversion of oil to gas in reservoirs is a significant source of thermogenic gas in this basin. The Manila and Conecuh Subbasins are oil-prone. Although these subbasins are thermally mature for oil generation and expulsion, they are not thermally mature for secondary, non-associated gas generation and expulsion. The gas produced from the highly productive gas condensate fields (Big Escambia Creek and Flomaton fields) in these subbasins has been interpreted to be, in part, a product of the cracking of oil to gas and thermochemical reduction of evaporite sulfate in the reservoirs (Claypool and Mancini, 1989). The areas in the North Louisiana and Mississippi Interior Salt Basins with high potential for deeply buried gas reservoirs (>15,000 ft) have been identified. In the North Louisiana Salt Basin, these potential reservoirs include Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous facies, especially the Smackover, Cotton Valley, Hosston, and Sligo units. The estimate of the secondary, non-associated gas generated from cracking of oil in the source rock from depths below 12,000 feet in this basin is 4,800 TCF. Assuming an expulsion, migration and trapping efficiency of 1 to 5%, 48 to 240 TCF of gas is potentially available. The final recoverable gas is some percent of this estimated thermogenic gas resource based on the recovery factor for the specific reservoir. To date, some 29 TCF of gas have been produced from this basin. Also, the thermogenic gas, whether generated from late secondary cracking of oil to gas in the source rock or from oil to gas conversion in deeply buried reservoirs, migrated updip into shallower reservoirs, including the Monroe gas rock at depths of some 2,000 feet.

  11. How to Implement the Ways of Knowing through the Realms of Meaning in Human Resource Management: Ten Recommendations for Selecting Campus Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Karen Dupre; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2006-01-01

    Human resource management in education is a vital function of hiring, developing, nurturing, and sustaining highly-qualified personnel for the school system. In an age where strong accountability measures are in place, school districts across America must become aware of the types of teachers and administrative staff being selected and retained…

  12. Administrative Strategies of Departmental Heads as Determinants for the Effective Management of Human Resources in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osakwe, Regina N.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated administrative strategies of departmental heads as determinants of effective management of human resources in tertiary institutions. Four research questions were asked and four hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. As a descriptive survey, the population comprised all the eight tertiary institutions in the state…

  13. Administering Innovation in a Traditional Environment: A Study of the Administration of the Learning Resources Laboratory of the City Colleges of Chicago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oastler, John

    In 1956, the central administration of the City Colleges of Chicago (CCC) established the Learning Resources Laboratory (LRL), then known as TV College. At the time, the televised courses offered by LRL allowed regular students to enroll in courses filled or not offered on campus, allowed out-of-district suburbanites to enroll in the college, and…

  14. The In-Class Instructional Model for Basic Skills Improvement in Grades K-6: A Resource Manual for Administrators, Supervisors and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of Compensatory/Bilingual Education.

    This resource manual for administrators, supervisors, and teachers was developed to foster the effective use of the in-class instructional model in basic skills improvement (BSI) programs in elementary schools. Funded by federal, state, and local sources, BSI programs are designed to be coordinated with school districts' developmental programs to…

  15. The Uses of Research Sponsored by the Administration on Aging (AoA). Case Study No. 2. Older Americans Resources and Services (OARS). Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Heinsohn, Ingrid

    This case study, one in a series of research efforts designed to examine the utilization of the Administration on Aging's research, discusses reasons for the wide utilization of the Older Americans Resources and Services (OARS) research. (The OARS methodology assesses the levels of functioning of individual elderly persons. The resulting…

  16. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources in Texas and Other Mining Activities: the Water Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicot, J.

    2011-12-01

    A recent study, sponsored by the Texas Water Development Board, considered current and projected water use in the mining industry. It looked at the upstream segment of the oil and gas industry (that is, water used to extract the commodity until it leaves the wellhead), the aggregate, and coal industry, and other substances (industrial sand, lime, etc.). We obtained data through state databases, data collection from private vendors, and direct surveys of the various sectors of the industry. Overall, in 2008, we estimated that the state consumed ~160 thousand acre-feet (AF) in the mining industry, including 35.8 thousand AF for fracing wells (mostly in the Barnett Shale/Fort Worth area) and ~21.0 thousand AF for other purposes in the oil and gas industry, although more spread out across the state, with a higher demand in the Permian Basin area in West Texas. The coal industry used 20.0 thousand AF along the lignite belt from Central to East Texas. The 71.6 thousand AF used by the aggregate industry is distributed over most of the state, but with a clear concentration around major metropolitan areas. The remainder amounts to 11.0 thousand AF and is dominated by industrial sand production (~80% of total). Water is used mostly for drilling wells, stimulating/fracing wells, and secondary and tertiary recovery processes (oil and gas industry); for dewatering and depressurizing pits, with a small amount used for dust control (coal industry); and for dust control and washing (aggregate industry and industrial sand). Reuse/recycling has already been accounted for in water-use values, as well as opportunity usages, such as stormwater collection (aggregates). The split between surface water and groundwater is difficult to assess but it is estimated at ~56% groundwater in 2008. Projections for future use were done by extrapolating current trends, mainly for coal (same energy mix) and aggregates (following population growth). Projections for the oil and gas industry (Barnett, Eagle Ford, Haynesville, and other shales and tight formations) were made with the help of various sources by estimating the amount of oil and gas to be produced in the state in the next decades and by distributing it through time. We projected that the state overall water use will peak in the 2020-2030 decade at ~305 thousand AF, thanks to the oil and gas unconventional resources that will start to decrease in terms of water use around that time. Both coal and aggregates are slated to keep increasing, more strongly for aggregates.

  17. Simulating Mobility of Chemical Contaminants from Unconventional Gas Development for Protection of Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, C.; Edlin, D.; Borrillo-Hutter, T.; McCray, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Potential contamination of ground water and surface water supplies from chemical contaminants in hydraulic fracturing fluids or in natural gas is of high public concern. However, quantitative assessments have rarely been conducted at specific energy-producing locations so that the true risk of contamination can be evaluated. The most likely pathways for contamination are surface spills and faulty well bores that leak production fluids directly into an aquifer. This study conducts fate and transport simulations of the most mobile chemical contaminants, based on reactivity to subsurface soils, degradation potential, and source concentration, to better understand which chemicals are most likely to contaminate water resources, and to provide information to planners who wish to be prepared for accidental releases. The simulations are intended to be most relevant to the Niobrara shale formation.

  18. Rate of surfactant administration influences lung function and gas exchange in a surfactant-deficient rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Krause, M F; Schulte-Mönting, J; Hoehn, T

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the effect of surfactant treatment on lung function in a surfactant-deficient animal model can be influenced by the rate at which surfactant is administered. Surfactant deficiency was induced in 18 New Zealand white rabbits (weighing approx. 1 kg each) by lung lavage with normal saline. The arterial/alveolar oxygen ratio (a/A ratio), functional residual capacity (FRC), dynamic compliance of the respiratory system (Crs), tidal volume (V(T)), alveolar portion of the tidal volume (V(A)) and arterial P(CO2) (P(a,CO2)) were measured before and after lavage and 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after administration of a single dose of surfactant (Survanta, 100 mg/kg). Two surfactant administration protocols were compared over a 2-h interval: an infusion lasting 4 min and an infusion over 2 min. Both administrations were given during continuous mechanical ventilation. The six lung function and gas exchange parameters improved significantly following surfactant administration over 2 min compared with a control group. However, only the a/A ratio and V(A) improved following the 4-min protocol. Comparison of the two intervention protocols yielded significantly differences in V(A) and P(a,CO2), favoring the shorter administration. These results support the hypothesis that fast (2 min) administration of surfactant will improve its distribution to formerly collapsed alveoli and results in better lung function, improved ventilation, and (to a lesser extent) better oxygenation than prolonged infusions (4 min). PMID:9556012

  19. Use of a bipolar sealer in total hip arthroplasty: medical resource use and costs using a hospital administrative database.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Stacey J; Tapia, Crisanta I; Baik, Rebecca; Pivec, Robert; Mont, Michael A

    2014-05-01

    Perioperative blood loss during total hip arthroplasty (THA) increases patient morbidity, length of stay (LOS), medical resource use (MRU), and costs. Minimizing blood loss may reduce postoperative anemia, the need for blood transfusions, and the increased risk of infections and longer hospital stays associated with blood transfusions. Pharmacologic agents and bipolar sealer devices can minimize perioperative bleeding. A retrospective, comparative cohort study in the US hospital setting was conducted to assess MRU and associated costs and the incidence of transfusion and complications among patients undergoing THA with or without the use of a bipolar sealer. Using a nationwide all-payer hospital administrative database, THA procedures from January 1, 2008, to March 31, 2011, were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure code 81.51. The bipolar sealer cohort (n=2683) and matched control cohort (n=2683) had a mean age of 65 years from 38 hospitals. The 2 groups had similar incidences of pre-operative anemia and medical comorbidities. Patients in the bipolar sealer group required significantly fewer blood transfusions (21.3% vs 23.8%; P=.0286) and had significantly lower incidence of hematomas (0.2% vs 0.9%; P=.0015) and significantly shorter LOS (2.90 vs 3.31 days; P<.0001) overall. The bipolar sealer group had higher supply costs, which were offset by reduced hospital inpatient room and board and operating room costs; there was no significant difference in total hospital costs between the 2 groups ($18,937 vs $18,734; P=.56). A bipolar sealer decreases postoperative blood transfusions and LOS during primary THA without increasing total hospital costs. PMID:24810825

  20. 76 FR 76072 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Gas Turbine Engines and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Industry and Security (BIS) published a proposed rule (76 FR 41958) (``the July 15 proposed rule'') that.... On November 7, 2011 (76 FR 68675), BIS published a proposed rule describing how aircraft and related..., 76 FR 50661 (August 16, 2011), has continued the Export Administration Regulations in effect...

  1. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitman, Janet K.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 86 billion barrels of oil and 336 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas resources in the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt. The USGS assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional oil and gas accumulations within the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt as part of the USGS World Petroleum Resources Project. Twenty-three assessment units within seven petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed in this study, which represents a reassessment of this area last published in 2000.

  2. Human resource needs and development for the gas industry of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Klass, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The natural gas industry will confront many challenges in the 1990s and beyond, one of which is the development of human resources to meet future needs. An efficient, trained work force in this era of environmental concern, high technology, and alternative fuels is essential for the industry to continue to meet the competition and to safely deliver our product and service to all customers. Unfortunately, during this period there will be an increasing shortfall of technical personnel to replace those lost to attrition and a steady decline in the availability of new employees who are able to read, write, and perform simple math. Technological and government developments that will impact the industry and the skill levels needed by the industry employees are reviewed. In-house and external training of professional and nonprofessional personnel and the benefits and disadvantages of selected advanced training methods are discussed. Recommendations are presented that can help improve the training of gas industry employees to meet future needs. 22 refs.

  3. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Monterey Formation, San Joaquin Basin Province, California, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Lillis, Paul G.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed mean volumes of 21 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 27 billion cubic feet of gas, and 1 million barrels of natural gas liquids in two assessment units (AUs) that may contain continuous oil resources. Mean volumes of oil for the individual assessment units are 14 MMBO in the Monterey Buttonwillow AU and 7 MMBO in the Monterey Maricopa AU.

  4. Analysis of the effects of section 29 tax credits on reserve additions and production of gas from unconventional resources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    Federal tax credits for production of natural gas from unconventional resources can stimulate drilling and reserves additions at a relatively low cost to the Treasury. This report presents the results of an analysis of the effects of a proposed extension of the Section 29 alternative fuels production credit specifically for unconventional gas. ICF Resources estimated the net effect of the extension of the credit (the difference between development activity expected with the extension of the credit and that expected if the credit expires in December 1990 as scheduled). The analysis addressed the effect of tax credits on project economics and capital formation, drilling and reserve additions, production, impact on the US and regional economies, and the net public sector costs and incremental revenues. The analysis was based on explicit modeling of the three dominant unconventional gas resources: Tight sands, coalbed methane, and Devonian shales. It incorporated the most current data on resource size, typical well recoveries and economics, and anticipated activity of the major producers. Each resource was further disaggregated for analysis based on distinct resource characteristics, development practices, regional economics, and historical development patterns.

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Assam, Bombay, Cauvery, and Krishna-Godavari Provinces, South Asia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources for the Assam, Bombay, Cauvery, and Krishna–Godavari Provinces, South Asia. The estimated mean volumes are as follows: (1) Assam Province, 273 million barrels of crude oil, 1,559 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 43 million barrels of natural gas liquids; (2) Bombay Province, 1,854 million barrels of crude oil, 15,417 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 498 million barrels of natural gas liquids; (3) Cauvery Province, 941 million barrels of crude oil, 25,208 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 654 million barrels of natural gas liquids; and (4) Krishna–Godavari Province, 466 million barrels of crude oil, 37,168 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 484 million barrels of natural gas liquids. The totals for the four provinces are 3,534 million barrels of crude oil, 79,352 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1,679 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  6. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    SciTech Connect

    Peggy Robinson

    2005-07-01

    This report summarizes activities that have taken place in the last six (6) months (January 2005-June 2005) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields, New Mexico and Wyoming'' DE-FC26-02NT15445. This project examines the practices and results of cultural resource investigation and management in two different oil and gas producing areas of the United States: southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The project evaluates how cultural resource investigations have been conducted in the past and considers how investigation and management could be pursued differently in the future. The study relies upon full database population for cultural resource inventories and resources and geomorphological studies. These are the basis for analysis of cultural resource occurrence, strategies for finding and evaluating cultural resources, and recommendations for future management practices. Activities can be summarized as occurring in either Wyoming or New Mexico. Gnomon as project lead, worked in both areas.

  7. Supporting data for the U.S. Geological Survey 2012 world assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    World Conventional Resources Assessment Team, USGS

    2013-01-01

    This report provides information pertaining to the 2012 U.S. Geological Survey assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional oil and gas resources of the world, exclusive of the United States. Some of the results were previously published, mostly in USGS fact sheet series.

  8. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-12-29

    Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes for the removal of hydrocarbons from produced water. The results of these experiments show that hydrocarbons from produced water can be reduced from 200 ppm to below 29 ppm level. Experiments were also done to remove the dissolved solids (salts) from the pretreated produced water using desalination membranes. Produced water with up to 45,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS) can be treated to agricultural water quality water standards having less than 500 ppm TDS. The Report also discusses the results of field testing of various process trains to measure performance of the desalination process. Economic analysis based on field testing, including capital and operational costs, was done to predict the water treatment costs. Cost of treating produced water containing 15,000 ppm total dissolved solids and 200 ppm hydrocarbons to obtain agricultural water quality with less than 200 ppm TDS and 2 ppm hydrocarbons range between $0.5-1.5 /bbl. The contribution of fresh water resource from produced water will contribute enormously to the sustainable development of the communities where oil and gas is produced and fresh water is a scarce resource. This water can be used for many beneficial purposes such as agriculture, horticulture, rangeland and ecological restorations, and other environmental and industrial application.

  9. Simulator for unconventional gas resources multi-dimensional model SUGAR-MD. Volume I. Reservoir model analysis and validation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, has been supporting the development of flow models for Devonian shale gas reservoirs. The broad objectives of this modeling program are: (1) To develop and validate a mathematical model which describes gas flow through Devonian shales. (2) To determine the sensitive parameters that affect deliverability and recovery of gas from Devonian shales. (3) To recommend laboratory and field measurements for determination of those parameters critical to the productivity and timely recovery of gas from the Devonian shales. (4) To analyze pressure and rate transient data from observation and production gas wells to determine reservoir parameters and well performance. (5) To study and determine the overall performance of Devonian shale reservoirs in terms of well stimulation, well spacing, and resource recovery as a function of gross reservoir properties such as anisotropy, porosity and thickness variations, and boundary effects. The flow equations that are the mathematical basis of the two-dimensional model are presented. It is assumed that gas transport to producing wells in Devonian shale reservoirs occurs through a natural fracture system into which matrix blocks of contrasting physical properties deliver contained gas. That is, the matrix acts as a uniformly distributed gas source in a fracture medium. Gas desorption from pore walls is treated as a uniformly distributed source within the matrix blocks. 24 references.

  10. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Eastern Great Basin Province, Nevada, Utah, Idaho, and Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Eastern Great Basin Assessment Team

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Eastern Great Basin Province of eastern Nevada, western Utah, southeastern Idaho, and northwestern Arizona. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and three assessment units. All three assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  11. Real-time surrogate analysis for potential oil and gas contamination of drinking water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Ji-Hee; Carlson, Kenneth H.

    2015-09-01

    Public concerns related to the fast-growing shale oil and gas industry have increased during recent years. The major concern regarding shale gas production is the potential of fracturing fluids being injected into the well or produced fluids flowing out of the well to contaminate drinking water resources such as surface water and groundwater. Fracturing fluids contain high total dissolved solids (TDS); thus, changes in TDS concentrations in groundwater might indicate influences of fracturing fluids. An increase of methane concentrations in groundwater could also potentially be due to hydraulic fracturing activities. To understand the possible contamination of groundwater by fracturing activities, real-time groundwater monitoring is being implemented in the Denver-Julesburg basin of northeast Colorado. A strategy of monitoring of surrogate parameters was chosen instead of measuring potential contaminants directly, an approach that is not cost effective or operationally practical. Contaminant surrogates of TDS and dissolved methane were proposed in this study, and were tested for correlation and data distribution with laboratory experiments. Correlations between TDS and electrical conductivity (EC), and between methane contamination and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) were strong at low concentrations of contaminants (1 mg/L TDS and 0.3 mg/L CH4). Dissolved oxygen (DO) was only an effective surrogate at higher methane concentrations (≥2.5 mg/L). The results indicated that EC and ORP are effective surrogates for detecting concentration changes of TDS and methane, respectively, and that a strategy of monitoring for easy to measure parameters can be effective detecting real-time, anomalous behavior relative to a predetermined baseline.

  12. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum generation in the North Cuba Basin is primarily the result of thrust loading of Jurassic and Cretaceous source rocks during formation of the North Cuba fold and thrust belt in the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene. The fold and thrust belt formed as Cuban arc-forearc rocks along the leading edge of the Caribbean plate translated northward during the opening of the Yucatan Basin and collided with the passive margin of southern North America in the Paleogene. Petroleum fluids generated during thrust loading migrated vertically into complex structures in the fold and thrust belt, into structures in the foreland basin, and possibly into carbonate reservoirs along the margins of the Yucatan and Bahama carbonate platforms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) and three assessment units (AU)-North Cuba Fold and Thrust Belt AU, North Cuba Foreland Basin AU, and the North Cuba Platform Margin Carbonate AU-within this TPS based mainly on structure and reservoir type (fig. 1). There is considerable geologic uncertainty as to the extent of petroleum migration that might have occurred within this TPS to form potential petroleum accumulations. Taking this geologic uncertainty into account, especially in the offshore area, the mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the composite TPS of the North Cuba Basin are estimated at (1) 4.6 billion barrels of oil (BBO), with means ranging from an F95 probability of 1 BBO to an F5 probability of 9 BBO; and (2) 8.6 trillion cubic feet of of gas (TCFG), of which 8.6 TCFG is associated with oil fields, and about 1.2 TCFG is in nonassociated gas fields in the North Cuba Foreland Basin AU.

  13. Using game theory approach to interpret stable policies for Iran's oil and gas common resources conflicts with Iraq and Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Maryam; Bahrini, Aram; Shayanrad, Sepideh

    2015-08-01

    Oil and gas as the non-renewable resources are considered very valuable for the countries with petroleum economics. These resources are not only diffused equally around the world, but also they are common in some places which their neighbors often come into conflicts. Consequently, it is vital for those countries to manage their resource utilization. Lately, game theory was applied in conflict resolution of common resources, such as water, which is a proof of its efficacy and capability. This paper models the conflicts between Iran and its neighbors namely Qatar and Iraq between their oil and gas common resources using game theory approach. In other words, the future of these countries will be introduced and analyzed by some well-known 2 × 2 games to achieve a better perspective of their conflicts. Because of information inadequacy of the players, in addition to Nash Stability, various solution concepts are used based on the foresight, disimprovements, and knowledge of preferences. The results of mathematical models show how the countries could take a reasonable strategy to exploit their common resources.

  14. Development and Demonstration of Mobile, Small Footprint Exploration and Development Well System for Arctic Unconventional Gas Resources (ARCGAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Glavinovich

    2002-11-01

    Traditionally, oil and gas field technology development in Alaska has focused on the high-cost, high-productivity oil and gas fields of the North Slope and Cook Inlet, with little or no attention given to Alaska's numerous shallow, unconventional gas reservoirs (carbonaceous shales, coalbeds, tight gas sands). This is because the high costs associated with utilizing the existing conventional oil and gas infrastructure, combined with the typical remoteness and environmental sensitivity of many of Alaska's unconventional gas plays, renders the cost of exploring for and producing unconventional gas resources prohibitive. To address these operational challenges and promote the development of Alaska's large unconventional gas resource base, new low-cost methods of obtaining critical reservoir parameters prior to drilling and completing more costly production wells are required. Encouragingly, low-cost coring, logging, and in-situ testing technologies have already been developed by the hard rock mining industry in Alaska and worldwide, where an extensive service industry employs highly portable diamond-drilling rigs. From 1998 to 2000, Teck Cominco Alaska employed some of these technologies at their Red Dog Mine site in an effort to quantify a large unconventional gas resource in the vicinity of the mine. However, some of the methods employed were not fully developed and required additional refinement in order to be used in a cost effective manner for rural arctic exploration. In an effort to offset the high cost of developing a new, low-cost exploration methods, the US Department of Energy, National Petroleum Technology Office (DOE-NPTO), partnered with the Nana Regional Corporation and Teck Cominco on a technology development program beginning in 2001. Under this DOE-NPTO project, a team comprised of the NANA Regional Corporation (NANA), Teck Cominco Alaska and Advanced Resources International, Inc. (ARI) have been able to adapt drilling technology developed for the mineral industry for use in the exploration of unconventional gas in rural Alaska. These techniques have included the use of diamond drilling rigs that core small diameter (< 3.0-inch) holes coupled with wireline geophysical logging tools and pressure transient testing units capable of testing in these slimholes.

  15. 30 CFR 56.16005 - Securing gas cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Securing gas cylinders. 56.16005 Section 56.16005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Handling § 56.16005 Securing gas cylinders. Compressed and liquid gas cylinders shall be...

  16. 30 CFR 57.16005 - Securing gas cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Securing gas cylinders. 57.16005 Section 57.16005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Storage and Handling § 57.16005 Securing gas cylinders. Compressed and liquid gas cylinders shall...

  17. 30 CFR 57.16005 - Securing gas cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Securing gas cylinders. 57.16005 Section 57.16005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Storage and Handling § 57.16005 Securing gas cylinders. Compressed and liquid gas cylinders shall...

  18. 30 CFR 56.16005 - Securing gas cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Securing gas cylinders. 56.16005 Section 56.16005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Handling § 56.16005 Securing gas cylinders. Compressed and liquid gas cylinders shall be...

  19. 30 CFR 56.16005 - Securing gas cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Securing gas cylinders. 56.16005 Section 56.16005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Handling § 56.16005 Securing gas cylinders. Compressed and liquid gas cylinders shall be...

  20. 30 CFR 57.16005 - Securing gas cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Securing gas cylinders. 57.16005 Section 57.16005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Storage and Handling § 57.16005 Securing gas cylinders. Compressed and liquid gas cylinders shall...

  1. 30 CFR 56.16006 - Protection of gas cylinder valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protection of gas cylinder valves. 56.16006 Section 56.16006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16006 Protection of gas cylinder valves. Valves on compressed gas...

  2. 30 CFR 57.16006 - Protection of gas cylinder valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection of gas cylinder valves. 57.16006 Section 57.16006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16006 Protection of gas cylinder valves. Valves on compressed gas...

  3. 30 CFR 57.16006 - Protection of gas cylinder valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of gas cylinder valves. 57.16006 Section 57.16006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16006 Protection of gas cylinder valves. Valves on compressed gas...

  4. 30 CFR 57.16006 - Protection of gas cylinder valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protection of gas cylinder valves. 57.16006 Section 57.16006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16006 Protection of gas cylinder valves. Valves on compressed gas...

  5. 30 CFR 56.16006 - Protection of gas cylinder valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protection of gas cylinder valves. 56.16006 Section 56.16006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16006 Protection of gas cylinder valves. Valves on compressed gas...

  6. 30 CFR 57.16006 - Protection of gas cylinder valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection of gas cylinder valves. 57.16006 Section 57.16006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16006 Protection of gas cylinder valves. Valves on compressed gas...

  7. 30 CFR 57.16006 - Protection of gas cylinder valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protection of gas cylinder valves. 57.16006 Section 57.16006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16006 Protection of gas cylinder valves. Valves on compressed gas...

  8. 30 CFR 56.16006 - Protection of gas cylinder valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection of gas cylinder valves. 56.16006 Section 56.16006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16006 Protection of gas cylinder valves. Valves on compressed gas...

  9. 30 CFR 56.16006 - Protection of gas cylinder valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection of gas cylinder valves. 56.16006 Section 56.16006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16006 Protection of gas cylinder valves. Valves on compressed gas...

  10. 30 CFR 56.16006 - Protection of gas cylinder valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of gas cylinder valves. 56.16006 Section 56.16006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16006 Protection of gas cylinder valves. Valves on compressed gas...

  11. Toward Production From Gas Hydrates: Current Status, Assessment of Resources, and Simulation-Based Evaluationof Technology and Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Reagan, Matthew; Moridis, George J.; Collett, Timothy; Boswell, Ray; Kurihara, M.; Reagan, Matthew T.; Koh, Carolyn; Sloan, E. Dendy

    2008-02-12

    Gas hydrates are a vast energy resource with global distribution in the permafrost and in the oceans. Even if conservative estimates are considered and only a small fraction is recoverable, the sheer size of the resource is so large that it demands evaluation as a potential energy source. In this review paper, we discuss the distribution of natural gas hydrate accumulations, the status of the primary international R&D programs, and the remaining science and technological challenges facing commercialization of production. After a brief examination of gas hydrate accumulations that are well characterized and appear to be models for future development and gas production, we analyze the role of numerical simulation in the assessment of the hydrate production potential, identify the data needs for reliable predictions, evaluate the status of knowledge with regard to these needs, discuss knowledge gaps and their impact, and reach the conclusion that the numerical simulation capabilities are quite advanced and that the related gaps are either not significant or are being addressed. We review the current body of literature relevant to potential productivity from different types of gas hydrate deposits, and determine that there are consistent indications of a large production potential at high rates over long periods from a wide variety of hydrate deposits. Finally, we identify (a) features, conditions, geology and techniques that are desirable in potential production targets, (b) methods to maximize production, and (c) some of the conditions and characteristics that render certain gas hydrate deposits undesirable for production.

  12. Toward production from gas hydrates: Current status, assessment of resources, and simulation-based evaluation of technology and potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Boswell, R.; Kurihara, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Koh, C.; Sloan, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Gas hydrates are a vast energy resource with global distribution in the permafrost and in the oceans. Even if conservative estimates are considered and only a small fraction is recoverable, the sheer size of the resource is so large that it demands evaluation as a potential energy source. In this review paper, we discuss the distribution of natural gas hydrate accumulations, the status of the primary international R&D programs, and the remaining science and technological challenges facing commercialization of production. After a brief examination of gas hydrate accumulations that are well characterized and appear to be models for future development and gas production, we analyze the role of numerical simulation in the assessment of the hydrate production potential, identify the data needs for reliable predictions, evaluate the status of knowledge with regard to these needs, discuss knowledge gaps and their impact, and reach the conclusion that the numerical simulation capabilities are quite advanced and that the related gaps are either not significant or are being addressed. We review the current body of literature relevant to potential productivity from different types of gas hydrate deposits, and determine that there are consistent indications of a large production potential at high rates over long periods from a wide variety of hydrate deposits. Finally, we identify (a) features, conditions, geology and techniques that are desirable in potential production targets, (b) methods to maximize production, and (c) some of the conditions and characteristics that render certain gas hydrate deposits undesirable for production. Copyright 2008, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

  13. Use Of limestone resources in flue-gas desulfurization power plants in the Ohio River Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foose, M.P.; Barsotti, A.F.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, more than 41 of the approximately 160 coal-fired, electrical- power plants within the six-state Ohio River Valley region used flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) units to desulfurize their emissions, an approximately 100% increase over the number of plants using FGD units in 1989. This increase represents a trend that may continue with greater efforts to meet Federal Clean Air Act standards. Abundant limestone resources exist in the Ohio River Valley and are accessed by approximately 975 quarries. However, only 35 of these are believed to have supplied limestone for FGD electrical generating facilities. The locations of these limestone suppliers do not show a simple spatial correlation with FGD facilities, and the closest quarries are not being used in most cases. Thus, reduction in transportation costs may be possible in some cases. Most waste generated by FGD electrical-generating plants is not recycled. However, many FGD sites are relatively close to gypsum wallboard producers that may be able to process some of their waste.

  14. Hydrocarbons in Soil Gas as Pathfinders in Geothermal Resource Surveys in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Pudjianto, R.; Suroto, M.; Higashihara, M.; Fukuda, M.; Ong, Akhadiana and Jan

    1995-01-01

    A surface geochemical technique utilizing normal paraffin (C{sub 7+}) and aromatic (C{sub 8}) hydrocarbons in soil gas has been successfully used as pathfinders in surveys for geothermal resources in Indonesia. The Dieng field was used to test the technique. The result shows the paraffin anomalies to be near and over productive wells. Because productive wells usually lie over upflow zones it reinforces our hypothesis that paraffins define the upflow of geothermal systems. The aromatic hydrocarbon alkylbenzene C{sub 8} was found near and around productive wells in the southeast quadrant of the Dieng field (Sikidang-Merdada area) but they are more spread out and more diffuse than the paraffins. The shape of their anomaly seems to suggest a tendency of spreading into the direction of lower elevations. It is thought that the aromatics, which are much more soluble than their corresponding paraffins, express at the surface as anomalies not only of locations of the upflow but also of the outflow of the geothermal system as well. Therefore the combined paraffin and aromatic anomalies, and topography, may be used as an indicator for the direction of the outflow or the flow of the under ground waters. The scarcity of the aromatics in the northwest quadrant of the Dieng field (Sileri area) is unique. A hypothesis has been proposed which could explain this unique feature.

  15. Comprehensive Numerical Modeling of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Water Resource Recovery Facilities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongwook; Bowen, James D; Kinnear, David

    2015-11-01

    A numerical model was developed to comprehensively predict greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from water resource recovery facilities. An existing activated sludge model was extended to include a nitrifier-denitrification process and carbon dioxide (CO₂) as a state variable. The bioreactor model was coupled to a process-based digester model and an empirical model of indirect CO₂emissions. Direct emissions were approximately 90% of total GHG emissions for a plantwide simulation using the Modified Ludzack-Ettinger process. Biogenic CO₂, nitrous oxide (N₂O), and methane (CH₄) represented 10, 43, and 34% of total emissions. Simulating a dissolved oxygen controlled closed-loop system reduced both sensitivity and uncertainty of GHG emissions. Nitrous oxide emissions were much more sensitive under different design and operating conditions compared to CH₄and CO₂, indicating a significant mitigation potential. An uncertainty analysis found that the uncertainty in GHGs emissions estimates could be significant. Nitrous oxide emissions dominated in both magnitude and uncertainty. PMID:26564584

  16. Emerging energy security issues: Natural gas in the Gulf Nations, An overview of Middle East resources, export potentials, and markets. Report Series No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Ripple, R.D.; Hagen, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This paper proceeds with a presentation of the natural gas resource base of the Gulf nations of the Middle East. The resource base is put in the context of the world natural gas resource and trade flows. This is followed by a discussion of the existing and planned project to move Gulf natural gas to consuming regions. Then a discussion of the source of demand in the likely target markets for the Gulf resource follows. Next, the nature of LNG pricing is discussed. A brief summary concludes the paper.

  17. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Central Burma Basin and the Irrawaddy-Andaman and Indo-Burman Geologic Provinces, Myanmar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2012-01-01

    The Irrawaddy-Andaman and Indo-Burman Geologic Provinces were recently assessed for undiscovered technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.3 billion barrels of oil, 79.6 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 2.1 billion barrels of natrual gas liquids.

  18. The Permian Whitehill Formation (Karoo Basin, South Africa): deciphering the complexity and potential of an unconventional gas resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götz, Annette E.

    2014-05-01

    A key energy policy objective of the South African government is to diversify its energy mix from coal which constitutes 85% of the current mix. Gas will play a key role in the future South African economy with demand coming from electricity generation and gas-to-liquids projects. A study on world shale reserves conducted by the Energy Information Agency (EIA) in 2011 concluded that there could be as much as 485 Tcf recoverable reserves of shale gas in the South African Karoo Basin. However, the true extent and commercial viability is still unknown, due to the lack of exploration drilling and modern 3D seismic. The present study compiles existing data from literature review and new data from outcrop analogue studies on the Permian Whitehill Formation, the main target formation for future shale gas production, including thickness, depth, maturity, TOC, lithologies, sedimentary and organic facies, and dolerite occurrence to provide a first reference dataset for further investigations and resource estimates.

  19. Petroleum Systems and Geologic Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Wind River Basin Assessment Team

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Wind River Basin Province which encompasses about 4.7 million acres in central Wyoming. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined three TPSs: (1) Phosphoria TPS, (2) Cretaceous-Tertiary TPS, and (3) Waltman TPS. Within these systems, 12 Assessment Units (AU) were defined and undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively estimated within 10 of the 12 AUs.

  20. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Black Warrior Basin Province, Alabama and Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Joseph R.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Cambrian-Ordovician carbonate rocks, the Chattanooga and Floyd Shales, and the Pottsville Formation coals in the Black Warrior Basin Province in northeastern Mississippi and northwestern Alabama in the Gulf Coast Region. The Cambrian-Ordovician carbonate rocks, the Chattanooga and Floyd Shales, and the Pottsville Formation coals are important because of their potential for natural gas resources. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define two total petroleum systems and three assessment units. All three assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  1. Changing perceptions of United States natural-gas resources as shown by successive U. S. Department of the Interior assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmoker, James W.; Dyman, Thaddeus S.

    2001-01-01

    Trends in four successive estimates of United States technically recoverable natural gas resources are examined in this report. The effective dates of these assessments were January 1 of 1975, 1980, 1987, and 1994. The 1994 estimate of the U.S. total gas endowment increased significantly over the previous three estimates, indicating that the technically recoverable endowment of gas is not an absolute volume, but rather is a quantity that can increase through time in response to advances in technology and in geologic understanding. Much of this increase was in the category of reserve growth. Reserve growth refers to additions to the estimated ultimate recovery of fields that typically occur as discovered fields are developed and produced. The potential for U.S. reserve growth, rather than being rapidly used up, appears to be sustainable for many years by intensive engineering efforts coupled with improving technology. Potential additions to reserves in continuous (unconventional) accumulations also represent a type of reserve growth, and were estimated (for the first time) in the 1994 assessment at 358 trillion cubic feet of gas. This resource category provides a significant new contribution to the estimated U.S. total gas endowment.

  2. Constraints to leasing and development of federal resources: OCS oil and gas and geothermal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Chapter I identifies possible technological, economic, and environmental constraints to geothermal resource development. Chapter II discusses constraints relative to outer continental shelf and geothermal resources. General leasing information for each resource is detailed. Chapter III summarizes the major studies relating to development constraints. 37 refs. (PSB)

  3. Water resources and shale gas/oil production in the Appalachian Basin: critical issues and evolving developments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kappel, William M.; Williams, John H.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional natural gas and oil resources in the United States are important components of a national energy program. While the Nation seeks greater energy independence and greener sources of energy, Federal agencies with environmental responsibilities, state and local regulators and water-resource agencies, and citizens throughout areas of unconventional shale gas development have concerns about the environmental effects of high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF), including those in the Appalachian Basin in the northeastern United States (fig. 1). Environmental concerns posing critical challenges include the availability and use of surface water and groundwater for hydraulic fracturing; the migration of stray gas and potential effects on overlying aquifers; the potential for flowback, formation fluids, and other wastes to contaminate surface water and groundwater; and the effects from drill pads, roads, and pipeline infrastructure on land disturbance in small watersheds and headwater streams (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2012). Federal, state, regional and local agencies, along with the gas industry, are striving to use the best science and technology to develop these unconventional resources in an environmentally safe manner. Some of these concerns were addressed in U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fact Sheet 2009–3032 (Soeder and Kappel, 2009) about potential critical effects on water resources associated with the development of gas extraction from the Marcellus Shale of the Hamilton Group (Ver Straeten and others, 1994). Since that time, (1) the extraction process has evolved, (2) environmental awareness related to high-volume hydraulic fracturing process has increased, (3) state regulations concerning gas well drilling have been modified, and (4) the practices used by industry to obtain, transport, recover, treat, recycle, and ultimately dispose of the spent fluids and solid waste materials have evolved. This report updates and expands on Fact Sheet 2009–3032 and presents new information regarding selected aspects of unconventional shale gas development in the Appalachian Basin (primarily Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and New York). This document was prepared by the USGS, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, and reviews the evolving technical advances and scientific studies made in the Appalachian Basin between 2009 and the present (2013), addressing past and current issues for oil and gas development in the region.

  4. Assessment of Appalachian Basin Oil and Gas Resources: Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T.

    2008-01-01

    The Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (TPS) is an important TPS identified in the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Appalachian basin province (Milici and others, 2003). The TPS is named for the Upper Ordovician Utica Shale, which is the primary source rock, and for multiple lower Paleozoic sandstone and carbonate units that are the important reservoirs. Upper Cambrian through Upper Silurian petroleum-bearing strata that constitute the Utica-Lower Paleozoic TPS thicken eastward from about 2,700 ft at the western margin of the Appalachian basin to about 12,000 ft at the thrust-faulted eastern margin of the Appalachian basin. The Utica-Lower Paleozoic TPS covers approximately 170,000 mi2 of the Appalachian basin from northeastern Tennessee to southeastern New York and from central Ohio to eastern West Virginia. The boundary of the TPS is defined by the following geologic features: (1) the northern boundary (from central Ontario to northeastern New York) extends along the outcrop limit of the Utica Shale-Trenton Limestone; (2) the northeastern boundary (from southeastern New York, through southeastern Pennsylvania-western Maryland-easternmost West Virginia, to northern Virginia) extends along the eastern limit of the Utica Shale-Trenton Limestone in the thrust-faulted eastern margin of the Appalachian basin; (3) the southeastern boundary (from west-central and southwestern Virginia to eastern Tennessee) extends along the eastern limit of the Trenton Limestone in the thrust-faulted eastern margin of the Appalachian basin; (4) the southwestern boundary (from eastern Tennessee, through eastern Kentucky, to southwestern Ohio) extends along the approximate facies change from the Trenton Limestone with thin black shale interbeds (on the east) to the equivalent Lexington Limestone without black shale interbeds (on the west); (5) the northern part of the boundary in southwestern Ohio to the Indiana border extends along an arbitrary boundary between the Utica Shale of the Appalachian basin and the Utica Shale of the Sebree trough (Kolata and others, 2001); and (6) the northwestern boundary (from east-central Indiana, through northwesternmost Ohio and southeasternmost Michigan, to central Ontario) extends along the approximate southeastern boundary of the Michigan Basin. Although the Utica-Lower Paleozoic TPS extends into northwestern Ohio, southeastern Michigan, and northeastern Indiana, these areas have been assigned to the Michigan Basin (Swezey and others, 2005) and are outside the scope of this report. Furthermore, although the northern part of the Utica-Lower Paleozoic TPS extends across the Great Lakes (Lake Erie and Lake Ontario) into southern Ontario, Canada, only the undiscovered oil and gas resources in the U.S. waters of the Great Lakes have been included in the USGS assessment of the Utica-Lower Paleozoic TPS. This TPS is similar to the Point Pleasant-Brassfield petroleum system previously identified by Drozd and Cole (1994) in the Ohio part of the Appalachian basin.

  5. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Historical Oil and Gas Wells in Pennsylvania: Implications for New Shale Gas Resources.

    PubMed

    Dilmore, Robert M; Sams, James I; Glosser, Deborah; Carter, Kristin M; Bain, Daniel J

    2015-10-20

    Recent large-scale development of oil and gas from low-permeability unconventional formations (e.g., shales, tight sands, and coal seams) has raised concern about potential environmental impacts. If left improperly sealed, legacy oil and gas wells colocated with that new development represent a potential pathway for unwanted migration of fluids (brine, drilling and stimulation fluids, oil, and gas). Uncertainty in the number, location, and abandonment state of legacy wells hinders environmental assessment of exploration and production activity. The objective of this study is to apply publicly available information on Pennsylvania oil and gas wells to better understand their potential to serve as pathways for unwanted fluid migration. This study presents a synthesis of historical reports and digital well records to provide insights into spatial and temporal trends in oil and gas development. Areas with a higher density of wells abandoned prior to the mid-20th century, when more modern well-sealing requirements took effect in Pennsylvania, and areas where conventional oil and gas production penetrated to or through intervals that may be affected by new Marcellus shale development are identified. This information may help to address questions of environmental risk related to new extraction activities. PMID:26267137

  6. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Ordovician Utica Shale of the Appalachian Basin Province, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Cook, Troy A.; Ryder, Robert T.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey assessed unconventional oil and gas resources of the Upper Ordovician Utica Shale and adjacent units in the Appalachian Basin Province. The assessment covers parts of Maryland, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia. The geologic concept is that black shale of the Utica Shale and adjacent units generated hydrocarbons from Type II organic material in areas that are thermally mature for oil and gas. The source rocks generated petroleum that migrated into adjacent units, but also retained significant hydrocarbons within the matrix and adsorbed to organic matter of the shale. These are potentially technically recoverable resources that can be exploited by using horizontal drilling combined with hydraulic fracturing techniques.

  7. Competency-Based Testing for Occupational Students: A Resource Guide. Competency-Based Vocational Education Administrator Module Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This guide is intended to provide vocational administrators with general information about the current state of competency-based test development and specific information about selected products and services that are available or under development. The general information section deals with the types of test products and services that are…

  8. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Devonian Marcellus Shale of the Appalachian Basin Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, James L., Jr.; Milici, Robert C.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Kirshbaum, Mark; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated a mean undiscovered natural gas resource of 84,198 billion cubic feet and a mean undiscovered natural gas liquids resource of 3,379 million barrels in the Devonian Marcellus Shale within the Appalachian Basin Province. All this resource occurs in continuous accumulations. In 2011, the USGS completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Devonian Marcellus Shale within the Appalachian Basin Province of the eastern United States. The Appalachian Basin Province includes parts of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. The assessment of the Marcellus Shale is based on the geologic elements of this formation's total petroleum system (TPS) as recognized in the characteristics of the TPS as a petroleum source rock (source rock richness, thermal maturation, petroleum generation, and migration) as well as a reservoir rock (stratigraphic position and content and petrophysical properties). Together, these components confirm the Marcellus Shale as a continuous petroleum accumulation. Using the geologic framework, the USGS defined one TPS and three assessment units (AUs) within this TPS and quantitatively estimated the undiscovered oil and gas resources within the three AUs. For the purposes of this assessment, the Marcellus Shale is considered to be that Middle Devonian interval that consists primarily of shale and lesser amounts of bentonite, limestone, and siltstone occurring between the underlying Middle Devonian Onondaga Limestone (or its stratigraphic equivalents, the Needmore Shale and Huntersville Chert) and the overlying Middle Devonian Mahantango Formation (or its stratigraphic equivalents, the upper Millboro Shale and middle Hamilton Group).

  9. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.10 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Both conventional oil and gas resources and continuous (unconventional) gas resources are present in the UticaLower Paleozoic TPS. Conventional oil and gas resources in the Utica-Lower Paleozoic TPS were assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2002 in the following assessment units (AU): (1) the Lower Paleozoic Carbonates in Thrust Belt AU, (2) the Knox Unconformity AU, (3) the Black River-Trenton Hydrothermal Dolomite AU, and (4) the Lockport Dolomite AU. The total estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources for these four AUs, at a mean value, was about 46 million barrels of oil (MMBO) and about 3 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG), respectively. In contrast, continuous (unconventional) gas resources in the TPS were assessed by the USGS in 2002 in four AUs associated with the “Clinton” sandstone, Medina sandstone, Medina Group sandstones, Tuscarora Sandstone, and sandstones in the Queenston Shale. The total estimated undiscovered gas for these four AUs, at a mean value, was about 26.8 TCFG. A hypothetical Utica Shale AU for oil(?) and continuous gas is identified in this report. In 2012, the Utica Shale was recognized by the USGS as a continuous AU and was assessed by Kirschbaum and others (2012).

  10. Assessment of Undiscovered Natural Gas Resources of the Arkoma Basin Province and Geologically Related Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.; Coleman, James L., Jr.; Milici, Robert C.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Rouse, William A.; Fulk, Bryant R.; Paxton, Stanley T.; Abbott, Marvin M.; Mars, John L.; Cook, Troy A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered natural gas, 159 million barrels of natural gas liquid (MMBNGL), and no oil in accumulations of 0.5 million barrels (MMBO) or larger in the Arkoma Basin Province and related areas. More than 97 percent of the undiscovered gas occurs in continuous accumulations-70 percent in shale gas formations, 18 percent in a basin-centered accumulation with tight sandstone reservoirs, and 9 percent in coal beds. Less than 3 percent of the natural gas occurs in conventional accumulations.

  11. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    SciTech Connect

    Peggy Robinson

    2004-07-01

    This report contains a summary of activities of Gnomon, Inc. and five subcontractors that have taken place during the first six months of 2004 (January 1, 2004-June 30, 2004) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement: ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil & Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming'', DE-FC26-02NT15445. Although Gnomon and all five subcontractors completed tasks during these six months, most of the technical experimental work was conducted by the subcontractor, SRI Foundation (SRIF). SRIF created a sensitivity model for the Azotea Mesa area of southeastern New Mexico that rates areas as having a very good chance, a good chance, or a very poor chance of containing cultural resource sites. SRIF suggested that the results of the sensitivity model might influence possible changes in cultural resource management (CRM) practices in the Azote Mesa area of southeastern New Mexico.

  12. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    SciTech Connect

    Peggy Robinson

    2004-01-01

    This report contains a summary of activities of Gnomon, Inc. and five subcontractors that have taken place during the second six months (July 1, 2003-December 31, 2003) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement: ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil & Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming'', DE-FC26-02NT15445. Although Gnomon and all five subcontractors completed tasks during these six months, most of the technical experimental work was conducted by the subcontractor, SRI Foundation (SRIF). SRIF created a sensitivity model for the Loco Hills area of southeastern New Mexico that rates areas as having a very good chance, a good chance, or a very poor chance of containing cultural resource sites. SRIF suggested that the results of the sensitivity model might influence possible changes in cultural resource management (CRM) practices in the Loco Hills area of southeastern New Mexico.

  13. Extent of gas hydrate filled fracture planes: Implications for in situ methanogenesis and resource potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Ann E.; Goldberg, David

    2008-08-01

    High-angle gas hydrate filled fracture planes were identified along a 31 m interval in logging while drilling images in two holes located ~11 m apart drilled during the Indian National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01, offshore India. Using Monte Carlo simulations to account for uncertainty in hole location, hole deviation, strike and dip, we assert with 95% confidence that the fracture planes in the two holes are not the same. The gas hydrate filled fracture planes likely only extend a few meters laterally from each borehole and occur in an isolated interval in the middle of the gas hydrate stability zone. This suggests gas generated microbially within in the gas hydrate stability zone may have supplied the gas hydrate-filled fracture interval. Production of methane from these reservoirs using conventional methods may be quite challenging.

  14. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources:Devonian shale - Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milici, Robert C.; Swezey, Christopher S.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of the technically recoverable undiscovered hydrocarbon resources of the Appalachian Basin Province. The assessment province includes parts of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia and Alabama. The assessment was based on six major petroleum systems, which include strata that range in age from Cambrian to Pennsylvanian. The Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (TPS) extends generally from New York to Tennessee. This petroleum system has produced a large proportion of the oil and natural gas that has been discovered in the Appalachian basin since the drilling of the Drake well in Pennsylvania in 1859. For assessment purposes, the TPS was divided into 10 assessment units (plays), 4 of which were classified as conventional and 6 as continuous. The results were reported as fully risked fractiles (F95, F50, F5 and the Mean), with the fractiles indicating the probability of recovery of the assessment amount. Products reported were oil (millions of barrels of oil, MMBO), gas (billions of cubic feet of gas, BCFG), and natural gas liquids (millions of barrels of natural gas liquids, MMBNGL). The mean estimates for technically recoverable undiscovered hydrocarbons in the TPS are: 7.53 MMBO, 31,418.88 BCFG (31.42 trillion cubic feet) of gas, and 562.07 MMBNGL.

  15. Wide-Area Energy Storage and Management system to Balance Intermittent Resources in the Bonneville Power Administration and California ISO Control Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Yang, Bo; DeSteese, John G.; Lu, Shuai; Miller, Carl H.; Nyeng, Preben; Ma, Jian; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Vishwanathan, Vilanyur V.

    2008-06-30

    The entire project addresses the issue of mitigating additional intermittency and fast ramps that occur at higher penetration of intermittent resources, including wind genera-tion, in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the California Independent Sys-tem Operator (California ISO) control areas. The proposed Wide Area Energy Storage and Management System (WAEMS) will address the additional regulation requirement through the energy exchange between the participating control areas and through the use of energy storage and other generation resources. For the BPA and California ISO control centers, the new regulation service will look no different comparing with the traditional regulation resources. The proposed project will benefit the regulation service in these service areas, regardless of the actual degree of penetration of the intermittent resources in the regions. The project develops principles, algorithms, market integration rules, functional de-sign and technical specifications for the WAEMS system. The project is sponsored by BPA and supported in kind by California ISO, Beacon Power Corporation, and the Cali-fornia Energy Commission (CEC).

  16. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Permian Basin Province of West Texas and Southeast New Mexico, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Harry E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Permian Basin Province of west Texas and southeast New Mexico. The assessment was geology based and used the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system are petroleum source rocks (quality, source rock maturation, generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy, petrophysical properties), and traps (trap formation and timing). This study assessed potential for technically recoverable resources in new field discoveries only; field growth (or reserve growth) of conventional oil and gas fields was not included. Using this methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 41 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas and a mean of 1.3 billion barrels of undiscovered oil in the Permian Basin Province.

  17. Oil and gas resource atlas series: Offshore Northern Gulf of Mexico. Annual report, November 1, 1993-October 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Seni, S.J.; Desselle, B.A.

    1994-11-01

    The goal of the Oil and Gas Resource Atlas Series: Offshore Northern Gulf of Mexico is to develop an atlas of hydrocarbon plays that integrates data for oil and gas reservoirs with large-scale patterns of basin fill and age. During the second year of the 4-year program, tasks centered on program management and analysis of reservoir data. Approximately 140 plays have been identified in the Federal OCS and Texas State waters. Plays in Texas State waters are gas prone and structurally trapped in rollover anticlines. In the Federal OCS, highly productive structural styles include growth-faulted rollover anticlines and salt domes. Lower Miocene plays are characterized by progradiational and submarine-fan reservoirs of Lenticulina and Siphonina davisi chronozones. Middle Miocene plays are characterized by progradational and retrogradational depositional styles. Upper Miocene plays are dominated by progadational depositional style, and Plio-Pleistocene plays include abundant progradational and submarine-fan reservoirs.

  18. Non-Renewable Resources Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This document is designed to help teachers and administrators in Alaska develop secondary and postsecondary training in nonrenewable natural resources. Its competencies reflect those needed for entry-level employment in the following industries as identified by international businesses surveyed in Alaska: gas and petroleum, coal, placer, and…

  19. Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development

    SciTech Connect

    Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

    2002-09-01

    Accurate and verifiable emission reductions are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated emissions reductions. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG emission reduction can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs that deal with passenger vehicles--and with transportation in general--do not address the climate change component explicitly, and thus there are few GHG reduction goals that are included in these programs. Furthermore, there are relatively few protocols that exist for accounting for the GHG emissions reductions that arise from transportation and, specifically, passenger vehicle projects and programs. These accounting procedures and principles gain increased importance when a project developer wishes to document in a credible manner, the GHG reductions that are achieved by a given project or program. Section four of this paper outlined the GHG emissions associated with NGVs, both upstream and downstream, and section five illustrated the methodology, via hypothetical case studies, for measuring these reductions using different types of baselines. Unlike stationary energy combustion, GHG emissions from transportation activities, including NGV projects, come from dispersed sources creating a need for different methodologies for assessing GHG impacts. This resource guide has outlined the necessary context and background for those parties wishing to evaluate projects and develop programs, policies, projects, and legislation aimed at the promotion of NGVs for GHG emission reduction.

  20. Energy efficiency resources in existing residences served by natural gas in Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, R.; Quaid, M.; Schueler, V.

    1990-12-01

    This report analyzes and tabulates the cost of energy efficiency measures as they apply to Washington's existing housing stock that depends on natural gas for space and water heat. The report focuses on estimating the cost of conserving therms of natural gas with efficiency measures. These costs are calculated from the economic perspective of a natural gas utility looking to make cost-effective utility investments. The cost of conserving therms of natural gas is calculated in a manner that permits comparison to the estimated cost of future gas suppliers. The analysis concentrates on weatherization or space heating measures, and measures that improve the efficiency of heating and using domestic hot water. Space heating and water heating are the two principal end-uses of natural gas in residences.

  1. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.

    2006-10-12

    Previously conducted preliminary investigations within the deep Delaware and Val Verde sub-basins of the Permian Basin complex documented bottom hole temperatures from oil and gas wells that reach the 120-180C temperature range, and occasionally beyond. With large abundances of subsurface brine water, and known porosity and permeability, the deep carbonate strata of the region possess a good potential for future geothermal power development. This work was designed as a 3-year project to investigate a new, undeveloped geographic region for establishing geothermal energy production focused on electric power generation. Identifying optimum geologic and geographic sites for converting depleted deep gas wells and fields within a carbonate environment into geothermal energy extraction wells was part of the project goals. The importance of this work was to affect the three factors limiting the expansion of geothermal development: distribution, field size and accompanying resource availability, and cost. Historically, power production from geothermal energy has been relegated to shallow heat plumes near active volcanic or geyser activity, or in areas where volcanic rocks still retain heat from their formation. Thus geothermal development is spatially variable and site specific. Additionally, existing geothermal fields are only a few 10’s of square km in size, controlled by the extent of the heat plume and the availability of water for heat movement. This plume radiates heat both vertically as well as laterally into the enclosing country rock. Heat withdrawal at too rapid a rate eventually results in a decrease in electrical power generation as the thermal energy is “mined”. The depletion rate of subsurface heat directly controls the lifetime of geothermal energy production. Finally, the cost of developing deep (greater than 4 km) reservoirs of geothermal energy is perceived as being too costly to justify corporate investment. Thus further development opportunities for geothermal resources have been hindered. To increase the effective regional implementation of geothermal resources as an energy source for power production requires meeting several objectives. These include: 1) Expand (oil and gas as well as geothermal) industry awareness of an untapped source of geothermal energy within deep permeable strata of sedimentary basins; 2) Identify and target specific geographic areas within sedimentary basins where deeper heat sources can be developed; 3) Increase future geothermal field size from 10 km2 to many 100’s km2 or greater; and 4) Increase the productive depth range for economic geothermal energy extraction below the current 4 km limit by converting deep depleted and abandoned gas wells and fields into geothermal energy extraction wells. The first year of the proposed 3-year resource assessment covered an eight county region within the Delaware and Val Verde Basins of West Texas. This project has developed databases in Excel spreadsheet form that list over 8,000 temperature-depth recordings. These recordings come from header information listed on electric well logs recordings from various shallow to deep wells that were drilled for oil and gas exploration and production. The temperature-depth data is uncorrected and thus provides the lower temperature that is be expected to be encountered within the formation associated with the temperature-depth recording. Numerous graphs were developed from the data, all of which suggest that a log-normal solution for the thermal gradient is more descriptive of the data than a linear solution. A discussion of these plots and equations are presented within the narrative. Data was acquired that enable the determination of brine salinity versus brine density with the Permian Basin. A discussion on possible limestone and dolostone thermal conductivity parameters is presented with the purpose of assisting in determining heat flow and reservoir heat content for energy extraction. Subsurface maps of temperature either at a constant depth or within a target geothermal reservoir are discussed, but have yet to be completed.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Mackenzie Delta province, North America, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, Mitchell E.; Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 40 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered nonassociated gas, a mean of 10.5 billion barrels of undiscovered oil (with 46.6 trillion cubic feet of associated gas), and a mean of 4.0 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Mackenzie Delta Province of North America, exclusive of the unassessed deep-water portion of the province.

  3. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources, onshore Claiborne Group, United Statespart of the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, P.C.; Ewing, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    The middle Eocene Claiborne Group was assessed for undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources using established U.S. Geological Survey assessment methodology. This work was conducted as part of a 2007 assessment of Paleogene-Neogene strata of the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin, including the United States onshore and state waters (Dubiel et al., 2007). The assessed area is within the Upper Jurassic-CretaceousTertiary composite total petroleum system, which was defined for the assessment. Source rocks for Claiborne oil accumulations are interpreted to be organic-rich, downdip, shaley facies of the Wilcox Group and the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group; gas accumulations may have originated from multiple sources, including the Jurassic Smackover Formation and the Haynesville and Bossier shales, the Cretaceous Eagle Ford and Pearsall (?) formations, and the Paleogene Wilcox Group and Sparta Sand. Hydrocarbon generation in the basin started prior to deposition of Claiborne sediments and is currently ongoing. Primary reservoir sandstones in the Claiborne Group include, from oldest to youngest, the Queen City Sand, Cook Mountain Formation, Sparta Sand, Yegua Formation, and the laterally equivalent Cockfield Formation. A geologic model, supported by spatial analysis of petroleum geology data, including discovered reservoir depths, thicknesses, temperatures, porosities, permeabilities, and pressures, was used to divide the Claiborne Group into seven assessment units (AUs) with three distinctive structural and depositional settings. The three structural and depositional settings are (1) stable shelf, (2) expanded fault zone, and (3) slope and basin floor; the seven AUs are (1) lower Claiborne stable-shelf gas and oil, (2) lower Claiborne expanded fault-zone gas, (3) lower Claiborne slope and basin-floor gas, (4) lower Claiborne Cane River, (5) upper Claiborne stable-shelf gas and oil, (6) upper Claiborne expanded fault-zone gas, and (7) upper Claiborne slope and basin-floor gas. Based on Monte Carlo simulation of justified input parameters, the total estimated mean undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources in the seven AUs combined are 52 million bbl of oil, 19.145 tcf of natural gas, and 1.205 billion bbl of natural gas liquids. This article describes the conceptual geologic model used to define the seven Claiborne AUs, the characteristics of each AU, and the justification behind the input parameters used to estimate undiscovered resources for each AU. The great bulk of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources are predicted to be nonassociated gas and natural gas liquids contained in deep (mostiy >12,000-ft [3658 m], present-day drilling depths), overpressured, structurally complex outer shelf or slope and basin-floor Claiborne reservoirs. The continuing development of these downdip objectives is expected to be the primary focus of exploration activity for the onshore middle Eocene Gulf Coast in the coming decades. ?? 2010 U.S. Geological Survey. All rights reserved.

  4. LAVA Subsystem Integration and Testing for the RESOLVE Payload of the Resource Prospector Mission: Mass Spectrometers and Gas Chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coan, Mary R.; Stewart, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    The Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload is part of Resource Prospector (RP) along with a rover and a lander that are expected to launch in 2020. RP will identify volatile elements that may be combined and collected to be used for fuel, air, and water in order to enable deeper space exploration. The Resource Prospector mission is a key part of In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). The demand for this method of utilizing resources at the site of exploration is increasing due to the cost of resupply missions and deep space exploration goals. The RESOLVE payload includes the Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) subsystem. The main instrument used to identify the volatiles evolved from the lunar regolith is the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). LAVA analyzes the volatiles emitted from the Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) Subsystem. The objective of OVEN is to obtain, weigh, heat and transfer evolved gases to LAVA through the connection between the two subsystems called the LOVEN line. This paper highlights the work completed during a ten week internship that involved the integration, testing, data analysis, and procedure documentation of two candidate mass spectrometers for the LAVA subsystem in order to aid in determining which model to use for flight. Additionally, the examination of data from the integrated Resource Prospector '15 (RP' 15) field test will be presented in order to characterize the amount of water detected from water doped regolith samples.

  5. Assessment of potential additions to conventional oil and gas resources of the world (outside the United States) from reserve growth, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, Phil A.; Ryder, Robert T.; Gautier, Donald L.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Le, Phuong A.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources resulting from reserve growth for discovered fields outside the United States that have reported in-place oil and gas volumes of 500 million barrels of oil equivalent or greater. The mean volumes were estimated at 665 billion barrels of crude oil, 1,429 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 16 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. These volumes constitute a significant portion of the world's oil and gas resources.

  6. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Dnieper-Donets Basin Province and Pripyat Basin Province, Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 84 million barrels of crude oil, 4.7 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 130 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Dnieper-Donets Basin Province and 39 million barrels of crude oil, 48 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Pripyat Basin Province. The assessments are part of a program to estimate these resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  7. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Bighorn Basin Province, Wyoming and Montana, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 989 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, a mean of 72 million barrels of undiscovered oil, and a mean of 13 million barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Bighorn Basin Providence of Wyoming and Montana.

  8. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Warrior Basin Province, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black Warrior Basin Province Assessment Team: Hatch, Joseph R.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Crovelli, Robert A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2003-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 8.5 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, a mean of 5.9 million barrels of undiscovered oil, and a mean of 7.6 million barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Black Warrior Basin Province.

  9. Assessment of unconventional oil and gas resources in Northeast Mexico, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Weaver, Jean Noe

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 0.78 billion barrels of unconventional oil, 23.5 trillion cubic feet of unconventional gas, and 0.88 billion barrels of natural gas liquids in the Sabinas Basin, Burgos Basin, and Tampico-Misantla Basin provinces of northeast Mexico.

  10. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources in Tertiary Strata of the Gulf Coast, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gulf Coast Assessment Team

    2007-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 113.7 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, a mean of 690 million barrels of undiscovered oil, and a mean of 3.7 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in onshore lands and State waters of the Gulf Coast.

  11. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of Libya and Tunisia, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whidden, Katherine J.; Lewan, Michael; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Rondald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 3.97 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 38.5 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, and 1.47 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in two provinces of North Africa.

  12. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Nile Delta Basin Province, Eastern Mediterranean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 1.8 billion barrels of recoverable oil, 223 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas, and 6 billion barrels of natural gas liquids in the Nile Delta Basin Province using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  13. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Appalachian Basin Province, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Appalachian Basin Province Assessment Team: Milici, Robert C.; Ryder, Robert T.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Crovelli, Robert A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2003-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 70.2 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, a mean of 54 million barrels of undiscovered oil, and a mean of 872 million barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Appalachian Basin Province.

  14. Property-rights application in utilization of natural resources: the case of Iran's natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Abghari, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    The concessionaries produce more oil in Iran because of fear of nationalization, lower oil production costs in the Middle East, and more investment opportunities around the globe. This higher discount rate means more oil production and also, more natural gas, a joint product, is produced. Produced natural gas could have been used in the Iranian market, or exported. Low oil prices and high transportation costs of natural gas resulted in the low well-head value of natural gas. The fear of nationalization kept concessionaires from utilizing natural gas in Iran's domestic market. The high transportation costs of natural gas was a negative factor in export utilization. Also, if natural gas, which can be substituted for oil in many uses, were to be utilized, concessionaires would have had to produce less oil. Because oil had a well-established market, it would have been contrary to their interest to leave a lot of oil underground while their concessions ran out. Consequently, they chose to take the oil and flare natural gas. The Iranian government must take responsibility in this matter also. The country's rulers were not concerned with maximizing the country's wealth, but maximizing the security of their regimes, and their personal wealth and pleasure.

  15. Impact of Shale Gas Development on Water Resource in Fuling, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong; Huang, Xianjin; Yang, Qinyuan; Tu, Jianjun

    2015-04-01

    As a low-carbon energy, shale gas rapidly developed in U.S. in last years due to the innovation of the technique of hydraulic fracture, or fracking. Shale gas boom produces more gas with low price and reduced the reliance on fuel import. To follow the American shale gas success, China made an ambitious plan of shale gas extraction, 6.5 billion m3 by 2015. To extract shale gas, huge amount water is needed to inject into each gas well. This will intensify the competition of water use between industry, agricultural and domestic sectors. It may finally exacerbate the water scarcity in China. After the extraction, some water was returned to the ground. Without adequate treatment, the flowback water can introduce heavy metal, acids, pesticides, and other toxic material into water and land. This may inevitably worsen the water and land contamination. This study analysed the potential water consumption and wastewater generation in shale gas development in Fuling, Southwest China. The survey found the average water consumption is 30,000 cubic meter for one well, higher than shale well in U.S. Some 2%-20% water flowed back to the ground. The water quality monitoring showed the Total Suspended Solid (TSS) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) were the main factors above those specified by China's water regulation. Shale gas is a lower-carbon energy, but it is important to recognize the water consuming and environmental pollution during the fracking. Strict monitoring and good coordination during the shale gas exploitation is urgently needed for the balance of economic development, energy demand and environmental protection.

  16. Living marine resources of the Chukchi Sea: a resource report for the Chukchi Sea oil and gas lease sale Number 85. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, B.F.

    1981-04-01

    An area of the outer continental shelf of the northeastern Chukchi Sea is currently proposed by the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Land Management for oil and gas leasing in February 1985. The report assesses the biological resources of the northeastern Chukchi Sea that may be at risk from petroleum exploration and development, and proposes research needs to minimize and avoid potential biological impacts. The Chukchi Sea supports large populations of marine mammals and seabirds, which depend on the fish and invertebrate populations of the region. The marine mammals of major importance in the region are the bowhead whale, gray whale, beluga whale, walrus, ringed seal, bearded seal, spotted seal, and polar bear. Less frequent but regular visitors to the area are the fin, minke, humpback, and killer whales, the harbor porpoise, and ribbon seals.

  17. Assessment of Undiscovered Technically Recoverable Oil and Gas Resources of the Bakken Formation, Williston Basin, Montana and North Dakota, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, R.M.; Roberts, L.N.R.; Cook, T.A.; Lewan, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and associated gas resources of the Upper Devonian to Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation in the U.S. portion of the Williston Basin of Montana and North Dakota and within the Williston Basin Province. The assessment is based on geologic elements of a total petroleum system (TPS), which include (1) source-rock distribution, thickness, organic richness, maturation, petroleum generation, and migration; (2) reservoir-rock type (conventional or continuous), distribution, and quality; and (3) character of traps and time of formation with respect to petroleum generation and migration. Framework studies in stratigraphy and structural geology and modeling of petroleum geochemistry, combined with historical exploration and production analyses, were used to estimate the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil resource of the Bakken Formation. Using this framework, the USGS defined a Bakken-Lodgepole TPS and seven assessment units (AU) within the system. For the Bakken Formation, the undiscovered oil and associated gas resources were quantitatively estimated for six of these AUs.

  18. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,

  19. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  20. Tabular data, text, and graphical images in support of the 1995 National assessment of United States oil and gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, T.R.; Obuch, R.C.; Brewton, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains files in support of the 1995 USGS National assessment of United States oil and gas resources (DDS-30), which was published separately and summarizes the results of a 3-year study of the oil and gas resources of the onshore and state waters of the United States. The study describes about 560 oil and gas plays in the United States; confirmed and hypothetical, conventional and unconventional. A parallel study of the Federal offshore is being conducted by the U.S. Minerals Management Service. This CD-ROM contains files in multiple formats, so that almost any computer user can import them into word processors and spreadsheets. The tabular data include some tables not released in DDS-30. No proprietary data are released on this CD-ROM, but some tables of summary statistics from the proprietary files are provided. The complete text of DDS-30 is also available, as well as many figures. Also included are some of the programs used in the assessment, in source code and with supporting documentation. A companion CD-ROM (DDS-35) includes the map data and the same text data, but none of the tabular data or assessment programs.

  1. An Allocation of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources to Gauley River National Recreation Area and New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Crovelli, Robert A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Milici, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of undiscovered oil and gas resources that may underlie Gauley River National Recreation Area and New River Gorge National River in West Virginia. Using the results of an assessment of undiscovered resources from ten assessment units in the Appalachian Basin Province that include these land parcels, the USGS allocated 2.9 billion cubic feet of gas, 1.6 thousand barrels of oil, and 45 thousand barrels of natural gas liquids to part of Gauley River National Recreation Area, and 39 billion cubic feet of gas, 24 thousand barrels of oil, and 644 thousand barrels of natural gas liquids to New River Gorge National River. These allocated volumes of undiscovered resources represent potential volumes in undiscovered fields.

  2. An allocation of undiscovered oil and gas resources to Big South Fork National Recreation Area and Obed Wild and Scenic River, Kentucky and Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated volumes of undiscovered oil and gas resources that may underlie Big South Fork National Recreation Area and Obed Wild and Scenic River in Kentucky and Tennessee. Applying the results of existing assessments of undiscovered resources from three assessment units in the Appalachian Basin Province and three plays in the Cincinnati Arch Province that include these land parcels, the USGS allocated approximately (1) 16 billion cubic feet of gas, 15 thousand barrels of oil, and 232 thousand barrels of natural gas liquids to Big South Fork National Recreation Area; and (2) 0.5 billion cubic feet of gas, 0.6 thousand barrels of oil, and 10 thousand barrels of natural gas liquids to Obed Wild and Scenic River. These estimated volumes of undiscovered resources represent potential volumes in new undiscovered fields, but do not include potential additions to reserves within existing fields.

  3. Gas hydrates (clathrates) in the geosciences -- resource, hazard, and global change

    SciTech Connect

    Kvenvolden, K.A. )

    1993-11-01

    Natural gas hydrates are solid, ice-like substances composed of rigid cages of water molecules that enclose molecules of gas, mainly methane. These substances are sometimes called water clathrates of methane or methane clathrates, but the terms [open quotes]methane hydrates[close quotes] or [open quotes]gas hydrates[close quotes] are most commonly used in the geoscience literature to describe these extensive deposits of solidified water and methane. Natural gas hydrates occur under specific conditions of pressure and temperature, where the supply of methane is sufficient to stabilize the hydrate structure. These conditions are met on Earth in shallow, less than 2000-m-deep sediment of two regions: high latitudes where surface temperatures are very cold, and the deep sea where pressures are very high. Thus, at high latitudes, gas hydrates are found in sediments of continental slopes and rises. The amount of methane present in gas hydrates is thought to be enormous, but estimates are more speculative than real. Nevertheless, at present there has been a convergence of ideas regarding the size of this worldwide reservoir. Today's best guess is that there are about 10[sup 4] Gt (Gigatons = 10[sup 15] g) of methane carbon in gas hydrates. This number translates to about 18 [times] 10[sup 15] m[sup 3] or 6.5 [times] 10[sup 5] tcf of methane. If this number is correct, there is more carbon in gas hydrates than in all known fossil fuel deposits by a factor of perhaps two. The potentially large size of the gas-hydrate reservoir and its shallow depth are two of the principal factors driving research concerning these substances. Such a large reservoir of methane, if it could be harnessed, provides a potential energy source for the future, but probably not until well into the 21st century.

  4. Assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of Armenia, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 1 million barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional oil and 6 billion cubic feet of undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional natural gas in Armenia.

  5. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Levant Basin Province, Eastern Mediterranean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 1.7 billion barrels of recoverable oil and a mean of 122 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas in the Levant Basin Province using a geology based assessment methodology.

  6. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of Southeast Asia, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated means of 21.6 billion barrels of oil and 299 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in 22 provinces of southeast Asia.

  7. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Red Sea Basin Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 5 billion barrels of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and 112 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas in the Red Sea Basin Province using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  8. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of South America and the Caribbean, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 126 billion barrels of oil and 679 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in 31 geologic provinces of South America and the Caribbean.

  9. Benefits of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation on the Supply, Management, and Use of Water Resources in the United States

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Strzepek, K.; Neumann, Jim; Smith, Joel; Martinich, Jeremy; Boehlert, Brent; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Henderson, Jim; Wobus, Cameron; Jones, Russ; Calvin, Katherine V.; et al

    2014-11-29

    Climate change impacts on water resources in the U.S. are likely to be far-reaching and substantial, because the water sector spans many parts of the economy, from supply and demand for agriculture, industry, energy production, transportation and municipal use to damages from natural hazards. This paper provides impact and damage estimates from five water resource-related models in the CIRA frame work, addressing drought risk, flooding damages, water supply and demand, and global water scarcity. The four models differ in the water system assessed, their spatial scale, and the units of assessment, but together they provide a quantitative and descriptive richnessmore » in characterizing water resource sector effects of climate change that no single model can capture. The results also address the sensitivity of these estimates to greenhouse gas emission scenarios, climate sensitivity alternatives, and global climate model selection. While calculating the net impact of climate change on the water sector as a whole may be impractical, because each of the models applied here uses a consistent set of climate scenarios, broad conclusions can be drawn regarding the patterns of change and the benefits of GHG mitigation policies for the water sector. Two key findings emerge: 1) climate mitigation policy substantially reduces the impact of climate change on the water sector across multiple dimensions; and 2) the more managed the water resources system, the more tempered the climate change impacts and the resulting reduction of impacts from climate mitigation policies.« less

  10. Benefits of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation on the Supply, Management, and Use of Water Resources in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Strzepek, K.; Neumann, Jim; Smith, Joel; Martinich, Jeremy; Boehlert, Brent; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Henderson, Jim; Wobus, Cameron; Jones, Russ; Calvin, Katherine V.; Johnson, D.; Monier, Erwan; Strzepek, J.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2014-11-29

    Climate change impacts on water resources in the U.S. are likely to be far-reaching and substantial, because the water sector spans many parts of the economy, from supply and demand for agriculture, industry, energy production, transportation and municipal use to damages from natural hazards. This paper provides impact and damage estimates from five water resource-related models in the CIRA frame work, addressing drought risk, flooding damages, water supply and demand, and global water scarcity. The four models differ in the water system assessed, their spatial scale, and the units of assessment, but together they provide a quantitative and descriptive richness in characterizing water resource sector effects of climate change that no single model can capture. The results also address the sensitivity of these estimates to greenhouse gas emission scenarios, climate sensitivity alternatives, and global climate model selection. While calculating the net impact of climate change on the water sector as a whole may be impractical, because each of the models applied here uses a consistent set of climate scenarios, broad conclusions can be drawn regarding the patterns of change and the benefits of GHG mitigation policies for the water sector. Two key findings emerge: 1) climate mitigation policy substantially reduces the impact of climate change on the water sector across multiple dimensions; and 2) the more managed the water resources system, the more tempered the climate change impacts and the resulting reduction of impacts from climate mitigation policies.

  11. Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerle, William; Hall, Stephen

    2005-12-30

    In 2002, Gnomon, Inc., entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for a project entitled, Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming (DE-FC26-02NT15445). This project, funded through DOE’s Preferred Upstream Management Practices grant program, examined cultural resource management practices in two major oil- and gas-producing areas, southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming (Figure 1). The purpose of this project was to examine how cultural resources have been investigated and managed and to identify more effective management practices. The project also was designed to build information technology and modeling tools to meet both current and future management needs. The goals of the project were described in the original proposal as follows: Goal 1. Create seamless information systems for the project areas. Goal 2. Examine what we have learned from archaeological work in the southeastern New Mexico oil fields and whether there are better ways to gain additional knowledge more rapidly or at a lower cost. Goal 3. Provide useful sensitivity models for planning, management, and as guidelines for field investigations. Goal 4. Integrate management, investigation, and decision- making in a real-time electronic system. Gnomon, Inc., in partnership with the Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office (WYSHPO) and Western GeoArch Research, carried out the Wyoming portion of the project. SRI Foundation, in partnership with the New Mexico Historic Preservation Division (NMHPD), Statistical Research, Inc., and Red Rock Geological Enterprises, completed the New Mexico component of the project. Both the New Mexico and Wyoming summaries concluded with recommendations how cultural resource management (CRM) processes might be modified based on the findings of this research.

  12. Planning, development, and administration of the GRI HFTS and related tight-gas-sand research project. Annual report, January 1991-December 1991. [Hydraulic Fracture Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.E.

    1992-06-01

    The overall objectives of the work performed by CER in the contract are to (1) provide technical and administrative support in fielding the Hydraulic Fracture Test Site; (2) provide technical and administrative support in performing cooperative research wells; (3) provide support in subcontract and consortia administration; (4) provide technical and administrative support in performing research at the existing GRI Staged Field Experiment Wells; and (5) document and transfer project technology. In support of these goals, CER performed the following tasks. CER participated in site selection planning which ultimately led to the section of the Davis Sandstone in the Ft. Worth Basin (Texas) as site suitable for HFTS research. The initial test well, or Data Well No. 1, was drilled in June 1991. CER assisted in the planning, execution and analysis of the data acquisition program on the well. In addition, CER administered all of the project costs associated with the HFTS. Eight Tight Gas Sands Program co-op wells were coordinated or administered by CER in 1991. These wells were performed in cooperation with Kerr McGee Corporation, Maxus Exploration, Amoco Production Company, Phillips Petroleum Company, Enron Oil and Gas Company, Belden and Blake, and Ashland Oil Company. With regard to technology transfer, CER published three volumes of 'In Focus - Tight Gas Sands' to a total distribution of approximately 1,800 individuals. In addition, CER coordinated the execution of a Frontier Formation workshop and initiated efforts to conduct two more in 1992.

  13. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Uteland Butte Member of the Eocene Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered resources of 214 million barrels of oil, 329 billion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 14 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the informal Uteland Butte member of the Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah.

  14. A critical review of the risks to water resources from unconventional shale gas development and hydraulic fracturing in the United States.

    PubMed

    Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B; Warner, Nathaniel; Darrah, Thomas H; Kondash, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The rapid rise of shale gas development through horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing has expanded the extraction of hydrocarbon resources in the U.S. The rise of shale gas development has triggered an intense public debate regarding the potential environmental and human health effects from hydraulic fracturing. This paper provides a critical review of the potential risks that shale gas operations pose to water resources, with an emphasis on case studies mostly from the U.S. Four potential risks for water resources are identified: (1) the contamination of shallow aquifers with fugitive hydrocarbon gases (i.e., stray gas contamination), which can also potentially lead to the salinization of shallow groundwater through leaking natural gas wells and subsurface flow; (2) the contamination of surface water and shallow groundwater from spills, leaks, and/or the disposal of inadequately treated shale gas wastewater; (3) the accumulation of toxic and radioactive elements in soil or stream sediments near disposal or spill sites; and (4) the overextraction of water resources for high-volume hydraulic fracturing that could induce water shortages or conflicts with other water users, particularly in water-scarce areas. Analysis of published data (through January 2014) reveals evidence for stray gas contamination, surface water impacts in areas of intensive shale gas development, and the accumulation of radium isotopes in some disposal and spill sites. The direct contamination of shallow groundwater from hydraulic fracturing fluids and deep formation waters by hydraulic fracturing itself, however, remains controversial. PMID:24606408

  15. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Caspian Basin, Middle Caspian Basin, North Ustyurt Basin, and South Caspian Basin Provinces, Caspian Sea Area, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 19.6 billion barrels of crude oil, 243 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 9.3 billion barrels of natural gas liquids for the Caspian Sea area, using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  16. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered, Technically Recoverable Coalbed-Gas Resources in Cretaceous and Tertiary Rocks, North Slope and Adjacent State Waters, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Stephen B., (compiler)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geology-based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States, focusing on the distribution, quantity, and availability of oil and natural gas resources. The USGS has completed an assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable coalbed-gas resources in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks underlying the North Slope and adjacent State waters of Alaska (USGS Northern Alaska Province 5001). The province is a priority Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) province for the National Assessment because of its potential for oil and gas resources. The assessment of this province is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). In the Northern Alaska Province, the USGS used this geologic framework to define one composite coalbed gas total petroleum system and three coalbed gas assessment units within the petroleum system, and quantitatively estimated the undiscovered coalbed-gas resources within each assessment unit.

  17. Collateral benefits arising from mass administration of azithromycin in the control of active trachoma in resource limited settings

    PubMed Central

    Kigen, Gabriel; Rotich, Joseph; Karimurio, Jefitha; Rono, Hillary

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The benefits of the use of antibiotics in the mass treatment for active trachoma and other diseases have been documented, but the secondary effects arising from such a programme have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential secondary benefits arising from the use of azithromycin in mass treatment of active trachoma in an economically challenged Kenyan nomadic community. Methods Health information reports for January 2005 to December 2010 were reviewed to determine the annual trends of infectious diseases in the two districts, Narok and Transmara. The year 2007 was considered as the baseline for mass drug administration (MDA). Odds ratios (OR) were used to describe the association. Results The mass distribution coverage in Narok was 83% in 2008, 74% in 2009 and 63% in 2010. The odds for malaria (OR = 1.13; 95% CI 1.12-1.14), diarrhoeal diseases (OR = 1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.06), urinary tract infections (UTIs) (OR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.17-1.26), intestinal worms (OR, 4.98; 95% CI 4.68-5.3), and respiratory diseases other than pneumonia (OR, 1.15; 95% CI 1.13-1.16) were higher after three rounds of mass treatment, indicating a better outcome. Before the intervention, there was a reducing trend in the odds for respiratory diseases. In Transmara (control), there was an increase in odds for malaria, respiratory infections, UTIs and intestinal worms. The odds for diarrhoeal diseases, skin diseases and pneumonia decreased throughout the study period. Conclusion Mass distribution of azithromycin may have contributed to the decrease in the prevalence of the respiratory infections in Narok District. PMID:25852799

  18. Potential oil and gas resources of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska: 1002 area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    A geologist with extensive experience in the study of northern Alaska's petroleum resources provides an overview of the first comprehensive reassessment of the petroleum potential of section 1002 of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge since the original study of 1987. The paper surveys the region's geology, and provides a description of the methods employed and assessment results. The current resource is compared with that estimated in the original study, and is considerably larger, given the availability of new geologic and geophysical data, improved seismic processing and interpretation capabilities, and changes in the economics of North Slope oil development.

  19. 30 CFR 75.1714-7 - Multi-gas detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Multi-gas detectors. 75.1714-7 Section 75.1714-7 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1714-7 Multi-gas...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1714-7 - Multi-gas detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Multi-gas detectors. 75.1714-7 Section 75.1714-7 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1714-7 Multi-gas...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1714-7 - Multi-gas detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Multi-gas detectors. 75.1714-7 Section 75.1714-7 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1714-7 Multi-gas...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1714-7 - Multi-gas detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Multi-gas detectors. 75.1714-7 Section 75.1714-7 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1714-7 Multi-gas...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1714-7 - Multi-gas detectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Multi-gas detectors. 75.1714-7 Section 75.1714-7 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1714-7 Multi-gas...

  4. Cooperative Management of Transboundry Oil and Gas Resources in the Maritime Boundary Region of the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, R. J.

    2007-05-01

    Finding and exploiting oil and gas resources in the ultra-deepwater areas of the Gulf of Mexico is occurring at an accelerated pace. Huge new discoveries have recently been made in a large geological structure known as the Lower Tertiary Wilcox Trend that is located in the U.S.-Mexico Maritime Boundary Region. These discoveries have been projected to boost current U.S. oil reserves by as much as fifty percent. Technological advancements and market conditions have finally reached a point where production of hydrocarbons in these ultra-deepwaters is commercially feasible. However, due to the transboundary characteristics of many of these hydrocarbons, some form of bi-national cooperation is necessary to effectively manage the shared resources, protect the oceanic environment and comply with evolving norms of international law before commercial production can begin. Well established international customary norms prohibit unilateral exploitation of transboundary oil and gas resources. Consequently, it is important for the two nations to address these issues today rather than putting them off until they become a critical political problem in their bilateral relations. The United States and Mexico have already agreed to temporarily cooperate in the exploration of potential oil and gas resources in one portion of the Gulf of Mexico known as the Western Gap. This is an area in the center of the Gulf of Mexico that falls outside of the 200 mile exclusive economic zones of the two nations. After scientific studies provided evidence that the Western Gap qualifies as part of each nation's extended continental shelf, a Delimitation Treaty was negotiated and ratified in 2000. This Treaty gave Mexico access to about 62 percent of the Gap, while the U.S. retained about 38 percent. The Treaty also established a 2.8 nautical mile buffer zone along the new boundary to account for the possibility that straddling oil and gas reservoirs may be located there. The nations agreed to a ten year drilling moratorium and to share information on the geological and geophysical characteristics of any reservoirs in the buffer zone. In 2010, the moratorium expires and either side may exploit the resources in the zone. Similar transboundary reservoirs of immense size exist along significant portions of the U.S.-Mexico maritime boundary. Yet, proper management and production of these resources will be severely hampered by a variety of legal and policy impediments that await resolution. Resolving many of these impediments will only be possible through the collaborative efforts of both nations. It is time for the U.S. and Mexican Governments to take a more proactive role in managing the transboundary hydrocarbon resources in the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico. If successful, rather than an arena for competition and legal strife, the U.S.-Mexico Maritime Boundary Region can serve as a model of cooperative management. Such a model would benefit both nations as well as serve as a useful guide for the rest of the international community.

  5. Assessment of potential additions to conventional oil and gas resources in discovered fields of the United States from reserve growth, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Reserve Growth Assessment Team

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources that have the potential to be added to reserves from reserve growth in 70 discovered oil and gas accumulations of the United States, excluding Federal offshore areas. The mean estimated volumes are 32 billion barrels of crude oil, 291 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 10 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  6. Atlas of Northern Gulf of Mexico Gas and Oil Reservoirs: Procedures and examples of resource distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Seni, S.J.; Finley, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of the program is to produce a reservoir atlas series of the Gulf of Mexico that (1) classifies and groups offshore oil and gas reservoirs into a series of geologically defined reservoir plays, (2) compiles comprehensive reservoir play information that includes descriptive and quantitative summaries of play characteristics, cumulative production, reserves, original oil and gas in place, and various other engineering and geologic data, (3) provides detailed summaries of representative type reservoirs for each play, and (4) organizes computerized tables of reservoir engineering data into a geographic information system (GIS). The primary product of the program will be an oil and gas atlas series of the offshore Northern Gulf of Mexico and a computerized geographical information system of geologic and engineering data linked to reservoir location.

  7. NPDES permit compliance and enforcement: A resource guide for oil and gas operators

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    During the fall of 1996, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission sponsored sessions for government and industry representatives to discuss concerns about the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program under the Clean Water Act. In January 1997, the NPDES Education/Communication/Training Workgroup (ECT Workgroup) was established with co-leaders from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and industry. The ECT Workgroup`s purpose was to develop ideas that would improve communication between NPDES regulators and the oil and gas industry regarding NPDES compliance issues. The Workgroup focused on several areas, including permit compliance monitoring and reporting, enforcement activity and options, and treatment technology. The ECT Workgroup also discussed the need for materials and information to help NPDES regulatory agency personnel understand more about oil and gas industry exploration and extraction operations and treatment processes. This report represents a compendium of the ECT Workgroup`s efforts.

  8. Hydrogen Resource Assessment: Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural Gas, Nuclear, and Hydro Power

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrandt, A.; Mann, M.

    2009-02-01

    This paper estimates the quantity of hydrogen that could be produced from coal, natural gas, nuclear, and hydro power by county in the United States. The study estimates that more than 72 million tonnes of hydrogen can be produced from coal, natural gas, nuclear, and hydro power per year in the country (considering only 30% of their total annual production). The United States consumed about 396 million tonnes of gasoline in 2007; therefore, the report suggests the amount of hydrogen from these sources could displace about 80% of this consumption.

  9. Of teapot dome, Wind river and Fort chaffee: Federal oil and gas resources

    SciTech Connect

    Lindley, L.

    1995-12-31

    The move from a location system to a leasing system for the development of federally owned oil and gas was a controversial and hard fought step. Like most programs for commercial use of public lands, the oil and gas leasing system has been the target of criticism for fraud. A review of the decisions of the US DOI disclose that DOI`s role has evolved from one largely developed to resolving disputes between competing applicants for a lease to one more concerned with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act. This article presents a review of decisions.

  10. Veterans Administration Databases

    Cancer.gov

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  11. Secondary gas emissions during coal desorption, Marathon Grassim Oskolkoff-1 Well, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska: Implications for resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, C.E.; Dallegge, T.

    2006-01-01

    Cuttings samples of sub-bituminous humic coals from the Oligocene to Pliocene Tyonek Formation, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska show secondary gas emissions whose geochemistry is consistent with renewed microbial methanogenesis during canister desorption. The renewed methanogenesis was noted after initial desorption measurements had ceased and a canister had an air and desorbed gas mixture backflow into the canister during a measurement. About a week after this event, a secondary emission of gas began and continued for over two years. The desorbed gas volume reached a new maximum, increasing the total from 3.3 to 4.9 litres, some 48% above the pre-contamination total volume. The gases released during desorption show a shift in the isotopic signature over time of methane from ??13CCH4 of -53.60 ??? and ??DCH4 of -312.60 ??? at the first day to ??13CCH4 of -57.06 ??? and ??DCH4 of -375.80 ??? after 809 days, when the experiment was arbitrarily stopped and the canister opened to study the coal. These isotopic data, interpreted using a Bernard Diagram, indicate a shift from a mixed thermogenic and biogenic source typical of natural gases in the coals and conventional gas reservoirs of the Cook Inlet Basin to a likely biogenic acetate-fermentation methane source. However, the appearance of CO2 during the renewed gas emissions with a ??13CCO2 of +26.08 to +21.72 ???, interpreted using the carbon isotope fractions found for acetate fermentation and CO2 reduction between CO2 and CH4 by Jenden and Kaplan (1986), indicates a biogenic CO2-reduction pathway may also be operative during renewed gas emission. Adding nutrients to the coal cuttings and canister water and culturing the microbial consortia under anaerobic conditions led to additional methane-rich gas generation in the laboratory. After this anaerobic culturing, ultraviolet microscopy showed that canister water contained common, fluorescent, rod-like microbes comparable to Methanobacterium sp. Scanning electron microscope investigations of the coal matrix showed several morphological types of microbes, including rod, cocci and spherical forms attached to the coal surface. These microbes apparently represent at least a portion of the microbial consortia needed to depolymerize coal, as well as to generate the observed secondary methane emission from the canister. The introduction of 48% more methane from secondary sources has a major impact on coal-bed methane resource assessments and also in determining the true, in-situ degree of methane saturation in coal-beds using isotherms. Canister and isotherm measurements that show "supersaturation" of methane may actually be the result of additional gases generated during secondary methanogenesis.

  12. Resource Characterization and Quantification of Natural Gas-Hydrate and Associated Free-Gas Accumulations in the Prudhoe Bay - Kuparuk River Area on the North Slope of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2008-12-31

    Natural gas hydrates have long been considered a nuisance by the petroleum industry. Hydrates have been hazards to drilling crews, with blowouts a common occurrence if not properly accounted for in drilling plans. In gas pipelines, hydrates have formed plugs if gas was not properly dehydrated. Removing these plugs has been an expensive and time-consuming process. Recently, however, due to the geologic evidence indicating that in situ hydrates could potentially be a vast energy resource of the future, research efforts have been undertaken to explore how natural gas from hydrates might be produced. This study investigates the relative permeability of methane and brine in hydrate-bearing Alaska North Slope core samples. In February 2007, core samples were taken from the Mt. Elbert site situated between the Prudhoe Bay and Kuparuk oil fields on the Alaska North Slope. Core plugs from those core samples have been used as a platform to form hydrates and perform unsteady-steady-state displacement relative permeability experiments. The absolute permeability of Mt. Elbert core samples determined by Omni Labs was also validated as part of this study. Data taken with experimental apparatuses at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, ConocoPhillips laboratories at the Bartlesville Technology Center, and at the Arctic Slope Regional Corporation's facilities in Anchorage, Alaska, provided the basis for this study. This study finds that many difficulties inhibit the ability to obtain relative permeability data in porous media-containing hydrates. Difficulties include handling unconsolidated cores during initial core preparation work, forming hydrates in the core in such a way that promotes flow of both brine and methane, and obtaining simultaneous two-phase flow of brine and methane necessary to quantify relative permeability using unsteady-steady-state displacement methods.

  13. 78 FR 41047 - Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... email to UltraDeepwater@hq.doe.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Executive Summary This 2013 Annual Plan is the seventh research plan for the Ultra- Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  14. An estimate of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the world, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 565 billion barrels of conventional oil and 5,606 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered conventional natural gas in 171 priority geologic provinces of the world, exclusive of the United States.

  15. Integration and Ruggedization of a Commercially Available Gas Chromatograph and Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) for the Resource Prospector Mission (RPM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Kathleen; Griffin, Timothy; Captain, Janine

    2013-01-01

    The Resource Prospector is a mission to prospect for lunar volatiles (primarily water) at one of the two lunar poles, as well as demonstrate In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) on the Moon. The Resource Prospector consists of a lander, a rover, and a rover-borne scientific payload. The Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload, will be able to (1) locate near subsurface volatiles, (2) excavate and analyze samples of the volatile-bearing regolith, and (3) demonstrate the form, extractability and usefulness of the materials. The gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) is the primary instrument in the RESOLVE instrumentation suite responsible for identification and quantification of the volatiles evolved from the lunar regolith. Specifically, this instrument must have: a low mass, a low power consumption, be able to perform fast analyses of samples ranging from less than one to greater than ninety nine percent water by mass, be autonomously controlled by the payload's software and avionics platform, and be able to operate in the harsh lunar environment. The RPM's short mission duration is the primary driver of the requirement for a very fast analysis time currently base lined at less than 2 minutes per sample. This presentation will discuss the requirements levied upon the GCMS design, lessons learned from a preliminary field demonstration deployment, the current design, and the path forward.

  16. U.S. Geological Survey assessments of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources, 2000 to 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey U.S. Continuous Resources Assessment Team

    2015-01-01

    From 2000 to 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted 139 quantitative assessments of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas accumulations within the United States. This report documents those assessments more fully than previously done by providing detailed documentation of both the assessment input and output. This report also compiles the data into spreadsheet tables that can be more readily used to provide analogs for future assessments, especially for hypothetical continuous accumulations.

  17. Implication of seismic attenuation for gas hydrate resource characterization, Mallik, Mackenzie Delta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellefleur, G.; Riedel, M.; Brent, T.; Wright, F.; Dallimore, S. R.

    2007-10-01

    Wave attenuation is an important physical property of hydrate-bearing sediments that is rarely taken into account in site characterization with seismic data. We present a field example showing improved images of hydrate-bearing sediments on seismic data after compensation of attenuation effects. Compressional quality factors estimated from zero-offset Vertical Seismic Profiling data acquired at Mallik, Northwest Territories, Canada, demonstrate significant wave attenuation for hydrate-bearing sediments. These results are in agreement with previous attenuation estimates obtained from sonic logs and crosshole data at different frequency intervals. The application of an inverse Q-filter to compensate attenuation effects of permafrost and hydrate-bearing sediments improved the resolution of surface 3D seismic data and its correlation with log data, particularly for the shallowest gas hydrate interval. Compensation of the attenuation effects of the permafrost likely explains most of the improvements for the shallow gas hydrate zone. Our results show that characterization of the Mallik gas hydrates with seismic data not corrected for attenuation would tend to overestimate thicknesses and lateral extent of hydrate-bearing strata and hence, the volume of hydrates in place.

  18. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Amu Darya Basin and Afghan-Tajik Basin Provinces, Afghanistan, Iran, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources for the Amu Darya Basin and Afghan–Tajik Basin Provinces of Afghanistan, Iran, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The mean volumes were estimated at 962 million barrels of crude oil, 52 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 582 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Amu Darya Basin Province and at 946 million barrels of crude oil, 7 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 85 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Afghan–Tajik Basin Province.

  19. Evaluation of the Resource Potential of Shale Hydrocarbons on the Territory Tatarstan Republic (Volga-Ural oil and gas province)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslimov, Renat; Plotnikova, Irina

    2015-04-01

    Volga-Ural provinces of Eastern European platform are referred to industrial developed areas of oil production with the deteriorating structure of residual hydrocarbon reserves, forcing to search for new reserves of raw materials growth, including unconventional sources of hydrocarbons - shale strata. The top priority for the study and evaluation of this territory are complexes of Domanic and Domanician shale deposits (Upper Devonian carbonate-siliceous-clays horizons that contain a significant amount of ТОС). In the present report the prospects of the development of shale oil facilities design methods in Tatarstan are considered. A program for evaluation of oil and gas deposits prospects is worked out. The stages of its realization are described. A preliminary estimate of the cost of the program is made. Research on the evaluation criteria of shale oil and gas is conducted to accurately assess the resource potential of shale oil. Statistic analysis of the geochemical index of hydrocarbon source rocks in some areas of the Tatarstan (such as Melekessky basin, South-Tatar arch, North-Tatar arch and other) based on the characteristic of triple-division between the oil content and TOC of source rock, suggests that shale oil can be categorized into different levels of resource enrichment. The report contains results of analysis of organic matter porosity and permeability distribution in domanik type rocks on the Tatarstan area. First estimation of resource potential of shale hydrocarbons in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan were carried out. Resource assessment carried out for domanik rocks of the Ust-Cheremshansk deflection in the Melekess depression. Method of evaluation provided an opportunity to evaluate amount of mobile hydrocarbons in dense shale rock. Still the question of the degree of maturity of the organic substance remains open. A detailed analysis of the pyrolysis was performed. The study of lithology and geochemistry allowed to develop shale facies model of shale sequences with a high content of organic matter. Selection of the most promising areas of shale fields should be based on the paleo facies analysis of the depositional environment. Accumulation of high value silicon and oranic matter substances associated with specific geodynamic and paleo facial conditions of the sedimentary basin.

  20. U.S. Geological Survery Oil and Gas Resource Assessment of the Russian Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Gautier; Timothy Klett

    2008-12-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a study of undiscovered petroleum resources in the Russian Arctic as a part of its Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA), which comprised three broad areas of work: geological mapping, basin analysis, and quantitative assessment. The CARA was a probabilistic, geologically based study that used existing USGS methodology, modified somewhat for the circumstances of the Arctic. New map compilation was used to identify assessment units. The CARA relied heavily on geological analysis and analog modeling, with numerical input consisting of lognormal distributions of sizes and numbers of undiscovered accumulations. Probabilistic results for individual assessment units were statistically aggregated, taking geological dependencies into account. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funds were used to support the purchase of crucial seismic data collected in the Barents Sea, East Siberian Sea, and Chukchi Sea for use by USGS in its assessment of the Russian Arctic. DOE funds were also used to purchase a commercial study, which interpreted seismic data from the northern Kara Sea, and for geographic information system (GIS) support of USGS mapping of geological features, province boundaries, total petroleum systems, and assessment units used in the USGS assessment.

  1. Methanogenic archaea in marcellus shale: a possible mechanism for enhanced gas recovery in unconventional shale resources.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Yael Tarlovsky; Kotcon, James; Mroz, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Marcellus Shale occurs at depths of 1.5-2.5 km (5000 to 8000 feet) where most geologists generally assume that thermogenic processes are the only source of natural gas. However, methanogens in produced fluids and isotopic signatures of biogenic methane in this deep shale have recently been discovered. This study explores whether those methanogens are indigenous to the shale or are introduced during drilling and hydraulic fracturing. DNA was extracted from Marcellus Shale core samples, preinjected fluids, and produced fluids and was analyzed using Miseq sequencing of 16s rRNA genes. Methanogens present in shale cores were similar to methanogens in produced fluids. No methanogens were detected in injected fluids, suggesting that this is an unlikely source and that they may be native to the shale itself. Bench-top methane production tests of shale core and produced fluids suggest that these organisms are alive and active under simulated reservoir conditions. Growth conditions designed to simulate the hydrofracture processes indicated somewhat increased methane production; however, fluids alone produced relatively little methane. Together, these results suggest that some biogenic methane may be produced in these wells and that hydrofracture fluids currently used to stimulate gas recovery could stimulate methanogens and their rate of producing methane. PMID:25924080

  2. Estimating the flexibility of utility resource plans: An application to natural gas cofiring for SO[sub 2] control

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, B.F. ); Honious, J.C. ); Bluestein, J. )

    1994-02-01

    Utility planners must cope with large uncertainties concerning fuel prices, environmental laws, power demands, and the cost and availability of new resources. In this situation, flexibility is valuable. A flexible plan is one that enables the utility to quickly and inexpensively change the system's configuration or operation in response to varying market and regulatory conditions. The authors present a decision tree-based method for quantifying the economic value of flexibility. The method is then used to compare the relative flexibility of natural gas cofiring with other strategies to comply with the acid rain control requirements of the 1990 US Clean Air Act Amendments. The authors also compare the measure of flexibility with one based on the standard deviation of present worth. The latter perversely finds the least flexible technology (scrubbing) to be the most flexible''.

  3. Toward production from gas hydrates: Current status, assessment of resources, and simulation-based evaluation of technology and potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Boswell, R.; Kurihara, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Koh, C.; Sloan, E.D.

    2009-01-01

    Gas hydrates (GHs) are a vast energy resource with global distribution in the permafrost and in the oceans. Even if conservative estimates are considered and only a small fraction is recoverable, the sheer size of the resource is so large that it demands evaluation as a potential energy source. In this review paper, we discuss the distribution of natural GH accumulations, the status of the primary international research and development (R&D) programs, and the remaining science and technological challenges facing the commercialization of production. After a brief examination of GH accumulations that are well characterized and appear to be models for future development and gas production, we analyze the role of numerical simulation in the assessment of the hydrate-production potential, identify the data needs for reliable predictions, evaluate the status of knowledge with regard to these needs, discuss knowledge gaps and their impact, and reach the conclusion that the numerical-simulation capabilities are quite advanced and that the related gaps either are not significant or are being addressed. We review the current body of literature relevant to potential productivity from different types of GH deposits and determine that there are consistent indications of a large production potential at high rates across long periods from a wide variety of hydrate deposits. Finally, we identify (a) features, conditions, geology and techniques that are desirable in potential production targets; (b) methods to maximize production; and (c) some of the conditions and characteristics that render certain GH deposits undesirable for production. Copyright ?? 2009 Society of Petroleum Engineers.

  4. Drilling and Production Testing the Methane Hydrate Resource Potential Associated with the Barrow Gas Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Steve McRae; Thomas Walsh; Michael Dunn; Michael Cook

    2010-02-22

    In November of 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Slope Borough (NSB) committed funding to develop a drilling plan to test the presence of hydrates in the producing formation of at least one of the Barrow Gas Fields, and to develop a production surveillance plan to monitor the behavior of hydrates as dissociation occurs. This drilling and surveillance plan was supported by earlier studies in Phase 1 of the project, including hydrate stability zone modeling, material balance modeling, and full-field history-matched reservoir simulation, all of which support the presence of methane hydrate in association with the Barrow Gas Fields. This Phase 2 of the project, conducted over the past twelve months focused on selecting an optimal location for a hydrate test well; design of a logistics, drilling, completion and testing plan; and estimating costs for the activities. As originally proposed, the project was anticipated to benefit from industry activity in northwest Alaska, with opportunities to share equipment, personnel, services and mobilization and demobilization costs with one of the then-active exploration operators. The activity level dropped off, and this benefit evaporated, although plans for drilling of development wells in the BGF's matured, offering significant synergies and cost savings over a remote stand-alone drilling project. An optimal well location was chosen at the East Barrow No.18 well pad, and a vertical pilot/monitoring well and horizontal production test/surveillance well were engineered for drilling from this location. Both wells were designed with Distributed Temperature Survey (DTS) apparatus for monitoring of the hydrate-free gas interface. Once project scope was developed, a procurement process was implemented to engage the necessary service and equipment providers, and finalize project cost estimates. Based on cost proposals from vendors, total project estimated cost is $17.88 million dollars, inclusive of design work, permitting, barging, ice road/pad construction, drilling, completion, tie-in, long-term production testing and surveillance, data analysis and technology transfer. The PRA project team and North Slope have recommended moving forward to the execution phase of this project.

  5. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL AND GAS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    SciTech Connect

    Peggy Robinson

    2003-07-25

    This report contains a summary of activities of Gnomon, Inc. and five sub-contractors that have taken place during the first six months (January 1, 2003--June 30, 2003) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement: ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil & Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming'', DE-FC26-02NT15445. Gnomon, Inc. and all five (5) subcontractors have agreed on a process for the framework of this two-year project. They have also started gathering geomorphological information and entering cultural resource data into databases that will be used to create models later in the project. This data is being gathered in both the Power River Basin of Wyoming, and the Southeastern region of New Mexico. Several meetings were held with key players in this project to explain the purpose of the research, to obtain feedback and to gain support. All activities have been accomplished on time and within budget with no major setbacks.

  6. Natural Gas Resources of the Greater Green River and Wind River Basins of Wyoming (Assessing the Technology Needs of Sub-economic Resources, Phase I: Greater Green River and Wind river Basins, Fall 2002)

    SciTech Connect

    Boswell, Ray; Douds, Ashley; Pratt, Skip; Rose, Kelly; Pancake, Jim; Bruner, Kathy; Kuuskraa, Vello; Billingsley, Randy

    2003-02-28

    In 2000, NETL conducted a review of the adequacy of the resource characterization databases used in its Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM). This review indicated that the most striking deficiency in GSAM’s databases was the poor representation of the vast resource believed to exist in low-permeability sandstone accumulations in western U.S. basins. The model’s databases, which are built primarily around the United States Geological Survey (USGS) 1995 National Assessment (for undiscovered resources), reflected an estimate of the original-gas-inplace (OGIP) only in accumulations designated “technically-recoverable” by the USGS –roughly 3% to 4% of the total estimated OGIP of the region. As these vast remaining resources are a prime target of NETL programs, NETL immediately launched an effort to upgrade its resource characterizations. Upon review of existing data, NETL concluded that no existing data were appropriate sources for its modeling needs, and a decision was made to conduct new, detailed log-based, gas-in-place assessments.

  7. Analysis of the conceptions and expectations of students in the courses of pedagogy, administration and human resources about the discipline of science, technology and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Alexandre; de Oliveira Neves, Jobert; Ferreira, Orlando Rodrigues; Lúcia Costa Amaral, Carmem; Delourdes Maciel, Maria; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Nascimento, Rômulo Pereira

    2012-10-01

    Provided for the education curricula since 1960, the focus on Science, Technology and Society (STS) has been poorly implemented even until today. Set as a goal to be achieved at all levels of education by 2014, in Brazil it is necessary to undertake specific actions in pursuit of putting into practice what has been stalled over the years in Education. As a result of joint efforts of teachers and students of the Masters in Teaching Science and Mathematics at the Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul comes the challenge of providing a specific discipline dealing with the concepts of STS, offered as a optional special, initially for students of Pedagogy and later, due to the interest of some students, for the course of Administration and Human Resources of this institution. The survey of previous conceptions of students enrolled in the Special Discipline Elective Science, Technology and Society (CTS DOP) on the triad of STS showed a great ignorance on the same theme. The reports reveal conceptions of students who approach the linear model of development. As to the generated expectations in terms of discipline, there stand out the desires of expansion of knowledge for possible applications in personal and professional life. This research aims to evaluate the current course, while identifying ways to improve and strengthen the STS movement in education.

  8. Water Resource Impacts During Unconventional Shale Gas Development: The Pennsylvania Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantley, S. L.; Yoxtheimer, D.; Arjmand, S.; Grieve, P.; Vidic, R.; Abad, J. D.; Simon, C. A.; Pollak, J.

    2013-12-01

    The number of unconventional Marcellus shale wells in PA has increased from 8 in 2005 to more than 6000 today. This rapid development has been accompanied by environmental issues. We analyze publicly available data describing this Pennsylvania experience (data from www.shalenetwork.org and PA Department of Environmental Protection, i.e., PA DEP). After removing permitting and reporting violations, the average percent of wells/year with at least one notice of violation (NOV) from PA DEP is 35 %. Most violations are minor. An analysis of NOVs reported for wells drilled before 2013 revealed a rate of casing, cement, or well construction issues of 3.4%. Sixteen wells were given notices specifically related to migration of methane. A similarly low percent of wells were contaminated by brine components. Such contamination could derive from spills, subsurface migration of flowback water or shallow natural brines, or contamination by drill cuttings. Most cases of contamination of drinking water supplies with methane or brine components were reported in the previously glaciated part of the state. Before 2011, flowback and production water was often discharged legally into streams after minimal treatment, possibly increasing dissolved Br concentrations in some rivers. The rate of large spills or releases of gas-related industrial wastes in the state peaked in 2009 but little evidence of spills has been found in publicly available surface water chemistry data. The most likely indicators of spillage or subsurface release of flowback or production waters are the dissolved ions Na, Ca, and Cl. However, the data coverage for any given analyte is generally spatially and temporally sparse. Publicly available water quality data for before and after spills into Larrys Creek and Bobs Creek document the difficulties of detecting such events. An observation from the Pennsylvania experience is that the large number of people who have complained about their water supply (~1000 letters investigated by state regulators) and the media attention during the fast start in PA may have led to better management practices. Maintaining online databases of observations could similarly drive shale-gas practice to become even more environmentally protective.

  9. 30 CFR 1241.73 - How may I appeal the Administrative Law Judge's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Land Appeals under 43 CFR part 4, subpart E. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How may I appeal the Administrative Law Judge's... INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PENALTIES Penalties for Federal and Indian Oil and Gas Leases...

  10. 30 CFR 1241.73 - How may I appeal the Administrative Law Judge's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Land Appeals under 43 CFR part 4, subpart E. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How may I appeal the Administrative Law Judge's... INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PENALTIES Penalties for Federal and Indian Oil and Gas Leases...

  11. 30 CFR 1241.73 - How may I appeal the Administrative Law Judge's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Land Appeals under 43 CFR part 4, subpart E. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How may I appeal the Administrative Law Judge's... INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PENALTIES Penalties for Federal and Indian Oil and Gas Leases...

  12. Assessment of the Mesaverde Total Petroleum System in Southwestern Wyoming Province: a petroleum system approach to assessing undiscovered oil and gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in a recent assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Southwestern Wyoming Province using a Total Petroleum System (TPS) approach, estimated a mean of 84.6 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG), 131 million barrels of oil (MMBO) and 2.6 billion barrels of natural gas liquids (BBNGL) that have the potential to be added to reserves over the next 30 years. Only a fraction of this, however, may be economically recoverable . Of the total estimate of 84.6 TCFG, a mean of 25.78 TCFG is in continuous-type reservoirs in the Mesaverde TPS. The Mesaverde TPS is defined as all reservoirs predominantly containing gas derived from the Mesaverde Group east of the pinchout of the Lewis Shale, which acts as a top seal separating the Mesaverde TPS from the overlying Lewis TPS. Continuous-type reservoirs in the Mesaverde TPS were subdivided into the Almond Continuous Gas Assessment Unit (AU) (mean of 13.35 TCFG), Rock Springs-Ericson Continuous Gas AU (mean of 12.18 TCFG), and the Mesaverde Coalbed Gas AU (mean of 0.25 TCFG). Geologic analysis was used to determine the favorable ?sweet spots? for potential gas resources. The Almond AU has been heavily explored at depths less than 11,000 ft, thus additions to reserves will most likely be the result of infill drilling in existing fields and the discovery of sweet spots at depths greater than 11,000 ft. There is much uncertainty in the size of undiscovered resource in the Rock Springs-Ericson AU because potential reservoirs are only sparsely explored. Only a small fraction of in-place coal-bed gas is considered to be recoverable because of low permeability and problems posed by produced water.

  13. Victim assistance - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Rape - resources; Resources - rape ... The following organizations are good resources for information on domestic violence and rape : Administration for Children and Families -- www.acf.hhs.gov National Center for Victims of ...

  14. Greenhouse gas impacts of declining hydrocarbon resource quality: Depletion, dynamics, and process emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Adam Robert

    This dissertation explores the environmental and economic impacts of the transition to hydrocarbon substitutes for conventional petroleum (SCPs). First, mathematical models of oil depletion are reviewed, including the Hubbert model, curve-fitting methods, simulation models, and economic models. The benefits and drawbacks of each method are outlined. I discuss the predictive value of the models and our ability to determine if one model type works best. I argue that forecasting oil depletion without also including substitution with SCPs results in unrealistic projections of future energy supply. I next use information theoretic techniques to test the Hubbert model of oil depletion against five other asymmetric and symmetric curve-fitting models using data from 139 oil producing regions. I also test the assumptions that production curves are symmetric and that production is more bell-shaped in larger regions. Results show that if symmetry is enforced, Gaussian production curves perform best, while if asymmetry is allowed, asymmetric exponential models prove most useful. I also find strong evidence for asymmetry: production declines are consistently less steep than inclines. In order to understand the impacts of oil depletion on GHG emissions, I developed the Regional Optimization Model for Emissions from Oil Substitutes (ROMEO). ROMEO is an economic optimization model of investment and production of fuels. Results indicate that incremental emissions (with demand held constant) from SCPs could be 5-20 GtC over the next 50 years. These results are sensitive to the endowment of conventional oil and not sensitive to a carbon tax. If demand can vary, total emissions could decline under a transition because the higher cost of SCPs lessens overall fuel consumption. Lastly, I study the energetic and environmental characteristics of the in situ conversion process, which utilizes electricity to generate liquid hydrocarbons from oil shale. I model the energy inputs and outputs from the ICP use them to calculate the GHG emissions from the ICP. Energy outputs (as refined liquid fuel) range from 1.2 to 1.6 times the total primary energy inputs. Well-to-tank greenhouse gas emissions range from 30.6 to 37.1 gCeq./MJ of final fuel delivered, 21 to 47% larger than those from conventionally produced petroleum-based fuels.

  15. Empirical Methods for Detecting Regional Trends and Other Spatial Expressions in Antrim Shale Gas Productivity, with Implications for Improving Resource Projections Using Local Nonparametric Estimation Techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coburn, T.C.; Freeman, P.A.; Attanasi, E.D.

    2012-01-01

    The primary objectives of this research were to (1) investigate empirical methods for establishing regional trends in unconventional gas resources as exhibited by historical production data and (2) determine whether or not incorporating additional knowledge of a regional trend in a suite of previously established local nonparametric resource prediction algorithms influences assessment results. Three different trend detection methods were applied to publicly available production data (well EUR aggregated to 80-acre cells) from the Devonian Antrim Shale gas play in the Michigan Basin. This effort led to the identification of a southeast-northwest trend in cell EUR values across the play that, in a very general sense, conforms to the primary fracture and structural orientations of the province. However, including this trend in the resource prediction algorithms did not lead to improved results. Further analysis indicated the existence of clustering among cell EUR values that likely dampens the contribution of the regional trend. The reason for the clustering, a somewhat unexpected result, is not completely understood, although the geological literature provides some possible explanations. With appropriate data, a better understanding of this clustering phenomenon may lead to important information about the factors and their interactions that control Antrim Shale gas production, which may, in turn, help establish a more general protocol for better estimating resources in this and other shale gas plays. ?? 2011 International Association for Mathematical Geology (outside the USA).

  16. Dental students' HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and intentions: impact of the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration's community-based dental partnership program.

    PubMed

    Hamershock, Rose A; Rajabiun, Serena; Fox, Jane E; Mofidi, Mahyar; Abel, Stephen N; York, Jill A; Kunzel, Carol; Sanogo, Moussa; Mayfield, Theresa G

    2014-08-01

    Access to oral health care for vulnerable populations is one of the concerns addressed by the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau's Community-Based Dental Partnership Program (CBDPP). The program introduces dental students and residents at several dental schools to care for vulnerable patients through didactic and clinical work in community-based dental settings. This study of the dental students and residents in this program answered three questions: 1) What are their HIV knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors? 2) How has participation in the CBDPP impacted their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors? 3) Has the intervention affected their work placement decisions and attitudes after graduation, particularly with respect to treating people living with HIV and other underserved populations? A total of 305 first- through fourth-year dental students and first- and second-year residents at five dental schools across the United States completed surveys before and after a community-based rotation and following graduation. Response rates at each of the five schools ranged from 82.4 to 100 percent. The results showed an increase in the participants' knowledge and positive attitudes regarding treatment for patients with HIV and other vulnerable populations post-rotation compared to pre-rotation. Results after graduation found that most respondents were practicing in private settings or in academic institutions as residents but were willing to treat a diverse patient population. These findings support the role of training programs, such as the CBDPP, for expanding the dental workforce to treating vulnerable populations including people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:25086143

  17. Worldwide Natural Gas Supply and Demand and the Outlook for Global LNG Trade

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    This article is adapted from testimony by Jay Hakes, Administrator of the Energy Information Administration, before the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee on July 23, 1997. The hearing focused on the examination of certain aspects of natural gas into the next century with special emphasis on world natural gas supply and demand to 2015.

  18. 30 CFR 77.303 - Hot gas inlet chamber dropout doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.303 Hot gas inlet chamber dropout doors. Thermal dryer systems which... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hot gas inlet chamber dropout doors. 77.303 Section 77.303 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL...

  19. 30 CFR 77.303 - Hot gas inlet chamber dropout doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.303 Hot gas inlet chamber dropout doors. Thermal dryer systems which... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hot gas inlet chamber dropout doors. 77.303 Section 77.303 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL...

  20. 30 CFR 77.303 - Hot gas inlet chamber dropout doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.303 Hot gas inlet chamber dropout doors. Thermal dryer systems which... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hot gas inlet chamber dropout doors. 77.303 Section 77.303 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL...

  1. 30 CFR 77.303 - Hot gas inlet chamber dropout doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.303 Hot gas inlet chamber dropout doors. Thermal dryer systems which... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hot gas inlet chamber dropout doors. 77.303 Section 77.303 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL...

  2. 30 CFR 77.303 - Hot gas inlet chamber dropout doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.303 Hot gas inlet chamber dropout doors. Thermal dryer systems which... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hot gas inlet chamber dropout doors. 77.303 Section 77.303 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL...

  3. Digital map data, text, and graphical images in support of the 1995 National assessment of United States oil and gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, William R., (compiler); Obuch, Raymond C.; Brewton, James D.

    1996-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains files in support of the 1995 USGS National assessment of United States oil and gas resources (DDS-30), which was published separately and summarizes the results of a 3-year study of the oil and gas resources of the onshore and state waters of the United States. The study describes about 560 oil and gas plays in the United States--confirmed and hypothetical, conventional and unconventional. A parallel study of the Federal offshore is being conducted by the U.S. Minerals Management Service. This CD-ROM contains files in multiple formats, so that almost any computer user can import them into word processors and mapping software packages. No proprietary data are released on this CD-ROM. The complete text of DDS-30 is also available, as well as many figures. A companion CD-ROM (DDS-36) includes the tabular data, the programs, and the same text data, but none of the map data.

  4. A Methodology for the Assessment of Unconventional (Continuous) Resources with an Application to the Greater Natural Buttes Gas Field, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Olea, Ricardo A.; Cook, Troy A.; Coleman, James L.

    2010-12-15

    The Greater Natural Buttes tight natural gas field is an unconventional (continuous) accumulation in the Uinta Basin, Utah, that began production in the early 1950s from the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group. Three years later, production was extended to the Eocene Wasatch Formation. With the exclusion of 1100 non-productive ('dry') wells, we estimate that the final recovery from the 2500 producing wells existing in 2007 will be about 1.7 trillion standard cubic feet (TSCF) (48.2 billion cubic meters (BCM)). The use of estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) per well is common in assessments of unconventional resources, and it is one of the main sources of information to forecast undiscovered resources. Each calculated recovery value has an associated drainage area that generally varies from well to well and that can be mathematically subdivided into elemental subareas of constant size and shape called cells. Recovery per 5-acre cells at Greater Natural Buttes shows spatial correlation; hence, statistical approaches that ignore this correlation when inferring EUR values for untested cells do not take full advantage of all the information contained in the data. More critically, resulting models do not match the style of spatial EUR fluctuations observed in nature. This study takes a new approach by applying spatial statistics to model geographical variation of cell EUR taking into account spatial correlation and the influence of fractures. We applied sequential indicator simulation to model non-productive cells, while spatial mapping of cell EUR was obtained by applying sequential Gaussian simulation to provide multiple versions of reality (realizations) having equal chances of being the correct model. For each realization, summation of EUR in cells not drained by the existing wells allowed preparation of a stochastic prediction of undiscovered resources, which range between 2.6 and 3.4 TSCF (73.6 and 96.3 BCM) with a mean of 2.9 TSCF (82.1 BCM) for Greater Natural Buttes. A second approach illustrates the application of multiple-point simulation to assess a hypothetical frontier area for which there is no production information but which is regarded as being similar to Greater Natural Buttes.

  5. Life cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emission analysis for a water resource recovery facility in India.

    PubMed

    Miller-Robbie, Leslie; Ramaswami, Anu; Kumar, Prasanna

    2013-07-01

    This paper quantifies life cycle energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) in India versus water quality improvements achieved from infrastructure investments. A first such analysis is conducted using operating data for a WRRF, which employs upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors and oxidation. On-site operations energy use, process GHG emissions, and embodied energy in infrastructure were quantified. The analysis showed energy use and GHG emissions of 0.2 watt-hours (Wh) and 0.3 gram carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents per liter (gCO2e/L) wastewater treated, and 1.3 Wh and 2.1 gCO2e/gBOD removed, achieving 81% biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and 999% fecal coliform removal annually. Process emissions of WRRFs contributed 44% of life cycle GHG emissions, similar in magnitude to those from electricity (46%), whereas infrastructure contributed 10%. Average WRRF-associated GHG emissions (0.9gCO2e/L) were lower than those expected if untreated wastewater was released to the river. Investments made by WRRFs in developing world cities improve water quality and may mitigate overall GHG emissions. PMID:23944144

  6. Resource and hazard implications of gas hydrates in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Results of the 2009 Joint Industry Project Leg II Drilling Expedition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Boswell, Ray

    2012-01-01

    In the 1970's, Russian scientists were the first to suggest that gas hydrates, a crystalline solid of water and natural gas, and a historical curiosity to physical chemists, should occur in abundance in the natural environment. Since this early start, the scientific foundation has been built for the realization that gas hydrates are a global phenomenon, occurring in permafrost regions of the arctic and in deep water portions of most continental margins worldwide. Recent field testing programs in the Arctic (Dallimore et al., 2008; Yamamoto and Dallimore, 2008) have indicated that natural gas can be produced from gas hydrate accumulations, particularly when housed in sand-rich sediments, with existing conventional oil and gas production technology (Collett et al., 2008) and preparations are now being made for the first marine field production tests (Masuda et al., 2009). Beyond a future energy resource, gas hydrates in some settings may represent a geohazard. Other studies also indicate that methane released to the atmosphere from destabilized gas hydrates may have contributed to global climate change in the past.

  7. Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey San Juan Basin Assessment Team

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources that have the potential for additions to reserves in the San Juan Basin Province, New Mexico and Colorado. Paleozoic rocks were not appraised. The last oil and gas assessment for the province was in 1995. There are several important differences between the 1995 and 2002 assessments. The area assessed is smaller than that in the 1995 assessment. This assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the San Juan Basin Province also used a slightly different approach in the assessment, and hence a number of the plays defined in the 1995 assessment are addressed differently in this report. After 1995, the USGS has applied a total petroleum system (TPS) concept to oil and gas basin assessments. The TPS approach incorporates knowledge of the source rocks, reservoir rocks, migration pathways, and time of generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons; thus the assessments are geologically based. Each TPS is subdivided into one or more assessment units, usually defined by a unique set of reservoir rocks, but which have in common the same source rock. Four TPSs and 14 assessment units were geologically evaluated, and for 13 units, the undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  8. Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System and Geologic Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey North Cuba Basin Assessment Team

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the world. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the North Cuba Basin. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of the total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including petroleum source rocks (source-rock maturation, generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and petroleum traps (Trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Total Petroleum System in the North Cuba Basin Province. Within this TPS, three assessment units were defined and assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  9. Rethinking resources

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, W.L.

    1994-09-01

    We class energy and mineral resources as finite because we are reasonably certain that they do not form at a rate remotely approaching man`s rate of use. We have certain environments of the earth that have limits in carrying capacity, and we presume that the global environment does as well. These facts and presumptions, coupled with anxieties over growth in population and consumption, have posed pictures of impending catastrophe from Malthus through the Club of Rome and currently, among certain advocates of what is called sustainable development. To avoid future calamity, command and control management of resource use is urged by many. But, quite simply, such management would presume a wisdom that historical experience suggests does not exist. As a recent example, consider natural gas resources. A decade and a half ago, the resource base of natural gas in the United States was judged to be near exhaustion. Estimates of remaining resources by governmental agencies, academicians, and several major energy companies indicated the ultimate resource would be at about 100 tcf today, with essential depletion by the end of the century. Such was the near universal wisdom that compelled Congress to enact legislation to outright prohibit certain use of natural gas. Today, after nearly eight years of gas supply in excess of demand and with entirely new appreciation of the impact of technology, estimates of the remaining gas resource by industry, government, and others are an order of magnitude greater than those made just 15 yr ago, and the same government that then sought to husband a resource presumed to be near depletion now aggressively promotes its use and consumption. Limits to resources and limits to environmental carrying capacity do indeed exist, but we have yet to define those limits and the paths thereto.

  10. Geologic assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources--Middle Eocene Claiborne Group, United States part of the Gulf of Mexico Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle Eocene Claiborne Group was assessed using established U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment methodology for undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources as part of the 2007 USGS assessment of Paleogene-Neogene strata of the United States part of the Gulf of Mexico Basin including onshore and State waters. The assessed area is within the Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite total petroleum system, which was defined as part of the assessment. Source rocks for Claiborne oil accumulations are interpreted to be organic-rich downdip shaley facies of the Wilcox Group and the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group; gas accumulations may have originated from multiple sources including the Jurassic Smackover and Haynesville Formations and Bossier Shale, the Cretaceous Eagle Ford and Pearsall(?) Formations, and the Paleogene Wilcox Group and Sparta Sand. Hydrocarbon generation in the basin started prior to deposition of Claiborne sediments and is ongoing at present. Emplacement of hydrocarbons into Claiborne reservoirs has occurred primarily via vertical migration along fault systems; long-range lateral migration also may have occurred in some locations. Primary reservoir sands in the Claiborne Group include, from oldest to youngest, the Queen City Sand, Cook Mountain Formation, Sparta Sand, Yegua Formation, and the laterally equivalent Cockfield Formation. Hydrocarbon traps dominantly are rollover anticlines associated with growth faults; salt structures and stratigraphic traps also are important. Sealing lithologies probably are shaley facies within the Claiborne and in the overlying Jackson Group. A geologic model, supported by spatial analysis of petroleum geology data including discovered reservoir depths, thicknesses, temperatures, porosities, permeabilities, and pressures, was used to divide the Claiborne Group into seven assessment units (AU) with distinctive structural and depositional settings. The AUs include (1) Lower Claiborne Stable Shelf Gas and Oil (50470120), (2) Lower Claiborne Expanded Fault Zone Gas (50470121), (3) Lower Claiborne Slope and Basin Floor Gas (50470122), (4) Lower Claiborne Cane River (50470123), (5) Upper Claiborne Stable Shelf Gas and Oil (50470124), (6) Upper Claiborne Expanded Fault Zone Gas (50470125), and (7) Upper Claiborne Slope and Basin Floor Gas (50470126). Total estimated mean undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources in the seven assessment units combined are 52 million barrels of oil, 19.145 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.205 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. A recurring theme that emerged from the evaluation of the seven Claiborne AUs is that the great bulk of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources comprise non-associated gas and condensate contained in deep (mostly >12,000 feet), overpressured, structurally complex outer shelf or slope and basin floor reservoirs. The continuing development of these downdip objectives is expected to be the primary focus of exploration activity for the onshore Middle Eocene Gulf Coast in the coming decades.

  11. Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-07-31

    The transportation sector accounts for a large and growing share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Worldwide, motor vehicles emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year, accounting for more than 15 percent of global fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions.1 In the industrialized world alone, 20-25 percent of GHG emissions come from the transportation sector. The share of transport-related emissions is growing rapidly due to the continued increase in transportation activity.2 In 1950, there were only 70 million cars, trucks, and buses on the world’s roads. By 1994, there were about nine times that number, or 630 million vehicles. Since the early 1970s, the global fleet has been growing at a rate of 16 million vehicles per year. This expansion has been accompanied by a similar growth in fuel consumption.3 If this kind of linear growth continues, by the year 2025 there will be well over one billion vehicles on the world’s roads.4 In a response to the significant growth in transportation-related GHG emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods to reverse this trend. However, due to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the world’s roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emissions from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such as requiring specific technology improvements or an increase in fuel efficiency. Site-specific project activities can also be undertaken to help decrease GHG emissions, although the use of such measures is less common. Sample activities include switching to less GHG-intensive vehicle options, such as electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). As emissions from transportation activities continue to rise, it will be necessary to promote both types of abatement activities in order to reverse the current emissions path. This Resource Guide focuses on site- and project-specific transportation activities. .

  12. I Can Soar: How Technology Helps Students Take Off. A Resource Kit for Parents, Educators, and School Administrators Who Work with Students Who Have Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruner, Allison; Fleming, Erin; Bradley, Carl; Diamond, Christina M.; Ruedel, Kristin L. A.; Saunders, Jessica; Paulsen, Christine; McInerney, Maurice

    This resource kit includes the following: Executive Summary; Legal Fact Sheet; Resource Guide; 26-minute "I Can Soar" Videotape; Video User's Guide; and Stories of Students Featured in Video. The materials provide tips to hep guide consumers in better integrating assistive technology (AT) within effective programs and services for children with…

  13. 30 CFR 36.26 - Composition of exhaust gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Composition of exhaust gas. 36.26 Section 36.26 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and...

  14. 30 CFR 7.508 - Harmful gas removal components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Harmful gas removal components. 7.508 Section 7.508 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION...) The test shall include three sampling points located vertically along the centerlines of the...

  15. 30 CFR 70.1900 - Exhaust Gas Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. In addition, copies... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exhaust Gas Monitoring. 70.1900 Section 70.1900 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57.4463 Section 57.4463 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Flammable...

  17. Chapter 2: 2003 Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Conventional Oil and Gas Resources in the Upper Cretaceous Navarro and Taylor Groups, Western Gulf Province, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Condon, S.M.; Dyman, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Navarro and Taylor Groups in the western part of the Western Gulf Province were assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources in 2003. The area is part of the Smackover-Austin-Eagle Ford Composite Total Petroleum System. The rocks consist of, from youngest to oldest, the Escondido and Olmos Formations of the Navarro Group and the San Miguel Formation and the Anacacho Limestone of the Taylor Group (as well as the undivided Navarro Group and Taylor Group). Some units of the underlying Austin Group, including the 'Dale Limestone' (a term of local usage that describes a subsurface unit), were also part of the assessment in some areas. Within the total petroleum system, the primary source rocks comprise laminated carbonate mudstones and marine shales of the Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation, mixed carbonate and bioclastic deposits of the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Group, and shelf carbonates of the Upper Cretaceous Austin Group. Possible secondary source rocks comprise the Upper Jurassic Bossier Shale and overlying shales within the Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group, Lower Cretaceous marine rocks, and the Upper Cretaceous Taylor Group. Oil and gas were generated in the total petroleum system at different times because of variations in depth of burial, geothermal gradient, lithology, and organic-matter composition. A burial-history reconstruction, based on data from one well in the eastern part of the study area (Jasper County, Tex.), indicated that (1) the Smackover generated oil from about 117 to 103 million years ago (Ma) and generated gas from about 52 to 41 Ma and (2) the Austin and Eagle Ford Groups generated oil from about 42 to 28 Ma and generated gas from about 14 Ma to the present. From the source rocks, oil and gas migrated upsection and updip along a pervasive system of faults and fractures as well as along bedding planes and within sandstone units. Types of traps include stratigraphic pinchouts, folds, faulted folds, and combinations of these. Seals consist of interbedded shales and mudstones and diagenetic cementation. The area assessed is divided into five assessment units (AUs): (1) Travis Volcanic Mounds Oil (AU 50470201), (2) Uvalde Volcanic Mounds Gas and Oil (AU 50470202), (3) Navarro-Taylor Updip Oil and Gas (AU 50470203), (4) Navarro-Taylor Downdip Gas and Oil (AU 50470204), and (5) Navarro-Taylor Slope-Basin Gas (AU 50470205). Total estimated mean undiscovered conventional resources in the five assessment units combined are 33.22 million barrels of oil, 1,682.80 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 34.26 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  18. Natural gas resource characterization study of the Mesaverde group in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming: A strategic plan for the exploitation of tight gas sands. Final report, September 1993-April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Surdam, R.C.

    1996-05-01

    This final report summarizes work completed during the contract on developing an innovative exploration and production strategy for the Mesaverde Group tight gas sands in the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). Thorough investigation of the processes affecting the sources and reservoirs of this gas resource has been undertaken in order to establish the critical parameters that determine how gas accumulates in gas-saturated, anomalously pressured rocks and that affect the successful and efficient exploitation of tight gas sands. During the contract, IER researchers have (1) developed a natural gas exploration paradigm that can be be used to create improved exploitation strategies for the Mesaverde Group tight gas sands, thereby lowing exploration risk; (2) detected and delineated sweet spots using 2-D and 3-D models of well log responses, petrographic and petrophysical studies, water chemistry analyses, and natural frature studies; (3) investigated the relationship of natural fractures and lineaments to hydrocarbon production in the GGRB; (4) created an expanded database for the GGRB; (5) prioritized volunteered experimental drill sites in the GGRB for potential cooperative research and development; and (6) participated in joint studies on a horizontal well completion in the Almond Formation, Echo Springs field, Washakie Basin.

  19. Handbook for Alumni Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Charles H., Ed.

    A definitive look at the field of alumni administration is presented, noting that the subject has until now received little attention. The 34 chapters are divided into nine sections: an overview of alumni administration; alumni as an essential resource; people management; budget and records; programming; communications; alumni education programs…

  20. The School Personnel Administrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Rodney F.

    This paper provides an overview of the development of the school-personnel administrator role. It first describes the influence of the science-management and human-relations movements and the behavioral sciences on personnel administration and human resource management. It next discusses the role of the personnel-performance-appraisal system and…

  1. Executive Summary -- assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the San Joaquin Basin Province of California, 2003: Chapter 1 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Scheirer, Allegra Hosford; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; French, Christopher D.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the oil and gas resource potential of the San Joaquin Basin Province of California (fig. 1.1). The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each Total Petroleum System defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock type and maturation and hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined five total petroleum systems and ten assessment units within these systems. Undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively estimated for the ten assessment units (table 1.1). In addition, the potential was estimated for further growth of reserves in existing oil fields of the San Joaquin Basin.

  2. Energy Carriers Use in the World: Natural Gas - Conventional and Unconventional Gas Resources / Wykorzystanie Nośników Energii w Świecie: Zasoby Gazu Ziemnego w Złożach Konwencjonalnych i Niekonwencjonalnych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemek, Jakub; Nagy, Stanisław

    2012-11-01

    This paper discusses forecasts of energy carrier use with particular emphasis on the changing position of natural gas due to global climatic conditions and the increasing role of unconventional natural gas reservoirs. Allocation of natural gas resources in the world are discussed as well as global gas consumption and conditions for development of transport infrastructure and storage. The most important indicators of the energy security of countries are presented. The basic properties of unconventional deposits, and differences in the production/extraction of gas from the conventional and unconventional fields are given. In the paper are also discussed natural gas reserves in Poland, including possible non-conventional resources in the fields and issues of increasing the role of gas as an energy carrier in Poland in the background of the energy changes in Europe and the world. W pracy omówiono prognozy energetyczne wykorzystania energii ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem zmieniającej się pozycji gazu ziemnego z uwagi na uwarunkowania klimatyczne oraz wzrastającą role niekonwencjonalnych złóż gazu ziemnego. Omówiono alokację zasobów gazu ziemnego w świecie, zużycie gazu w regionach oraz warunki rozbudowy infrastruktury transportu i magazynowania. Przedstawiono najważniejsze wskaźniki dotyczące bezpieczeństwa energetycznego krajów. Omówiono podstawowe własności złóż niekonwencjonalnych oraz różnice w charakterze wydobycia gazu ze złóż konwencjonalnych i niekonwencjonalnych. Omówiono zasoby gazu w Polsce, w tym możliwe zasoby w złożach niekonwencjonalnych oraz zagadnienia zwiększenia roli gazu jako nośnika energii w Polsce w tle energetycznych zmian Europy i świata.

  3. Energy efficiency resources in existing residences served by natural gas in Washington State. General assessment of conservation costs

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, R.; Quaid, M.; Schueler, V.

    1990-12-01

    This report analyzes and tabulates the cost of energy efficiency measures as they apply to Washington`s existing housing stock that depends on natural gas for space and water heat. The report focuses on estimating the cost of conserving therms of natural gas with efficiency measures. These costs are calculated from the economic perspective of a natural gas utility looking to make cost-effective utility investments. The cost of conserving therms of natural gas is calculated in a manner that permits comparison to the estimated cost of future gas suppliers. The analysis concentrates on weatherization or space heating measures, and measures that improve the efficiency of heating and using domestic hot water. Space heating and water heating are the two principal end-uses of natural gas in residences.

  4. Elder care - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - elder care ... The following organizations are good resources for information on aging and elder care: Administration on Aging -- www.aoa.gov Eldercare Locator -- www.eldercare.gov National Institute on ...

  5. Natural gas resource characterization study of the Mesaverde group in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming: A strategic plan for the exploitation of tight gas sands. Annual report, May 1991-April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Surdam, R.C.

    1993-02-01

    To convert a known enormous gas resource, the tight gas sands of the Mesaverde Group, into viable gas reserves, an exploration and production strategy is being developed. It includes the following approaches: a stratigraphic and sedimentologic framework of the Greater Green River Basin; a subsidence and uplift evaluation of the Washakie Basin; a pressure analysis and delineation of regions of abnormal pressure; delineation of the most significant hydrocarbon source rocks; maturation studies of the source rock intervals by hydrous pyrolysis, kinetic models, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, and thermal exposure/maturation techniques; a descriptive diagenetic model of a variety of sandstone units, to be validated and refined by comparison of petrographic/petrophysical observations with model predictions; estimates of gas volumetrics using the results from the NMR analysis; annual updates of resource estimates made as new areas are drilled; determination of the relationship between diagenesis and petrophysical properties; review of conventional formation evaluation analyses; and integration of all the component studies of the project.

  6. CO2 storage resources, reserves, and reserve growth: Toward a methodology for integrated assessment of the storage capacity of oil and gas reservoirs and saline formations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burruss, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Geologically based methodologies to assess the possible volumes of subsurface CO2 storage must apply clear and uniform definitions of resource and reserve concepts to each assessment unit (AU). Application of the current state of knowledge of geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and geophysical parameters (contingencies) that control storage volume and injectivity allows definition of the contingent resource (CR) of storage. The parameters known with the greatest certainty are based on observations on known traps (KTs) within the AU that produced oil, gas, and water. The aggregate volume of KTs within an AU defines the most conservation volume of contingent resource. Application of the concept of reserve growth to CR volume provides a logical path for subsequent reevaluation of the total resource as knowledge of CO2 storage processes increases during implementation of storage projects. Increased knowledge of storage performance over time will probably allow the volume of the contingent resource of storage to grow over time, although negative growth is possible. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chapter 1: Executive Summary - Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    USGS Wind River Basin Province Assessment Team

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 2.4 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, a mean of 41 million barrels of undiscovered oil, and a mean of 20.5 million barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Wind River Basin Province of Wyoming.

  8. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Powder River Basin Province of Wyoming and Montana--2006 Update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 16.6 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, 639 million barrels of undiscovered oil, and 131 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Powder River Basin Province.

  9. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Paradox Basin Province, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whidden, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 560 million barrels of undiscovered oil, 12,701 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, and 490 million barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona.

  10. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anna, Lawrence O.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Lewan, Michael D.; Lillis, Paul G.; Roberts, Laura N.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2008-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota.

  11. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in Jurassic and Cretaceous strata of the Gulf Coast, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dubiel, Russell F.; Warwick, Peter D.; Swanson, Sharon; Burke, Lauri; Biewick, Laura R.H.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Coleman, James L., Jr.; Cook, Troy A.; Dennen, Kris; Doolan, Colin; Enomoto, Catherine; Hackley, Paul C.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Kinney, Scott A.; Lewan, Michael D.; Merrill, Matt; Pearson, Krystal; Pearson, Ofori N.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Rowan, Elizabeth L.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Valentine, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 147.4 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, 2.4 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, and 2.96 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in Jurassic and Cretaceous strata in onshore lands and State waters of the Gulf Coast.

  12. Potential for technically recoverable unconventional gas and oil resources in the Polish-Ukrainian Foredeep, Poland, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Pitman, Janet K.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a performance-based geological assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 1,345 billion cubic feet of potentially technically recoverable gas and 168 million barrels of technically recoverable oil and natural gas liquids in Ordovician and Silurian age shales in the Polish- Ukrainian Foredeep basin of Poland.

  13. Comparing the risk profiles of renewable and natural gas electricity contracts: A summary of the California Department of Water Resources contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Bachrach, Devra; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Golove, William

    2003-03-12

    Electricity markets in the United States have witnessed unprecedented instability over the last few years, with substantial volatility in wholesale market prices, significant financial distress among major industry organizations, and unprecedented legal, regulatory and legislative activity. These events demonstrate the considerable risks that exist in the electricity industry. Recent industry instability also illustrates the need for thoughtful resource planning to balance the cost, reliability, and risk of the electricity supplied to end-use customers. In balancing different supply options, utilities, regulators, and other resource planners must consider the unique risk profiles of each generating source. This paper evaluates the relative risk profiles of renewable and natural gas generating plants. The risks that exist in the electricity industry depend in part on the technologies that are used to generate electricity. Natural gas has become the fuel of choice for new power plant additions in the United States. To some, this emphasis on a single fuel source signals the potential for increased risk. Renewable generation sources, on the other hand, are frequently cited as a potent source of socially beneficial risk reduction relative to natural gas-fired generation. Renewable generation is not risk free, however, and also imposes certain costs on the electricity sector. This paper specifically compares the allocation and mitigation of risks in long-term natural gas-fired electricity contracts with the allocation and mitigation of these same risks in long-term renewable energy contracts. This comparison highlights some of the key differences between renewable and natural gas generation that decision makers should consider when making electricity investment and contracting decisions. Our assessment is relevant in both regulated and restructured markets. In still-regulated markets, the audience for this report clearly includes regulators and the utilities they regulate. In restructured markets, the role of regulatory oversight of resource planning is more limited. Nonetheless, even in restructured markets, it is increasingly recognized that regulators have a critical role to play in directing the resource planning of providers of last resort--electric suppliers that provide service to those customers who choose not to switch to a competitive supplier. Our review of electricity contracts may also have educational value for those unfamiliar with the typical contents of these agreements. Details of our findings are provided in the body of the paper, but this summary is written to provide a concise alternative to reading the full report.

  14. Swamp Works: A New Approach to Develop Space Mining and Resource Extraction Technologies at the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R. P.; Sibille, L.; Leucht, K.; Smith, J. D.; Townsend, I. I.; Nick, A. J.; Schuler, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The first steps for In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) on target bodies such as the Moon, Mars and Near Earth Asteroids (NEA), and even comets, involve the same sequence of steps as in the terrestrial mining of resources. First exploration including prospecting must occur, and then the resource must be acquired through excavation methods if it is of value. Subsequently a load, haul and dump sequence of events occurs, followed by processing of the resource in an ISRU plant, to produce useful commodities. While these technologies and related supporting operations are mature in terrestrial applications, they will be different in space since the environment and indigenous materials are different than on Earth. In addition, the equipment must be highly automated, since for the majority of the production cycle time, there will be no humans present to assist or intervene. This space mining equipment must withstand a harsh environment which includes vacuum, radical temperature swing cycles, highly abrasive lofted dust, electrostatic effects, van der Waals forces effects, galactic cosmic radiation, solar particle events, high thermal gradients when spanning sunlight terminators, steep slopes into craters / lava tubes and cryogenic temperatures as low as 40 K in permanently shadowed regions. In addition the equipment must be tele-operated from Earth or a local base where the crew is sheltered. If the tele-operation occurs from Earth then significant communications latency effects mandate the use of autonomous control systems in the mining equipment. While this is an extremely challenging engineering design scenario, it is also an opportunity, since the technologies developed in this endeavor could be used in the next generations of terrestrial mining equipment, in order to mine deeper, safer, more economical and with a higher degree of flexibility. New space technologies could precipitate new mining solutions here on Earth. The NASA KSC Swamp Works is an innovation environment and methodology, with associated laboratories that uses lean development methods and creativity-enhancing processes to invent and develop new solutions for space exploration. This paper will discuss the Swamp Works approach to developing space mining and resource extraction systems and the vision of space development it serves. The ultimate goal of the Swamp Works is to expand human civilization into the solar system via the use of local resources utilization. By mining and using the local resources in situ, it is conceivable that one day the logistics supply train from Earth can be eliminated and Earth independence of a space-based community will be enabled.

  15. Formulation of a correlated variables methodology for assessment of continuous gas resources with an application to the Woodford play, Arkoma Basin, eastern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olea, R.A.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Garrity, C.P.; Cook, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    Shale gas is a form of continuous unconventional hydrocarbon accumulation whose resource estimation is unfeasible through the inference of pore volume. Under these circumstances, the usual approach is to base the assessment on well productivity through estimated ultimate recovery (EUR). Unconventional resource assessments that consider uncertainty are typically done by applying analytical procedures based on classical statistics theory that ignores geographical location, does not take into account spatial correlation, and assumes independence of EUR from other variables that may enter into the modeling. We formulate a new, more comprehensive approach based on sequential simulation to test methodologies known to be capable of more fully utilizing the data and overcoming unrealistic simplifications. Theoretical requirements demand modeling of EUR as areal density instead of well EUR. The new experimental methodology is illustrated by evaluating a gas play in the Woodford Shale in the Arkoma Basin of Oklahoma. Differently from previous assessments, we used net thickness and vitrinite reflectance as secondary variables correlated to cell EUR. In addition to the traditional probability distribution for undiscovered resources, the new methodology provides maps of EUR density and maps with probabilities to reach any given cell EUR, which are useful to visualize geographical variations in prospectivity.

  16. 6, Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Albian clastic and updip Albian clastic assessment units, U.S. Gulf Coast region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merrill, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessments (NOGA) of Albian aged clastic reservoirs in the U.S. Gulf Coast region indicate a relatively low prospectivity for undiscovered hydrocarbon resources due to high levels of past production and exploration. Evaluation of two assessment units (AUs), (1) the Albian Clastic AU 50490125, and (2) the Updip Albian Clastic AU 50490126, were based on a geologic model incorporating consideration of source rock, thermal maturity, migration, events timing, depositional environments, reservoir rock characteristics, and production analyses built on well and field-level production histories. The Albian Clastic AU is a mature conventional hydrocarbon prospect with undiscovered accumulations probably restricted to small faulted and salt-associated structural traps that could be revealed using high resolution subsurface imaging and from targeting structures at increased drilling depths that were unproductive at shallower intervals. Mean undiscovered accumulation volumes from the probabilistic assessment are 37 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 152 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG), and 4 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL). Limited exploration of the Updip Albian Clastic AU reflects a paucity of hydrocarbon discoveries updip of the periphery fault zones in the northern Gulf Coastal region. Restricted migration across fault zones is a major factor behind the small discovered fields and estimation of undiscovered resources in the AU. Mean undiscovered accumulation volumes from the probabilistic assessment are 1 MMBO and 5 BCFG for the Updip Albian Clastic AU.

  17. Executive summary--2002 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 1 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey San Juan Basin Assessment Team

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources that have the potential for additions to reserves in the San Juan Basin Province (5022), New Mexico and Colorado (fig. 1). Paleozoic rocks were not appraised. The last oil and gas assessment for the province was in 1995 (Gautier and others, 1996). There are several important differences between the 1995 and 2002 assessments. The area assessed is smaller than that in the 1995 assessment. This assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the San Juan Basin Province also used a slightly different approach in the assessment, and hence a number of the plays defined in the 1995 assessment are addressed differently in this report. After 1995, the USGS has applied a total petroleum system (TPS) concept to oil and gas basin assessments. The TPS approach incorporates knowledge of the source rocks, reservoir rocks, migration pathways, and time of generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons; thus the assessments are geologically based. Each TPS is subdivided into one or more assessment units, usually defined by a unique set of reservoir rocks, but which have in common the same source rock. Four TPSs and 14 assessment units were geologically evaluated, and for 13 units, the undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  18. Potential tight gas resources in a frontier province - Jurassic through Tertiary strata beneath the Brooks Range foothills, Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Houseknecht, David W.; Potter, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    Beneath the foothills of the Brooks Range, rocks of the Lower Cretaceous-Tertiary Brookian and Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Beaufortian megasequences have been deeply buried and exhumed, and now exhibit characteristics of 'tight gas sandstones'. The data recovered from drilling, well tests, and cores exhibit the potential for substantial gas reserves over a large area. These data include recovery of gas from drillstem tests, indications of overpressure from well tests and mud weights, low porosity and permeability in sandstones, and vitrinite reflectance values ranging from 1.0 to 2.0 percent throughout substantial depth intervals.

  19. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Powder River Basin Province of Wyoming and Montana, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    2002-11-15

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 16.5 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, a mean of 1.5 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, and a mean of 86.5 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Powder River Basin Province. About 14.3 trillion cubic feet is estimated to be coal-bed gas in three AUs of the Tertiary Upper Cretaceous Coal-Bed Methane TPS. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Examining Extension's Capacity in Community Resource and Economic Development: Viewpoints of Extension Administrators on the Role of Community Resource and Economic Development in the Extension Portfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbanowitz, Seth C.; Wilcox, Michael D., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The survey-based research reported here offers insights on community, resource, and economic development (CRED) Extension programming at the national and regional level. The results present a national picture of CRED programming, research, and potential future programming opportunities that Extension could capitalize on. The research shows that…

  1. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Devonian gas shales of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.9 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milici, Robert C.; Swezey, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of the technically recoverable undiscovered natural gas resources in Devonian shale in the Appalachian Basin Petroleum Province of the eastern United States. These results are part of the USGS assessment in 2002 of the technically recoverable undiscovered oil and gas resources of the province. This report does not use the results of a 2011 USGS assessment of the Devonian Marcellus Shale because the area considered in the 2011 assessment is much greater than the area of the Marcellus Shale described in this report. The USGS assessment in 2002 was based on the identification of six total petroleum systems, which include strata that range in age from Cambrian to Pennsylvanian. The Devonian gas shales described in this report are within the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System, which extends generally from New York to Tennessee. This total petroleum system is divided into ten assessment units (plays), four of which are classified as conventional and six as continuous. The Devonian shales described in this report make up four of these continuous assessment units. The assessment results are reported as fully risked fractiles (F95, F50, F5, and the mean); the fractiles indicate the probability of recovery of the assessment amount. The products reported are oil, gas, and natural gas liquids. The mean estimates for technically recoverable undiscovered hydrocarbons in the four gas shale assessment units are 12,195.53 billion cubic feet (12.20 trillion cubic feet) of gas and 158.91 million barrels of natural gas liquids

  2. Assessment of potential unconventional Carboniferous-Permian gas resources of the Liaohe Basin eastern uplift, Liaoning Province, China, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, Richard M.; Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 448 billion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable unconventional natural gas in Carboniferous and Permian coal-bearing strata in the eastern uplift of the Liaohe Basin, Liaoning Province, China.

  3. Method for estimation of the average local working temperatures and the residual resource of metal coatings of gas-turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krukovskii, P. G.; Tadlya, K. A.

    2007-05-01

    A new method is proposed for estimation of the average local operating temperatures and the residual service life (resource) of protective MCrAlY metal coatings of gas-turbine blades after a certain time of operation on the basis of experimental data on the residual content of aluminum in the coating of a blade and/or the width of its first depletion zone. A physical and a mathematical model of the processes of oxidation and diffusion of aluminum in the coating-blade alloy system, accounting for the kinetics of formation of the diffusion zone, are presented. Results of calculation of the local working temperatures and the residual resource of the coating of a blade at local points along the outline of the blade cross section by the method proposed with the use of data on the width of the first depletion zone are given.

  4. Health Impact Assessments, Regulation, and the Unconventional Gas Industry in the UK: Exploiting Resources, Ideology, and Expertise?

    PubMed

    Watterson, Andrew; Dinan, William

    2016-02-01

    Health impact assessments (HIAs) across the globe may be used by governments and industries to secure approval for unconventional gas extraction developments. HIA is an umbrella term that covers an array of health review and assessment practices, ranging from the very general to quite specific and technical health studies. Our concern in this paper is principally with the specialist end of the HIA continuum and particularly its application to unconventional gas extraction in the UK. We outline the context within which HIAs in unconventional gas extraction may be conducted. We then explain what HIAs may do. HIAs are often commissioned from consultancy companies to assess unconventional gas extraction project risks and benefits and propose mitigation measures. Communities can rarely afford HIAs in the planning process and may consider them biased when commissioned by vested interests. The oil and gas industry uses these techniques for its own ends. Hiring experts, be they specialist consultants, researchers, lobbyists, ex-government officials, or regulators, to influence planning and regulation is a well-tried tactic and structural advantage exploited by industry in seeking license to operate. Equitable and ethical HIA principles are urgently needed in the UK in relation to unconventional gas to secure the integrity and probity of the emerging regulatory system and address concerns regarding unregulated practitioners. PMID:26531123

  5. Geology and oil and gas assessment of the Mancos-Menefee Composite Total Petroleum System: Chapter 4 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ridgley, J.L.; Condon, S.M.; Hatch, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Eight assessment units were defined in the Mancos-Menefee Composite TPS. Of the eight assessment units, four were assessed as conventional oil or gas accumulations and four as continuous-type accumulations. The conventional assessment units are Dakota-Greenhorn Conventional Oil and Gas Assessment Unit (AU), Gallup Sandstone Conventional Oil and Gas AU, Mancos Sandstones Conventional Oil AU, and the Mesaverde Updip Conventional Oil AU. Continuous-type assessments are Dakota-Greenhorn Continuous Gas AU, Mancos Sandstones Continuous Gas AU, Mesaverde Central-Basin Continuous Gas AU, and Menefee Coalbed Gas AU. The Mesaverde Updip Conventional AU was not quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources, because the producing oil fields were smaller than the 0.5 million barrel cutoff, and the potential of finding fields above this cutoff was considered to be low. Total oil resources that have the potential for additions to reserves in the next 30 years are estimated at a mean of 16.78 million barrels. Most of this resource will come from reservoirs in the Mancos Sandstones Oil AU. Gas resources that have the potential for additions to reserves in the next 30 years are estimated at a mean of 11.11 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG). Of this amount, 11.03 TCFG will come from continuous gas accumulations; the remainder will be gas associated with oil in conventional accumulations.Total natural gas liquids (NGL) that have the potential for additions to reserves in the next 30 years are estimated at a mean of 99.86 million barrels. Of this amount, 96.95 million barrels will come from the continuous gas assessment units, and 78.3 percent of this potential resource will come from the Mancos Sandstones Continuous Gas AU.

  6. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2005-10-28

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization and modeling. Understanding the burial, thermal maturation, and hydrocarbon expulsion histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in hydrocarbon resource assessment. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and initial thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicated that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The initial modeling also indicated that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Refined thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling and additional petroleum source rock analysis have confirmed that the major source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early to Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary.

  7. Appraisal of gas hydrate resources based on a P- and S-impedance reflectivity template: case study from the deep sea sediments in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoar, Behnam Hosseini; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Keshavarz Farajkhah, Nasser; Seddigh Arabani, Mojtaba

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence of a bottom simulating reflector (BSR) in the 2D seismic data from Makran's accretionary prism reveals the presence of gas hydrate and free gas several hundred meters below the seafloor of Iran's deep sea. According to the global distribution of marine hydrates, they are widely present in deep sea sediments, where high operational costs and hazards cause a lack of well log information. Therefore, developing a method to quantify the hydrate resources with seismic data is an ultimate goal for unexplored regions. In this study, the so-called reflectivity templates (RTs) are introduced for quantification of the hydrate and free gas near the BSR. These RTs are intuitive crossplots of P-impedance and S-impedance contrasts across the BSR. They are calculated theoretically based on the effective medium theory for different hydrate distribution modes with some assumptions on porosity and mineralogical composition of unconsolidated sediments. This technique suggests the possibility of using the amplitude variation versus offset (AVO) analysis of the BSR for a quantitative interpretation when well log data are not available. By superimposing the AVO-derived P-impedance and S-impedance contrasts across the BSR on these RTs, the saturations of the hydrate and free gas near the BSR could be estimated. Validation of this approach by synthetic data showed that a reliable quantification could be achieved if the model parameters were rearranged to a form in which the AVO inversion was independent of the S-wave to P-wave velocity-ratio assumption. Based on this approach applied on the 2D marine pre-stack time migrated seismic line in offshore Iran, 4% to 28% of the gas hydrate and 1% to 2% of the free gas are expected to be accumulated near the thrusted-ridge and thrusted-footwall types of BSRs.

  8. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the southern Siberian craton (Baykit High, Nepa--Botuoba High, Angara--Lena Terrace, and Cis--Patom Foredeep Provinces), Russia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources for the southern Siberian craton provinces of Russia. The mean volumes were estimated at 3.0 billion barrels of crude oil, 63.3 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.2 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  9. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources: Oligocene Frio and Anahuac Formations, United States Gulf of Mexico coastal plain and State waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2013-01-01

    The Oligocene Frio and Anahuac Formations were assessed as part of the 2007 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of Tertiary strata of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico Basin onshore and State waters. The Frio Formation, which consists of sand-rich fluvio-deltaic systems, has been one of the largest hydrocarbon producers from the Paleogene in the Gulf of Mexico. The Anahuac Formation, an extensive transgressive marine shale overlying the Frio Formation, contains deltaic and slope sandstones in Louisiana and Texas and carbonate rocks in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. In downdip areas of the Frio and Anahuac Formations, traps associated with faulted, rollover anticlines are common. Structural traps commonly occur in combination with stratigraphic traps. Faulted salt domes in the Frio and Anahuac Formations are present in the Houston embayment of Texas and in south Louisiana. In the Frio Formation, stratigraphic traps are found in fluvial, deltaic, barrier-bar, shelf, and strandplain systems. The USGS Tertiary Assessment Team defined a single, Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) for the Gulf Coast basin, based on previous studies and geochemical analysis of oils in the Gulf Coast basin. The primary source rocks for oil and gas within Cenozoic petroleum systems, including Frio Formation reservoirs, in the northern, onshore Gulf Coastal region consist of coal and shale rich in organic matter within the Wilcox Group (Paleocene–Eocene), with some contributions from the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group (Eocene). The Jurassic Smackover Formation and Cretaceous Eagle Ford Formation also may have contributed substantial petroleum to Cenozoic reservoirs. Modeling studies of thermal maturity by the USGS Tertiary Assessment Team indicate that downdip portions of the basal Wilcox Group reached sufficient thermal maturity to generate hydrocarbons by early Eocene; this early maturation is the result of rapid sediment accumulation in the early Tertiary, combined with the reaction kinetic parameters used in the models. A number of studies indicate that the migration of oil and gas in the Cenozoic Gulf of Mexico basin is primarily vertical, occurring along abundant growth faults associated with sediment deposition or along faults associated with salt domes. The USGS Tertiary assessment team developed a geologic model based on recurring regional-scale structural and depositional features in Paleogene strata to define assessment units (AUs). Three general areas, as described in the model, are found in each of the Paleogene stratigraphic intervals assessed: “Stable Shelf,” “Expanded Fault,” and “Slope and Basin Floor” zones. On the basis of this model, three AUs for the Frio Formation were defined: (1) the Frio Stable Shelf Oil and Gas AU, containing reservoirs with a mean depth of about 4,800 feet in normally pressured intervals; (2) the Frio Expanded Fault Zone Oil and Gas AU, containing reservoirs with a mean depth of about 9,000 feet in primarily overpressured intervals; and (3) the Frio Slope and Basin Floor Gas AU, which currently has no production but has potential for deep gas resources (>15,000 feet). AUs also were defined for the Hackberry trend, which consists of a slope facies stratigraphically in the middle part of the Frio Formation, and the Anahuac Formation. The Frio Basin Margin AU, an assessment unit extending to the outcrop of the Frio (or basal Miocene), was not quantitatively assessed because of its low potential for production. Two proprietary, commercially available databases containing field and well production information were used in the assessment. Estimates of undiscovered resources for the five AUs were based on a total of 1,734 reservoirs and 586,500 wells producing from the Frio and Anahuac Formations. Estimated total mean values of technically recoverable, undiscovered resources are 172 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 9.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas (TCFG), and 542 million barrels of natural gas liquids for all of the Frio and Anahuac AUs. Of the five units assessed, the Frio Slope and Basin Floor Gas AU has the greatest potential for undiscovered gas resources, having an estimated mean of 5.6 TCFG. The Hackberry Oil and Gas AU shows the second highest potential for gas of the five units assessed, having an estimated mean of 1.8 TCFG. The largest undiscovered, conventional crude oil resource was estimated for the Frio Slope and Basin Floor Gas AU; the estimated mean for oil in this AU is 110 MMBO.

  10. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Williston Basin Province Assessment Team

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive oil and gas assessment of the Williston Basin, which encompasses more than 90 million acres in parts of North Dakota, eastern Montana, and northern South Dakota. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined 11 TPS and 19 Assessment Units (AU).

  11. 'By papers and pens, you can only do so much': views about accountability and human resource management from Indian government health administrators and workers.

    PubMed

    George, Asha

    2009-01-01

    Although accountability drives in the Indian health sector sporadically highlight egregious behaviour of individual health providers, accountability needs to be understood more broadly. From a managerial perspective, while accountability functions as a control mechanism that involves reviews and sanctions, it also has a constructive side that encourages learning from errors and discretion to support innovation. This points to social relationships: how formal rules and hierarchies combine with informal norms and processes and more fundamentally how power relations are negotiated. Drawing from this conceptual background and based on qualitative research, this article analyses the views of government primary health care administrators and workers from Koppal district, northern Karnataka, India. In particular, the article details how these actors view two management functions concerned with internal accountability: supervision and disciplinary action. A number of disjunctures are revealed. Although extensive information systems exist, they do not guide responsiveness or planning. While supportive supervision efforts are acknowledged and practiced, implicit quid-pro-quo bargains that justify poor service delivery performance are more prevalent. Despite the enactment of numerous disciplinary measures, little discipline is observed. These disjunctures reflect nuanced and layered relationships between health administrators and workers, as well as how power is negotiated through corruption and elected representatives within the broader political economy context of health systems in northern Karnataka, India. These various dimensions of accountability need to be addressed if it is to be used more equitably and effectively. PMID:19384895

  12. Class 1 overview of cultural resources for the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.; Walitschek, D.A.; Shogren, L.; Mathews, J.E.; Verhaaren, B.T.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory conducted an inventory of known archaeological and historic sites in areas that could be affected by the hydropower operation alternatives under analysis in the power marketing environmental impact statement for the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects. The study areas included portions of the Green River (Flaming Gorge Dam to Cub Creek) in Utah and Colorado and the Gunnison River (Blue Mesa Reservoir to Crystal Dam) in Colorado. All previous archaeological surveys and previously recorded prehistoric and historic sites, structures, and features were inventoried and plotted on maps (only survey area maps are included in this report). The surveys were classified by their level of intensity, and the sites were classified according to their age, type, and contents. These data (presented here in tabular form) permit a general assessment of the character and distribution of archaeological remains in the study areas, as well as an indication of the sampling basis for such an assessment. To provide an adequate context for the descriptions of the archaeological and historic sites, this report also presents overviews of the environmental setting and the regional prehistory, history, and ethnography for each study area.

  13. 30 CFR 550.1473 - How may I appeal the Administrative Law Judge's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... decision to the Interior Board of Land Appeals under 43 CFR part 4, subpart E. ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How may I appeal the Administrative Law Judge's... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Outer Continental...

  14. 30 CFR 550.1473 - How may I appeal the Administrative Law Judge's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... decision to the Interior Board of Land Appeals under 43 CFR part 4, subpart E. ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How may I appeal the Administrative Law Judge's... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Outer Continental...

  15. 30 CFR 550.1473 - How may I appeal the Administrative Law Judge's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... decision to the Interior Board of Land Appeals under 43 CFR part 4, subpart E. ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How may I appeal the Administrative Law Judge's... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Outer Continental...

  16. 30 CFR 250.1473 - How may I appeal the Administrative Law Judge's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that decision to the Interior Board of Land Appeals under 43 CFR part 4, subpart E. ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How may I appeal the Administrative Law Judge's..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF...

  17. 30 CFR 241.73 - How may I appeal the Administrative Law Judge's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Land Appeals under 43 CFR part 4, subpart E. ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How may I appeal the Administrative Law Judge's... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PENALTIES Penalties for Federal and Indian Oil and Gas Leases...

  18. 30 CFR 250.1473 - How may I appeal the Administrative Law Judge's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... that decision to the Interior Board of Land Appeals under 43 CFR part 4, subpart E. ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How may I appeal the Administrative Law Judge's..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF...

  19. 30 CFR 250.1473 - How may I appeal the Administrative Law Judge's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... that decision to the Interior Board of Land Appeals under 43 CFR part 4, subpart E. ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How may I appeal the Administrative Law Judge's..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF...

  20. 30 CFR 250.1473 - How may I appeal the Administrative Law Judge's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., you may appeal that decision to the Interior Board of Land Appeals under 43 CFR part 4, subpart E. ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How may I appeal the Administrative Law Judge's... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER...

  1. Benefits of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation on the Supply, Management, and Use of Water Resources in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change impacts on water resources in the U.S. are likely to be far-reaching and substantial, because the water sector spans many parts of the economy, from supply and demand for agriculture, industry, energy production, transportation and municipal use to damages from nat...

  2. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the East Coast Mesozoic basins of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge Thrust Belt, Atlantic Coastal Plain, and New England Provinces, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milici, Robert C.; Coleman, James L., Jr.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    During the early opening of the Atlantic Ocean in the Mesozoic Era, numerous extensional basins formed along the eastern margin of the North American continent from Florida northward to New England and parts of adjacent Canada. The basins extend generally from the offshore Atlantic continental margin westward beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the Appalachian Mountains. Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean undiscovered natural gas resource of 3,860 billion cubic feet and a mean undiscovered natural gas liquids resource of 135 million barrels in continuous accumulations within five of the East Coast Mesozoic basins: the Deep River, Dan River-Danville, and Richmond basins, which are within the Piedmont Province of North Carolina and Virginia; the Taylorsville basin, which is almost entirely within the Atlantic Coastal Plain Province of Virginia and Maryland; and the southern part of the Newark basin (herein referred to as the South Newark basin), which is within the Blue Ridge Thrust Belt Province of New Jersey. The provinces, which contain these extensional basins, extend across parts of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts.

  3. 75 FR 53963 - Notice of Baseline Filings: The Peoples Gas Light and Coke Company, Minnesota Energy Resources...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-86-000, Docket No. PR10-87-000, Docket No. PR10-88- 000, Docket No. PR10-89-000, Docket No. PR10-90-000] Notice of Baseline Filings: The Peoples Gas Light...

  4. Assessment of potential shale gas resources of the Bombay, Cauvery, and Krishna-Godavari Provinces, India, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2012-01-01

    Using a performance-based geologic assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a technically recoverable mean volume of 6.1 trillion cubic feet of potential shale gas in the Bombay, Cauvery, and Krishna-Godavari Provinces of India.

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of Papua-New Guinea, Eastern Indonesia, and East Timor, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 5.8 billion barrels of oil and 115 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in five geologic provinces in the areas of Papua New Guinea, eastern Indonesia, and East Timor.

  6. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources in Cretaceous-Tertiary Coal Beds of the Gulf Coast Region, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, Peter D.

    2007-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 4.06 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered, technically recoverable natural gas in Cretaceous-Tertiary coal beds of the onshore lands and State waters of the Gulf Coast.

  7. 7. Administrative structures.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    The basic systems of any society rarely can operate independently. Instead, they are dependent and often interdependent upon other entities. Such entities control the resources within their respective systems. Thus, coordination and control agencies require contracts or memoranda of understanding with these entities in order to assure access to the resources required during a crisis. These administrative structures include: (1) governmental institutions and agencies, including the military; (2) intergovernmental organisations; (3) nongovernmental organisations; (4) commercial private sector organisations; and (5) academic institutions. These dependencies create potential barriers to the provision of coordination and control including: (1) the complexity of the administrative structures with which coordination and control must interact; (2) the location of resources; (3) finding responsible person(s); (4) the competence and compatibility; (5) methods of access; (6) payment; (7) contracts and memoranda of understanding; (8) inventories of accessible resources; (9) competition for the mandate, power, and resources; and (10) jealousy. The need for potential interactions between administrative structures requires that agreements for the sharing of resources during crises be reached as part of planning and preparedness. Gaining an understanding of these relationships is an important area for research. PMID:24785804

  8. Pediatric therapeutics and medicine administration in resource-poor settings: a review of barriers and an agenda for interdisciplinary approaches to improving outcomes.

    PubMed

    Craig, Sienna R; Adams, Lisa V; Spielberg, Stephen P; Campbell, Benjamin

    2009-12-01

    The lack of affordable, available pediatric drug formulations presents serious global health challenges. This article argues that successful pharmacotherapy for children demands an interdisciplinary approach. There is a need to develop new medicines to address acute and chronic illnesses of children, but also to produce formulations of essential medicines to optimize stability, bioavailability, palatability, cost, accurate dosing and adherence. This, in turn, requires an understanding of the social ecologies in which treatment occurs. Understanding health worker, caregiver and patient practices, limitations, and expectations with regard to medicines is crucial to guiding effective drug development and administration. Using literature on pediatric tuberculosis as a reference, this review highlights sociocultural, pharmacological, and structural barriers that impede the delivery of medicines to children. It serves as a basis for the development of an intensive survey of patient, caregiver, and health care worker understandings of, and preferences for, pediatric formulations in three East African countries. PMID:19796859

  9. 2010 updated assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, D.W.; Bird, K.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Attanasi, E.D.; Garrity, C.P.; Schenk, C.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Pollastro, R.M.; Cook, T.A.; and Klett, T.R.

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 896 million barrels of oil (MMBO) and about 53 trillion cubic feet (TCFG) of nonassociated natural gas in conventional, undiscovered accumulations within the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska and adjacent State waters. The estimated volume of undiscovered oil is significantly lower than estimates released in 2002, owing primarily to recent exploration drilling that revealed an abrupt transition from oil to gas and reduced reservoir quality in the Alpine sandstone 15-20 miles west of the giant Alpine oil field. The National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) has been the focus of oil exploration during the past decade, stimulated by the mid-1990s discovery of the adjacent Alpine field-the largest onshore oil discovery in the United States during the past 25 years. Recent activities in NPRA, including extensive 3-D seismic surveys, six Federal lease sales totaling more than $250 million in bonus bids, and completion of more than 30 exploration wells on Federal and Native lands, indicate in key formations more gas than oil and poorer reservoir quality than anticipated. In the absence of a gas pipeline from northern Alaska, exploration has waned and several petroleum companies have relinquished assets in the NPRA. This fact sheet updates U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimates of undiscovered oil and gas in NPRA, based on publicly released information from exploration wells completed during the past decade and on the results of research that documents significant Cenozoic uplift and erosion in NPRA. The results included in this fact sheet-released in October 2010-supersede those of a previous assessment completed by the USGS in 2002.

  10. Variable pressure supercritical Rankine cycle for integrated natural gas and power production from the geopressured geothermal resource

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsberry, F.L.

    1982-03-01

    A small-scale power plant cycle that utilizes both a variable pressure vaporizer (heater) and a floating pressure (and temperature) air-cooled condenser is described. Further, it defends this choice on the basis of classical thermodynamics and minimum capital cost by supporting these conclusions with actual comparative examples. The application suggested is for the geopressured geothermal resource. The arguments cited in this application apply to any process (petrochemical, nuclear, etc.) involving waste heat recovery.

  11. The variable pressure supercritical Rankine cycle for integrated natural gas and power production from the geopressured geothermal resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsberry, F. L.

    1982-03-01

    A small-scale power plant cycle that utilizes both a variable pressure vaporizer (heater) and a floating pressure (and temperature) air-cooled condenser is described. Further, it defends this choice on the basis of classical thermodynamics and minimum capital cost by supporting these conclusions with actual comparative examples. The application suggested is for the geopressured geothermal resource. The arguments cited in this application apply to any process (petrochemical, nuclear, etc.) involving waste heat recovery.

  12. 30 CFR 36.43 - Determination of exhaust-gas composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Determination of exhaust-gas composition. 36.43 Section 36.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements...

  13. Chapter 3: Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources in the Phosphoria Total Petroleum System of the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirschbaum, M.A.; Lillis, P.G.; Roberts, L.N.R.

    2007-01-01

    The Phosphoria Total Petroleum System (TPS) encompasses the entire Wind River Basin Province, an area of 4.7 million acres in central Wyoming. The source rocks most likely are black, organic-rich shales of the Meade Peak and Retort Phosphatic Shale Members of the Permian Phosphoria Formation located in the Wyoming and Idaho thrust belt to the west and southwest of the province. Petroleum was generated and expelled during Jurassic and Cretaceous time in westernmost Wyoming and is interpreted to have migrated into the province through carrier beds of the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone where it was preserved in hypothesized regional stratigraphic traps in the Tensleep and Permian Park City Formation. Secondary migration occurred during the development of structural traps associated with the Laramide orogeny. The main reservoirs are in the Tensleep Sandstone and Park City Formation and minor reservoirs are in the Mississippian Madison Limestone, Mississippian-Pennsylvanian Amsden Formation, Triassic Chugwater Group, and Jurassic Nugget Sandstone and Sundance Formation. The traps are sealed by shale or evaporite beds of the Park City, Amsden, and Triassic Dinwoody Formations, Triassic Chugwater Group, and Jurassic Gypsum Spring Formation. A single conventional oil and gas assessment unit (AU), the Tensleep-Park City AU, was defined for the Phosphoria TPS. Both the AU and TPS cover the entire Wind River Basin Province. Oil is produced from 18 anticlinal fields, the last of which was discovered in 1957, and the possibility of discovering new structural oil accumulations is considered to be relatively low. Nonassociated gas is produced from only two fields, but may be underexplored in the province. The discovery of new gas is more promising, but will be from deep structures. The bulk of new oil and gas accumulations is dependent on the discovery of hypothesized stratigraphic traps in isolated carbonate reservoirs of the Park City Formation. Mean resource estimates for the Tensleep-Park City Conventional Oil and Gas AU total 18 million barrels of oil, 294 billion cubic feet of gas, and 5.9 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  14. Regional resource depletion and industry activity: The case of oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1986-01-01

    Stable and declining oil and gas prices have changed the industry's price expectations and, along with depletion of promising exploration prospects, has resulted in reduced exploration. Even with intensive additional exploration, production in most U.S. areas is expected to decline. What does this imply for the drilling and petroleum industry suppliers in particular regions? How should planners in government and the private sector project and incorporate the consequences of these changes in their strategies? This paper answers these questions for the industry operating in the offshore Gulf of Mexico. Future oil and gas production, as well as demand for offshore drilling and production facilities, are shown to depend on the size distribution of undiscovered fields, their associated production costs, and oil and gas prices. Declining well productivity is a consequence of development of progressively smaller fields so that long-run drilling demand should not decline in proportion to the expected production decline. Calculations show a substantial payoff to the drilling industry, in terms of potential demand increases, if it can develop and implement cost reducing technologies. Implications of these results for other offshore producing areas such as the North Sea are also discussed. ?? 1986.

  15. Role of reservoir engineering in the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, M.K.; Bird, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    The geology and reservoir-engineering data were integrated in the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). VVhereas geology defined the analog pools and fields and provided the basic information on sizes and numbers of hypothesized petroleum accumulations, reservoir engineering helped develop necessary equations and correlations, which allowed the determination of reservoir parameters for better quantification of in-place petroleum volumes and recoverable reserves. Seismic- and sequence-stratigraphic study of the NPRA resulted in identification of 24 plays. Depth ranges in these 24 plays, however, were typically greater than depth ranges of analog plays for which there were available data, necessitating the need for establishing correlations. The basic parameters required were pressure, temperature, oil and gas formation volume factors, liquid/gas ratios for the associated and nonassociated gas, and recovery factors. Finally, the re sults of U.S. Geological Survey deposit simulation were used in carrying out an economic evaluation, which has been separately published. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  16. Geologic models and evaluation of undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources: Upper Cretaceous Austin Chalk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, Krystal

    2012-01-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Austin Chalk forms a low-permeability, onshore Gulf of Mexico reservoir that produces oil and gas from major fractures oriented parallel to the underlying Lower Cretaceous shelf edge. Horizontal drilling links these fracture systems to create an interconnected network that drains the reservoir. Field and well locations along the production trend are controlled by fracture networks. Highly fractured chalk is present along both regional and local fault zones. Fractures are also genetically linked to movement of the underlying Jurassic Louann Salt with tensile fractures forming downdip of salt-related structures creating the most effective reservoirs. Undiscovered accumulations should also be associated with structure-controlled fracture systems because much of the Austin that overlies the Lower Cretaceous shelf edge remains unexplored. The Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Shale is the primary source rock for Austin Chalk hydrocarbons. This transgressive marine shale varies in thickness and lithology across the study area and contains both oil- and gas-prone kerogen. The Eagle Ford began generating oil and gas in the early Miocene, and vertical migration through fractures was sufficient to charge the Austin reservoirs.

  17. Assessing Connectivity Between an Overlying Aquifer and a Coal Seam Gas Resource Using Methane Isotopes, Dissolved Organic Carbon and Tritium

    PubMed Central

    Iverach, Charlotte P.; Cendón, Dioni I.; Hankin, Stuart I.; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Nisbet, Euan G.; Baker, Andy; Kelly, Bryce F. J.

    2015-01-01

    Coal seam gas (CSG) production can have an impact on groundwater quality and quantity in adjacent or overlying aquifers. To assess this impact we need to determine the background groundwater chemistry and to map geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity between aquifers. In south-east Queensland (Qld), Australia, a globally important CSG exploration and production province, we mapped hydraulic connectivity between the Walloon Coal Measures (WCM, the target formation for gas production) and the overlying Condamine River Alluvial Aquifer (CRAA), using groundwater methane (CH4) concentration and isotopic composition (δ13C-CH4), groundwater tritium (3H) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. A continuous mobile CH4 survey adjacent to CSG developments was used to determine the source signature of CH4 derived from the WCM. Trends in groundwater δ13C-CH4 versus CH4 concentration, in association with DOC concentration and 3H analysis, identify locations where CH4 in the groundwater of the CRAA most likely originates from the WCM. The methodology is widely applicable in unconventional gas development regions worldwide for providing an early indicator of geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity. PMID:26530701

  18. Assessing Connectivity Between an Overlying Aquifer and a Coal Seam Gas Resource Using Methane Isotopes, Dissolved Organic Carbon and Tritium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverach, Charlotte P.; Cendón, Dioni I.; Hankin, Stuart I.; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Nisbet, Euan G.; Baker, Andy; Kelly, Bryce F. J.

    2015-11-01

    Coal seam gas (CSG) production can have an impact on groundwater quality and quantity in adjacent or overlying aquifers. To assess this impact we need to determine the background groundwater chemistry and to map geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity between aquifers. In south-east Queensland (Qld), Australia, a globally important CSG exploration and production province, we mapped hydraulic connectivity between the Walloon Coal Measures (WCM, the target formation for gas production) and the overlying Condamine River Alluvial Aquifer (CRAA), using groundwater methane (CH4) concentration and isotopic composition (δ13C-CH4), groundwater tritium (3H) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. A continuous mobile CH4 survey adjacent to CSG developments was used to determine the source signature of CH4 derived from the WCM. Trends in groundwater δ13C-CH4 versus CH4 concentration, in association with DOC concentration and 3H analysis, identify locations where CH4 in the groundwater of the CRAA most likely originates from the WCM. The methodology is widely applicable in unconventional gas development regions worldwide for providing an early indicator of geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity.

  19. Assessing Connectivity Between an Overlying Aquifer and a Coal Seam Gas Resource Using Methane Isotopes, Dissolved Organic Carbon and Tritium.

    PubMed

    Iverach, Charlotte P; Cendón, Dioni I; Hankin, Stuart I; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E; France, James L; Nisbet, Euan G; Baker, Andy; Kelly, Bryce F J

    2015-01-01

    Coal seam gas (CSG) production can have an impact on groundwater quality and quantity in adjacent or overlying aquifers. To assess this impact we need to determine the background groundwater chemistry and to map geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity between aquifers. In south-east Queensland (Qld), Australia, a globally important CSG exploration and production province, we mapped hydraulic connectivity between the Walloon Coal Measures (WCM, the target formation for gas production) and the overlying Condamine River Alluvial Aquifer (CRAA), using groundwater methane (CH4) concentration and isotopic composition (δ(13)C-CH4), groundwater tritium ((3)H) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. A continuous mobile CH4 survey adjacent to CSG developments was used to determine the source signature of CH4 derived from the WCM. Trends in groundwater δ(13)C-CH4 versus CH4 concentration, in association with DOC concentration and (3)H analysis, identify locations where CH4 in the groundwater of the CRAA most likely originates from the WCM. The methodology is widely applicable in unconventional gas development regions worldwide for providing an early indicator of geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity. PMID:26530701

  20. 30 CFR 75.1106-2 - Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compressed gas cylinders; requirements. 75.1106-2 Section 75.1106-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-2 Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1106-2 - Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compressed gas cylinders; requirements. 75.1106-2 Section 75.1106-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-2 Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1106-2 - Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compressed gas cylinders; requirements. 75.1106-2 Section 75.1106-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-2 Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1106-2 - Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compressed gas cylinders; requirements. 75.1106-2 Section 75.1106-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-2 Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1106-2 - Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compressed gas cylinders; requirements. 75.1106-2 Section 75.1106-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-2 Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas...

  5. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  6. A Treatise on Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    Expands Henri Fayol's definition of the administrative process to include a humanistic approach involving planning, organizing, implementing, controlling, evaluating, and satisfying functions. This empirical definition differs from some theoretical approaches by looking beyond resource consumption to consider ecological effects on the environment…

  7. Black Administrators and Administrative Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Robert

    1975-01-01

    The stated objective of this paper is to keep the Black administrator out of court by creating an awareness of legal pitfalls: the discussion is divided into four sections--a brief overview of some of the functions of administrators and administrative agencies, sharing information with the public, the use of discretion, and limitations of the…

  8. The North American Electric Grid as an Exchange Network: An Approach for Evaluating Energy Resource Composition and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation.

    PubMed

    Kodra, Evan; Sheldon, Seth; Dolen, Ryan; Zik, Ory

    2015-11-17

    Using a complex network framework, the North American electric grid is modeled as a dynamic, equilibrium-based supply chain of more than 100 interconnected power control areas (PCAs) in the contiguous United States, Canada, and Northern Mexico. Monthly generation and yearly inter-PCA exchange data reported by PCAs are used to estimate a directed network topology. Variables including electricity, as well as primary fuels, technologies, and greenhouse gas emissions associated with power generation can be traced through the network, providing energy source composition statistics for power consumers at a given location. Results show opportunities for more precise measurement by consumers of emissions occurring on their behalf at power plants. Specifically, we show a larger range of possible factors (?0 to 1.3 kgCO2/kWh) as compared to the range provided by the EPA's eGRID analysis (?0.4 to 1 kgCO2/kWh). We also show that 66-73% of the variance in PCA-level estimated emissions savings is the result of PCA-to-PCA differences that are not captured by the larger eGRID subregions. The increased precision could bolster development of effective greenhouse gas reporting and mitigation policies. This study also highlights the need for improvements in the consistency and spatiotemporal resolution of PCA-level generation and exchange data reporting. PMID:26473284

  9. Improving the Availability and Delivery of Critical Information for Tight Gas Resource Development in the Appalachian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Mary Behling; Susan Pool; Douglas Patchen; John Harper

    2008-12-31

    To encourage, facilitate and accelerate the development of tight gas reservoirs in the Appalachian basin, the geological surveys in Pennsylvania and West Virginia collected widely dispersed data on five gas plays and formatted these data into a large database that can be accessed by individual well or by play. The database and delivery system that were developed can be applied to any of the 30 gas plays that have been defined in the basin, but for this project, data compilation was restricted to the following: the Mississippian-Devonian Berea/Murrysville sandstone play and the Upper Devonian Venango, Bradford and Elk sandstone plays in Pennsylvania and West Virginia; and the 'Clinton'/Medina sandstone play in northwestern Pennsylvania. In addition, some data were collected on the Tuscarora Sandstone play in West Virginia, which is the lateral equivalent of the Medina Sandstone in Pennsylvania. Modern geophysical logs are the most common and cost-effective tools for evaluating reservoirs. Therefore, all of the well logs in the libraries of the two surveys from wells that had penetrated the key plays were scanned, generating nearly 75,000 scanned e-log files from more than 40,000 wells. A standard file-naming convention for scanned logs was developed, which includes the well API number, log curve type(s) scanned, and the availability of log analyses or half-scale logs. In addition to well logs, other types of documents were scanned, including core data (descriptions, analyses, porosity-permeability cross-plots), figures from relevant chapters of the Atlas of Major Appalachian Gas Plays, selected figures from survey publications, and information from unpublished reports and student theses and dissertations. Monthly and annual production data from 1979 to 2007 for West Virginia wells in these plays are available as well. The final database also includes digitized logs from more than 800 wells, sample descriptions from more than 550 wells, more than 600 digital photos in 1-foot intervals from 11 cores, and approximately 260 references for these plays. A primary objective of the research was to make data and information available free to producers through an on-line data delivery model designed for public access on the Internet. The web-based application that was developed utilizes ESRI's ArcIMS GIS software to deliver both well-based and play-based data that are searchable through user-originated queries, and allows interactive regional geographic and geologic mapping that is play-based. System tools help users develop their customized spatial queries. A link also has been provided to the West Virginia Geological Survey's 'pipeline' system for accessing all available well-specific data for more than 140,000 wells in West Virginia. However, only well-specific queries by API number are permitted at this time. The comprehensive project web site (http://www.wvgs.wvnet.edu/atg) resides on West Virginia Geological Survey's servers and links are provided from the Pennsylvania Geological Survey and Appalachian Oil and Natural Gas Research Consortium web sites.

  10. SeTES: A self-teaching expert system for the analysis, design, and prediction of gas production from unconventional gas resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moridis, George J.; Reagan, Matthew T.; Anderson Kuzma, Heidi; Blasingame, Thomas A.; Wayne Huang, Y.; Santos, Ralph; Boyle, Katie L.; Freeman, Craig M.; Ilk, Dilhan; Cossio, Manuel; Bhattacharya, Srimoyee; Nikolaou, Michael

    2013-08-01

    SeTES is a self-teaching expert system that (a) can incorporate evolving databases involving any type and amount of relevant data (geological, geophysical, geomechanical, stimulation, petrophysical, reservoir, production, etc.) originating from unconventional gas reservoirs, i.e., tight sands, shale or coalbeds, (b) can continuously update its built-in public database and refine the its underlying decision-making metrics and process, (c) can make recommendations about well stimulation, well location, orientation, design, and operation, (d) offers predictions of the performance of proposed wells (and quantitative estimates of the corresponding uncertainty), and (e) permits the analysis of data from installed wells for parameter estimation and continuous expansion of its database. Thus, SeTES integrates and processes information from multiple and diverse sources to make recommendations and support decision making at multiple time-scales, while expanding its internal database and explicitly addressing uncertainty. It receives and manages data in three forms: public data, that have been made available by various contributors, semi-public data, which conceal some identifying aspects but are available to compute important statistics, and a user's private data, which can be protected and used for more targeted design and decision making. It is the first implementation of a novel architecture that allows previously independent analysis methods and tools to share data, integrate results, and intelligently and iteratively extract the most value from the dataset. SeTES also presents a new paradigm for communicating research and technology to the public and distributing scientific tools and methods. It is expected to result in a significant improvement in reserve estimates, and increases in production by increasing efficiency and reducing uncertainty.

  11. National action plan for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, June 29, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The hearing addressed the administration`s National Action Plan for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This hearing is part of a series of hearing addressing the science and policy of dealing with global climate change. The strategy for accomplishing the reduction goals and the need for international cooperation is discussed. Statements of government and industry officials are included along with documents submitted for the record.

  12. Research projects needed for expediting development of domestic oil and gas resources through arctic, offshore, and drilling technology

    SciTech Connect

    Canja, S.; Williams, C.R.

    1982-04-01

    This document contains the research projects which were identified at an industry-government workshop on Arctic, Offshore, and Drilling Technology (AODT) held at Bartlesville Energy Technology Center, January 5-7, 1981. The purpose of the workshop was to identify those problem areas where government research could provide technology advancement that would assist industry in accelerating the discovery and development of US oil and gas resouces. The workshop results are to be used to guide an effective research program. The workshop identified and prioritized the tasks that need to be implemented. All of the projects listed in the Arctic and Offshore sections were selected as appropriate for a Department of Energy (DOE) research role. The drilling projects identified as appropriate only for industry research have been separated in the Drilling section of this report.

  13. The Administration Proposal for Head Start Reauthorization. Joint Hearing on Examining Head Start and the Administration's Plans for Expanding and Improving It, before the Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs, and Alcoholism of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate and the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    These hearing transcripts present testimony concerning the Clinton Administration's plans to expand and improve Project Head Start. Testimony was heard from Senators Christopher J. Dodd, Dan Coats, Nancy Landon Kassebaum, Strom Thurmond, James M. Jeffords, and Harris Wofford, as well as Representatives Matthew G. Martinez and Susan Molinari, and…

  14. Impact of climate change on renewable groundwater resources: assessing the benefits of avoided greenhouse gas emissions using selected CMIP5 climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portmann, Felix T.; Döll, Petra; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina

    2013-06-01

    Reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to minimize climate change requires very significant societal effort. To motivate this effort, it is important to clarify the benefits of avoided emissions. To this end, we analysed the impact of four emissions scenarios on future renewable groundwater resources, which range from 1600 GtCO2 during the 21st century (RCP2.6) to 7300 GtCO2 (RCP8.5). Climate modelling uncertainty was taken into account by applying the bias-corrected output of a small ensemble of five CMIP5 global climate models (GCM) as provided by the ISI-MIP effort to the global hydrological model WaterGAP. Despite significant climate model uncertainty, the benefits of avoided emissions with respect to renewable groundwater resources (i.e. groundwater recharge (GWR)) are obvious. The percentage of projected global population (SSP2 population scenario) suffering from a significant decrease of GWR of more than 10% by the 2080s as compared to 1971-2000 decreases from 38% (GCM range 27-50%) for RCP8.5 to 24% (11-39%) for RCP2.6. The population fraction that is spared from any significant GWR change would increase from 29% to 47% if emissions were restricted to RCP2.6. Increases of GWR are more likely to occur in areas with below average population density, while GWR decreases of more than 30% affect especially (semi)arid regions, across all GCMs. Considering change of renewable groundwater resources as a function of mean global temperature (GMT) rise, the land area that is affected by GWR decreases of more than 30% and 70% increases linearly with global warming from 0 to 3 ° C. For each degree of GMT rise, an additional 4% of the global land area (except Greenland and Antarctica) is affected by a GWR decrease of more than 30%, and an additional 1% is affected by a decrease of more than 70%.

  15. Selection of adsorption traps for in situ gas chromatographic analysis of polar regolith volatiles on board of the Luna-Resource lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aseev, Sergey; Gerasimov, Mikhail; Zaitsev, Maxim

    Investigation of volatile species in the polar regions of the Moon is an important task for better understanding of its evolution and for further exploration, in particular, to provide resources for future permanent stations. Gas chromatographic complex of Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Science is focused on measurements of volatile compounds composition, supposedly existing in the polar regions of the Moon in the area of Luna-Resource probe landing (2017). Also, this devise can be used on the Mars in the area of ExoMars landing mission (2018). One of the features of this gas analytical system is the use of adsorption traps, which can retain volatile compounds continuously coming into the gas chromatograph as a result of pyrolysis of the regolith sample and shortly release them for injection into chromatographic system for analysis. To improve sensitivity and analytical properties of the gas chromatograph, it’s necessary to provide concentrated injection of all the volatile components, which were released during pyrolysis of the regolith sample. It takes ~15 minutes to complete this pyrolysis operation. Such permanent gases as noble gases and N2, Ar, CO on the left hand have low dynamic viscosity, which cause their short retention time in adsorption traps, but on the right hand - these gases are released from the soil sample close to the end of the heating cycle. Summarizing these principles, we can say that 5 minutes of trapping for specified gases is efficient enough for their accumulation with consequent heating of adsorption trap up to 150°C to produce concentrated injection of all these compounds to the analytical columns of gas chromatography system. In the most of space missions (Viking, Phoenix, MSL, Rosetta), which use gas chromatography as the main method for in situ chemical analysis of volatiles, chromatography columns are usually mounted in parallel scheme. It is well known that water has a negative influence on analytical characteristics of several chromatography columns types. This can take place because water can fill absorption pours, and this can result in column’s retention time and capacity variation. The use of adsorption traps can preserve chromatography columns from negative influence of some compounds and improve threshold of detection by several orders of magnitude in the analysis of volatiles composition of planetary soils, as well as in direct atmospheric measurements. The paper is dedicated to the investigation of typical retention time for noble and permanent gases, such as CO2, CO, CH4, N2, Ar on the adsorbents Carbosieve, PoraPak Q and Molsieve 5A , depending on their cooling temperature. Based on results of the measurements we developed and tested new experimental techniques suitable for analysis of different adsorbents types, which can be used as a new basis for future adsorption traps. Acknowledgements: This work was supported in part by P-22 Program of the RAS.

  16. Introduction to the 2002 geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks: Chapter 2 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey San Juan Basin Assessment Team

    2013-01-01

    The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) periodically conducts assessments of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the United States. The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The last major USGS assessment of oil and gas of the most important oil and gas provinces in the United States was in 1995 (Gautier and others, 1996). Since then a number of individual assessment provinces have been reappraised using new methodology. This was done particularly for those provinces where new information has become available, where new methodology was expected to reveal more insight to provide a better estimate, where additional geologic investigation was needed, or where continuous accumulations were deemed important. The San Juan Basin was reevaluated because of industry exploitation of new hydrocarbon accumulations that were not previously assessed and because of a change in application of assessment methodology to potential undiscovered hydrocarbon accumulations. Several changes have been made in this study. The methodology is different from that used in 1995 (Schmoker, 2003; Schmoker and Klett, 2003). In this study the total petroleum system (TPS) approach (Magoon and Dow, 1994) is used rather than the play approach. The Chama Basin is not included. The team of scientists studying the basin is different. The 1995 study focused on conventional accumulations, whereas in this 2002 assessment, it was a priority to assess continuous-type accumulations, including coal-bed gas. Consequently we are presenting here an entirely new study and results for the San Juan Basin Province. The results of this 2002 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province (5022) are presented in this report within the geologic context of individual TPSs and their assessment units (AU) (table 1). Results are reported as the estimated mean of potential additions to reserves as well as for the 95, 50, and 5 percent fractiles.

  17. Geology and undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Madison Group, Williston Basin, North Dakota and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Anna, Lawrence O.

    2010-01-01

    Two of the total petroleum systems (TPS) defined as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of the Williston Basin contain Mississippian Madison Group strata: 1) the Bakken-Lodgepole TPS, which includes the Lodgepole Formation; and 2) the Madison TPS, which includes the Mission Canyon, Charles, and Spearfish formations. The Bakken-Lodgepole TPS is defined as the area in which oil generated from the upper and lower shales of the Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation has accumulated in reservoirs in the Three Forks, Bakken, and Lodgepole formations. Two conventional assessment units (AU) have been identified within the Bakken-Lodgepole TPS, including one in the Bakken Formation and another in the Waulsortian mound reservoirs of the lower Lodgepole Formation. Lodgepole Formation Waulsortian mound oil production has been restricted to a small part of Stark County, North Dakota. Reservoirs are sealed by middle and upper Lodgepole Formation tight argillaceous limestones. Several nonproductive mounds and mound-like structures have also been identified in the Lodgepole Formation. Productivity correlates closely with the oil window of the Bakken Formation shales, and also indicates the likelihood of limited lateral migration of Bakken Formation oil into Lodgepole Formation reservoirs in North Dakota and Montana. Such considerations limit the estimated mean of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources to 8 million barrels of oil (MMBO) for the Lodgepole Formation conventional reservoirs. The Madison TPS is defined as the area where oil generated from Mission Canyon and Charles formation source rocks has accumulated in reservoirs of the Mission Canyon and Charles formations and in reservoirs within the Triassic Spearfish Formation. One continuous reservoir AU, the Mission Canyon-Charles AU, was defined within the Madison TPS; its boundary coincides with the TPS boundary. There is extensive conventional production throughout the AU on major structures and in stratigraphic-structural traps. The largest fields are on the Little Knife, Billings Nose, and Nesson anticlines. Recent studies show that Madison Group oils were generated from organic-rich Mission Canyon Formation and Ratcliffe Interval carbonates adjacent to the reservoirs. Seals were formed by overlying or lateral evaporites or tight carbonates. Based on available geologic and production data, the undiscovered oil resources for conventional reservoirs in the Mission Canyon-Charles AU were estimated to have a mean of 45 MMBO.

  18. Plan for protection of oil and natural gas resources Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 1 and No. 3, Garfield County, Colorado. [Communitization to prevent losses to nearby drillers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    This plan provides for the protection of the Government's interest in hydrocarbons found in Naval Oil Shale Reserve No.1 (NOSR-1) and Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 3 (NOSR-3) located in GArfield County, Colorado, and complements a similar plan developed in 1983. Recent development of private property near NOSR-3 exceeds the activity contemplated in the 1983 plan, and has progressed to drilling units on land which, under Colorado spacing orders, would include at least 50 percent NOSR-3 land. Due to the proximity of these commerical gas wells to NOSR-3 land, it is estimated that gas produced from the wells would include gas which had migrated from NOSR-3. To protect the Government's interest in these and other such wells which may be drilled near NOSR-1 or NOSR-3, the Department's plan of primary protection is to enter into communitization agreements with the private developers when they initiate wells which would drain NOSR-1 or NOSR-3 hydrocarbons. In general, these agreements would permit the sharing of costs and hydrocarbon production based on surface acreage owned by each party in each of the drilling units. If attempts to obtain such agreements fail, or if it is determined that offset wells are needed in addition to the communitized units, the Department plans to drill and produce wells on NOSR-1 and NOSR-3 which would offset production from nearby wells on private lands. These measures will preclude the migration of NOSR-1 and NOSR-3 hydrocarbons to privately-owned wells, and protect the Government's resources. The results of the Department of Justice anti-trust review performed pursuant to Section 7430(g) of title 10, United States Code, are provided as a part of this plan at Exhibit N.

  19. Geology and sequence stratigraphy of undiscovered oil and gas resources in conventional and continuous petroleum systems in the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Group and related strata, U.S. Gulf Coast Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dubiel, Russell F.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pearson, Krystal M.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the technically recoverable undiscovered oil and gas onshore and in State waters of the Gulf Coast region of the United States. The USGS defined three assessment units (AUs) with potential undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources in Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Turonian) strata of the Eagle Ford Group and correlative rocks. The assessment is based on geologic elements of a total petroleum system, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and traps (formation, timing, and seals). Conventional oil and gas undiscovered resources are in updip sandstone reservoirs in the Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa and Woodbine Formations (or Groups) in Louisiana and Texas, respectively, whereas continuous oil and continuous gas undiscovered resources reside in the middip and downdip Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Shale in Texas and the Tuscaloosa marine shale in Louisiana. Conventional resources in the Tuscaloosa and Woodbine are included in the Eagle Ford Updip Sandstone Oil and Gas AU, in an area where the Eagle Ford Shale and Tuscaloosa marine shale display vitrinite reflectance (Ro) values less than 0.6%. The continuous Eagle Ford Shale Oil AU lies generally south of the conventional AU, is primarily updip of the Lower Cretaceous shelf edge, and is defined by thermal maturity values within shales of the Eagle Ford and Tuscaloosa that range from 0.6 to 1.2% Ro. Similarly, the Eagle Ford Shale Gas AU is defined downdip of the shelf edge where source rocks have Ro values greater than 1.2%. For undiscovered oil and gas resources, the USGS assessed means of: 1) 141 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 502 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 4 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL) in the Eagle Ford Updip Sandstone Oil and Gas AU; 2) 853 MMBO, 1707 BCFG, and 34 MMBNGL in the Eagle Ford Shale Oil AU; and 3) 50,219 BCFG and 2009 MMBNGL in the Eagle Ford Shale Gas AU.

  20. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  1. Training Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohr, Karolyn K.

    1984-01-01

    Montgomery County, Maryland, Public Schools has created an extensive staff development program for current and potential administrators. The program includes (1) leadership training to help participants make career decisions and acquaint them with various issues in administration, (2) an internship program, (3) an assessment center, and (4)…

  2. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of

  3. Usage and administration manual for a geodatabase compendium of water-resources data-Rio Grande Basin from the Rio Arriba-Sandoval County line, New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas, 1889-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burley, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission, developed a geodatabase compendium (hereinafter referred to as the 'geodatabase') of available water-resources data for the reach of the Rio Grande from Rio Arriba-Sandoval County line, New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas. Since 1889, a wealth of water-resources data has been collected in the Rio Grande Basin from Rio Arriba-Sandoval County line, New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas, for a variety of purposes. Collecting agencies, researchers, and organizations have included the U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Reclamation, International Boundary and Water Commission, State agencies, irrigation districts, municipal water utilities, universities, and other entities. About 1,750 data records were recently (2010) evaluated to enhance their usability by compiling them into a single geospatial relational database (geodatabase). This report is intended as a user's manual and administration guide for the geodatabase. All data available, including water quality, water level, and discharge data (both instantaneous and daily) from January 1, 1889, through December 17, 2009, were compiled for the study area. A flexible and efficient geodatabase design was used, enhancing the ability of the geodatabase to handle data from diverse sources and helping to ensure sustainability of the geodatabase with long-term maintenance. Geodatabase tables include daily data values, site locations and information, sample event information, and parameters, as well as data sources and collecting agencies. The end products of this effort are a comprehensive water-resources geodatabase that enables the visualization of primary sampling sites for surface discharges, groundwater elevations, and water-quality and associated data for the study area. In addition, repeatable data processing scripts, Structured Query Language queries for loading prepared data sources, and a detailed process for refreshing all data in the compendium have been developed. The geodatabase functionality allows users to explore spatial characteristics of the data, conduct spatial analyses, and pose questions to the geodatabase in the form of queries. Users can also customize and extend the geodatabase, combine it with other databases, or use the geodatabase design for other water-resources applications.

  4. Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas report, published today, is a Congressionally-requested study examining the energy trends and developments in the Americas over the past decade. The report focuses on liquid fuels and natural gas—particularly reserves and resources, production, consumption, trade, and investment—given their scale and significance to the region.

  5. 30 CFR 77.305 - Access to drying chambers, hot gas inlet chambers and ductwork; installation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... gas inlet chambers and all ductwork in which coal dust may accumulate shall be equipped with tight... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Access to drying chambers, hot gas inlet... AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

  6. 30 CFR 77.305 - Access to drying chambers, hot gas inlet chambers and ductwork; installation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gas inlet chambers and all ductwork in which coal dust may accumulate shall be equipped with tight... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access to drying chambers, hot gas inlet... AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

  7. 30 CFR 77.305 - Access to drying chambers, hot gas inlet chambers and ductwork; installation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... gas inlet chambers and all ductwork in which coal dust may accumulate shall be equipped with tight... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Access to drying chambers, hot gas inlet... AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

  8. 30 CFR 77.305 - Access to drying chambers, hot gas inlet chambers and ductwork; installation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... gas inlet chambers and all ductwork in which coal dust may accumulate shall be equipped with tight... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Access to drying chambers, hot gas inlet... AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

  9. 30 CFR 77.305 - Access to drying chambers, hot gas inlet chambers and ductwork; installation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... gas inlet chambers and all ductwork in which coal dust may accumulate shall be equipped with tight... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Access to drying chambers, hot gas inlet... AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

  10. Administrative Resource Center | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Resource People and Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Includes lists of the following: state aviation officials, aviation education resource centers, museums and planetariums with aerospace exhibits, colleges and universities with aerospace programs, civil air patrol directors, Federal Aviation Administration Offices, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Offices, and state organizations.…

  12. Resource-Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sally, Ed.; Smith, Brenda, Ed.

    The selections in this book encompass a broad spectrum of resource-based learning experiences, and are intended to help teachers and administrators gain a better understanding of the concepts and devise effective and efficient ways to use these materials. Titles include: "Introducing Resources for Learning" (Sally Brown and Brenda Smith);…

  13. Integration of gas chromatographs into the Federal Highway Administration/Environmental Protection Agency near road MSAT study in Las Vegas, NV

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper documents the technical evaluation of a semi-continuous gas chromatograph (GC) for the measurement of benzene and 1,33butadiene in the near road environment. This paper will also consider the some of the non-technical implications associated with the operation of a GC ...

  14. 7 CFR 624.6 - Program administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Program administration. 624.6 Section 624.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WATERSHED PROTECTION § 624.6 Program administration. (a) Sponsors. (1) When the...

  15. 18 CFR 808.2 - Administrative appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative appeals. 808.2 Section 808.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Conduct of Hearings § 808.2 Administrative appeals. (a) A project...

  16. 18 CFR 808.2 - Administrative appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Administrative appeals. 808.2 Section 808.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Conduct of Hearings § 808.2 Administrative appeals. (a) A project...

  17. 18 CFR 401.33 - Administrative agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Administrative agreements. 401.33 Section 401.33 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Project Review Under Section 3.8 of the Compact §...

  18. 30 CFR 5.40 - Fee administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fee administration. 5.40 Section 5.40 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FEES FOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS § 5.40 Fee...

  19. 7 CFR 625.3 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administration. 625.3 Section 625.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.3 Administration. (a) The regulations...

  20. 7 CFR 625.3 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 625.3 Section 625.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.3 Administration. (a) The regulations...