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Sample records for gas sensors operating

  1. Field testing the Raman gas composition sensor for gas turbine operation

    SciTech Connect

    Buric, M.; Chorpening, B.; Mullem, J.; Ranalli, J.; Woodruff, S.

    2012-01-01

    A gas composition sensor based on Raman spectroscopy using reflective metal lined capillary waveguides is tested under field conditions for feed-forward applications in gas turbine control. The capillary waveguide enables effective use of low powered lasers and rapid composition determination, for computation of required parameters to pre-adjust burner control based on incoming fuel. Tests on high pressure fuel streams show sub-second time response and better than one percent accuracy on natural gas fuel mixtures. Fuel composition and Wobbe constant values are provided at one second intervals or faster. The sensor, designed and constructed at NETL, is packaged for Class I Division 2 operations typical of gas turbine environments, and samples gas at up to 800 psig. Simultaneous determination of the hydrocarbons methane, ethane, and propane plus CO, CO2, H2O, H2, N2, and O2 are realized. The capillary waveguide permits use of miniature spectrometers and laser power of less than 100 mW. The capillary dimensions of 1 m length and 300 μm ID also enable a full sample exchange in 0.4 s or less at 5 psig pressure differential, which allows a fast response to changes in sample composition. Sensor operation under field operation conditions will be reported.

  2. Low temperature operated NiO-SnO2 heterostructured SO2 gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Punit; Sharma, Anjali; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay

    2016-04-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is among the most toxic gas released by the industries which is extremely dangerous for human health. In the present communication, an attempt has been made for the detection of SO2 gas (500 ppm) with the help of SnO2 thin film based gas sensor. A low sensing response of 1.3 is obtained for sputtered SnO2 thin films based sensors at a high operating temperature of 220 °C. To improve the sensing response, different heterostructured sensors are developed by incorporating other metal oxide thin films (PdO, MgO, NiO, V2O5) over SnO2 thin film surface. Sensing response studies of different sensors towards SO2 gas (500 ppm) are presented in the present report. Among all the prepared sensors NiO-SnO2 hetero-structure sensor is showing highest sensing response (˜8) at a comparatively lower operating temperature (140 °C). Possible sensing mechanism for NiO-SnO2 heterostructured sensor has also been discussed in the present report.

  3. A novel NO2 gas sensor based on Hall effect operating at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J. Y.; Xie, W. M.; He, X. L.; Wang, H. C.

    2016-09-01

    Tungsten trioxide nanoparticles were obtained by a simple thermal oxidation approach. The structural and morphological properties of these nanoparticles are investigated using XRD, SEM and TEM. A WO3 thick film was deposited on the four Au electrodes to be a WO3 Hall effect sensor. The sensor was tested between magnetic field in a plastic test chamber. Room-temperature nitrogen dioxide sensing characteristics of Hall effect sensor were studied for various concentration levels of nitrogen dioxide at dry air and humidity conditions. A typical room-temperature response of 3.27 was achieved at 40 ppm of NO2 with a response and recovery times of 36 and 45 s, respectively. NO2 gas sensing mechanism of Hall effect sensor was also studied. The room-temperature operation, with the low deposition cost of the sensor, suggests suitability for developing a low-power cost-effective nitrogen dioxide sensor.

  4. Gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  5. Microfabricated Formaldehyde Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Flueckiger, Jonas; Ko, Frank K.; Cheung, Karen C.

    2009-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound that is widely used in textiles, paper, wood composites, and household materials. Formaldehyde will continuously outgas from manufactured wood products such as furniture, with adverse health effects resulting from prolonged low-level exposure. New, microfabricated sensors for formaldehyde have been developed to meet the need for portable, low-power gas detection. This paper reviews recent work including silicon microhotplates for metal oxide-based detection, enzyme-based electrochemical sensors, and nanowire-based sensors. This paper also investigates the promise of polymer-based sensors for low-temperature, low-power operation. PMID:22291561

  6. The influence of CO2 gas sensor parameters on its operation characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysokiński, Karol; Napierała, Marek; Stańczyk, Tomasz; Lipiński, Stanisław; Nasiłowski, Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    Optical fiber carbon dioxide gas sensors are reported. The sensors utilize pH sensitive indicator dyes, which change color, when exposed to varied concentrations of CO2. Sensors were made by deposition of silica sol solution on the Plastic Clad Silica fiber side surface. The possibility of preparing the sensors by deposition of active layer on the surface of etched fibers has also been demonstrated. Dependence between the fiber diameter and the sensitivity of the sensor has been presented. Morphology of the active layer has been investigated by the analysis of SEM images.

  7. Gas Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    High Technology Sensors, Inc.'s Model SS-250 carbon dioxide detector uses a patented semiconductor optical source that efficiently creates infrared radiation, which is focused through an airway on a detector. Carbon dioxide passing through the airway absorbs the radiation causing the detector to generate a signal. The small size and low power requirements of the SS-250 make it attractive for incorporation in a variety of medical instruments.

  8. Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy on Operating Surface Acoustic Wave Chemical Sensors During Exposure to Gas-Phase Analytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hierlemann, A.; Hill, M.; Ricco, A.J.; Staton, A.W.; Thomas, R.C.

    1999-01-11

    We have developed instrumentation to enable the combination of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor measurements with direct, in-situ molecular spectroscopic measurements to understand the response of the SAW sensors with respect to the interfacial chemistry of surface-confined sensing films interacting with gas-phase analytes. Specifically, the instrumentation and software was developed to perform in-situ Fourier-transform infrared external-reflectance spectroscopy (FTIR-ERS) on operating SAW devices during dosing of their chemically modified surfaces with analytes. By probing the surface with IR spectroscopy during gas exposure, it is possible to understand in unprecedented detail the interaction processes between the sorptive SAW coatings and the gaseous analyte molecules. In this report, we provide details of this measurement system, and also demonstrate the utility of these combined measurements by characterizing the SAW and FTIR-ERS responses of organic thin-film sensor coatings interacting with gas-phase analytes.

  9. Fiber optic gas sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Peng (Inventor); Buric, Michael P. (Inventor); Swinehart, Philip R. (Inventor); Maklad, Mokhtar S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gas sensor includes an in-fiber resonant wavelength device provided in a fiber core at a first location. The fiber propagates a sensing light and a power light. A layer of a material is attached to the fiber at the first location. The material is able to absorb the gas at a temperature dependent gas absorption rate. The power light is used to heat the material and increases the gas absorption rate, thereby increasing sensor performance, especially at low temperatures. Further, a method is described of flash heating the gas sensor to absorb more of the gas, allowing the sensor to cool, thereby locking in the gas content of the sensor material, and taking the difference between the starting and ending resonant wavelengths as an indication of the concentration of the gas in the ambient atmosphere.

  10. Discriminating among different tea leaves using an operating temperature-modulated tin oxide gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastkhadiv, Ali; Jenabi, Amin; Souri, Asma

    2016-03-01

    We report distinguishing different types of tea leaves from each other based on their aroma using a thermal shock-induced generic tin oxide gas sensor. The sensor used in this work consists of a microheater and a tin oxide pellet, both connected to outside circuitry with noble metal contacts. The heater is powered with a series of narrow high magnitude voltage impulses of predetermined thermal impacts adjusted to produce step-like temperature rises of different magnitudes on the gas sensitive pellet. The sensor is exposed to aromas collected from various types of tea leaves at different concentrations. Within 4.5 s, nine 500 ms-wide voltage pulses, each as high as 9.3 V in magnitude, are applied to the microheater. Each pulse causes a step-like temperature jump on the pellet temperature. The transient responses recorded for different tea leaves look different even after amplitude normalization. The sensor profiles are recorded, digitized, and compared with the database of previous experiences. A heuristically defined high dimensional feature vector is automatically generated for each analyte. Classifications are graphically achieved in a 3-D feature space after applying principle component analysis for dimension reduction.

  11. Visible-light activated ZnO/CdSe heterostructure-based gas sensors with low operating temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bin; Lin, Zhangqing; Sheng, Minqi; Hou, Songyan; Xu, Jifang

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional ZnO/CdSe heterostructure (ZnO/CdSe HS) was fabricated with large scale and its gas-sensing application with low operating temperature was explored. Combining cost-effective chemical vapor deposition with solution growth methods, ZnO nanorods were grown on the surface of CdSe nanoribbons. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were employed to confirm the formation of ZnO/CdSe HS. The ZnO/CdSe HSs were fabricated as gas sensors in the detection of ethanol at the optimum operating temperature of 160 °C. Compared with ZnO-based gas sensors, the optimum operating temperature of the ZnO/CdSe HS-based sensor was approximately 100 °C lower, while the sensitivity was 20-fold higher in the dark and 3-fold higher under visible light illumination condition. The enhancement of sensing properties was attributed to the advanced heterostructure and visible light activated CdSe.

  12. Ultra-Low-Power MEMS Selective Gas Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetter, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is a system for gas sensing that includes an ultra-low-power MEMS (microelectromechanical system) gas sensor, combined with unique electronic circuitry and a proprietary algorithm for operating the sensor. The electronics were created from scratch, and represent a novel design capable of low-power operation of the proprietary MEMS gas sensor platform. The algorithm is used to identify a specific target gas in a gas mixture, making the sensor selective to that target gas.

  13. Gas Sensor Test Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M.; Ryan, M.

    1995-01-01

    A new test chip is being developed to characterize conducting polymers used in gas sensors. The chip, a seven-layer cofired alumina substrate with gold electrodes, contains 11 comb and U- bend test structures. These structures are designed to measure the sheet resistance, conduction anisotropy, and peripheral conduction of spin-coated films that are not subsequently patterned.

  14. Gas sensor with attenuated drift characteristic

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Ing-Shin [Danbury, CT; Chen, Philip S. H. [Bethel, CT; Neuner, Jeffrey W [Bethel, CT; Welch, James [Fairfield, CT; Hendrix, Bryan [Danbury, CT; Dimeo, Jr., Frank [Danbury, CT

    2008-05-13

    A sensor with an attenuated drift characteristic, including a layer structure in which a sensing layer has a layer of diffusional barrier material on at least one of its faces. The sensor may for example be constituted as a hydrogen gas sensor including a palladium/yttrium layer structure formed on a micro-hotplate base, with a chromium barrier layer between the yttrium layer and the micro-hotplate, and with a tantalum barrier layer between the yttrium layer and an overlying palladium protective layer. The gas sensor is useful for detection of a target gas in environments susceptible to generation or incursion of such gas, and achieves substantial (e.g., >90%) reduction of signal drift from the gas sensor in extended operation, relative to a corresponding gas sensor lacking the diffusional barrier structure of the invention

  15. Calorimetric gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, A.J.; Hughes, R.C.; Smith, J.H.; Moreno, D.J.; Manginell, R.P.; Senturia, S.D.; Huber, R.J.

    1998-11-10

    A combustible gas sensor is described that uses a resistively heated, noble metal-coated, micromachined polycrystalline Si filament to calorimetrically detect the presence and concentration of combustible gases. The filaments tested to date are 2 {micro}m thick {times} 10{micro}m wide {times} 100, 250, 500, or 1000 {micro}m-long polycrystalline Si; some are overcoated with a 0.25 {micro}m-thick protective CVD Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} layer. A thin catalytic Pt film was deposited by CVD from the precursor Pt(acac){sub 2} onto microfilaments resistively heated to approximately 500 C; Pt deposits only on the hot filament. Using a constant-resistance-mode feedback circuit, Pt-coated filaments operating at ca. 300 C (35 mW input power) respond linearly, in terms of the change in supply current required to maintain constant resistance (temperature), to H{sub 2} concentrations between 100 ppm and 1% in an 80/20 N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} mixture. Other catalytic materials can also be used. 11 figs.

  16. Calorimetric gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, Antonio J.; Hughes, Robert C.; Smith, James H.; Moreno, Daniel J.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Senturia, Stephen D.; Huber, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    A combustible gas sensor that uses a resistively heated, noble metal-coated, micromachined polycrystalline Si filament to calorimetrically detect the presence and concentration of combustible gases. The filaments tested to date are 2 .mu.m thick.times.10 .mu.m wide.times.100, 250, 500, or 1000 .mu.m-long polycrystalline Si; some are overcoated with a 0.25 .mu.m-thick protective CVD Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 layer. A thin catalytic Pt film was deposited by CVD from the precursor Pt(acac).sub.2 onto microfilaments resistively heated to approximately 500.degree. C.; Pt deposits only on the hot filament. Using a constant-resistance-mode feedback circuit, Pt-coated filaments operating at ca. 300.degree. C. (35 mW input power) respond linearly, in terms of the change in supply current required to maintain constant resistance (temperature), to H.sub.2 concentrations between 100 ppm and 1% in an 80/20 N.sub.2 /O.sub.2 mixture. Other catalytic materials can also be used.

  17. Gas Sensor Test Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Ryan, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    The use of organic polymers to detect gasses has been known for several years to be an effective means for gas detection via conductivity changes. These chemoresistors offer significant advantages over other gas detectors in that they operate near room temperature and thus can be used in compact, low-power applications.

  18. Temperature-programmed technique accompanied with high-throughput methodology for rapidly searching the optimal operating temperature of MOX gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guozhu; Xie, Changsheng; Zhang, Shunping; Zhao, Jianwei; Lei, Tao; Zeng, Dawen

    2014-09-01

    A combinatorial high-throughput temperature-programmed method to obtain the optimal operating temperature (OOT) of gas sensor materials is demonstrated here for the first time. A material library consisting of SnO2, ZnO, WO3, and In2O3 sensor films was fabricated by screen printing. Temperature-dependent conductivity curves were obtained by scanning this gas sensor library from 300 to 700 K in different atmospheres (dry air, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, toluene and ammonia), giving the OOT of each sensor formulation as a function of the carrier and analyte gases. A comparative study of the temperature-programmed method and a conventional method showed good agreement in measured OOT. PMID:25090138

  19. SiC-Based Gas Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Knight, Dak; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.

    1997-01-01

    Electronic grade Silicon Carbide (SiC) is a ceramic material which can operate as a semiconductor at temperatures above 600 C. Recently, SiC semiconductors have been used in Schottky diode gas sensor structures. These sensors have been shown to be functional at temperatures significantly above the normal operating range of Si-based devices. SiC sensor operation at these higher temperatures allows detection of gases such as hydrocarbons which are not detectable at lower temperatures. This paper discusses the development of SiC-based Schottky diode gas sensors for the detection of hydrogen, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)). Sensor designs for these applications are discussed. High sensitivity is observed for the hydrogen and hydrocarbon sensors using Pd on SiC Schottky diodes while the NO(x) sensors are still under development. A prototype sensor package has been fabricated which allows high temperature operation in a room temperature ambient by minimizing heat loss to that ambient. It is concluded that SiC-based gas sensors have considerable potential in a variety of gas sensing applications.

  20. Temperature Modulation of a Catalytic Gas Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Brauns, Eike; Morsbach, Eva; Kunz, Sebastian; Baeumer, Marcus; Lang, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The use of catalytic gas sensors usually offers low selectivity, only based on their different sensitivities for various gases due to their different heats of reaction. Furthermore, the identification of the gas present is not possible, which leads to possible misinterpretation of the sensor signals. The use of micro-machined catalytic gas sensors offers great advantages regarding the response time, which allows advanced analysis of the sensor response. By using temperature modulation, additional information about the gas characteristics can be measured and drift effects caused by material shifting or environmental temperature changes can be avoided. In this work a miniaturized catalytic gas sensor which offers a very short response time (<150 ms) was developed. Operation with modulated temperature allows analysis of the signal spectrum with advanced information content, based on the Arrhenius approach. Therefore, a high-precise electronic device was developed, since theory shows that harmonics induced by the electronics must be avoided to generate a comprehensible signal. PMID:25356643

  1. Chemoresistive gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1987-01-01

    A chemoresistive gas sensor is provided which has improved sensitivity. A layer of organic semiconductor is disposed between two electrodes which, in turn, are connected to a voltage source. High conductivity material is dispersed within the layer of organic semiconductor in the form of very small particles, or islands. The average interisland spacing is selected so that the predominant mode of current flow is by way of electron funneling. Adsorption of gaseous contaminant onto the layer of organic semiconductor modulates the tunneling current in a quantitative manner.

  2. Chemoresistive gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1985-09-30

    A chemoresistive gas sensor is provided which has improved sensitivity. A layer of organic semiconductor is disposed between two electrodes which, in turn, are connected to a voltage source. High conductivity material is dispersed within the layer of organic semiconductor in the form of very small particles, or islands. The average interisland spacing is selected so that the predominant mode of current flow is by way of electron tunneling. Adsorption of gaseous contaminant onto the layer of organic semiconductor modulates the tunneling current in a quantitative manner.

  3. Chemoresistive gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1987-06-23

    A chemoresistive gas sensor is provided which has improved sensitivity. A layer of organic semiconductor is disposed between two electrodes which, in turn, are connected to a voltage source. High conductivity material is dispersed within the layer of organic semiconductor in the form of very small particles, or islands. The average interisland spacing is selected so that the predominant mode of current flow is by way of electron funneling. Adsorption of gaseous contaminant onto the layer of organic semiconductor modulates the tunneling current in a quantitative manner. 2 figs.

  4. Flexible Transparent Electronic Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Guo, Yunlong; Wan, Pengbo; Zhang, Han; Chen, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaoming

    2016-07-01

    Flexible and transparent electronic gas sensors capable of real-time, sensitive, and selective analysis at room-temperature, have gained immense popularity in recent years for their potential to be integrated into various smart wearable electronics and display devices. Here, recent advances in flexible transparent sensors constructed from semiconducting oxides, carbon materials, conducting polymers, and their nanocomposites are presented. The sensing material selection, sensor device construction, and sensing mechanism of flexible transparent sensors are discussed in detail. The critical challenges and future development associated with flexible and transparent electronic gas sensors are presented. Smart wearable gas sensors are believed to have great potential in environmental monitoring and noninvasive health monitoring based on disease biomarkers in exhaled gas. PMID:27276698

  5. Multi-Gas Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, Glenn W. (Inventor); Wang, Liang-Guo (Inventor); LeBel, Peter J. (Inventor); Steele, Tommy C. (Inventor); Rana, Mauro (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A multi-gas sensor is provided which modulates a polarized light beam over a broadband of wavelengths between two alternating orthogonal polarization components. The two orthogonal polarization components of the polarization modulated beam are directed along two distinct optical paths. At least one optical path contains one or more spectral discrimination element, with each spectral discrimination element having spectral absorption features of one or more gases of interest being measured. The two optical paths then intersect, and one orthogonal component of the intersected components is transmitted and the other orthogonal component is reflected. The combined polarization modulated beam is partitioned into one or more smaller spectral regions of interest where one or more gases of interest has an absorption band. The difference in intensity between the two orthogonal polarization components is then determined in each partitioned spectral region of interest as an indication of the spectral emission/absorption of the light beam by the gases of interest in the measurement path. The spectral emission/absorption is indicative of the concentration of the one or more gases of interest in the measurement path. More specifically, one embodiment of the present invention is a gas filter correlation radiometer which comprises a polarizer, a polarization modulator, a polarization beam splitter, a beam combiner, wavelength partitioning element, and detection element. The gases of interest are measured simultaneously and, further, can be measured independently or non-independently. Furthermore, optical or electronic element are provided to balance optical intensities between the two optical paths.

  6. New Gas Polarographic Hydrogen Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominguez, Jesus A.; Barile, Ron

    2004-01-01

    Polarography is the measurement of the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The actual form of the observed polarographic current depends upon the manner in which the voltage is applied and on the characteristics of the working electrode. The new gas polarographic H2 sensor shows a current level increment with concentration of the gaseous H2 similar to those relating to metal ions in liquid electrolytes in well-known polarography. This phenomenon is caused by the fact that the diffusion of the gaseous H2 through a gas diffusion hole built in the sensor is a rate-determining step in the gaseous-hydrogen sensing mechanism. The diffusion hole artificially limits the diffusion of the gaseous H2 toward the electrode located at the sensor cavity. This gas polarographic H2 sensor. is actually an electrochemical-pumping cell since the gaseous H2 is in fact pumped via the electrochemical driving force generated between the electrodes. Gaseous H2 enters the diffusion hole and reaches the first electrode (anode) located in the sensor cavity to be transformed into an H+ ions or protons; H+ ions pass through the electrolyte and reach the second electrode (cathode) to be reformed to gaseous H2. Gas polarographic 02 sensors are commercially available; a gas polarographic 02 sensor was used to prove the feasibility of building a new gas polarographic H2 sensor.

  7. Formaldehyde Gas Sensors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Po-Ren; Tzeng, Chun-Ta; Ke, Ming-Tsun; Lee, Chia-Yen

    2013-01-01

    Many methods based on spectrophotometric, fluorometric, piezoresistive, amperometric or conductive measurements have been proposed for detecting the concentration of formaldehyde in air. However, conventional formaldehyde measurement systems are bulky and expensive and require the services of highly-trained operators. Accordingly, the emergence of sophisticated technologies in recent years has prompted the development of many microscale gaseous formaldehyde detection systems. Besides their compact size, such devices have many other advantages over their macroscale counterparts, including a real-time response, a more straightforward operation, lower power consumption, and the potential for low-cost batch production. This paper commences by providing a high level overview of the formaldehyde gas sensing field and then describes some of the more significant real-time sensors presented in the literature over the past 10 years or so. PMID:23549368

  8. A Rapid Process for Fabricating Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chun-Ching; Luo, Li-Siang

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a low-toxicity and environmentally-friendly material applied on devices, sensors or actuators for “green” usage. A porous ZnO film deposited by a rapid process of aerosol deposition (AD) was employed as the gas-sensitive material in a CO gas sensor to reduce both manufacturing cost and time, and to further extend the AD application for a large-scale production. The relative resistance change (ΔR/R) of the ZnO gas sensor was used for gas measurement. The fabricated ZnO gas sensors were measured with operating temperatures ranging from 110 °C to 180 °C, and CO concentrations ranging from 100 ppm to 1000 ppm. The sensitivity and the response time presented good performance at increasing operating temperatures and CO concentrations. AD was successfully for applied for making ZnO gas sensors with great potential for achieving high deposition rates at low deposition temperatures, large-scale production and low cost. PMID:25010696

  9. Sensor array for toxic gas detection

    DOEpatents

    Stetter, Joseph R.; Zaromb, Solomon; Penrose, William R.

    1987-01-01

    A portable instrument for use in the field in detecting and identifying a hazardous component in air or other gas including an array of small sensors which upon exposure to the gas from a pattern of electrical responses, a source of standard response patterns characteristic of various components, and microprocessor means for comparing the sensor-formed response pattern with one or more standard patterns to thereby identify the component on a display. The number of responses may be increased beyond the number of sensors by changing the operating voltage, temperature or other condition associated with one or more sensors to provide a plurality of responses from each of one or more of the sensors. In one embodiment, the instrument is capable of identifying anyone of over 50-100 hazardous components.

  10. A Phenomenological Model of Industrial Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woestman, J. T.; Logothetis, E. M.; Shane, M. D.; Brailsford, A. D.

    1997-08-01

    Gas sensors are widely used in industry for applications ranging from air-to-fuel ratio control in combustion processes, including those in automotive engines and industrial furnaces, to leakage detection of inflammable and toxic gases. This presentation reports on a model to describe the response of typical electrochemical solid state gas sensors in environments of air (80% N2 and 20% O_2) and one reducing species such as CO, H2 or CH_4. The goal of the model is to predict the time-dependent sensor output resulting from a time-dependent gas composition. Through a set of coupled differential equations, the model accounts for the flow of the gases into the sensor, their diffusion through a porous spinel coating, their adsorption/desorption on/off a catalytic electrode and their redox reaction on the electrode. The solution of these equations provides an oxygen adatom concentration on the electrode surface. This oxygen concentration is used in the Nernst equation to determine an instantaneous sensor emf and a first order filter is user to account for the time delay associated with the emf generation processes. The model was applied to the operation of an automotive oxygen sensor exposed to mixtures of O2 and CO in N2 and mixtures of O2 and H2 in N_2. Good agreement was found with experimental results under both steady state and dynamic operating conditions.

  11. Development of High Temperature Gas Sensor Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Knight, Dak; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Wu, Quing-Hai; Zhou, Huan-Jun

    1997-01-01

    The measurement of engine emissions is important for their monitoring and control. However, the ability to measure these emissions in-situ is limited. We are developing a family of high temperature gas sensors which are intended to operate in harsh environments such as those in an engine. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: (1) The development of SiC-based semiconductor technology; and (2) Improvements in micromachining and microfabrication technology. These technologies are being used to develop point-contact sensors to measure gases which are important in emission control especially hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of this point-contact sensor technology. The detection of each type of gas involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. Of particular importance is sensor sensitivity, selectivity, and stability in long-term, high temperature operation. An overview is presented of each sensor type with an evaluation of its stage of development. It is concluded that this technology has significant potential for use in engine applications but further development is necessary.

  12. Long-term Operation of an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser-based Trace-gas Sensor for Building Air Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Mark C.; Craig, Ian M.

    2013-11-03

    We analyze the long-term performance and stability of a trace-gas sensor based on an external cavity quantum cascade laser using data collected over a one-year period in a building air monitoring application.

  13. Bimodular high temperature planar oxygen gas sensor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiangcheng; Liu, Yixin; Gao, Haiyong; Gao, Pu-Xian; Lei, Yu

    2014-01-01

    A bimodular planar O2 sensor was fabricated using NiO nanoparticles (NPs) thin film coated yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate. The thin film was prepared by radio frequency (r.f.) magnetron sputtering of NiO on YSZ substrate, followed by high temperature sintering. The surface morphology of NiO NPs film was characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of NiO NPs thin film before and after high temperature O2 sensing demonstrated that the sensing material possesses a good chemical and structure stability. The oxygen detection experiments were performed at 500, 600, and 800°C using the as-prepared bimodular O2 sensor under both potentiometric and resistance modules. For the potentiometric module, a linear relationship between electromotive force (EMF) output of the sensor and the logarithm of O2 concentration was observed at each operating temperature, following the Nernst law. For the resistance module, the logarithm of electrical conductivity was proportional to the logarithm of oxygen concentration at each operating temperature, in good agreement with literature report. In addition, this bimodular sensor shows sensitive, reproducible and reversible response to oxygen under both sensing modules. Integration of two sensing modules into one sensor could greatly enrich the information output and would open a new venue in the development of high temperature gas sensors. PMID:25191652

  14. Bimodular high temperature planar oxygen gas sensor

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiangcheng; Liu, Yixin; Gao, Haiyong; Gao, Pu-Xian; Lei, Yu

    2014-01-01

    A bimodular planar O2 sensor was fabricated using NiO nanoparticles (NPs) thin film coated yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate. The thin film was prepared by radio frequency (r.f.) magnetron sputtering of NiO on YSZ substrate, followed by high temperature sintering. The surface morphology of NiO NPs film was characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of NiO NPs thin film before and after high temperature O2 sensing demonstrated that the sensing material possesses a good chemical and structure stability. The oxygen detection experiments were performed at 500, 600, and 800°C using the as-prepared bimodular O2 sensor under both potentiometric and resistance modules. For the potentiometric module, a linear relationship between electromotive force (EMF) output of the sensor and the logarithm of O2 concentration was observed at each operating temperature, following the Nernst law. For the resistance module, the logarithm of electrical conductivity was proportional to the logarithm of oxygen concentration at each operating temperature, in good agreement with literature report. In addition, this bimodular sensor shows sensitive, reproducible and reversible response to oxygen under both sensing modules. Integration of two sensing modules into one sensor could greatly enrich the information output and would open a new venue in the development of high temperature gas sensors. PMID:25191652

  15. Combustion Sensors: Gas Turbine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Human, Mel

    2002-01-01

    This report documents efforts to survey the current research directions in sensor technology for gas turbine systems. The work is driven by the current and future requirements on system performance and optimization. Accurate real time measurements of velocities, pressure, temperatures, and species concentrations will be required for objectives such as combustion instability attenuation, pollutant reduction, engine health management, exhaust profile control via active control, etc. Changing combustor conditions - engine aging, flow path slagging, or rapid maneuvering - will require adaptive responses; the effectiveness of such will be only as good as the dynamic information available for processing. All of these issues point toward the importance of continued sensor development. For adequate control of the combustion process, sensor data must include information about the above mentioned quantities along with equivalence ratios and radical concentrations, and also include both temporal and spatial velocity resolution. Ultimately these devices must transfer from the laboratory to field installations, and thus must become low weight and cost, reliable and maintainable. A primary conclusion from this study is that the optics-based sensor science will be the primary diagnostic in future gas turbine technologies.

  16. Sensor-Web Operations Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meemong, Lee; Miller, Charles; Bowman, Kevin; Weidner, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the atmospheric state and its impact on air quality requires observations of trace gases, aerosols, clouds, and physical parameters across temporal and spatial scales that range from minutes to days and from meters to more than 10,000 kilometers. Observations include continuous local monitoring for particle formation; field campaigns for emissions, local transport, and chemistry; and periodic global measurements for continental transport and chemistry. Understanding includes global data assimilation framework capable of hierarchical coupling, dynamic integration of chemical data and atmospheric models, and feedback loops between models and observations. The objective of the sensor-web system is to observe trace gases, aerosols, clouds, and physical parameters, an integrated observation infrastructure composed of space-borne, air-borne, and in-situ sensors will be simulated based on their measurement physics properties. The objective of the sensor-web operation is to optimally plan for heterogeneous multiple sensors, the sampling strategies will be explored and science impact will be analyzed based on comprehensive modeling of atmospheric phenomena including convection, transport, and chemical process. Topics include system architecture, software architecture, hardware architecture, process flow, technology infusion, challenges, and future direction.

  17. Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Basel, Richard A.

    1996-01-01

    A gas sensor measures O.sub.2 content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system.

  18. Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Ruka, R.J.; Basel, R.A.

    1996-03-12

    A gas sensor measures O{sub 2} content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons, H{sub 2}O and/or CO{sub 2}, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system. 4 figs.

  19. Gas sampling system for matrix of semiconductor gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, Grzegorz; Strzelczyk, Anna; Koscinski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor gas sensors are popular commercial sensors applied in numerous gas detection systems. They are reliable, small, rugged and inexpensive. However, there are a few problem limiting the wider use of such sensors. Semiconductor gas sensor usually exhibits a low selectivity, low repeatability, drift of response, strong temperature and moisture influence on sensor properties. Sample flow rate is one of the parameters that influence sensors response what should be considered in the measurement system. This paper describes low cost module for controlling measured gas flow rate. The proposed equipment will be used as a component of electronic nose system employed for classifying and distinguishing different levels of contamination in air.

  20. Compact portable QEPAS multi-gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lei; Kosterev, Anatoliy A.; Thomazy, David; Tittel, Frank K.

    2011-01-01

    A quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) based multi-gas sensor was developed to quantify concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydrogen chloride (HCl), and carbon dioxide (CO2) in ambient air. The sensor consists of a compact package of dimensions 25cm x 25cm x 10cm and was designed to operate at atmospheric pressure. The HCN, CO2, and HCl measurement channels are based on cw, C-band telecommunication-style packaged, fiber-coupled diode lasers, while the CO channel uses a TO can-packaged Sb diode laser as an excitation source. Moreover, the sensor incorporates rechargeable batteries and can operate on batteries for at least 8 hours. It can also operate autonomously or interact with another device (such as a computer) via a RS232 serial port. Trace gas detection limits of 7.74ppm at 4288.29cm-1 for CO, 450ppb at 6539.11 cm-1 for HCN, 1.48ppm at 5739.26 cm-1 for HCl and 97ppm at 6361.25 cm-1 for CO2 for a 1sec average time, were demonstrated.

  1. Gas Sensors Based on Conducting Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Hua; Shi, Gaoquan

    2007-01-01

    The gas sensors fabricated by using conducting polymers such as polyaniline (PAni), polypyrrole (PPy) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as the active layers have been reviewed. This review discusses the sensing mechanism and configurations of the sensors. The factors that affect the performances of the gas sensors are also addressed. The disadvantages of the sensors and a brief prospect in this research field are discussed at the end of the review.

  2. Multiple frequency method for operating electrochemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Louis P.

    2012-05-15

    A multiple frequency method for the operation of a sensor to measure a parameter of interest using calibration information including the steps of exciting the sensor at a first frequency providing a first sensor response, exciting the sensor at a second frequency providing a second sensor response, using the second sensor response at the second frequency and the calibration information to produce a calculated concentration of the interfering parameters, using the first sensor response at the first frequency, the calculated concentration of the interfering parameters, and the calibration information to measure the parameter of interest.

  3. SiC-Based Schottky Diode Gas Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Knight, Dak; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Wu, Quing-Hai

    1997-01-01

    Silicon carbide based Schottky diode gas sensors are being developed for high temperature applications such as emission measurements. Two different types of gas sensitive diodes will be discussed in this paper. By varying the structure of the diode, one can affect the diode stability as well as the diode sensitivity to various gases. It is concluded that the ability of SiC to operate as a high temperature semiconductor significantly enhances the versatility of the Schottky diode gas sensing structure and will potentially allow the fabrication of a SiC-based gas sensor arrays for versatile high temperature gas sensing applications.

  4. Carbon-Nanotube-Based Chemical Gas Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Arunpama B.

    2010-01-01

    Conventional thermal conductivity gauges (e.g. Pirani gauges) lend themselves to applications such as leak detectors, or in gas chromatographs for identifying various gas species. However, these conventional gauges are physically large, operate at high power, and have a slow response time. A single-walled carbon-nanotube (SWNT)-based chemical sensing gauge relies on differences in thermal conductance of the respective gases surrounding the CNT as it is voltage-biased, as a means for chemical identification. Such a sensor provides benefits of significantly reduced size and compactness, fast response time, low-power operation, and inexpensive manufacturing since it can be batch-fabricated using Si integrated-circuit (IC) process technology.

  5. Nano-Hydroxyapatite Thick Film Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairnar, Rajendra S.; Mene, Ravindra U.; Munde, Shivaji G.; Mahabole, Megha P.

    2011-12-01

    In the present work pure and metal ions (Co and Fe) doped hydroxyapatite (HAp) thick films have been successfully utilized to improve the structural, morphological and gas sensing properties. Nanocrystalline HAp powder is synthesized by wet chemical precipitation route, and ion exchange process is employed for addition of Co and Fe ions in HAp matrix. Moreover, swift heavy ion irradiation (SHI) technique is used to modify the surface of pure and metal ion exchanged HAp with various ion fluence. The structural investigation of pure and metal ion exchanged HAp thick films are carried out using X-ray diffraction and the presence of functional group is observed by means FTIR spectroscopy. Furthermore, surface morphology is visualized by means of SEM and AFM analysis. CO gas sensing study is carried out for, pure and metal ions doped, HAp thick films with detail investigation on operating temperature, response/recovery time and gas uptake capacity. The surface modifications of sensor matrix by SHI enhance the gas response, response/recovery and gas uptake capacity. The significant observation is here to note that, addition of Co and Fe in HAp matrix and surface modification by SHI improves the sensing properties of HAp films drastically resulting in gas sensing at relatively lower temperatures.

  6. Nano-Hydroxyapatite Thick Film Gas Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Khairnar, Rajendra S.; Mene, Ravindra U.; Munde, Shivaji G.; Mahabole, Megha P.

    2011-12-10

    In the present work pure and metal ions (Co and Fe) doped hydroxyapatite (HAp) thick films have been successfully utilized to improve the structural, morphological and gas sensing properties. Nanocrystalline HAp powder is synthesized by wet chemical precipitation route, and ion exchange process is employed for addition of Co and Fe ions in HAp matrix. Moreover, swift heavy ion irradiation (SHI) technique is used to modify the surface of pure and metal ion exchanged HAp with various ion fluence. The structural investigation of pure and metal ion exchanged HAp thick films are carried out using X-ray diffraction and the presence of functional group is observed by means FTIR spectroscopy. Furthermore, surface morphology is visualized by means of SEM and AFM analysis. CO gas sensing study is carried out for, pure and metal ions doped, HAp thick films with detail investigation on operating temperature, response/recovery time and gas uptake capacity. The surface modifications of sensor matrix by SHI enhance the gas response, response/recovery and gas uptake capacity. The significant observation is here to note that, addition of Co and Fe in HAp matrix and surface modification by SHI improves the sensing properties of HAp films drastically resulting in gas sensing at relatively lower temperatures.

  7. Optical Temperature Sensor For Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mossey, P. W.

    1987-01-01

    New design promises accuracy even in presence of contamination. Improved sensor developed to measure gas temperatures up to 1,700 degree C in gas-turbine engines. Sensor has conical shape for mechanical strengths and optical configuration insensitive to deposits of foreign matter on sides of cone.

  8. Development of Sic Gas Sensor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Okojie, R. S.; Beheim, G. M.; Thomas, V.; Chen, L.; Lukco, D.; Liu, C. C.; Ward, B.; Makel, D.

    2002-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) based gas sensors have significant potential to address the gas sensing needs of aerospace applications such as emission monitoring, fuel leak detection, and fire detection. However, in order to reach that potential, a range of technical challenges must be overcome. These challenges go beyond the development of the basic sensor itself and include the need for viable enabling technologies to make a complete gas sensor system: electrical contacts, packaging, and transfer of information from the sensor to the outside world. This paper reviews the status at NASA Glenn Research Center of SiC Schottky diode gas sensor development as well as that of enabling technologies supporting SiC gas sensor system implementation. A vision of a complete high temperature microfabricated SiC gas sensor system is proposed. In the long-term, it is believed that improvements in the SiC semiconductor material itself could have a dramatic effect on the performance of SiC gas sensor systems.

  9. A Large Scale Virtual Gas Sensor Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziyatdinov, Andrey; Fernández-Diaz, Eduard; Chaudry, A.; Marco, Santiago; Persaud, Krishna; Perera, Alexandre

    2011-09-01

    This paper depicts a virtual sensor array that allows the user to generate gas sensor synthetic data while controlling a wide variety of the characteristics of the sensor array response: arbitrary number of sensors, support for multi-component gas mixtures and full control of the noise in the system such as sensor drift or sensor aging. The artificial sensor array response is inspired on the response of 17 polymeric sensors for three analytes during 7 month. The main trends in the synthetic gas sensor array, such as sensitivity, diversity, drift and sensor noise, are user controlled. Sensor sensitivity is modeled by an optionally linear or nonlinear method (spline based). The toolbox on data generation is implemented in open source R language for statistical computing and can be freely accessed as an educational resource or benchmarking reference. The software package permits the design of scenarios with a very large number of sensors (over 10000 sensels), which are employed in the test and benchmarking of neuromorphic models in the Bio-ICT European project NEUROCHEM.

  10. Platform for a Hydrocarbon Exhaust Gas Sensor Utilizing a Pumping Cell and a Conductometric Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Biskupski, Diana; Geupel, Andrea; Wiesner, Kerstin; Fleischer, Maximilian; Moos, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Very often, high-temperature operated gas sensors are cross-sensitive to oxygen and/or they cannot be operated in oxygen-deficient (rich) atmospheres. For instance, some metal oxides like Ga2O3 or doped SrTiO3 are excellent materials for conductometric hydrocarbon detection in the rough atmosphere of automotive exhausts, but have to be operated preferably at a constant oxygen concentration. We propose a modular sensor platform that combines a conductometric two-sensor-setup with an electrochemical pumping cell made of YSZ to establish a constant oxygen concentration in the ambient of the conductometric sensor film. In this paper, the platform is introduced, the two-sensor-setup is integrated into this new design, and sensing performance is characterized. Such a platform can be used for other sensor principles as well. PMID:22423212

  11. Platform for a hydrocarbon exhaust gas sensor utilizing a pumping cell and a conductometric sensor.

    PubMed

    Biskupski, Diana; Geupel, Andrea; Wiesner, Kerstin; Fleischer, Maximilian; Moos, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Very often, high-temperature operated gas sensors are cross-sensitive to oxygen and/or they cannot be operated in oxygen-deficient (rich) atmospheres. For instance, some metal oxides like Ga(2)O(3) or doped SrTiO(3) are excellent materials for conductometric hydrocarbon detection in the rough atmosphere of automotive exhausts, but have to be operated preferably at a constant oxygen concentration. We propose a modular sensor platform that combines a conductometric two-sensor-setup with an electrochemical pumping cell made of YSZ to establish a constant oxygen concentration in the ambient of the conductometric sensor film. In this paper, the platform is introduced, the two-sensor-setup is integrated into this new design, and sensing performance is characterized. Such a platform can be used for other sensor principles as well. PMID:22423212

  12. Silicon Carbide Gas Sensors for Propulsion Emissions and Safety Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Xu, J.; Neudeck, P. G.; Lukco, D.; Trunek, A.; Spry, D.; Lampard, P.; Androjna, D.; Makel, D.; Ward, B.

    2007-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) based gas sensors have the ability to meet the needs of a range of aerospace propulsion applications including emissions monitoring, leak detection, and hydrazine monitoring. These applications often require sensitive gas detection in a range of environments. An effective sensing approach to meet the needs of these applications is a Schottky diode based on a SiC semiconductor. The primary advantage of using SiC as a semiconductor is its inherent stability and capability to operate at a wide range of temperatures. The complete SiC Schottky diode gas sensing structure includes both the SiC semiconductor and gas sensitive thin film metal layers; reliable operation of the SiC-based gas sensing structure requires good control of the interface between these gas sensitive layers and the SiC. This paper reports on the development of SiC gas sensors. The focus is on two efforts to better control the SiC gas sensitive Schottky diode interface. First, the use of palladium oxide (PdOx) as a barrier layer between the metal and SiC is discussed. Second, the use of atomically flat SiC to provide an improved SiC semiconductor surface for gas sensor element deposition is explored. The use of SiC gas sensors in a multi-parameter detection system is briefly discussed. It is concluded that SiC gas sensors have potential in a range of propulsion system applications, but tailoring of the sensor for each application is necessary.

  13. Porous Silicon Structures as Optical Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Levitsky, Igor A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a short review of recent progress in the field of optical gas sensors based on porous silicon (PSi) and PSi composites, which are separate from PSi optochemical and biological sensors for a liquid medium. Different periodical and nonperiodical PSi photonic structures (bares, modified by functional groups or infiltrated with sensory polymers) are described for gas sensing with an emphasis on the device specificity, sensitivity and stability to the environment. Special attention is paid to multiparametric sensing and sensor array platforms as effective trends for the improvement of analyte classification and quantification. Mechanisms of gas physical and chemical sorption inside PSi mesopores and pores of PSi functional composites are discussed. PMID:26287199

  14. SiC-Based Gas Sensor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Gray, M.; Androjna, D.; Chen, L.-Y.; Hoffman, R. W., Jr.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.

    2000-01-01

    Silicon carbide based Schottky diode gas sensors are being developed for applications such as emission measurements and leak detection. The effects of the geometry of the tin oxide film in a Pd/SnO2/SiC structure will be discussed as well as improvements in packaging SiC-based sensors. It is concluded that there is considerable versatility in the formation of SiC-based Schottky diode gas sensing structures which will potentially allow the fabrication of a SiC-based gas sensor array for a variety of gases and temperatures.

  15. Optimizing Installation and Operation Properties of an AUV-Mounted Swath Sonar Sensor for Automated Marine Gas Seep Detection - a Modelling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenau, S.; Fei, T.; Tóth, Z.; Keil, H.; Spiess, V.; Kraus, D.

    2014-12-01

    The detection of gas bubble streams in the water column by single- and multibeam sonars has been a common procedure in the research of marine seep sites. In the framework of the development of an AUV capable of automatic detection and sampling of gas bubble streams, such acoustic flares were modelled in MATLAB routines to assess the optimal sonar configuration for flare detection. The AUV development (IMGAM-project) is carried out as a cooperation of the company ATLAS Hydrographic and the MARUM at the University of Bremen. The combination of sensor inclination, sonar carrier frequency and pulse characteristics affect the ability of the system to detect bubble streams of different sizes and intensities. These variations in acoustic signal return from gas bubble streams depending on acquisition parameters can affect the detectability and acoustic properties of recorded acoustic flares in various seepage areas in the world's oceans. We show several examples of acoustic signatures of previously defined bubble streams under varying acquisition parameters and document the effects of changing sensor parameters on detection efficiency.

  16. Infrared hyperspectral imaging sensor for gas detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnrichs, Michele

    2000-11-01

    A small light weight man portable imaging spectrometer has many applications; gas leak detection, flare analysis, threat warning, chemical agent detection, just to name a few. With support from the US Air Force and Navy, Pacific Advanced Technology has developed a small man portable hyperspectral imaging sensor with an embedded DSP processor for real time processing that is capable of remotely imaging various targets such as gas plums, flames and camouflaged targets. Based upon their spectral signature the species and concentration of gases can be determined. This system has been field tested at numerous places including White Mountain, CA, Edwards AFB, and Vandenberg AFB. Recently evaluation of the system for gas detection has been performed. This paper presents these results. The system uses a conventional infrared camera fitted with a diffractive optic that images as well as disperses the incident radiation to form spectral images that are collected in band sequential mode. Because the diffractive optic performs both imaging and spectral filtering, the lens system consists of only a single element that is small, light weight and robust, thus allowing man portability. The number of spectral bands are programmable such that only those bands of interest need to be collected. The system is entirely passive, therefore, easily used in a covert operation. Currently Pacific Advanced Technology is working on the next generation of this camera system that will have both an embedded processor as well as an embedded digital signal processor in a small hand held camera configuration. This will allow the implementation of signal and image processing algorithms for gas detection and identification in real time. This paper presents field test data on gas detection and identification as well as discuss the signal and image processing used to enhance the gas visibility. Flow rates as low as 0.01 cubic feet per minute have been imaged with this system.

  17. Electrochemical amperometric gas sensors for environmental monitoring and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatasetty, H. V.

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical considerations and experimental results regarding a unique class of vapor sensors are presented, and the sensors are compared to semiconductor-based sensors. The electrochemical sensors are based on nonaquaeous electrolytes, and gas-detection selectivity achieved by applying a known potential to the sensing electrode using a reference electrode and a counter electrode. Results are given regarding the detection of oxygen and carbon dioxide using one cell, the detection of 3-percent carbon dioxide in nitrogen, and the detection of carbon dioxide in air at percentages ranging from 3 to 6. The sensors are found to be effective in the detection of toxic chemical species including CO, NO2, and formaldehyde; the sensors are further found to require minimal power, operate over long periods of time, and function over a wide temperature range.

  18. Sensor study for high speed autonomous operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Anne; La Celle, Zachary; Lacaze, Alberto; Murphy, Karl; Del Giorno, Mark; Close, Ryan

    2015-06-01

    As robotic ground systems advance in capabilities and begin to fulfill new roles in both civilian and military life, the limitation of slow operational speed has become a hindrance to the wide-spread adoption of these systems. For example, military convoys are reluctant to employ autonomous vehicles when these systems slow their movement from 60 miles per hour down to 40. However, these autonomous systems must operate at these lower speeds due to the limitations of the sensors they employ. Robotic Research, with its extensive experience in ground autonomy and associated problems therein, in conjunction with CERDEC/Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), has performed a study to specify system and detection requirements; determined how current autonomy sensors perform in various scenarios; and analyzed how sensors should be employed to increase operational speeds of ground vehicles. The sensors evaluated in this study include the state of the art in LADAR/LIDAR, Radar, Electro-Optical, and Infrared sensors, and have been analyzed at high speeds to study their effectiveness in detecting and accounting for obstacles and other perception challenges. By creating a common set of testing benchmarks, and by testing in a wide range of real-world conditions, Robotic Research has evaluated where sensors can be successfully employed today; where sensors fall short; and which technologies should be examined and developed further. This study is the first step to achieve the overarching goal of doubling ground vehicle speeds on any given terrain.

  19. Integrated Microfluidic Gas Sensors for Water Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, L.; Sniadecki, N.; DeVoe, D. L.; Beamesderfer, M.; Semancik, S.; DeVoe, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    A silicon-based microhotplate tin oxide (SnO2) gas sensor integrated into a polymer-based microfluidic system for monitoring of contaminants in water systems is presented. This device is designed to sample a water source, control the sample vapor pressure within a microchannel using integrated resistive heaters, and direct the vapor past the integrated gas sensor for analysis. The sensor platform takes advantage of novel technology allowing direct integration of discrete silicon chips into a larger polymer microfluidic substrate, including seamless fluidic and electrical interconnects between the substrate and silicon chip.

  20. Hydrogen gas sensor and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    McKee, John M.

    1991-01-01

    A sensor for measuring the pressure of hydrogen gas in a nuclear reactor, and method of manufacturing the same. The sensor comprises an elongated tube of hydrogen permeable material which is connected to a pressure transducer through a feedthrough tube which passes through a wall at the boundary of the region in which hydrogen is present. The tube is pressurized and flushed with hydrogen gas at an elevated temperature during the manufacture of the sensor in order to remove all gasses other than hydrogen from the device.

  1. Effect of Electrode Configuration on Nitric Oxide Gas Sensor Behavior.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ling; Murray, Erica P

    2015-01-01

    The influence of electrode configuration on the impedancemetric response of nitric oxide (NO) gas sensors was investigated for solid electrochemical cells [Au/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Au)]. Fabrication of the sensors was carried out at 1050 °C in order to establish a porous YSZ electrolyte that enabled gas diffusion. Two electrode configurations were studied where Au wire electrodes were either embedded within or wrapped around the YSZ electrolyte. The electrical response of the sensors was collected via impedance spectroscopy under various operating conditions where gas concentrations ranged from 0 to 100 ppm NO and 1%-18% O₂ at temperatures varying from 600 to 700 °C. Gas diffusion appeared to be a rate-limiting mechanism in sensors where the electrode configuration resulted in longer diffusion pathways. The temperature dependence of the NO sensors studied was independent of the electrode configuration. Analysis of the impedance data, along with equivalent circuit modeling indicated the electrode configuration of the sensor effected gas and ionic transport pathways, capacitance behavior, and NO sensitivity. PMID:26404312

  2. Effect of Electrode Configuration on Nitric Oxide Gas Sensor Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ling; Murray, Erica P.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of electrode configuration on the impedancemetric response of nitric oxide (NO) gas sensors was investigated for solid electrochemical cells [Au/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Au)]. Fabrication of the sensors was carried out at 1050 °C in order to establish a porous YSZ electrolyte that enabled gas diffusion. Two electrode configurations were studied where Au wire electrodes were either embedded within or wrapped around the YSZ electrolyte. The electrical response of the sensors was collected via impedance spectroscopy under various operating conditions where gas concentrations ranged from 0 to 100 ppm NO and 1%–18% O2 at temperatures varying from 600 to 700 °C. Gas diffusion appeared to be a rate-limiting mechanism in sensors where the electrode configuration resulted in longer diffusion pathways. The temperature dependence of the NO sensors studied was independent of the electrode configuration. Analysis of the impedance data, along with equivalent circuit modeling indicated the electrode configuration of the sensor effected gas and ionic transport pathways, capacitance behavior, and NO sensitivity. PMID:26404312

  3. Gas Sensors Based on Electrospun Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Bin; Wang, Moran; Yu, Jianyong; Sun, Gang

    2009-01-01

    Nanofibers fabricated via electrospinning have specific surface approximately one to two orders of the magnitude larger than flat films, making them excellent candidates for potential applications in sensors. This review is an attempt to give an overview on gas sensors using electrospun nanofibers comprising polyelectrolytes, conducting polymer composites, and semiconductors based on various sensing techniques such as acoustic wave, resistive, photoelectric, and optical techniques. The results of sensing experiments indicate that the nanofiber-based sensors showed much higher sensitivity and quicker responses to target gases, compared with sensors based on flat films. PMID:22573976

  4. Gas sensors based on electrospun nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bin; Wang, Moran; Yu, Jianyong; Sun, Gang

    2009-01-01

    Nanofibers fabricated via electrospinning have specific surface approximately one to two orders of the magnitude larger than flat films, making them excellent candidates for potential applications in sensors. This review is an attempt to give an overview on gas sensors using electrospun nanofibers comprising polyelectrolytes, conducting polymer composites, and semiconductors based on various sensing techniques such as acoustic wave, resistive, photoelectric, and optical techniques. The results of sensing experiments indicate that the nanofiber-based sensors showed much higher sensitivity and quicker responses to target gases, compared with sensors based on flat films. PMID:22573976

  5. Nanostructured Materials for Room-Temperature Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Xianghong; Neri, Giovanni; Pinna, Nicola

    2016-02-01

    Sensor technology has an important effect on many aspects in our society, and has gained much progress, propelled by the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Current research efforts are directed toward developing high-performance gas sensors with low operating temperature at low fabrication costs. A gas sensor working at room temperature is very appealing as it provides very low power consumption and does not require a heater for high-temperature operation, and hence simplifies the fabrication of sensor devices and reduces the operating cost. Nanostructured materials are at the core of the development of any room-temperature sensing platform. The most important advances with regard to fundamental research, sensing mechanisms, and application of nanostructured materials for room-temperature conductometric sensor devices are reviewed here. Particular emphasis is given to the relation between the nanostructure and sensor properties in an attempt to address structure-property correlations. Finally, some future research perspectives and new challenges that the field of room-temperature sensors will have to address are also discussed. PMID:26662346

  6. A portable gas sensor based on cataluminescence.

    PubMed

    Kang, C; Tang, F; Liu, Y; Wu, Y; Wang, X

    2013-01-01

    We describe a portable gas sensor based on cataluminescence. Miniaturization of the gas sensor was achieved by using a miniature photomultiplier tube, a miniature gas pump and a simple light seal. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) was considered as the evaluation criteria for the design and testing of the sensor. The main source of noise was from thermal background. Optimal working temperature and flow rate were determined experimentally from the viewpoint of improvement in SNR. A series of parameters related to analytical performance was estimated. The limitation of detection of the sensor was 7 ppm (SNR = 3) for ethanol and 10 ppm (SNR = 3) for hydrogen sulphide. Zirconia and barium carbonate were respectively selected as nano-sized catalysts for ethanol and hydrogen sulphide. PMID:22736626

  7. High resolution gas volume change sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Dirckx, Joris J. J.; Aernouts, Jef E. F.; Aerts, Johan R. M.

    2007-05-15

    Changes of gas quantity in a system can be measured either by measuring pressure changes or by measuring volume changes. As sensitive pressure sensors are readily available, pressure change is the commonly used technique. In many physiologic systems, however, buildup of pressure influences the gas exchange mechanisms, thus changing the gas quantity change rate. If one wants to study the gas flow in or out of a biological gas pocket, measurements need to be done at constant pressure. In this article we present a highly sensitive sensor for quantitative measurements of gas volume change at constant pressure. The sensor is based on optical detection of the movement of a droplet of fluid enclosed in a capillary. The device is easy to use and delivers gas volume data at a rate of more than 15 measurements/s and a resolution better than 0.06 {mu}l. At the onset of a gas quantity change the sensor shows a small pressure artifact of less than 15 Pa, and at constant change rates the pressure artifact is smaller than 10 Pa or 0.01% of ambient pressure.

  8. Ionization Gas Sensor using Aligned Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Array

    SciTech Connect

    Kermany, A. R.; Mohamed, N. M.; Singh, B. S. M.

    2011-05-25

    The challenge with current conventional gas sensors which are operating using semiconducting oxides is their size. After the introduction of nanotechnology and in order to reduce the dimension and consequently the power consumption and cost, new materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are being introduced. From previous works and characterization results, it was proven that the CNTs based gas sensor has better sensitivity, selectivity and faster response time in compared with semiconducting oxides based gas sensors. As in this work, a fabrication and successful testing of an ionization-based gas sensor using aligned Multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) as sensing element is discussed, in which MWCNTs array and Al film are used as anode and cathode plates respectively with electrode separation ranging from 80 {mu}m to 140 {mu}m. Aligned MWCNTs array was incorporated into a sensor configuration in the gas chamber for testing of gases such as argon, air, and mixed gas of 2%H{sub 2} in air. Obtained results show that among the three gases, argon has the lowest breakdown voltage whilst air has the highest value and the breakdown voltage was found to decrease as the electrode spacing was reduced from 140 {mu}m to 80 {mu}m for all three gases.

  9. Effect of Embedded Pd Microstructures on the Flat-Band-Voltage Operation of Room Temperature ZnO-Based Liquid Petroleum Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ghusoon M.; Thompson, Cody V.; Jasim, Ali K.; Abdulbaqi, Isam M.; Moore, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Three methods were used to fabricate ZnO-based room temperature liquid petroleum gas (LPG) sensors having interdigitated metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structures. Specifically, devices with Pd Schottky contacts were fabricated with: (1) un-doped ZnO active layers; (2) Pd-doped ZnO active layers; and (3) un-doped ZnO layers on top of Pd microstructure arrays. All ZnO films were grown on p-type Si(111) substrates by the sol-gel method. For devices incorporating a microstructure array, Pd islands were first grown on the substrate by thermal evaporation using a 100 μm mesh shadow mask. We have estimated the sensitivity of the sensors for applied voltage from –5 to 5 V in air ambient, as well as with exposure to LPG in concentrations from 500 to 3,500 ppm at room temperature (300 K). The current-voltage characteristics were studied and parameters such as leakage current, barrier height, reach-through voltage, and flat-band voltage were extracted. We include contributions due to the barrier height dependence on the electric field and tunneling through the barrier for the studied MSM devices. The Pd-enhanced devices demonstrated a maximum gas response at flat-band voltages. The study also revealed that active layers consisting of Pd microstructure embedded ZnO films resulted in devices exhibiting greater gas-response as compared to those using Pd-doped ZnO thin films or un-doped active layers.

  10. Acoustic composition sensor for cryogenic gas mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakkottai, P.; Kwack, E. Y.; Luchik, T. S.; Back, L. H.

    1991-01-01

    An acoustic sensor useful for the determination of the composition of a gaseous binary mixture in cryogenic liquid spills has been characterized. One version of the instrument traps a known mixture of helium and nitrogen at ambient temperature in a tube which is interrogated by sonic pulses to determine the speed of sound and hence the composition. Experimental data shows that this sensor is quite accurate. The second version uses two unconfined microphones which sense sound pulses. Experimental data acquired during mixing when liquid nitrogen is poured into a vessel of gaseous helium is presented. Data during transient cooling of the tubular sensor containing nitrogen when the sensor is dipped into liquid nitrogen and during transient warm-up when the sensor is withdrawn are also presented. This sensor is being developed for use in the mixing of liquid cryogens with gas evolution in the simulation of liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen explosion hazards.

  11. Biomaterial based sulphur di oxide gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, P. K.; Sarkar, A.

    2013-06-01

    Biomaterials are getting importance in the present research field of sensors. In this present paper performance of biomaterial based gas sensor made of gum Arabica and garlic extract had been studied. Extract of garlic clove with multiple medicinal and chemical utility can be proved to be useful in sensing Sulphur di Oxide gas. On exposure to Sulphur di Oxide gas the material under observation suffers some temporary structural change, which can be observed in form of amplified potentiometric change through simple electronic circuitry. Exploiting this very property a potentiometric gas sensor of faster response and recovery time can be designed. In this work sensing property of the said material has been studied through DC conductance, FTIR spectrum etc.

  12. Planar Laser-Based QEPAS Trace Gas Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yufei; He, Ying; Chen, Cheng; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Jingbo; Peng, Jiangbo; Sun, Rui; Tittel, Frank K.

    2016-01-01

    A novel quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) trace gas detection scheme is reported in this paper. A cylindrical lens was employed for near-infrared laser focusing. The laser beam was shaped as a planar line laser between the gap of the quartz tuning fork (QTF) prongs. Compared with a spherical lens-based QEPAS sensor, the cylindrical lens-based QEPAS sensor has the advantages of easier laser beam alignment and a reduction of stringent stability requirements. Therefore, the reported approach is useful in long-term and continuous sensor operation. PMID:27367686

  13. Planar Laser-Based QEPAS Trace Gas Sensor.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yufei; He, Ying; Chen, Cheng; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Jingbo; Peng, Jiangbo; Sun, Rui; Tittel, Frank K

    2016-01-01

    A novel quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) trace gas detection scheme is reported in this paper. A cylindrical lens was employed for near-infrared laser focusing. The laser beam was shaped as a planar line laser between the gap of the quartz tuning fork (QTF) prongs. Compared with a spherical lens-based QEPAS sensor, the cylindrical lens-based QEPAS sensor has the advantages of easier laser beam alignment and a reduction of stringent stability requirements. Therefore, the reported approach is useful in long-term and continuous sensor operation. PMID:27367686

  14. Proximity Operations and Docking Sensor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Brewster, Linda L.; Lee, James E.

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) has been under development for the last three years as a long-range proximity operations and docking sensor for use in an Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) system. The first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the U.S. Space Program was successfully accomplished by Orbital Express, using the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) as the primary docking sensor. That flight proved that the United States now has a mature and flight proven sensor technology for supporting Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV) and Commercial Orbital Transport Systems (COTS) Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D). NASA video sensors have worked well in the past: the AVGS used on the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) mission operated successfully in spot mode out to 2 km, and the first generation rendezvous and docking sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was developed and successfully flown on Space Shuttle flights in 1997 and 1998. 12 Parts obsolescence issues prevent the construction of more AVGS units, and the next generation sensor was updated to allow it to support the CEV and COTS programs. The flight proven AR&D sensor has been redesigned to update parts and add additional capabilities for CEV and COTS with the development of the Next Generation AVGS at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The obsolete imager and processor are being replaced with new radiation tolerant parts. In addition, new capabilities include greater sensor range, auto ranging capability, and real-time video output. This paper presents some sensor hardware trades, use of highly integrated laser components, and addresses the needs of future vehicles that may rendezvous and dock with the International Space Station (ISS) and other Constellation vehicles. It also discusses approaches for upgrading AVGS to address parts obsolescence, and concepts for minimizing the sensor footprint, weight, and power requirements

  15. Graphene Based Flexible Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Congwen

    Graphene is a novel carbon material with great promise for a range of applications due to its electronic and mechanical properties. Its two-dimensional nature translates to a high sensitivity to surface chemical interactions thereby making it an ideal platform for sensors. Graphene's electronic properties are not degraded due to mechanical flexing or strain (Kim, K. S., et al. nature 07719, 2009) offering another advantage for flexible sensors integrated into numerous systems including fabrics, etc. We have demonstrated a graphene NO2 sensor on a solid substrate (100nm SiO2/heavily doped silicon). Three different methods were used to synthesize graphene and the sensor fabrication process was optimized accordingly. Water is used as a controllable p-type dopant in graphene to study the relationship between doping and graphene's response to NO2 . Experimental results show that interface water between graphene and the supporting SiO2 substrate induces higher p-doping in graphene, leading to a higher sensitivity to NO2, consistent with theoretical predications (Zhang, Y. et al., Nanotechnology 20(2009) 185504). We have also demonstrated a flexible and stretchable graphene-based sensor. Few layer graphene, grown on a Ni substrate, is etched and transferred to a highly stretchable polymer substrate (VHB from 3M) with preloaded stress, followed by metal contact formation to construct a flexible, stretchable sensor. With up to 500% deformation caused by compressive stress, graphene still shows stable electrical response to NO2. Our results suggest that higher compressive stress results in smaller sheet resistance and higher sensitivity to NO2. A possible molecular detection sensor utilizing Surface Enhanced Raman Spectrum (SERS) based on a graphene/gallium nanoparticles platform is also studied. By correlating the enhancement of the graphene Raman modes with metal coverage, we propose that the Ga transfers electrons to the graphene creating local regions of enhanced

  16. Development of a hydrogen gas sensor using microfabrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Chung-Chiun; Wu, Qinghai; Stuczynski, Matthew; Madzsar, George C.

    1992-01-01

    Microfabrication and micromachining technologies are used to produce a hydrogen gas sensor based on a palladium-silver film. The sensor uses a heater that is fabricated by diffusing p-type borones into the substrate, forming a resistance heater. A diode for temperature measurement is produced using p-type boron and n-type phosphor diffused into the substrate. A thickness of the palladium-silver film is approximately 300 arcsec. The hydrogen gas sensor employs the proven palladium-silver diode structure and is surrounded by a phosphor doped resistance heater which can be heated up to a temperature of 250 C. Experimental results show that the sensor is capable of operating over a wide range of hydrogen concentration levels between 0-95 percent without any hysteresis effects.

  17. Autonomous Mission Operations for Sensor Webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underbrink, A.; Witt, K.; Stanley, J.; Mandl, D.

    2008-12-01

    We present interim results of a 2005 ROSES AIST project entitled, "Using Intelligent Agents to Form a Sensor Web for Autonomous Mission Operations", or SWAMO. The goal of the SWAMO project is to shift the control of spacecraft missions from a ground-based, centrally controlled architecture to a collaborative, distributed set of intelligent agents. The network of intelligent agents intends to reduce management requirements by utilizing model-based system prediction and autonomic model/agent collaboration. SWAMO agents are distributed throughout the Sensor Web environment, which may include multiple spacecraft, aircraft, ground systems, and ocean systems, as well as manned operations centers. The agents monitor and manage sensor platforms, Earth sensing systems, and Earth sensing models and processes. The SWAMO agents form a Sensor Web of agents via peer-to-peer coordination. Some of the intelligent agents are mobile and able to traverse between on-orbit and ground-based systems. Other agents in the network are responsible for encapsulating system models to perform prediction of future behavior of the modeled subsystems and components to which they are assigned. The software agents use semantic web technologies to enable improved information sharing among the operational entities of the Sensor Web. The semantics include ontological conceptualizations of the Sensor Web environment, plus conceptualizations of the SWAMO agents themselves. By conceptualizations of the agents, we mean knowledge of their state, operational capabilities, current operational capacities, Web Service search and discovery results, agent collaboration rules, etc. The need for ontological conceptualizations over the agents is to enable autonomous and autonomic operations of the Sensor Web. The SWAMO ontology enables automated decision making and responses to the dynamic Sensor Web environment and to end user science requests. The current ontology is compatible with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC

  18. High-Temperature Gas Sensor Array (Electronic Nose) Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2002-01-01

    The ability to measure emissions from aeronautic engines and in commercial applications such as automotive emission control and chemical process monitoring is a necessary first step if one is going to actively control those emissions. One single sensor will not give all the information necessary to determine the chemical composition of a high-temperature, harsh environment. Rather, an array of gas sensor arrays--in effect, a high-temperature electronic "nose"--is necessary to characterize the chemical constituents of a diverse, high-temperature environment, such as an emissions stream. The signals produced by this nose could be analyzed to determine the constituents of the emission stream. Although commercial electronic noses for near-room temperature applications exist, they often depend significantly on lower temperature materials or only one sensor type. A separate development effort necessary for a high-temperature electronic nose is being undertaken by the NASA Glenn Research Center, Case Western Reserve University, Ohio State University, and Makel Engineering, Inc. The sensors are specially designed for hightemperature environments. A first-generation high-temperature electronic nose has been demonstrated on a modified automotive engine. This nose sensor array was composed of sensors designed for hightemperature environments fabricated using microelectromechanical-systems- (MEMS-) based technology. The array included a tin-oxide-based sensor doped for nitrogen oxide (NOx) sensitivity, a SiC-based hydrocarbon (CxHy) sensor, and an oxygen sensor (O2). These sensors operate on different principles--resistor, diode, and electrochemical cell, respectively--and each sensor has very different responses to the individual gases in the environment. A picture showing the sensor head for the array is shown in the photograph on the left and the sensors installed in the engine are shown in the photograph on the right. Electronics are interfaced with the sensors for

  19. Supersensitive graphene-based gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. A.; Lebedev, S. P.; Novikov, S. N.; Davydov, V. Yu.; Smirnov, A. N.; Litvin, D. P.; Makarov, Yu. N.; Levitskii, V. S.

    2016-03-01

    Epitaxial graphene layers are produced with the aid of thermal destruction of the surface of a semi-insulating SiC substrate. Raman spectroscopy and atomic-force microscopy are employed in the study of the film homogeneity. A prototype of the gas sensor based on the films is fabricated. The device is sensitive to the NO2 molecules at a level of 5 ppb (five particles per billion). A possibility of the industrial application of the sensor is discussed.

  20. Electronic Position Sensor for Power Operated Accessory

    DOEpatents

    Haag, Ronald H.; Chia, Michael I.

    2005-05-31

    An electronic position sensor for use with a power operated vehicle accessory, such as a power liftgate. The position sensor includes an elongated resistive circuit that is mounted such that it is stationary and extends along the path of a track portion of the power operated accessory. The position sensor further includes a contact nub mounted to a link member that moves within the track portion such that the contact nub is slidingly biased against the elongated circuit. As the link member moves under the force of a motor-driven output gear, the contact nub slides along the surface of the resistive circuit, thereby affecting the overall resistance of the circuit. The position sensor uses the overall resistance to provide an electronic position signal to an ECU, wherein the signal is indicative of the absolute position of the power operated accessory. Accordingly, the electronic position sensor is capable of providing an electronic signal that enables the ECU to track the absolute position of the power operated accessory.

  1. A Model of Solid State Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woestman, J. T.; Brailsford, A. D.; Shane, M.; Logothetis, E. M.

    1997-03-01

    Solid state gas sensors are widely used to measure the concentrations of gases such as CO, CH_4, C_3H_6, H_2, C_3H8 and O2 The applications of these sensors range from air-to-fuel ratio control in combustion processes including those in automotive engines and industrial furnaces to leakage detection of inflammable and toxic gases in domestic and industrial environments. As the need increases to accurately measure smaller and smaller concentrations, problems such as poor selectivity, stability and response time limit the use of these sensors. In an effort to overcome some of these limitations, a theoretical model of the transient behavior of solid state gas sensors has been developed. In this presentation, a model for the transient response of an electrochemical gas sensor to gas mixtures containing O2 and one reducing species, such as CO, is discussed. This model accounts for the transport of the reactive species to the sampling electrode, the catalyzed oxidation/reduction reaction of these species and the generation of the resulting electrical signal. The model will be shown to reproduce the results of published steady state models and to agree with experimental steady state and transient data.

  2. Mechanical Drawing of Gas Sensors on Paper

    PubMed Central

    Mirica, Katherine A.; Weis, Jonathan G.; Schnorr, Jan M.; Esser, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    This communication describes a simple solvent-free method for fabricating chemoresistive gas sensors on the surface of paper. The method involves mechanical abrasion of compressed powders of sensing materials on the fibers of cellulose. We illustrate this approach by depositing conductive layers of several forms of carbon (e.g., single-walled carbon nanotubes [SWCNTs], multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and graphite) on the surface of different papers (Figure 1, Figure S1). The resulting sensors based on SWCNTs are capable of detecting NH3 gas at concentrations as low as 0.5 part-per-million. PMID:23037938

  3. A bubble-based microfluidic gas sensor for gas chromatographs.

    PubMed

    Bulbul, Ashrafuzzaman; Kim, Hanseup

    2015-01-01

    We report a new proof-of-concept bubble-based gas sensor for a gas chromatography system, which utilizes the unique relationship between the diameters of the produced bubbles with the gas types and mixture ratios as a sensing element. The bubble-based gas sensor consists of gas and liquid channels as well as a nozzle to produce gas bubbles through a micro-structure. It utilizes custom-developed software and an optical camera to statistically analyze the diameters of the produced bubbles in flow. The fabricated gas sensor showed that five types of gases (CO2, He, H2, N2, and CH4) produced (1) unique volumes of 0.44, 0.74, 1.03, 1.28, and 1.42 nL (0%, 68%, 134%, 191%, and 223% higher than that of CO2) and (2) characteristic linear expansion coefficients (slope) of 1.38, 2.93, 3.45, 5.06, and 5.44 nL/(kPa (μL s(-1))(-1)). The gas sensor also demonstrated that (3) different gas mixture ratios of CO2 : N2 (100 : 0, 80 : 20, 50 : 50, 20 : 80 and 0 : 100) generated characteristic bubble diameters of 48.95, 77.99, 71.00, 78.53 and 99.50 μm, resulting in a linear coefficient of 10.26 μm (μL s(-1))(-1). It (4) successfully identified an injection (0.01 μL) of pentane (C5) into a continuous carrier gas stream of helium (He) by monitoring bubble diameters and creating a chromatogram and demonstrated (5) the output stability within only 5.60% variation in 67 tests over a month. PMID:25350655

  4. Self-Activated Transparent All-Graphene Gas Sensor with Endurance to Humidity and Mechanical Bending.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Hoo; Kim, Sang Jin; Kim, Yong-Jin; Shim, Yeong-Seok; Kim, Soo Young; Hong, Byung Hee; Jang, Ho Won

    2015-10-27

    Graphene is considered as one of leading candidates for gas sensor applications in the Internet of Things owing to its unique properties such as high sensitivity to gas adsorption, transparency, and flexibility. We present self-activated operation of all graphene gas sensors with high transparency and flexibility. The all-graphene gas sensors which consist of graphene for both sensor electrodes and active sensing area exhibit highly sensitive, selective, and reversible responses to NO2 without external heating. The sensors show reliable operation under high humidity conditions and bending strain. In addition to these remarkable device performances, the significantly facile fabrication process enlarges the potential of the all-graphene gas sensors for use in the Internet of Things and wearable electronics. PMID:26321290

  5. Acetone Sensing Properties of a Gas Sensor Composed of Carbon Nanotubes Doped With Iron Oxide Nanopowder

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Qiulin; Fang, Jiahua; Liu, Wenyi; Xiong, Jijun; Zhang, Wendong

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanopowder was prepared by a precipitation method and then mixed with different proportions of carbon nanotubes. The composite materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A fabricated heater-type gas sensor was compared with a pure Fe2O3 gas sensor under the influence of acetone. The effects of the amount of doping, the sintering temperature, and the operating temperature on the response of the sensor and the response recovery time were analyzed. Experiments show that doping of carbon nanotubes with iron oxide effectively improves the response of the resulting gas sensors to acetone gas. It also reduces the operating temperature and shortens the response recovery time of the sensor. The response of the sensor in an acetone gas concentration of 80 ppm was enhanced, with good repeatability. PMID:26569253

  6. Optical Sensor Of High Gas Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Arthur J.

    1988-01-01

    Contact pyrometer resists effects of heat, vibration, and moisture. New sensor consists of shielded sapphire rod with sputtered layer of precious metal on end. Metal layer acts as blackbody. Emits radiation having known dependence of spectral distribution with temperature of metal and temperature of hot gas flowing over metal. Fiber-optic cable carries radiation from sapphire rod to remote photodetector.

  7. Construction of a Polyaniline Nanofiber Gas Sensor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virji, Shabnam; Weiller, Bruce H.; Huang, Jiaxing; Blair, Richard; Shepherd, Heather; Faltens, Tanya; Haussmann, Philip C.; Kaner, Richard B.; Tolbert, Sarah H.

    2008-01-01

    The electrical properties of polyaniline changes by orders of magnitude upon exposure to analytes such as acids or bases, making it a useful material for detection of these analytes in the gas phase. The objectives of this lab are to synthesize different diameter polyaniline nanofibers and compare them as sensor materials. In this experiment…

  8. Integrated Mirco-Machined Hydrogen Gas Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Frank DiMeoJr. Ing--shin Chen

    2005-12-15

    The widespread use of hydrogen as both an industrial process gas and an energy storage medium requires fast, selective detection of hydrogen gas. This report discusses the development of a new type of solid-state hydrogen gas sensor that couples novel metal hydride thin films with a MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) structure known as a micro-hotplate. In this project, Micro-hotplate structures were overcoated with engineered multilayers that serve as the active hydrogen-sensing layer. The change in electrical resistance of these layers when exposed to hydrogen gas was the measured sensor output. This project focused on achieving the following objectives: (1) Demonstrating the capabilities of micro-machined H2 sensors; (2) Developing an understanding of their performance; (3) Critically evaluating the utility and viability of this technology for life safety and process monitoring applications. In order to efficiently achieve these objectives, the following four tasks were identified: (1) Sensor Design and Fabrication; (2) Short Term Response Testing; (3) Long Term Behavior Investigation; (4) Systems Development. Key findings in the project include: The demonstration of sub-second response times to hydrogen; measured sensitivity to hydrogen concentrations below 200 ppm; a dramatic improvement in the sensor fabrication process and increased understanding of the processing properties and performance relationships of the devices; the development of improved sensing multilayers; and the discovery of a novel strain based hydrogen detection mechanism. The results of this program suggest that this hydrogen sensor technology has exceptional potential to meet the stringent demands of life safety applications as hydrogen utilization and infrastructure becomes more prevalent.

  9. A wafer-level liquid cavity integrated amperometric gas sensor with ppb-level nitric oxide gas sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatty, Hithesh K.; Stemme, Göran; Roxhed, Niclas

    2015-10-01

    A miniaturized amperometric nitric oxide (NO) gas sensor based on wafer-level fabrication of electrodes and a liquid electrolyte chamber is reported in this paper. The sensor is able to detect NO gas concentrations of the order of parts per billion (ppb) levels and has a measured sensitivity of 0.04 nA ppb-1 with a response time of approximately 12 s. A sufficiently high selectivity of the sensor to interfering gases such as carbon monoxide (CO) and to ammonia (NH3) makes it potentially relevant for monitoring of asthma. In addition, the sensor was characterized for electrolyte evaporation which indicated a sensor operation lifetime allowing approximately 200 measurements.

  10. Autonomy and Sensor Webs: The Evolution of Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Demonstration of these sensor web capabilities will enable fast responding science campaigns that combine spaceborne, airborne, and ground assets. Sensor webs will also require new operations paradigms. These sensor webs will be operated directly by scientists using science goals to control their instruments. We will explore these new operations architectures through a study of existing sensor web prototypes.

  11. MEMS device for mass market gas and chemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinkade, Brian R.; Daly, James T.; Johnson, Edward A.

    2000-08-01

    Gas and chemical sensors are used in many applications. Industrial health and safety monitors allow companies to meet OSHA requirements by detecting harmful levels of toxic or combustible gases. Vehicle emissions are tested during annual inspections. Blood alcohol breathalizers are used by law enforcement. Refrigerant leak detection ensures that the Earth's ozone layer is not being compromised. Industrial combustion emissions are also monitored to minimize pollution. Heating and ventilation systems watch for high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) to trigger an increase in fresh air exchange. Carbon monoxide detectors are used in homes to prevent poisoning from poor combustion ventilation. Anesthesia gases are monitored during a patients operation. The current economic reality is that two groups of gas sensor technologies are competing in two distinct existing market segments - affordable (less reliable) chemical reaction sensors for consumer markets and reliable (expensive) infrared (IR) spectroscopic sensors for industrial, laboratory, and medical instrumentation markets. Presently high volume mass-market applications are limited to CO detectros and on-board automotive emissions sensors. Due to reliability problems with electrochemical sensor-based CO detectors there is a hesitancy to apply these sensors in other high volume applications. Applications such as: natural gas leak detection, non-invasive blood glucose monitoring, home indoor air quality, personal/portable air quality monitors, home fire/burnt cooking detector, and home food spoilage detectors need a sensor that is a small, efficient, accurate, sensitive, reliable, and inexpensive. Connecting an array of these next generation gas sensors to wireless networks that are starting to proliferate today creates many other applications. Asthmatics could preview the air quality of their destinations as they venture out into the day. HVAC systems could determine if fresh air intake was actually better than the air

  12. Colorimetric blood-gas monitoring sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Keith J.; Seifert, George P.

    1993-05-01

    Colorimetric fiber optic sensors have been developed for measuring the pH and pCO2 of blood. These sensors are fabricated using a single 125 micrometers diameter optical fiber. Located at the distal end of the fiber is a capsule that contains a pH sensitive dye. The pCO2 sensor is fabricated from a pH sensor with the addition of a salt, bicarbonate, and the encapsulation with an ion impermeable gas permeable membrane. The distal end of the capsule is terminated with a reflective surface. The reflective surface can either be a polished metallic surface or, in this case, a TiO2 impregnated epoxy. The disposable sensor mates with an optical connector that contains two optical fibers of the same size as the disposable sensor. The two fibers within the optical cable provide a light path for both the antegrade and retrograde optical signals. These fibers are terminated at either the LED source or the detector. A prototype sensor assembly that incorporates the measurement of three physiological parameters (pH, pCO2, and sO2) has been demonstrated to fit within a standard 20 gauge arterial catheter, typically used for radial artery blood pressure monitoring, without significant damping of the blood pressure waveform. The pH sensor has a range of 6.9 - 7.8 with a precision of 0.01 pH units and the pCO2 sensor has a range of 15 - 95 mm Hg with a precision of 3 mm Hg. The long term drift pH drift is less than 0.01 pH unit per 8 hours and the pCO2 drift is less than 1 mm Hg per 8 hours. Sensor performance in the canine has demonstrated that the pH sensor is accurate to within +/- 0.03 pH units and the pCO2 sensor is accurate to within +/- 3 mm Hg when compared to a typical blood gas analyzer.

  13. Novel Nanostructured Zinc Oxide Ammonia Gas Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Surbhi; Sahare, P. D.; Gupta, Meenakshi; Kapoor, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, we report a novel and easy technique to synthesize a ZnO nanostructured porous network using activated carbon (AC) that is used as a sensor material for an interacting gas at room temperature. The formation of the material was confirmed by XRD and HRTEM image. The porous nature of the synthesized ZnO could be used to incorporate a laser dyes into it which makes it more fluorescent material. Broad absorption/excitation band(s) in laser dye (Stilbene) helps to get it excited over a range and broad fluorescent emission that enhances the sensitivity on integration. The changes in the intensities of the absorption/emission spectra of sensitized ZnO on interaction with gas molecules could be used to fabricate a gas sensor working at room temperature.

  14. Advanced figure sensor operations and maintenance manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    This manual contains procedures for installing, operating, and maintaining the optical figure sensor and its associated electronic controls. The optical figure sensor, a system of integrated components, comprises: (1) a phase measuring modified interferometer employing a single frequency 6328 A laser, and a Vidissector; (2) a two-axis automatic thermal compensation control mount; (3) a five degree of freedom manual adjustment stand; and (4) a control console. This instrument provides real time output data of optical figure errors for spherical mirrors, and is also capable of measuring aspherical mirrors if a null corrector is added.

  15. Sensors operating at exceptional points: General theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersig, Jan

    2016-03-01

    A general theory of sensors based on the detection of splittings of resonant frequencies or energy levels operating at so-called exceptional points is presented. Exploiting the complex-square-root topology near such non-Hermitian degeneracies has a great potential for enhanced sensitivity. Passive and active systems are discussed. The theory is specified for whispering-gallery microcavity sensors for particle detection. As example, a microdisk with two holes is studied numerically. The theory and numerical simulations demonstrate a sevenfold enhancement of the sensitivity.

  16. Test Structures for Rapid Prototyping of Gas and Pressure Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M.; Cheng, L. J.; Martin, D.

    1996-01-01

    A multi-project ceramic substrate was used in developing a gas sensor and pressure sensor. The ceramic substrate cantained 36 chips with six variants including sensors, process control monitors, and an interconnect ship. Tha gas sensor is being developed as an air quality monitor and the pressure gauge as a barometer.

  17. Digital Sun Sensor Multi-Spot Operation

    PubMed Central

    Rufino, Giancarlo; Grassi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The operation and test of a multi-spot digital sun sensor for precise sun-line determination is described. The image forming system consists of an opaque mask with multiple pinhole apertures producing multiple, simultaneous, spot-like images of the sun on the focal plane. The sun-line precision can be improved by averaging multiple simultaneous measures. Nevertheless, the sensor operation on a wide field of view requires acquiring and processing images in which the number of sun spots and the related intensity level are largely variable. To this end, a reliable and robust image acquisition procedure based on a variable shutter time has been considered as well as a calibration function exploiting also the knowledge of the sun-spot array size. Main focus of the present paper is the experimental validation of the wide field of view operation of the sensor by using a sensor prototype and a laboratory test facility. Results demonstrate that it is possible to keep high measurement precision also for large off-boresight angles. PMID:23443388

  18. Enhanced electrodes for solid state gas sensors

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Brosha, Eric L.

    2001-01-01

    A solid state gas sensor generates an electrical potential between an equilibrium electrode and a second electrode indicative of a gas to be sensed. A solid electrolyte substrate has the second electrode mounted on a first portion of the electrolyte substrate and a composite equilibrium electrode including conterminous transition metal oxide and Pt components mounted on a second portion of the electrolyte substrate. The composite equilibrium electrode and the second electrode are electrically connected to generate an electrical potential indicative of the gas that is being sensed. In a particular embodiment of the present invention, the second electrode is a reference electrode that is exposed to a reference oxygen gas mixture so that the electrical potential is indicative of the oxygen in a gas stream.

  19. Dataset from chemical gas sensor array in turbulent wind tunnel.

    PubMed

    Fonollosa, Jordi; Rodríguez-Luján, Irene; Trincavelli, Marco; Huerta, Ramón

    2015-06-01

    The dataset includes the acquired time series of a chemical detection platform exposed to different gas conditions in a turbulent wind tunnel. The chemo-sensory elements were sampling directly the environment. In contrast to traditional approaches that include measurement chambers, open sampling systems are sensitive to dispersion mechanisms of gaseous chemical analytes, namely diffusion, turbulence, and advection, making the identification and monitoring of chemical substances more challenging. The sensing platform included 72 metal-oxide gas sensors that were positioned at 6 different locations of the wind tunnel. At each location, 10 distinct chemical gases were released in the wind tunnel, the sensors were evaluated at 5 different operating temperatures, and 3 different wind speeds were generated in the wind tunnel to induce different levels of turbulence. Moreover, each configuration was repeated 20 times, yielding a dataset of 18,000 measurements. The dataset was collected over a period of 16 months. The data is related to "On the performance of gas sensor arrays in open sampling systems using Inhibitory Support Vector Machines", by Vergara et al.[1]. The dataset can be accessed publicly at the UCI repository upon citation of [1]: http://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/datasets/Gas+sensor+arrays+in+open+sampling+settings. PMID:26217739

  20. Dataset from chemical gas sensor array in turbulent wind tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Fonollosa, Jordi; Rodríguez-Luján, Irene; Trincavelli, Marco; Huerta, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The dataset includes the acquired time series of a chemical detection platform exposed to different gas conditions in a turbulent wind tunnel. The chemo-sensory elements were sampling directly the environment. In contrast to traditional approaches that include measurement chambers, open sampling systems are sensitive to dispersion mechanisms of gaseous chemical analytes, namely diffusion, turbulence, and advection, making the identification and monitoring of chemical substances more challenging. The sensing platform included 72 metal-oxide gas sensors that were positioned at 6 different locations of the wind tunnel. At each location, 10 distinct chemical gases were released in the wind tunnel, the sensors were evaluated at 5 different operating temperatures, and 3 different wind speeds were generated in the wind tunnel to induce different levels of turbulence. Moreover, each configuration was repeated 20 times, yielding a dataset of 18,000 measurements. The dataset was collected over a period of 16 months. The data is related to “On the performance of gas sensor arrays in open sampling systems using Inhibitory Support Vector Machines”, by Vergara et al.[1]. The dataset can be accessed publicly at the UCI repository upon citation of [1]: http://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/datasets/Gas+sensor+arrays+in+open+sampling+settings PMID:26217739

  1. Gas mixing apparatus for automated gas sensor characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helwig, Nikolai; Schüler, Marco; Bur, Christian; Schütze, Andreas; Sauerwald, Tilman

    2014-05-01

    We developed a computer-controlled gas mixing system that provides automated test procedures for the characterization of gas sensors. The focus is the generation of trace gases (e.g. VOCs like benzene or naphthalene) using permeation furnaces and pre-dilution of test gases. With these methods, the sensor reaction can be analyzed at very low gas concentrations in the ppb range (parts per billion) and even lower. The pre-dilution setup enables to cover a high concentration range (1:62 500) within one test procedure. Up to six test gases, humidity, oxygen content, total flow and their variation over time can be controlled via a LabVIEW-based user-interface.

  2. Sol-Gel Thin Films for Plasmonic Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Della Gaspera, Enrico; Martucci, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic gas sensors are optical sensors that use localized surface plasmons or extended surface plasmons as transducing platform. Surface plasmons are very sensitive to dielectric variations of the environment or to electron exchange, and these effects have been exploited for the realization of sensitive gas sensors. In this paper, we review our research work of the last few years on the synthesis and the gas sensing properties of sol-gel based nanomaterials for plasmonic sensors. PMID:26184216

  3. Laboratory Connections: Gas Monitoring Transducers: Relative Humidity Sensors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael H.; Hull, Stacey E.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the operation of five relative humidity sensors: psychrometer, hair hygrometer, resistance hygrometer, capacitance hygrometer, and resistance-capacitance hygrometer. Outlines the theory behind the electronic sensors and gives computer interfacing information. Lists sensor responses for calibration. (MVL)

  4. Video Guidance Sensor for Surface Mobility Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Kenneth R.; Fischer, Richard; Bryan, Thomas; Howell, Joe; Howard, Ricky; Peters, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Robotic systems and surface mobility will play an increased role in future exploration missions. Unlike the LRV during Apollo era which was an astronaut piloted vehicle future systems will include teleoperated and semi-autonomous operations. The tasks given to these vehicles will run the range from infrastructure maintenance, ISRU, and construction to name a few. A common task that may be performed would be the retrieval and deployment of trailer mounted equipment. Operational scenarios may require these operations to be performed remotely via a teleoperated mode,or semi-autonomously. This presentation describes the on-going project to adapt the Automated Rendezvous and Capture (AR&C) sensor developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center for use in an automated trailer pick-up and deployment operation. The sensor which has been successfully demonstrated on-orbit has been mounted on an iRobot/John Deere RGATOR autonomous vehicle for this demonstration which will be completed in the March 2008 time-frame.

  5. Gas Main Sensor and Communications Network System

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen Schempf

    2006-05-31

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. This projected was completed in April 2006, and culminated in the installation of more than 2 dozen GasNet nodes in both low- and high-pressure cast-iron and steel mains owned by multiple utilities in the northeastern US. Utilities are currently logging data (off-line) and monitoring data in real time from single and multiple networked sensors over cellular networks and collecting data using wireless bluetooth PDA systems. The system was designed to be modular, using in-pipe sensor-wands capable of measuring, flow, pressure, temperature, water-content and vibration. Internal antennae allowed for the use of the pipe-internals as a waveguide for setting up a sensor network to collect data from multiple nodes simultaneously. Sensor nodes were designed to be installed with low- and no-blow techniques and tools. Using a multi-drop bus technique with a custom protocol, all electronics were designed to be buriable and allow for on-board data-collection (SD-card), wireless relaying and cellular network forwarding. Installation options afforded by the design included direct-burial and external polemounted variants. Power was provided by one or more batteries, direct AC-power (Class I Div.2) and solar-array. The utilities are currently in a data-collection phase and intend to use the collected (and processed) data to make capital improvement decisions, compare it to Stoner model predictions and evaluate the use of such a system for future expansion, technology-improvement and commercialization starting later in 2006.

  6. Alpha-Particle Gas-Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. C.; Bell, L. D.; Hecht, M. H.

    1996-01-01

    An approximate model was developed to establish design curves for the saturation region and a more complete model developed to characterize the current-voltage curves for an alpha-particle pressure sensor. A simple two-parameter current-voltage expression was developed to describe the dependence of the ion current on pressure. The parameters are the saturation-current pressure coefficient and mu/D, the ion mobility/diffusion coefficient. The sensor is useful in the pressure range between 0.1 and 1000 mb using a 1 - mu Ci(241) Am source. Experimental results, taken between 1 and up to 200 mb, show the sensor operates with an anode voltage of 5 V and a sensitivity of 20 fA/mb in nitrogen.

  7. Open Path Trace Gas Laser Sensors for UAV Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadman, S.; Mchale, L.; Rose, C.; Yalin, A.

    2015-12-01

    Novel trace gas sensors based on open-path Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopy (CRDS) are being developed to enable remote and mobile deployments including on small unmanned aerial systems (UAS). Relative to established closed-path CRDS instruments, the use of open-path configurations allows removal of the bulky and power hungry vacuum and flow system, potentially enabling lightweight and low power instruments with high sensitivity. However, open path operation introduces new challenges including the need to maintain mirror cleanliness, mitigation of particle optical effects, and the need to measure spectral features that are relatively broad. The present submission details open-path CRDS instruments for ammonia and methane and their planned use in UAS studies. The ammonia sensor uses a quantum cascade laser at 10.3 mm in a configuration in which the laser frequency is continuously swept and a trigger circuit and acousto-optic modulator (AOM) extinguish the light when the laser is resonant with the cavity. Ring-down signals are measured with a two-stage thermoelectrically cooled MCT photodetector. The cavity mirrors have reflectivity of 0.9995 and a noise equivalent absorption of 1.5 ppb Hz-1/2 was demonstrated. A first version of the methane sensor operated at 1.7um with a telecom diode laser while the current version operates at 3.6 um with an interband cascade laser (stronger absorption). We have performed validation measurements against known standards for both sensors. Compact optical assemblies are being developed for UAS deployment. For example, the methane sensor head will have target mass of <4 kg and power draw <40 W. A compact single board computer and DAQ system is being designed for sensor control and signal processing with target mass <1 kg and power draw <10 W. The sensor size and power parameters are suitable for UAS deployment on both fixed wing and rotor style UAS. We plan to deploy the methane sensor to measure leakage and emission of methane from

  8. Sensor and Actuator Needs for More Intelligent Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay; Schadow, Klaus; Horn, Wolfgang; Pfoertner, Hugo; Stiharu, Ion

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the controls and diagnostics technologies, that are seen as critical for more intelligent gas turbine engines (GTE), with an emphasis on the sensor and actuator technologies that need to be developed for the controls and diagnostics implementation. The objective of the paper is to help the "Customers" of advanced technologies, defense acquisition and aerospace research agencies, understand the state-of-the-art of intelligent GTE technologies, and help the "Researchers" and "Technology Developers" for GTE sensors and actuators identify what technologies need to be developed to enable the "Intelligent GTE" concepts and focus their research efforts on closing the technology gap. To keep the effort manageable, the focus of the paper is on "On-Board Intelligence" to enable safe and efficient operation of the engine over its life time, with an emphasis on gas path performance

  9. Electrochemical high-temperature gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saruhan, B.; Stranzenbach, M.; Yüce, A.; Gönüllü, Y.

    2012-06-01

    Combustion produced common air pollutant, NOx associates with greenhouse effects. Its high temperature detection is essential for protection of nature. Component-integration capable high-temperature sensors enable the control of combustion products. The requirements are quantitative detection of total NOx and high selectivity at temperatures above 500°C. This study reports various approaches to detect NO and NO2 selectively under lean and humid conditions at temperatures from 300°C to 800°C. All tested electrochemical sensors were fabricated in planar design to enable componentintegration. We suggest first an impedance-metric gas sensor for total NOx-detection consisting of NiO- or NiCr2O4-SE and PYSZ-electrolyte. The electrolyte-layer is about 200μm thickness and constructed of quasi-single crystalline columns. The sensing-electrode (SE) is magnetron sputtered thin-layers of NiO or NiCr2O4. Sensor sensitivity for detection of total NOx has been measured by applying impedance analysis. The cross-sensitivity to other emission gases such as CO, CO2, CH4 and oxygen (5 vol.%) has been determined under 0-1000ppm NO. Sensor maintains its high sensitivity at temperatures up to 550°C and 600°C, depending on the sensing-electrode. NiO-SE yields better selectivity to NO in the presence of oxygen and have shorter response times comparing to NiCr2O4-SE. For higher temperature NO2-sensing capability, a resistive DC-sensor having Al-doped TiO2-sensing layers has been employed. Sensor-sensitivity towards NO2 and cross-sensitivity to CO has been determined in the presence of H2O at temperatures 600°C and 800°C. NO2 concentrations varying from 25 to 100ppm and CO concentrations from 25 to 75ppm can be detected. By nano-tubular structuring of TiO2, NO2 sensitivity of the sensor was increased.

  10. IR sensors and imagers in networked operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, Rainer; Cabanski, Wolfgang

    2005-05-01

    "Network-centric Warfare" is a common slogan describing an overall concept of networked operation of sensors, information and weapons to gain command and control superiority. Referring to IR sensors, integration and fusion of different channels like day/night or SAR images or the ability to spread image data among various users are typical requirements. Looking for concrete implementations the German Army future infantryman IdZ is an example where a group of ten soldiers build a unit with every soldier equipped with a personal digital assistant (PDA) for information display, day photo camera and a high performance thermal imager for every unit. The challenge to allow networked operation among such a unit is bringing information together and distribution over a capable network. So also AIM's thermal reconnaissance and targeting sight HuntIR which was selected for the IdZ program provides this capabilities by an optional wireless interface. Besides the global approach of Network-centric Warfare network technology can also be an interesting solution for digital image data distribution and signal processing behind the FPA replacing analog video networks or specific point to point interfaces. The resulting architecture can provide capabilities of data fusion from e.g. IR dual-band or IR multicolor sensors. AIM has participated in a German/UK collaboration program to produce a demonstrator for day/IR video distribution via Gigabit Ethernet for vehicle applications. In this study Ethernet technology was chosen for network implementation and a set of electronics was developed for capturing video data of IR and day imagers and Gigabit Ethernet video distribution. The demonstrator setup follows the requirements of current and future vehicles having a set of day and night imager cameras and a crew station with several members. Replacing the analog video path by a digital video network also makes it easy to implement embedded training by simply feeding the network with

  11. Design and modeling of a photonic crystal fiber gas sensor.

    PubMed

    Hoo, Yeuk L; Jin, Wei; Shi, Chunzheng; Ho, Hoi L; Wang, Dong N; Ruan, Shuang C

    2003-06-20

    We report the modeling results of an all-fiber gas detector that uses photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The relative sensitivity of the PCF as a function of the fiber parameters is calculated. Gas-diffusion dynamics that affect the sensor response time is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A practical PCF sensor aiming for high sensitivity gas detection is proposed. PMID:12833952

  12. Novel Gas Sensors for High-Temperature Fossil Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Palitha Jayaweera; Francis Tanzella

    2005-03-01

    SRI International (SRI) is developing ceramic-based microsensors to detect exhaust gases such as NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO in advanced combustion and gasification systems under this DOE NETL-sponsored research project. The sensors detect the electrochemical activity of the exhaust gas species on catalytic electrodes attached to a solid state electrolyte and are designed to operate at the high temperatures, elevated pressures, and corrosive environments typical of large power generation exhausts. The sensors can be easily integrated into online monitoring systems for active emission control. The ultimate objective is to develop sensors for multiple gas detection in a single package, along with data acquisition and control software and hardware, so that the information can be used for closed-loop control in novel advanced power generation systems. This report details the Phase I Proof-of-Concept, research activities performed from October 2003 to March 2005. SRI's research work includes synthesis of catalytic materials, sensor design and fabrication, software development, and demonstration of pulse voltammetric analysis of NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO gases on catalytic electrodes.

  13. Chemiresistive gas sensors employing solution-processed metal oxide quantum dot films

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Huan Xu, Songman; Li, Min; Shao, Gang; Zhang, Wenkai; Wei, Wendian; He, Mingze; Song, Huaibing; Gao, Liang; Song, Haisheng; Tang, Jiang

    2014-10-20

    We report low-temperature chemiresistive gas sensors based on tin oxide colloidal quantum dots (CQDs), in which the benefits of CQDs such as extremely small crystal size, solution-processability, and tunable surface activity are exploited to enhance the gas-sensing effect. The sensor fabrication is simply employing spin-coating followed by a solid-state ligand exchange treatment at room temperature in air ambient. The optimal gas sensor exhibited rapid and significant decrease in resistance upon H{sub 2}S gas exposure when operated at 70 °C, and it was fully recoverable upon gas release. We observed a power law correlation between the sensor response and H{sub 2}S gas concentration, and the sensing mechanism was discussed using the completely depletion model with a flat band diagram.

  14. Hollow Waveguide Gas Sensor for Mid-Infrared Trace Gas Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S; Young, C; Chan, J; Carter, C; Mizaikoff, B

    2007-07-12

    A hollow waveguide mid-infrared gas sensor operating from 1000 cm{sup -1} to 4000 cm{sup -1} has been developed, optimized, and its performance characterized by combining a FT-IR spectrometer with Ag/Ag-halide hollow core optical fibers. The hollow core waveguide simultaneously serves as a light guide and miniature gas cell. CH{sub 4} was used as test analyte during exponential dilution experiments for accurate determination of the achievable limit of detection (LOD). It is shown that the optimized integration of an optical gas sensor module with FT-IR spectroscopy provides trace sensitivity at the few hundreds of parts-per-billion concentration range (ppb, v/v) for CH{sub 4}.

  15. UV Light and Gas Sensing Properties of Hybrid Sensor Based on Indium-Tin-Oxide Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Koo, J E; Lee, S T; Chang, J H

    2015-01-01

    We proposed a hybrid sensor which is able to detect both UV light and gas species. The sensor was fabricated by screen printing using indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanocrystals. To improve the UV sensitivity, high temperature annealing (600 degrees C) under an external pressure (0.2 MPa) was applied. We could observe room temperature operation of the sensor under the simultaneous stimulation of UV light and CH4 gas. This is indicating that an improved fire warning is possible by using the proposed hybrid sensor. PMID:26328423

  16. Palladium-nanoparticle-coated carbon nanotube gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Maeum; Jung, Daewoong; Lee, Gil S.

    2014-08-01

    Flexible hydrogen gas sensors were fabricated using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) decorated with Pd nanoparticles for the detection of H2 gas at room temperature. A comparative gas-sensing study was carried out on both the Pd-nanoparticles-decorated and undecorated MWCNT sheets in order to examine the effect of Pd nanoparticles on the gas-sensing performances at room temperature. Experimental results showed that the MWCNTs/Pd sensor exhibited fast response and recovery as well as high sensitivity compared with the pure MWCNT sensor. The improved sensing properties of this sensor were attributed to the spillover effect of Pd nanoparticles and the highly conductive MWCNT sheet.

  17. [A mobile sensor for remote detection of natural gas leakage].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Wen-qing; Zhang, Yu-jun; Kan, Rui-feng; Ruan, Jun; Wang, Li-ming; Yu, Dian-qiang; Dong, Jin-ting; Han, Xiao-lei; Cui, Yi-ben; Liu, Jian-guo

    2012-02-01

    The detection of natural gas pipeline leak becomes a significant issue for body security, environmental protection and security of state property. However, the leak detection is difficult, because of the pipeline's covering many areas, operating conditions and complicated environment. A mobile sensor for remote detection of natural gas leakage based on scanning wavelength differential absorption spectroscopy (SWDAS) is introduced. The improved soft threshold wavelet denoising was proposed by analyzing the characteristics of reflection spectrum. And the results showed that the signal to noise ratio (SNR) was increased three times. When light intensity is 530 nA, the minimum remote sensitivity will be 80 ppm x m. A widely used SWDAS can make quantitative remote sensing of natural gas leak and locate the leak source precisely in a faster, safer and more intelligent way. PMID:22512213

  18. A novel compact design of calibration equipment for gas and thermal sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, P. X.; Zhang, H. X.; Peng, X. Y.; Sajjad, M.; Chu, J.

    2011-04-15

    A novel design of calibration equipment has been developed for static and dynamic calibrations of gas and thermal sensors. This system is cheap, compact, and easily adjustable, which is also combined with a plasma surface modification source for tailoring the surface of sensors to ensure the sensitivity and selectivity. The main advantage of this equipment is that the operating temperature, bias voltage, types of plasma source (for surface modification), types of feeding gases, and gas flow rate (for calibrations), etc., can be independently controlled. This novel system provides a highly reliable, reproducible, and economical method of calibrations for various gas and thermal sensors.

  19. Membrane-Based Characterization of a Gas Component — A Transient Sensor Theory

    PubMed Central

    Lazik, Detlef

    2014-01-01

    Based on a multi-gas solution-diffusion problem for a dense symmetrical membrane this paper presents a transient theory of a planar, membrane-based sensor cell for measuring gas from both initial conditions: dynamic and thermodynamic equilibrium. Using this theory, the ranges for which previously developed, simpler approaches are valid will be discussed; these approaches are of vital interest for membrane-based gas sensor applications. Finally, a new theoretical approach is introduced to identify varying gas components by arranging sensor cell pairs resulting in a concentration independent gas-specific critical time. Literature data for the N2, O2, Ar, CH4, CO2, H2 and C4H10 diffusion coefficients and solubilities for a polydimethylsiloxane membrane were used to simulate gas specific sensor responses. The results demonstrate the influence of (i) the operational mode; (ii) sensor geometry and (iii) gas matrices (air, Ar) on that critical time. Based on the developed theory the case-specific suitable membrane materials can be determined and both operation and design options for these sensors can be optimized for individual applications. The results of mixing experiments for different gases (O2, CO2) in a gas matrix of air confirmed the theoretical predictions. PMID:24608004

  20. Detecting Changes of a Distant Gas Source with an Array of MOX Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Pashami, Sepideh; Lilienthal, Achim J.; Trincavelli, Marco

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of detecting changes in the activity of a distant gas source from the response of an array of metal oxide (MOX) gas sensors deployed in an open sampling system. The main challenge is the turbulent nature of gas dispersion and the response dynamics of the sensors. We propose a change point detection approach and evaluate it on individual gas sensors in an experimental setup where a gas source changes in intensity, compound, or mixture ratio. We also introduce an efficient sensor selection algorithm and evaluate the change point detection approach with the selected sensor array subsets. PMID:23443385

  1. Sensoring hydrogen gas concentration using electrolyte made of proton

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, Yoshikatsu; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Koyanaka, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen gas promises to be a major clean fuel in the near future. Thus, sensors that can measure the concentrations of hydrogen gas over a wide dynamic range (e.g., 1 99.9%) are in demand for the production, storage, and utilization of hydrogen gas. However, it is difficult to directly measure hydrogen gas concentrations greater than 10% using conventional sensor [1 11]. We report a simple sensor using an electrolyte made of proton conductive manganese dioxide that enables in situmeasurements of hydrogen gas concentration over a wide range of 0.1 99.9% at room temperature.

  2. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Liu, C. C.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical sensors often need to be specifically designed (or tailored) to operate in a given environment. It is often the case that a chemical sensor that meets the needs of one application will not function adequately in another application. The more demanding the environment and specialized the requirement, the greater the need to adapt exiting sensor technologies to meet these requirements or, as necessary, develop new sensor technologies. Aerospace (aeronautic and space) applications are particularly challenging since often these applications have specifications which have not previously been the emphasis of commercial suppliers. Further, the chemical sensing needs of aerospace applications have changed over the years to reflect the changing emphasis of society. Three chemical sensing applications of particular interest to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) which illustrate these trends are launch vehicle leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire detection. Each of these applications reflects efforts ongoing throughout NASA. As described in NASA's "Three Pillars for Success", a document which outlines NASA's long term response to achieve the nation's priorities in aerospace transportation, agency wide objectives include: improving safety and decreasing the cost of space travel, significantly decreasing the amount of emissions produced by aeronautic engines, and improving the safety of commercial airline travel. As will be discussed below, chemical sensing in leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire detection will help enable the agency to meet these objectives. Each application has vastly different problems associated with the measurement of chemical species. Nonetheless, the development of a common base technology can address the measurement needs of a number of applications.

  3. Ink-jet printed colorimetric gas sensors on plastic foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courbat, Jerome; Briand, Danick; de Rooij, Nico F.

    2010-08-01

    An all polymeric colorimetric gas sensor with its associated electronics for ammonia (NH3) detection targeting low-cost and low-power applications is presented. The gas sensitive layer was inkjet printed on a plastic foil. The use of the foil directly as optical waveguide simplified the fabrication, made the device more cost effective and compatible with large scale fabrication techniques, such as roll to roll processes. Concentrations of 500 ppb of NH3 in nitrogen with 50% of RH were measured with a power consumption of about 868 μW in an optical pulsed mode of operation. Such sensors foresee applications in the field of wireless systems, for environmental and safety monitoring. The fabrication of the planar sensor was based on low temperature processing. The waveguide was made of PEN or PET foil and covered with an ammonia sensitive layer deposited by inkjet printing, which offered a proper and localized deposition of the film. The influence of the substrate temperature and its surface pretreatment were investigated to achieve the optimum deposition parameters for the printed fluid. To improve the light coupling from the light source (LED) to the detectors (photodiodes), polymeric micro-mirrors were patterned in an epoxy resin. With the printing of the colorimetric film and additive patterning of polymeric micro-mirrors on plastic foil, a major step was achieved towards the implementation of full plastic selective gas sensors. The combination with printed OLED and PPD would further lead to an integrated all polymeric optical transducer on plastic foil fully compatible with printed electronics processes.

  4. Novel strategies for development of gas sensors for combustion and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulmer, Adam; Mullen, Max; Sun, Chenhu; Dutta, Prabir K.

    2014-06-01

    Chemical gas sensors can have an enormous impact on optimizing complex processes as well as facilitate disease diagnosis. In this article, we demonstrate how sensing of gas molecules is influencing the next generation of engines for transportation applications, as well as in disease diagnosis. In such applications, the demands on sensors are quite extreme. Not only does the device have to detect the gas of interest with high sensitivity, it also has to discriminate against other species present in a complex environment, such as combustion exhaust and human breath. In addition, the sensors will need to have as small a footprint as possible in size and power requirements. With these varied requirements in mind, only electrochemical sensors have the potential to be practical. This article focuses on nitric oxide (NOx) and ammonia (NH3) sensor necessary for emission control of next generation, high efficiency, lean burn engines and nitric oxide (NO) sensor for breath analysis for diagnosis of respiratory diseases. In all of these applications, there has been significant recent commercial activity. We indicate the electrochemical principles of these commercial sensors, and the development from our research group. We present potentiometric total NOx sensors that can operate in harsh environments, and impedance-based NH3 sensor for transportation industry. For detecting NO in human breath, we have demonstrated two strategies, the first using a resistive approach, and the second with an array of potentiometric sensors. Data from these sensors, their limitations as well as novel MEMS-based approaches for miniaturization is presented.

  5. Compatibility of gas and flow sensor technology fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabate, Neus; Gracia, Isabel; Cane, Carles; Puigcorbe, Jordi; Cerda, Judith; Morante, Joan Ramon; Berganzo, Javier

    2003-04-01

    The requirements of flow measurement and control in the home-appliances field lead to the need of a measurement system able to monitor the flow and the quality of gas. The integration of a set of sensors with different functionalities on a single chip arises as an advantageous solution. In this paper, the description of the structures and technologies required for the gas, flow and temperature sensor devices is presented prior to the complete description of the process flow for the full on-chip compatibilization. In this sense, semiconductor gas sensors and thermal flow sensors have arisen as the best candidates to address the compatibilization.

  6. MAPLE activities and applications in gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Remsa, Jan; Kocourek, Tomáš; Kubešová, Barbara; Schůrek, Jakub; Myslík, Vladimír

    2011-11-01

    During the last decade, many groups have grown thin films of various organic materials by the cryogenic Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique with a wide range of applications. This contribution is focused on the summary of our results with deposition and characterization of thin films of fibrinogen, pullulan derivates, azo-polyurethane, cryoglobulin, polyvinyl alcohol, and bovine serum albumin dissolved in physiological serum, dimethyl sulfoxide, sanguine plasma, phosphate buffer solution, H2O, ethylene glycol, and tert-butanol. MAPLE films were characterized using FTIR, AFM, Raman scattering, and SEM. For deposition, a special hardware was developed including a unique liquid nitrogen cooled target holder. Overview of MAPLE thin film applications is given. We studied SnAcAc, InAcAc, SnO2, porphyrins, and polypyrrole MAPLE fabricated films as small resistive gas sensors. Sensors were tested with ozone, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen, and water vapor gases. In the last years, our focus was on the study of fibrinogen-based scaffolds for application in tissue engineering, wound healing, and also as a part of layers for medical devices.

  7. The Effects of Two Thick Film Deposition Methods on Tin Dioxide Gas Sensor Performance

    PubMed Central

    Bakrania, Smitesh D.; Wooldridge, Margaret S.

    2009-01-01

    This work demonstrates the variability in performance between SnO2 thick film gas sensors prepared using two types of film deposition methods. SnO2 powders were deposited on sensor platforms with and without the use of binders. Three commonly utilized binder recipes were investigated, and a new binder-less deposition procedure was developed and characterized. The binder recipes yielded sensors with poor film uniformity and poor structural integrity, compared to the binder-less deposition method. Sensor performance at a fixed operating temperature of 330 °C for the different film deposition methods was evaluated by exposure to 500 ppm of the target gas carbon monoxide. A consequence of the poor film structure, large variability and poor signal properties were observed with the sensors fabricated using binders. Specifically, the sensors created using the binder recipes yielded sensor responses that varied widely (e.g., S = 5 – 20), often with hysteresis in the sensor signal. Repeatable and high quality performance was observed for the sensors prepared using the binder-less dispersion-drop method with good sensor response upon exposure to 500 ppm CO (S = 4.0) at an operating temperature of 330 °C, low standard deviation to the sensor response (±0.35) and no signal hysteresis. PMID:22399977

  8. The oil and gas joint operating agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: introduction to the AAPL model form operating agreement; property provisions of the operating agreement; Article 6---the drilling and development article; duties and obligations revisited---who bear what risk of loss; operator's liens; accounting procedure joint operations; insurance; taking gas in kind absent a balancing agreement; RMMLF Form 5 Gas Balancing Agreement; tax partnerships for nontax professionals; alternative agreement forms.

  9. Small battery operated unattended radar sensor for security systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, Thomas J.; Brady, Stephen; Raines, Robert

    2013-06-01

    McQ has developed, tested, and is supplying to Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) customers a new radar sensor. This radar sensor is designed for short range target detection and classification. The design emphasis was to have low power consumption, totally automated operation, a very high probability of detection coupled with a very low false alarm rate, be able to locate and track targets, and have a price compatible with the UGS market. The radar sensor complements traditional UGS sensors by providing solutions for scenarios that are difficult for UGS. The design of this radar sensor and the testing are presented in this paper.

  10. Application of Ionic Liquids in Amperometric Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Gębicki, Jacek; Kloskowski, Adam; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Stepnowski, Piotr; Namiesnik, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of available literature data on metrological parameters of the amperometric gas sensors containing ionic liquids as an electrolyte. Four mechanism types of signal generation in amperometric sensors with ionic liquid are described. Moreover, this article describes the influence of selected physico-chemical properties of the ionic liquids on the metrological parameters of these sensors. Some metrological parameters are also compared for amperometric sensors with GDE and SPE electrodes and with ionic liquids for selected analytes. PMID:25830724

  11. Isolating Gas Sensor From Pressure And Temperature Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Chen, Tony T. D.; Chaturvedi, Sushi K.

    1994-01-01

    Two-stage flow system enables oxygen sensor in system to measure oxygen content of low-pressure, possibly-high-temperature atmosphere in test environment while protecting sensor against possibly high temperature and fluctuations in pressure of atmosphere. Sensor for which flow system designed is zirconium oxide oxygen sensor sampling atmospheres in high-temperature wind tunnels. Also adapted to other gas-analysis instruments that must be isolated from pressure and temperature effects of test environments.

  12. Metal Oxide Gas Sensors: Sensitivity and Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengxiang; Yin, Longwei; Zhang, Luyuan; Xiang, Dong; Gao, Rui

    2010-01-01

    Conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors have been widely used and investigated in the detection of gases. Investigations have indicated that the gas sensing process is strongly related to surface reactions, so one of the important parameters of gas sensors, the sensitivity of the metal oxide based materials, will change with the factors influencing the surface reactions, such as chemical components, surface-modification and microstructures of sensing layers, temperature and humidity. In this brief review, attention will be focused on changes of sensitivity of conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors due to the five factors mentioned above. PMID:22294916

  13. Gas sensors based on carbon nanoflake/tin oxide composites for ammonia detection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Keun; Chang, Daeic; Kim, Sang Wook

    2014-03-15

    Carbon nanoflake (CNFL) was obtained from graphite pencil by using the electrochemical method and the CNFL/SnO2 composite material assessed its potential as an ammonia gas sensor. A thin film resistive gas sensor using the composite material was manufactured by the drop casting method, and the sensor was evaluated to test in various ammonia concentrations and operating temperatures. Physical and chemical characteristics of the composite material were assessed using SEM, TEM, SAED, EDS and Raman spectroscopy. The composite material having 10% of SnO2 showed 3 times higher sensor response and better repeatability than the gas sensor using pristine SnO2 nano-particle at the optimal temperature of 350°C. PMID:24473403

  14. One-Dimensional Nanostructure Field-Effect Sensors for Gas Detection

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Cai, Bin; Tang, Qingxin; Tong, Yanhong; Liu, Yichun

    2014-01-01

    Recently; one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure field-effect transistors (FETs) have attracted much attention because of their potential application in gas sensing. Micro/nanoscaled field-effect sensors combine the advantages of 1D nanostructures and the characteristic of field modulation. 1D nanostructures provide a large surface area-volume ratio; which is an outstanding advantage for gas sensors with high sensitivity and fast response. In addition; the nature of the single crystals is favorable for the studies of the response mechanism. On the other hand; one main merit of the field-effect sensors is to provide an extra gate electrode to realize the current modulation; so that the sensitivity can be dramatically enhanced by changing the conductivity when operating the sensors in the subthreshold regime. This article reviews the recent developments in the field of 1D nanostructure FET for gas detection. The sensor configuration; the performance as well as their sensing mechanism are evaluated. PMID:25090418

  15. GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen Schempf, Ph.D.

    2003-02-27

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. A prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron mains and tested in a spider- and serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The prototype unit combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-slave architecture to collect data from a distributed spider-arrangement, and in a master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was found that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and valuable data was collected in order to determine how to improve on range and data-quality in the future.

  16. Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors and Sensor Arrays for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2005-01-01

    Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring, and fire detection. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors; 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity; 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. This presentation discusses the needs of space applications as well as the point-contact sensor technology and sensor arrays being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NO,), carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed as well as arrays for leak, fire, and emissions detection. Demonstrations of the technology will also be discussed. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  17. Portable Neutron Sensors for Emergency Response Operations

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    2012-06-24

    This article presents the experimental work performed in the area of neutron detector development at the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Andrews Operations (RSL-AO) sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) in the last four years. During the 1950s neutron detectors were developed mostly to characterize nuclear reactors where the neutron flux is high. Due to the indirect nature of neutron detection via interaction with other particles, neutron counting and neutron energy measurements have never been as precise as gamma-ray counting measurements and gamma-ray spectroscopy. This indirect nature is intrinsic to all neutron measurement endeavors (except perhaps for neutron spin-related experiments, viz. neutron spin-echo measurements where one obtains μeV energy resolution). In emergency response situations generally the count rates are low, and neutrons may be scattered around in inhomogeneous intervening materials. It is also true that neutron sensors are most efficient for the lowest energy neutrons, so it is not as easy to detect and count energetic neutrons. Most of the emergency response neutron detectors are offshoots of nuclear device diagnostics tools and special nuclear materials characterization equipment, because that is what is available commercially. These instruments mostly are laboratory equipment, and not field-deployable gear suited for mobile teams. Our goal is to design and prototype field-deployable, ruggedized, lightweight, efficient neutron detectors.

  18. Metal Sulfides as Sensing Materials for Chemoresistive Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Gaiardo, Andrea; Fabbri, Barbara; Guidi, Vincenzo; Bellutti, Pierluigi; Giberti, Alessio; Gherardi, Sandro; Vanzetti, Lia; Malagù, Cesare; Zonta, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    This work aims at a broad overview of the results obtained with metal-sulfide materials in the field of chemoresistive gas sensing. Indeed, despite the well-known electrical, optical, structural and morphological features previously described in the literature, metal sulfides present lack of investigation for gas sensing applications, a field in which the metal oxides still maintain a leading role owing to their high sensitivity, low cost, small dimensions and simple integration, in spite of the wide assortment of sensing materials. However, despite their great advantages, metal oxides have shown significant drawbacks, which have led to the search for new materials for gas sensing devices. In this work, Cadmium Sulfide and Tin (IV) Sulfide were investigated as functional materials for thick-film chemoresistive gas-sensors fabrication and they were tested both in thermo- and in photo-activation modes. Furthermore, electrical characterization was carried out in order to verify their gas sensing properties and material stability, by comparing the results obtained with metal sulfides to those obtained by using their metal-oxides counterparts. The results highlighted the possibility to use metal sulfides as a novel class of sensing materials, owing to their selectivity to specific compounds, stability, and the possibility to operate at room temperature. PMID:26927120

  19. Metal Sulfides as Sensing Materials for Chemoresistive Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Gaiardo, Andrea; Fabbri, Barbara; Guidi, Vincenzo; Bellutti, Pierluigi; Giberti, Alessio; Gherardi, Sandro; Vanzetti, Lia; Malagù, Cesare; Zonta, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    This work aims at a broad overview of the results obtained with metal-sulfide materials in the field of chemoresistive gas sensing. Indeed, despite the well-known electrical, optical, structural and morphological features previously described in the literature, metal sulfides present lack of investigation for gas sensing applications, a field in which the metal oxides still maintain a leading role owing to their high sensitivity, low cost, small dimensions and simple integration, in spite of the wide assortment of sensing materials. However, despite their great advantages, metal oxides have shown significant drawbacks, which have led to the search for new materials for gas sensing devices. In this work, Cadmium Sulfide and Tin (IV) Sulfide were investigated as functional materials for thick-film chemoresistive gas-sensors fabrication and they were tested both in thermo- and in photo-activation modes. Furthermore, electrical characterization was carried out in order to verify their gas sensing properties and material stability, by comparing the results obtained with metal sulfides to those obtained by using their metal-oxides counterparts. The results highlighted the possibility to use metal sulfides as a novel class of sensing materials, owing to their selectivity to specific compounds, stability, and the possibility to operate at room temperature. PMID:26927120

  20. Gas and flame detection and identification using uncooled MWIR imaging sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linares, Rodrigo; Vergara, Germán.; Gutiérrez, Raúl; Fernández, Carlos; Villamayor, Víctor; Gómez, Luis; González-Camino, María.; Baldasano, Arturo

    2015-05-01

    Gas detectors are nowadays widely spread for safety purposes in industrial facilities. They are categorized by the type of gas they detect: combustible and/or toxic. Whereas electrochemical sensors have limited lifetime and maintenance issues, infrared sensors are reliable and free of maintenance devices used for detecting a wide variety of VOCs and inflammable gases such as hydrocarbon vapors. They usually work via a system of transmitters (light sources) which power is interfered when a gas is present in the optical path. A spectral analysis of this optical interference allows the gas detection and identification. Optical flame detectors are sensors intended to sight and respond to the presence of a flame, faster than a smoke detector or a heat detector would do. Many of these systems operate in the infrared band in order to detect the heat radiation, most of the times by comparison of three specific wavelength bands. Most of the present infrared gas and optical flame detectors traditionally make use of MWIR single point sensors rather than imaging sensors; this is mainly due to the lack of affordable imaging sensing technologies in this band of the infrared spectrum. However, the appearance of uncooled imaging MWIR sensors made of VPD PbSe, with spectral detection range from 1 to 5 microns, opens the possibility to incorporate these sensors into gas and flame detection systems to allow area monitoring.

  1. Stand-alone sensors monitor for combustible gas leaks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Elizabeth Gas Co., a gas distribution company in New Jersey, has added a network of combustible gas sensors to a computer system already in place for continuous monitoring of gas leaks. The computer center at the company's Erie St. facility controls all dispatching, which includes routing gas through the system and controlling gas pressure. The system uses redundant Hewlett-Packard A900 central processing units (CPU), 6 monitors, including a Mitsubishi 35-in. color monitor, and Fisher control software. The company's primary tank farm, which contains over a million gallons of propane and LNG, is located near several chemical plants, an oil refinery and a residential neighborhood. To monitor for combustible leaks at the site, the company installed 49 stand-alone combustible gas sensors manufactured by Mine Safety Appliances Co. (MSA) of Pittsburgh, Pa. The sensors are designed to measure the concentrations of propane and LNG and trigger alarms at 20% of the lower explosive limit (LEL). The sensors are diffusion types that sample ambient air rather than drawing in samples through a pump. Using the principle of catalytic oxidation, the sensors produce a signal proportional to the concentration of combustible gas in the atmosphere. If gas is detected above 20% of the LEL, a relay driver signal is sent into a remote annunciator panel which contains LED alarm displays for each sensor. The remote annunciator panel also houses a 24 VDC power supply.

  2. Gas sensor arrays for olfactory analysis: Issues and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    There have been many approaches to the development of gas sensor arrays for use in gas detection instruments and devices. Various techniques have been proposed to handle the signal processing and pattern recognition required to convert the outputs of these arrays into useful information such as the identities and concentrations of particular chemical species. In general, the pattern recognition techniques have not been developed as fully as have the sensor arrays. Materials issues, like sensor aging and drift, power requirements, and packaging are also problems that must be solved before gas sensor arrays can be incorporated into instruments for industrial and consumer markets. This paper describes significant thrusts in the areas of metal-oxide gas sensor array design and construction, related signature analysis and deconvolution, and materials issues. Recommendations are offered for future developments.

  3. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautic and Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Knight, Dak; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Wu, Quing-Hai; Zhou, Huan-Jun

    1997-01-01

    Aeronautic and space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Two areas of particular interest are safety monitoring and emission monitoring. In safety monitoring, detection of low concentrations of hydrogen at potentially low temperatures is important while for emission monitoring the detection of nitrogen oxides, hydrogen, hydrocarbons and oxygen is of interest. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: (1) Micromachining and microfabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. (2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. The detection of each type of gas involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this microfabricated gas sensor technology make this general area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

  4. Properties of a lithium solid electrolyte gas sensor based on reaction kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, Grzegorz; Jasinski, Piotr; Nowakowski, Antoni; Chachulski, Bogdan

    2006-01-01

    Principle of operation, construction and properties of a gas sensor based on lithium ion-conductor solid electrolyte (Lisicon) are presented. The sensor has been prepared using thick film technology. Its working principle is based on electric current acquisition, while a voltage ramp is applied to the sensor. The current-voltage plot has a unique shape, which depends on the surrounding gas type and its concentration. Results of measurements conducted in mixtures of high purity gases—nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide and synthetic air of controlled concentration—over a wide range of temperatures are presented and discussed.

  5. Flashback Detection Sensor for Hydrogen Augmented Natural Gas Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, J.D.; Chorpening, B.T.; Sidwell, T.; Strakey, P.A.; Huckaby, E.D.; Benson, K.J.

    2007-05-01

    The use of hydrogen augmented fuel is being investigated by various researchers as a method to extend the lean operating limit, and potentially reduce thermal NOx formation in natural gas fired lean premixed (LPM) combustion systems. The resulting increase in flame speed during hydrogen augmentation, however, increases the propensity for flashback in LPM systems. Real-time in-situ monitoring of flashback is important for the development of control strategies for use of hydrogen augmented fuel in state-of-the-art combustion systems, and for the development of advanced hydrogen combustion systems. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and Woodward Industrial Controls are developing a combustion control and diagnostics sensor (CCADS), which has already been demonstrated as a useful sensor for in-situ monitoring of natural gas combustion, including detection of important combustion events such as flashback and lean blowoff. Since CCADS is a flame ionization sensor technique, the low ion concentration produced in pure hydrogen combustion raises concerns of whether CCADS can be used to monitor flashback in hydrogen augmented combustion. This paper discusses CCADS tests conducted at 0.2-0.6 MPa (2-6 atm), demonstrating flashback detection with fuel compositions up to 80% hydrogen (by volume) mixed with natural gas. NETL’s Simulation Validation (SimVal) combustor offers full optical access to pressurized combustion during these tests. The CCADS data and high-speed video show the reaction zone moves upstream into the nozzle as the hydrogen fuel concentration increases, as is expected with the increased flame speed of the mixture. The CCADS data and video also demonstrate the opportunity for using CCADS to provide the necessary in-situ monitor to control flashback and lean blowoff in hydrogen augmented combustion applications.

  6. Redesigned Gas Mass Flow Sensors for Space Shuttle Pressure Control System and Fuel Cell System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A program was conducted to determine if a state of the art micro-machined silicon solid state flow sensor could be used to replace the existing space shuttle orbiter flow sensors. The rather aggressive goal was to obtain a new sensor which would also be a multi-gas sensor and operate over a much wider flow range and with a higher degree of accuracy than the existing sensors. Two types of sensors were tested. The first type was a venturi throat design and the second was a bypass design. The accuracy of venturi design was found to be marginally acceptable. The bypass sensor was much better although it still did not fully reach the accuracy goal. Two main problems were identified which would require further work.

  7. A Passive Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Gas Sensor With Self-Correction Against Fluctuations of Ambient Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Surman, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled fluctuations of ambient temperature in the field typically greatly reduce accuracy of gas sensors. In this study, we developed an approach for the self-correction against fluctuations of ambient temperature of individual gas and vapor sensors. The main innovation of our work is in the temperature correction which is accomplished without the need for a separate uncoated reference sensor or a separate temperature sensor. Our sensors are resonant inductor-capacitor-resistor (LCR) transducers coated with sensing materials and operated as multivariable passive (battery-free) radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensors. Using our developed approach, we performed quantitation of an exemplary vapor over the temperature range from 25 to 40 °C. This technical solution will be attractive in numerous applications where temperature stabilization of a gas sensor or addition of auxiliary temperature or uncoated reference sensors is prohibitive. PMID:23956496

  8. A Passive Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Gas Sensor With Self-Correction Against Fluctuations of Ambient Temperature.

    PubMed

    Potyrailo, Radislav A; Surman, Cheryl

    2013-08-01

    Uncontrolled fluctuations of ambient temperature in the field typically greatly reduce accuracy of gas sensors. In this study, we developed an approach for the self-correction against fluctuations of ambient temperature of individual gas and vapor sensors. The main innovation of our work is in the temperature correction which is accomplished without the need for a separate uncoated reference sensor or a separate temperature sensor. Our sensors are resonant inductor-capacitor-resistor (LCR) transducers coated with sensing materials and operated as multivariable passive (battery-free) radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensors. Using our developed approach, we performed quantitation of an exemplary vapor over the temperature range from 25 to 40 °C. This technical solution will be attractive in numerous applications where temperature stabilization of a gas sensor or addition of auxiliary temperature or uncoated reference sensors is prohibitive. PMID:23956496

  9. Varying potential silicon carbide gas sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Virgil B. (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret A. (Inventor); Williams, Roger M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A hydrocarbon gas detection device operates by dissociating or electro-chemically oxidizing hydrocarbons adsorbed to a silicon carbide detection layer. Dissociation or oxidation are driven by a varying potential applied to the detection layer. Different hydrocarbon species undergo reaction at different applied potentials so that the device is able to discriminate among various hydrocarbon species. The device can operate at temperatures between 100.degree. C. and at least 650.degree. C., allowing hydrocarbon detection in hot exhaust gases. The dissociation reaction is detected either as a change in a capacitor or, preferably, as a change of current flow through an FET which incorporates the silicon carbide detection layers. The silicon carbide detection layer can be augmented with a pad of catalytic material which provides a signal without an applied potential. Comparisons between the catalytically produced signal and the varying potential produced signal may further help identify the hydrocarbon present.

  10. GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen Schempf

    2004-09-30

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. In Phase II of this three-phase program, an improved prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron and high-pressure steel (including a no-blow installation system) mains and tested in a serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The experiment was carried out in several open-hole excavations over a multi-day period. The prototype units (3 total) combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was verified that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling, data-storage and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and the system was demonstrated to run off in-ground battery- and above-ground solar power. The remote datalogger access and storage-card features were demonstrated and used to log and post-process system data. Real-time data-display on an updated Phase-I GUI was used for in-field demonstration and troubleshooting.

  11. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautic and Space Applications 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Chen, Liong-Yu; Neudeck, Phil G.; Knight, Dale; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Zhou, H. J.; Makel, Darby; Liu, M.; Rauch, W. A.

    1998-01-01

    Aeronautic and space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Areas of interest include launch vehicle safety monitoring, emission monitoring, and fire detection. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Sensor development for each application involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this microfabricated gas sensor technology make this area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

  12. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautic and Space Applications 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Chen, L. Y.; Neudeck, P. G.; Knight, D.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Zhou, H. J.; Makel, D.; Liu, M.; Rauch, W. A.

    1998-01-01

    Aeronautic and Space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Areas of most interest include launch vehicle safety monitoring emission monitoring and fire detection. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensor is based on progress two types of technology: 1) Micro-machining and micro-fabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Sensor development for each application involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this micro-fabricated gas sensor technology make this area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

  13. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautics and Space Applications III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L. Y.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Sawayda, M. S.; Jin, Z.; Hammond, J.; Makel, D.; Liu, M.; Rauch, W. A.; Hall, G.

    1999-01-01

    Aeronautic and space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Areas of interest include launch vehicle safety monitoring, emission monitoring, and fire detection. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Sensor development for each application involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this microfabricated gas sensor technology make this area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

  14. Apparatus for sensor failure detection and correction in a gas turbine engine control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spang, H. A., III; Wanger, R. P. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A gas turbine engine control system maintains a selected level of engine performance despite the failure or abnormal operation of one or more engine parameter sensors. The control system employs a continuously updated engine model which simulates engine performance and generates signals representing real time estimates of the engine parameter sensor signals. The estimate signals are transmitted to a control computational unit which utilizes them in lieu of the actual engine parameter sensor signals to control the operation of the engine. The estimate signals are also compared with the corresponding actual engine parameter sensor signals and the resulting difference signals are utilized to update the engine model. If a particular difference signal exceeds specific tolerance limits, the difference signal is inhibited from updating the model and a sensor failure indication is provided to the engine operator.

  15. Methanol sensor operated in a passive mode

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2002-01-01

    A sensor outputs a signal related to a concentration of methanol in an aqueous solution adjacent the sensor. A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is included with an anode side and a cathode side. An anode current collector supports the anode side of the MEA and has a flow channel therethrough for flowing a stream of the aqueous solution and forms a physical barrier to control access of the methanol to the anode side of the MEA. A cathode current collector supports the cathode side of the MEA and is configured for air access to the cathode side of the MEA. A current sensor is connected to measure the current in a short circuit across the sensor electrodes to provide an output signal functionally related to the concentration of methanol in the aqueous solution.

  16. Compressive hyperspectral sensor for LWIR gas detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Thomas A.; McMackin, Lenore; Bridge, Bob; Baraniuk, Richard

    2012-06-01

    Focal plane arrays with associated electronics and cooling are a substantial portion of the cost, complexity, size, weight, and power requirements of Long-Wave IR (LWIR) imagers. Hyperspectral LWIR imagers add significant data volume burden as they collect a high-resolution spectrum at each pixel. We report here on a LWIR Hyperspectral Sensor that applies Compressive Sensing (CS) in order to achieve benefits in these areas. The sensor applies single-pixel detection technology demonstrated by Rice University. The single-pixel approach uses a Digital Micro-mirror Device (DMD) to reflect and multiplex the light from a random assortment of pixels onto the detector. This is repeated for a number of measurements much less than the total number of scene pixels. We have extended this architecture to hyperspectral LWIR sensing by inserting a Fabry-Perot spectrometer in the optical path. This compressive hyperspectral imager collects all three dimensions on a single detection element, greatly reducing the size, weight and power requirements of the system relative to traditional approaches, while also reducing data volume. The CS architecture also supports innovative adaptive approaches to sensing, as the DMD device allows control over the selection of spatial scene pixels to be multiplexed on the detector. We are applying this advantage to the detection of plume gases, by adaptively locating and concentrating target energy. A key challenge in this system is the diffraction loss produce by the DMD in the LWIR. We report the results of testing DMD operation in the LWIR, as well as system spatial and spectral performance.

  17. Integrated multi-sensor package (IMSP) for unmanned vehicle operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, Eddie C.; Reichard, Karl; Rogan, Chris; Callen, Jeff; Seifert, Elwood

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes recent efforts to develop integrated multi-sensor payloads for small robotic platforms for improved operator situational awareness and ultimately for greater robot autonomy. The focus is on enhancements to perception through integration of electro-optic, acoustic, and other sensors for navigation and inspection. The goals are to provide easier control and operation of the robot through fusion of multiple sensor outputs, to improve interoperability of the sensor payload package across multiple platforms through the use of open standards and architectures, and to reduce integration costs by embedded sensor data processing and fusion within the sensor payload package. The solutions investigated in this project to be discussed include: improved capture, processing and display of sensor data from multiple, non-commensurate sensors; an extensible architecture to support plug and play of integrated sensor packages; built-in health, power and system status monitoring using embedded diagnostics/prognostics; sensor payload integration into standard product forms for optimized size, weight and power; and the use of the open Joint Architecture for Unmanned Systems (JAUS)/ Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) AS-4 interoperability standard. This project is in its first of three years. This paper will discuss the applicability of each of the solutions in terms of its projected impact to reducing operational time for the robot and teleoperator.

  18. Simulating Operation of a Complex Sensor Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Esther; Clare, Loren; Woo, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Simulation Tool for ASCTA Microsensor Network Architecture (STAMiNA) ["ASCTA" denotes the Advanced Sensors Collaborative Technology Alliance.] is a computer program for evaluating conceptual sensor networks deployed over terrain to provide military situational awareness. This or a similar program is needed because of the complexity of interactions among such diverse phenomena as sensing and communication portions of a network, deployment of sensor nodes, effects of terrain, data-fusion algorithms, and threat characteristics. STAMiNA is built upon a commercial network-simulator engine, with extensions to include both sensing and communication models in a discrete-event simulation environment. Users can define (1) a mission environment, including terrain features; (2) objects to be sensed; (3) placements and modalities of sensors, abilities of sensors to sense objects of various types, and sensor false alarm rates; (4) trajectories of threatening objects; (5) means of dissemination and fusion of data; and (6) various network configurations. By use of STAMiNA, one can simulate detection of targets through sensing, dissemination of information by various wireless communication subsystems under various scenarios, and fusion of information, incorporating such metrics as target-detection probabilities, false-alarm rates, and communication loads, and capturing effects of terrain and threat.

  19. Pulse-driven micro gas sensor fitted with clustered Pd/SnO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Suematsu, Koichi; Shin, Yuka; Ma, Nan; Oyama, Tokiharu; Sasaki, Miyuki; Yuasa, Masayoshi; Kida, Tetsuya; Shimanoe, Kengo

    2015-08-18

    Real-time monitoring of specific gas concentrations with a compact and portable gas sensing device is required to sense potential health risk and danger from toxic gases. For such purposes, we developed an ultrasmall gas sensor device, where a micro sensing film was deposited on a micro heater integrated with electrodes fabricated by the microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology. The developed device was operated in a pulse-heating mode to significantly reduce the heater power consumption and make the device battery-driven and portable. Using clustered Pd/SnO2 nanoparticles, we succeeded in introducing mesopores ranging from 10 to 30 nm in the micro gas sensing film (area: ϕ 150 μm) to detect large volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The micro sensor showed quick, stable, and high sensor responses to toluene at ppm (parts per million) concentrations at 300 °C even by operating the micro heater in a pulse-heating mode where switch-on and -off cycles were repeated at one-second intervals. The high performance of the micro sensor should result from the creation of efficient diffusion paths decorated with Pd sensitizers by using the clustered Pd/SnO2 nanoparticles. Hence we demonstrate that our pulse-driven micro sensor using nanostructured oxide materials holds promise as a battery-operable, portable gas sensing device. PMID:26196499

  20. RSTA sensor integration onto PackBot for urban operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Stuart H.; Martin, Patrick

    2004-09-01

    As the Army transforms to the Objective Force, particular attention must be paid to operations in Complex and Urban Terrain. Because our adversaries realize that we don"t have battlefield dominance in the urban environment, and because population growth and migration to urban environments is still on the increase, our adversaries will continue to draw us into operations in the urban environment. The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is developing technology to equip our soldiers for the urban operations of the future. Sophisticated small robotic platforms with diverse sensor suites will be an integral part of the Future Force, and must be able to collaborate not only amongst themselves but also with their manned partners. The Army Research Laboratory has developed a Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA) sensor payload for integration onto an iRobot Packbot. The RSTA sensor payload is equipped with an acoustic array that will detect and localize on an impulsive noise event, such as a sniper's weapon firing. Additionally, the robot sensor head is equipped with visible and thermal camera for operations both day and night. The RSTA sensor head equipped Packbot can then be deployed by dismounted soldiers to enhance their situational awareness in the urban environment. The information from one Packbot can then be fused with other sensors as part of a sensor network. Sensor equipped Packbots provides an awesome capability to the future dismounted infantry soldier during warfighting and peacekeeping operations in complex and urban terrain by enhancing their situational awareness and improving their survivability.

  1. Portable, fast-response gas sensor for measuring methane and ethane and propane in liquefied natural gas spills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, G. E.; Kiefer, R. D.; Gillespie, C. H.; McRae, T. G.; Goldwire, H. C.; Koopman, R. P.

    1983-10-01

    We have developed a four-band, IR radiometer for measuring methane and ethane plus propane in the 1% to 100% gas per volume of air range in liquefied natural gas spills. The instrument is a small and lightweight open-cell, pyroelectric detector-based sensor designed for field use. It compensates for attenuation because of dense fog and is sufficiently hardened to allow continuous operation in the transient flame front of an ignited natural gas cloud. The sensor transmits five determinations of the gas concentration each second to a data-collection station on an interrupt-driven, serial data link. It has an operational power requirement of 15 W at 12 V dc.

  2. A Comprehensive Review of Gas Sensors Using Carbon Materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Il; Lee, Young-Seak

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, interest in carbon materials for use in gas sensors has increased. Carbon materials have unique electrical, optical and mechanical properties, making these materials very interesting. In this review, the properties of carbon materials are first introduced. Surface modification for carbon materials, fabrication for gas sensors, and the gas-sensing conditions and mechanisms according to the different types of carbon materials are chiefly described. In particular, this review focuses on the enhancement of the gas-sensing properties of carbon materials depending on the modification methods used and its mechanism. PMID:27483751

  3. Low cost electrochemical sensor module for measurement of gas concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, Grzegorz; Strzelczyk, Anna; Koscinski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a low cost electrochemical sensor module for gas concentration measurement. A module is universal and can be used for many types of electrochemical gas sensors. Device is based on AVR ATmega8 microcontroller. As signal processing circuit a specialized integrated circuit LMP91000 is used. The proposed equipment will be used as a component of electronic nose system employed for classifying and distinguishing different levels of air contamination.

  4. Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas

    SciTech Connect

    Trippel, C.E.; Preston, J.L. Jr.; Trocciola, J.; Spiegel, R.

    1996-12-31

    An ONSI PC25{trademark}, 200 kW (nominal capacity) phosphoric acid fuel cell operating on landfill gas is installed at the Town of Groton Flanders Road landfill in Groton, Connecticut. This joint project by the Connecticut Light & Power Company (CL&P) which is an operating company of Northeast Utilities, the Town of Groton, International Fuel Cells (IFC), and the US EPA is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating and maintaining a fuel cell operating on landfill gas at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit operation, test modifications to simplify the GPU design and demonstrate reliability of the entire system.

  5. A multi-sensor system for robotics proximity operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatham, J. B.; Wu, C. K.; Weiland, P. L.; Cleghorn, T. F.

    1988-01-01

    Robots without sensors can perform only simple repetitive tasks and cannot cope with unplanned events. A multi-sensor system is needed for a robot to locate a target, move into its neighborhood and perform operations in contact with the object. Systems that can be used for such tasks are described.

  6. Multifunctional potentiometric gas sensor array with an integrated temperature control and temperature sensors

    DOEpatents

    Blackburn, Bryan M; Wachsman, Eric D

    2015-05-12

    Embodiments of the subject invention relate to a gas sensor and method for sensing one or more gases. An embodiment incorporates an array of sensing electrodes maintained at similar or different temperatures, such that the sensitivity and species selectivity of the device can be fine tuned between different pairs of sensing electrodes. A specific embodiment pertains to a gas sensor array for monitoring combustion exhausts and/or chemical reaction byproducts. An embodiment of the subject device related to this invention operates at high temperatures and can withstand harsh chemical environments. Embodiments of the device are made on a single substrate. The devices can also be made on individual substrates and monitored individually as if they were part of an array on a single substrate. The device can incorporate sensing electrodes in the same environment, which allows the electrodes to be coplanar and, thus, keep manufacturing costs low. Embodiments of the device can provide improvements to sensitivity, selectivity, and signal interference via surface temperature control.

  7. Autonomous micro and nano sensors for upstream oil and gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, David; Trybula, Walt

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes the development of autonomous electronic micro and nanoscale sensor systems for very harsh downhole oilfield conditions and provides an overview of the operational requirements necessary to survive and make direct measurements of subsurface conditions. One of several significant developmental challenges is selecting appropriate technologies that are simultaneously miniaturize-able, integrate-able, harsh environment capable, and economically viable. The Advanced Energy Consortium (AEC) is employing a platform approach to developing and testing multi-chip, millimeter and micron-scale systems in a package at elevated temperature and pressure in API brine and oil analogs, with the future goal of miniaturized systems that enable the collection of previously unattainable data. The ultimate goal is to develop subsurface nanosensor systems that can be injected into oil and gas well bores, to gather and record data, providing an unparalleled level of direct reservoir characterization. This paper provides a status update on the research efforts and developmental successes at the AEC.

  8. Resistive Oxygen Gas Sensors for Harsh Environments

    PubMed Central

    Moos, Ralf; Izu, Noriya; Rettig, Frank; Reiß, Sebastian; Shin, Woosuck; Matsubara, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Resistive oxygen sensors are an inexpensive alternative to the classical potentiometric zirconia oxygen sensor, especially for use in harsh environments and at temperatures of several hundred °C or even higher. This device-oriented paper gives a historical overview on the development of these sensor materials. It focuses especially on approaches to obtain a temperature independent behavior. It is shown that although in the past 40 years there have always been several research groups working concurrently with resistive oxygen sensors, novel ideas continue to emerge today with respect to improvements of the sensor response time, the temperature dependence, the long-term stability or the manufacture of the devices themselves using novel techniques for the sensitive films. Materials that are the focus of this review are metal oxides; especially titania, titanates, and ceria-based formulations. PMID:22163805

  9. Theory for a gas composition sensor based on acoustic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Scott; Dain, Yefim; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    Sound travelling through a gas propagates at different speeds and its intensity attenuates to different degrees depending upon the composition of the gas. Theoretically, a real-time gaseous composition sensor could be based on measuring the sound speed and the acoustic attenuation. To this end, the speed of sound was modelled using standard relations, and the acoustic attenuation was modelled using the theory for vibrational relaxation of gas molecules. The concept for a gas composition sensor is demonstrated theoretically for nitrogen-methane-water and hydrogen-oxygen-water mixtures. For a three-component gas mixture, the measured sound speed and acoustic attenuation each define separate lines in the composition plane of two of the gases. The intersection of the two lines defines the gas composition. It should also be possible to use the concept for mixtures of more than three components, if the nature of the gas composition is known to some extent.

  10. Theory for a gas composition sensor based on acoustic properties.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Scott; Dain, Yefim; Lueptow, Richard M

    2003-01-01

    Sound travelling through a gas propagates at different speeds and its intensity attenuates to different degrees depending upon the composition of the gas. Theoretically, a real-time gaseous composition sensor could be based on measuring the sound speed and the acoustic attenuation. To this end, the speed of sound was modelled using standard relations, and the acoustic attenuation was modelled using the theory for vibrational relaxation of gas molecules. The concept for a gas composition sensor is demonstrated theoretically for nitrogen-methane-water and hydrogen-oxygen-water mixtures. For a three-component gas mixture, the measured sound speed and acoustic attenuation each define separate lines in the composition plane of two of the gases. The intersection of the two lines defines the gas composition. It should also be possible to use the concept for mixtures of more than three components, if the nature of the gas composition is known to some extent. PMID:14552356

  11. Opportunities of Wireless Sensors and Controls for Building Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2004-09-30

    This paper characterizes commercially available wireless technologies that are suitable for use in commercial buildings. It describes two demonstration projects of wireless sensors and their integration into existing control networks, and discusses their cost per sensor, their ease of installation, and their reliability. The author will discuss the operational and energy benefits of the wireless sensors and report on the energy and cost savings estimates. The paper will conclude with some practical considerations for the installation of wireless sensors and provide a future outlook for wireless technologies in buildings applications.

  12. Hydrate Control for Gas Storage Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Savidge

    2008-10-31

    The overall objective of this project was to identify low cost hydrate control options to help mitigate and solve hydrate problems that occur in moderate and high pressure natural gas storage field operations. The study includes data on a number of flow configurations, fluids and control options that are common in natural gas storage field flow lines. The final phase of this work brings together data and experience from the hydrate flow test facility and multiple field and operator sources. It includes a compilation of basic information on operating conditions as well as candidate field separation options. Lastly the work is integrated with the work with the initial work to provide a comprehensive view of gas storage field hydrate control for field operations and storage field personnel.

  13. UAV sensor systems for close-range operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larroque, Clement-Serge; Thompson, Karl S.; Hickman, Duncan

    2002-07-01

    Although UAV systems have received much interest over the last few years, much of this has focused on either relatively large platforms with complex on-board equipment, or micro systems (typically 6' in every dimension). The operational use of low-cost lightweight UAVs as over-the- hill reconnaissance systems is a new concept offering additional flexibility, providing local knowledge and helping maintain operational tempo. An extensive modeling trade-off study has been performed for different sensor technologies and combinations. The model considered configurations including cooled and uncooled IR sensors, visible-band CCD sensors and image intensifiers. These mathematical models provide an evaluation of sensor performance for both navigation and the gathering of reconnaissance imagery, through Resolution Elements calculations (Johnson criteria) and Signal-to-Noise Ratios. Based upon this analysis, a system specification is presented that exploits next generation sensor technologies. Results obtained from a number of UAV trials are reported and used in order to provide model verification and validation of both the operational concepts and the sensor system modeling activities. Considering the sensor system itself, the low-altitude close-range environment ensures high ground resolved distance and signal-to-noise ratios, with low-cost sensors. Coupled with up-to-date image processing software, the imagery provided directly to the section-level units via a simple standard image interface allows a reduction of time response. Finally, future modeling and trials activities are discussed in the framework of the lightweight UAV system roadmap.

  14. Corroles-Porphyrins: A Teamwork for Gas Sensor Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Pomarico, Giuseppe; Paolesse, Roberto; Di Natale, Corrado

    2015-01-01

    Porphyrins provide an excellent material for chemical sensors, and they have been used for sensing species both in air and solution. In the gas phase, the broad selectivity of porphyrins is largely dependant on molecular features, such as the metal ion complexed at the core of the aromatic ring and the peripheral substituents. Although these features have been largely exploited to design gas sensor arrays, so far, little attention has been devoted to modify the sensing properties of these macrocycles by variation of the molecular aromatic ring. In this paper, the gas sensing properties of a porphyrin analog, the corrole, are studied in comparison with those of the parent porphyrin. Results show that changes in the aromatic ring have important consequences on the sensitivity and selectivity of the sensors and that porphyrins and corroles can positively cooperate to enhance the performance of sensor arrays. PMID:25856324

  15. Validation of sensor for postoperative positioning with intraocular gas

    PubMed Central

    Brodie, Frank L; Woo, Kelly Y; Balakrishna, Ashwin; Choo, Hyuck; Grubbs, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Surgical repair of retinal attachment or macular hole frequently requires intraocular gas. This necessitates specific postoperative positioning to improve outcomes and avoid complications. However, patients struggle with correct positioning. We have developed a novel sensor to detect the position of the gas bubble in the eye and provide feedback to patients in real time. In this paper, we determine the specificity and sensitivity of our sensor in vitro using a model eye. Methods We assessed the reliability of our sensor to detect when a gas bubble has deviated off a model retinal break in a model eye. Various bubble sizes representing the intraocular kinetics of sulfur hexafluoride gas and varying degrees of deviation from the correct position were tested using the sensor attached to a mannequin head with a model eye. Results We recorded 36 data points. The sensor acted appropriately in 33 (91.7%) of them. The sensor triggered the alarm every time the bubble deviated off the break (n=15, sensitivity =100%). However, it triggered the alarm (falsely) 3/21 times when the bubble was correctly positioned over the retinal break (specificity =86%). Conclusion Our device shows excellent sensitivity (100%) and specificity (86%) in detecting whether intraocular gas is tamponading a retinal break in a model eye. PMID:27307698

  16. Compact Laser Multi-gas Spectral Sensors for Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tittel, Frank K.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this research effort has been the development of a new gas sensor technology to meet NASA requirements for spacecraft and space station human life support systems for sensitive selective and real time detection of trace gas species in the mid-infrared spectral region.

  17. Wearable, wireless gas sensors using highly stretchable and transparent structures of nanowires and graphene.

    PubMed

    Park, Jihun; Kim, Joohee; Kim, Kukjoo; Kim, So-Yun; Cheong, Woon Hyung; Park, Kyeongmin; Song, Joo Hyeb; Namgoong, GyeongHo; Kim, Jae Joon; Heo, Jaeyeong; Bien, Franklin; Park, Jang-Ung

    2016-05-19

    Herein, we report the fabrication of a highly stretchable, transparent gas sensor based on silver nanowire-graphene hybrid nanostructures. Due to its superb mechanical and optical characteristics, the fabricated sensor demonstrates outstanding and stable performances even under extreme mechanical deformation (stable until 20% of strain). The integration of a Bluetooth system or an inductive antenna enables the wireless operation of the sensor. In addition, the mechanical robustness of the materials allows the device to be transferred onto various nonplanar substrates, including a watch, a bicycle light, and the leaves of live plants, thereby achieving next-generation sensing electronics for the 'Internet of Things' area. PMID:27166976

  18. Recent advances in TEC-less uncooled FPA sensor operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Philip E.; Clarke, John E.; Li, Chuan C.; Yang, John W.; Wong, W. Y.; Bogosyan, Arsen

    2003-09-01

    DRS has previously demonstrated and reported a concept for operating uncooled infrared focal plane arrays (UIRFPA) without the need for UIRFPA temperature regulation. DRS has patented this proprietary technology, which DRS calls TCOMP. TCOMP is a concept that combines an operating algorithm, a sensor architecture and a sensor calibration method, which allow pixel response and offset correction to be performed as a function of the UFPA sensor's operating temperature, thereby eliminating the need for the UIRFPA temperature regulation that would be required otherwise. As a result of the elimination of the temperature regulation requirement, the sensor turn-on time for high performance imaging can be significantly reduced, sensor power is significantly reduced, and the need for stray thermal radiation shields is effectively eliminated. The original TCOMP technique was demonstrated in 1998. Since then DRS has made significant improvements in both the TCOMP algorithm and the calibration process. This paper describes the patented TCOMP concept, presents the results of analysis of the improved TCOMP concept, and provides sensor level data of UIRFPA/sensor performance with the improved TCOMP algorithm.

  19. Digital Architecture for a Trace Gas Sensor Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzales, Paula; Casias, Miguel; Vakhtin, Andrei; Pilgrim, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    A digital architecture has been implemented for a trace gas sensor platform, as a companion to standard analog control electronics, which accommodates optical absorption whose fractional absorbance equivalent would result in excess error if assumed to be linear. In cases where the absorption (1-transmission) is not equivalent to the fractional absorbance within a few percent error, it is necessary to accommodate the actual measured absorption while reporting the measured concentration of a target analyte with reasonable accuracy. This requires incorporation of programmable intelligence into the sensor platform so that flexible interpretation of the acquired data may be accomplished. Several different digital component architectures were tested and implemented. Commercial off-the-shelf digital electronics including data acquisition cards (DAQs), complex programmable logic devices (CPLDs), field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and microcontrollers have been used to achieve the desired outcome. The most completely integrated architecture achieved during the project used the CPLD along with a microcontroller. The CPLD provides the initial digital demodulation of the raw sensor signal, and then communicates over a parallel communications interface with a microcontroller. The microcontroller analyzes the digital signal from the CPLD, and applies a non-linear correction obtained through extensive data analysis at the various relevant EVA operating pressures. The microcontroller then presents the quantitatively accurate carbon dioxide partial pressure regardless of optical density. This technique could extend the linear dynamic range of typical absorption spectrometers, particularly those whose low end noise equivalent absorbance is below one-part-in-100,000. In the EVA application, it allows introduction of a path-length-enhancing architecture whose optical interference effects are well understood and quantified without sacrificing the dynamic range that allows

  20. All-fiber photoacoustic gas sensor with graphene nano-mechanical resonator as the acoustic detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanzhen, Tan; Fan, Yang; Jun, Ma; Hoi Lut, Ho; Wei, Jin

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate an all-optical-fiber photoacoustic (PA) spectrometric gas sensor with a graphene nano-mechanical resonator as the acoustic detector. The acoustic detection is performed by a miniature ferrule-top nano-mechanical resonator with a ˜100-nm-thick, 2.5-mm-diameter multilayer graphene diaphragm. Experimental investigation showed that the performance of the PA gas sensor can be significantly enhanced by operating at the resonance of the grapheme diaphragm where a lower detection limit of 153 parts-per-billion (ppb) acetylene is achieved. The all-fiber PA sensor which is immune to electromagnetic interference and safe in explosive environments is ideally suited for real-world remote, space-limited applications and for multipoint detection in a multiplexed fiber optic sensor network.

  1. Fault diagnosis for micro-gas turbine engine sensors via wavelet entropy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing; Liu, Dongdong; Zhang, Tianhong

    2011-01-01

    Sensor fault diagnosis is necessary to ensure the normal operation of a gas turbine system. However, the existing methods require too many resources and this need can't be satisfied in some occasions. Since the sensor readings are directly affected by sensor state, sensor fault diagnosis can be performed by extracting features of the measured signals. This paper proposes a novel fault diagnosis method for sensors based on wavelet entropy. Based on the wavelet theory, wavelet decomposition is utilized to decompose the signal in different scales. Then the instantaneous wavelet energy entropy (IWEE) and instantaneous wavelet singular entropy (IWSE) are defined based on the previous wavelet entropy theory. Subsequently, a fault diagnosis method for gas turbine sensors is proposed based on the results of a numerically simulated example. Then, experiments on this method are carried out on a real micro gas turbine engine. In the experiment, four types of faults with different magnitudes are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method for sensor fault diagnosis is efficient. PMID:22163734

  2. Fault Diagnosis for Micro-Gas Turbine Engine Sensors via Wavelet Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bing; Liu, Dongdong; Zhang, Tianhong

    2011-01-01

    Sensor fault diagnosis is necessary to ensure the normal operation of a gas turbine system. However, the existing methods require too many resources and this need can’t be satisfied in some occasions. Since the sensor readings are directly affected by sensor state, sensor fault diagnosis can be performed by extracting features of the measured signals. This paper proposes a novel fault diagnosis method for sensors based on wavelet entropy. Based on the wavelet theory, wavelet decomposition is utilized to decompose the signal in different scales. Then the instantaneous wavelet energy entropy (IWEE) and instantaneous wavelet singular entropy (IWSE) are defined based on the previous wavelet entropy theory. Subsequently, a fault diagnosis method for gas turbine sensors is proposed based on the results of a numerically simulated example. Then, experiments on this method are carried out on a real micro gas turbine engine. In the experiment, four types of faults with different magnitudes are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method for sensor fault diagnosis is efficient. PMID:22163734

  3. Gas sensors based on semiconducting nanowire field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ping; Shao, Feng; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    One-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures are unique sensing materials for the fabrication of gas sensors. In this article, gas sensors based on semiconducting nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) are comprehensively reviewed. Individual nanowires or nanowire network films are usually used as the active detecting channels. In these sensors, a third electrode, which serves as the gate, is used to tune the carrier concentration of the nanowires to realize better sensing performance, including sensitivity, selectivity and response time, etc. The FET parameters can be modulated by the presence of the target gases and their change relate closely to the type and concentration of the gas molecules. In addition, extra controls such as metal decoration, local heating and light irradiation can be combined with the gate electrode to tune the nanowire channel and realize more effective gas sensing. With the help of micro-fabrication techniques, these sensors can be integrated into smart systems. Finally, some challenges for the future investigation and application of nanowire field-effect gas sensors are discussed. PMID:25232915

  4. Gas Sensors Based on Semiconducting Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ping; Shao, Feng; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    One-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures are unique sensing materials for the fabrication of gas sensors. In this article, gas sensors based on semiconducting nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) are comprehensively reviewed. Individual nanowires or nanowire network films are usually used as the active detecting channels. In these sensors, a third electrode, which serves as the gate, is used to tune the carrier concentration of the nanowires to realize better sensing performance, including sensitivity, selectivity and response time, etc. The FET parameters can be modulated by the presence of the target gases and their change relate closely to the type and concentration of the gas molecules. In addition, extra controls such as metal decoration, local heating and light irradiation can be combined with the gate electrode to tune the nanowire channel and realize more effective gas sensing. With the help of micro-fabrication techniques, these sensors can be integrated into smart systems. Finally, some challenges for the future investigation and application of nanowire field-effect gas sensors are discussed. PMID:25232915

  5. Studying the Effect of Deposition Conditions on the Performance and Reliability of MEMS Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Khaled; Moussa, Walied

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the reliability of a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)-based gas sensor has been investigated using Three Dimensional (3D) coupled multiphysics Finite Element (FE) analysis. The coupled field analysis involved a two-way sequential electrothermal fields coupling and a one-way sequential thermal-structural fields coupling. An automated substructuring code was developed to reduce the computational cost involved in simulating this complicated coupled multiphysics FE analysis by up to 76 percent. The substructured multiphysics model was then used to conduct a parametric study of the MEMS-based gas sensor performance in response to the variations expected in the thermal and mechanical characteristics of thin films layers composing the sensing MEMS device generated at various stages of the microfabrication process. Whenever possible, the appropriate deposition variables were correlated in the current work to the design parameters, with good accuracy, for optimum operation conditions of the gas sensor. This is used to establish a set of design rules, using linear and nonlinear empirical relations, which can be utilized in real-time at the design and development decision-making stages of similar gas sensors to enable the microfabrication of these sensors with reliable operation.

  6. Nanocomposite based flexible ultrasensitive resistive gas sensor for chemical reactions studies

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sadanand; Goswami, Gopal K.; Nanda, Karuna K.

    2013-01-01

    Room temperature operation, low detection limit and fast response time are highly desirable for a wide range of gas sensing applications. However, the available gas sensors suffer mainly from high temperature operation or external stimulation for response/recovery. Here, we report an ultrasensitive-flexible-silver-nanoparticle based nanocomposite resistive sensor for ammonia detection and established the sensing mechanism. We show that the nanocomposite can detect ammonia as low as 500 parts-per-trillion at room temperature in a minute time. Furthermore, the evolution of ammonia from different chemical reactions has been demonstrated using the nanocomposite sensor as an example. Our results demonstrate the proof-of-concept for the new detector to be used in several applications including homeland security, environmental pollution and leak detection in research laboratories and many others. PMID:23803772

  7. Improved 02/H2 Gas Mixture Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moulthrop, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    Monitor of mixture concentrations uses catalyzed and uncatalyzed temperature probe. Sensor includes Pt-catalyzed temperature probe mounted in line with similar uncatalyzed temperature probe. Use of common temperature probes and standard, flareless, high-pressure tubefittings resulted in design conductive to installation in almost any system. Suitable for use in regenerative fuel cells, life-support systems, and other closed systems.

  8. Design Of A Sorbent/desorbent Unit For Sample Pre-treatment Optimized For QMB Gas Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Pennazza, G.; Cristina, S.; Santonico, M.; Martinelli, E.; Di Natale, C.; D'Amico, A.; Paolesse, R.

    2009-05-23

    Sample pre-treatment is a typical procedure in analytical chemistry aimed at improving the performance of analytical systems. In case of gas sensors sample pre-treatment systems are devised to overcome sensors limitations in terms of selectivity and sensitivity. For this purpose, systems based on adsorption and desorption processes driven by temperature conditioning have been illustrated. The involvement of large temperature ranges may pose problems when QMB gas sensors are used. In this work a study of such influences on the overall sensing properties of QMB sensors are illustrated. The results allowed the design of a pre-treatment unit coupled with a QMB gas sensors array optimized to operate in a suitable temperatures range. The performance of the system are illustrated by the partially separation of water vapor in a gas mixture, and by substantial improvement of the signal to noise ratio.

  9. Pattern recognition for selective odor detection with gas sensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eungyeong; Lee, Seok; Kim, Jae Hun; Kim, Chulki; Byun, Young Tae; Kim, Hyung Seok; Lee, Taikjin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new pattern recognition approach for enhancing the selectivity of gas sensor arrays for clustering intelligent odor detection. The aim of this approach was to accurately classify an odor using pattern recognition in order to enhance the selectivity of gas sensor arrays. This was achieved using an odor monitoring system with a newly developed neural-genetic classification algorithm (NGCA). The system shows the enhancement in the sensitivity of the detected gas. Experiments showed that the proposed NGCA delivered better performance than the previous genetic algorithm (GA) and artificial neural networks (ANN) methods. We also used PCA for data visualization. Our proposed system can enhance the reproducibility, reliability, and selectivity of odor sensor output, so it is expected to be applicable to diverse environmental problems including air pollution, and monitor the air quality of clean-air required buildings such as a kindergartens and hospitals. PMID:23443378

  10. Pattern Recognition for Selective Odor Detection with Gas Sensor Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eungyeong; Lee, Seok; Kim, Jae Hun; Kim, Chulki; Byun, Young Tae; Kim, Hyung Seok; Lee, Taikjin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new pattern recognition approach for enhancing the selectivity of gas sensor arrays for clustering intelligent odor detection. The aim of this approach was to accurately classify an odor using pattern recognition in order to enhance the selectivity of gas sensor arrays. This was achieved using an odor monitoring system with a newly developed neural-genetic classification algorithm (NGCA). The system shows the enhancement in the sensitivity of the detected gas. Experiments showed that the proposed NGCA delivered better performance than the previous genetic algorithm (GA) and artificial neural networks (ANN) methods. We also used PCA for data visualization. Our proposed system can enhance the reproducibility, reliability, and selectivity of odor sensor output, so it is expected to be applicable to diverse environmental problems including air pollution, and monitor the air quality of clean-air required buildings such as a kindergartens and hospitals. PMID:23443378

  11. Metal-less silicon plasmonic mid-infrared gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherif, Sherif M.; Swillam, Mohamed A.

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate an ultracompact integrated silicon-based plasmonic sensor for lab-on-chip applications in the mid-infrared (MIR) spectral range. Our sensor possesses desirable features such as design simplicity and very high sensitivity. The sensor is designed using a platform for plasmonic effects in the MIR using highly doped silicon. This platform is exploited to create a metal-less plasmonic slot waveguide in the MIR range. This plasmonic waveguide is highly sensitive to any environmental change. Full wave electromagnetic simulations were carried out to design and optimize the structure. The proposed sensor covers a large wavelength span in the MIR range. High spectral sensitivity of 5000 nm/RIU was achieved for our sensor device. Further development of the structure was conducted to extend the sensor operation to multigas sensing.

  12. Electrospray-printed nanostructured graphene oxide gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Anthony P; Velásquez-García, Luis F

    2015-12-18

    We report low-cost conductometric gas sensors that use an ultrathin film made of graphene oxide (GO) nanoflakes as transducing element. The devices were fabricated by lift-off metallization and near-room temperature, atmospheric pressure electrospray printing using a shadow mask. The sensors are sensitive to reactive gases at room temperature without requiring any post heat treatment, harsh chemical reduction, or doping with metal nanoparticles. The sensors' response to humidity at atmospheric pressure tracks that of a commercial sensor, and is linear with changes in humidity in the 10%-60% relative humidity range while consuming <6 μW. Devices with GO layers printed by different deposition recipes yielded nearly identical response characteristics, suggesting that intrinsic properties of the film control the sensing mechanism. The gas sensors successfully detected ammonia at concentrations down to 500 ppm (absolute partial pressure of ∼5 × 10(-4) T) at ∼1 T pressure, room temperature conditions. The sensor technology can be used in a great variety of applications including air conditioning and sensing of reactive gas species in vacuum lines and abatement systems. PMID:26579701

  13. Illicit material detector based on gas sensors and neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaldi, Vincent; Politano, Jean-Luc

    1997-02-01

    In accordance with its missions, le Centre de Recherches et d'Etudes de la Logistique de la Police Nationale francaise (CREL) has been conducting research for the past few years targeted at detecting drugs and explosives. We have focused our approach of the underlying physical and chemical detection principles on solid state gas sensors, in the hope of developing a hand-held drugs and explosives detector. The CREL and Laboratory and Scientific Services Directorate are research partners for this project. Using generic hydrocarbon, industrially available, metal oxide sensors as illicit material detectors, requires usage precautions. Indeed, neither the product's concentrations, nor even the products themselves, belong to the intended usage specifications. Therefore, the CREL is currently investigating two major research topics: controlling the sensor's environment: with environmental control we improve the detection of small product concentration; determining detection thresholds: both drugs and explosives disseminate low gas concentration. We are attempting to quantify the minimal concentration which triggers detection. In the long run, we foresee a computer-based tool likely to detect a target gas in a noisy atmosphere. A neural network is the suitable tool for interpreting the response of heterogeneous sensor matrix. This information processing structure, alongside with proper sensor environment control, will lessen the repercussions of common MOS sensor sensitivity characteristic dispersion.

  14. Hydrogen and Oxygen Gas Monitoring System Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader; Kevin G. DeWall; J. Stephen Herring

    2007-06-01

    This paper describes pertinent design practices of selecting types of monitors, monitor unit placement, setpoint selection, and maintenance considerations for gas monitors. While hydrogen gas monitors and enriched oxygen atmosphere monitors as they would be needed for hydrogen production experiments are the primary focus of this paper, monitors for carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are also discussed. The experiences of designing, installing, and calibrating gas monitors for a laboratory where experiments in support of the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) are described along with codes, standards, and regulations for these monitors. Information from the literature about best operating practices is also presented. The NHI program has two types of activities. The first, near-term activity is laboratory and pilot-plant experimentation with different processes in the kilogram per day scale to select the most promising types of processes for future applications of hydrogen production. Prudent design calls for indoor gas monitors to sense any hydrogen leaks within these laboratory rooms. The second, longer-term activity is the prototype, or large-scale plants to produce tons of hydrogen per day. These large, outdoor production plants will require area (or “fencepost”) monitoring of hydrogen gas leaks. Some processes will have oxygen production with hydrogen production, and any oxygen releases are also safety concerns since oxygen gas is the strongest oxidizer. Monitoring of these gases is important for personnel safety of both indoor and outdoor experiments. There is some guidance available about proper placement of monitors. The fixed point, stationary monitor can only function if the intruding gas contacts the monitor. Therefore, monitor placement is vital to proper monitoring of the room or area. Factors in sensor location selection include: indoor or outdoor site, the location and nature of potential vapor/gas sources, chemical and physical data of the

  15. Surface-mounted sensors for gas turbine research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loftus, Peter; Shepherd, Richard; Stringfellow, Keith

    1993-07-01

    In the development of gas turbine aeroengines, the high cost of development testing and market lead pressure to reduce program timescales has led to increasing use of advanced instrumentation. A growing interest has been the integration of sensors into the engine components, both to look outward at the behavior of the flow over the component, and to look inward at the temperature and strain of the component itself. This paper describes a range of pieso-resistive and thermal sensor applications developed by Rolls-Royce concluding with a view of this industry's future needs and sensor design challenges.

  16. Optical control and diagnostics sensors for gas turbine machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trolinger, James D.; Jenkins, Thomas P.; Heeg, Bauke

    2012-10-01

    There exists a vast range of optical techniques that have been under development for solving complex measurement problems related to gas-turbine machinery and phenomena. For instance, several optical techniques are ideally suited for studying fundamental combustion phenomena in laboratory environments. Yet other techniques hold significant promise for use as either on-line gas turbine control sensors, or as health monitoring diagnostics sensors. In this paper, we briefly summarize these and discuss, in more detail, some of the latter class of techniques, including phosphor thermometry, hyperspectral imaging and low coherence interferometry, which are particularly suited for control and diagnostics sensing on hot section components with ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs).

  17. Electrodes for solid state gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Mukundan, Rangachary; Brosha, Eric L.; Garzon, Fernando

    2003-08-12

    A mixed potential electrochemical sensor for the detection of gases has a ceria-based electrolyte with a surface for exposing to the gases to be detected, and with a reference wire electrode and a sensing wire electrode extending through the surface and fixed within the electrolyte as the electrolyte is compressed and sintered. The electrochemical sensor is formed by placing a wire reference electrode and a wire sensing electrode in a die, where each electrode has a first compressed planar section and a second section depending from the first section with the second section of each electrode extending axially within the die. The die is filled with an oxide-electrolyte powder and the powder is pressed within the die with the wire electrodes. The wire-electrodes and the pressed oxide-electrolyte powder are sintered to form a ceramic electrolyte base with a reference wire electrode and a sensing wire electrode depending therefrom.

  18. Electrodes for solid state gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Mukundan, Rangachary; Brosha, Eric L.; Garzon, Fernando

    2007-05-08

    A mixed potential electrochemical sensor for the detection of gases has a ceria-based electrolyte with a surface for exposing to the gases to be detected, and with a reference wire electrode and a sensing wire electrode extending through the surface and fixed within the electrolyte as the electrolyte is compressed and sintered. The electrochemical sensor is formed by placing a wire reference electrode and a wire sensing electrode in a die, where each electrode has a first compressed planar section and a second section depending from the first section with the second section of each electrode extending axially within the die. The die is filled with an oxide-electrolyte powder and the powder is pressed within the die with the wire electrodes. The wire-electrodes and the pressed oxide-electrolyte powder are sintered to form a ceramic electrolyte base with a reference wire electrode and a sensing wire electrode depending therefrom.

  19. Organic field-effect transistor-based gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Congcong; Chen, Penglei; Hu, Wenping

    2015-04-21

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are one of the key components of modern organic electronics. While the past several decades have witnessed huge successes in high-performance OFETs, their sophisticated functionalization with regard to the responses towards external stimulations has also aroused increasing attention and become an important field of general concern. This is promoted by the inherent merits of organic semiconductors, including considerable variety in molecular design, low cost, light weight, mechanical flexibility, and solution processability, as well as by the intrinsic advantages of OFETs including multiparameter accessibility and ease of large-scale manufacturing, which provide OFETs with great potential as portable yet reliable sensors offering high sensitivity, selectivity, and expeditious responses. With special emphases on the works achieved since 2009, this tutorial review focuses on OFET-based gas sensors. The working principles of this type of gas sensors are discussed in detail, the state-of-the-art protocols developed for high-performance gas sensing are highlighted, and the advanced gas discrimination systems in terms of sensory arrays of OFETs are also introduced. This tutorial review intends to provide readers with a deep understanding for the future design of high-quality OFET gas sensors for potential uses. PMID:25727357

  20. Pilot gasification and hot gas cleanup operations

    SciTech Connect

    Rockey, J.M.; Galloway, E.; Thomson, T.A.; Rutten, J.; Lui, A.

    1995-12-31

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has an integrated gasification hot gas cleanup facility to develop gasification, hot particulate and desulfurization process performance data for IGCC systems. The objective of our program is to develop fluidized-bed process performance data for hot gas desulfurization and to further test promising sorbents from lab-scale screening studies at highpressure (300 psia), and temperatures (1,200{degrees}F) using coal-derived fuel gases from a fluid-bed gasifier. The 10-inch inside diameter (ID), nominal 80 lb/hr, air blown gasifier is capable of providing about 300 lb/hr of low BTU gas at 1,000{degrees}F and 425 psig to downstream cleanup devices. The system includes several particle removal stages, which provide the capability to tailor the particle loading to the cleanup section. The gas pressure is reduced to approximately 300 psia and filtered by a candle filter vessel containing up to four filter cartridges. For batch-mode desulfurization test operations, the filtered coal gas is fed to a 6-inch ID, fluid-bed reactor that is preloaded with desulfurization sorbent. Over 400 hours of gasifier operation was logged in 1993 including 384 hours of integration with the cleanup rig. System baseline studies without desulfurization sorbent and repeatability checks with zinc ferrite sorbent were conducted before testing with the then most advanced zinc titanate sorbents, ZT-002 and ZR-005. In addition to the desulfurization testing, candle filters were tested for the duration of the 384 hours of integrated operation. One filter was taken out of service after 254 hours of filtering while another was left in service. At the conclusion of testing this year it is expected that 3 candles, one each with 254, 530, and 784 hours of filtering will be available for analysis for effects of the exposure to the coal gas environment.

  1. Systems and methods for analyzing building operations sensor data

    SciTech Connect

    Mezic, Igor; Eisenhower, Bryan A.

    2015-05-26

    Systems and methods are disclosed for analyzing building sensor information and decomposing the information therein to a more manageable and more useful form. Certain embodiments integrate energy-based and spectral-based analysis methods with parameter sampling and uncertainty/sensitivity analysis to achieve a more comprehensive perspective of building behavior. The results of this analysis may be presented to a user via a plurality of visualizations and/or used to automatically adjust certain building operations. In certain embodiments, advanced spectral techniques, including Koopman-based operations, are employed to discern features from the collected building sensor data.

  2. Application of gas pressure sensor for fault location system in gas insulated substation

    SciTech Connect

    Takagi, I.; Yajima, E.; Sakakibara, T.; Akazaki, M.; Wakabayashi, S.; Uehara, K.; Takahashi, N.

    1995-10-01

    This is a report on increasing the sensitivity of a GIS fault location system using gas pressure sensors. It describes the results of studies on engineering problems arising where methods and sensors for the purpose are actually applied, while presenting the results of performance proof tests carried out with actual equipment, together with some results of their analysis.

  3. Energy requirements for methods improving gas detection by modulating physical properties of resistive gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trawka, M.; Kotarski, M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important disadvantage of resistive gas sensors is their limited gas selectivity. Therefore, various methods modulating their physical properties are used to improve gas detection. These methods are usually limited to temperature modulation or UV light irradiation for the layers exhibiting photocatalytic effect. These methods cause increased energy consumption. In our study we consider how much energy has to be supplied to utilize such methods and what kind of additional information can be gathered. We present experimental results of selected resistive gas sensors, including commercial and prototype constructions, and practical solutions of modulating their physical properties.

  4. Wearable, wireless gas sensors using highly stretchable and transparent structures of nanowires and graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jihun; Kim, Joohee; Kim, Kukjoo; Kim, So-Yun; Cheong, Woon Hyung; Park, Kyeongmin; Song, Joo Hyeb; Namgoong, Gyeongho; Kim, Jae Joon; Heo, Jaeyeong; Bien, Franklin; Park, Jang-Ung

    2016-05-01

    Herein, we report the fabrication of a highly stretchable, transparent gas sensor based on silver nanowire-graphene hybrid nanostructures. Due to its superb mechanical and optical characteristics, the fabricated sensor demonstrates outstanding and stable performances even under extreme mechanical deformation (stable until 20% of strain). The integration of a Bluetooth system or an inductive antenna enables the wireless operation of the sensor. In addition, the mechanical robustness of the materials allows the device to be transferred onto various nonplanar substrates, including a watch, a bicycle light, and the leaves of live plants, thereby achieving next-generation sensing electronics for the `Internet of Things' area.Herein, we report the fabrication of a highly stretchable, transparent gas sensor based on silver nanowire-graphene hybrid nanostructures. Due to its superb mechanical and optical characteristics, the fabricated sensor demonstrates outstanding and stable performances even under extreme mechanical deformation (stable until 20% of strain). The integration of a Bluetooth system or an inductive antenna enables the wireless operation of the sensor. In addition, the mechanical robustness of the materials allows the device to be transferred onto various nonplanar substrates, including a watch, a bicycle light, and the leaves of live plants, thereby achieving next-generation sensing electronics for the `Internet of Things' area. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01468b

  5. OMPS Limb Sensor II: Novel Operations to Fix Data Artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo, D.; Leitch, J. W.; Brownsberger, K.; Huang, P.; Draper, D. S.; Jaross, G. R.; Knewtson, R.; Lipscy, S.; Rusling, D.; Stutheit, C.

    2014-12-01

    The OMPS Limb sensor flying on the NPP-Suomi mission measures vertically-resolved limb spectral radiance profiles to derive a high spatial resolution ozone profile. The sensor uses both UV and visible light dispersed by a prism and imaged onto a single CCD to make profile measurements of the Earth limb radiance. The measurement challenges include a wide dynamic range in both spectral and spatial directions and demanding stray light requirements, especially for the UV wavelengths. On NPP, the sensor uses two optical gains (bright and dim limb spectral images) and two integration times (Long and Short) to handle the dynamic range of the limb signal. The sensor also contains precisely-positioned spectral filters at the focal plane to control stray light. The multiple image approach creates noise in retrieved profiles at the bright-dim crossover points. The filters are challenging both in fabrication and in alignment. The proposed operational change for the JPSS2 OMPS Limb sensor eliminates the multiple image approach and reduces stray light levels through use of different images for different wavelength channels. Through use of a stepped integration time scheme and on-board image consolidation, the spectral radiance measurements are improved and more pixels are available for downlink within the allotted data rate. We present the operational concept, results of ground testing using the Limb sensor engineering unit and estimates of expected on-orbit performance.

  6. ZnO Coated Nanospring-Based Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakharev, Pavel Viktorovich

    The current research demonstrates new techniques for characterization of electrical transport properties of the metal oxide polycrystalline structures, gas and vapor phase kinetics, surface processes such as gas-surface, vapor-surface interactions and redox processes by applying novel gas sensing devices. Real-time sensor electrical response characteristics obtained under highly controlled laboratory conditions have been used to characterize corresponding surface interactions and electrical properties of the gas sensitive structures. Novel redox chemical sensors (chemiresistors) have been fabricated with 3-D and 1-D ZnO coated nanospring (NS) structures. Silica NSs served as insulating scaffolding for a ZnO gas sensitive layer and has been grown via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism by using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. The NSs have been coated with polycrystalline ZnO by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The chemiresistor devices have been thoroughly characterized in terms of their crystal structures (by XRD, FESEM, TEM, and ellipsometry) and their electrical response properties. A 3-D gas sensor has been constructed from a xenon light bulb by coating it with a 3-D zinc oxide coated silica nanospring mat, where the xenon light bulb served as a sensor heater. This inexpensive sensor platform has been used to characterize gas-solid, vapor-solid, and redox processes. The optimal temperature of the gas sensitive ZnO layer, the temperature of the vapor-gas mixture and the crystal structure of the gas sensitive layer have been determined to reach the highest sensitivity of the gas sensors. The activation energy of toluene oxidation (Ed) on the ZnO surface and the activation energy of oxidation (Ea) of the depleted ZnO surface have been determined and analyzed. A 1-D chemiresistor has been fabricated with a single ZnO coated silica nanospring by photolithography. The question of sensor sensitivity of MOS nanomaterials and MOS thin films has been addressed

  7. Future electro-optical sensors and processing in urban operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grönwall, Christina; Schwering, Piet B.; Rantakokko, Jouni; Benoist, Koen W.; Kemp, Rob A. W.; Steinvall, Ove; Letalick, Dietmar; Björkert, Stefan

    2013-10-01

    In the electro-optical sensors and processing in urban operations (ESUO) study we pave the way for the European Defence Agency (EDA) group of Electro-Optics experts (IAP03) for a common understanding of the optimal distribution of processing functions between the different platforms. Combinations of local, distributed and centralized processing are proposed. In this way one can match processing functionality to the required power, and available communication systems data rates, to obtain the desired reaction times. In the study, three priority scenarios were defined. For these scenarios, present-day and future sensors and signal processing technologies were studied. The priority scenarios were camp protection, patrol and house search. A method for analyzing information quality in single and multi-sensor systems has been applied. A method for estimating reaction times for transmission of data through the chain of command has been proposed and used. These methods are documented and can be used to modify scenarios, or be applied to other scenarios. Present day data processing is organized mainly locally. Very limited exchange of information with other platforms is present; this is performed mainly at a high information level. Main issues that arose from the analysis of present-day systems and methodology are the slow reaction time due to the limited field of view of present-day sensors and the lack of robust automated processing. Efficient handover schemes between wide and narrow field of view sensors may however reduce the delay times. The main effort in the study was in forecasting the signal processing of EO-sensors in the next ten to twenty years. Distributed processing is proposed between hand-held and vehicle based sensors. This can be accompanied by cloud processing on board several vehicles. Additionally, to perform sensor fusion on sensor data originating from different platforms, and making full use of UAV imagery, a combination of distributed and

  8. Optimizing the Operating Temperature for an array of MOX Sensors on an Open Sampling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trincavelli, M.; Vergara, A.; Rulkov, N.; Murguia, J. S.; Lilienthal, A.; Huerta, R.

    2011-09-01

    Chemo-resistive transduction is essential for capturing the spatio-temporal structure of chemical compounds dispersed in different environments. Due to gas dispersion mechanisms, namely diffusion, turbulence and advection, the sensors in an open sampling system, i.e. directly exposed to the environment to be monitored, are exposed to low concentrations of gases with many fluctuations making, as a consequence, the identification and monitoring of the gases even more complicated and challenging than in a controlled laboratory setting. Therefore, tuning the value of the operating temperature becomes crucial for successfully identifying and monitoring the pollutant gases, particularly in applications such as exploration of hazardous areas, air pollution monitoring, and search and rescue1. In this study we demonstrate the benefit of optimizing the sensor's operating temperature when the sensors are deployed in an open sampling system, i.e. directly exposed to the environment to be monitored.

  9. Electrospray-printed nanostructured graphene oxide gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Anthony P.; Velásquez-García, Luis F.

    2015-12-01

    We report low-cost conductometric gas sensors that use an ultrathin film made of graphene oxide (GO) nanoflakes as transducing element. The devices were fabricated by lift-off metallization and near-room temperature, atmospheric pressure electrospray printing using a shadow mask. The sensors are sensitive to reactive gases at room temperature without requiring any post heat treatment, harsh chemical reduction, or doping with metal nanoparticles. The sensors’ response to humidity at atmospheric pressure tracks that of a commercial sensor, and is linear with changes in humidity in the 10%-60% relative humidity range while consuming <6 μW. Devices with GO layers printed by different deposition recipes yielded nearly identical response characteristics, suggesting that intrinsic properties of the film control the sensing mechanism. The gas sensors successfully detected ammonia at concentrations down to 500 ppm (absolute partial pressure of ˜5 × 10-4 T) at ˜1 T pressure, room temperature conditions. The sensor technology can be used in a great variety of applications including air conditioning and sensing of reactive gas species in vacuum lines and abatement systems.

  10. Silicon microring refractometric sensor for atmospheric CO2 gas monitoring.

    PubMed

    Mi, Guangcan; Horvath, Cameron; Aktary, Mirwais; Van, Vien

    2016-01-25

    We report a silicon photonic refractometric CO2 gas sensor operating at room temperature and capable of detecting CO2 gas at atmospheric concentrations. The sensor uses a novel functional material layer based on a guanidine polymer derivative, which is shown to exhibit reversible refractive index change upon absorption and release of CO2 gas molecules, and does not require the presence of humidity to operate. By functionalizing a silicon microring resonator with a thin layer of the polymer, we could detect CO2 gas concentrations in the 0-500ppm range with a sensitivity of 6 × 10-9 RIU/ppm and a detection limit of 20ppm. The microring transducer provides a potential integrated solution in the development of low-cost and compact CO2 sensors that can be deployed as part of a sensor network for accurate environmental monitoring of greenhouse gases. PMID:26832555

  11. Space Shuttle Proximity Operation Sensor Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, C. L.; Alem, W. K.

    1978-01-01

    The performance of the Kuband radar was analyzed in detail, and the performance was updated and summarized. In so doing, two different radar design philosophies were described, and the corresponding differences in losses were enumerated. The resulting design margins were determined for both design philosophies and for both the designated and nondesignated range modes of operation. In some cases, the design margin was about zero, and in other cases it was significantly less than zero. With the point of view described above, the recommended solution is to allow more scan time but at the present scan rate. With no other changes in the present configuration, the radar met design detection specifications for all design philosophies at a range of 11.3 nautical miles.

  12. Liquid Crystalline Compositions as Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibaev, Petr; Murray, John; Tantillo, Anthony; Wenzlick, Madison; Howard-Jennings, Jordan

    2015-03-01

    Droplets and films of nematic and cholesteric liquid crystalline mixtures were studied as promising detectors of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air. Under increasing concentration of VOC in the air the detection may rely on each of the following effects sequentially observed one after the other due to the diffusion of VOC inside liquid crystalline matrix: i. slight changes in orientation and order parameter of liquid crystal, ii. formation of bubbles on the top of the liquid crystalline droplet due to the mass transfer between the areas with different order parameter, iii. complete isotropisation of the liquid crystal. All three stages can be easily monitored by optical microscopy and photo camera. Detection limits corresponding to the first stage are typically lower by a factor of 3-6 than detection limits corresponding to the beginning of mass transfer and isotropisation. The prototype of a compact sensor sensitive to the presence of organic solvents in the air is described in detail. The detection limits of the sensor is significantly lower than VOC exposure standards. The qualitative model is presented to account for the observed changes related to the diffusion, changes of order parameter and isotropisation.

  13. Hydrogen Gas Sensors Based on Semiconductor Oxide Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Haoshuang; Wang, Zhao; Hu, Yongming

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the hydrogen gas sensing properties of semiconductor oxide (SMO) nanostructures have been widely investigated. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the research progress in the last five years concerning hydrogen gas sensors based on SMO thin film and one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures. The hydrogen sensing mechanism of SMO nanostructures and some critical issues are discussed. Doping, noble metal-decoration, heterojunctions and size reduction have been investigated and proved to be effective methods for improving the sensing performance of SMO thin films and 1D nanostructures. The effect on the hydrogen response of SMO thin films and 1D nanostructures of grain boundary and crystal orientation, as well as the sensor architecture, including electrode size and nanojunctions have also been studied. Finally, we also discuss some challenges for the future applications of SMO nanostructured hydrogen sensors. PMID:22778599

  14. Electrocatalytic cermet gas detector/sensor

    DOEpatents

    Vogt, Michael C.; Shoemarker, Erika L.; Fraioli, deceased, Anthony V.

    1995-01-01

    An electrocatalytic device for sensing gases. The gas sensing device includes a substrate layer, a reference electrode disposed on the substrate layer comprised of a nonstoichiometric chemical compound enabling oxygen diffusion therethrough, a lower reference electrode coupled to the reference electrode, a solid electrolyte coupled to the lower reference electrode and an upper catalytically active electrode coupled to the solid electrolyte.

  15. An innovative acoustic sensor for first in-pile fission gas release determination - REMORA 3 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenkrantz, E.; Ferrandis, J. Y.; Augereau, F.; Lambert, T.; Fourmentel, D.; Tiratay, X.

    2011-07-01

    A fuel rod has been instrumented with a new design of an acoustic resonator used to measure in a non destructive way the internal rod plenum gas mixture composition. This ultrasonic sensor has demonstrated its ability to operate in pile during REMORA 3 irradiation experiment carried out in the OSIRIS Material Testing Reactor (CEA Saclay, France). Due to very severe experimental conditions such as temperature rising up to 150 deg.C and especially, high thermal fluence level up to 3.5 10{sup 19} n.cm{sup 2}, the initial sensor gas speed of sound efficiency measurement was strongly reduced due to the irradiation effects on the piezo-ceramic properties. Nevertheless, by adding a differential signal processing method to the initial data analysis procedure validated before irradiation, the gas resonance peaks were successfully extracted from the output signal. From these data, the molar fractions variations of helium and fission gas were measured from an adapted Virial state equation. Thus, with this sensor, the kinetics of gas release inside fuel rods could be deduced from the in-pile measurements and specific calculations. These data will also give information about nuclear reaction effect on piezo-ceramics sensor under high neutron and gamma flux. (authors)

  16. Operations and maintenance manual, atmospheric contaminant sensor, revision B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The sensor is a mass spectrometer system which continuously monitors the atmospheric constituents of hydrogen, water vapor, nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide, and monitors the Freons on a demand sampling basis. The manual provides a system description, operational procedures, and maintenance and troubleshooting instructions. Circuit diagrams are included.

  17. Operations and Maintenance Manual, Atmospheric Contaminant Sensor, Revision B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The sensor is a mass spectrometer system which continuously monitors the atmospheric constituents of hydrogen, water vapor, nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide, and monitors the Freons on a demand sampling basis. The manual provides a system description, operational procedures, and maintenance and troubleshooting instructions. Circuit diagrams…

  18. Teaching Electronics through Constructing Sensors and Operating Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taub, Hanoch; Verner, Igor

    This paper proposes an approach to integrating electronics studies in robotics courses for high school students and pre-service teachers of technology mechanics. The studies focus on building electronic sensors, interfacing them to the robot platform, programming and operating robot behaviors. The educational study shows the learners’ progress in electronics, thinking and learning skills, and attitudes towards engineering.

  19. Electrocatalytic cermet gas detector/sensor

    DOEpatents

    Vogt, M.C.; Shoemarker, E.L.; Fraioli, A.V.

    1995-07-04

    An electrocatalytic device for sensing gases is described. The gas sensing device includes a substrate layer, a reference electrode disposed on the substrate layer comprised of a nonstoichiometric chemical compound enabling oxygen diffusion therethrough, a lower reference electrode coupled to the reference electrode, a solid electrolyte coupled to the lower reference electrode and an upper catalytically active electrode coupled to the solid electrolyte. 41 figs.

  20. Nanostructured Gas Sensors for Health Care: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Ajeet; Kumar, Rajesh; Jayant, Rahul Dev; Nair, Madhavan

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured platforms have been utilized for fabrication of small, sensitive and reliable gas sensing devices owing to high functionality, enhanced charge transport and electro-catalytic property. As a result of globalization, rapid, sensitive and selective detection of gases in environment is essential for health care and security. Nonmaterial such as metal, metal oxides, organic polymers, and organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites exhibit interesting optical, electrical, magnetic and molecular properties, and hence are found potential gas sensing materials. Morphological, electrical, and optical properties of such nanostructures can be tailored via controlling the precursor concentration and synthesis conditions resulting to achieve desired sensing. This review presents applications of nano-enabling gas sensors to detect gases for environment monitoring. The recent update, challenges, and future vision for commercial applications of such sensor are also described here. PMID:26491544

  1. A smart microelectromechanical sensor and switch triggered by gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchaala, Adam; Jaber, Nizar; Shekhah, Osama; Chernikova, Valeriya; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-07-01

    There is an increasing interest to realize smarter sensors and actuators that can deliver a multitude of sophisticated functionalities while being compact in size and of low cost. We report here combining both sensing and actuation on the same device based on a single microstructure. Specifically, we demonstrate a smart resonant gas (mass) sensor, which in addition to being capable of quantifying the amount of absorbed gas, can be autonomously triggered as an electrical switch upon exceeding a preset threshold of absorbed gas. Toward this, an electrostatically actuated polymer microbeam is fabricated and is then functionalized with a metal-organic framework, namely, HKUST-1. The microbeam is demonstrated to absorb vapors up to a certain threshold, after which is shown to collapse through the dynamic pull-in instability. Upon pull-in, the microstructure can be made to act as an electrical switch to achieve desirable actions, such as alarming.

  2. Methods for gas detection using stationary hyperspectral imaging sensors

    DOEpatents

    Conger, James L.; Henderson, John R.

    2012-04-24

    According to one embodiment, a method comprises producing a first hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data cube of a location at a first time using data from a HSI sensor; producing a second HSI data cube of the same location at a second time using data from the HSI sensor; subtracting on a pixel-by-pixel basis the second HSI data cube from the first HSI data cube to produce a raw difference cube; calibrating the raw difference cube to produce a calibrated raw difference cube; selecting at least one desired spectral band based on a gas of interest; producing a detection image based on the at least one selected spectral band and the calibrated raw difference cube; examining the detection image to determine presence of the gas of interest; and outputting a result of the examination. Other methods, systems, and computer program products for detecting the presence of a gas are also described.

  3. [Applicability of semi-conductor zinc oxide gas sensors to detection of low ozone concentrations in pressurized modules].

    PubMed

    Eremeev, S I; Krychenkov, D A

    2005-01-01

    Gas analyzers employ a variety of physical-chemical processes including photocalorimetry, electrochemistry, thermal catalysis and others. Most of the analyzers are designed with certain drawbacks like insufficient serviceability of electrochemical or catalytic thermal sensor and, consequently, the requirement of periodic replacement and calibration, the necessity of periodic resupply of expendables (photocalorimetric) etc. utilization of these systems in pressurized modules is complicated because of the necessity of regular resupply and coordination of experiment duration with gas-analyzer maintenance operations. The problem can be resolved by introduction of semi-conductor gas sensors functioning on the principle of reactivity of metal-oxide conduction to a measuring substance. A zinc oxide semi-conductor sensor was tested for ozone with calculation of the dependence of wanted signal on substance concentration. The tests were performed in steady and pulsed mode of sensor operation. PMID:16193928

  4. Tunnel-field-effect-transistor based gas-sensor: Introducing gas detection with a quantum-mechanical transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Deblina; Gossner, Harald; Hansch, Walter; Banerjee, Kaustav

    2013-01-01

    A gas-sensor based on tunnel-field-effect-transistor (TFET) is proposed that leverages the unique current injection mechanism in the form of quantum-mechanical band-to-band tunneling to achieve substantially improved performance compared to conventional metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs) for detection of gas species under ambient conditions. While nonlocal phonon-assisted tunneling model is used for detailed device simulations, in order to provide better physical insights, analytical formula for sensitivity is derived for both metal as well as organic conducting polymer based sensing elements. Analytical derivations are also presented for capturing the effects of temperature on sensor performance. Combining the developed analytical and numerical models, intricate properties of the sensor such as gate bias dependence of sensitivity, relationship between the required work-function modulation and subthreshold swing, counter-intuitive increase in threshold voltage for MOSFETs and reduction in tunneling probability for TFETs with temperature are explained. It is shown that TFET gas-sensors can not only lead to more than 10 000× increase in sensitivity but also provide design flexibility and immunity against screening of work-function modulation through non-specific gases as well as ensure stable operation under temperature variations.

  5. Chemical Discrimination in Turbulent Gas Mixtures with MOX Sensors Validated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Fonollosa, Jordi; Rodríguez-Luján, Irene; Trincavelli, Marco; Vergara, Alexander; Huerta, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Chemical detection systems based on chemo-resistive sensors usually include a gas chamber to control the sample air flow and to minimize turbulence. However, such a kind of experimental setup does not reproduce the gas concentration fluctuations observed in natural environments and destroys the spatio-temporal information contained in gas plumes. Aiming at reproducing more realistic environments, we utilize a wind tunnel with two independent gas sources that get naturally mixed along a turbulent flow. For the first time, chemo-resistive gas sensors are exposed to dynamic gas mixtures generated with several concentration levels at the sources. Moreover, the ground truth of gas concentrations at the sensor location was estimated by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We used a support vector machine as a tool to show that chemo-resistive transduction can be utilized to reliably identify chemical components in dynamic turbulent mixtures, as long as sufficient gas concentration coverage is used. We show that in open sampling systems, training the classifiers only on high concentrations of gases produces less effective classification and that it is important to calibrate the classification method with data at low gas concentrations to achieve optimal performance. PMID:25325339

  6. Chemical discrimination in turbulent gas mixtures with MOX sensors validated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fonollosa, Jordi; Rodríguez-Luján, Irene; Trincavelli, Marco; Vergara, Alexander; Huerta, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Chemical detection systems based on chemo-resistive sensors usually include a gas chamber to control the sample air flow and to minimize turbulence. However, such a kind of experimental setup does not reproduce the gas concentration fluctuations observed in natural environments and destroys the spatio-temporal information contained in gas plumes. Aiming at reproducing more realistic environments, we utilize a wind tunnel with two independent gas sources that get naturally mixed along a turbulent flow. For the first time, chemo-resistive gas sensors are exposed to dynamic gas mixtures generated with several concentration levels at the sources. Moreover, the ground truth of gas concentrations at the sensor location was estimated by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We used a support vector machine as a tool to show that chemo-resistive transduction can be utilized to reliably identify chemical components in dynamic turbulent mixtures, as long as sufficient gas concentration coverage is used. We show that in open sampling systems, training the classifiers only on high concentrations of gases produces less effective classification and that it is important to calibrate the classification method with data at low gas concentrations to achieve optimal performance. PMID:25325339

  7. Characterization of molecular recognition in gas sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hierlemann, A.; Ricco, A.J.; Bodenhoefer, K.; Goepel, W.

    1998-08-01

    Molecular recognition is an important topic when searching for new, selective coating materials for chemical sensing. Recently, the general idea of molecular recognition in the gas phase was challenged by Grate et al. However, in earlier thickness-shear mode resonator (TSMR) investigations, convincing evidence was presented for specific recognition of particular analyte target molecules. In this study, the authors systematically investigated coatings previously shown to be highly selective, such as the bucket-like cyclodextrins for chiral recognition, Ni-camphorates for the specific detection of the bases pyridine and DMMP (dimethylmethylphosphonate), and phthalocyanines to specifically detect benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX).

  8. Zinc oxide nanowires on carbon microfiber as flexible gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonezzer, M.; Lacerda, R. G.

    2012-03-01

    In the past years, zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs) have been proven to be an excellent material for gas sensors. In this work, we used ZnO nanowires in a novel architecture integrated on a carbon microfiber (μC) textile. This innovative design permits us to obtain mechanical flexibility, while the absence of any lithographic technique allows a large-area and low-cost fabrication of gas sensors. The performances of the devices are investigated for both oxidizing and reducing gases. The nano-on-micro structure of the sensor provides a high surface-to-volume ratio, leading to a fast and intense response for both oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2) gases. The sensor response has an optimum temperature condition at 280 °C with a response value of 10 for oxygen and 11 for hydrogen. The limit of detection (LoD) has been found to be 2 and 4 ppm for oxygen and hydrogen, respectively. Additionally, the sensor response and recovery time is small being less than 10 s for both O2 and H2.

  9. Disposable sensor system: low cost UGS for urban operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcutt, Wade; Houser, Jeff; Winston, Mark; Brady, Steve; Jones, Barry

    2006-05-01

    McQ has developed a family of low cost unattended ground sensors using conventional technology and manufacturing techniques. Intended for small unit operations in an urban environment, these are tactically useful sensors that can be manufactured in large quantities (1M-10M units/year) for a projected production cost of less than $100 each. Secondary characteristics are small size (98 cm 3), light weight (85 gm), moderate lifetime (40 hrs), and moderate communications ranges (100m). An overview of the DSS system: its features, performance, and scenarios for use in urban warfare, is presented.

  10. Gas Sensor Evaluations in Polymer Combustion Product Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Rafael H.; Davis, Dennis D.; Beeson, Harold D.

    1999-01-01

    Toxic gases produced by the combustion or thermo-oxidative degradation of materials such as wire insulation, foam, plastics, or electronic circuit boards in space shuttle or space station crew cabins may pose a significant hazard to the flight crew. Toxic gas sensors are routinely evaluated in pure gas standard mixtures, but the possible interferences from polymer combustion products are not routinely evaluated. The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) has developed a test system that provides atmospheres containing predetermined quantities of target gases combined with the coincidental combustion products of common spacecraft materials. The target gases are quantitated in real time by infrared (IR) spectroscopy and verified by grab samples. The sensor responses are recorded in real time and are compared to the IR and validation analyses. Target gases such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride can be generated by the combustion of poly(vinyl chloride), polyimide-fluoropolymer wire insulation, polyurethane foam, or electronic circuit board materials. The kinetics and product identifications for the combustion of the various materials were determined by thermogravimetric-IR spectroscopic studies. These data were then scaled to provide the required levels of target gases in the sensor evaluation system. Multisensor toxic gas monitors from two manufacturers were evaluated using this system. In general, the sensor responses satisfactorily tracked the real-time concentrations of toxic gases in a dynamic mixture. Interferences from a number of organic combustion products including acetaldehyde and bisphenol-A were minimal. Hydrogen bromide in the products of circuit board combustion registered as hydrogen chloride. The use of actual polymer combustion atmospheres for the evaluation of sensors can provide additional confidence in the reliability of the sensor response.

  11. Chemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Janata, J.; Josowicz, M.; DeVaney, D.M. )

    1994-06-15

    This review of chemical sensors contains the following topics of interest: books and reviews; reviews of sensors by their type; fabrication and selectivity; data processing; thermal sensors; mass sensors (fabrication, gas sensors, and liquid sensors); electrochemical sensors (potentiometric sensors, amperometric sensors, and conductometric sensors); and optical sensors (fabrication, liquid sensors, biosensors, and gas sensors). 795 refs., 1 tab.

  12. 21 CFR 870.4410 - Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor... Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor is a transducer that measures the level of gases in the blood. (b) Classification. Class...

  13. 21 CFR 870.4410 - Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor... Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor is a transducer that measures the level of gases in the blood. (b) Classification. Class...

  14. 21 CFR 870.4410 - Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor... Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor is a transducer that measures the level of gases in the blood. (b) Classification. Class...

  15. 21 CFR 870.4410 - Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor... Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor is a transducer that measures the level of gases in the blood. (b) Classification. Class...

  16. 21 CFR 870.4410 - Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor... Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor is a transducer that measures the level of gases in the blood. (b) Classification. Class...

  17. Power Consumption Analysis of Operating Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lajara, Rafael; Pelegrí-Sebastiá, José; Perez Solano, Juan J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper four wireless sensor network operating systems are compared in terms of power consumption. The analysis takes into account the most common operating systems—TinyOS v1.0, TinyOS v2.0, Mantis and Contiki—running on Tmote Sky and MICAz devices. With the objective of ensuring a fair evaluation, a benchmark composed of four applications has been developed, covering the most typical tasks that a Wireless Sensor Network performs. The results show the instant and average current consumption of the devices during the execution of these applications. The experimental measurements provide a good insight into the power mode in which the device components are running at every moment, and they can be used to compare the performance of different operating systems executing the same tasks. PMID:22219688

  18. Catalytic-Metal/PdO(sub x)/SiC Schottky-Diode Gas Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Lukco, Dorothy

    2006-01-01

    Miniaturized hydrogen- and hydrocarbon-gas sensors, heretofore often consisting of Schottky diodes based on catalytic metal in contact with SiC, can be improved by incorporating palladium oxide (PdOx, where 0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 1) between the catalytic metal and the SiC. In prior such sensors in which the catalytic metal was the alloy PdCr, diffusion and the consequent formation of oxides and silicides of Pd and Cr during operation at high temperature were observed to cause loss of sensitivity. However, it was also observed that any PdOx layers that formed and remained at PdCr/SiC interfaces acted as barriers to diffusion, preventing further deterioration by preventing the subsequent formation of metal silicides. In the present improvement, the lesson learned from these observations is applied by placing PdOx at the catalytic metal/SiC interfaces in a controlled and uniform manner to form stable diffusion barriers that prevent formation of metal silicides. A major advantage of PdOx over other candidate diffusion-barrier materials is that PdOx is a highly stable oxide that can be incorporated into gas sensor structures by use of deposition techniques that are standard in the semiconductor industry. The PdOx layer can be used in a gas sensor structure for improved sensor stability, while maintaining sensitivity. For example, in proof-of-concept experiments, Pt/PdOx/SiC Schottky-diode gas sensors were fabricated and tested. The fabrication process included controlled sputter deposition of PdOx to a thickness of 50 Angstroms on a 400-m-thick SiC substrate, followed by deposition of Pt to a thickness of 450 Angstroms on the PdOx. The SiC substrate (400 microns in thickness) was patterned with photoresist and a Schottky-diode photomask. A lift-off process completed the definition of the Schottky-diode pattern. The sensors were tested by measuring changes in forward currents at a bias potential of 1 V during exposure to H2 in N2 at temperatures

  19. Novel diode laser-based sensors for gas sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tittel, F. K.; Lancaster, D. G.; Richter, D.

    2000-01-01

    The development of compact spectroscopic gas sensors and their applications to environmental sensing will be described. These sensors employ mid-infrared difference-frequency generation (DFG) in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystals pumped by two single-frequency solid state lasers such as diode lasers, diode-pumped solid state, and fiber lasers. Ultrasensitive, highly selective, and real-time measurements of several important atmospheric trace gases, including carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, formaldehyde [correction of formaldehye], and methane, have been demonstrated.

  20. Offshore desulfurization unit permits gas lift operations

    SciTech Connect

    Cabes, A.; Elgue, J.; Tournier-Lasserve, J. )

    1992-01-13

    This paper reports on the installation of a desulfurization unit for the Tchibouela oil field, offshore Congo, which allowed produced low-pressure associated gas containing CO{sub 2} to be kept for gas lift operations while, for safety reasons, the large volume of H{sub 2}S at low pressure was removed prior to compression. Since October 1989, the world's first offshore amine sweetening unit has worked satisfactorily and continues to prove that it is an attractive production alternative. For desulfurization, a selective methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) process, developed by Elf Aquitaine, was chosen because it was the only process that met the required specifications at a low pressure of 3.5 bar (51 psi).

  1. Optical fiber sensor for temperature measurement from 600 to 1900 C in gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tregay, G. W.; Calabrese, P. R.; Kaplin, P. L.; Finney, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    A temperature sensor system has been fabricated specifically for the harsh environment encountered in temperature measurement on gas turbine engines. Four components comprised the system: a thermally emissive source, a high temperature lightguide, a flexible optical cable and an electro-optic signal processor. The emissive source was located inside a sapphire rod so that the sapphire serves as both a lightguide and as a protective shroud. As the probe was heated, the thermal radiation from the emissive source increased with increasing temperature. The flexible optical cable was constructed with 200 micron core fiber and ruggedized for turbine engine applications. The electro-optic signal processor used the ratio of intensity in two wavelength intervals to determine a digital value of the temperature. The probe tip was operated above 1900 C in a low velocity propane flame and above 1500 C at Mach .37. Probe housings, optical cables, and signal processors were constructed and environmentally tested for the temperature and vibration experienced by turbine engine sensors. This technology was used to build an optical exhaust gas sensor for a General Electric Aircraft Engines F404 turbine. The four optical probes and optical cable were a functional replacement for four thermocouple probes. The system was ground tested for 50 hours with an excess of 1000 thermal cycles. This optical temperature sensor system measured gas temperature up to the operational limit of the turbine engine.

  2. Gas ionization sensors with carbon nanotube/nickel field emitters.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bohr-Ran; Lin, Tzu-Ching; Yang, Ying-Kan; Tzeng, Shien-Der

    2011-12-01

    Gas ionization sensors based on the field emission properties of the carbon nanotube/nickel (CNT/Ni) field emitters were first developed in this work. It is found that the breakdown electric field (E(b)) slightly decreases from 2.2 V/microm to 1.9 V/microm as the pressure of H2 gas increases from 0.5 Torr to 100 Torr. On the contrary, E(b) obviously increases from 2.9 V/microm to 6.5 V/microm as O2 gas pressure increases from 0.5 Torr to 100 Torr. This may be explained by the depression of the electron emission that caused by the adsorption of the O2 gas on the CNT emitters. The Raman spectra of the CNT/Ni emitters also show that more defects were generated on the CNTs after O2 gas sensing. The Joule heating effect under high current density as performing H2 sensing was also observed. These effects may contribute the pressure dependence on the breakdown electric field of the CNT/Ni gas ionization sensors. PMID:22409010

  3. Operating Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Muhammad Omer; Kunz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a survey on the current state-of-the-art in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Operating Systems (OSs). In recent years, WSNs have received tremendous attention in the research community, with applications in battlefields, industrial process monitoring, home automation, and environmental monitoring, to name but a few. A WSN is a highly dynamic network because nodes die due to severe environmental conditions and battery power depletion. Furthermore, a WSN is composed of miniaturized motes equipped with scarce resources e.g., limited memory and computational abilities. WSNs invariably operate in an unattended mode and in many scenarios it is impossible to replace sensor motes after deployment, therefore a fundamental objective is to optimize the sensor motes’ life time. These characteristics of WSNs impose additional challenges on OS design for WSN, and consequently, OS design for WSN deviates from traditional OS design. The purpose of this survey is to highlight major concerns pertaining to OS design in WSNs and to point out strengths and weaknesses of contemporary OSs for WSNs, keeping in mind the requirements of emerging WSN applications. The state-of-the-art in operating systems for WSNs has been examined in terms of the OS Architecture, Programming Model, Scheduling, Memory Management and Protection, Communication Protocols, Resource Sharing, Support for Real-Time Applications, and additional features. These features are surveyed for both real-time and non-real-time WSN operating systems. PMID:22163934

  4. Operating systems for wireless sensor networks: a survey.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Muhammad Omer; Kunz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a survey on the current state-of-the-art in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Operating Systems (OSs). In recent years, WSNs have received tremendous attention in the research community, with applications in battlefields, industrial process monitoring, home automation, and environmental monitoring, to name but a few. A WSN is a highly dynamic network because nodes die due to severe environmental conditions and battery power depletion. Furthermore, a WSN is composed of miniaturized motes equipped with scarce resources e.g., limited memory and computational abilities. WSNs invariably operate in an unattended mode and in many scenarios it is impossible to replace sensor motes after deployment, therefore a fundamental objective is to optimize the sensor motes' life time. These characteristics of WSNs impose additional challenges on OS design for WSN, and consequently, OS design for WSN deviates from traditional OS design. The purpose of this survey is to highlight major concerns pertaining to OS design in WSNs and to point out strengths and weaknesses of contemporary OSs for WSNs, keeping in mind the requirements of emerging WSN applications. The state-of-the-art in operating systems for WSNs has been examined in terms of the OS Architecture, Programming Model, Scheduling, Memory Management and Protection, Communication Protocols, Resource Sharing, Support for Real-Time Applications, and additional features. These features are surveyed for both real-time and non-real-time WSN operating systems. PMID:22163934

  5. Gas sensors based on silicon devices with a porous layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barillaro, G.; Diligenti, A.; Nannini, A.; Strambini, L. M.

    2005-06-01

    In this work two silicon devices, that is a FET and a p crystalline silicon resistor having porous silicon as adsorbing layer are presented as gas sensors. Owing to they are easily integrable with silicon electronics, these devices could represent an improvement of the functionality of silicon for sensor applications. Unlike other porous silicon-based sensors, in this case the sensing variable is a current flowing in the crystalline silicon, so that the porous silicon film has only the function of adsorbing layer and its properties, electrical or optical, are not directly involved in the measurement. The fabrication processes and an electrical characterization in presence of isopropanol vapors are presented and discussed for both devices.

  6. Enhanced sensitivity of graphene ammonia gas sensors using molecular doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi Zanjani, Seyedeh Maryam; Sadeghi, Mir Mohammad; Holt, Milo; Chowdhury, Sk. Fahad; Tao, Li; Akinwande, Deji

    2016-01-01

    We report on employing molecular doping to enhance the sensitivity of graphene sensors synthesized via chemical vapor deposition to NH3 molecules at room temperature. We experimentally show that doping an as-fabricated graphene sensor with NO2 gas improves sensitivity of its electrical resistance to adsorption of NH3 molecules by about an order of magnitude. The detection limit of our NO2-doped graphene sensor is found to be ˜200 parts per billion (ppb), compared to ˜1400 ppb before doping. Electrical characterization and Raman spectroscopy measurements on graphene field-effect transistors show that adsorption of NO2 molecules significantly increases hole concentration in graphene, which results in the observed sensitivity enhancement.

  7. Gas Sensors Based on Ceramic p-n Heterocontacts

    SciTech Connect

    Seymen Murat Aygun

    2004-12-19

    characteristics with very high forward currents. Ga doped heterocontacts showed the highest sensitivity observed during current-time measurements as well, even though the sensor response was rather slow. Finally, a possible synergistic effect of doping both p and n-sides was studied by utilizing current-time measurements for 1.5 mol% Ni-CuO/1.5 mol% Ga-ZnO heterocontact. A sensitivity value of {approx}5.1 was obtained with the fastest response among all the samples. The time needed to reach 90% coverage was lowered by a factor of 4 when compared to the pure heterocontact and the time needed to reach 70% coverage was just over one minute. Heterocontact gas sensors are promising candidates for high temperature sensor applications. Today, Si-based microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology has shown great promise for developing novel devices such as pressure sensors, chemical sensors, and temperature sensors through complex designs. However, the harsh thermal, vibrational, and corrosive environments common to many aerospace applications impose severe limitations on their use. Sensors based on ceramic p-n heterocontacts are promising alternatives because of their inherent corrosion resistance and environmental stability. The other advantages include their inherent tuning ability to differentiate between different reducing gases and a possible cost efficient production of a wireless sensor. Being a capacitive type sensor, its output can be transformed into a passive wireless device by creating a tuned LC circuit. In this way, the sensor output (the capacitance) can be accessed remotely by measuring the resonant frequency. The relatively simple structure of heterocontacts makes it suitable for thick film fabrication techniques to make sensor packages.

  8. Integrated Micro-Machined Hydrogen Gas Sensor. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Frank DiMeo, Jr.

    2000-10-02

    This report details our recent progress in developing novel MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) based hydrogen gas sensors. These sensors couple novel thin films as the active layer on a device structure known as a Micro-HotPlate. This coupling has resulted in a gas sensor that has several unique advantages in terms of speed, sensitivity, stability and amenability to large scale manufacture. This Phase-I research effort was focused on achieving the following three objectives: (1) Investigation of sensor fabrication parameters and their effects on sensor performance. (2) Hydrogen response testing of these sensors in wet/dry and oxygen-containing/oxygen-deficient atmospheres. (3) Investigation of the long-term stability of these thin film materials and identification of limiting factors. We have made substantial progress toward achieving each of these objectives, and highlights of our phase I results include the demonstration of signal responses with and without oxygen present, as well as in air with a high level of humidity. We have measured response times of <0.5 s to 1% H{sub 2} in air, and shown the ability to detect concentrations of <200 ppm. These results are extremely encouraging and suggest that this technology has substantial potential for meeting the needs of a hydrogen based economy. These achievements demonstrate the feasibility of using micro-hotplates structures in conjunction with palladium+coated metal-hydride films for sensing hydrogen in many of the environments required by a hydrogen based energy economy. Based on these findings, they propose to continue and expand the development of this technology in Phase II.

  9. Graphene nanomesh as highly sensitive chemiresistor gas sensor.

    PubMed

    Paul, Rajat Kanti; Badhulika, Sushmee; Saucedo, Nuvia M; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2012-10-01

    Graphene is a one atom thick carbon allotrope with all surface atoms that has attracted significant attention as a promising material as the conduction channel of a field-effect transistor and chemical field-effect transistor sensors. However, the zero bandgap of semimetal graphene still limits its application for these devices. In this work, ethanol-chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of a grown p-type semiconducting large-area monolayer graphene film was patterned into a nanomesh by the combination of nanosphere lithography and reactive ion etching and evaluated as a field-effect transistor and chemiresistor gas sensors. The resulting neck-width of the synthesized nanomesh was about ∼20 nm and was comprised of the gap between polystyrene (PS) spheres that was formed during the reactive ion etching (RIE) process. The neck-width and the periodicities of the graphene nanomesh (GNM) could be easily controlled depending on the duration/power of the RIE and the size of the PS nanospheres. The fabricated GNM transistor device exhibited promising electronic properties featuring a high drive current and an I(ON)/I(OFF) ratio of about 6, significantly higher than its film counterpart. Similarly, when applied as a chemiresistor gas sensor at room temperature, the graphene nanomesh sensor showed excellent sensitivity toward NO(2) and NH(3), significantly higher than their film counterparts. The ethanol-based graphene nanomesh sensors exhibited sensitivities of about 4.32%/ppm in NO(2) and 0.71%/ppm in NH(3) with limits of detection of 15 and 160 ppb, respectively. Our demonstrated studies on controlling the neck width of the nanomesh would lead to further improvement of graphene-based transistors and sensors. PMID:22931286

  10. Graphene nanomesh as highly sensitive chemiresistor gas sensor

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Rajat Kanti; Badhulika, Sushmee; Saucedo, Nuvia M.; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Graphene is a one atom thick carbon allotrope with all surface atoms that has attracted significant attention as a promising material as the conduction channel of a field-effect transistor and chemical field-effect transistor sensors. However, the zero bandgap of semimetal graphene still limits its application for these devices. In this work, ethanol-chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown p-type semiconducting large-area monolayer graphene film was patterned into nanomesh by the combination of nanosphere lithography and reactive ion etching and evaluated as field-effect transistor and chemiresistor gas sensors. The resulting neck-width of the synthesized nanomesh was about ~20 nm comprised of the gap between polystyrene spheres that was formed during the reactive ion etching process. The neck-width and the periodicities of the graphene nanomesh could be easily controlled depending the duration/power of RIE and the size of PS nanospheres. The fabricated GNM transistor device exhibited promising electronic properties featuring high drive current and ION/IOFF ratio of about 6, significantly higher than its film counterpart. Similarly, when applied as chemiresistor gas sensor at room temperature, the graphene nanomesh sensor showed excellent sensitivity towards NO2 and NH3, significantly higher than their film counterparts. The ethanol-based graphene nanomesh sensors exhibited sensitivities of about 4.32%/ppm in NO2 and 0.71%/ppm in NH3 with limit of detections of 15 ppb and 160 ppb, respectively. Our demonstrated studies on controlling the neck width of the nanomesh would lead to further improvement of graphene-based transistors and sensors. PMID:22931286

  11. Nanostructured Tungsten Oxide Composite for High-Performance Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Siyuan Feng; Aldalbahi, Ali; Feng, Peter Xianping

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of composite tungsten oxide nanowires-based gas sensors. The morphologic surface, crystallographic structures, and chemical compositions of the obtained nanowires have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman scattering, respectively. The experimental measurements reveal that each wire consists of crystalline nanoparticles with an average diameter of less than 250 nm. By using the synthesized nanowires, highly sensitive prototypic gas sensors have been designed and fabricated. The dependence of the sensitivity of tungsten oxide nanowires to the methane and hydrogen gases as a function of time has been obtained. Various sensing parameters such as sensitivity, response time, stability, and repeatability were investigated in order to reveal the sensing ability. PMID:26512670

  12. Nanostructured Tungsten Oxide Composite for High-Performance Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Feng-Chen, Siyuan; Aldalbahi, Ali; Feng, Peter Xianping

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of composite tungsten oxide nanowires-based gas sensors. The morphologic surface, crystallographic structures, and chemical compositions of the obtained nanowires have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman scattering, respectively. The experimental measurements reveal that each wire consists of crystalline nanoparticles with an average diameter of less than 250 nm. By using the synthesized nanowires, highly sensitive prototypic gas sensors have been designed and fabricated. The dependence of the sensitivity of tungsten oxide nanowires to the methane and hydrogen gases as a function of time has been obtained. Various sensing parameters such as sensitivity, response time, stability, and repeatability were investigated in order to reveal the sensing ability. PMID:26512670

  13. Metal-modified and vertically aligned carbon nanotube sensors array for landfill gas monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penza, M.; Rossi, R.; Alvisi, M.; Serra, E.

    2010-03-01

    providing minimal sub-ppm level detection, e.g., download up to 100 ppb NO2, at the sensor temperature of 150 °C. The gas sensitivity of the CNT sensor array depends on operating temperature, showing a lower optimal temperature of maximum sensitivity for the metal-decorated CNT sensors compared to unmodified CNT sensors. Results indicate that the recovery mechanisms in the CNT chemiresistors can be altered by a rapid heating pulse from room temperature to about 110 °C. A comparison of the NO2 gas sensitivity for the chemiresistors based on disorderly networked CNTs and vertically aligned CNTs is also reported. Cross-sensitivity towards relative humidity of the CNT sensors array is investigated. Finally, the sensing properties of the metal-decorated and vertically aligned CNT sensor arrays are promising to monitor gas events in the LFG for practical applications with low power consumption and moderate sensor temperature.

  14. Metal-modified and vertically aligned carbon nanotube sensors array for landfill gas monitoring applications.

    PubMed

    Penza, M; Rossi, R; Alvisi, M; Serra, E

    2010-03-12

    demonstrates high sensitivity by providing minimal sub-ppm level detection, e.g., download up to 100 ppb NO(2), at the sensor temperature of 150 degrees C. The gas sensitivity of the CNT sensor array depends on operating temperature, showing a lower optimal temperature of maximum sensitivity for the metal-decorated CNT sensors compared to unmodified CNT sensors. Results indicate that the recovery mechanisms in the CNT chemiresistors can be altered by a rapid heating pulse from room temperature to about 110 degrees C. A comparison of the NO(2) gas sensitivity for the chemiresistors based on disorderly networked CNTs and vertically aligned CNTs is also reported. Cross-sensitivity towards relative humidity of the CNT sensors array is investigated. Finally, the sensing properties of the metal-decorated and vertically aligned CNT sensor arrays are promising to monitor gas events in the LFG for practical applications with low power consumption and moderate sensor temperature. PMID:20154374

  15. Gamma ray irradiated AgFeO{sub 2} nanoparticles with enhanced gas sensor properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiuhua; Shi, Zhijie; Yao, Shangwu; Liao, Fan; Ding, Juanjuan; Shao, Mingwang

    2014-11-15

    AgFeO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method and irradiated by various doses of gamma ray. The products were characterized with X-ray powder diffraction, UV–vis absorption spectrum and transmission electron microscope. The results revealed that the crystal structure, morphology and size of the samples remained unchanged after irradiation, while the intensity of UV–Vis spectra increased with irradiation dose increasing. In addition, gamma ray irradiation improved the performance of gas sensor based on the AgFeO{sub 2} nanoparticles including the optimum operating temperature and sensitivity, which might be ascribed to the generation of defects. - Graphical abstract: Gamma ray irradiation improved the performance of gas sensor based on the AgFeO{sub 2} nanoparticles including sensitivity and optimum operating temperature, which might be ascribed to the generation of defects. - Highlights: • AgFeO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized and irradiated with gamma ray. • AgFeO{sub 2} nanoparticles were employed to fabricate gas sensors to detect ethanol. • Gamma ray irradiation improved the sensitivity and optimum operating temperature.

  16. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager (OLI) Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Knight, Edward J.; Canova, Brent; Donley, Eric; Kvaran, Geri; Lee, Kenton; Barsi, Julia A.; Pedelty, Jeffrey A.; Dabney, Philip W.; Irons, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is being developed by NASA and USGS and is currently planned for launch in January 2013 [1]. Once on-orbit and checked out, it will be operated by USGS and officially named Landsat-8. Two sensors will be on LDCM: the Operational Land Imager (OLI), which has been built and delivered by Ball Aerospace & Technology Corp (BATC) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS)[2], currently being built and tested at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) with a planned delivery of Winter 2012. The OLI covers the Visible, Near-IR (NIR) and Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) parts of the spectrum; TIRS covers the Thermal Infrared (TIR). This paper discusses only the OLI instrument and its pre-launch characterization; a companion paper covers TIRS.

  17. New fabrication of zinc oxide nanostructure thin film gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendi, A. A.; Alorainy, R. H.

    2014-02-01

    The copper doped zinc oxide thin films have been prepared by sol-gel spin coating method. The structural and morphology properties of the Cu doped films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscope. XRD studies confirm the chemical structure of the ZnO films. The optical spectra method were used to determined optical constants and dispersion energy parameters of Cu doped Zno thin films. The optical band gap of undoped ZnO was found to be 3.16 eV. The Eg values of the films were changed with Cu doping. The refractive index dispersion of Cu doped ZnO films obeys the single oscillator model. The dispersion energy and oscillator energy values of the ZnO films were changed with Cu doping. The Cu doped ZnO nanofiber-based NH3 gas sensors were fabricated. The sensor response of the sensors was from 464.98 to 484.61 when the concentration of NH3 is changed 6600-13,300 ppm. The obtained results indicate that the response of the ZnO film based ammonia gas sensors can be controlled by copper content.

  18. Steady state model of electrochemical gas sensors with multiple reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Brailsford, A.D.; Yussouff, M.; Logothetis, E.M.

    1996-12-31

    A general first-principles model of the steady state response of metal oxide gas sensors was developed by the authors and applied to the case of both electrochemical and resistive type oxygen sensors. It can describe many features of the experimentally observed response of commercial electrochemical zirconia sensors exposed to non-equilibrium gas mixtures consisting of O{sub 2} and one or more reducing species (CO, H{sub 2} , etc). However, the calculated sensor emf as a function of R`= 2p{sub O2}/P{sub CO} (or 2p{sub O2}/P{sub H2}) always showed a sharp transition from high to low values at some R` value and had a small value for R` >> 1. These results do not agree with the broad transitions and relatively high emf values for large R`, as observed experimentally at low temperatures. This paper discusses an extension of the model which is able to describe all aspects of the observed response.

  19. Laser Raman sensor for measurement of trace-hydrogen gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler-Golden, Steven M.; Goldstein, Neil; Bien, Fritz; Matthew, Michael W.; Gersh, Michael E.; Cheng, Wai K.; Adams, Frederick W.

    1992-01-01

    A new optical hydrogen sensor based on spontaneous Raman scattering of laser light has been designed and constructed for rugged field use. It provides good sensitivity, rapid response, and the inherent Raman characteristics of linearity and background gas independence of the signal. Efficient light collection and discrimination by using fast optics and a bandpass interference filter compensate for the inefficiency of the Raman-scattering process. A multipass optical cavity with a Herriott-type configuration provides intense illumination from an air-cooled CW gas laser. The observed performance is in good agreement with the theoretical signal and noise level predictions.

  20. Nanocrystalline SnO2:F thin films for liquid petroleum gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Chaisitsak, Sutichai

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the improvement in the sensing performance of nanocrystalline SnO(2)-based liquid petroleum gas (LPG) sensors by doping with fluorine (F). Un-doped and F-doped tin oxide films were prepared on glass substrates by the dip-coating technique using a layer-by-layer deposition cycle (alternating between dip-coating a thin layer followed by a drying in air after each new layer). The results showed that this technique is superior to the conventional technique for both improving the film thickness uniformity and film transparency. The effect of F concentration on the structural, surface morphological and LPG sensing properties of the SnO(2) films was investigated. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction pattern measurements showed that the obtained thin films are nanocrystalline SnO(2) with nanoscale-textured surfaces. Gas sensing characteristics (sensor response and response/recovery time) of the SnO(2):F sensors based on a planar interdigital structure were investigated at different operating temperatures and at different LPG concentrations. The addition of fluorine to SnO(2) was found to be advantageous for efficient detection of LPG gases, e.g., F-doped sensors are more stable at a low operating temperature (300 °C) with higher sensor response and faster response/recovery time, compared to un-doped sensor materials. The sensors based on SnO(2):F films could detect LPG even at a low level of 25% LEL, showing the possibility of using this transparent material for LPG leak detection. PMID:22164007

  1. Nanocrystalline SnO2:F Thin Films for Liquid Petroleum Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Chaisitsak, Sutichai

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the improvement in the sensing performance of nanocrystalline SnO2-based liquid petroleum gas (LPG) sensors by doping with fluorine (F). Un-doped and F-doped tin oxide films were prepared on glass substrates by the dip-coating technique using a layer-by-layer deposition cycle (alternating between dip-coating a thin layer followed by a drying in air after each new layer). The results showed that this technique is superior to the conventional technique for both improving the film thickness uniformity and film transparency. The effect of F concentration on the structural, surface morphological and LPG sensing properties of the SnO2 films was investigated. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction pattern measurements showed that the obtained thin films are nanocrystalline SnO2 with nanoscale-textured surfaces. Gas sensing characteristics (sensor response and response/recovery time) of the SnO2:F sensors based on a planar interdigital structure were investigated at different operating temperatures and at different LPG concentrations. The addition of fluorine to SnO2 was found to be advantageous for efficient detection of LPG gases, e.g., F-doped sensors are more stable at a low operating temperature (300 °C) with higher sensor response and faster response/recovery time, compared to un-doped sensor materials. The sensors based on SnO2:F films could detect LPG even at a low level of 25% LEL, showing the possibility of using this transparent material for LPG leak detection. PMID:22164007

  2. Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor Gas Sensors in Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Fine, George F.; Cavanagh, Leon M.; Afonja, Ayo; Binions, Russell

    2010-01-01

    Metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors are utilised in a variety of different roles and industries. They are relatively inexpensive compared to other sensing technologies, robust, lightweight, long lasting and benefit from high material sensitivity and quick response times. They have been used extensively to measure and monitor trace amounts of environmentally important gases such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. In this review the nature of the gas response and how it is fundamentally linked to surface structure is explored. Synthetic routes to metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors are also discussed and related to their affect on surface structure. An overview of important contributions and recent advances are discussed for the use of metal oxide semiconductor sensors for the detection of a variety of gases—CO, NOx, NH3 and the particularly challenging case of CO2. Finally a description of recent advances in work completed at University College London is presented including the use of selective zeolites layers, new perovskite type materials and an innovative chemical vapour deposition approach to film deposition. PMID:22219672

  3. Optical Breath Gas Sensor for Extravehicular Activity Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Falconi, Eric A.; McMillin, Summer

    2013-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation portable life support system (PLSS) requires next generation CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the Space Shuttle/International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode spectrometer based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Two prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The sensors incorporate a laser diode-based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement and a separate oxygen channel using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser. Both prototypes are controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array/microcontroller architecture. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware to the Advanced PLSS 2.0 test article being constructed and tested at JSC. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are being advanced by this project. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength laser spectrometer enables multi-gas sensors with significantly increased performance over that presently offered in the EMU.

  4. Fiber optic sensors for gas turbine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Emily Yixie (Inventor); Brown, Dale Marius (Inventor); Petrucco, Louis Jacob (Inventor); Lovett, Jeffery Allan (Inventor); Daum, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dunki-Jacobs, Robert John (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus for detecting flashback occurrences in a premixed combustor system having at least one fuel nozzle includes at least one photodetector and at least one fiber optic element coupled between the at least one photodetector and a test region of the combustor system wherein a respective flame of the fuel nozzle is not present under normal operating conditions. A signal processor monitors a signal of the photodetector. The fiber optic element can include at least one optical fiber positioned within a protective tube. The fiber optic element can include two fiber optic elements coupled to the test region. The optical fiber and the protective tube can have lengths sufficient to situate the photodetector outside of an engine compartment. A plurality of fuel nozzles and a plurality of fiber optic elements can be used with the fiber optic elements being coupled to respective fuel nozzles and either to the photodetector or, wherein a plurality of photodetectors are used, to respective ones of the plurality of photodetectors. The signal processor can include a digital signal processor.

  5. Fiber optic sensors for gas turbine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Emily Yixie (Inventor); Brown, Dale Marius (Inventor); Petrucco, Louis Jacob (Inventor); Lovett, Jeffery Allan (Inventor); Daum, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dunki-Jacobs, Robert John (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for detecting flashback occurrences in a premixed combustor system having at least one fuel nozzle includes at least one photodetector and at least one fiber optic element coupled between the at least one photodetector and a test region of the combustor system wherein a respective flame of the fuel nozzle is not present under normal operating conditions. A signal processor monitors a signal of the photodetector. The fiber optic element can include at least one optical fiber positioned within a protective tube. The fiber optic element can include two fiber optic elements coupled to the test region. The optical fiber and the protective tube can have lengths sufficient to situate the photodetector outside of an engine compartment. A plurality of fuel nozzles and a plurality of fiber optic elements can be used with the fiber optic elements being coupled to respective fuel nozzles and either to the photodetector or, wherein a plurality of photodetectors are used, to respective ones of the plurality of photodetectors. The signal processor can include a digital signal processor.

  6. Fiber optic sensors for gas turbine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Emily Yixie (Inventor); Petrucco, Louis Jacob (Inventor); Daum, Wolfgang (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus for detecting flashback occurrences in a premixed combustor system having at least one fuel nozzle includes at least one photodetector and at least one fiber optic element coupled between the at least one photodetector and a test region of the combustor system wherein a respective flame of the fuel nozzle is not present under normal operating conditions. A signal processor monitors a signal of the photodetector. The fiber optic element can include at least one optical fiber positioned within a protective tube. The fiber optic element can include two fiber optic elements coupled to the test region. The optical fiber and the protective tube can have lengths sufficient to situate the photodetector outside of an engine compartment. A plurality of fuel nozzles and a plurality of fiber optic elements can be used with the fiber optic elements being coupled to respective fuel nozzles and either to the photodetector or, wherein a plurality of photodetectors are used, to respective ones of the plurality of photodetectors. The signal processor can include a digital signal processor.

  7. Multiplexed Sensor for Synthesis Gas Compsition and Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Buckley; Reza Gharavi; Marco Leon

    2007-10-01

    The overall goal of this project has been to develop a highly sensitive, multiplexed TDL-based sensor for CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O (and temperature), CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}S, and NH{sub 3}. Such a sensor was designed with so-called 'plug-and-play' characteristics to accommodate additional sensors, and provided in situ path-integrated measurements indicative of average concentrations at speeds suitable for direct gasifier control. The project developed the sensor and culminated in a real-world test of the underlying technology behind the sensor. During the project, new underlying measurements of spectroscopic constants for all of the gases of interest performed, in custom cells built for the project. The envisioned instrument was built from scratch from component lasers, fiber optics, amplifier blocks, detectors, etc. The sensor was tested for nearly a week in an operational power plant. The products of this research are expected to have a direct impact on gasifier technology and the production of high-quality syngas, with substantial broader application to coal and other energy systems. This report is the final technical report on project DE-FG26-04NT42172. During the project we completed all of the milestones planned in the project, with a modification of milestone (7) required due to lack of funding and personnel.

  8. Hydrogen Sensors Boost Hybrids; Today's Models Losing Gas?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Advanced chemical sensors are used in aeronautic and space applications to provide safety monitoring, emission monitoring, and fire detection. In order to fully do their jobs, these sensors must be able to operate in a range of environments. NASA has developed sensor technologies addressing these needs with the intent of improving safety, optimizing combustion efficiencies, and controlling emissions. On the ground, the chemical sensors were developed by NASA engineers to detect potential hydrogen leaks during Space Shuttle launch operations. The Space Shuttle uses a combination of hydrogen and oxygen as fuel for its main engines. Liquid hydrogen is pumped to the external tank from a storage tank located several hundred feet away. Any hydrogen leak could potentially result in a hydrogen fire, which is invisible to the naked eye. It is important to detect the presence of a hydrogen fire in order to prevent a major accident. In the air, the same hydrogen-leak dangers are present. Stress and temperature changes can cause tiny cracks or holes to form in the tubes that line the Space Shuttle s main engine nozzle. Such defects could allow the hydrogen that is pumped through the nozzle during firing to escape. Responding to the challenges associated with pinpointing hydrogen leaks, NASA endeavored to improve propellant leak-detection capabilities during assembly, pre-launch operations, and flight. The objective was to reduce the operational cost of assembling and maintaining hydrogen delivery systems with automated detection systems. In particular, efforts have been focused on developing an automated hydrogen leak-detection system using multiple, networked hydrogen sensors that are operable in harsh conditions.

  9. Design of Selective Gas Sensors Using Additive-Loaded In2O3 Hollow Spheres Prepared by Combinatorial Hydrothermal Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Jung; Hwang, In-Sung; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jong-Heun

    2011-01-01

    A combinatorial hydrothermal reaction has been used to prepare pure and additive (Sb, Cu, Nb, Pd, and Ni)-loaded In2O3 hollow spheres for gas sensor applications. The operation of Pd- and Cu-loaded In2O3 sensors at 371 °C leads to selective H2S detection. Selective detection of CO and NH3 was achieved by the Ni-In2O3 sensor at sensing temperatures of 371 and 440 °C, respectively. The gas responses of six different sensors to NH3, H2S, H2, CO and CH4 produced unique gas sensing patterns that can be used for the artificial recognition of these gases. PMID:22346661

  10. Data set from gas sensor array under flow modulation☆

    PubMed Central

    Ziyatdinov, Andrey; Fonollosa, Jordi; Fernández, Luis; Gutiérrez-Gálvez, Agustín; Marco, Santiago; Perera, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies in neuroscience suggest that sniffing, namely sampling odors actively, plays an important role in olfactory system, especially in certain scenarios such as novel odorant detection. While the computational advantages of high frequency sampling have not been yet elucidated, here, in order to motivate further investigation in active sampling strategies, we share the data from an artificial olfactory system made of 16 MOX gas sensors under gas flow modulation. The data were acquired on a custom set up featured by an external mechanical ventilator that emulates the biological respiration cycle. 58 samples were recorded in response to a relatively broad set of 12 gas classes, defined from different binary mixtures of acetone and ethanol in air. The acquired time series show two dominant frequency bands: the low-frequency signal corresponds to a conventional response curve of a sensor in response to a gas pulse, and the high-frequency signal has a clear principal harmonic at the respiration frequency. The data are related to the study in [1], and the data analysis results reported there should be considered as a reference point. The data presented here have been deposited to the web site of The University of California at Irvine (UCI) Machine Learning Repository (https://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/datasets/Gas+sensor+array+under+flow+modulation). The code repository for reproducible analysis applied to the data is hosted at the GutHub web site (https://github.com/variani/pulmon). The data and code can be used upon citation of [1]. PMID:26217733

  11. Data set from gas sensor array under flow modulation.

    PubMed

    Ziyatdinov, Andrey; Fonollosa, Jordi; Fernández, Luis; Gutiérrez-Gálvez, Agustín; Marco, Santiago; Perera, Alexandre

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies in neuroscience suggest that sniffing, namely sampling odors actively, plays an important role in olfactory system, especially in certain scenarios such as novel odorant detection. While the computational advantages of high frequency sampling have not been yet elucidated, here, in order to motivate further investigation in active sampling strategies, we share the data from an artificial olfactory system made of 16 MOX gas sensors under gas flow modulation. The data were acquired on a custom set up featured by an external mechanical ventilator that emulates the biological respiration cycle. 58 samples were recorded in response to a relatively broad set of 12 gas classes, defined from different binary mixtures of acetone and ethanol in air. The acquired time series show two dominant frequency bands: the low-frequency signal corresponds to a conventional response curve of a sensor in response to a gas pulse, and the high-frequency signal has a clear principal harmonic at the respiration frequency. The data are related to the study in [1], and the data analysis results reported there should be considered as a reference point. The data presented here have been deposited to the web site of The University of California at Irvine (UCI) Machine Learning Repository (https://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/datasets/Gas+sensor+array+under+flow+modulation). The code repository for reproducible analysis applied to the data is hosted at the GutHub web site (https://github.com/variani/pulmon). The data and code can be used upon citation of [1]. PMID:26217733

  12. Suspended core-shell Pt-PtOx nanostructure for ultrasensitive hydrogen gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Palash Kr.; Kallatt, Sangeeth; Anumol, Erumpukuthickal A.; Bhat, Navakanta

    2015-06-01

    High sensitivity gas sensors are typically realized using metal catalysts and nanostructured materials, utilizing non-conventional synthesis and processing techniques, incompatible with on-chip integration of sensor arrays. In this work, we report a new device architecture, suspended core-shell Pt-PtOx nanostructure that is fully CMOS-compatible. The device consists of a metal gate core, embedded within a partially suspended semiconductor shell with source and drain contacts in the anchored region. The reduced work function in suspended region, coupled with built-in electric field of metal-semiconductor junction, enables the modulation of drain current, due to room temperature Redox reactions on exposure to gas. The device architecture is validated using Pt-PtO2 suspended nanostructure for sensing H2 down to 200 ppb under room temperature. By exploiting catalytic activity of PtO2, in conjunction with its p-type semiconducting behavior, we demonstrate about two orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity and limit of detection, compared to the sensors reported in recent literature. Pt thin film, deposited on SiO2, is lithographically patterned and converted into suspended Pt-PtO2 sensor, in a single step isotropic SiO2 etching. An optimum design space for the sensor is elucidated with the initial Pt film thickness ranging between 10 nm and 30 nm, for low power (<5 μW), room temperature operation.

  13. Sensors and OBIA synergy for operational monitoring of surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Eric; Thenard, Lucas

    2010-05-01

    This contribution will focus on combining Object Based Image Analysis (i.e. OBIA with e-Cognition 8) and recent sensors (i.e. Spot 5 XS, Pan and ALOS Prism, Avnir2, Palsar) to address the technical feasibility for an operational monitoring of surface water. Three cases of river meandering (India), flood mapping (Nepal) and dam's seasonal water level monitoring (Morocco) using recent sensors will present various application of surface water monitoring. The operational aspect will be demonstrated either by sensor properties (i.e. spatial resolution and bandwidth), data acquisition properties (i.e. multi sensor, return period and near real-time acquisition) but also with OBIA algorithms (i.e. fusion of multi sensors / multi resolution data and batch processes). In the first case of river meandering (India) we will address multi sensor and multi date satellite acquisition to monitor the river bed mobility within a floodplain using an ALOS dataset. It will demonstrate the possibility of an operational monitoring system that helps the geomorphologist in the analysis of fluvial dynamic and sediment budget for high energy rivers. In the second case of flood mapping (Nepal) we will address near real time Palsar data acquisition at high spatial resolution to monitor and to map a flood extension. This ALOS sensor takes benefit both from SAR and L band properties (i.e. atmospheric transparency, day/night acquisition, low sensibility to surface wind). It's a real achievement compared to optical imagery or even other high resolution SAR properties (i.e. acquisition swath, bandwidth and data price). These advantages meet the operational needs set by crisis management of hydrological disasters but also for the implementation of flood risk management plans. The last case of dam surface water monitoring (Morocco) will address an important issue of water resource management in countries affected by water scarcity. In such countries water users have to cope with over exploitation

  14. Concept of Operations for Nuclear Warhead Embedded Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Rockett, P D; Koncher, T R

    2012-05-16

    Embedded arms-control-sensors provide a powerful new paradigm for managing compliance with future nuclear weapons treaties, where deployed warhead numbers will be reduced to 1000 or less. The CONOPS (Concept of Operations) for use with these sensors is a practical tool with which one may help define design parameters, including size, power, resolution, communications, and physical structure. How frequently must data be acquired and must a human be present? Will such data be acquired for only stored weapons or will it be required of deployed weapons as well? Will tactical weapons be subject to such monitoring or will only strategic weapons apply? Which data will be most crucial? Will OSI's be a component of embedded sensor data management or will these sensors stand alone in their data extraction processes? The problem space is massive, but can be constrained by extrapolating to a reasonable future treaty regime and examining the bounded options this scenario poses. Arms control verification sensors, embedded within the warhead case or aeroshell, must provide sufficient but not excessively detailed data, confirming that the item is a nuclear warhead and that it is a particular warhead without revealing sensitive information. Geolocation will be provided by an intermediate transceiver used to acquire the data and to forward the data to a central processing location. Past Chain-of-Custody projects have included such devices and will be primarily responsible for adding such indicators in the future. For the purposes of a treaty regime a TLI will be verified as a nuclear warhead by knowledge of (a) the presence and mass of SNM, (b) the presence of HE, and (c) the reporting of a unique tag ID. All of these parameters can be obtained via neutron correlation measurements, Raman spectroscopy, and fiber optic grating fabrication, respectively. Data from these sensors will be pushed out monthly and acquired nearly daily, providing one of several verification layers in depth

  15. Extremely sensitive CWA analyzer based on a novel optical pressure sensor in photoacoustic gas analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppinen, Jyrki K.; Koskinen, Vesa; Uotila, Juho; Kauppinen, Ismo K.

    2004-12-01

    Major improvement into the sensitivity of broadband Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers, used in gas analysis, can be achieved by a photoacoustic detection system, which bases on a recently introduced optical pressure sensor. The sensor is a cantilever-type microphone with interferometric measurement of its free end displacement. By using a preliminary prototype of the photoacoustic gas detector, equipped with the proposed sensor and a black body radiation source, a detection limit in the sub-ppb range was obtained for e.g. methane gas. The limit, obtained in non-resonant operation mode, is very close to the best photoacoustic results achieved with powerfull laser sources and by exploiting the cell resonances. It is also orders of magnitude better than any measurement with a black body radiation source. Furthermore, the ultimate sensitivity leads on to very small detection limits also for several chemical warfare agents (CWA) e.g. sarin, tabun and mustard. The small size of the sensor and its great thermal stability enables the construction of an extremely sensitive portable CWA analyzer in the near future.

  16. Sensor Data Qualification for Autonomous Operation of Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Melcher, Kevin J.; Chicatelli, Amy K.; Sowers, T. Shane

    2006-01-01

    NASA's new Exploration initiative for both robotic and manned missions will require higher levels of reliability, autonomy and reconfiguration capability to make the missions safe, successful and affordable. Future systems will require diagnostic reasoning to assess the health of the system in order to maintain the system s functionality. The diagnostic reasoning and assessment will involve data qualification, fault detection, fault isolation and remediation control. A team of researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center is currently working on a Sensor Data Qualification (SDQ) system that will support these critical evaluation processes, for both automated and human-in-the-loop applications. Data qualification is required as a first step so that critical safety and operational decisions are based on good data. The SDQ system would monitor a network of related sensors to determine the health of individual sensors within that network. Various diagnostic systems such as the Caution and Warning System would then use the sensor health information with confidence. The proposed SDQ technology will be demonstrated on a variety of subsystems that are relevant to NASA s Exploration systems, which currently include an electrical power system and a cryogenic fluid management system. The focus of this paper is the development and demonstration of a SDQ application for a prototype power distribution unit that is representative of a Crew Exploration Vehicle electrical power system; this provides a unique and relevant environment in which to demonstrate the feasibility of the SDQ technology.

  17. Structural Stability and Performance of Noble Metal-Free SnO2-Based Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Tricoli, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The structural stability of pure SnO2 nanoparticles and highly sensitive SnO2-SiO2 nanocomposites (0–15 SiO2 wt%) has been investigated for conditions relevant to their utilization as chemoresistive gas sensors. Thermal stabilization by SiO2 co-synthesis has been investigated at up to 600 °C determining regimes of crystal size stability as a function of SiO2-content. For operation up to 400 °C, thermally stable crystal sizes of ca. 24 and 11 nm were identified for SnO2 nanoparticles and 1.4 wt% SnO2-SiO2 nanocomposites, respectively. The effect of crystal growth during operation (TO = 320 °C) on the sensor response to ethanol has been reported, revealing possible long-term destabilization mechanisms. In particular, crystal growth and sintering-neck formation were discussed with respect to their potential to change the sensor response and calibration. Furthermore, the effect of SiO2 cosynthesis on the cross-sensitivity to humidity of these noble metal-free SnO2-based gas sensors was assessed. PMID:25585712

  18. Direct monitoring of organic vapours with amperometric enzyme gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Hämmerle, Martin; Hilgert, Karin; Achmann, Sabine; Moos, Ralf

    2010-02-15

    In this study, amperometric enzyme gas sensors for direct monitoring of organic vapours (formaldehyde, ethanol and phenol) are presented using exemplarily different sensing strategies: NADH detection, H(2)O(2) detection and direct substrate recycling, respectively. The presented sensor configurations allow the selective, continuous, online monitoring of organic vapours without prior accumulation or sampling of the analyte. The gaseous samples are provided as headspace above aqueous solutions. The concentration in the gas phase was calculated from the concentration in solution at room temperature according to the respective Henry constants given in the literature. The enzymes employed are NAD-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase [EC 1.2.1.46] from Pseudomonas putida, alcohol oxidase [EC 1.1.3.13] from Pichia pastoris, and tyrosinase [EC 1.14.18.1] from mushroom. The gas diffusion working electrodes used in the sensors are based on a porous, hydrophobic PTFE membrane (exposed geometric electrode area: 1.77 cm(2)) covered with a porous layer of gold, platinum or graphite/Teflon. Detection limit, sensitivity, and measuring range are 34 microM (6.5 ppb), 117 nA/mM, and 0.46-66.4 mM for formaldehyde, 9.9 microM (55 ppb), 3.43 microA/mM, and 0.1-30 mM for ethanol, and 0.89 microM (0.36 ppb), 2.4 microA/mM, and 0.01-1 mM for phenol, respectively. Further sensor characteristics such as response time and stability are also determined: t(90%) (formaldehyde: 4.5 min; ethanol: 69 s; phenol: 27 min), stability at permanent exposure (formaldehyde: 63%, 15 h @ 2.62 mM; ethanol: 86%, 18 @ 1 mM; phenol: 86%, 16.5 h @ 0.1 M). PMID:19926472

  19. Nanocrystalline Pd:NiFe2O4 thin films: A selective ethanol gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Pratibha; Godbole, R. V.; Bhagwat, Sunita

    2016-10-01

    In this work, Pd:NiFe2O4 thin films were investigated for the detection of reducing gases. These films were fabricated using spray pyrolysis technique and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) to confirm the crystal structure. The surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Magnetization measurements were carried out using SQUID VSM, which shows ferrimagnetic behavior of the samples. These thin film sensors were tested against methanol, ethanol, hydrogen sulfide and liquid petroleum gas, where they were found to be more selective to ethanol. The fabricated thin film sensors exhibited linear response signal for all the gases with concentrations up to 5 w/o Pd. Reduction in optimum operating temperature and enhancement in response was also observed. Pd:NiFe2O4 thin films exhibited faster response and recovery characteristic. These sensors have potential for industrial applications because of their long-term stability, low power requirement and low production cost.

  20. Novel Modified Optical Fibers for High Temperature In-Situ Miniaturized Gas Sensors in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, Gary; Scott, Brian

    2014-06-30

    This report covers the technical progress on the program “Novel Modified Optical Fibers for High Temperature In-Situ Miniaturized Gas Sensors in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems”, funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Materials Science & Engineering and Electrical & Computer Engineering Departments at Virginia Tech, and summarizes technical progress from July 1st, 2005 –June 30th, 2014. The objective of this program was to develop novel fiber materials for high temperature gas sensors based on evanescent wave absorption in optical fibers. This project focused on two primary areas: the study of a sapphire photonic crystal fiber (SPCF) for operation at high temperature and long wavelengths, and a porous glass based fiber optic sensor for gas detection. The sapphire component of the project focused on the development of a sapphire photonic crystal fiber, modeling of the new structures, fabrication of the optimal structure, development of a long wavelength interrogation system, testing of the optical properties, and gas and temperature testing of the final sensor. The fabrication of the 6 rod SPCF gap bundle (diameter of 70μm) with a hollow core was successfully constructed with lead-in and lead-out 50μm diameter fiber along with transmission and gas detection testing. Testing of the sapphire photonic crystal fiber sensor capabilities with the developed long wavelength optical system showed the ability to detect CO2 at or below 1000ppm at temperatures up to 1000°C. Work on the porous glass sensor focused on the development of a porous clad solid core optical fiber, a hollow core waveguide, gas detection capabilities at room and high temperature, simultaneous gas species detection, suitable joining technologies for the lead-in and lead-out fibers and the porous sensor, sensor system sensitivity improvement, signal processing improvement, relationship between pore structure and fiber

  1. An optical sensor for detecting the contact location of a gas-liquid interface on a body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belden, Jesse; Jandron, Michael

    2014-08-01

    An optical sensor for detecting the dynamic contact location of a gas-liquid interface along the length of a body is described. The sensor is developed in the context of applications to supercavitating bodies requiring measurement of the dynamic cavity contact location; however, the sensing method is extendable to other applications as well. The optical principle of total internal reflection is exploited to detect changes in refractive index of the medium contacting the body at discrete locations along its length. The derived theoretical operation of the sensor predicts a signal attenuation of 18 dB when a sensed location changes from air-contacting to water-contacting. Theory also shows that spatial resolution (d) scales linearly with sensor length (Ls) and a resolution of 0.01Ls can be achieved. A prototype sensor is constructed from simple components and response characteristics are quantified for different ambient light conditions as well as partial wetting states. Three methods of sensor calibration are described and a signal processing framework is developed that allows for robust detection of the gas-liquid contact location. In a tank draining experiment, the prototype sensor resolves the water level with accuracy limited only by the spatial resolution, which is constrained by the experimental setup. A more representative experiment is performed in which the prototype sensor accurately measures the dynamic contact location of a gas cavity on a water tunnel wall.

  2. An optical sensor for detecting the contact location of a gas-liquid interface on a body.

    PubMed

    Belden, Jesse; Jandron, Michael

    2014-08-01

    An optical sensor for detecting the dynamic contact location of a gas-liquid interface along the length of a body is described. The sensor is developed in the context of applications to supercavitating bodies requiring measurement of the dynamic cavity contact location; however, the sensing method is extendable to other applications as well. The optical principle of total internal reflection is exploited to detect changes in refractive index of the medium contacting the body at discrete locations along its length. The derived theoretical operation of the sensor predicts a signal attenuation of 18 dB when a sensed location changes from air-contacting to water-contacting. Theory also shows that spatial resolution (d) scales linearly with sensor length (L(s)) and a resolution of 0.01L(s) can be achieved. A prototype sensor is constructed from simple components and response characteristics are quantified for different ambient light conditions as well as partial wetting states. Three methods of sensor calibration are described and a signal processing framework is developed that allows for robust detection of the gas-liquid contact location. In a tank draining experiment, the prototype sensor resolves the water level with accuracy limited only by the spatial resolution, which is constrained by the experimental setup. A more representative experiment is performed in which the prototype sensor accurately measures the dynamic contact location of a gas cavity on a water tunnel wall. PMID:25173325

  3. Fabrication and characterization of nano-gas sensor arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, H. S. Kashyout, A. B.; Morsi, I. Nasser, A. A. A. Raafat, A.

    2015-03-30

    A novel structures of Nanomaterials gas sensors array constructed using ZnO, and ZnO doped with Al via sol-gel technique. Two structure arrays are developed; the first one is a double sensor array based on doping with percentages of 1% and 5%. The second is a quadrature sensor array based on several doping ratios concentrations (0%, 1%, 5% and 10%). The morphological structures of prepared ZnO were revealed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveal a highly crystallized wurtzite structure and used for identifying phase structure and chemical state of both ZnO and ZnO doped with Al under different preparation conditions and different doping ratios. Chemical composition of Al-doped ZnO nanopowders was performed using energy dispersive x-ray (EDS) analysis. The electrical characteristics of the sensor are determined by measuring the two terminal sensor’s output resistance for O{sub 2}, H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} gases as a function of temperature.

  4. Nanostructure Engineered Chemical Sensors for Hazardous Gas and Vapor Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing; Lu, Yijiang

    2005-01-01

    A nanosensor technology has been developed using nanostructures, such as single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and metal oxides nanowires or nanobelts, on a pair of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) processed with a silicon based microfabrication and micromachining technique. The IDE fingers were fabricated using thin film metallization techniques. Both in-situ growth of nanostructure materials and casting of the nanostructure dispersions were used to make chemical sensing devices. These sensors have been exposed to hazardous gases and vapors, such as acetone, benzene, chlorine, and ammonia in the concentration range of ppm to ppb at room temperature. The electronic molecular sensing in our sensor platform can be understood by electron modulation between the nanostructure engineered device and gas molecules. As a result of the electron modulation, the conductance of nanodevice will change. Due to the large surface area, low surface energy barrier and high thermal and mechanical stability, nanostructured chemical sensors potentially can offer higher sensitivity, lower power consumption and better robustness than the state-of-the-art systems, which make them more attractive for defense and space applications. Combined with MEMS technology, light weight and compact size sensors can be made in wafer scale with low cost.

  5. Data set from chemical sensor array exposed to turbulent gas mixtures.

    PubMed

    Fonollosa, Jordi; Rodríguez-Luján, Irene; Trincavelli, Marco; Huerta, Ramón

    2015-06-01

    A chemical detection platform composed of 8 chemo-resistive gas sensors was exposed to turbulent gas mixtures generated naturally in a wind tunnel. The acquired time series of the sensors are provided. The experimental setup was designed to test gas sensors in realistic environments. Traditionally, chemical detection systems based on chemo-resistive sensors include a gas chamber to control the sample air flow and minimize turbulence. Instead, we utilized a wind tunnel with two independent gas sources that generate two gas plumes. The plumes get naturally mixed along a turbulent flow and reproduce the gas concentration fluctuations observed in natural environments. Hence, the gas sensors can capture the spatio-temporal information contained in the gas plumes. The sensor array was exposed to binary mixtures of ethylene with either methane or carbon monoxide. Volatiles were released at four different rates to induce different concentration levels in the vicinity of the sensor array. Each configuration was repeated 6 times, for a total of 180 measurements. The data is related to "Chemical Discrimination in Turbulent Gas Mixtures with MOX Sensors Validated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry", by Fonollosa et al. [1]. The dataset can be accessed publicly at the UCI repository upon citation of [1]: http://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/datasets/Gas+senso+rarray+exposed+to+turbulent+gas+mixtures. PMID:26217747

  6. Data set from chemical sensor array exposed to turbulent gas mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Fonollosa, Jordi; Rodríguez-Luján, Irene; Trincavelli, Marco; Huerta, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    A chemical detection platform composed of 8 chemo-resistive gas sensors was exposed to turbulent gas mixtures generated naturally in a wind tunnel. The acquired time series of the sensors are provided. The experimental setup was designed to test gas sensors in realistic environments. Traditionally, chemical detection systems based on chemo-resistive sensors include a gas chamber to control the sample air flow and minimize turbulence. Instead, we utilized a wind tunnel with two independent gas sources that generate two gas plumes. The plumes get naturally mixed along a turbulent flow and reproduce the gas concentration fluctuations observed in natural environments. Hence, the gas sensors can capture the spatio-temporal information contained in the gas plumes. The sensor array was exposed to binary mixtures of ethylene with either methane or carbon monoxide. Volatiles were released at four different rates to induce different concentration levels in the vicinity of the sensor array. Each configuration was repeated 6 times, for a total of 180 measurements. The data is related to “Chemical Discrimination in Turbulent Gas Mixtures with MOX Sensors Validated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry”, by Fonollosa et al. [1]. The dataset can be accessed publicly at the UCI repository upon citation of [1]: http://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/datasets/Gas+senso+rarray+exposed+to+turbulent+gas+mixtures. PMID:26217747

  7. Hollow-core fiber Fabry-Perot photothermal gas sensor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Tan, Yanzhen; Jin, Wei; Lin, Yuechuan; Qi, Yun; Ho, Hoi Lut

    2016-07-01

    A highly sensitive, compact, and low-cost trace gas sensor based on photothermal effect in a hollow-core fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) is described. The Fabry-Perot sensor is fabricated by splicing a piece of hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBF) to single-mode fiber pigtails at both ends. The absorption of a pump beam in the hollow core results in phase modulation of probe beam, which is detected by the FPI. Experiments with a 2 cm long HC-PBF with femtosecond laser drilled side-holes demonstrated a response time of less than 19 s and noise equivalent concentration (NEC) of 440 parts-per-billion (ppb) using a 1 s lock-in time constant, and the NEC goes down to 117 ppb (2.7×10-7 in absorbance) by using 77 s averaging time. PMID:27367092

  8. Potassium polytitanate gas-sensor study by impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fedorov, F S; Varezhnikov, A S; Kiselev, I; Kolesnichenko, V V; Burmistrov, I N; Sommer, M; Fuchs, D; Kübel, C; Gorokhovsky, A V; Sysoev, V V

    2015-10-15

    Nanocrystalline potassium polytitanates K2O·nTiO2·mH2O represent a new type of semiconducting compounds which are characterized by a high specific surface that makes them promising for use in gas sensors. In this work, we have studied potassium polytitanate mesoporous nanoparticle agglomerates placed over a SiO2/Si substrate equipped with multiple coplanar electrodes to measure the electrical response to various organic vapors, 1000 ppm of concentration, mixed with air by impedance spectrometry in range of the 10(-2)-10(6) Hz. The recorded impedance data for each sensor segment are associated with RC components of an equivalent circuit which are applied to selectively recognize the test vapors exploiting a "multisensor array" approach. PMID:26515008

  9. Au nanoparticles improve amorphous carbon to be gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Keng-Wen; Lee, Jian-Heng; Chou, Hsiung; Lin, Tzu-Ching; Lin, Si-Ting; Shih-Jye Sun Collaboration

    In order to make the amorphous carbon possess the gas sensing capability transferring some sp3 orbits to sp2 is necessary. It is proposed that the metallic materials having a large charge exchange with sp3 carbon orbits are being catalysts to transfer the carbon orbits. We found embedding gold nanoparticles to the amorphous carbon will induce many compact sp2 orbits around the nanoparticles, which make the amorphous carbon be the candidate material for the gas sensors. The orbits of amorphous carbon near the interface of Au nanoparticles can be changed from sp3 to compact sp2 to reduce the surface energy of Au nanoparticles. Meanwhile, our molecular dynamics simulation has confirmed the fact, when an Au nanoparticle is embedded in the amorphous carbon system the ratio of sp2 orbits increases dramatically. Similar results also have been confirmed from the Raman spectrum measurements. We controlled the carrier transport by changing the hopping barriers formed by amorphous carbon matrix between the Au nanoparticles to modify the resistance. These nanocomposites exhibit a superior sensitivity to NH3 at room temperature as well as good reproducibility and short response/recovery times, which could have potential applications in gas sensors. Dept. of Applied Physics,NUK, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

  10. Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Nanorod and Thin Film Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hung-Ta; Gila, Brent P.; Lin, Jenshan; Pearton, Stepehn J.

    2006-01-01

    In this review we discuss the advances in use of GaN and ZnO-based solid-state sensors for gas sensing applications. AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) show a strong dependence of source/drain current on the piezoelectric polarization -induced two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Furthermore, spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization induced surface and interface charges can be used to develop very sensitive but robust sensors for the detection of gases. Pt-gated GaN Schottky diodes and Sc2O3/AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide semiconductor diodes also show large change in forward currents upon exposure to H2 containing ambients. Of particular interest are methods for detecting ethylene (C2H4), which offers problems because of its strong double bonds and hence the difficulty in dissociating it at modest temperatures. ZnO nanorods offer large surface area, are bio-safe and offer excellent gas sensing characteristics.

  11. Optical Breath Gas Sensor for Extravehicular Activity Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S> ; Chullen, Cinda; Falconi, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity (EVA) in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation Portable Life Support System (PLSS) requires next generation CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the Shuttle/International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode (LD) spectrometer based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Two prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The sensors incorporate a laser diode based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement and a separate oxygen (O2) channel using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). Both prototypes are controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)/microcontroller architecture. Based on the results of the initial instrument development, further prototype development and testing of instruments leveraging the lessons learned were desired. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware to the Advanced PLSS 2.0 test article being constructed and tested at JSC. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are being advanced by this project. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength laser spectrometer enables multi-gas sensors with significantly increased performance over that presently offered in the EMU. .

  12. Selective, pulsed CVD of platinum on microfilament gas sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Manginell, R.P.; Smith, J.H.; Ricco, A.J.; Moreno, D.J.; Hughes, R.C.; Huber, R.J.; Senturia, S.D.

    1996-05-01

    A post-processing, selective micro-chemical vapor deposition (``micro-CVD``) technology for the deposition of catalytic films on surface-micromachined, nitride-passivated polysilicon filaments has been investigated. Atmospheric pressure deposition of Pt on microfilaments was accomplished by thermal decomposition of Pt acetylacetonate; deposition occurs selectively only on those filaments which are electrically heated. Catalyst morphology, characterized by SEM, can be controlled by altering deposition time, filament temperature, and through the use of pulsed heating of the filament during deposition. Morphology plays an important role in determining the sensitivity of these devices when used as combustible gas sensors.

  13. Gas sensor characterization at low concentrations of natural oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambemana, H.; Siadat, M.; Lumbreras, M.

    2009-05-01

    Inhalation of essential oils can be used in aromatherapy due to their activating or relaxing effects. The study of these effects requires behavioral measurements on living subjects, by varying the nature and also the quantity of the volatile substances to be present in the atmosphere. So, to permit the evaluation of therapeutic effects of a variety of natural oils, we propose to develop an automatic diffusion/detection system capable to create an ambient air with low stabilized concentration of chosen oil. In this work, we discuss the performance of an array of eight gas sensors to discriminate low and constant concentrations of a chosen natural oil.

  14. Fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis of status self-validating gas sensor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yin-sheng; Xu, Yong-hui; Yang, Jing-li; Shi, Zhen; Jiang, Shou-da; Wang, Qi

    2016-04-01

    The traditional gas sensor array has been viewed as a simple apparatus for information acquisition in chemosensory systems. Gas sensor arrays frequently undergo impairments in the form of sensor failures that cause significant deterioration of the performance of previously trained pattern recognition models. Reliability monitoring of gas sensor arrays is a challenging and critical issue in the chemosensory system. Because of its importance, we design and implement a status self-validating gas sensor array prototype to enhance the reliability of its measurements. A novel fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis (FDID) strategy is presented in this paper. The principal component analysis-based multivariate statistical process monitoring model can effectively perform fault detection by using the squared prediction error statistic and can locate the faulty sensor in the gas sensor array by using the variables contribution plot. The signal features of gas sensor arrays for different fault modes are extracted by using ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) coupled with sample entropy (SampEn). The EEMD is applied to adaptively decompose the original gas sensor signals into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residual. The SampEn values of each IMF and the residual are calculated to reveal the multi-scale intrinsic characteristics of the faulty sensor signals. Sparse representation-based classification is introduced to identify the sensor fault type for the purpose of diagnosing deterioration in the gas sensor array. The performance of the proposed strategy is compared with other different diagnostic approaches, and it is fully evaluated in a real status self-validating gas sensor array experimental system. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed strategy provides an excellent solution to the FDID of status self-validating gas sensor arrays.

  15. Fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis of status self-validating gas sensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yin-Sheng; Xu, Yong-Hui; Yang, Jing-Li; Shi, Zhen; Jiang, Shou-da; Wang, Qi

    2016-04-01

    The traditional gas sensor array has been viewed as a simple apparatus for information acquisition in chemosensory systems. Gas sensor arrays frequently undergo impairments in the form of sensor failures that cause significant deterioration of the performance of previously trained pattern recognition models. Reliability monitoring of gas sensor arrays is a challenging and critical issue in the chemosensory system. Because of its importance, we design and implement a status self-validating gas sensor array prototype to enhance the reliability of its measurements. A novel fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis (FDID) strategy is presented in this paper. The principal component analysis-based multivariate statistical process monitoring model can effectively perform fault detection by using the squared prediction error statistic and can locate the faulty sensor in the gas sensor array by using the variables contribution plot. The signal features of gas sensor arrays for different fault modes are extracted by using ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) coupled with sample entropy (SampEn). The EEMD is applied to adaptively decompose the original gas sensor signals into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residual. The SampEn values of each IMF and the residual are calculated to reveal the multi-scale intrinsic characteristics of the faulty sensor signals. Sparse representation-based classification is introduced to identify the sensor fault type for the purpose of diagnosing deterioration in the gas sensor array. The performance of the proposed strategy is compared with other different diagnostic approaches, and it is fully evaluated in a real status self-validating gas sensor array experimental system. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed strategy provides an excellent solution to the FDID of status self-validating gas sensor arrays. PMID:27131696

  16. Effects of Activation Energy to Transient Response of Semiconductor Gas Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Akira; Ohtani, Tatsuki

    The smell classifiable gas sensor will be desired for many applications such as gas detection alarms, process controls for food production and so on. We have tried to realize the sensor using transient responses of semiconductor gas sensor consisting of tin dioxide and pointed out that the sensor gave us different transient responses for kinds of gas. Results of model calculation showed the activation energy of chemical reaction on the sensor surface strongly depended on the transient response. We tried to estimate the activation energies by molecular orbital calculation with SnO2 Cluster. The results show that there is a liner relationship between the gradient of the transient responses and activation energies for carboxylic and alcoholic gases. Transient response will be predicted from activation energy in the same kind of gas and the smell discrimination by single semiconductor gas sensor will be realized by this relationship.

  17. Modular Coating for Flexible Gas Turbine Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, J. R. A.; Schab, J. C.; Stankowski, A.; Grasso, P. D.; Olliges, S.; Leyens, C.

    2016-01-01

    In heavy duty gas turbines, the loading boundary conditions of MCrAlY systems are differently weighted for different operation regimes as well as for each turbine component or even in individual part locations. For an overall optimized component protection it is therefore of interest to produce coatings with flexible and individually tailored properties. In this context, ALSTOM developed an Advanced Modular Coating Technology (AMCOTEC™), which is based on several powder constituents, each providing specific properties to the final coating, in combination with a new application method, allowing in-situ compositional changes. With this approach, coating properties, such as oxidation, corrosion, and cyclic lifetime, etc., can be modularly adjusted for individual component types and areas. For demonstration purpose, a MCrAlY coating with modular ductility increase was produced using the AMCOTEC™ methodology. The method was proven to be cost effective and a highly flexible solution, enabling fast compositional screening. A calculation method for final coating composition was defined and validated. The modular addition of ductility agent enabled increasing the coating ductility with up to factor 3 with only slight decrease of oxidation resistance. An optimum composition with respect to ductility is reached with addition of 20 wt.% of ductility agent.

  18. Increasing the selectivity and sensitivity of gas sensors for the detection of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallin, Daniel

    Over the past decade, the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) has increased, domestically and internationally, highlighting a growing need for a method to quickly and reliably detect explosive devices in both military and civilian environments before the explosive can cause damage. Conventional techniques have been successful in explosive detection, however they typically suffer from enormous costs in capital equipment and maintenance, costs in energy consumption, sampling, operational related expenses, and lack of continuous and real-time monitoring. The goal was thus to produce an inexpensive, portable sensor that continuously monitors the environment, quickly detects the presence of explosive compounds and alerts the user. In 2012, here at URI, a sensor design was proposed for the detection of triacetone triperoxide (TATP). The design entailed a thermodynamic gas sensor that measures the heat of decomposition between trace TATP vapor and a metal oxide catalyst film. The sensor was able to detect TATP vapor at the part per million level (ppm) and showed great promise for eventual commercial use, however, the sensor lacked selectivity. Thus, the specific objective of this work was to take the original sensor design proposed in 2012 and to make several key improvements to advance the sensor towards commercialization. It was demonstrated that a sensor can be engineered to detect TATP and ignore the effects of interferent H2O2 molecules by doping SnO2 films with varying amounts of Pd. Compared with a pure SnO2 catalyst, a SnO2, film doped with 8 wt. % Pd had the highest selectivity between TATP and H2O2. Also, at 12 wt. % Pd, the response to TATP and H2O2 was enhanced, indicating that sensitivity, not only selectivity, can be increased by modifying the composition of the catalyst. An orthogonal detection system was demonstrated. The platform consists of two independent sensing mechanisms, one thermodynamic and one conductometric, which take measurements from

  19. High-performance gas sensors with temperature measurement

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Shengtao; Zhang, Jingyuan; Pan, Zhigang; Min, Daomin; Li, Xin; Song, Xiaoping; Liu, Junhua

    2013-01-01

    There are a number of gas ionization sensors using carbon nanotubes as cathode or anode. Unfortunately, their applications are greatly limited by their multi-valued sensitivity, one output value corresponding to several measured concentration values. Here we describe a triple-electrode structure featuring two electric fields with opposite directions, which enable us to overcome the multi-valued sensitivity problem at 1 atm in a wide range of gas concentrations. We used a carbon nanotube array as the first electrode, and the two electric fields between the upper and the lower interelectrode gaps were designed to extract positive ions generated in the upper gap, hence significantly reduced positive ion bombardment on the nanotube electrode, which allowed us to maintain a high electric field near the nanotube tips, leading to a single-valued sensitivity and a long nanotube life. We have demonstrated detection of various gases and simultaneously monitoring temperature, and a potential for applications. PMID:23405281

  20. Gas sensing performance of nano zinc oxide sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shiva; Chauhan, Pratima

    2016-04-01

    We report nano Zinc Oxide (ZnO) synthesized by sol-gel method possessing the crystallite size which varies from 25.17 nm to 47.27 nm. The Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image confirms the uniform distribution of nanograins with high porosity. The Energy dispersion X-ray (EDAX) spectrum gives the atomic composition of Zn and O in ZnO powders and confirms the formation of nano ZnO particles. These factors reveals that Nano ZnO based gas sensors are highly sensitive to Ammonia gas (NH3) at room temperature, indicating the maximum response 86.8% at 800 ppm with fast response time and recovery time of 36 sec and 23 sec respectively.

  1. Tellurium nano-structure based NO gas sensor.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek; Sen, Shashwati; Sharma, M; Muthe, K P; Jagannath; Gaur, N K; Gupta, S K

    2009-09-01

    Tellurium nanotubes were grown on bare and silver/gold nanoparticle (nucleation centers) deposited silicon substrates by vacuum deposition technique at a substrate temperature of 100 degrees C under high vacuum conditions. Silver and gold nanoparticles prepared on (111) oriented silicon substrates were found to act as nucleation centers for growth of Tellurium nanostructures. Density of nanotubes was found to increase while their diameter reduced when grown using metallic nanoparticle template. These Te nanostructures were investigated for their gas sensitivity. Tellurium nanotubes on Ag templates showed better response to NO in comparison to H2S and NH3 gases. Selectivity in response to NO was improved in comparison to Te thin film sensors reported earlier. The gas sensing mechanism was investigated using Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. The interaction of NO is seen to yield increased adsorption of oxygen that in turn increases hole density and conductivity in the material. PMID:19928213

  2. A bottom-gate silicon nanowire field-effect transistor with functionalized palladium nanoparticles for hydrogen gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Bongsik; Ahn, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Jieun; Yoon, Jinsu; Lee, Juhee; Jeon, Minsu; Kim, Dong Myong; Kim, Dae Hwan; Park, Inkyu; Choi, Sung-Jin

    2015-12-01

    The highly sensitive operation of a bottom-gate silicon nanowire (SiNW) field-effect transistor (FET)-based hydrogen (H2) sensor is demonstrated by controlling the working regime of the sensor. It is observed that the deposition of palladium (Pd) nanoparticles on the SiNW surface for the selective absorption of H2 can result in a significant enhancement of the electrostatic properties, such as the subthreshold swing and on-current, of the SiNW FET-based H2 sensor. By comparing the experimental results with the numerical simulation, we conclude that the improvement of the electrostatic properties of the sensor is due to the coupling effect between the electrostatic potentials in the Pd nanoparticle and bottom gate. Based on these results, highly sensitive detection of H2 gas could be achieved in the subthreshold regime where the gating effect induced by absorbed H2 gas is the most effective.

  3. Pt–Ti–O gate silicon–metal–insulator–semiconductor field-effect transistor hydrogen gas sensors in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usagawa, Toshiyuki; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Nambu, Akira; Yoneyama, Akio; Kikuchi, Yota; Watanabe, Atsushi

    2016-06-01

    The influence of radiation damages to developed hydrogen gas sensor chips from γ-rays (60Co) and/or X-rays (synchrotron radiation) is manageably avoided for sensor operations even at extremely high integral doses such as 1.8 and/or 18 MGy. Platinum–titanium–oxygen (Pt–Ti–O) gate silicon–metal–insulator–semiconductor field-effect transistor (Si-MISFET) hydrogen gas sensors can work stably as hydrogen sensors up to about 270 °C and also show environmental hardness as follows: When nitrogen-diluted 10-ppm hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS) was exposed to the sensor FETs for 40 min at a working temperature of 115 °C, large sensing amplitude (ΔV g) changed little within repetition errors before and after HMDS exposures. The variations of ΔV g among relative humidity of 20 and 80% are very small within ±4.4% around 50% under 40 °C atmosphere. The Pt–Ti–O sensors have been found to show large ΔV g of 624.4 mV with σΔV g of 7.27 mV for nine times repeated measurements under nitrogen-diluted 1.0%-hydrogen gas, which are nearly the same values of 654.5 mV with σΔV g of 3.77 mV under air-diluted 1.0%-hydrogen gas.

  4. Diamond Film Gas Sensors for Leak Detection of Semiconductor Doping Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Kazushi; Yokota, Yoshihiro; Tachibana, Takeshi; Miyata, Koichi; Kobashi, Koji; Fukunaga, Tetsuya; Takada, Tadashi

    2000-01-01

    Gas sensors for leak detection of toxic semiconductor doping gases such as PH3, B2H6, and AsH3 were fabricated using diamond films. The sensors have a double-layered structure composed of undoped and B-doped polycrystalline diamond layers with Pt electrodes. The relative changes in the resistance of the sensors were typically 10-20% for 0.2 ppm PH3 in air, and the highest value was over 100%. It was concluded that the diamond film gas sensors fabricated in the present work would be practically applicable as compact solid-state sensors with an advantage over the conventional aqueous electrolyte sensors.

  5. Ag Nanoparticle-Sensitized WO3 Hollow Nanosphere for Localized Surface Plasmon Enhanced Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yao; Ji, Fangxu; Yin, Mingli; Ren, Xianpei; Ma, Qiang; Yan, Junqing; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2016-07-20

    Ag nanoparticle (NP)-sensitized WO3 hollow nanospheres (Ag-WO3-HNSs) are fabricated via a simple sonochemical synthesis route. It is found that the Ag-WO3-HNS shows remarkable performance in gas sensors. Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images reveal that the Agx-WO3 adopts the HNS structure in which WO3 forms the outer shell framework and the Ag NPs are grown on the inner wall of the WO3 hollow sphere. The size of the Ag NPs can be controlled by adjusting the addition amount of WCl6 during the reaction. The sensor Agx-WO3 exhibits extremely high sensitivity and selectivity toward alcohol vapor. In particular, the Ag(15nm)-WO3 sensor shows significantly lower operating temperature (230 °C), superior detection limits as low as 0.09 ppb, and faster response (7 s). Light illumination was found to boost the sensor performance effectively, especially at 405 and 900 nm, where the light wavelength resonates with the absorption of Ag NPs and the surface oxygen vacancies of WO3, respectively. The improved sensor performance is attributed to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect. PMID:27348055

  6. Gas sensor technology at Sandia National Laboratories: Catalytic gate, Surface Acoustic Wave and Fiber Optic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.C.; Moreno, D.J.; Jenkins, M.W.; Rodriguez, J.L.

    1993-10-01

    Sandia`s gas sensor program encompasses three separate electronic platforms: Acoustic Wave Devices, Fiber Optic Sensors and sensors based on silicon microelectronic devices. A review of most of these activities was presented recently in a article in Science under the title ``Chemical Microsensors.`` The focus of the program has been on understanding and developing the chemical sensor coatings that are necessary for using these electronic platforms as effective chemical sensors.

  7. A magnonic gas sensor based on magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Matatagui, D; Kolokoltsev, O V; Qureshi, N; Mejía-Uriarte, E V; Saniger, J M

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we propose an innovative, simple and inexpensive gas sensor based on the variation in the magnetic properties of nanoparticles due to their interaction with gases. To measure the nanoparticle response a magnetostatic spin wave (MSW) tunable oscillator has been developed using an yttrium iron garnet (YIG) epitaxial thin film as a delay line (DL). The sensor has been prepared by coating a uniform layer of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles on the YIG film. The unperturbed frequency of the oscillator is determined by a bias magnetic field, which is applied parallel to the YIG film and perpendicularly to the wave propagation direction. In this device, the total bias magnetic field is the superposition of the field of a permanent magnet and the field associated with the layer of magnetic nanoparticles. The perturbation produced in the magnetic properties of the nanoparticle layer due to its interaction with gases induces a frequency shift in the oscillator, allowing the detection of low concentrations of gases. In order to demonstrate the ability of the sensor to detect gases, it has been tested with organic volatile compounds (VOCs) which have harmful effects on human health, such as dimethylformamide, isopropanol and ethanol, or the aromatic hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene and xylene more commonly known by its abbreviation (BTX). All of these were detected with high sensitivity, short response time, and good reproducibility. PMID:25952501

  8. A magnonic gas sensor based on magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matatagui, D.; Kolokoltsev, O. V.; Qureshi, N.; Mejía-Uriarte, E. V.; Saniger, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an innovative, simple and inexpensive gas sensor based on the variation in the magnetic properties of nanoparticles due to their interaction with gases. To measure the nanoparticle response a magnetostatic spin wave (MSW) tunable oscillator has been developed using an yttrium iron garnet (YIG) epitaxial thin film as a delay line (DL). The sensor has been prepared by coating a uniform layer of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles on the YIG film. The unperturbed frequency of the oscillator is determined by a bias magnetic field, which is applied parallel to the YIG film and perpendicularly to the wave propagation direction. In this device, the total bias magnetic field is the superposition of the field of a permanent magnet and the field associated with the layer of magnetic nanoparticles. The perturbation produced in the magnetic properties of the nanoparticle layer due to its interaction with gases induces a frequency shift in the oscillator, allowing the detection of low concentrations of gases. In order to demonstrate the ability of the sensor to detect gases, it has been tested with organic volatile compounds (VOCs) which have harmful effects on human health, such as dimethylformamide, isopropanol and ethanol, or the aromatic hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene and xylene more commonly known by its abbreviation (BTX). All of these were detected with high sensitivity, short response time, and good reproducibility.

  9. Performance and stress analysis of metal oxide films for CMOS-integrated gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Filipovic, Lado; Selberherr, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    The integration of gas sensor components into smart phones, tablets and wrist watches will revolutionize the environmental health and safety industry by providing individuals the ability to detect harmful chemicals and pollutants in the environment using always-on hand-held or wearable devices. Metal oxide gas sensors rely on changes in their electrical conductance due to the interaction of the oxide with a surrounding gas. These sensors have been extensively studied in the hopes that they will provide full gas sensing functionality with CMOS integrability. The performance of several metal oxide materials, such as tin oxide (SnO2), zinc oxide (ZnO), indium oxide (In2O3) and indium-tin-oxide (ITO), are studied for the detection of various harmful or toxic cases. Due to the need for these films to be heated to temperatures between 250°C and 550°C during operation in order to increase their sensing functionality, a considerable degradation of the film can result. The stress generation during thin film deposition and the thermo-mechanical stress that arises during post-deposition cooling is analyzed through simulations. A tin oxide thin film is deposited using the efficient and economical spray pyrolysis technique, which involves three steps: the atomization of the precursor solution, the transport of the aerosol droplets towards the wafer and the decomposition of the precursor at or near the substrate resulting in film growth. The details of this technique and a simulation methodology are presented. The dependence of the deposition technique on the sensor performance is also discussed. PMID:25815445

  10. Performance and Stress Analysis of Metal Oxide Films for CMOS-Integrated Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Filipovic, Lado; Selberherr, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    The integration of gas sensor components into smart phones, tablets and wrist watches will revolutionize the environmental health and safety industry by providing individuals the ability to detect harmful chemicals and pollutants in the environment using always-on hand-held or wearable devices. Metal oxide gas sensors rely on changes in their electrical conductance due to the interaction of the oxide with a surrounding gas. These sensors have been extensively studied in the hopes that they will provide full gas sensing functionality with CMOS integrability. The performance of several metal oxide materials, such as tin oxide (SnO2), zinc oxide (ZnO), indium oxide (In2O3) and indium-tin-oxide (ITO), are studied for the detection of various harmful or toxic cases. Due to the need for these films to be heated to temperatures between 250 °C and 550 °C during operation in order to increase their sensing functionality, a considerable degradation of the film can result. The stress generation during thin film deposition and the thermo-mechanical stress that arises during post-deposition cooling is analyzed through simulations. A tin oxide thin film is deposited using the efficient and economical spray pyrolysis technique, which involves three steps: the atomization of the precursor solution, the transport of the aerosol droplets towards the wafer and the decomposition of the precursor at or near the substrate resulting in film growth. The details of this technique and a simulation methodology are presented. The dependence of the deposition technique on the sensor performance is also discussed. PMID:25815445

  11. Electro-thermal modeling of a microbridge gas sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Manginell, R.P.; Smith, J.H.; Ricco, A.J.; Hughes, R.C.; Moreno, D.J.; Huber, R.J.

    1997-08-01

    Fully CMOS-compatible, surface-micromachined polysilicon microbridges have been designed, fabricated, and tested for use in catalytic, calorimetric gas sensing. To improve sensor behavior, extensive electro-thermal modeling efforts were undertaken using SPICE. The validity of the SPICE model was verified comparing its simulated behavior with experiment. Temperature distribution of an electrically heated microbridges was measured using an infrared microscope. Comparisons among the measured distribution, the SPICE simulation, and distributions obtained by analytical methods show that heating at the ends of a microbridges has important implications for device response. Additional comparisons between measured and simulated current-voltage characteristics, as well as transient response, further support the accuracy of the model. A major benefit of electro- thermal modeling with SPICE is the ability to simultaneously simulate the behavior of a device and its control/sensing electronics. Results for the combination of a unique constant-resistance control circuit and microbridges gas sensor are given. Models of in situ techniques for monitoring catalyst deposition are shown to be in agreement with experiment. Finally, simulated chemical response of the detector is compared with the data, and methods of improving response through modifications in bridge geometry are predicted.

  12. NO and NO2 sensing properties of WO3 and Co3O4 based gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Takafumi; Itoh, Toshio; Izu, Noriya; Shin, Woosuck

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductor-based gas sensors that use n-type WO3 or p-type Co3O4 powder were fabricated and their gas sensing properties toward NO2 or NO (0.5-5 ppm in air) were investigated at 100 °C or 200 °C. The resistance of the WO3-based sensor increased on exposure to NO2 and NO. On the other hand, the resistance of the Co3O4-based sensor varied depending on the operating temperature and the gas species. The chemical states of the surface of WO3 or those of the Co3O4 powder on exposure to 1 ppm NO2 and NO were investigated by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. No clear differences between the chemical states of the metal oxide surface exposed to NO2 or NO could be detected from the DRIFT spectra. PMID:24048338

  13. Swift heavy ion irradiated SnO2 thin film sensor for efficient detection of SO2 gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Punit; Sharma, Savita; Tomar, Monika; Singh, Fouran; Gupta, Vinay

    2016-07-01

    Gas sensing response studies of the Ni7+ ion irradiated (100 MeV) and non-irradiated SnO2 thin film sensor prepared under same conditions have been performed towards SO2 gas (500 ppm). The effect of irradiation on the structural, surface morphological, optical and gas sensing properties of SnO2 thin film based sensor have been studied. A significant decrease in operating temperature (from 220 °C to 60 °C) and increased sensing response (from 1.3 to 5.0) is observed for the sample after irradiation. The enhanced sensing response obtained for the irradiated SnO2 thin film based sensor is attributed to the desired modification in the surface morphology and material properties of SnO2 thin film by Ni7+ ions.

  14. NO and NO2 Sensing Properties of WO3 and Co3O4 Based Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Akamatsu, Takafumi; Itoh, Toshio; Izu, Noriya; Shin, Woosuck

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductor-based gas sensors that use n-type WO3 or p-type Co3O4 powder were fabricated and their gas sensing properties toward NO2 or NO (0.5–5 ppm in air) were investigated at 100 °C or 200 °C. The resistance of the WO3-based sensor increased on exposure to NO2 and NO. On the other hand, the resistance of the Co3O4-based sensor varied depending on the operating temperature and the gas species. The chemical states of the surface of WO3 or those of the Co3O4 powder on exposure to 1 ppm NO2 and NO were investigated by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. No clear differences between the chemical states of the metal oxide surface exposed to NO2 or NO could be detected from the DRIFT spectra. PMID:24048338

  15. Emissions from oil and natural gas operations in northeastern Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petron, G.; Kofler, J. D.; Frost, G. J.; Miller, B. R.; Edwards, P. M.; Dube, W. P.; Montzka, S. A.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Conley, S. A.; Brown, S. S.; Geiger, F.; Warneke, C.; Martin, R. S.; Andrews, A. E.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Lang, P. M.; Trainer, M.; Hardesty, R.; Schnell, R. C.; Tans, P. P.

    2012-12-01

    The Uintah oil and natural gas Basin in Northeastern Utah experienced several days of high ozone levels in early 2011 during cold temperature inversions. To study the chemical and meteorological processes leading to these wintertime ozone pollution events, the State of Utah, EPA region 8 and oil and gas operators pulled together a multi-agency research team, including NOAA ESRL/CIRES scientists. The data gathering took place between January 15 and February 29, 2012.To document the chemical signature of various sources in the Basin, we outfitted a passenger van with in-situ analyzers (Picarro: CH4, CO2, CO, H2O, 13CH4; NOxCaRD: NO, NOx, 2B & NOxCaRD: O3) meteorological sensors, GPS units, discrete flask sampling apparatus, as well as a data logging and "real-time" in-situ data visualization system. The instrumented van, called Mobile Lab, also hosted a KIT Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (suite of VOCs in situ measurements) for part of the campaign. For close to a month, the Mobile Lab traveled the roads of the oil and gas field, documenting ambient levels of several tracers. Close to 180 valid air samples were collected in February by the Mobile Lab for future analysis in the NOAA and CU/INSTAAR labs in Boulder. At the same time as the surface effort was going on, an instrumented light aircraft conducted transects over the Basin collecting air samples mostly in the boundary layer and measuring in situ the following species CH4, CO2, NO2, O3. We will present some of the data collected by the Mobile Lab and the aircraft and discuss analysis results.

  16. Development of an Acoustic Sensor On-Line Gas Temperature Measurement in Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Ariessohn

    2008-06-30

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-02NT41422 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 2 - Gasification Technologies. The project team includes Enertechnix, Inc. as the main contractor and ConocoPhillips Company as a technical partner, who also provides access to the SG Solutions Gasification Facility (formerly Wabash River Energy Limited), host for the field-testing portion of the research. The objective of this project was to adapt acoustic pyrometer technology to make it suitable for measuring gas temperature inside a coal gasifier, to develop a prototype sensor based on this technology, and to demonstrate its performance through testing on a commercial gasifier. The project was organized in three phases, each of approximately one year duration. The first phase consisted of researching a variety of sound generation and coupling approaches suitable for use with a high pressure process, evaluation of the impact of gas composition variability on the acoustic temperature measurement approach, evaluation of the impact of suspended particles and gas properties on sound attenuation, evaluation of slagging issues and development of concepts to deal with this issue, development and testing of key prototype components to allow selection of the best approaches, and development of a conceptual design for a field prototype sensor that could be tested on an operating gasifier. The second phase consisted of designing and fabricating a series of prototype sensors, testing them in the laboratory, and developing a conceptual design for a field prototype sensor. The third phase consisted of designing and fabricating the field prototype, and testing it in the lab and in a commercial gasifier to demonstrate the ability to obtain accurate measurements of gas temperature in an operating gasifier. Following the completion of the initial 3 year project, several continuations

  17. An Operational Wake Vortex Sensor Using Pulsed Coherent Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Ben C., Jr.; Koch, Grady J.; Nguyen, D. Chi

    1998-01-01

    more recently, including a system developed by the MIT Lincoln Laboratory. This lidar has been used for detailed measurements of wake vortex velocities in support of wake vortex model validation. The first measurements of wake vortices using a pulsed, lidar were made by Coherent Technologies, Inc. (CTI) using a 2 micron solid-state, flashlamp-pumped system operating at 5 Hz. This system was first deployed at Denver's Stapleton Airport. Pulsed lidar has been selected as the baseline technology for an operational sensor due to its longer range capability.

  18. Gas Membrane Sensor Technique for Long Term Gas Measurements in Deep Boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, M.; Erzinger, J.; Kujawa, Chr.; Co2-Sink Group

    2009-04-01

    The direct determination of the gas composition in subsurface brines in deep boreholes is necessary for the characterization of existing fluids and the monitoring of changes of reservoir gases during industrial use. The conventional methods used for this purpose were mostly expensive and sophisticated techniques and typically involve the collection of discrete samples that are transported to a laboratory for analyses. Alternatively, the presented new gas membrane sensor technique allows for a permanent collection of gas in the subsurface and the continuous conduction of the gathered gas through a special borehole cable with subsequent real time analyses at the surface. The system is easy to handle, avoids complex mechanical components and therefore reduces costs. The main component of the gas sensor is a tube-shaped membrane, together with a piezoresistive pressure and temperature transmitter and two stainless steel capillaries embedded in a borehole cable for the gas transport to the surface. A filler material prevents the membrane from collapsing inwardly under pressures exceeding 200 bars. The practicability of our method was tested by comprehensive laboratory experiments at different pressures, temperatures and salt concentrations and by comparing the results with literature data on gas permeation coefficients and activation energies gained by the conventional "time-lag" method. By taking into account the permeability coefficient for carbon dioxide in the used polydimethylsiloxan membrane, the Henry-law coefficient and the salting out effect the quantification of dissolved carbon dioxide in deep borehole brines is possible. The described method was successful applied at the scientific carbon dioxide storage test site in Ketzin, Germany. Changes in the reservoir gas composition were monitored and the breakthrough of injected carbon dioxide and krypton gas tracer into the observation well were recorded.

  19. Feasibility of simultaneous operation of passive remote microwave sensors and active services occupying adjacent frequency bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sue, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    To ensure proper sensor operations, it is necessary to understand the situation of potential interference to sensors due to active equipment sharing common frequency bands as well as equipment occupying adjacent bands. The feasibility of sharing common frequency bands between passive sensors and other active services was analyzed. Potential interference to sensors due to equipment in bands adjacent to sensor frequency bands is examined and criteria to avoid interference is developed.

  20. Development of a coolant channel helium and nitrogen gas ratio sensor for a high temperature gas reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cadell, S. R.; Woods, B. G.

    2012-07-01

    To measure the changing gas composition of the coolant during a postulated High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) accident, an instrument is needed. This instrument must be compact enough to measure the ratio of the coolant versus the break gas in an individual coolant channel. This instrument must minimally impact the fluid flow and provide for non-direct signal routing to allow minimal disturbance to adjacent channels. The instrument must have a flexible geometry to allow for the measurement of larger volumes such as in the upper or lower plenum of a HTGR. The instrument must be capable of accurately functioning through the full operating temperature and pressure of a HTGR. This instrument is not commercially available, but a literature survey has shown that building off of the present work on Capacitance Sensors and Cross-Capacitors will provide a basis for the development of the desired instrument. One difficulty in developing and instrument to operate at HTGR temperatures is acquiring an electrical conductor that will not melt at 1600 deg. C. This requirement limits the material selection to high temperature ceramics, graphite, and exotic metals. An additional concern for the instrument is properly accounting for the thermal expansion of both the sensing components and the gas being measured. This work covers the basic instrument overview with a thorough discussion of the associated uncertainty in making these measurements. (authors)

  1. Recognizing indoor formaldehyde in binary gas mixtures with a micro gas sensor array and a neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Pin; Tang, Zhenan; Wei, Guangfen; Yu, Jun; Huang, Zhengxing

    2007-09-01

    Low-concentration formaldehyde (HCHO) together with ethanol/toluene/acetone/α-pinene (as an interference gas of HCHO) is detected with a micro gas sensor array, composed of eight tin oxide (SnO2) thin film gas sensors with Au, Cu, Pt or Pd metal catalysts. The characteristics of the multi-dimensional signals from the eight sensors are evaluated. A multilayer neural network with an error backpropagation (BP) learning algorithm, plus the principal component analysis (PCA) technique, is implemented to recognize these indoor volatile organic compounds (VOC). The results show that the micro gas sensor array, plus the multilayer neural network, is very effective in recognizing 0.06 ppm HCHO in single gas component and in binary gas mixtures, toluene/ethanol/α-pinene with small relative error.

  2. Selective hydrogen gas sensor using CuFe2O4 nanoparticle based thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haija, Mohammad Abu; Ayesh, Ahmad I.; Ahmed, Sadiqa; Katsiotis, Marios S.

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen gas sensors based on CuFe2O4 nanoparticle thin films are presented in this work. Each gas sensor was prepared by depositing CuFe2O4 thin film on a glass substrate by dc sputtering inside a high vacuum chamber. Argon inert gas was used to sputter the material from a composite sputtering target. Interdigitated metal electrodes were deposited on top of the thin films by thermal evaporation and shadow masking. The produced sensors were tested against hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, and ethylene gases where they were found to be selective for hydrogen. The sensitivity of the produced sensors was maximum for hydrogen gas at 50 °C. In addition, the produced sensors exhibit linear response signal for hydrogen gas with concentrations up to 5%. Those sensors have potential to be used for industrial applications because of their low power requirement, functionality at low temperatures, and low production cost.

  3. Evaluation of an Interferometric Sensor for In-Space Detection of Gas Leaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Korman, Valentin; Sinko, John; Hendrickson, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Space mission planning often involves long-term storage of volatile liquids or high-pressure gases. These may include cryogenic fuels and oxidizers, high-pressure gases, and life-support-critical consumables. The risk associated with the storage of fluids and gases in space systems has long been an issue and the ability to retain these fluids is often tied to mission success. A leak in the storage or distribution system can cause many different problems, including a simple, but mission endangering, loss of inventory or, in severe cases, unbalanced thrust loads on a flight vehicle. Cryogenic propellants are especially difficult to store, especially over a long duration. The propellant can boil off and be lost through the insulating walls of the tank or simple thermal cycling of the fittings, valves, and propellant feed lines may unseat seals allowing the fluid to escape. Current NASA missions call for long-duration in-space storage of propellants, oxidizers, and life support supplies. Leaks of a scale detectable through a pressure drop in the storage tank are often catastrophic and have long been the focus of ground-based mitigation efforts where redundant systems are often employed. However, there is presently no technology available for detecting and monitoring low-level, but still mission-endangering, gas leaks in space. Standard in-space gas detection methods either have a very limited pressure range over which they operate effectively or are limited to certain gases. Mass spectrometer systems are able to perform the detection tasks, but their size, mass and use of high voltage, which could potentially lead to an arc that ignites a combustible propellent, severely limit their usefulness in a space system. In this paper, we present results from testing of the light-based interferometric gas monitoring and leak detection sensor shown in Fig. 1. The output of the sensor is an interference fringe pattern that is a function of the gas density, and commensurate index

  4. Manufacturability of gas sensor with ZnO nanoparticles suspension deposited by ink jet printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conedera, V.; Yoboue, P.; Mesnilgrente, F.; Fabre, N.; Menini, P.

    2010-02-01

    Zinc oxide is used in many applications thanks to its various characteristics as well as photoresistivity, piezoelectricity, wide band gap for power components but also its capability for gas detection. In this article, we first present new process based on ZnO nanoparticles from Sigma Aldrich manufacturer; a stable ink obtained by mixing 10% weight of commercial powder with ethylene glycol, has been deposited by ink-jet printing on a silicon oxide substrate covered by platinum interdigitated electrodes. To obtain homogeneous deposits of nanoparticles, the working area of the sensor was bounded by functionalisation by the n-Octadecyltrichlorosilane. These deposits were optimized at 65°C. Then, the study was focused on the correlation between parameters of deposit and global resistance and gas sensitivity: conductivity for different operating temperatures under methane and isopropyl alcohol vapours. The best results have been obtained for thicknesses in the range of 0.5 and 2.5 μm. The ZnO resistance is stable under gas from 200°C and the relative sensitivity to methane and isopropyl alcohol are maximum and opposite at 225°C and 300°C respectively. This work shows that ink-jet is a promising technique to manufacture a new generation of low cost gas sensors at lower temperature deposition.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of InNbO₄ nanopowder for gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, C; Vijayakumar, E; Subramania, A

    2012-01-15

    Indium niobate (InNbO(4)) nanopowder was prepared by a comparatively low temperature niobium citrate complex process. The prepared InNbO(4) was characterized by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and impedance studies. It revealed that the well crystalline monoclinic InNbO(4) nanopowder was obtained at the calcination temperature of 600°C. The average particle diameter was 22nm. The optical band gap was found to be 2.66eV. The temperature dependent conductivity obeyed Arrhenius relation. The activation energy of the conductivity process was calculated to be 0.43eV. The gas sensing behaviour of the prepared InNbO(4) was studied by measuring the change in resistance of the sensor material as a function of various concentrations of the test gases such as liquid petroleum gas (LPG), ammonia (NH(3)) and ethanol (C(2)H(5)OH) at their optimized operating temperature. InNbO(4) had a better sensitivity to LPG (0.97) and NH(3) (0.70) gas than ethanol (0.46). The sensor responses of InNbO(4) as a function of gas concentrations and with recovery time were also studied in detail. PMID:22265476

  6. Optical-fibre sensor system for monitoring the performance of the gas propellant centrifuge separator of a spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romo-Medrano, Katya E.; Khotiaintsev, Sergei N.; García-Garduño, Victor

    2004-08-01

    An optical-fibre sensor system is presented for monitoring void fraction distribution in a spacecraft's gas and propellant centrifuge separator. The system could be used at the separator development stage or for monitoring, during ground tests, the elements of the spacecraft propulsion system. Our sensor system employs an array of point optical-fibre refractometric transducers installed in the form of several linear radial arrays on the separator rotating blades. We employed a small-size hemispherical optical detection element as the transducer and we optimized its parameters through numerical ray-tracing. The aim is to minimize the effect of the thin film of liquid that forms on the transducer's surface in this application. The features of this sensor system are: (1) an efficient matrix-type multiplexing scheme, (2) the installation of the main optoelectronic unit of the sensor in a hermetically sealed container inside the separator tank located on the rotating shaft and (3) the spark-proof and explosion-proof design of the sensor circuits and elements. The sensor is simple, reliable, low-cost and is capable of withstanding the factors involved during operation of the propulsion system such as cryogenic temperatures and chemically aggressive liquids. The novel elements and design concepts implemented in this sensor system can also find applications in other sensors for spacecraft propulsion systems and also in a variety of optical-fibre sensors used in scientific research and industry.

  7. Arterial gas occlusions in operating heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of noncondensable gases on high performance arterial heat pipes has been investigated both analytically and experimentally. Models have been generated which characterize the dissolution of gases in condensate and the diffusional loss of dissolved gases from condensate in arterial flow. These processes, and others, have been used to postulate stability criteria for arterial heat pipes. Experimental observations of gas occlusions were made using a stainless steel heat pipe equipped with viewing ports, and the working fluids methanol and ammonia with the gas additives helium, argon, and xenon. Observations were related to gas transport models.

  8. Novel sensors to enable closed-loop active clearance control in gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisheimer, Jonathan; Holst, Tom

    2014-06-01

    Active clearance control within the turbine section of gas turbine engines presents and opportunity within aerospace and industrial applications to improve operating efficiencies and the life of downstream components. Open loop clearance control is currently employed during the development of all new large core aerospace engines; however, the ability to measure the gap between the blades and the case and close down the clearance further presents as opportunity to gain even greater efficiencies. The turbine area is one of the harshest environments for long term placement of a sensor in addition to the extreme accuracy requirements required to enable closed loop clearance control. This paper gives an overview of the challenges of clearance measurements within the turbine as well as discusses the latest developments of a microwave sensor designed for this application.

  9. Sensor Nanny, data management services for marine observation operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loubrieu, Thomas; Détoc, Jérôme; Thorel, Arnaud; Azelmat, Hamza

    2016-04-01

    In marine sciences, the diversity of observed properties (from water physic to contaminants in observed in biological individuals or sediment) and observation methodologies (from manned sampling and analysis in labs to large automated networks of homogeneous platforms) requires different expertises and thus dedicated scientific program (ARGO, EMSO, GLOSS, GOSHIP, OceanSites, GOSUD, Geotrace, SOCAT, member state environment monitoring networks, experimental research…). However, all of them requires similar IT services to support the maintenance of their network (calibrations, deployment strategy, spare part management...) and their data management. In Europe, the National Oceanographic Data Centres coordinated by the IOC/IODE and SeaDataNet provide reliable reference services (e.g. vocabularies, contact directories), standards and long term data preservation. Besides the regional operational oceanographic centres (ROOSes) coordinated by EuroGOOS and Copernicus In-Situ Thematic Assembly Centre provide efficient data management for near real time or delayed mode services focused on physics and bio-geo-chemistry in the water column. Other e-infrastructures, such as euroBIS for biodiversity, are focused on specific disciplines. Beyond the current scope of these well established infrastructures, Sensor Nanny is a web application providing services for operators of observatories to manage their observations on the "cloud". The application stands against the reference services (vocabularies, organization directory) and standard profiles (OGC/Sensor Web Enablement) provided by SeaDataNet. The application provides an on-line editor to graphically describe, literally draw, their observatory (acquisition and processing systems). The observatory description is composed by the user from a palette of hundreds of pre-defined sensors or hardware linked together. In addition, the data providers can upload their data in CSV and netCDF formats on a dropbox-like system. The latest

  10. In situ measurement of gas composition changes in radio frequency plasmas using a quartz sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Nonaka, Hidehiko

    2009-09-15

    A simple method using a quartz sensor (Q-sensor) was developed to observe gas composition changes in radio frequency (rf) plasmas. The output depends on the gases' absolute pressure, molecular weight, and viscosity. The pressure-normalized quartz sensor output depends only on the molecular weight and viscosity of the gas. Consequently, gas composition changes can be detected in the plasmas if a sensor can be used in the plasmas. Influences imparted by the plasmas on the sensor, such as those by reactive particles (e.g., radicals and ions), excited species, electrons, temperature, and electric potentials during measurements were investigated to test the applicability of this quartz sensor measurement to plasma. The Q-sensor measurement results for rf plasmas with argon, hydrogen, and their mixtures are reproducible, demonstrating that the Q-sensor measurement is applicable for plasmas. In this work, pressure- and temperature-normalized Q-sensor output (NQO) were used to obtain the gas composition information of plasma. Temperature-normalization of the Q-sensor output enabled quartz sensor measurements near plasma electrodes, where the quartz sensor temperature increases. The changes in NQO agreed with results obtained by gas analysis using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Results confirmed that the change in NQO is mainly attributable to changes in the densities and kinds of gas molecules in the plasma gas phase, not by other extrinsic influences of plasma. For argon, hydrogen, and argon-hydrogen plasmas, these changes correspond to reduction in nitrogen, production of carbon monoxide, and dissociation of hydrogen molecules, respectively. These changes in NQO qualitatively and somewhat quantitatively agreed with results obtained using gas analysis, indicting that the measurement has a potential application to obtain the gas composition in plasmas without disturbing industrial plasma processes.

  11. Preparation of the spacer for narrow electrode gap configuration in ionization-based gas sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Saheed, Mohamed Shuaib Mohamed; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Burhanudin, Zainal Arif

    2012-09-26

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have started to be developed as the sensing element for ionization-based gas sensors due to the demand for improved sensitivity, selectivity, stability and other sensing properties beyond what can be offered by the conventional ones. Although these limitations have been overcome, the problems still remain with the conventional ionization-based gas sensors in that they are bulky and operating with large breakdown voltage and high temperature. Recent studies have shown that the breakdown voltage can be reduced by using nanostructured electrodes and narrow electrode gap. Nanostructured electrode in the form of aligned CNTs array with evenly distributed nanotips can enhance the linear electric field significantly. The later is attributed to the shorter conductivity path through narrow electrode gap. The paper presents the study on the design consideration in order to realize ionization based gas sensor using aligned carbon nanotubes array in an optimum sensor configuration with narrow electrode gap. Several deposition techniques were studied to deposit the spacer, the key component that can control the electrode gap. Plasma spray deposition, electron beam deposition and dry oxidation method were employed to obtain minimum film thickness around 32 {mu}m. For plasma spray method, sand blasting process is required in order to produce rough surface for strong bonding of the deposited film onto the surface. Film thickness, typically about 39 {mu}m can be obtained. For the electron beam deposition and dry oxidation, the film thickness is in the range of nanometers and thus unsuitable to produce the spacer. The deposited multilayer film consisting of copper, alumina and ferum on which CNTs array will be grown was found to be removed during the etching process. This is attributed to the high etching rate on the thin film which can be prevented by reducing the rate and having a thicker conductive copper film.

  12. Field Test of Fiber-Optic Voltage and Current Sensors Applied to Gas Insulated Substation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Y.; Abe, Y.; Kuwahara, H.; Yoshinaga, K.

    1986-08-01

    The fiber-optic voltage and current sensors applied for 84kV three phase type gas insulated substation (GIS) were tested in order to see the advantages of these sensors practically in adverse field condition. The application technologies and field endurance test results of the sensors are described in this paper.

  13. Palladium-silver-activated ZnO surface: highly selective methane sensor at reasonably low operating temperature.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sugato; Roychaudhuri, Chirasree; Bhattacharya, Raghunath; Saha, Hiranmay; Mukherjee, Nillohit

    2014-03-26

    Metal oxide semiconductors (MOS) are well known as reducing gas sensors. However, their selectivity and operating temperature have major limitations. Most of them show cross sensitivity and the operating temperatures are also relatively higher than the value reported here. To resolve these problems, here, we report the use of palladium-silver (70-30%) activated ZnO thin films as a highly selective methane sensor at low operating temperature (∼100 °C). Porous ZnO thin films were deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates by galvanic technique. X-ray diffraction showed polycrystalline nature of the films, whereas the morphological analyses (field emission scanning electron microscopy) showed flake like growth of the grains mainly on xy plane with high surface roughness (107 nm). Pd-Ag (70-30%) alloy was deposited on such ZnO films by e-beam evaporation technique with three different patterns, namely, random dots, ultrathin (∼1 nm) layer and thin (∼5 nm) layer as the activation layer. ZnO films with Pd-Ag dotted pattern were found show high selectivity towards methane (with respect to H2S and CO) and sensitivity (∼80%) at a comparatively low operating temperature of about 100°C. This type of sensor was found to have higher methane selectivity in comparison to other commercially available reducing gas sensor. PMID:24564703

  14. Development of Carbon Nanotube Resonant-Circuit Sensors for Gas Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, S.; Pham, A.; Gaillard, J.; Rao, A. M.

    2002-03-01

    We present the design and development of highly sensitive and ultra-fast responsive electromagnetic resonant sensors for monitoring the presence of ammonia gas. The sensor consists of a circular disk electromagnetic resonant circuit coated with single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT &MWNT) that are highly sensitive to adsorbed gas molecules. Upon exposure to ammonia, the electrical resonant frequency of the sensor exhibits a dramatic shift of 4.375 MHz. The recovery and response time of these sensors is ~15 minutes. This technology is suitable for designing remote sensors to monitor gases inside sealed opaque packages and environmental conditions that do not allow physical wire connections.

  15. Langasite Surface Acoustic Wave Gas Sensors: Modeling and Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Peng; Greve, David W; Oppenheim, Irving J

    2013-01-01

    We report finite element simulations of the effect of conductive sensing layers on the surface wave velocity of langasite substrates. The simulations include both the mechanical and electrical influences of the conducting sensing layer. We show that three-dimensional simulations are necessary because of the out-of-plane displacements of the commonly used (0, 138.5, 26.7) Euler angle. Measurements of the transducer input admittance in reflective delay-line devices yield a value for the electromechanical coupling coefficient that is in good agreement with the three-dimensional simulations on bare langasite substrate. The input admittance measurements also show evidence of excitation of an additional wave mode and excess loss due to the finger resistance. The results of these simulations and measurements will be useful in the design of surface acoustic wave gas sensors.

  16. Chemoresistive Gas Sensors for the Detection of Colorectal Cancer Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Malagù, Cesare; Fabbri, Barbara; Gherardi, Sandro; Giberti, Alessio; Guidi, Vincenzo; Landini, Nicolò; Zonta, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    Numerous medical studies show that tumor growth is accompanied by protein changes that may lead to the peroxidation of the cell membrane with consequent emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by breath or intestinal gases that should be seen as biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC). The analysis of VOCs represents a non-invasive and potentially inexpensive preliminary screening technique. An array of chemoresistive gas sensors based on screen-printed metal oxide semiconducting films has been selected to discriminate gases of oncological interest, e.g., 1-iodononane and benzene, widely assumed to be biomarkers of colorectal cancer, from those of interference in the gut, such as methane and nitric oxide. PMID:25313496

  17. Air Monitoring System in Elders' Apartment with QCM Type Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Masashi; Ito, Tsukasa; Shiratori, Seimei

    The gas monitoring system for elders' apartment using QCM sensors was newly developed. The QCM sensors for sulfide gas and ammonia gas were used for this system. The system for bodily wastes was fabricated and applied to nursing care system in elders' apartment. This system is composed by the sensor unit, communication unit and data server. Care person can see whether the linen should be changed or not without seeing over each room. The QCM sensors have some problems such as the interference of humidity and temperature, therefore these influences were dissolved using humidity sensor and temperature sensor as feedback source. The sensors were placed in several points of elders' apartment for 2 weeks. This system can be used in elders' apartment successfully.

  18. Sensor Data Qualification Technique Applied to Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Simon, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper applies a previously developed sensor data qualification technique to a commercial aircraft engine simulation known as the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (C-MAPSS40k). The sensor data qualification technique is designed to detect, isolate, and accommodate faulty sensor measurements. It features sensor networks, which group various sensors together and relies on an empirically derived analytical model to relate the sensor measurements. Relationships between all member sensors of the network are analyzed to detect and isolate any faulty sensor within the network.

  19. A 3D scaffold for ultra-sensitive reduced graphene oxide gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yong Ju; Hong, Won G; Choi, Nak-Jin; Park, Hyung Ju; Moon, Seung Eon; Kim, Byung Hoon; Song, Ki-Bong; Jun, Yongseok; Lee, Hyung-Kun

    2014-06-21

    An ultra-sensitive gas sensor based on a reduced graphene oxide nanofiber mat was successfully fabricated using a combination of an electrospinning method and graphene oxide wrapping through an electrostatic self-assembly, followed by a low-temperature chemical reduction. The sensor showed excellent sensitivity to NO2 gas. PMID:24839129

  20. Development Of An Acoustice Sensor For On-Line Gas Temperature Measurement In Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Ariessohn; Hans Hornung

    2006-10-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-02NT41422 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 2 - Gasification Technologies. The project team includes Enertechnix, Inc. as the main contractor and ConocoPhillips Company as a technical partner, who also provides access to the SG Solutions Gasification Facility (formerly Wabash River Energy Limited), host for the field-testing portion of the research. The objective of this project was to adapt acoustic pyrometer technology to make it suitable for measuring gas temperature inside a coal gasifier, to develop a prototype sensor based on this technology, and to demonstrate its performance through testing on a commercial gasifier. The project was organized in three phases, each of approximately one year duration. The first phase consisted of researching a variety of sound generation and coupling approaches suitable for use with a high pressure process, evaluation of the impact of gas composition variability on the acoustic temperature measurement approach, evaluation of the impact of suspended particles and gas properties on sound attenuation, evaluation of slagging issues and development of concepts to deal with this issue, development and testing of key prototype components to allow selection of the best approaches, and development of a conceptual design for a field prototype sensor that could be tested on an operating gasifier. The second phase consisted of designing and fabricating a series of prototype sensors, testing them in the laboratory, and developing a conceptual design for a field prototype sensor. The third phase consisted of designing and fabricating the field prototype, and testing it in the lab and in a commercial gasifier to demonstrate the ability to obtain accurate measurements of gas temperature in an operating gasifier. This report describes all of the activities conducted during the project and

  1. In2O3 Nanotower Hydrogen Gas Sensors Based on Both Schottky Junction and Thermoelectronic Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhao Qiang; Zhu, Lian Feng; Wang, Bing

    2015-07-01

    Indium oxide (In2O3) tower-shaped nanostructure gas sensors have been fabricated on Cr comb-shaped interdigitating electrodes with relatively narrower interspace of 1.5 μm using thermal evaporation of the mixed powders of In2O3 and active carbon. The Schottky contact between the In2O3 nanotower and the Cr comb-shaped interdigitating electrode forms the Cr/In2O3 nanotower Schottky diode, and the corresponding temperature-dependent I- V characteristics have been measured. The diode exhibits a low Schottky barrier height of 0.45 eV and ideality factor of 2.93 at room temperature. The In2O3 nanotower gas sensors have excellent gas-sensing characteristics to hydrogen concentration ranging from 2 to 1000 ppm at operating temperature of 120-275 °C, such as high response (83 % at 240 °C to 1000 ppm H2), good selectivity (response to H2, CH4, C2H2, and C3H8), and small deviation from the ideal value of power exponent β (0.48578 at 240 °C). The sensors show fine long-term stability during exposure to 1000 ppm H2 under operating temperature of 240 °C in 30 days. Lots of oxygen vacancies and chemisorbed oxygen ions existing in the In2O3 nanotowers according to the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results, the change of Schottky barrier height in the Cr/In2O3 Schottky junction, and the thermoelectronic emission due to the contact between two In2O3 nanotowers mainly contribute for the H2 sensing mechanism. The growth mechanism of the In2O3 nanotowers can be described to be the Vapor-Solid (VS) process.

  2. Imaging the operation of a carbon nanotube charge sensor at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Brunel, David; Mayer, Alexandre; Mélin, Thierry

    2010-10-26

    Carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs) are of great interest for nanoelectronics applications such as nonvolatile memory elements (NVMEs) or charge sensors. In this work, we use a scanning-probe approach based on a local charge perturbation of CNTFET-based NVMEs and investigate their fundamental operation from combined transport, electrostatic scanning probe techniques and atomistic simulations. We experimentally demonstrate operating devices with threshold voltages shifts opposite to conventional gating and with almost unchanged hysteresis. The former effect is quantitatively understood as the emission of a delocalized image charge pattern in the nanotube environment, in response to local charge storage, while the latter effect points out the dominant dipolar nature of hysteresis in CNTFETs. We propose a simple model for charge sensing using CNTFETs, based on the redistribution of the nanotube image charges. This model could be extended to gas or biosensing, for example. PMID:20866060

  3. High sensitivity gas sensor based on IR spectroscopy technology and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hengyi

    2016-06-01

    Due to extremely effective advantages of the quantum cascade laser spectroscopy and technology for trace gas detection, this paper presents spectroscopy scanning, the characteristics of temperature tuning, system resolution, sensitivity, and system stability with the application of the presented gas sensor. Experimental results showed that the sensor resolution was ≤0.01cm-1 (equivalent to 0.06 nm), and the sensor sensitivity was at the level of 194 ppb with the application of H2CO measurement.

  4. Volcano Gas Measurements from UAS - Customization of Sensors and Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, C. A.; Dahlgren, R. P.; Kern, C.; Kelly, P. J.; Fladeland, M. M.; Norton, K.; Johnson, M. S.; Sutton, A. J.; Elias, T.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions threaten not only the lives and property of local populations, but also aviation worldwide. Volcanic gas release is a key driving force in eruptive activity, and monitoring gas emissions is critical to assessing volcanic hazards, yet most volcanoes are not monitored for volcanic gas emission. Measuring volcanic gas emissions with manned aircraft has been standard practice for many years during eruptive crises, but such measurements are quite costly. As a result, measurements are typically only made every week or two at most during periods of unrest or eruption, whereas eruption dynamics change much more rapidly. Furthermore, very few measurements are made between eruptions to establish baseline emissions. Unmanned aerial system (UAS) measurements of volcanic plumes hold great promise for both improving temporal resolution of measurements during volcanic unrest, and for reducing the exposure of personnel to potentially hazardous conditions. Here we present the results of a new collaborative effort between the US Geological Survey and NASA Ames Research Center to develop a UAS specific for volcano gas monitoring using miniaturized gas sensing systems and a custom airframe. Two miniaturized sensing systems are being built and tested: a microDOAS system to quantify SO2 emission rates, and a miniature MultiGAS system for measuring in-situ concentrations of CO2, SO2, and H2S. The instruments are being built into pods that will be flown on a custom airframe built from surplus Raven RQ-11. The Raven is one of the smallest UAS (a SUAS), and has the potential to support global rapid response when eruptions occur because they require less crew for operations. A test mission is planned for fall 2015 or spring 2016 at the Crows Landing Airfield in central California. Future measurement locations might include Kilauea Volcano in Hawaii, or Pagan Volcano in the Marianas.

  5. Improving the sensitivity of the ZnO gas sensor to dimethyl sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchorska-Woźniak, P.; Nawrot, W.; Rac, O.; Fiedot, M.; Teterycz, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study was focused on how to improve the gas sensing properties of resistive gas sensors based on zinc oxide to dimethyl sulfide (DMS). The aim of this research was to investigate possible ways of improvement detection of dimethyl sulfide, such as volume doping with synthesized gold nanoparticles or applying sepiolite passive filter. The addition of noble metal into the gas sensing layer is a widely known method of increasing gas sensor response. Sepiolite is a clay mineral with highly porous structure consisting of nanotubes few micrometers long and water absorption abilities. In this work thick-film resistive gas sensors based on zinc oxide were made (pure ZnO, modified by gold nanoparticles, with the addition of filter) and tested for low concentration (2 ppm) of dimethyl sulfide. The sensitivities to DMS of developed sensors were compared. Attention was paid to the analysis of the impact of high humidity (90% RH) on the sensor time response.

  6. Temperature-Dependent Abnormal and Tunable p-n Response of Tungsten Oxide--Tin Oxide Based Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Xie, Wuyuan; Ye, Tianjie; Liu, Bin; Xiao, Songhua; Wang, Chenxia; Wang, Yanrong; Li, Qiuhong; Wang, Taihong

    2015-11-11

    We observed the sensing response of temperature-dependent abnormal p-n transitions in WO3-SnO2 hybrid hollow sphere based gas sensors for the first time. The sensors presented a normal n-type response to ethanol at elevated temperatures but abnormal p-type responses in a wide range of operation temperatures (room temperature to about 95 °C). By measuring various reducing gases and applying complex impedance plotting techniques, we demonstrated the abnormal p-type sensing behavior to be a pseudo-response resulting from the reaction between target gas and adsorbed water on the material surface. The temperature-controlled n-p switch is ascribed to the competition of intrinsic and extrinsic sensing behaviors, which resulted from the reaction of target gas with adsorbed oxygen ions and protons from adsorbed water, respectively. The former can modulate the intrinsic conductivity of the sensor by changing the electron concentration of the sensing materials, while the latter can regulate the conduction of the water layer, which contributes to the total conductivity as an external part. The hollow and hybrid nanostructures facilitated the observation of extrinsic sensing behaviors due to its large-area active sites and abundant oxygen vacancies, which could enhance the adsorption of water. This work might give new insight into gas sensing mechanisms and opens up a promising way to develop practical temperature and humidity controllable gas sensors with little power consumption based on the extrinsic properties. PMID:26495911

  7. Excellent performance of gas sensor based on In2O3-Fe2O3 nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liu; Shouchun, Li; Xin, Guo; Yue, He; Lianyuan, Wang

    2016-01-01

    In2O3-Fe2O3 nanotubes are synthesized by an electrospinning method. The as-synthesized materials are characterized by scanning electron microscope and X-ray powder diffraction. The gas sensing results show that In2O3-Fe2O3 nanotubes exhibit excellent sensing properties to acetone and formaldehyde at different operating temperatures. The responses of gas sensors based on In2O3-Fe2O3 nanotubes to 100 ppm acetone and 100 ppm formaldehyde are 25 (240 °C) and 15 (260 °C), and the response/recovery times are 3/7 s and 4/7 s, respectively. The responses of In2O3-Fe2O3 nanotubes to 1 ppm acetone (240 °C) and formaldehyde (260 °C) are 3.5 and 1.8, respectively. Moreover, the gas sensor based on In2O3-Fe2O3 nanotubes also possesses an excellent selectivity to acetone and formaldehyde. Project supported by the Jilin Provincial Science and Technology Department (No. 20140204027GX).

  8. Readout Circuit System for In2O3/RGO Nanocomposite Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cheng-Yi

    A readout circuit system for In2O3/RGO nanocomposite gas sensors using open-source software has been developed for the first time. The readout system adopts a Raspberry Pi as an electronic control unit and incorporates different electronics components to realize the function of a source measure unit (SMU). During the operation, real-time results of measured gas concentrations can be accessed through the Internet and alarm functions are also included. All control programs were written in Python language. Using this readout system, current response of gas sensors toward oxygen concentrations (2,000---32,000 ppm) in argon environment at 140 °C are in a good agreement with the data measured by Agilent SMU (B2902A). Furthermore, temperature effects and transient response of the proposed system are investigated. The success of this readout system demonstrates the potential use of open-source hardware to construct scientific instruments with the advantages of miniaturization, low cost, flexible design, and Internet access.

  9. Progress toward mid-IR chip-scale integrated-optic TDLAS gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frish, Michael B.; Shankar, Raji; Bulu, Irfan; Frank, Ian; Laderer, Matthew C.; Wainner, Richard T.; Allen, Mark G.; Lončar, Marko

    2013-01-01

    We are building prototype chip-scale low-power integrated-optic gas-phase chemical sensors based on mid-infrared (3-5μm) Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS). TDLAS is able to sense many gas phase chemicals with high sensitivity and selectivity. Novel gas sensing elements using low-loss resonant photonic crystal cavities or waveguides will permit compact integration of a laser source, sampling elements, and detector in configurations suitable for inexpensive mass production. Recently developed Interband Cascade Lasers (ICLs) that operate at room temperature with low power consumption are expected to serve as monochromatic sources to probe the mid-IR molecular spectral transitions. Practical challenges to fabricating these sensors include: a) selecting and designing the high-Q microresonator sensing element appropriate for the selected analyte; b) coupling laser light into and out of the sensing element; and c) device thermal management, especially stabilizing laser temperature with the precision needed for sensitive spectroscopic detection. This paper describes solutions to these challenges.

  10. Development of Thermal Infrared Sensor to Supplement Operational Land Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Peter; Waczynski, Augustyn; Kan, Emily; Wen, Yiting; Rosenberry, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The thermal infrared sensor (TIRS) is a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP)-based instrument intended to supplement the Operational Land Imager (OLI) for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The TIRS instrument is a far-infrared imager operating in the pushbroom mode with two IR channels: 10.8 and 12 m. The focal plane will contain three 640 512 QWIP arrays mounted onto a silicon substrate. The readout integrated circuit (ROIC) addresses each pixel on the QWIP arrays and reads out the pixel value (signal). The ROIC is controlled by the focal plane electronics (FPE) by means of clock signals and bias voltage value. The means of how the FPE is designed to control and interact with the TIRS focal plane assembly (FPA) is the basis for this work. The technology developed under the FPE is for the TIRS focal plane assembly (FPA). The FPE must interact with the FPA to command and control the FPA, extract analog signals from the FPA, and then convert the analog signals to digital format and send them via a serial link (USB) to a computer. The FPE accomplishes the described functions by converting electrical power from generic power supplies to the required bias power that is needed by the FPA. The FPE also generates digital clocking signals and shifts the typical transistor-to-transistor logic (TTL) to }5 V required by the FPA. The FPE also uses an application- specific integrated circuit (ASIC) named System Image, Digitizing, Enhancing, Controlling, And Retrieving (SIDECAR) from Teledyne Corp. to generate the clocking patterns commanded by the user. The uniqueness of the FPE for TIRS lies in that the TIRS FPA has three QWIP detector arrays, and all three detector arrays must be in synchronization while in operation. This is to avoid data skewing while observing Earth flying in space. The observing scenario may be customized by uploading new control software to the SIDECAR.

  11. In2O3-based micro gas sensor for detecting NO x gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bum-Joon; Song, In-Gyu; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2014-03-01

    In this study, NO x micro gas sensors for monitoring the indoor atmosphere of automobile were fabricated using MEMS (microelectromechanical system) technology and a sol-gel process. The sensing electrode and micro heater were designed to have a co-planar typed structure in a Pt thin film layer. The thermal characteristics of a micro heater array were analyzed using a finite element method (FEM). The chip size of the gas sensor was approximately 2 mm × 2 mm. Indium oxide as a sensing material for NO x gas was synthesized by a sol-gel process with indium isopropoxide as a precursor. Field emission Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction showed that particle size of the synthesized In2O3 was approximately 17-45 nm. The maximum gas sensitivity as the relative resistance ( R s = R gas / R air ) was observed at 275°C with a value of 8.0 at 1 ppm NO2 gas. The response (80% saturation) and recovery times were within 1 min. The sensing properties of NO2 gas exhibited linear behavior with increasing gas concentration. The sensing mechanism of the gas sensor was explained by the variations in the electron depletion layers and the adsorption of gas molecules on the In2O3 particle surface. These results suggest that in the future, MEMS-based gas sensors can be used as automotive-exhaust-gas sensors.

  12. Global Environmental Micro Sensors Test Operations in the Natural Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mark L.; Buza, Matthew; Manobianco, John; Merceret, Francis J.

    2007-01-01

    ENSCO, Inc. is developing an innovative atmospheric observing system known as Global Environmental Micro Sensors (GEMS). The GEMS concept features an integrated system of miniaturized in situ, airborne probes measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and vector wind velocity. In order for the probes to remain airborne for long periods of time, their design is based on a helium-filled super-pressure balloon. The GEMS probes are neutrally buoyant and carried passively by the wind at predetermined levels. Each probe contains onboard satellite communication, power generation, processing, and geolocation capabilities. ENSCO has partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for a project called GEMS Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE) that will culminate with limited prototype flights of the system in spring 2007. By leveraging current advances in micro and nanotechnology, the probe mass, size, cost, and complexity can be reduced substantially so that large numbers of probes could be deployed routinely to support ground, launch, and landing operations at KSC and other locations. A full-scale system will improve the data density for the local initialization of high-resolution numerical weather prediction systems by at least an order of magnitude and provide a significantly expanded in situ data base to evaluate launch commit criteria and flight rules. When applied to launch or landing sites, this capability will reduce both weather hazards and weather-related scrubs, thus enhancing both safety and cost-avoidance for vehicles processed by the Shuttle, Launch Services Program, and Constellation Directorates. The GEMSTONE project will conclude with a field experiment in which 10 to 15 probes are released over KSC in east central Florida. The probes will be neutrally buoyant at different altitudes from 500 to 3000 meters and will report their position, speed, heading, temperature, humidity, and

  13. Physically flexible, rapid-response gas sensor based on colloidal quantum dot solids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Li, Min; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Hu, Long; Fu, Qiuyun; Zhou, Dongxiang; Xia, Zhe; Sargent, Edward H; Tang, Jiang

    2014-05-01

    A gas sensor based on PbS colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is constructed on a paper substrate, yielding flexible, rapid-response NO₂ gas sensors, fabricated from the solution phase. The devices are highly sensitive and fully recoverable at room temperature, which is attributed to the excellent access of gas molecules to the CQD surface, realized by surface ligand removal, combined with the desirable binding energy of NO₂ with the PbS CQDs. PMID:24452852

  14. Fluctuation-enhanced sensing with organically functionalized gold nanoparticle gas sensors targeting biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Lentka, Łukasz; Kotarski, Mateusz; Smulko, Janusz; Cindemir, Umut; Topalian, Zareh; Granqvist, Claes G; Calavia, Raul; Ionescu, Radu

    2016-11-01

    Detection of volatile organic compounds is a useful approach to non-invasive diagnosis of diseases through breath analysis. Our experimental study presents a newly developed prototype gas sensor, based on organically-functionalized gold nanoparticles, and results on formaldehyde detection using fluctuation-enhanced gas sensing. Formaldehyde was easily detected via intense fluctuations of the gas sensor's resistance, while the cross-influence of ethanol vapor (a confounding factor in exhaled breath, related to alcohol consumption) was negligible. PMID:27591581

  15. Detection of chlorinated methanes by tin oxide gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Park, S H; Son, Y C; Shaw, B R; Creasy, K E; Suib, S L

    2001-08-01

    Tin oxide thin films prepared by thermal oxidation of Sn films were used for the detection of chlorinated methanes (CH2Cl2, CHCl3 and CCl4). This resulted in better chemical selectivity, sensitivity, response speed and detection limit than seen with previous detectors. The temperature dependence of the sensing of 1% CCl4 gas was studied and the best sensing behavior was observed at 300 degrees C. The films showed different chemical selectivity in both speed and direction of sensing response to each gas and were stable for more than 3 weeks under operating conditions. The films showed rapid gas sensing (<40 s to reach 90% of full response) and low detection limits (< 4 ppm CCl4). The role of oxygen in the detection of chlorinated methanes and in resistance changes without chlorinated methanes was also studied. The changes at the surface of the film after gas sensing were examined using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. PMID:11534610

  16. Improving the measurement accuracy of mixed gas by optimizing carbon nanotube sensor's electrode separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Huimin; Zhang, Yong; Quan, Long

    2015-10-01

    Because of excellent superiorities, triple-electrode carbon nanotube sensor acts good in the detection of multi-component mixed gas. However, as one of the key factors affecting the accuracy of detection, the electrode separation of carbon nanotube gas sensor with triple-electrode structure is very difficult to decide. An optimization method is presented here to improve the mixed gas measurement accuracy. This method optimizes every separation between three electrodes of the carbon nanotube sensors in the sensor array when test the multi-component gas mixture. It collects the ionic current detected by sensor array composed of carbon nanotube sensors with different electrode separations, and creates the kernel partial least square regression (KPLSR) quantitative analysis model of detected gases. The optimum electrode separations come out when the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of test samples reaches the minimum value. The gas mixtures of CO and NO2 are measured using sensor array composed of two carbon nanotube sensor with different electrode separations. And every electrode separation of two sensors is optimized by above-mentioned method. The experimental results show that the proposed method selects the optimal distances between electrodes effectively, and achieves higher measurement accuracy.

  17. Compact Laser-Based Sensors for Monitoring and Control of Gas Turbine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Ronald K.; Jeffries, Jay B.

    2003-01-01

    Research is reported on the development of sensors for gas turbine combustor applications that measure real-time gas temperature using near-infrared water vapor absorption and concentration in the combustor exhaust of trace quantities of pollutant NO and CO using mid-infrared absorption. Gas temperature is extracted from the relative absorption strength of two near-infrared transitions of water vapor. From a survey of the water vapor absorption spectrum, two overtone transitions near 1800 nm were selected that can be rapidly scanned in wavelength by injection current tuning a single DFB diode laser. From the ratio of the absorbances on these selected transitions, a path-integrated gas temperature can be extracted in near-real time. Demonstration measurements with this new temperature sensor showed that combustor instabilities could be identified in the power spectrum of the temperature versus time record. These results suggest that this strategy is extremely promising for gas turbine combustor control applications. Measurements of the concentration of NO and CO in the combustor exhaust are demonstrated with mid-infrared transitions using thermo-electrically cooled, quantum cascade lasers operating near 5.26 and 4.62 microns respectively. Measurements of NO are performed in an insulated exhaust duct of a C2H4-air flame at temperatures of approximately 600 K. CO measurements are performed above a rich H2-air flame seeded with CO2 and cooled with excess N2 to 1150 K. Using a balanced ratiometric detection technique a sensitivity of 0.36 ppm-m was achieved for NO and 0.21 ppm-m for CO. Comparisons between measured and predicted water-vapor and CO2 interference are discussed. The mid-infrared laser quantum cascade laser technology is in its infancy; however, these measurements demonstrate the potential for pollutant monitoring in exhaust gases with mid-IR laser absorption.

  18. Solid State Gas Sensor Research in Germany – a Status Report

    PubMed Central

    Moos, Ralf; Sahner, Kathy; Fleischer, Maximilian; Guth, Ulrich; Barsan, Nicolae; Weimar, Udo

    2009-01-01

    This status report overviews activities of the German gas sensor research community. It highlights recent progress in the field of potentiometric, amperometric, conductometric, impedimetric, and field effect-based gas sensors. It is shown that besides step-by-step improvements of conventional principles, e.g. by the application of novel materials, novel principles turned out to enable new markets. In the field of mixed potential gas sensors, novel materials allow for selective detection of combustion exhaust components. The same goal can be reached by using zeolites for impedimetric gas sensors. Operando spectroscopy is a powerful tool to learn about the mechanisms in n-type and in p-type conductometric sensors and to design knowledge-based improved sensor devices. Novel deposition methods are applied to gain direct access to the material morphology as well as to obtain dense thick metal oxide films without high temperature steps. Since conductometric and impedimetric sensors have the disadvantage that a current has to pass the gas sensitive film, film morphology, electrode materials, and geometrical issues affect the sensor signal. Therefore, one tries to measure directly the Fermi level position either by measuring the gas-dependent Seebeck coefficient at high temperatures or at room temperature by applying a modified miniaturized Kelvin probe method, where surface adsorption-based work function changes drive the drain-source current of a field effect transistor. PMID:22408529

  19. Analyzer for measurement of nitrogen oxide concentration by ozone content reduction in gas using solid state chemiluminescent sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelibanov, V. P.; Ishanin, G. G.; Isaev, L. N.

    2014-05-01

    Role of nitrogen oxide in ambient air is described and analyzed. New method of nitrogen oxide concentration measurement in gas phase is suggested based on ozone concentration measurement with titration by nitrogen oxide. Research of chemiluminescent sensor composition is carried out on experimental stand. The sensor produced on the base of solid state non-activated chemiluminescent composition is applied as ozone sensor. Composition is put on the surface of polymer matrix with developed surface. Sensor compositions includes gallic acid with addition of rodamine-6G. Model of interaction process between sensor composition and ozone has been developed, main products appeared during reaction are identified. The product determining the speed of luminescense appearance is found. This product belongs to quinone class. Then new structure of chemiluminescent composition was suggested, with absence of activation period and with high stability of operation. Experimental model of gas analyzer was constructed and operation algorithm was developed. It was demonstrated that developed NO measuring instrument would be applied for monitoring purposes of ambient air. This work was partially financially supported by Government of Russian Federation, Grant 074-U01

  20. Advances in Hydrogen, Carbon Dioxide, and Hydrocarbon Gas Sensor Technology Using GaN and ZnO-Based Devices

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Travis; Ren, Fan; Pearton, Stephen; Kang, Byoung Sam; Wang, Hung-Ta; Chang, Chih-Yang; Lin, Jenshan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we review our recent results in developing gas sensors for hydrogen using various device structures, including ZnO nanowires and GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs). ZnO nanowires are particularly interesting because they have a large surface area to volume ratio, which will improve sensitivity, and because they operate at low current levels, will have low power requirements in a sensor module. GaN-based devices offer the advantage of the HEMT structure, high temperature operation, and simple integration with existing fabrication technology and sensing systems. Improvements in sensitivity, recoverability, and reliability are presented. Also reported are demonstrations of detection of other gases, including CO2 and C2H4 using functionalized GaN HEMTs. This is critical for the development of lab-on-a-chip type systems and can provide a significant advance towards a market-ready sensor application. PMID:22408548

  1. PCF-Based Cavity Enhanced Spectroscopic Sensors for Simultaneous Multicomponent Trace Gas Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nakaema, Walter M.; Hao, Zuo-Qiang; Rohwetter, Philipp; Wöste, Ludger; Stelmaszczyk, Kamil

    2011-01-01

    A multiwavelength, multicomponent CRDS gas sensor operating on the basis of a compact photonic crystal fibre supercontinuum light source has been constructed. It features a simple design encompassing one radiation source, one cavity and one detection unit (a spectrograph with a fitted ICCD camera) that are common for all wavelengths. Multicomponent detection capability of the device is demonstrated by simultaneous measurements of the absorption spectra of molecular oxygen (spin-forbidden b-X branch) and water vapor (polyads 4v, 4v + δ) in ambient atmospheric air. Issues related to multimodal cavity excitation, as well as to obtaining the best signal-to-noise ratio are discussed together with methods for their practical resolution based on operating the cavity in a “quasi continuum” mode and setting long camera gate widths, respectively. A comprehensive review of multiwavelength CRDS techniques is also given. PMID:22319372

  2. An electromagnetic cavity sensor for multiphase measurement in the oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hajeri, S.; Wylie, S. R.; Stuart, R. A.; Al-Shamma'a, A. I.

    2007-07-01

    The oil and gas industry require accurate sensors to monitor fluid flow in pipelines in order to manage wells efficiently. The sensor described in this paper uses the different relative permittivity values for the three phases: oil, gas and water to help determine the fraction of each phase in the pipeline, by monitoring the resonant frequencies that occur within an electromagnetic cavity. The sensor has been designed to be non-intrusive. This is advantageous, as it will prevent the sensor being damaged by the flow through the pipeline and allow pigging, the technique used for cleaning rust and wax from the inside of the pipeline using blades or brushes.

  3. Algebraic operator approach to gas kinetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'ichov, L. V.

    1997-02-01

    Some general properties of the linear Boltzmann kinetic equation are used to present it in the form ∂ tϕ = - †Âϕ with the operators Âand† possessing some nontrivial algebraic properties. When applied to the Keilson-Storer kinetic model, this method gives an example of quantum ( q-deformed) Lie algebra. This approach provides also a natural generalization of the “kangaroo model”.

  4. Comparison of different feature reduction methods in the improvement of gas diagnosis of a temperature modulated resistive gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini-Golgoo, S. M.; Ebrahimpour, N.

    2016-03-01

    The present study aims to analyze dynamic responses of a temperature modulated resistive gas sensor with the emphasis on the comparison of different feature reduction methods. For this purpose, four selected feature reduction methods consist of Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Generalized-LDA (GDA) and Kernel-PCA (KPCA) are applied and compared. The sensor selected for the experiment is a tin oxide based sensor, FIS commercial type. A staircase voltage with the step length of 40 s and voltage range of 1-5 V constitutes the input of the sensor. Sensor system was modeled by ARMAX linear model. The effects of induced gases were recorded as parameter vectors in the data obtained by the model. After applying the methods of feature reductions, the performance of gas separation was compared. It was found out that LDA and GDA yielded the best data classification.

  5. A novel solid state non-dispersive infrared CO2 gas sensor compatible with wireless and portable deployment.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Desmond; MacGregor, Calum

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes development of a novel mid-infrared light emitting diode (LED) and photodiode (PD) light source/detector combination and use within a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) carbon dioxide gas sensor. The LED/PD based NDIR sensor provides fast stabilisation time (time required to turn on the sensor from cold, warm up, take and report a measurement, and power down again ≈1 second), longevity (>15 years), low power consumption and low cost. Described performance is compatible with "fit and forget" wireless deployed sensors in applications such as indoor air quality monitoring/control & energy conservation in buildings, transport systems, horticultural greenhouses and portable deployment for safety, industrial and medical applications. Fast stabilisation time, low intrinsic power consumption and cycled operation offer typical energy consumption per measurement of mJ's, providing extended operation using battery and/or energy harvesting strategies (measurement interval of ≈ 2 minutes provides >10 years operation from one AA battery). Specific performance data is provided in relation to measurement accuracy and noise, temperature performance, cross sensitivity, measurement range (two pathlength variants are described covering ambient through to 100% gas concentration), comparison with NDIR utilizing thermal source/pyroelectric light source/detector combination and compatibility with energy harvesting. Semiconductor based LED/PD processing together with injection moulded reflective optics and simple assembly provide a route to low cost high volume manufacturing. PMID:23760090

  6. A Novel Solid State Non-Dispersive Infrared CO2 Gas Sensor Compatible with Wireless and Portable Deployment

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Desmond; MacGregor, Calum

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes development of a novel mid-infrared light emitting diode (LED) and photodiode (PD) light source/detector combination and use within a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) carbon dioxide gas sensor. The LED/PD based NDIR sensor provides fast stabilisation time (time required to turn on the sensor from cold, warm up, take and report a measurement, and power down again ≈1 second), longevity (>15 years), low power consumption and low cost. Described performance is compatible with “fit and forget” wireless deployed sensors in applications such as indoor air quality monitoring/control & energy conservation in buildings, transport systems, horticultural greenhouses and portable deployment for safety, industrial and medical applications. Fast stabilisation time, low intrinsic power consumption and cycled operation offer typical energy consumption per measurement of mJ's, providing extended operation using battery and/or energy harvesting strategies (measurement interval of ≈ 2 minutes provides >10 years operation from one AA battery). Specific performance data is provided in relation to measurement accuracy and noise, temperature performance, cross sensitivity, measurement range (two pathlength variants are described covering ambient through to 100% gas concentration), comparison with NDIR utilizing thermal source/pyroelectric light source/detector combination and compatibility with energy harvesting. Semiconductor based LED/PD processing together with injection moulded reflective optics and simple assembly provide a route to low cost high volume manufacturing. PMID:23760090

  7. Novel Gas Sensor Based on ZnO Nanorod Circular Arrays for C2H5OH Gas Detection.

    PubMed

    Jianjiao, Zhang; Hongyan, Yue; Erjun, Guo; Shaolin, Zhang; Liping, Wang; Chunyu, Zhang; Xin, Gao; Jing, Chang; Hong, Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Novel side-heating gas sensor based on ZnO nanorod circular arrays was firstly fabricated by hydrothermal treatment assisted with a kind of simple dip-coating technique. The structure and morphologies of ZnO nanorods were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), respectively. XRD result indicates that the obtained ZnO nanorods have good crystalline with the hexagonal wurtzite structure. SEM result indicates that ZnO nanorod arrays are vertically growth on the surface of ceramic tube of side-heating sensor with controlled diameter and length, narrow size distribution and high orientation. The gas sensing properties of ZnO nanorod circular arrays are also evaluated. Comparative to the sensor based on scattered ZnO nanorods responding to 25 ppm H2, CO, C6H5CH3 and C2H5OH gas, respectively, the sensing values of high orientation gas sensor are generally increased by 5%. This novel sensor has good application promising for the fabrication of cost effective and high performance gas sensors. PMID:26413689

  8. Optical fiber long-period grating with solgel coating for gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Zhengtian; Xu, Yanping; Gao, Kan

    2006-08-01

    The novel long-period fiber grating (LPFG) film sensor is composed of the long-period grating coated with solgel-derived sensitive films. The characteristics of the transmissivity of the LPFG film sensor are studied. By analyzing the relation among the sensitivity Sn, the thin film optical parameters, and the fiber grating parameters, the optimal design parameters of the LPFG film sensor are obtained. Data simulation shows that the resolution of the refractive index of this LPFG film sensor is predicted to be 10-8. Experimentally, a LPFG film sensor for detection of C2H5OH was fabricated, and a preliminary gas-sensing test was performed.

  9. Chemiresistive hydrogen gas sensors from gold-palladium nanopeapods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Chung Hee; Myung, Nosang V.; Haberer, Elaine D.

    2014-12-01

    Gold-palladium (Au-Pd) nanopeapod-based H2 chemiresistors were fabricated using a gold binding M13 viral template. Peptides displayed along the length of this biological template served as affinity binding sites to direct gold nanoparticle assembly under ambient conditions in an aqueous environment. In addition, the geometry of this filamentous biomolecule readily facilitated the formation of the highly anisotropic nanopeapod structure. Pd electroless deposition controlled peapod diameter, as well as electrical resistance. Sensor performance was determined by overall peapod morphology. Thicker nanopeapods (i.e., ˜15 nm Pd layer) with fully encapsulated Au nanoparticle seeds showed strong evidence of oxygen inclusion during or after Pd deposition, and a modest response (i.e., 0.04%-2.6%) at 2000 ppmv H2 after device conditioning through extended H2 exposure. Thinner nanopeapods (i.e., ˜5 nm Pd layer) with discontinuous Au nanoparticle coverage showed superior performance with a response of 117% at 2000 ppmv H2 in air, a 70% response time (t70%) within 1 min, and a low detection limit of 25 ppmv. The bio-directed formation of these unique thin-shelled, Au-Pd peapod nanostructures and the development of a highly sensitive H2 detector advance both the fields of nanoassembly and gas sensing.

  10. The effect of ultraviolet irradiation on the ultra-thin HfO{sub 2} based CO gas sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Karaduman, Irmak; Barin, Özlem; Acar, Selim; Yıldız, Dilber Esra

    2015-11-07

    In this work, an effort has been made to fabricate ultrathin HfO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample by atomic layer deposition method for the fast detection of CO gas at room temperature. The effect of the operating temperature and the UV light on the gas sensing characteristics has been studied. We investigated the optimum operating temperature for the sample by sensing 25 ppm CO and CO{sub 2} gases from room temperature to 150 °C for 10 °C steps. The maximum response was obtained at 150 °C for both gases in the measurement temperature range. Also, the photoresponse measurements clearly show the effect of UV light on the sample. At room temperature, sensor showed superior response (14%) for 5 ppm CO gas. The response time of sensor is 6 s to 5 ppm CO gas concentration. The ultrathin HfO{sub 2} based sample shows acceptable gas sensitivity for 5 ppm CO gas at room temperature under UV light irradiation.

  11. TREFEX: Trend Estimation and Change Detection in the Response of MOX Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Pashami, Sepideh; Lilienthal, Achim J.; Schaffernicht, Erik; Trincavelli, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Many applications of metal oxide gas sensors can benefit from reliable algorithms to detect significant changes in the sensor response. Significant changes indicate a change in the emission modality of a distant gas source and occur due to a sudden change of concentration or exposure to a different compound. As a consequence of turbulent gas transport and the relatively slow response and recovery times of metal oxide sensors, their response in open sampling configuration exhibits strong fluctuations that interfere with the changes of interest. In this paper we introduce TREFEX, a novel change point detection algorithm, especially designed for metal oxide gas sensors in an open sampling system. TREFEX models the response of MOX sensors as a piecewise exponential signal and considers the junctions between consecutive exponentials as change points. We formulate non-linear trend filtering and change point detection as a parameter-free convex optimization problem for single sensors and sensor arrays. We evaluate the performance of the TREFEX algorithm experimentally for different metal oxide sensors and several gas emission profiles. A comparison with the previously proposed GLR method shows a clearly superior performance of the TREFEX algorithm both in detection performance and in estimating the change time. PMID:23736853

  12. Structural approach to improve the response characteristics of copper phthalocyanine thin film-based NO{sub 2} gas sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasawa, Tadashi; Murakami, Kenji; Watanabe, Kenzo

    1998-07-01

    In order to realize a high-sensitivity, low temperature operable NO{sub 2} gas sensor, thin films of {alpha}-form copper phthalocyanine ({alpha}-CuPc) have been deposited by vacuum sublimation. In this study, the authors have attempted to improve the gas-sensing characteristics through a modification of the film microstructure. Firstly, the gas sensitivity is remarkably increased by an insertion of higher-sensitive layer (vanadyl Pc film) between the {alpha}-CuPc film and the glass substrate in the low gas concentration range. Secondly, a reversibility in cycles of gas doping and dedoping is improved by film deposition on hydrofluoric acid-treated substrate. It is found from atomic force microscope analyses that this phenomenon may be closely related to a modification of the film microstructure.

  13. Small CO2 Sensors Operate at Lower Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.

    2009-01-01

    Solid-electrolyte-based amperometric sensors for measuring concentrations of CO2 in air are being developed for use in detection of fires, environmental monitoring, and other applications where liquid-based electrochemical cells are problematic. These sensors are small (sizes of the order of a millimeter), are robust, are amenable to batch fabrication at relatively low cost, and exhibit short response times (seconds) and wide detection ranges. A sensor of this type at a previous stage of development included a solid electrolyte of Na3Zr2Si2PO12 deposited mainly between interdigitated Pt electrodes on an alumina substrate, all overcoated with an auxiliary solid electrolyte of (Na2CO3:BaCO3 in a molar ratio of 1:1.7). It was necessary to heat this device to a temperature as high as 600 C to obtain the desired sensitivity and rapid response. Heating sensors increases the power consumption of the sensor system and complicates the use of the sensor in some applications. Thus, decreasing a sensor s power consumption while maintaining its performance is a technical goal of ongoing development.

  14. Operational support for Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) attitude sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M.; Garber, A.; Lambertson, M.; Raina, P.; Underwood, S.; Woodruff, C.

    1994-01-01

    The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) has several sensors that can provide observations for attitude determination: star trackers, Sun sensors (gimbaled as well as fixed), magnetometers, Earth sensors, and gyroscopes. The accuracy of these observations is important for mission success. Analysts on the Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) UARS Attitude task monitor these data to evaluate the performance of the sensors taking corrective action when appropriate. Monitoring activities range from examining the data during real-time passes to constructing long-term trend plots. Increasing residuals (differences) between the observed and expected quantities is a prime indicator of sensor problems. Residual increases may be due to alignment shifts and/or degradation in sensor output. Residuals from star tracker data revealed and anomalous behavior that contributes to attitude errors. Compensating for this behavior has significantly reduced the attitude errors. This paper discusses the methods used by the FDF UARS attitude task for maintenance of the attitude sensors, including short- and long-term monitoring, trend analysis, and calibration methods, and presents the results obtained through corrective action.

  15. Sensor Selection for Aircraft Engine Performance Estimation and Gas Path Fault Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents analytical techniques for aiding system designers in making aircraft engine health management sensor selection decisions. The presented techniques, which are based on linear estimation and probability theory, are tailored for gas turbine engine performance estimation and gas path fault diagnostics applications. They enable quantification of the performance estimation and diagnostic accuracy offered by different candidate sensor suites. For performance estimation, sensor selection metrics are presented for two types of estimators including a Kalman filter and a maximum a posteriori estimator. For each type of performance estimator, sensor selection is based on minimizing the theoretical sum of squared estimation errors in health parameters representing performance deterioration in the major rotating modules of the engine. For gas path fault diagnostics, the sensor selection metric is set up to maximize correct classification rate for a diagnostic strategy that performs fault classification by identifying the fault type that most closely matches the observed measurement signature in a weighted least squares sense. Results from the application of the sensor selection metrics to a linear engine model are presented and discussed. Given a baseline sensor suite and a candidate list of optional sensors, an exhaustive search is performed to determine the optimal sensor suites for performance estimation and fault diagnostics. For any given sensor suite, Monte Carlo simulation results are found to exhibit good agreement with theoretical predictions of estimation and diagnostic accuracies.

  16. Sensor Selection for Aircraft Engine Performance Estimation and Gas Path Fault Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Rinehart, Aidan W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents analytical techniques for aiding system designers in making aircraft engine health management sensor selection decisions. The presented techniques, which are based on linear estimation and probability theory, are tailored for gas turbine engine performance estimation and gas path fault diagnostics applications. They enable quantification of the performance estimation and diagnostic accuracy offered by different candidate sensor suites. For performance estimation, sensor selection metrics are presented for two types of estimators including a Kalman filter and a maximum a posteriori estimator. For each type of performance estimator, sensor selection is based on minimizing the theoretical sum of squared estimation errors in health parameters representing performance deterioration in the major rotating modules of the engine. For gas path fault diagnostics, the sensor selection metric is set up to maximize correct classification rate for a diagnostic strategy that performs fault classification by identifying the fault type that most closely matches the observed measurement signature in a weighted least squares sense. Results from the application of the sensor selection metrics to a linear engine model are presented and discussed. Given a baseline sensor suite and a candidate list of optional sensors, an exhaustive search is performed to determine the optimal sensor suites for performance estimation and fault diagnostics. For any given sensor suite, Monte Carlo simulation results are found to exhibit good agreement with theoretical predictions of estimation and diagnostic accuracies.

  17. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: Facile development of gas sensor platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushi, Arti D.; Gaikwad, S.; Deshmukh, M.; Patil, H.; Bodkhe, G.; Shirsat, Mahendra D.

    2016-05-01

    In the present investigation, research efforts were directed towards the facile fabrication of sensor devices for the detection of gaseous analytes. Single Wall Carbon nanotubes, the highest prominent representative of functional nanomaterials, were employed for the sensor development. High surface to volume ratio of CNTs facilitate to improve overall sensor performance. To achieve enhanced sensing characteristics, CNTs were functionalized with tetraphenyl porphyrin. Fabricated sensor devices were subjected to the structural, electrical as well as sensing characteristics. Observed results infer that the fabricated sensor shows excellent sensing characteristics towards propanone below their PEL level.

  18. FUEL CELL OPERATION ON LANDFILL GAS AT PENROSE POWER STATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This demonstration test successfully demonstrated operation of a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell (FC) on landfill gas (LG) at the Penrose Power Station in Sun Valley, CA. Demonstration output included operation up to 137 kW; 37.1% efficiency at 120 kW; exceptionally low sec...

  19. Micro-Structured Sapphire Fiber Sensors for Simultaneous Measurements of High-T and Dynamic Gas Pressure in Harsh Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Hai; Tsai, Hai-Lung; Dong, Junhang

    2014-09-30

    This is the final report for the program “Micro-Structured Sapphire Fiber Sensors for Simultaneous Measurements of High Temperature and Dynamic Gas Pressure in Harsh Environments”, funded by NETL, and performed by Missouri University of Science and Technology, Clemson University and University of Cincinnati from October 1, 2009 to September 30, 2014. Securing a sustainable energy economy by developing affordable and clean energy from coal and other fossil fuels is a central element to the mission of The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). To further this mission, NETL funds research and development of novel sensor technologies that can function under the extreme operating conditions often found in advanced power systems. The main objective of this research program is to conduct fundamental and applied research that will lead to successful development and demonstration of robust, multiplexed, microstructured silica and single-crystal sapphire fiber sensors to be deployed into the hot zones of advanced power and fuel systems for simultaneous measurements of high temperature and gas pressure. The specific objectives of this research program include: 1) Design, fabrication and demonstration of multiplexed, robust silica and sapphire fiber temperature and dynamic gas pressure sensors that can survive and maintain fully operational in high-temperature harsh environments. 2) Development and demonstration of a novel method to demodulate the multiplexed interferograms for simultaneous measurements of temperature and gas pressure in harsh environments. 3) Development and demonstration of novel sapphire fiber cladding and low numerical aperture (NA) excitation techniques to assure high signal integrity and sensor robustness.

  20. Apparatus to characterize gas sensor response under real-world conditions in the lab.

    PubMed

    Kneer, J; Eberhardt, A; Walden, P; Ortiz Pérez, A; Wöllenstein, J; Palzer, S

    2014-05-01

    The use of semiconducting metal-oxide (MOX) based gas sensors in demanding applications such as climate and environmental research as well as industrial applications is currently hindered by their poor reproducibility, selectivity, and sensitivity. This is mainly due to the sensing mechanism which relies on the change of conductivity of the metal-oxide layer. To be of use for advanced applications metal-oxide (MOX) gas sensors need to be carefully prepared and characterized in laboratory environments prior to deployment. This paper describes the working principle, design, and use of a new apparatus that can emulate real-world conditions in the laboratory and characterize the MOX gas sensor signal in tailor-made atmospheres. In particular, this includes the control of trace gas concentrations and the control of oxygen and humidity levels which are important for the surface chemistry of metal-oxide based sensors. Furthermore, the sensor temperature can be precisely controlled, which is a key parameter of semiconducting, sensitive layers, and their response to particular gas compositions. The setup also allows to determine the power consumption of each device individually which may be used for performance benchmarking or monitoring changes of the temperature of the gas composition. Both, the working principle and the capabilities of the gas measurement chamber are presented in this paper employing tin dioxide (SnO2) based micro sensors as exemplary devices. PMID:24880407

  1. Integrating Metal-Oxide-Decorated CNT Networks with a CMOS Readout in a Gas Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunjoong; Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, Dai-Hong; Perello, David; Park, Young June; Hong, Seong-Hyeon; Yun, Minhee; Kim, Suhwan

    2012-01-01

    We have implemented a tin-oxide-decorated carbon nanotube (CNT) network gas sensor system on a single die. We have also demonstrated the deposition of metallic tin on the CNT network, its subsequent oxidation in air, and the improvement of the lifetime of the sensors. The fabricated array of CNT sensors contains 128 sensor cells for added redundancy and increased accuracy. The read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) was combined with coarse and fine time-to-digital converters to extend its resolution in a power-efficient way. The ROIC is fabricated using a 0.35 μm CMOS process, and the whole sensor system consumes 30 mA at 5 V. The sensor system was successfully tested in the detection of ammonia gas at elevated temperatures. PMID:22736966

  2. Inflammable Gas Mixture Detection with a Single Catalytic Sensor Based on the Electric Field Effect

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Ziyuan; Tong, Min-Ming; Meng, Wen; Li, Meng

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a new way to analyze mixtures of inflammable gases with a single catalytic sensor. The analysis technology was based on a new finding that an electric field on the catalytic sensor can change the output sensitivity of the sensor. The analysis of mixed inflammable gases results from processing the output signals obtained by adjusting the electric field parameter of the catalytic sensor. For the signal process, we designed a group of equations based on the heat balance of catalytic sensor expressing the relationship between the output signals and the concentration of gases. With these equations and the outputs of different electric fields, the gas concentration in a mixture could be calculated. In experiments, a mixture of methane, butane and ethane was analyzed by this new method, and the results showed that the concentration of each gas in the mixture could be detected with a single catalytic sensor, and the maximum relative error was less than 5%. PMID:24717635

  3. Integrating metal-oxide-decorated CNT networks with a CMOS readout in a gas sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunjoong; Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, Dai-Hong; Perello, David; Park, Young June; Hong, Seong-Hyeon; Yun, Minhee; Kim, Suhwan

    2012-01-01

    We have implemented a tin-oxide-decorated carbon nanotube (CNT) network gas sensor system on a single die. We have also demonstrated the deposition of metallic tin on the CNT network, its subsequent oxidation in air, and the improvement of the lifetime of the sensors. The fabricated array of CNT sensors contains 128 sensor cells for added redundancy and increased accuracy. The read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) was combined with coarse and fine time-to-digital converters to extend its resolution in a power-efficient way. The ROIC is fabricated using a 0.35 μm CMOS process, and the whole sensor system consumes 30 mA at 5 V. The sensor system was successfully tested in the detection of ammonia gas at elevated temperatures. PMID:22736966

  4. Optimization of wastewater treatment plant operation for greenhouse gas mitigation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongwook; Bowen, James D; Ozelkan, Ertunga C

    2015-11-01

    This study deals with the determination of optimal operation of a wastewater treatment system for minimizing greenhouse gas emissions, operating costs, and pollution loads in the effluent. To do this, an integrated performance index that includes three objectives was established to assess system performance. The ASMN_G model was used to perform system optimization aimed at determining a set of operational parameters that can satisfy three different objectives. The complex nonlinear optimization problem was simulated using the Nelder-Mead Simplex optimization algorithm. A sensitivity analysis was performed to identify influential operational parameters on system performance. The results obtained from the optimization simulations for six scenarios demonstrated that there are apparent trade-offs among the three conflicting objectives. The best optimized system simultaneously reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 31%, reduced operating cost by 11%, and improved effluent quality by 2% compared to the base case operation. PMID:26292772

  5. Operating Experience Review of the INL HTE Gas Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; K. G. DeWall

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the operations of several types of gas monitors in use at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) High Temperature Electrolysis Experiment (HTE) laboratory. The gases monitored at hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The operating time, calibration, and unwanted alarms are described. The calibration session time durations are described. Some simple statistics are given for the reliability of these monitors and the results are compared to operating experiences of other types of monitors.

  6. Enhancing the longevity of microparticle-based glucose sensors towards one month continuous operation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Saurabh; McShane, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Luminescent microspheres encapsulating glucose oxidase have recently been reported as potential implantable sensors, but the operational lifetime of these systems has been limited by enzyme degradation. We report here that the longevity of these enzymatic microparticle-based sensors has been extended by the coimmobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) and catalase (CAT) into the sensor matrix. A mathematical model was used to compare the response and longevity of the sensors with and without catalase. To experimentally test the longevity, sensors were continuously operated under normoglycemic dermal substrate concentrations and physiological conditions (5.5 mM glucose and 140 µM O2, 37°C and pH 7.4). The sensors incorporating CAT were experimentally shown to be ~5 times more stable than those without CAT; nevertheless, the response of sensors with CAT still changed by approximately 20%, when operated continuously for seven days. The experimentally-determined trends obtained for the variation in sensor response due to enzyme deactivation were in close agreement with modeling predictions, which also revealed a significant apparent loss in enzyme activity upon immobilization. It was further predicted via modeling that by incorporating 0.1 mM each of active GOx and CAT, the sensors will exhibit less than 2% variation in response over one month of continuous operation. PMID:19926464

  7. VACASULF operation at Citizens Gas and Coke Utility

    SciTech Connect

    Currey, J.H.

    1995-12-01

    Citizens Gas and Coke Utility is a Public Charitable Trust which operates as the Department of Utilities of the City of Indianapolis, Indiana. Indianapolis Coke, the trade name for the Manufacturing Division of the Utility, operates a by-products coke plant in Indianapolis, Indiana. The facility produces both foundry and blast furnace coke. Surplus Coke Oven gas, generated by the process, is mixed with Natural Gas for sale to industrial and residential customers. In anticipation of regulatory developments, beginning in 1990, Indianapolis Coke undertook the task to develop an alternate Coke Oven Gas desulfurization technology for its facility. The new system was intended to perform primary desulfurization of the gas, dramatically extending the oxide bed life, thus reducing disposal liabilities. Citizens Gas chose the VACASULF technology for its primary desulfurization system. VACASULF requires a single purchased material, Potassium Hydroxide (KOH). The KOH reacts with Carbon Dioxide in the coke Oven Gas to form Potassium Carbonate (potash) which in turn absorbs the Hydrogen Sulfide. The rich solution releases the absorbed sulfide under strong vacuum in the desorber column. Operating costs are reduced through utilization of an inherent heat source which is transferred indirectly via attendant reboilers. The Hydrogen Sulfide is transported by the vacuum pumps to the Claus Kiln and Reactor for combustion, reaction, and elemental Sulfur recovery. Regenerated potash solution is returned to the Scrubber.

  8. Determination of gas composition in a biogas plant using a Raman-based sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichmann, S. C.; Kiefer, J.; Benz, J.; Kempf, T.; Leipertz, A.; Seeger, T.

    2014-07-01

    We propose a gas sensor, based on spontaneous Raman scattering, for the compositional analysis of typical biogas mixtures and present a description of the sensor, as well as of the calibration procedure, which allows the quantification of condensable gases. Moreover, we carry out a comprehensive characterization of the system, in order to determine the measurement uncertainty, as well as influences of temperature and pressure fluctuation. Finally, the sensor is applied at different locations inside a plant in which biogas is produced from renewable raw materials. The composition is monitored after fermenting, after purification and after the final conditioning, where natural gas is added. The Raman sensor is able to detect all the relevant gas components, i.e. CH4, CO2, N2 and H2O, and report their individual concentrations over time. The results were compared to reference data from a conventional gas analyzer and good agreement was obtained.

  9. A 3D scaffold for ultra-sensitive reduced graphene oxide gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Yong Ju; Hong, Won G.; Choi, Nak-Jin; Park, Hyung Ju; Moon, Seung Eon; Kim, Byung Hoon; Song, Ki-Bong; Jun, Yongseok; Lee, Hyung-Kun

    2014-05-01

    An ultra-sensitive gas sensor based on a reduced graphene oxide nanofiber mat was successfully fabricated using a combination of an electrospinning method and graphene oxide wrapping through an electrostatic self-assembly, followed by a low-temperature chemical reduction. The sensor showed excellent sensitivity to NO2 gas.An ultra-sensitive gas sensor based on a reduced graphene oxide nanofiber mat was successfully fabricated using a combination of an electrospinning method and graphene oxide wrapping through an electrostatic self-assembly, followed by a low-temperature chemical reduction. The sensor showed excellent sensitivity to NO2 gas. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00332b

  10. Electrochemical noise sensors for detection of localized and general corrosion of natural gas transmission pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Russell, James H.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret

    2002-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory funded a Natural Gas Infrastructure Reliability program directed at increasing and enhancing research and development activities in topics such as remote leak detection, pipe inspection, and repair technologies and materials. The Albany Research Center (ARC), U.S. Department of Energy was funded to study the use of electrochemical noise sensors for detection of localized and general corrosion of natural gas transmission pipelines. As part of this, ARC entered into a collaborative effort with the corrosion sensor industry to demonstrate the capabilities of commercially available remote corrosion sensors for use with the Nation's Gas Transmission Pipeline Infrastructure needs. The goal of the research was to develop an emerging corrosion sensor technology into a monitor for the type and degree of corrosion occurring at key locations in gas transmission pipelines.

  11. Operational performance comparisons in the gas processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Salahor, G.S.

    1996-12-31

    Comparison and benchmarking of operational performance measures in the natural gas processing and gathering industry has helped operators to identify and prioritize improvement initiatives and has led to direct and tangible improvements in operating efficiency. However, proper interpretation and utilization of performance benchmarking data in a complex operation such as gas processing must reflect due consideration of the technical factors which influence the overall economic performance and resource requirements. Plant operators must be able to use the data to understand the key technical influences reflected in their results, and thereby set performance targets commensurate with the structural considerations particular to their facility. Ernst and Young has developed an analytical framework for gas processing and gathering operations incorporating such considerations, and conducted a study involving North American and international participants for the past four years. The information obtained form this work has revealed a wide range of performance results across plants, and has served to challenge much of the conventional wisdom regarding what levels of performance are attainable, and to provide understanding as to how gas processing operational resource requirements are influenced by technical parameters.

  12. Sensor Array Devices Utilizing Nano-structured Metal-oxides for Hazardous Gas Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andio, Mark A.

    Methane and carbon monoxide are two hazardous gases which require continuous monitoring by gas sensors in underground coal mines for explosion prevention and toxicity, respectively. This work explored implementing miniaturized gas sensors in this area to simultaneously detect both gases for benefits of increased portability and reduced power consumption of the chemiresistive gas sensor device. The focus of this research was to understand how the particle size, morphology, and microstructure of the metaloxide film affected the gas sensor performance to the two gases of interest on miniaturized gas sensor devices in the form of microhotplate platforms. This was done through three main research studies. The first was conducted by growing SnO2 nanowires from SnO 2 particles using an Au-catalyst. Growth conditions including temperature, time, and oxygen partial pressure were explored to determine the formation aspects of the SnO2 nanowires. Gas sensor studies were completed that provided evidence that the SnO2 nanowires increased detection to a fixed concentration of carbon monoxide compared to SnO2 particles without nano-structure formation. A second research study was performed to compare the gas sensor performance of SnO2 nanoparticles, hierarchical particles, and micron-size particles. The nanoparticles were developed into an ink and deposited via ink-jet printing on the microhotplate substrates to control the microstructure of the metal-oxide film. By preventing agglomeration of the nanoparticle film, the SnO2 nanoparticles displayed similar gas sensor performance to methane and carbon monoxide as the hierarchical particles. Both nano-structures had much higher gas sensor response than the micron-size particles which confirms the surface area of the metal-oxide film is critical for reaction of the analyte gas at the surface. The last research study presented in the dissertation describes an oxide nanoparticle array developed for detecting methane and carbon

  13. Exploitation of Unique Properties of Zeolites in the Development of Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yangong; Li, Xiaogan; Dutta, Prabir K.

    2012-01-01

    The unique properties of microporous zeolites, including ion-exchange properties, adsorption, molecular sieving, catalysis, conductivity have been exploited in improving the performance of gas sensors. Zeolites have been employed as physical and chemical filters to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of gas sensors. In addition, direct interaction of gas molecules with the extraframework cations in the nanoconfined space of zeolites has been explored as a basis for developing new impedance-type gas/vapor sensors. In this review, we summarize how these properties of zeolites have been used to develop new sensing paradigms. There is a considerable breadth of transduction processes that have been used for zeolite incorporated sensors, including frequency measurements, optical and the entire gamut of electrochemical measurements. It is clear from the published literature that zeolites provide a route to enhance sensor performance, and it is expected that commercial manifestation of some of the approaches discussed here will take place. The future of zeolite-based sensors will continue to exploit its unique properties and use of other microporous frameworks, including metal organic frameworks. Zeolite composites with electronic materials, including metals will lead to new paradigms in sensing. Use of nano-sized zeolite crystals and zeolite membranes will enhance sensor properties and make possible new routes of miniaturized sensors. PMID:22666081

  14. A novel methanol sensor based on gas-penetration through a porous polypyrrole-coated polyacrylonitrile nanofiber mat.

    PubMed

    Jun, Tae-Sun; Ho, Thi Anh; Rashid, Muhammad; Kim, Yong Shin

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we propose a novel chemoresistive gas sensor operated under a vertical analyte flow passing through a permeable sensing membrane. Such a configuration is different from the use of a planar sensor implemented under a conventional horizontal flow. A highly porous core-shell polyacrylonitrile-polypyrrole (PAN@PPy) nanofiber mat was prepared as the sensing element via electrospinning and two-step vapor-phase polymerization (VPP). Various analysis methods such as SEM, TEM, FT-IR and XPS measurements were employed in order to characterize structural features of the porous sensing mat. These analyses confirmed that very thin (ca. 10 nm) conductive PPy sheath layers were deposited by VPP on electrospun PAN nanofibers with an average diameter of 258 nm. Preliminary results revealed that the gas penetration-type PAN@PPy sensor had a higher sensor response and shorter detection and recovery times upon exposure to methanol analyte when compared with a conventional horizontal flow sensor due to efficient and fast analyte transfer into the sensing layer. PMID:24205639

  15. Evaluation of the use of electrochemical noise corrosion sensors for natural gas transmission pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Cayard, Michael S.; Eden, Dawn C.; Kane, Russell D.

    2004-01-01

    Corrosion sensors and electrochemistry-based corrosion measurement technology were used to study internal corrosion of environments similar to those in natural gas transmission pipelines. Field tests were conducted at a gas gathering site. Test locations were selected in environments consisting of dry/moist natural gas and the hydrocarbon/water mixture removed from natural gas. Sensors were made using A106 pipeline steel in the form of flange probes. Linear polarization resistance, electrochemical noise, and harmonic distortion analysis were used to measure corrosion rates, Stern-Geary constants, and pitting factors. Results show that the measurements were sensitive enough to detect small rates of corrosion in the selected environments.

  16. Significance of microstructure for a MOCVD-grown YSZ thin film gas sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Vetrone, J.; Foster, C.; Bai, G.

    1996-11-01

    The authors report the fabrication and characterization of a low temperature (200--400 C) thin film gas sensor constructed from a MOCVD-grown yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layer sandwiched between two platinum thin film electrodes. A reproducible gas-sensing response is produced by applying a cyclic voltage which generates voltammograms with gas-specific current peaks and shapes. Growth conditions are optimized for preparing YSZ films having dense microstructures, low leakage currents, and maximum ion conductivities. In particular, the effect of growth temperature on film morphology and texture is discussed and related to the electrical and gas-sensing properties of the thin film sensor device.

  17. Development of Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors and Sensor Arrays for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Fralick, G.; Thomas, V.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, W. H.; Ward, B.; Makel, D.

    2002-01-01

    Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring, fire detection, and environmental monitoring. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity. 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. However, due to issues of selectivity and cross-sensitivity, individual sensors are limited in the amount of information that they can provide in environments that contain multiple chemical species. Thus, sensor arrays are being developed to address detection needs in such multi-species environments. This paper discusses the needs of space applications as well as the point-contact sensor technology and sensor arrays being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, hydrazine, nitrogen oxides (NO,), carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed as well as arrays for leak, fire, and emissions detection. Demonstrations of the technology will also be discussed. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  18. Temperature field acquisition during gas metal arc welding using thermocouples, thermography and fibre Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, P. M. G. P.; Frazão, O.; Tavares, S. M. O.; de Figueiredo, M. A. V.; Restivo, M. T.; Santos, J. L.; de Castro, P. M. S. T.

    2007-03-01

    The paper presents the application of temperature acquisition systems integrating thermocouples, a thermographic camera and fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process, MIG (metal inert gas) welding type. Efficient procedures to use FBG sensors and thermocouples were developed. The paper presents and compares measurements made in welded plates of aluminium alloy 6082-T6. Tests were performed in both plate surfaces and good agreement between the three techniques was found.

  19. Effects of Langmuir-Blodgett-film gas sensors with integrated optical interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fushen, Chen; Yunqi, Liu; Yu, Xu; Qu, Liang

    1996-10-01

    Novel Langmuir-Blodgett-film toxic-gas sensors that have a Ti:LiNbO 3 integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer structure are experimentally investigated. The gas-sensing properties of the sensors are obtained for NO 2, Cl2, NH3, and H2S by means of the detection of optical output changes. All the optical connections are made with optical fiber pigtails.

  20. Computational complexity and length of recorded data for fluctuation enhanced sensing method in resistive gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentka, Ł.; Smulko, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers complexity and accuracy of data processing for gas detection using resistance fluctuation data observed in resistance gas sensors. A few selected methods were considered (Principal Component Analysis - PCA, Support Vector Machine - SVM). Functions like power spectral density or histogram were used to create input data vector for these algorithms from the observed resistance fluctuations. The presented considerations are important for proposing relatively cheap and mobile gas detection devices of limited computations abilities and utilizing fluctuation enhanced gas sensing method.

  1. Method for Operating a Sensor to Differentiate Between Analytes in a Sample

    DOEpatents

    Kunt, Tekin; Cavicchi, Richard E; Semancik, Stephen; McAvoy, Thomas J

    1998-07-28

    Disclosed is a method for operating a sensor to differentiate between first and second analytes in a sample. The method comprises the steps of determining a input profile for the sensor which will enhance the difference in the output profiles of the sensor as between the first analyte and the second analyte; determining a first analyte output profile as observed when the input profile is applied to the sensor; determining a second analyte output profile as observed when the temperature profile is applied to the sensor; introducing the sensor to the sample while applying the temperature profile to the sensor, thereby obtaining a sample output profile; and evaluating the sample output profile as against the first and second analyte output profiles to thereby determine which of the analytes is present in the sample.

  2. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of the operation of a flame ionization sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, E.D.; Chorpening, B.; Thornton, J.

    2007-01-01

    The sensors and controls research group at the United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is continuing to develop the Combustion Control and Diagnostics Sensor (CCADS) for gas turbine applications. CCADS measures the electrical conduction of the charged species generated during the combustion process to detect flashback and combustion instabilities, and to monitor equivalence ratio. As part of this effort, combustion models are being developed which include the interaction between the electric field and the transport processes of the charged species. The primary combustion process is computed using a flame wrinkling model developed by Weller et al. (1998). A sub-model for the transport of charged species is attached to this model. The formulation of the charged-species model is similar to that applied by Penderson and Brown (1993) for the simulation of laminar flames. Using the above procedure, numerical simulations are performed and the results are compared with experimental current measurements. Quantitative agreement with experiment was not obtained, however the model does display similar sensitivity to flow and operating conditions as observed in experiments.

  3. Influence of Fabricating Process on Gas Sensing Properties of ZnO Nanofiber-Based Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lei; Wang, Rui; Liu, Yong; Dong, Liang

    2011-04-01

    ZnO nanofibers are synthesized by an electrospinning method and characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two types of gas sensors are fabricated by loading these nanofibers as the sensing materials and their performances are investigated in detail. Compared with the sensors based on traditional ceramic tubes with Au electrodes (traditional sensors), the sensors fabricated by spinning ZnO nanofibers on ceramic planes with Ag-Pd electrodes (plane sensors) exhibit much higher sensing properties. The sensitivity for the plane sensors is about 30 to 100 ppm ethanol at 300°C, while the value is only 13 for the traditional sensors. The response and recovery times are about 2 and 3s for the plane sensors and are 3 and 6s for the traditional sensors, respectively. Lower minimum-detection-limit is also found for the plane sensors. These improvements are explained by considering the morphological damage in the fabricating process for traditional sensors. The results suggest that the plane sensors are more suitable to sensing investigation for higher veracity.

  4. Evaluation of infrared sensors for oil spill response operations. Final report, October 1994-June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hover, G.L.; Plourde, J.V.

    1995-06-01

    During November 1994, the USCO conducted a field evaluation of several commercially available portable infrared (IR) sensors for their ability to detect oil on water at night. The evaluation was conducted over the natural oil seeps off the coast of Santa Barbara, CA. The portable sensors were operated from the open door of a Coast Guard HH-60J helicopter. Sensors evaluated included the Agema Thermovision 1000 and Texas Instruments LOCUSP operating in the long wave IR (LWIR) and the Cincinnati Electronics IRC-160ST and IRRIS-256ST operating in the medium wave IR (MWIR). The installed FLIR 2000 LWIR system provided a baseline reference of current CG IR capabilities.

  5. Stabilizing operation point technique based on the tunable distributed feedback laser for interferometric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xuefeng; Zhou, Xinlei; Yu, Qingxu

    2016-02-01

    We describe a stabilizing operation point technique based on the tunable Distributed Feedback (DFB) laser for quadrature demodulation of interferometric sensors. By introducing automatic lock quadrature point and wavelength periodically tuning compensation into an interferometric system, the operation point of interferometric system is stabilized when the system suffers various environmental perturbations. To demonstrate the feasibility of this stabilizing operation point technique, experiments have been performed using a tunable-DFB-laser as light source to interrogate an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric vibration sensor and a diaphragm-based acoustic sensor. Experimental results show that good tracing of Q-point was effectively realized.

  6. Worcester 1 Inch Solenoid Actuated Gas Operated SCHe System Valves

    SciTech Connect

    MISKA, C.R.

    2000-09-03

    1 inch gas-operated full-port ball valves incorporate a solenoid and limit switches as integral parts of the actuator. These valves are normally open and fail safe to the open position (GOV-1*02 and 1*06 fail closed) to provide a flow path of helium gas to the MCO under helium purge and off-normal conditions when the MCO is isolated.

  7. Worcester 1 Inch Solenoid Actuated Gas Operated SCHe System Valves

    SciTech Connect

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-10-23

    1 inch Gas-operated full-port ball valves incorporate a solenoid and limit switches as integral parts of the actuator. These valves are normally open and fail safe to the open position (GOV-1*02 and 1*06 fall closed) to provide a flow path of helium gas to the MCO under helium purge and off-normal conditions when the MCO is isolated.

  8. Worcester 1 Inch Solenoid Actuated Gas Operated SCHe System Valves

    SciTech Connect

    MISKA, C.R.

    2000-11-13

    1 inch gas-operated full-port ball valves incorporate a solenoid and limit switches as integral parts of the actuator. These valves are normally open and fail safe to the open position (GOV-1*02 and 1*06 fail closed) to provide a flow path of helium gas to the MCO under helium purge and off-normal conditions when the MCO is isolated.

  9. Worcester 1 Inch Solenoid Actuated Gas Operated SCHe System Valves

    SciTech Connect

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-06-06

    1 inch Gas-operated full-port ball valves incorporate a solenoid and limit switches as integral parts of the actuator. These valves are normally open and fail safe to the open position (GOV-1*02 and 1*06 fail closed) to provide a flow path of helium gas to the MCO under helium purge and off-normal conditions when the MCO is isolated.

  10. Experimental evaluation of stable long term operation of semiconductor magnetic sensors at ITER relevant environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolshakova, I.; Belyaev, S.; Bulavin, M.; Brudnyi, V.; Chekanov, V.; Coccorese, V.; Duran, I.; Gerasimov, S.; Holyaka, R.; Kargin, N.; Konopleva, R.; Kost, Ya.; Kuech, T.; Kulikov, S.; Makido, O.; Moreau, Ph; Murari, A.; Quercia, A.; Shurygin, F.; Strikhanov, M.; Timoshyn, S.; Vasil'evskii, I.; Vinichenko, A.

    2015-08-01

    The paper deals with radiation resistant sensors and their associated measuring instrumentation developed in the course of R and D activities carried out in the framework of an international collaboration. The first trial tests of three-dimensional (3D) probes with Hall sensors have been performed in European tokamaks TORE SUPRA (2004) and JET (2005). Later in 2009 six sets of 3D probes were installed in JET and now continue to operate. The statistical analysis performed in 2014 on the basis of the JET database have demonstrated stable long term operation of all 18 sensors of 3D probes. The results of measurements conducted at the neutron fluxes of nuclear reactors have demonstrated the operability of the sensors up to high neutron fluences of F  >  1018n • cm-2 that exceeds the maximum one for the locations of steady state sensors in ITER over its total lifetime.

  11. Opportunities of Wireless Sensors and Controls for Building Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Conant, Rob

    2004-08-01

    This paper characterizes commercially available wireless technologies that are already being used in buildings applications or that are suitable for use in commercial buildings. The discussion provides an overview of fundamental concepts of radial broadcasting systems, as well as meshed networks, and will highlight the opportunities and challenges in their integration into existing wired control networks. This paper describes two demonstration projects of wireless sensors and their integration into existing control networks, and discusses their cost per sensor, their ease of installation, and their reliability. The authors will discuss the load control strategies implemented as a consequence of the wireless sensors and report on the energy and cost savings estimates. The paper will conclude with general future prospects for wireless technologies in buildings applications.

  12. Sensing Performance of Precisely Ordered TiO2 Nanowire Gas Sensors Fabricated by Electron-Beam Lithography

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Wei-Cheng; Ho, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Chao-Hao; Kuo, Chun-Yen

    2013-01-01

    In this study, electron beam lithography, rather than the most popular method, chemical synthesis, is used to construct periodical TiO2 nanowires for a gas sensor with both robust and rapid performance. The effects of temperature on the sensing response and reaction time are analyzed at various operation temperatures ranging from 200 to 350 °C. At the optimized temperature of 300 °C, the proposed sensor repeatedly obtained a rise/recovery time (ΔR: 0.9 R0 to 0.1 R0) of 3.2/17.5 s and a corresponding sensor response (ΔR/R0) of 21.7% at an ethanol injection mass quantity of 0.2 μg. PMID:23344381

  13. High sensitivity gas sensor based on high-Q suspended polymer photonic crystal nanocavity

    SciTech Connect

    Clevenson, Hannah Desjardins, Pierre; Gan, Xuetao; Englund, Dirk

    2014-06-16

    We present high-sensitivity, multi-use optical gas sensors based on a one-dimensional photonic crystal cavity. These devices are implemented in versatile, flexible polymer materials which swell when in contact with a target gas, causing a measurable cavity length change. This change causes a shift in the cavity resonance, allowing precision measurements of gas concentration. We demonstrate suspended polymer nanocavity sensors and the recovery of sensors after the removal of stimulant gas from the system. With a measured quality factor exceeding 10{sup 4}, we show measurements of gas concentration as low as 600 parts per million (ppm) and an experimental sensitivity of 10 ppm; furthermore, we predict detection levels in the parts-per-billion range for a variety of gases.

  14. Ultrasensitive and Highly Selective Graphene-Based Single Yarn for Use in Wearable Gas Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju Yun, Yong; Hong, Won G.; Choi, Nak-Jin; Hoon Kim, Byung; Jun, Yongseok; Lee, Hyung-Kun

    2015-06-01

    Electric components based on fibers or textiles have been investigated owing to their potential applications in wearable devices. High performance on response to gas, drape-ability and washing durability are of important for gas sensors based on fiber substrates. In this report, we demonstrate the bendable and washable electronic textile (e-textile) gas sensors composed of reduced graphene oxides (RGOs) using commercially available yarn and molecular glue through an electrostatic self-assembly. The e-textile gas sensor possesses chemical durability to several detergent washing treatments and mechanical stability under 1,000 bending tests at an extreme bending radius of 1 mm as well as a high response to NO2 gas at room temperature with selectivity to other gases such as acetone, ethanol, ethylene, and CO2.

  15. Ultrasensitive and Highly Selective Graphene-Based Single Yarn for Use in Wearable Gas Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Ju Yun, Yong; Hong, Won G.; Choi, Nak-Jin; Hoon Kim, Byung; Jun, Yongseok; Lee, Hyung-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Electric components based on fibers or textiles have been investigated owing to their potential applications in wearable devices. High performance on response to gas, drape-ability and washing durability are of important for gas sensors based on fiber substrates. In this report, we demonstrate the bendable and washable electronic textile (e-textile) gas sensors composed of reduced graphene oxides (RGOs) using commercially available yarn and molecular glue through an electrostatic self-assembly. The e-textile gas sensor possesses chemical durability to several detergent washing treatments and mechanical stability under 1,000 bending tests at an extreme bending radius of 1 mm as well as a high response to NO2 gas at room temperature with selectivity to other gases such as acetone, ethanol, ethylene, and CO2. PMID:26043109

  16. Ultrasensitive and highly selective graphene-based single yarn for use in wearable gas sensor.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yong Ju; Hong, Won G; Choi, Nak-Jin; Kim, Byung Hoon; Jun, Yongseok; Lee, Hyung-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Electric components based on fibers or textiles have been investigated owing to their potential applications in wearable devices. High performance on response to gas, drape-ability and washing durability are of important for gas sensors based on fiber substrates. In this report, we demonstrate the bendable and washable electronic textile (e-textile) gas sensors composed of reduced graphene oxides (RGOs) using commercially available yarn and molecular glue through an electrostatic self-assembly. The e-textile gas sensor possesses chemical durability to several detergent washing treatments and mechanical stability under 1,000 bending tests at an extreme bending radius of 1 mm as well as a high response to NO2 gas at room temperature with selectivity to other gases such as acetone, ethanol, ethylene, and CO2. PMID:26043109

  17. Plasmonic nanocomposite thin film enabled fiber optic sensors for simultaneous gas and temperature sensing at extreme temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Buric, Michael P.; Brown, Thomas D.; Matranga, Christopher; Wang, Congjun; Baltrus, John; Andio, Mark

    2013-09-01

    Embedded sensors capable of operation in extreme environments including high temperatures, high pressures, and highly reducing, oxidizing and/or corrosive environments can make a significant impact on enhanced efficiencies and reduced greenhouse gas emissions of current and future fossil-based power generation systems. Relevant technologies can also be leveraged in a wide range of other applications with similar needs including nuclear power generation, industrial process monitoring and control, and aviation/aerospace. Here we describe a novel approach to embedded sensing under extreme temperature conditions by integration of Au-nanoparticle based plasmonic nanocomposite thin films with optical fibers in an evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy configuration. Such sensors can potentially enable simultaneous temperature and gas sensing at temperatures approaching 900-1000 °C in a manner compatible with embedded and distributed sensing approaches. The approach is demonstrated using the Au/SiO2 system deposited on silica-based optical fibers. Stability of optical fibers under relevant high temperature conditions and interactions with changing ambient gas atmospheres is an area requiring additional investigation and development but the simplicity of the sensor design makes it potentially cost-effective and may offer a potential for widespread deployment.Embedded sensors capable of operation in extreme environments including high temperatures, high pressures, and highly reducing, oxidizing and/or corrosive environments can make a significant impact on enhanced efficiencies and reduced greenhouse gas emissions of current and future fossil-based power generation systems. Relevant technologies can also be leveraged in a wide range of other applications with similar needs including nuclear power generation, industrial process monitoring and control, and aviation/aerospace. Here we describe a novel approach to embedded sensing under extreme temperature conditions by

  18. Kinetic response study in chemiresistive gas sensor based on carbon nanotube surface functionalized with substituted phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Anshul Kumar; Kumar, Pankaj; Saini, Rajan; Bedi, R. K.; Mahajan, Aman

    2016-05-01

    A kind of hybrid material is prepared by functionalizing multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH) with substituted copper phthalocyanine and the formation of CuPcOC8/MWCNTs-COOH hybrid is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that on the surface of nanotubes substituted CuPcOC8 derivatives has been successfully anchored through π-π stacking interaction. The gas sensing application of the fabricated hybrid material is tested upon exposure to different hazardous species, specifically NO2, NO, Cl2 and NH3 at operating temperature of 150˚C. It has been demonstrated that for Cl2 minimum detection limit of CuPcOC8/MWCNTs-COOH hybrid is 100 ppb. The response of hybrid sensor is found to be increased with increase in the concentration of Cl2.

  19. Ultrasonic processing of SbSI nanowires for their application to gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Mistewicz, K; Nowak, M; Wrzalik, R; Śleziona, J; Wieczorek, J; Guiseppi-Elie, A

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasonic processing has been applied to create durable electrical contacts between antimony sulfoiodide (SbSI) nanowires and Au microelectrodes on glass substrate. After DC electric field alignment of SbSI nanowires between the microelectrodes, the sample was irradiated with ultrasound using chromium copper alloy sonotrode ended with silicon carbide (SiC) single crystal. The SEM and AFM investigations have showed that the ends of SbSI nanowires have been well compacted and bonded with microelectrodes. Ultrasonic processing has caused 420% increase of DC electric conductance of the junctions between Au microelectrodes and SbSI nanowires. The fabricated structures of SbSI nanowires bonded to Au microelectrodes are useful e.g. as nitrous oxide (N2O) gas sensors. These low power devices can operate at room temperature and do not require heating system for recovery. PMID:27065469

  20. Gas sensor array based on metal-decorated carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Star, Alexander; Joshi, Vikram; Skarupo, Sergei; Thomas, David; Gabriel, Jean-Christophe P

    2006-10-26

    Here we demonstrate design, fabrication, and testing of electronic sensor array based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Multiple sensor elements consisting of isolated networks of SWNTs were integrated into Si chips by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and photolithography processes. For chemical selectivity, SWNTs were decorated with metal nanoparticles. The differences in catalytic activity of 18 catalytic metals for detection of H(2), CH(4), CO, and H(2)S gases were observed. Furthermore, a sensor array was fabricated by site-selective electroplating of Pd, Pt, Rh, and Au metals on isolated SWNT networks located on a single chip. The resulting electronic sensor array, which was comprised of several functional SWNT network sensors, was exposed to a randomized series of toxic/combustible gases. Electronic responses of all sensor elements were recorded and the sensor array data was analyzed using pattern-recognition analysis tools. Applications of these small-size, low-power, electronic sensor arrays are in the detection and identification of toxic/combustible gases for personal safety and air pollution monitoring. PMID:17048920

  1. Case study: City of Industry landfill gas recovery operation

    SciTech Connect

    1981-11-01

    Development of civic, recreation, and conservation facilities throughout a 150-acre site which had been used for waste disposal from 1951 to 1970 is described. The history of the landfill site, the geology of the site, and a test well program to assess the feasibility of recoverying landfill gas economically from the site are discussed. Based on results of the test well program, the City of Industry authorized the design and installation of a full-scale landfill gas recovery system. Design, construction, and operation of the system are described. The landfill gas system provides fuel for use in boilers to meet space heating and hot water demands for site development (MCW)

  2. Gas Hydrate Research Coring and Downhole Logging Operational Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, T. S.; Riedel, M.; Malone, M.

    2006-12-01

    Recent gas hydrate deep coring and downhole logging projects, including ODP Leg 204, IODP Expedition 311, and the India NGHP-01 effort have contributed greatly to our understanding of the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate. These projects have also built on the relatively sparse history of gas hydrate drilling experience to collectively develop a unique operational protocol to examine and sample gas hydrate in nature. The ideal gas hydrate research drill site in recent history, consists of at least three drill holes, with the first hole dedicated to LWD/MWD downhole logging in order to identify intervals to be pressurized cored and to collect critical petrophysical data. The second hole is usually dedicated for continuous coring operations. The third hole is used for special downhole tool measurements such as pressure coring and wire line logging. There is a strong scientific need to obtain LWD/MWD data prior to coring. The coring operations are complemented by frequent deployment of the PCS/HYACINTH pressure core systems. It is essential to know what the gas hydrate concentrations and vertical distribution are before deploying the available pressure core systems in order to choose the optimum depths for pressure coring operations. The coring operations are also complemented by frequent sampling for interstitial water, headspace gas, and microbiological analyses. Although those samples will be taken at relatively regular depths, the sampling frequency can be adjusted if gas hydrate concentrations and distribution can be forward predicted through the analysis of the LWD/MWD pre-core logging surveys. After completing the LWD/MWD logging program, usually as a dedicated drilling leg, field efforts will switch to conventional and pressure-controlled coring operations at each of the sites drilled during the LWD/MWD campaign. The standard continuous core hole will usually include APC coring to an expected refusal depth of ~100 mbsf; each hole is usually

  3. Research targets lower gas-processing operating costs

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, H.S.; Leppin, D.

    1997-12-29

    Increasing natural-gas demand and declining gas quality at the wellhead require the gas-processing industry to look to new technologies to stay competitive. The Gas Research Institute (GRI), Chicago, is managing a research, development, design, and deployment program that could save industry $230 million/year in operating and capital costs from NGL extraction and recovery, dehydration, acid-gas removal/sulfur recovery, and nitrogen rejection. Three technologies are addressed here. (1) Multivariable control (MVC) technology for predictive process control and optimization is installed or in design at 14 facilities, treating a combined total of more than 30 billion normal cu m/year (bcmy; 1.1 trillion standard cu ft/year, tcfy). Simple paybacks are typically less than 6 months. (2) A new acid-gas-removal process based on N-formyl morpholine (NFM) is being field tested that offers 40--50% savings in operating costs and 15--30% savings in capital costs relative to a commercially available physical solvent. (3) The GRI-MemCalc computer program for membrane separations and the GRI-Scavenger CalcBase computer program for scavenging technologies are screening tools that engineers can use to determine the best practice for treating their gas.

  4. A micro-thermoelectric gas sensor for detection of hydrogen and atomic oxygen.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-Chul; Yoon, Seung-Il; Lee, Chung-il; Kim, Yong-Jun; Song, Soonho

    2009-02-01

    This paper demonstrates the fabrication and performance of a micro-thermoelectric gas sensor for an effective and inexpensive gas analysis system. The proposed micro-thermoelectric gas sensor was fabricated by using a surface micromachining technique. The sensing mechanism, consisting of thermoelectric material and a novel metal catalyst, was fabricated on the highly thermally resistive layer for reduced heat transfer to the substrate allowing for a simple fabrication process. The micro-thermoelectric gas sensor detects target gas species by measuring the reaction heat of the catalytic reaction between the target gas and a novel metal catalyst using Cu-Bi thermopiles. The catalytic reaction occurs only on the hot junction of the sensing thermopile where the metal catalyst is deposited. In order to reduce the external thermal noise, a difference between the output voltage of the sensing and the reference thermopiles was measured by using a differential amplifier. The response of the fabricated sensor was linear to temperature difference. The fabricated sensor can be used to detect various concentrations of hydrogen and atomic oxygen, where the output voltage linearly increased with the gas concentration. PMID:19173043

  5. Breakdown voltage reduction by field emission in multi-walled carbon nanotubes based ionization gas sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Saheed, M. Shuaib M.; Muti Mohamed, Norani; Arif Burhanudin, Zainal

    2014-03-24

    Ionization gas sensors using vertically aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are demonstrated. The sharp tips of the nanotubes generate large non-uniform electric fields at relatively low applied voltage. The enhancement of the electric field results in field emission of electrons that dominates the breakdown mechanism in gas sensor with gap spacing below 14 μm. More than 90% reduction in breakdown voltage is observed for sensors with MWCNT and 7 μm gap spacing. Transition of breakdown mechanism, dominated by avalanche electrons to field emission electrons, as decreasing gap spacing is also observed and discussed.

  6. Compact TDLAS based sensor design using interband cascade lasers for mid-IR trace gas sensing.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lei; Tittel, Frank K; Li, Chunguang; Sanchez, Nancy P; Wu, Hongpeng; Zheng, Chuantao; Yu, Yajun; Sampaolo, Angelo; Griffin, Robert J

    2016-03-21

    Two compact TDLAS sensor systems based on different structural optical cores were developed. The two optical cores combine two recent developments, gallium antimonide (GaSb)-based ICL and a compact multipass gas cell (MPGC) with the goal to create compact TDLAS based sensors for the mid-IR gas detection with high detection sensitivity and low power consumption. The sensors achieved minimum detection limits of ~5 ppbv and ~8 ppbv, respectively, for CH4 and C2H6 concentration measurements with a 3.7-W power consumption. PMID:27136873

  7. Oil and gas operations in federal and coastal waters

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: history, status, and future of OCS leasing; co-ownership of natural gas in place and as produced; anti-indemnity statutes as applied to offshore contracts; MMS royalty valuation issues and trends; bidding, exploration, and operating agreements; anatomy and preparation of OCS farmout agreements; federal audit procedures and time limitations; FERC developments and other producer-related pipeline regulations; natural gas marketing and transportation; offshore Alaska environmental issues; environmental developments for Gulf Coast mineral operations; seismic data transfer among owners and users.

  8. Fiber optic gas sensor for on-line CO2 monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysokiński, Karol; Szymański, Michał; Stańczyk, Tomasz; Murawski, Michał; Tenderenda, Tadeusz; Napierała, Marek; Nasiłowski, Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    An optical fiber CO2 gas sensor is reported in this work. Sensor is based on the change of absorption of a selected dye dissolved in an organically modified silica coating of an optical fiber. CO2 in the atmosphere decreases the pH of the deposited active layer, which eventually leads to the change of the fiber transmittance. Elaborated sensor exhibits high sensitivity, short response time and good stability, which makes it suitable for potential industrial, agricultural and household use. Described method can also be used for sensing other gases in sensor matrices.

  9. An Annular Mechanical Temperature Compensation Structure for Gas-Sealed Capacitive Pressure Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xiuchun; Jiang, Yonggang; Takao, Hidekuni; Maenaka, Kazusuke; Higuchi, Kohei

    2012-01-01

    A novel gas-sealed capacitive pressure sensor with a temperature compensation structure is reported. The pressure sensor is sealed by Au-Au diffusion bonding under a nitrogen ambient with a pressure of 100 kPa and integrated with a platinum resistor-based temperature sensor for human activity monitoring applications. The capacitance-pressure and capacitance-temperature characteristics of the gas-sealed capacitive pressure sensor without temperature compensation structure are calculated. It is found by simulation that a ring-shaped structure on the diaphragm of the pressure sensor can mechanically suppress the thermal expansion effect of the sealed gas in the cavity. Pressure sensors without/with temperature compensation structures are fabricated and measured. Through measured results, it is verified that the calculation model is accurate. Using the compensation structures with a 900 μm inner radius, the measured temperature coefficient is much reduced as compared to that of the pressure sensor without compensation. The sensitivities of the pressure sensor before and after compensation are almost the same in the pressure range from 80 kPa to 100 kPa. PMID:22969385

  10. Development of fabric-based chemical gas sensors for use as wearable electronic noses.

    PubMed

    Seesaard, Thara; Lorwongtragool, Panida; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2015-01-01

    Novel gas sensors embroidered into fabric substrates based on polymers/ SWNT-COOH nanocomposites were proposed in this paper, aiming for their use as a wearable electronic nose (e-nose). The fabric-based chemical gas sensors were fabricated by two main processes: drop coating and embroidery. Four potential polymers (PVC, cumene-PSMA, PSE and PVP)/functionalized-SWCNT sensing materials were deposited onto interdigitated electrodes previously prepared by embroidering conductive thread on a fabric substrate to make an optimal set of sensors. After preliminary trials of the obtained sensors, it was found that the sensors yielded a electrical resistance in the region of a few kilo-Ohms. The sensors were tested with various volatile compounds such as ammonium hydroxide, ethanol, pyridine, triethylamine, methanol and acetone, which are commonly found in the wastes released from the human body. These sensors were used to detect and discriminate between the body odors of different regions and exist in various forms such as the urine, armpit and exhaled breath odor. Based on a simple pattern recognition technique, we have shown that the proposed fabric-based chemical gas sensors can discriminate the human body odor from two persons. PMID:25602265

  11. Development of Fabric-Based Chemical Gas Sensors for Use as Wearable Electronic Noses

    PubMed Central

    Seesaard, Thara; Lorwongtragool, Panida; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2015-01-01

    Novel gas sensors embroidered into fabric substrates based on polymers/ SWNT-COOH nanocomposites were proposed in this paper, aiming for their use as a wearable electronic nose (e-nose). The fabric-based chemical gas sensors were fabricated by two main processes: drop coating and embroidery. Four potential polymers (PVC, cumene-PSMA, PSE and PVP)/functionalized-SWCNT sensing materials were deposited onto interdigitated electrodes previously prepared by embroidering conductive thread on a fabric substrate to make an optimal set of sensors. After preliminary trials of the obtained sensors, it was found that the sensors yielded a electrical resistance in the region of a few kilo-Ohms. The sensors were tested with various volatile compounds such as ammonium hydroxide, ethanol, pyridine, triethylamine, methanol and acetone, which are commonly found in the wastes released from the human body. These sensors were used to detect and discriminate between the body odors of different regions and exist in various forms such as the urine, armpit and exhaled breath odor. Based on a simple pattern recognition technique, we have shown that the proposed fabric-based chemical gas sensors can discriminate the human body odor from two persons. PMID:25602265

  12. Comparison of Orion Vision Navigation Sensor Performance from STS-134 and the Space Operations Simulation Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, John A.; Patangan, Mogi; Hinkel, Heather; Chevray, Keiko; Brazzel, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle is a new spacecraft being designed by NASA and Lockheed Martin for future crewed exploration missions. The Vision Navigation Sensor is a Flash LIDAR that will be the primary relative navigation sensor for this vehicle. To obtain a better understanding of this sensor's performance, the Orion relative navigation team has performed both flight tests and ground tests. This paper summarizes and compares the performance results from the STS-134 flight test, called the Sensor Test for Orion RelNav Risk Mitigation (STORRM) Development Test Objective, and the ground tests at the Space Operations Simulation Center.

  13. Self-Powered Triboelectric Micro Liquid/Gas Flow Sensor for Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Guo, Hengyu; Zheng, Jiangeng; Huang, Yingzhou; Liu, Guanlin; Hu, Chenguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-08-23

    Liquid and gas flow sensors are important components of the micro total analysis systems (μTAS) for modern analytical sciences. In this paper, we proposed a self-powered triboelectric microfluidic sensor (TMS) by utilizing the signals produced from the droplet/bubble via the capillary and the triboelectrification effects on the liquid/solid interface for real-time liquid and gas flow detection. By alternating capillary with different diameters, the sensor's detecting range and sensitivity can be adjusted. Both the relationship between the droplet/bubble and capillary size, and the output signal of the sensor are systematically studied. By demonstrating the monitoring of the transfusion process for a patient and the gas flow produced from an injector, it shows that TMS has a great potential in building a self-powered micro total analysis system. PMID:27490518

  14. Investigation of thiol derivatized gold nanoparticle sensors for gas analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Jared S.

    Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air and exhaled breath by sensor array is a very useful testing technique. It can provide non-invasive, fast, inexpensive testing for many diseases. Breath analysis has been very successful in identifying cancer and other diseases by using a chemiresistor sensor or array with gold nanoparticles to detect biomarkers. Acetone is a biomarker for diabetes and having a portable testing device could help to monitor diabetic and therapeutic progress. An advantage to this testing method is it is conducted at room temperature instead of 200 degrees Celsius. 3. The objective of this research is to determine the effect of thiol derivatized gold nanoparticles based on sensor(s) detection of VOCs. The VOCs to be tested are acetone, ethanol, and a mixture of acetone and ethanol. Each chip is tested under all three VOCs and three concentration levels (0.1, 1, and 5.0 ppm). VOC samples are used to test the sensors' ability to detect and differentiate VOCs. Sensors (also referred to as a chip) are prepared using several types of thiol derivatized gold nanoparticles. The factors are: thiol compound and molar volume loading of the thiol in synthesis. The average resistance results are used to determine the VOC selectivity of the sensors tested. The results show a trend of increasing resistance as VOC concentration is increased relative to dry air; which is used as baseline for VOCs. Several sensors show a high selectivity to one or more VOCs. Overall the 57 micromoles of 4-methoxy-toluenethiol sensor shows the strongest selectivity for VOCs tested. 3. Gerfen, Kurt. 2012. Detection of Acetone in Air Using Silver Ion Exchanged ZSM-5 and Zinc Oxide Sensing Films. Master of Science thesis, University of Louisville.

  15. Optimal sensor locations for the backward Lagrangian stochastic technique in measuring lagoon gas emission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the impact of gas concentration and wind sensor locations on the accuracy of the backward Lagrangian stochastic inverse-dispersion technique (bLS) for measuring gas emission rates from a typical lagoon environment. Path-integrated concentrations (PICs) and 3-dimensional (3D) wi...

  16. Operation and planning of coordinated natural gas and electricity infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaping

    Natural gas is becoming rapidly the optimal choice for fueling new generating units in electric power system driven by abundant natural gas supplies and environmental regulations that are expected to cause coal-fired generation retirements. The growing reliance on natural gas as a dominant fuel for electricity generation throughout North America has brought the interaction between the natural gas and power grids into sharp focus. The primary concern and motivation of this research is to address the emerging interdependency issues faced by the electric power and natural gas industry. This thesis provides a comprehensive analysis of the interactions between the two systems regarding the short-term operation and long-term infrastructure planning. Natural gas and renewable energy appear complementary in many respects regarding fuel price and availability, environmental impact, resource distribution and dispatchability. In addition, demand response has also held the promise of making a significant contribution to enhance system operations by providing incentives to customers for a more flat load profile. We investigated the coordination between natural gas-fired generation and prevailing nontraditional resources including renewable energy, demand response so as to provide economical options for optimizing the short-term scheduling with the intense natural gas delivery constraints. As the amount and dispatch of gas-fired generation increases, the long-term interdependency issue is whether there is adequate pipeline capacity to provide sufficient gas to natural gas-fired generation during the entire planning horizon while it is widely used outside the power sector. This thesis developed a co-optimization planning model by incorporating the natural gas transportation system into the multi-year resource and transmission system planning problem. This consideration would provide a more comprehensive decision for the investment and accurate assessment for system adequacy and

  17. A sensor management architecture concept for monitoring emissions from open-air demil operations.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Michael M.; Robinson, Jerry D.; Stoddard, Mary Clare; Horn, Brent A.; Lipkin, Joel; Foltz, Greg W.

    2005-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, CA proposed a sensor concept to detect emissions from open-burning/open-detonation (OB/OD) events. The system would serve two purposes: (1) Provide data to demilitarization operations about process efficiency, allowing process optimization for cleaner emissions and higher efficiency. (2) Provide data to regulators and neighboring communities about materials dispersing into the environment by OB/OD operations. The proposed sensor system uses instrument control hardware and data visualization software developed at Sandia National Laboratories to link together an array of sensors to monitor emissions from OB/OD events. The suite of sensors would consist of various physical and chemical detectors mounted on stationary or mobile platforms. The individual sensors would be wirelessly linked to one another and controlled through a central command center. Real-time data collection from the sensors, combined with integrated visualization of the data at the command center, would allow for feedback to the sensors to alter operational conditions to adjust for changing needs (i.e., moving plume position, increased spatial resolution, increased sensitivity). This report presents a systems study of the problem of implementing a sensor system for monitoring OB/OD emissions. The goal of this study was to gain a fuller understanding of the political, economic, and technical issues for developing and fielding this technology.

  18. Integrated Analysis of Environment-driven Operational Effects in Sensor Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Alfred J; Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2007-07-01

    There is a rapidly growing need to evaluate sensor network functionality and performance in the context of the larger environment of infrastructure and applications in which the sensor network is organically embedded. This need, which is motivated by complex applications related to national security operations, leads to a paradigm fundamentally different from that of traditional data networks. In the sensor networks of interest to us, the network dynamics depend strongly on sensor activity, which in turn is triggered by events in the environment. Because the behavior of sensor networks is sensitive to these driving phenomena, the integrity of the sensed observations, measurements and resource usage by the network can widely vary. It is therefore imperative to accurately capture the environmental phenomena, and drive the simulation of the sensor network operation by accounting fully for the environment effects. In this paper, we illustrate the strong, intimate coupling between the sensor network operation and the driving phenomena in their applications with an example sensor network designed to detect and track gaseous plumes.

  19. Semiconducting Metal Oxide Based Sensors for Selective Gas Pollutant Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kanan, Sofian M.; El-Kadri, Oussama M.; Abu-Yousef, Imad A.; Kanan, Marsha C.

    2009-01-01

    A review of some papers published in the last fifty years that focus on the semiconducting metal oxide (SMO) based sensors for the selective and sensitive detection of various environmental pollutants is presented. PMID:22408500

  20. Microfabricated Gas Sensors Demonstrated in Fire and Emission Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2003-01-01

    A range of microfabricated chemical sensors are being developed to meet the needs of fire detection and emission monitoring in aerospace applications. These sensors have the advantages over traditional technology of minimal size, weight, and power consumption as well as the ability to be placed closer to where the measurements need to be made. Sensor arrays are being developed to address detection needs in environments where multiple species need to be measured. For example, the monitoring of chemical species such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrocarbons, and other species is important in the detection of fires on airplanes and spacecraft. In contrast, different sensors are necessary for characterizing some aircraft engine designs where the monitoring of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and CO is of high interest. Demonstration of both fire and emission microsensor technology was achieved this year in a collaborative effort undertaken by the NASA Glenn Research Center, Case Western Reserve University, and Makel Engineering, Inc.

  1. Hydrogen gas sensor based on palladium and yttrium alloy ultrathin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Liu; You-ping, Chen; Han, Song; Gang, Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Compared with the other hydrogen sensors, optical fiber hydrogen sensors based on thin films exhibits inherent safety, small volume, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and distributed remote sensing capability, but slower response characteristics. To improve response and recovery rate of the sensors, a novel reflection-type optical fiber hydrogen gas sensor with a 10 nm palladium and yttrium alloy thin film is fabricated. The alloy thin film shows a good hydrogen sensing property for hydrogen-containing atmosphere and a complete restorability for dry air at room temperature. The variation in response value of the sensor linearly increases with increased natural logarithm of hydrogen concentration (ln[H2]). The shortest response time and recovery response time to 4% hydrogen are 6 and 8 s, respectively. The hydrogen sensors based on Pd0.91Y0.09 alloy ultrathin film have potential applications in hydrogen detection and measurement.

  2. Natural gas operations: considerations on process transients, design, and control.

    PubMed

    Manenti, Flavio

    2012-03-01

    This manuscript highlights tangible benefits deriving from the dynamic simulation and control of operational transients of natural gas processing plants. Relevant improvements in safety, controllability, operability, and flexibility are obtained not only within the traditional applications, i.e. plant start-up and shutdown, but also in certain fields apparently time-independent such as the feasibility studies of gas processing plant layout and the process design of processes. Specifically, this paper enhances the myopic steady-state approach and its main shortcomings with respect to the more detailed studies that take into consideration the non-steady state behaviors. A portion of a gas processing facility is considered as case study. Process transients, design, and control solutions apparently more appealing from a steady-state approach are compared to the corresponding dynamic simulation solutions. PMID:22056010

  3. Occupation Competency Profile: Gas Utility Operator Certificate Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    This document presents information about the apprenticeship training program of Alberta, Canada, in general and the gas utility operator certificate program in particular. The first part of the document discusses the following items: Alberta's apprenticeship and industry training system; the occupation committee and its members; the Alberta…

  4. Pipeliners and gas processors target even cleaner operations

    SciTech Connect

    True, R.W.

    1991-12-16

    With the recent passage of amendments to the federal Clean Air Act and the reauthorization next year of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, pipelines and gas processors are looking at more ways to tighten operations and avoid polluting surface water or air. This paper reports that some companies are not waiting for the final rules but are taking actions which anticipate tougher standards.

  5. Chemical Gated Field Effect Transistor by Hybrid Integration of One-Dimensional Silicon Nanowire and Two-Dimensional Tin Oxide Thin Film for Low Power Gas Sensor.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin-Woo; Rim, Taiuk; Baek, Chang-Ki; Meyyappan, M

    2015-09-30

    Gas sensors based on metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with the polysilicon gate replaced by a gas sensitive thin film have been around for over 50 years. These are not suitable for the emerging mobile and wearable sensor platforms due to operating voltages and powers far exceeding the supply capability of batteries. Here we present a novel approach to decouple the chemically sensitive region from the conducting channel for reducing the drive voltage and increasing reliability. This chemically gated field effect transistor uses silicon nanowire for the current conduction channel with a tin oxide film on top of the nanowire serving as the gas sensitive medium. The potential change induced by the molecular adsorption and desorption allows the electrically floating tin oxide film to gate the silicon channel. As the device is designed to be normally off, the power is consumed only during the gas sensing event. This feature is attractive for the battery operated sensor and wearable electronics. In addition, the decoupling of the chemical reaction and the current conduction regions allows the gas sensitive material to be free from electrical stress, thus increasing reliability. The device shows excellent gas sensitivity to the tested analytes relative to conventional metal oxide transistors and resistive sensors. PMID:26381613

  6. Lightweight Fiber Optic Gas Sensor for Monitoring Regenerative Food Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, Edward; Goswami, Kisholoy

    1995-01-01

    In this final report, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) describes its development of sensors for oxygen, carbon dioxide, and relative humidity. POC has constructed a phase fluorometer that can detect oxygen over the full concentration range from 0 percent to 100 percent. Phase-based measurements offer distinct advantages, such as immunity to source fluctuation, photobleaching, and leaching. All optics, optoelectronics, power supply, and the printed circuit board are included in a single box; the only external connections to the fluorometer are the optical fiber sensor and a power cord. The indicator-based carbon dioxide sensor is also suitable for short-term and discrete measurements over the concentration range from 0 percent to 100 percent. The optical fiber-based humidity sensor contains a porous core for direct interaction of the light beam with water vapor within fiber pores; the detection range for the humidity sensor is 10 percent to 100 percent, and response time is under five minutes. POC is currently pursuing the commercialization of these oxygen and carbon dioxide sensors for environmental applications.

  7. Response Mechanism for Surface Acoustic Wave Gas Sensors Based on Surface-Adsorption

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiansheng; Lu, Yanyan

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical model is established to describe the response mechanism of surface acoustic wave (SAW) gas sensors based on physical adsorption on the detector surface. Wohljent's method is utilized to describe the relationship of sensor output (frequency shift of SAW oscillator) and the mass loaded on the detector surface. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) formula and its improved form are introduced to depict the adsorption behavior of gas on the detector surface. By combining the two methods, we obtain a theoretical model for the response mechanism of SAW gas sensors. By using a commercial SAW gas chromatography (GC) analyzer, an experiment is performed to measure the frequency shifts caused by different concentration of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP). The parameters in the model are given by fitting the experimental results and the theoretical curve agrees well with the experimental data. PMID:24743157

  8. Silicon Carbide-Based Hydrogen Gas Sensors for High-Temperature Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seongjeen; Choi, Jehoon; Jung, Minsoo; Joo, Sungjae; Kim, Sangchoel

    2013-01-01

    We investigated SiC-based hydrogen gas sensors with metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure for high temperature process monitoring and leak detection applications in fields such as the automotive, chemical and petroleum industries. In this work, a thin tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) layer was exploited with the purpose of sensitivity improvement, because tantalum oxide has good stability at high temperature with high permeability for hydrogen gas. Silicon carbide (SiC) was used as a substrate for high-temperature applications. We fabricated Pd/Ta2O5/SiC-based hydrogen gas sensors, and the dependence of their I-V characteristics and capacitance response properties on hydrogen concentrations were analyzed in the temperature range from room temperature to 500 °C. According to the results, our sensor shows promising performance for hydrogen gas detection at high temperatures. PMID:24113685

  9. Silicon carbide-based hydrogen gas sensors for high-temperature applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seongjeen; Choi, Jehoon; Jung, Minsoo; Joo, Sungjae; Kim, Sangchoel

    2013-01-01

    We investigated SiC-based hydrogen gas sensors with metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure for high temperature process monitoring and leak detection applications in fields such as the automotive, chemical and petroleum industries. In this work, a thin tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) layer was exploited with the purpose of sensitivity improvement, because tantalum oxide has good stability at high temperature with high permeability for hydrogen gas. Silicon carbide (SiC) was used as a substrate for high-temperature applications. We fabricated Pd/Ta2O5/SiC-based hydrogen gas sensors, and the dependence of their I-V characteristics and capacitance response properties on hydrogen concentrations were analyzed in the temperature range from room temperature to 500 °C. According to the results, our sensor shows promising performance for hydrogen gas detection at high temperatures. PMID:24113685

  10. Operating atmospheric vent collection headers using methane gas enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, L.G.

    1996-12-31

    Tests at 60{degrees}C and 16psia using ethylene, hydrogen and methyl alcohol {open_quote}fuel vapors{open_quotes} showed that if an atmospheric vent collection header contains 25 vol% of methane and the only source of oxygen is the air, no possible mixture of fuel vapor, nitrogen and residual oxygen is flammable. Addition of these fuel vapors to a header containing 25% by volume of methane in all cases increases the 3.8 vol% oxygen safety factor that exists with zero fuel vapor in the gas stream. It is irrelevant that the fuel vapor has an upper flammable limit (VFL) greater than the methane enrichment gas. The minimum oxygen concentration to sustain a flame (MOC) increases with increased methane:nitrogen ratio in the gas stream, so that the {open_quote}listed{close_quotes} MOC has no relevance under methane enriched conditions. These findings have important ramifications when applying Coast Guard Regulations in 33CFR.154 for Marine Vapor Control Systems, which implies the need to operate at 170% of the combined gas stream UFL and requires operation at less than the MOC ({le} 8% oxygen) when tanks have been partly inerted with nitrogen. Large reductions of enrichment gas usage with attendant environmental benefits are technically possible using flow control of methane rather than gas analysis down-stream of the enrichment station. Operation above the UFL rather than below the MOC can cut enrichment gas usage by 50% or more while actually increasing the assumed 2 vol% oxygen safety factor. A negative flow control error of 7 vol% methane ({minus} 280% of target) is required to achieve flammability under worst case assumptions. 18 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Design and fabrication of a CMOS-compatible MHP gas sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ying; Yu, Jun Wu, Hao; Tang, Zhenan

    2014-03-15

    A novel micro-hotplate (MHP) gas sensor is designed and fabricated with a standard CMOS technology followed by post-CMOS processes. The tungsten plugging between the first and the second metal layer in the CMOS processes is designed as zigzag resistor heaters embedded in the membrane. In the post-CMOS processes, the membrane is released by front-side bulk silicon etching, and excellent adiabatic performance of the sensor is obtained. Pt/Ti electrode films are prepared on the MHP before the coating of the SnO{sub 2} film, which are promising to present better contact stability compared with Al electrodes. Measurements show that at room temperature in atmosphere, the device has a low power consumption of ∼19 mW and a rapid thermal response of 8 ms for heating up to 300 °C. The tungsten heater exhibits good high temperature stability with a slight fluctuation (<0.3%) in the resistance at an operation temperature of 300 °C under constant heating mode for 336 h, and a satisfactory temperature coefficient of resistance of about 1.9‰/°C.

  12. Operating experience review of an INL gas monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee C.; DeWall, K. G.; Herring, J. S.

    2015-03-12

    This article describes the operations of several types of gas monitors in use at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) High Temperature Electrolysis Experiment (HTE) laboratory. The gases monitored in the lab room are hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The operating time, calibration, and both actual and unwanted alarms are described. The calibration session time durations are described. In addition, some simple calculations are given to estimate the reliability of these monitors and the results are compared to operating experiences of other types of monitors.

  13. Zinc Oxide-Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposites for Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensor Application.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Najlaa D; Ansari, M Shahnawaze; Salah, Numan; Khayyat, Suzan A; Khan, Zishan H

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO)/multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites based sensors with different ZnO concentrations were fabricated to improve carbon monoxide (CO) gas sensing properties in comparison to the sensors based on bare MWCNTs. To study the structure, morphology and elemental composition of the resultant products, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were carried out. It has been observed that as the concentration of ZnO is increased more and more ZnO nanoparticles in the form of nodes get attached to MWCNTs resulting the reduction in average diameter of MWCNTs. The typical response of ZnO/MWCNTs composites based gas sensors for different CO concentrations (40, 100, 140 and 200 ppm) was studied by using very advanced sensing setup attached to I-V measurement system. Different sensing parameters such as: resistive response, sensitivity and response time were estimated at room temperature for all the fabricated sensors. The results indicated that the sensor based on nanocomposite which has 30 mg ZnO dispersed on 20 mg MWCNTs showing highest sensitivity and fastest response. All the sensors showed response times ranging from 8 to 23 seconds. The sensing mechanism behind the sensors based on ZnO/MWCNTs nanocomposites for CO gas at room temperature is also discussed in the present report. PMID:27398472

  14. Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. G.

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in room-temperature, near-IR and visible diode laser sources for tele-communication, high-speed computer networks, and optical data storage applications are enabling a new generation of gas-dynamic and combustion-flow sensors based on laser absorption spectroscopy. In addition to conventional species concentration and density measurements, spectroscopic techniques for temperature, velocity, pressure and mass flux have been demonstrated in laboratory, industrial and technical flows. Combined with fibreoptic distribution networks and ultrasensitive detection strategies, compact and portable sensors are now appearing for a variety of applications. In many cases, the superior spectroscopic quality of the new laser sources compared with earlier cryogenic, mid-IR devices is allowing increased sensitivity of trace species measurements, high-precision spectroscopy of major gas constituents, and stable, autonomous measurement systems. The purpose of this article is to review recent progress in this field and suggest likely directions for future research and development. The various laser-source technologies are briefly reviewed as they relate to sensor applications. Basic theory for laser absorption measurements of gas-dynamic properties is reviewed and special detection strategies for the weak near-IR and visible absorption spectra are described. Typical sensor configurations are described and compared for various application scenarios, ranging from laboratory research to automated field and airborne packages. Recent applications of gas-dynamic sensors for air flows and fluxes of trace atmospheric species are presented. Applications of gas-dynamic and combustion sensors to research and development of high-speed flows aeropropulsion engines, and combustion emissions monitoring are presented in detail, along with emerging flow control systems based on these new sensors. Finally, technology in nonlinear frequency conversion, UV laser materials, room

  15. Estimating IC engine exhaust gas lambda and oxygen from the response of a universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collings, N.; Harris, J. A.; Glover, K.

    2013-09-01

    Universal exhaust gas oxygen sensors (UEGOs) are in widespread use in internal combustion engines where they are used to measure lambda (the non-dimensional air-fuel ratio) and oxygen concentration (X_{O_2 }). The sensors are used on production engines and for research and development. In a previous paper, a model of the UEGO sensor was presented, based on a solution of the Stefan-Maxwell equations for an axisymmetric geometry, and it was shown that for a known gas composition, predictions of the sensor response agreed well with experiment. In the present paper, the more ‘practical’ problem is addressed: how well can such a model predict λ and X_{O_2 } based on the sensor response? For IC engine applications, a chemistry model is required in order to predict λ, and such a model is also desirable for an accurate prediction of X_{O_2 }. A fast (matrix exponential) method of solving the Stefan-Maxwell equations is also introduced, which offers the possibility of a near real-time computation of λ and X_{O_2 }, with application, for example, to bench instruments. Extensive results are presented showing how the interpretation of the UEGO response may be compromised by uncertainties. These uncertainties may relate not only to the sensor itself, such as temperature, pressure and mean pore diameter, but also the chemistry model.

  16. Design and Deployment of Low-Cost Plastic Optical Fiber Sensors for Gas Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Grassini, Sabrina; Ishtaiwi, Maen; Parvis, Marco; Vallan, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to develop and deploy low-cost plastic optical fiber sensors suitable for measuring low concentrations of pollutants in the atmosphere. The sensors are designed by depositing onto the exposed core of a plastic fiber thin films of sensitive compounds via either plasma sputtering or via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The interaction between the deposited layer and the gas alters the fiber's capability to transmit the light, so that the sensor can simply be realized with a few centimeters of fiber, an LED and a photodiode. Sensors arranged in this way exhibit several advantages in comparison to electrochemical and optical conventional sensors; in particular, they have an extremely low cost and can be easily designed to have an integral, i.e., cumulative, response. The paper describes the sensor design, the preparation procedure and two examples of sensor prototypes that exploit a cumulative response. One sensor is designed for monitoring indoor atmospheres for cultural heritage applications and the other for detecting the presence of particular gas species inside the RPC (resistive plate chamber) muon detector of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN in Geneva. PMID:25558990

  17. Operating instructions for the Building 190 gas handling system

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, P.J.; Garbaldi, J.L.; Roberts, M.L.

    1991-11-20

    The physics department of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory currently operates a multiuser laboratory centered around a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. The accelerator is a model FN gas insulated electrostatic particle accelerator manufactured by High Voltage Engineering Corporation. Insulating gas for the tandem accelerator is approximately 100 psig of sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). This manual was written as a guide for the use and operation of the associated SF{sub 6} gas handling system. To facilitate its use, this manual is broken into separate sections. Each section covers a commonly performed procedure and consists of a sequence of steps that must be followed in order. Most steps are a single command or instruction followed by one or more comments. The comments are intended only as aids in performing the step or as a description of why that particular step is important. A schematic of the gas handling system is shown. A detailed description of individual items in the system including set points on safety valves, pumping speeds, etc. can be found in the LLNL mechanical engineering safety note numbered ENS-88-901A and entitled ``{open_quote}FN{close_quote} Tandem Sulfur Hexafluoride Gas Handling System.``

  18. Operation of Ferroelectric Plasma Sources in a Gas Discharge Mode

    SciTech Connect

    A. Dunaevsky; N.J. Fisch

    2004-03-08

    Ferroelectric plasma sources in vacuum are known as sources of ablative plasma, formed due to surface discharge. In this paper, observations of a gas discharge mode of operation of the ferroelectric plasma sources (FPS) are reported. The gas discharge appears at pressures between approximately 20 and approximately 80 Torr. At pressures of 1-20 Torr, there is a transition from vacuum surface discharge to the gas discharge, when both modes coexist and the surface discharges sustain the gas discharge. At pressures between 20 and 80 Torr, the surface discharges are suppressed, and FPS operate in pure gas discharge mode, with the formation of almost uniform plasma along the entire surface of the ceramics between strips. The density of the expanding plasma is estimated to be about 1013 cm-3 at a distance of 5.5 mm from the surface. The power consumption of the discharge is comparatively low, making it useful for various applications. This paper also presents direct measurements of the yield of secondary electron emission from ferroelectric ceramics, which, at low energies of primary electrons, is high and dependent on the polarization of the ferroelectric material

  19. Carbon Nanotube Sensors for Gas and Vapor Detection in Space and Terrestrial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing

    2005-01-01

    Viewgraphs detailing the development of a nanostructure engineered, portable, low cost, low power consumption, room temperature operated chemical sensor for space and terrestrial applications is presented. The topics include: 1) Applications and Requirements; 2) Nanotechnology Advantages; 3) Current Studies on NanoChemical Sensors; and 4) Our Research Status and Results.

  20. Ammonia gas sensors based on poly (3-hexylthiophene)-molybdenum disulfide film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Tao; Xie, Guangzhong; Su, Yuanjie; Hongfei, Du; Ye, Zongbiao; Jiang, Yadong

    2016-02-01

    In this work, in order to enhance the recovery performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) ammonia (NH3) sensors, poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) were combined as sensitive materials. Different sensitive film structures as active layers of OTFTs, i.e., P3HT-MoS2 composite film, P3HT/MoS2 bilayer film and MoS2/P3HT bilayer film were fabricated by spray technology. OTFT gas sensors based on P3HT-MoS2 composite film showed a shorter recovery time than others when the ammonia concentration changed from 4 to 20 ppm. Specifically, x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and UV-visible absorption were employed to explore the interface properties between P3HT and single-layer MoS2. Through the complementary characterization, a mechanism based on charge transfer is proposed to explain the physical originality of these OTFT gas sensors: closer interlayer d-spacing and better π-π stacking of the P3HT chains in composite film have ensured a short recovery time of OTFT gas sensors. Moreover, sensing mechanisms of OTFTs were further studied by comparing the device performance in the presence of nitrogen or dry air as a carrier gas. This work not only strengthens the fundamental understanding of the sensing mechanism, but provides a promising approach to optimizing the OTFT gas sensors.

  1. Near Vent Volcanic Plume Measurement by a Portable Multi-Gas-Sensor System to Estimate Volcanic Gas Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, H.

    2006-12-01

    Near vent plume measurement technique by the use of the Portable Multi-Gas-Sensor System was developed to obtain volcanic gas composition of the major components including H2O, CO2, SO2, H2S and H2. By the combination with the Alkaline Filter Technique, the near vent plume measurement can provide almost full set of the volcanic gas composition including also HCl and HF. The Portable Multi-Gas-Sensor System measures concentration of the volcanic gas species by pumping the atmosphere (plume) through IR H2O-CO2 gas analyzer, SO2, H2S and H2 chemical sensors. The full system weight including battery and data logger is about 5 kg and can be easily carried in a backpack to the volcano summit. Among the various advantages and disadvantages of this techniques to other techniques such as the FT-IR measurements and the air-borne plume measurements with various gas analyzers, the most important advantage of the Portable Multi-Gas-Sensor System is the ability of the near vent measurement which enables the quantitative estimate of the H2O content in the volcanic gas. Since H2O content in the atmosphere is large and variable, a large mixing ratio of the volcanic gas in the plume is necessary to quantify the H2O excess over the atmospheric content. The atmospheric H2O content commonly ranges 5,000-20,000 ppm often with about 10% fluctuation whereas the CO2 content is about 370 ppm with minor (1 ppm) changes. Therefore we can quantify the excess CO2 content even at <1 ppm level, but we need at least 500 times larger excess H2O content derived from the volcanic gas for the quantification. By the near vent plume measurements, we could obtain the volcanic gas compositions of various volcanoes including Miyakejima, Asama and Villarrica as well as Etna whose gas composition is quite H2O-poor of H2O/CO2=1. Since H2O is commonly the most abundant volatile components both in the volcanic gases and magmas, and its solubility is quantitatively well constrained, the measured composition can

  2. Linam Ranch cryogenic gas plant: A design and operating retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, L.J.; Kuscinski, J.

    1999-07-01

    GPM Gas Corporation's Linam Ranch Gas Plant is the processing hub of their southeastern New Mexico gathering system, producing a y-grade NGL product which is pipelined primarily to the Phillips petrochemical complex at Sweeney, Texas, GPM acquired the facility near Hobbs, N.M. late in 1994 when it was still operating as a refrigerated lean oil plant, renamed it, and commenced an upgrade project culminating in its conversion to a high recovery cryogenic facility in early 1996 with a processing capacity of 150 MMscfd. Facilities that were upgraded included inlet liquids receiving and handling, the amine system, mol sieve dehydration, the sulfur recovery unit, inlet compression, and the propane refrigeration system. A Foxboro I/A DCS was also placed into operation. The lean oil system was replaced with a high recovery turboexpander unit supplied by KTI Fish based on their Flash Vapor Reflux (FVR) process. Resulting ethane recovery was greater than 95% for the new facilities. New residue compression units were installed including steam generators on the turbine exhausts, which complemented the existing plant steam system. During the three years since conversion to cryogenic operation, GPM has steadily improved plant operations. Expansion of the mol sieve dehydration system and retrofit of evaporation combustion air cooling on gas turbines have expanded nameplate capacity to 170 MMscfd while maintaining ethane recovery at 95%. Future expansion to 200 MMscfd with high recovery is achievable. In addition, creative use of the Foxboro DCS has been employed to implement advanced control schemes for handling inlet liquid slugs, gas and amine balancing for parallel amine contactors, improved sulfur recovery unit (SRU) trim air control, and constraint-based process optimization to maximize horsepower utilization and ethane recovery. Some challenges remain, leaving room for additional improvements. However, GPM's progress so far has resulted in a current ethane recovery level in

  3. 2.45 GHz Rectenna Designed for Wireless Sensors Operating at 500 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.; Schwartz, Zachary D.; Jordan, Jennifer L.; Downey, Alan N.; Neudeck, Philip G.

    2004-01-01

    High temperature wireless sensors that operate at 500 C are required for aircraft engine monitoring and performance improvement These sensors would replace currently used hard-wired sensors and lead to a substantial reduction in mass. However, even if the sensor output data is transmitted wirelessly to a receiver in the cooler part of the engine, and the associated cables are eliminated, DC power cables are still required to operate the sensors and power the wireless circuits. To solve this problem, NASA is developing a rectenna, a circuit that receives RF power and converts it to DC power. The rectenna would be integrated with the wireless sensor, and the RF transmitter that powers the rectenna would be located in the cooler part of the engine. In this way, no cables to or from the sensors are required. Rectennas haw been demonstrated at ambient room temperature, but to date, no high temperature rectennas haw been reported. In this paper, we report the first rectenna designed for 2.45 GHz operation at 500 C. The circuit consists of a microstrip dipole antenna, a stripline impedance matching circuit, and a stripline low pass filter to prevent transmission of higher harmonics created by the rectifying diode fabricated on an Alumina substrate. The rectifying diode is the gate to source junction of a 6H Sic MESFET and the capacitor and load resistor are chip elements that are each bonded to the Alumina substrate. Each element and the hybrid, rectenna circuit haw been characterized through 500 C.

  4. Characterization and Modeling of Electrical Response of Electrode Catalyzed Reactions in AIGaN/GaN-Based Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melby, Jacob H.

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) and AlGaN/GaN diodes have promise for use as hydrogen and hydrocarbon sensors for a variety of industrial, military, and commercial applications. These semiconductor-based sensors have a number of advantages over other sensor technologies, such as the ability to operate at high temperatures, in corrosive environments, or under ionizing radiation. The high sensitivity of these devices to hydrogen-containing gases is associated with polarization differences within the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure that give rise to the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG); exposure of the device to hydrogen changes the density of the 2DEG, which can be detected in a HEMT or diode structure. Although sensitivity to a range of gases has been reported, the factors that influence the behavior of the sensors are not well studied. The overarching goals of the research that follows were to determine how gas exposure conditions affect sensor behavior, to characterize and model the relationship between the electrical response of the sensors and the external gaseous environment, and to investigate the effects of using different metal catalysts on sensor behavior. The heterostructures used in this work were grown via metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Schottky diode and transistor devices employing platinum-group (Pd, Pt, Rh, Ir, Ru, and Os) catalysts were fabricated to allow electrical sensitivity in the presence of hydrogen and hydrogen containing gases. The generation of atomic hydrogen on the catalyst surface results in the rapid formation of hydrogen dipoles at the metal-semiconductor interface, which produces a measurable electronic response. The electrical response of Pt-gated HEMT-based sensors were measured in a flowing gaseous stream consisting of hydrogen in a pure nitrogen diluent at ambient and elevated temperatures. The transistors exhibited excellent transfer characteristics for temperatures ranging from 25

  5. Rapid determination of pyridine derivatives by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography/gas sensor based on nanostructured conducting polypyrrole.

    PubMed

    Pirsa, Sajad; Alizadeh, Naader

    2011-12-15

    Polypyrrole (PPy) gas sensor has been prepared by polymerization of pyrrole on surfaces of commercial polymer fibers in the presence of an oxidizing agent. The sensing behavior of PPy gas sensor was investigated in the presence of pyridine derivatives. The resistive responses of the PPy gas sensor to pyridine derivatives were in the order of quinoline>pyridine>4-methyl pyridine and 2-methyl pyridine. The PPy gas sensor was used as gas chromatography (GC) detector and exhibited linear responses to pyridine derivatives in the ranges 40-4,000 ng. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined with GC/PPy gas sensor has been developed for simultaneous determination of pyridine derivatives and quinoline. The purposed method was used for determination of pyridine derivatives from cigarette smoke. The GC runs were completed in 4 min. The reproducibility of this method is suitable and good standard deviations were obtained. RSD value is less than 10% for all analytes. PMID:22099675

  6. Sensing behaviour of tin doped chromium oxide gas sensor toward ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohli, Nipin; Singh, Onkar; Singh, Ravi Chand

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the enhancement of gas sensing response due to addition of tin into Cr2O3 has been reported. Sn-doped Cr2O3 nanoparticles have been prepared by a co-precipitation method and characterised by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. X-ray diffraction studies revealed the substitution of Cr3+ ions by Sn4+ ions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images exhibited presence of clusters and agglomerates on the surface. The concentration of tin, used as dopant, was varied from 1 to 5 wt.% and its effect on gas sensing response has been studied. Synthesised powders were applied as thick film onto alumina substrate and tested for ethanol sensing at different operating temperatures and all the sensors gave an optimum response at 250 ∘C. The activation energy of conduction for all the samples was estimated using Arrhenius plots and it was observed that the sample doped with 4 wt.% Sn possesses minimum activation energy, and interestingly this sample gave the best sensing response in the lot.

  7. Barriers Keep Drops Of Water Out Of Infrared Gas Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Sean K.

    1996-01-01

    Infrared-sensor cells used for measuring partial pressures of CO(2) and other breathable gases modified to prevent entry of liquid water into sensory optical paths of cells. Hydrophobic membrane prevents drops of water entrained in flow from entering optical path from lamp to infrared detectors.

  8. Optical wireless communication in sensor networks: data harvesting for disaster recovery operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnon, Shlomi; Kedar, Debbie

    2007-09-01

    Networks of sensors are an emerging technology for real-time data gathering in applications such as pollution monitoring, home security, surveillance, industrial control, etc. Many miniature nodes with sensing, computing and wireless communication capabilities are randomly deployed in an area or volume to be probed. One of the possible communication modalities for sensor networks is optical wireless communication (OWC). Initially, the sensor population must be mapped prior to interrogation by the base station and data communication from the sensor node. In this paper we review some theoretical and experimental work in this area and underline some of the challenges and possible solutions. The specific scenario of wireless sensor networks in a disaster recovery operation is modeled.

  9. An intelligent thick-film gas sensor: Development and preliminary tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauf, R. J.; Hoffheins, B. S.; Walls, C. A.

    1987-05-01

    Thick-film techniques were used to create a gas sensor that has a semiconducting oxide surface whose catalytic activity varies from point to point. An integral heater causes the oxide film to react with combustible gases; the electrical resistance of the oxide film is mapped through an array of electrodes to yield a signature that depends on how a particular gas reacts to each of the different areas on the sensor. The catalytic activity can be varied by establishing a thermal gradient across the sensor, by distributing different catalysts in different areas, or by a combination of both effects. For simple cases, the signature can be related to the functional groups present in the gas. As an example, using a uniform distribution of platinum and a thermal gradient, alcohols, ketones, and alkanes have distinctly different signatures.

  10. Single ZnO Nanowire-Based Gas Sensors to Detect Low Concentrations of Hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Cardoza-Contreras, Marlene N; Romo-Herrera, José M; Ríos, Luis A; García-Gutiérrez, R; Zepeda, T A; Contreras, Oscar E

    2015-01-01

    Low concentrations of hazardous gases are difficult to detect with common gas sensors. Using semiconductor nanostructures as a sensor element is an alternative. Single ZnO nanowire gas sensor devices were fabricated by manipulation and connection of a single nanowire into a four-electrode aluminum probe in situ in a dual-beam scanning electron microscope-focused ion beam with a manipulator and a gas injection system in/column. The electrical response of the manufactured devices shows response times up to 29 s for a 121 ppm of H₂ pulse, with a variation in the nanowire resistance appreciable at room temperature and at 373.15 K of approximately 8% and 14% respectively, showing that ZnO nanowires are good candidates to detect low concentrations of H₂. PMID:26690158

  11. Single ZnO Nanowire-Based Gas Sensors to Detect Low Concentrations of Hydrogen

    PubMed Central

    Cardoza-Contreras, Marlene N.; Romo-Herrera, José M.; Ríos, Luis A.; García-Gutiérrez, R.; Zepeda, T. A.; Contreras, Oscar E.

    2015-01-01

    Low concentrations of hazardous gases are difficult to detect with common gas sensors. Using semiconductor nanostructures as a sensor element is an alternative. Single ZnO nanowire gas sensor devices were fabricated by manipulation and connection of a single nanowire into a four-electrode aluminum probe in situ in a dual-beam scanning electron microscope-focused ion beam with a manipulator and a gas injection system in/column. The electrical response of the manufactured devices shows response times up to 29 s for a 121 ppm of H2 pulse, with a variation in the nanowire resistance appreciable at room temperature and at 373.15 K of approximately 8% and 14% respectively, showing that ZnO nanowires are good candidates to detect low concentrations of H2. PMID:26690158

  12. Monitoring System for Farming Operations with Wearable Devices Utilized Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Fukatsu, Tokihiro; Nanseki, Teruaki

    2009-01-01

    In order to automatically monitor farmers’ activities, we propose a farm operation monitoring system using “Field Servers” and a wearable device equipped with an RFID reader and motion sensors. Our proposed system helps in recognizing farming operations by analyzing the data from the sensors and detected RFID tags that are attached to various objects such as farming materials, facilities, and machinery. This method can be applied to various situations without changing the conventional system. Moreover, this system provides useful information in real-time and controls specific machines in a coordinated manner on the basis of recognized operation. PMID:22454578

  13. Imaging sensor fusion and enhanced vision for helicopter landing operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebel, Marcus; Bers, Karlheinz; Jäger, Klaus

    2006-05-01

    An automatic target recognition system has been assembled and tested at the Research Institute for Optronics and Pattern Recognition in Germany over the last years. Its multisensorial design comprises off-the-shelf components: an FPA infrared camera, a scanning laser radar und an inertial measurement unit. In the paper we describe several possibilities for the use of this multisensor equipment during helicopter missions. We discuss suitable data processing methods, for instance the automatic time synchronization of different imaging sensors, the pixel-based data fusion and the incorporation of collateral information. The results are visualized in an appropriate way to present them on a cockpit display. We also show how our system can act as a landing aid for pilots within brownout conditions (dust clouds caused by the landing helicopter).

  14. Job-Oriented Basic Skills (JOBS) Program for the Acoustic Sensor Operations Strand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    U'Ren, Paula Kabance; Baker, Meryl S.

    An effort was undertaken to develop a job-oriented basic skills curriculum appropriate for the acoustic sensor operations area, which includes members of four ratings: ocean systems technician, aviation antisubmarine warfare operator, sonar technician (surface), and sonar technician (submarine). Analysis of the job duties of the four ratings…

  15. Evaluation of a Trainer for Sensor Operators on Gunship II Aircraft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cream, Bertram W.

    This report describes the design, development, and evaluation of a training device intended to enable ground-based practice of equipment operation and target-tracking skills that are required by the Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR) and Low Light Level TV (LLLTV) sensor operators assigned to Gunship II aircraft. This trainer makes use of a…

  16. Gas identification by dynamic measurements of SnO2 sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobioff, Juan; Rodriguez, Daniel; Boselli, Alfredo; Lamagna, Alberto; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2011-09-01

    It is well know that the use of chambers with the sensors in the e-nose improves the measurements, due to a constant gas flow and the controlled temperature sensors[1]. Normally, the chamber temperature is above room temperature due to the heat generated by the heater of sensors. Also, the chamber takes a long time to reach a stable equilibrium temperature and it depends on enviromental conditions. Besides, the temperature variations modify the humidity producing variations in resistance measurements[2]. In this work using a heater system that controls the temperature of the chamber, the desorption process on SnO2 sensor array was study[3]. Also, it was fitted the data signal sensors using a two exponential decay functions in order to determine the desorbing constant process. These constants were used to classify and identify different alcohols and their concentrations.

  17. Pencil-trace on printed silver interdigitated electrodes for paper-based NO2 gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiankun; Huang, Lei; Lin, Youjie; Chen, Lu; Zeng, Ziyan; Shen, Leo; Chen, Qi; Shi, Wangzhou

    2015-04-01

    The pencil-drawn sensor is expected to enable a simple, low-cost, and reproducible paper-based sensor platform for widely deployed wireless environmental monitoring of NO2. Herein, we demonstrated a rapid prototyping of chemiresistor-type NO2 sensor by mechanical abrasion of an 8B pencil to form a stripe of uniform graphitic coating on printed silver interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). The Ag IDEs not only offer a low resistance but also provide the assembly of Ag nanoparticles into exfoliated graphene sheets for the paper-based NO2 gas sensors in order to realise much higher sensitivity and better reproducibility comparing with pencil-drawn sensors directly on weighing paper.

  18. 2D-MoO3 nanosheets for superior gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Ji, Fangxu; Ren, Xianpei; Zheng, Xiaoyao; Liu, Yucheng; Pang, Liuqing; Jiang, Jiaxing; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2016-04-28

    By taking advantages of both grinding and sonication, an effective exfoliation process is developed to prepare two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum oxide (MoO3) nanosheets. The approach avoids high-boiling-point solvents that would leave a residue and cause aggregation. Gas sensors fabricated using the 2D-MoO3 nanosheets provide a significantly enhanced chemical sensor performance. Compared with the sensors using bulk MoO3, the response of the 2D-MoO3 sensor increases from 7 to 33; the sensor response time is reduced from 27 to 21 seconds, and the recovery time is shortened from 26 to 10 seconds. We attribute the superior performance to the 2D-structure with a much increased surface area and reactive sites. PMID:27053379

  19. Gas sensors based on deposited single-walled carbon nanotube networks for DMMP detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanyan; Zhou, Zhihua; Yang, Zhi; Chen, Xiaohang; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Yafei

    2009-08-01

    Sensors based on single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks were fabricated and their sensitive properties for the nerve agent stimulant dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) vapor were investigated at room temperature. The SWNT networks were deposited on oxidized silicon surface functionalized with 3-aminopropyltrimethysilane (APS). Combining with a traditional silicon process, SWNT-based gas sensors were made at a wafer scale. The effects of the density of deposited SWNTs on the sensor response were studied. The excellent response is obtained under a density of 30-40 tubes µm-2. The sensors exhibit high resistance response, fast response time, rapid recovery and good reproducibility for DMMP vapor. The deposited SWNT sensors will be potentially extended to large-scale fabrication.

  20. Optical fiber long-period grating with solgel coating for gas sensor.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhengtian; Xu, Yanping; Gao, Kan

    2006-08-15

    The novel long-period fiber grating (LPFG) film sensor is composed of the long-period grating coated with solgel-derived sensitive films. The characteristics of the transmissivity of the LPFG film sensor are studied. By analyzing the relation among the sensitivity Sn, the thin film optical parameters, and the fiber grating parameters, the optimal design parameters of the LPFG film sensor are obtained. Data simulation shows that the resolution of the refractive index of this LPFG film sensor is predicted to be 10(-8). Experimentally, a LPFG film sensor for detection of C(2)H(5)OH was fabricated, and a preliminary gas-sensing test was performed. PMID:16880837

  1. Gas Hydrate Research Site Selection and Operational Research Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, T. S.; Boswell, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years it has become generally accepted that gas hydrates represent a potential important future energy resource, a significant drilling and production hazard, a potential contributor to global climate change, and a controlling factor in seafloor stability and landslides. Research drilling and coring programs carried out by the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), government agencies, and several consortia have contributed greatly to our understanding of the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrates in marine and permafrost environments. For the most part, each of these field projects were built on the lessons learned from the projects that have gone before them. One of the most important factors contributing to the success of some of the more notable gas hydrate field projects has been the close alignment of project goals with the processes used to select the drill sites and to develop the project’s operational research plans. For example, IODP Expedition 311 used a transect approach to successfully constrain the overall occurrence of gas hydrate within the range of geologic environments within a marine accretionary complex. Earlier gas hydrate research drilling, including IODP Leg 164, were designed primarily to assess the occurrence and nature of marine gas hydrate systems, and relied largely on the presence of anomalous seismic features, including bottom-simulating reflectors and “blanking zones”. While these projects were extremely successful, expeditions today are being increasingly mounted with the primary goal of prospecting for potential gas hydrate production targets, and site selection processes designed to specifically seek out anomalously high-concentrations of gas hydrate are needed. This approach was best demonstrated in a recently completed energy resource focused project, the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II (GOM JIP Leg II), which featured the collection of a

  2. Sensing Materials for the Detection of Chlorine Gas Using Embedded Piezoresistive Microcantilever Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    T. L. Porter, T. Vail, A. Wooley, R. J. Venedam

    2008-10-01

    Embedded piezoresistive microcantilever (EPM) sensors may be constructed for a variety of sensing applications. In each application, a custom sensing material is designed that will respond volumetrically to the desired analyte. Here, we have constructed EPM sensors for the detection of chlorine gas (Cl2). The sensing materials used consisted of polymer matrices combined with sodium iodide crystals. Sensors constructed from a silicone-based matrix exhibited the greatest response to Cl2, with detection limits in an outdoor exposure setting of approximately 20 parts per million.

  3. Hydrogen Gas Sensors Fabricated on Atomically Flat 4H-SiC Webbed Cantilevers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Trunek, Andrew J.; Evans, Laura J.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Hunter, Gary W.; Androjna, Drago

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on initial results from the first device tested of a "second generation" Pt-SiC Schottky diode hydrogen gas sensor that: 1) resides on the top of atomically flat 4H-SiC webbed cantilevers, 2) has integrated heater resistor, and 3) is bonded and packaged. With proper selection of heater resistor and sensor diode biases, rapid detection of H2 down to concentrations of 20 ppm was achieved. A stable sensor current gain of 125 +/- 11 standard deviation was demonstrated during 250 hours of cyclic test exposures to 0.5% H2 and N2/air.

  4. Bismuth-Based, Disposable Sensor for the Detection of Hydrogen Sulfide Gas.

    PubMed

    Rosolina, Samuel M; Carpenter, Thomas S; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2016-02-01

    A new sensor for the detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas has been developed to replace commercial lead(II) acetate-based test papers. The new sensor is a wet, porous, paper-like substrate coated with Bi(OH)3 or its alkaline derivatives at pH 11. In contrast to the neurotoxic lead(II) acetate, bismuth is used due to its nontoxic properties, as Bi(III) has been a reagent in medications such as Pepto-Bismol. The reaction between H2S gas and the current sensor produces a visible color change from white to yellow/brown, and the sensor responds to ≥ 30 ppb H2S in a total volume of 1.35 L of gas, a typical volume of human breath. The alkaline, wet coating helps the trapping of acidic H2S gas and its reaction with Bi(III) species, forming colored Bi2S3. The sensor is suitable for testing human bad breath and is at least 2 orders of magnitude more sensitive than a commercial H2S test paper based on Pb(II)(acetate)2. The small volume of 1.35-L H2S is important, as the commercial Pb(II)(acetate)2-based paper requires large volumes of 5 ppm H2S gas. The new sensor reported here is inexpensive, disposable, safe, and user-friendly. A simple, laboratory setup for generating small volumes of ppb-ppm of H2S gas is also reported. PMID:26742539

  5. Standard operating procedure: Gas atmosphere MELCO brazing furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, C.R.

    1988-08-01

    A hydrogen and argon gas atmosphere furnace facility using electric furnaces is located at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). This furnace system was acquired to handle smaller jobs with a more rapid response time than was possible with the larger furnaces. Accelerator- and experimental-related components best assembled by atmosphere brazing techniques are routinely processed by this facility in addition to special heat treatment and bakeout heats. The detailed operation sequence and description of the MELCO furnace system are covered by this report. This document is to augment LA-10231-SOP, which describes the operation of the large furnace systems. 6 figs.

  6. Gas sensors based on one dimensional nanostructured metal-oxides: a review.

    PubMed

    Arafat, M M; Dinan, B; Akbar, Sheikh A; Haseeb, A S M A

    2012-01-01

    Recently one dimensional (1-D) nanostructured metal-oxides have attracted much attention because of their potential applications in gas sensors. 1-D nanostructured metal-oxides provide high surface to volume ratio, while maintaining good chemical and thermal stabilities with minimal power consumption and low weight. In recent years, various processing routes have been developed for the synthesis of 1-D nanostructured metal-oxides such as hydrothermal, ultrasonic irradiation, electrospinning, anodization, sol-gel, molten-salt, carbothermal reduction, solid-state chemical reaction, thermal evaporation, vapor-phase transport, aerosol, RF sputtering, molecular beam epitaxy, chemical vapor deposition, gas-phase assisted nanocarving, UV lithography and dry plasma etching. A variety of sensor fabrication processing routes have also been developed. Depending on the materials, morphology and fabrication process the performance of the sensor towards a specific gas shows a varying degree of success. This article reviews and evaluates the performance of 1-D nanostructured metal-oxide gas sensors based on ZnO, SnO(2), TiO(2), In(2)O(3), WO(x), AgVO(3), CdO, MoO(3), CuO, TeO(2) and Fe(2)O(3). Advantages and disadvantages of each sensor are summarized, along with the associated sensing mechanism. Finally, the article concludes with some future directions of research. PMID:22969344

  7. ZnO nanomaterials based surface acoustic wave ethanol gas sensor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Li, X; Liu, J H; He, Y N; Yu, L M; Liu, W H

    2012-08-01

    ZnO nanomaterials based surface acoustic wave (SAW) gas sensor has been investigated in ethanol environment at room temperature. The ZnO nanomaterials have been prepared through thermal evaporation of high-purity zinc powder. The as-prepared ZnO nanomaterials have been characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results indicate that the obtained ZnO nanomaterials, including many types of nanostructures such as nanobelts, nanorods, nanowires as well as nanosheets, are wurtzite with hexagonal structure and well-crystallized. The SAW sensor coated with the nanostructured ZnO materials has been tested in ethanol gas of various concentrations at room temperature. A network analyzer is used to monitor the change of the insertion loss of the SAW sensor when exposed to ethanol gas. The insertion loss of the SAW sensor varies significantly with the change of ethanol concentration. The experimental results manifest that the ZnO nanomaterials based SAW ethanol gas sensor exhibits excellent sensitivity and good short-term reproducibility at room temperature. PMID:22962774

  8. Gas Sensors Based on One Dimensional Nanostructured Metal-Oxides: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Arafat, M. M.; Dinan, B.; Akbar, Sheikh A.; Haseeb, A. S. M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently one dimensional (1-D) nanostructured metal-oxides have attracted much attention because of their potential applications in gas sensors. 1-D nanostructured metal-oxides provide high surface to volume ratio, while maintaining good chemical and thermal stabilities with minimal power consumption and low weight. In recent years, various processing routes have been developed for the synthesis of 1-D nanostructured metal-oxides such as hydrothermal, ultrasonic irradiation, electrospinning, anodization, sol-gel, molten-salt, carbothermal reduction, solid-state chemical reaction, thermal evaporation, vapor-phase transport, aerosol, RF sputtering, molecular beam epitaxy, chemical vapor deposition, gas-phase assisted nanocarving, UV lithography and dry plasma etching. A variety of sensor fabrication processing routes have also been developed. Depending on the materials, morphology and fabrication process the performance of the sensor towards a specific gas shows a varying degree of success. This article reviews and evaluates the performance of 1-D nanostructured metal-oxide gas sensors based on ZnO, SnO2, TiO2, In2O3, WOx, AgVO3, CdO, MoO3, CuO, TeO2 and Fe2O3. Advantages and disadvantages of each sensor are summarized, along with the associated sensing mechanism. Finally, the article concludes with some future directions of research. PMID:22969344

  9. Development of an Optical Gas Leak Sensor for Detecting Ethylene, Dimethyl Ether and Methane

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Qiulin; Pei, Xiangdong; Zhu, Simin; Sun, Dong; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chenyang; Liang, Ting; Zhang, Wendong; Xiong, Jijun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach to develop an optical gas leak sensor that can be used to measure ethylene, dimethyl ether, and methane. The sensor is designed based on the principles of IR absorption spectrum detection, and comprises two crossed elliptical surfaces with a folded reflection-type optical path. We first analyze the optical path and the use of this structure to design a miniature gas sensor. The proposed sensor includes two detectors (one to acquire the reference signal and the other for the response signal), the light source, and the filter, all of which are integrated in a miniature gold-plated chamber. We also designed a signal detection device to extract the sensor signal and a microprocessor to calculate and control the entire process. The produced sensor prototype had an accuracy of ±0.05%. Experiments which simulate the transportation of hazardous chemicals demonstrated that the developed sensor exhibited a good dynamic response and adequately met technical requirements. PMID:23539025

  10. Worchester Solenoid Actuated Gas Operated MCO Isolation Valves

    SciTech Connect

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-06-06

    These valves are 1 inch gas-operated full-port ball valves incorporating a solenoid and limit switches as integral parts of the actuator that are used in process streams within the CVDF hood. The valves fail closed (on loss of pressure or electrical) to prevent MCO vent drain to either reduce air in-leakage or loss of He. The valves have couplings for transverse actuator mounting.

  11. Worchester Solenoid Actuated Gas Operated MCO Isolation Valves

    SciTech Connect

    MISKA, C.R.

    2000-11-13

    These valves are 1 inch gas-operated full-port ball valves incorporating a solenoid and limit switches as integral parts of the actuator that are used in process streams within the CWF hood. The valves fail closed (on loss of pressure or electrical) to prevent MCO vent drain to either reduce air In-leakage or loss of He. The valves have couplings for transverse actuator mounting.

  12. Worcester Solenoid Actuated Gas Operated MCO Isolation Valves

    SciTech Connect

    MISKA, C.R.

    2000-09-03

    These valves are 1 inch gas-operated full-port ball valves incorporating a solenoid and limit switches as integral parts of the actuator that are used in different process streams within the CVDF hood. The valves fail closed (on loss of pressure or electrical) for MCO isolation to either reduce air in leakage or loss of He. All valves have coupling for transverse actuator mounting.

  13. Worcester Solenoid Actuated Gas Operated MCO Isolation Valves

    SciTech Connect

    MISKA, C.R.

    2000-11-13

    These valves are 1 inch gas-operated full-port ball valves incorporating a solenoid and limit switches as integral parts of the actuator that are used in different process streams within the CVDF hood. The valves fail closed (on loss of pressure or electrical) for MCO isolation to either reduce air leakage or loss of He. All valves have coupling for transverse actuator mounting.

  14. Reduction of Gas Contamination in The Operating Room

    PubMed Central

    Shykoff, Henry J.

    1977-01-01

    The level of anesthetic gas considered to be hazardous for operating room personnel is as yet unknown, but the least possible contamination is desirable. This paper discusses methods of reducing contamination from several sources — the anesthetic machine, high pressure leaks, low pressure leaks, and from anesthetists' poor habits. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 & 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:20469279

  15. EVALUATION OF SMOKE AND GAS SENSOR RESPONSES FOR FIRES OF COMMON MINE COMBUSTIBLES

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Inoka Eranda; Litton, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the response characteristics of commercially available gas, smoke, and flame sensors to fires of common combustible mine materials. The experiments were conducted in the large-scale Fire gallery located at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Lake Lynn Laboratory (LLL) in Fairchance, PA, using Ponderosa Pine, Red Oak, Douglas-fir, high and low volatile coals, PVC and SBR conveyor belt, No. 2 diesel fuel, and diesel exhaust. All the experiments (except those using No. 2 diesel fuel and the diesel exhaust tests) were conducted in a similar manner, with combustible materials heated rapidly by electrical strip heaters producing smoldering fires that quickly transitioned into flaming fires. The sensors included a diffusion-type carbon monoxide (CO) sensor, photoelectric- and ionization-type smoke sensors, a video smoke/flame detector, and an optical flame detector. Simultaneous measurements were obtained for average gas concentrations, smoke mass concentrations, and smoke optical densities in order to quantify the levels of combustion products at the alert and alarm times of the sensors. Because the required sensor alarm levels are 10 ppm and 0.044 m−1 optical density for CO and smoke sensors, respectively, the different sensor alarms are compared to the time at which the CO and smoke reached these alarm levels (1). In addition, the potential impact of using smoke sensors that have met the performance standards from accredited testing laboratories is also evaluated using the response of an Underwriters’ Laboratory (UL)-approved combination photoelectric/ionization smoke detector. The results are discussed relative to fire sensor needs that can have a positive impact on mine fire safety. PMID:26229418

  16. 2D-MoO3 nanosheets for superior gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Fangxu; Ren, Xianpei; Zheng, Xiaoyao; Liu, Yucheng; Pang, Liuqing; Jiang, Jiaxing; Liu, Shengzhong (Frank)

    2016-04-01

    By taking advantages of both grinding and sonication, an effective exfoliation process is developed to prepare two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum oxide (MoO3) nanosheets. The approach avoids high-boiling-point solvents that would leave a residue and cause aggregation. Gas sensors fabricated using the 2D-MoO3 nanosheets provide a significantly enhanced chemical sensor performance. Compared with the sensors using bulk MoO3, the response of the 2D-MoO3 sensor increases from 7 to 33; the sensor response time is reduced from 27 to 21 seconds, and the recovery time is shortened from 26 to 10 seconds. We attribute the superior performance to the 2D-structure with a much increased surface area and reactive sites.By taking advantages of both grinding and sonication, an effective exfoliation process is developed to prepare two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum oxide (MoO3) nanosheets. The approach avoids high-boiling-point solvents that would leave a residue and cause aggregation. Gas sensors fabricated using the 2D-MoO3 nanosheets provide a significantly enhanced chemical sensor performance. Compared with the sensors using bulk MoO3, the response of the 2D-MoO3 sensor increases from 7 to 33; the sensor response time is reduced from 27 to 21 seconds, and the recovery time is shortened from 26 to 10 seconds. We attribute the superior performance to the 2D-structure with a much increased surface area and reactive sites. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00880a

  17. Assessing the diagnostic information in the response patterns of a temperature-modulated tin oxide gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini-Golgoo, S. M.; Hossein-Babaei, F.

    2011-03-01

    The transient response patterns of a tin oxide chemoresistive gas sensor, temperature-modulated by the application of staircase voltage waveforms to its microheater, to five different volatile organic compounds were compared with respect to their target gas discriminating features. These patterns were divided into a number of segments, each corresponding to a temperature transition at the surface of the tin oxide pallet. The effectiveness of the gas discriminating information content of each segment was quantitatively assessed utilizing Fisher's discriminant ratio calculations in a 3D feature space. It was established that the amount of the useful information in a response segment depended on the corresponding temperature transition; larger pallet temperature transitions rendered more diagnostic information. Similar assessments were carried out for the different combinations of these segments. The results facilitated, for the first time, a comparative analysis of the levels of the correlated (redundant) and uncorrelated information in the different response segments. It was shown that the response segments occurring at or near the nominal operating temperature of the sensor contained most of the effective information, while those at low temperatures contained mostly the redundant or indiscriminative information. The results help minimize the temperature modulation duration required for gas recognition.

  18. Light-activated NO2 gas sensing of the networked CuO-decorated ZnS nanowire gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sunghoon; Sun, Gun-Joo; Kheel, Hyejoon; Ko, Taegyung; Kim, Hyoun Woo; Lee, Chongmu

    2016-05-01

    CuO-decorated ZnS nanowires were synthesized by the thermal evaporation of ZnS powders followed by a solvothermal process for CuO decoration. The NO2 gas sensing properties of multiple-networked pristine and CuO-decorated ZnS nanowire sensors were then examined. The diameters of the CuO nanoparticles ranged from 20 to 60 nm. The multiple-networked pristine and CuO-decorated ZnS nanowire sensors showed the responses of 394 and 1055 %, respectively, to 5 ppm of NO2 at room temperature under UV illumination at 2.2 mW/cm2. The response and recovery times of the ZnS nanowire sensor to 5 ppm of NO2 were also reduced by decoration with the CuO nanoparticles. The responses of the sensors to NO2 at room temperature increased significantly with increasing UV illumination intensity. The underlying mechanisms for the enhanced response of the ZnS nanowire sensor to NO2 gas by CuO decoration and UV irradiation are discussed.

  19. Ultrasensitive and highly selective gas sensors using three-dimensional tungsten oxide nanowire networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponzoni, Andrea; Comini, Elisabetta; Sberveglieri, Giorgio; Zhou, Jun; Deng, Shao Zhi; Xu, Ning Sheng; Ding, Yong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2006-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tungsten oxide nanowire networks have been demonstrated as a high-surface area material for building ultrasensitive and highly selective gas sensors. Utilizing the 3D hierarchical structure of the networks, high sensitivity has been obtained towards NO2, revealing the capability of the material to detect concentration as low as 50ppb (parts per billion). The distinctive selectivity at different working temperatures is observed for various gases. The results highlight that the nanobelts (nanowires) technology can be adopted for the development of gas sensors with performances suitable for practical applications.

  20. Strings of liquid beads for gas-liquid contact operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Kenji; Ishikawa, Mitsukuni; Mori, Y.H. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-12-01

    Energy recovery from hot gases exhausted from power plants, garbage incineration facilities, and many industrial processes has been growing due to demands for saving the primary-energy consumption. A novel device for gas-liquid contact operations is proposed to feed a liquid onto wires (or threads) hanging down in a gas stream is proposed. The liquid disintegrates into beads strung on each wire at regular intervals; if the wire is moderately wettable, a thin film forms to sheathe the wire, thereby interconnecting the beads. Since the beads fall down slowly, which possibly renews the film flowing down even more slowly, a sufficient gas-liquid contact time is available even in a contactor with considerably limited height. An approximate calculation method is developed for predicting the variation in the temperature effectiveness for the liquid (the fractional approach of the liquid exit temperature to the gas inlet temperature) with the falling distance, assuming an applicability of strings-of-beads contactors to thermal energy recovery from hot gas streams.